National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for view history sulfur

  1. History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeat Pumps Heat Pumps An errorSeparationsRelevant toCenterHistory

  2. History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenry Bellamy, Ph.D. Title:Highlights LANSTechnicalHistoricallyHistory

  3. History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energyHighland View school4-TP59.01 C5;44 4 oEnergy

  4. History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energyHighland View school4-TP59.01 C5;44 4 oEnergy The U.S.

  5. Uses of lunar sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Pettit, D.R.; Heiken, G.

    1988-01-01

    Sulfur and sulfur compounds have a wide range of applications for their fluid, electrical, chemical and biochemical properties. Although low in abundance on the Moon (/approximately/0.1% in mare soils), sulfur is surface-correlated and relatively extractable. Co-production of sulfur during oxygen extraction from ilmenite-rich soils could yield sulfur in masses up to 10% of the mass of oxygen produced. Sulfur deserves serious consideration as a lunar resource. 29 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Sulfuric acid-sulfur heat storage cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norman, John H. (LaJolla, CA)

    1983-12-20

    A method of storing heat is provided utilizing a chemical cycle which interconverts sulfuric acid and sulfur. The method can be used to levelize the energy obtained from intermittent heat sources, such as solar collectors. Dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated by evaporation of water, and the concentrated sulfuric acid is boiled and decomposed using intense heat from the heat source, forming sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The sulfur dioxide is reacted with water in a disproportionation reaction yielding dilute sulfuric acid, which is recycled, and elemental sulfur. The sulfur has substantial potential chemical energy and represents the storage of a significant portion of the energy obtained from the heat source. The sulfur is burned whenever required to release the stored energy. A particularly advantageous use of the heat storage method is in conjunction with a solar-powered facility which uses the Bunsen reaction in a water-splitting process. The energy storage method is used to levelize the availability of solar energy while some of the sulfur dioxide produced in the heat storage reactions is converted to sulfuric acid in the Bunsen reaction.

  7. Sulfur recovery process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hise, R.E.; Cook, W.J.

    1991-06-04

    This paper describes a method for recovering sulfur from a process feed stream mixture of gases comprising sulfur-containing compounds including hydrogen sulfide using the Claus reaction to convert sulfur-containing compounds to elemental sulfur and crystallization to separate sulfur-containing compounds from a tail gas of the Claus reaction for further processing as a recycle stream. It comprises: providing a Claus feed stream containing a stoichiometric excess of hydrogen sulfide, the Claus feed stream including the process feed stream and the recycles stream; introducing the Claus feed stream and an oxidizing agent into a sulfur recovery unit for converting sulfur-containing compounds in the Claus feed stream to elemental sulfur; withdrawing the tail gas from the sulfur recovery unit; separating water from the tail gas to producing a dehydrated tail gas; separating sulfur-containing compounds including carbonyl sulfide from the dehydrated tail gas as an excluded material by crystallization and withdrawing an excluded material-enriched output from the crystallization to produce the recycle stream; and combining the recycle stream with the process feed stream to produce the Claus feed stream.

  8. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  9. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

    1993-09-07

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

  10. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA); Hu, Zhicheng (Somerville, MA)

    1993-01-01

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO.sub.2 in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst.

  11. Biogenic sulfur source strengths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.; Robinson, E.; Pack, M.R.; Bamesberger, W.L.

    1981-12-01

    Conclusions are presented from a 4-yr field measurement study of biogenic sulfur gas emissions from soils, and some water and vegetated surfaces, at 35 locales in the eastern and southeastern United States. More than one soil order was examined whenever possible to increase the data base obtained from the 11 major soil orders comprising the study area. Data analysis and emission model development were based upon an (80 x 80)-km/sup 2/ grid system. The measured sulfur fluxes, adjusted for the annual mean temperature for each sampling locale, weigted by the percentage of each soil order within each grid, and averaged for each of the east-west grid tiers from 47/sup 0/N to 25/sup 0/N latitude, showed an exponential north-to-south increase in total sulfur gas flux. Our model predits an additional increase of nearly 25-fold in sulfur flux between 25/sup 0/N and the equator.

  12. Public History History 391

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Robin

    1 Public History History 391 Consider Resources Primary Resources: diaries, letters, speeches on your subject. Research by Subject History by Region Canadian Find Background Information Check histories) Find Primary Sources For general information about primary sources, go to: Research by Subject

  13. Process for forming sulfuric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Wen-Tong P. (Upper St. Clair, PA)

    1981-01-01

    An improved electrode is disclosed for the anode in a sulfur cycle hydrogen generation process where sulfur dioxie is oxidized to form sulfuric acid at the anode. The active compound in the electrode is palladium, palladium oxide, an alloy of palladium, or a mixture thereof. The active compound may be deposited on a porous, stable, conductive substrate.

  14. Too Much History MORE Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schubart, Christoph

    Too Much History SHARE MORE Future #12;Vortrag: ,,The view from Eastern Ukraine: challenges MORE Future Donnerstag, 27. November 2014, 18 Uhr Kino im Andreasstadel, Andreasstraße 28, 93059

  15. Stratospheric sulfur oxidation kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayne, J.T.; Worsnop, D.R.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Oxidation of SO2 to H2SO4 in the atmosphere is believed to involve the reaction of SO3 with water. It is commonly assumed that this is an important step leading to homogeneous nucleation of H2SO4 aerosol particles. Heterogeneous chemistry on sulfuric acid aerosols regulate much of the ozone photochemistry in the lower stratosphere and are also believed to have significant effect on the climate. Understanding aerosol loading requires a detailed knowledge of the stratospheric sulfur budget, including its oxidation kinetics. Here we present results of a laboratory project studying a key step in the oxidation process, the homogeneous reaction between SO3 and H2O vapor. Kinetic measurements are performed in a high-pressure turbulent fast-flow reactor (fabricated at MIT) which minimizes heterogeneous loss of SO3 on reactorwalls. The rate of decay of SO3 and the appearance of H2SO4 is monitored in the presence of excess water vapor. Gas phase reactants and products are detected via an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometer which is coupled to the exit of the flow reactor. Sulfuric acid nucleation studies can also be performed using the turbulent flow reactor. Initial measurements using a particle detector (based on Mie scattering) showed that aerosol formation and particle size distribution are controlled by varying the SO3/H2O gas ratio and the reactor temperature. Results for the reaction SO3J+ H2O show a second order dependence in water vapor density and a strong negative temperature dependence. The results, measured in the range -30C to +95C, imply that an SO3.H2O adduct and/or a water dimer species is likely involved in the reaction mechanism. Results of recent theoretical calculations on the SO3 + H2O system also support the finding that two water molecules are involved. Implications for the gas phase production of sulfuric acid in the atmosphere will be discussed.

  16. A review of "The Household and the Making of History: A Subversive View of the Western Past." by Mary S. Hartman 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Burr Litchfield

    2005-01-01

    ?European Marriage Patterns in Perspective? (in D. V. Glass and D. E. C. Eversley, eds., Population in History: Essays in Historical Demography. London: E. Arnold, 1965). In traditional Europe the mean age at first mar- riage for men was later than..., however, were present a generation ago. In fact, there proved to be at least two traditional European patterns: a southern (Mediterranean) one where there was limitation of marriage but husbands sometimes married later and wives much earlier (in...

  17. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

    1996-02-27

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

  18. Method of removing and recovering elemental sulfur from highly reducing gas streams containing sulfur gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; Nikolopoulos, Apostolos A.; Dorchak, Thomas P.; Dorchak, Mary Anne

    2005-11-08

    A method is provided for removal of sulfur gases and recovery of elemental sulfur from sulfur gas containing supply streams, such as syngas or coal gas, by contacting the supply stream with a catalyst, that is either an activated carbon or an oxide based catalyst, and an oxidant, such as sulfur dioxide, in a reaction medium such as molten sulfur, to convert the sulfur gases in the supply stream to elemental sulfur, and recovering the elemental sulfur by separation from the reaction medium.

  19. Evaluation of Sulfur in Syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2006-04-01

    This project will define the options and costs at different scales of technology that can be used to remove sulfur from syngas.

  20. Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T. (Austin, TX); Jozewicz, Wojciech (Chapel Hill, NC)

    1989-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to improved processes for treating hot sulfur-containing flue gas to remove sulfur therefrom. Processes in accorda The government may own certain rights in the present invention pursuant to EPA Cooperative Agreement CR 81-1531.

  1. ?? /Shigaku / History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keirstead, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    ?? /Shigaku / History Thomas Keirstead Introduction:shigaku as discipline Histories of the historical disciplineedict of 1869 that named history a national priority and

  2. Volume efficient sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mikkor, Mati (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1980-01-01

    In accordance with the teachings of this specification, a sodium sulfur battery is formed as follows. A plurality of box shaped sulfur electrodes are provided, the outer surfaces of which are defined by an electrolyte material. Each of the electrodes have length and width dimensions substantially greater than the thicknesses thereof as well as upwardly facing surface and a downwardly facing surface. An electrode structure is contained in each of the sulfur electrodes. A holding structure is provided for holding the plurality of sulfur electrodes in a stacked condition with the upwardly facing surface of one sulfur electrode in facing relationship to the downwardly facing surface of another sulfur electrode thereabove. A small thickness dimension separates each of the stacked electrodes thereby defining between each pair of sulfur electrodes a volume which receives the sodium reactant. A reservoir is provided for containing sodium. A manifold structure interconnects the volumes between the sulfur electrodes and the reservoir. A metering structure controls the flow of sodium between the reservoir and the manifold structure.

  3. Pathways to quiescence: SHARDS view on the Star Formation Histories of massive quiescent galaxies at 1.0 < z < 1.5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sánchez, Helena Domínguez; Esquej, Pilar; Eliche-Moral, M Carmen; Herrero, Almudena Alonso; Caballero, Antonio Hernán; Cenarro, Javier; Charlot, Stèphane; Bruzual, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    We present Star Formation Histories (SFHs) for a sample of 104 massive (M$>$10$^{10}$ M$\\odot$) quiescent galaxies (MQGs) at $z=$1.0-1.5. The SFHs have been inferred from spectro-photometric data from the SHARDS and HST/WFC3 G102 and G141 surveys of the GOODS-N field and broad-band observations in the UV-to-FIR spectral range. The sample of MQGs is based on rest-frame $UVJ$ colors and specific star formation rates. The Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of each galaxy have been compared to models assuming an exponentially declining SFH. The SED-fitting method includes a Montecarlo algorithm to characterize the degeneracies in this kind of study. Taking advantage of the SHARDS data resolution, we are able to break these degeneracies by measuring absorption indices (Mg$_{UV}$ and D4000). Most of the sample ($\\sim$85$\\%$) presents relatively young mass-weighted ages t$_M$ $1.0$, when our galaxies were 0.5--1.0~Gyr old. According to the derived SFH, all of the MQGs experienced a Luminous Infrared Galaxy (LIRG) ...

  4. Sulfur-Free Selective Pulping 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimmel, D. R.; Bozell, J. J.

    1994-01-01

    an increase in pulping rate and yields, which translates to less energy required per ton of product. Less sulfur means a simplified process, lower odor emissions, and a decrease requirement for bleaching chemicals, meaning less organics being discharged...

  5. Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Method of preparing graphene-sulfur...

  6. Federal Legislative History Legislative History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyu, Mei-Ling

    Federal Legislative History #12;Legislative History Why When #12;Documents 1. Bills 2. Committee. Committee Prints 5. House or Senate Documents 6. Bills 7. Committee Mark-ups #12;Finding Legislative History Step One Find: Public Law Number (P.L.), or Bill number for unenacted legislation #12;History

  7. American Cultural History History 390

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Robin

    1 American Cultural History History 390 Consider Resources Primary Resources: diaries, letters. popular), theses, the Web Check subject guide under: Research by Subject History by Region American collection unless stated. Album of American History E178 .A2 A (5 volumes; Stauffer ­ Books) Columbia

  8. On the Origin of Sulfur

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nils Ryde; David L. Lambert

    2005-10-05

    We present our work on the halo evolution of sulfur, based on observations of the S I lines around 9220 A for ten stars for which the S abundance was obtained previously from much weaker S I lines at 8694 A. We cannot confirm the rise and the high [S/Fe] abundances for low [Fe/H], as claimed in the literature from analysis of the 8694 A lines. The reasons for claims of an increase in [S/Fe] with decreasing [Fe/H] are probably twofold: uncertainties in the measurements of the weak 8694 A lines, and systematic errors in metallicity determinations from Fe I lines. The near-infrared sulfur triplet at 9212.9, 9228.1, and 9237.5 A are preferred for an abundance analysis of sulfur for metal-poor stars. Our work was presented in full by Ryde & Lambert (2004).

  9. Inside ITER seminar on History of Fusion Page 1 History of Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Union thermonuclear explosion 400kT #12;Inside ITER seminar on History of Fusion Page 4 Big IvanInside ITER seminar on History of Fusion Page 1 History of Fusion Personal view V. Chuyanov 9 July 2009 Special thanks to ITER Communication Division. #12;Inside ITER seminar on History of Fusion Page 2

  10. Two stage sorption of sulfur compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, William E. (Manassas, VA)

    1992-01-01

    A two stage method for reducing the sulfur content of exhaust gases is disclosed. Alkali- or alkaline-earth-based sorbent is totally or partially vaporized and introduced into a sulfur-containing gas stream. The activated sorbent can be introduced in the reaction zone or the exhaust gases of a combustor or a gasifier. High efficiencies of sulfur removal can be achieved.

  11. Safety considerations for the use of sulfur in sulfur-modified pavement materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, Carolyn Yuriko

    1980-01-01

    Liquid Sulfur Page v111 ix 33 33 35 IV Symptoms of Poisoning . First Aid SULFUR IN THE PAVING INDUSTRY General Sand-Asphalt-Sulfur Pavements (SAS) ', , Sulfur-Extended Asphalt Pavements (SEA) Sulfur Concrete EVALUATION OF RISKS AND SAFETY... RECOMMENDATIONS General Stationary Sources Mobile Sources Maintenance 40 41 43 43 44 45 46 Hot-Mix Recycling VI EMISSIONS MONITORING METHODS General Area Monitoring - Continuous Samplina Short Term Sampling (" Grab" Sampling) Personnel Monitoring...

  12. Cosmic Growth History and Expansion History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linder, Eric V.

    2009-01-01

    LBNL- 58260 Cosmic Growth History andExpansion History Eric V. Linder Physics Division, LawrenceCalifornia. Cosmic Growth History and Expansion History Eric

  13. Biogenic sulfur emissions in the SURE region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.; Robinson, E.; Pack, M.R.

    1980-09-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the magnitude of biogenic sulfur emissions from the northeastern United States - defined as the EPRI Sulfate Regional Experiment (SURE) study area. Initial laboratory efforts developed and validated a portable sulfur sampling system and a sensitive, gas chromatographic analytical detection system. Twenty-one separate sites were visited in 1977 to obtain a representative sulfur emission sampling of soil orders, suborders, and wetlands. The procedure determined the quantity of sulfur added to sulfur-free sweep air by the soil flux as the clean air was blown through the dynamic enclosure set over the selected sampling area. This study represents the first systematic sampling for biogenic sulfur over such a wide range of soils and such a large land area. The major impacts upon the measured sulfur flux were found to include soil orders, temperature, sunlight intensity, tidal effects along coastal areas. A mathematical model was developed for biogenic sulfur emissions which related these field variables to the mean seasonal and annual ambient temperatures regimes for each SURE grid and the percentage of each soil order within each grid. This model showed that at least 53,500 metric tons (MT) of biogenic sulfur are emitted from the SURE land surfaces and approximately 10,000 MT are emitted from the oceanic fraction of the SURE grids. This equates to a land sulfur flux of nearly 0.02 gram of sulfur per square meter per yr, or about 0.6% of the reported anthropogenic emissions withn the SURE study area. Based upon these data and the summertime Bermuda high clockwise circulation of maritime air across Florida and the Gulf Coast states northward through the SURE area, the total land biogenic sulfur emission contribution to the SURE area atmospheric sulfur burden might approach 1 to 2.5% of the anthropogenic.

  14. Contribution of isotopologue self-shielding to sulfur mass-independent fractionation during sulfur dioxide photolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyons, J. R.

    Signatures of sulfur mass-independent fractionation (S-MIF) are observed for sulfur minerals in Archean rocks, and for modern stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSA) deposited in polar ice. Ultraviolet light photolysis of ...

  15. HYDROCARBON AND SULFUR SENSORS FOR SOFC SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.M. Azad; Chris Holt; Todd Lesousky; Scott Swartz

    2003-11-01

    The following report summarizes work conducted during the Phase I program Hydrocarbon and Sulfur Sensors for SOFC Systems under contract No. DE-FC26-02NT41576. For the SOFC application, sensors are required to monitor hydrocarbons and sulfur in order to increase the operation life of SOFC components. This report discusses the development of two such sensors, one based on thick film approach for sulfur monitoring and the second galvanic based for hydrocarbon monitoring.

  16. Sulfur determination in blood from inhabitants of Brazil using neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.

    2013-05-06

    In this study the NAA technique was applied to analyze sulfur in blood from inhabitants of Brazil for the proposition of an indicative interval. The measurements were performed considering lifestyle factors (non-smokers, non-drinkers and no history of toxicological exposure) of Brazilian inhabitants. The influence of gender was also investigated considering several age ranges (18-29, 30-39, 40-49, >50 years). These data are useful in clinical investigations, to identify or prevent diseases caused by inadequate sulfur ingestion and for nutritional evaluation of Brazilian population.

  17. Canadian Social History History 312

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Robin

    1 Canadian Social History History 312 Find Primary Sources For information about primary sources and Newspaper Indexes Covering the Time Period Newspapers are a good source of primary information. Stauffer, go to: Research by Subject Primary Sources Primary source material will vary from topic to topic

  18. Diasporas of art: History, the Tervuren Royal Museum for Central Africa, and the politics of memory in Belgium, 1885–2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silverman, DL

    2015-01-01

    view transnational and transcontinental connections in theinternational, and transcontinental histories of Belgium in

  19. Workshop History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Workshop History The 2014 event is the seventh joint workshop held by the EFCOG ESH Electrical Safety subgroup. The first "joint" Electrical Safety Workshop was held in the summer...

  20. Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA)

    2006-12-26

    High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

  1. Microbial Architecture of Environmental Sulfur Processes: A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    potential impacts on water quality, including acid generation in acid mine drainage (AMD) environments, 2009. Accepted July 9, 2009. Microbial oxidation of sulfur-rich mining waste materials drives acid mine drainage (AMD) and affects the global sulfur biogeochemical cycle. The generation of AMD is a complex

  2. Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  3. Method of removal of sulfur from coal and petroleum products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verkade, John G. (Ames, IA); Mohan, Thyagarajan (Ames, IA); Angelici, Robert J. (Ames, IA)

    1995-01-01

    A method for the removal of sulfur from sulfur-bearing materials such as coal and petroleum products using organophosphine and organophosphite compounds is provided.

  4. Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Liu, W.

    1995-01-24

    A catalytic reduction process is described for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(FO[sub 2])[sub 1[minus]n](RO)[sub n

  5. Method for reducing the sulfur content of a sulfur-containing hydrocarbon stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahajan, Devinder

    2004-12-28

    The sulfur content of a liquid hydrocarbon stream is reduced under mild conditions by contracting a sulfur-containing liquid hydrocarbon stream with transition metal particles containing the transition metal in a zero oxidation state under conditions sufficient to provide a hydrocarbon product having a reduced sulfur content and metal sulfide particles. The transition metal particles can be produced in situ by adding a transition metal precursor, e.g., a transition metal carbonyl compound, to the sulfur-containing liquid feed stream and sonicating the feed steam/transition metal precursor combination under conditions sufficient to produce the transition metal particles.

  6. Process for removing sulfur from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aida, T.; Squires, T.G.; Venier, C.G.

    1983-08-11

    A process is disclosed for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

  7. Our History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeatMaRIEdioxideUser Careers/ Human ResourcesOrgOtherOur History

  8. History Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenry Bellamy, Ph.D. Title:HighlightsPhysics Department History

  9. ORISE: History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEY UNIVERSE TheForensic Science ForensicHealthResponseHistory The

  10. Sulfur capture by oil shale ashes under atmospheric and pressurized FBC conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yrjas, K.P.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kuelaots, I.; Ots, A. [Tallinn Technical Univ. (Estonia). Thermal Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31

    When oil shale contains large quantities of limestone, a significant auto-absorption of sulfur is possible under suitable conditions. The sulfur capture by oil shale ashes has been studied using a pressurized thermogravimetric apparatus. The chosen experimental conditions were typical for atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed combustion. The Ca/S molar ratios in the two oil shales studied were 8 (Estonian) and 10 (Israeli). The samples were first burned in a gas atmosphere containing O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} (and CO{sub 2} if pressurized). After the combustion step, SO{sub 2} was added and sulfation started. The results with the oil shales were compared to those obtained with an oil shale cyclone ash from the Narva power plant in Estonia. In general, the results from the sulfur capture experiments under both atmospheric and pressurized conditions showed that the oil shale cannot only capture its own sulfur but also significant amounts of additional sulfur of another fuel if the fuels are mixed together. For example from the runs at atmospheric pressure, the conversion of CaO to CaSO{sub 4} was about 70% for Israeli oil shale and about 55% for Estonian oil shale (850 C). For the cyclone ash the corresponding conversion was about 20%. In comparison it could be mentioned that under the same conditions the conversions of natural limestones are about 30%. The reason the cyclone ash was a poor sulfur absorbent was probably due to its temperature history. In Narva the oil shale was burned at a significantly higher temperature (1,400 C) than was used in the experiments (750 C and 850 C). This caused the ash to sinter and the reactive surface area of the cyclone ash was therefore decreased.

  11. Sulfur Dioxide Crossover during the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    Sulfur Dioxide Crossover during the Production of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid in a PEM Electrolyzer membrane PEM electrolyzer has been investigated as a viable system for the electrolysis step of the electrolyzer and membranes developed to limit SO2 crossover. © 2009 The Electrochemical Society. DOI: 10

  12. Views of the solar system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, C.

    1995-02-01

    Views of the Solar System has been created as an educational tour of the solar system. It contains images and information about the Sun, planets, moons, asteroids and comets found within the solar system. The image processing for many of the images was done by the author. This tour uses hypertext to allow space travel by simply clicking on a desired planet. This causes information and images about the planet to appear on screen. While on a planet page, hyperlinks travel to pages about the moons and other relevant available resources. Unusual terms are linked to and defined in the Glossary page. Statistical information of the planets and satellites can be browsed through lists sorted by name, radius and distance. History of Space Exploration contains information about rocket history, early astronauts, space missions, spacecraft and detailed chronology tables of space exploration. The Table of Contents page has links to all of the various pages within Views Of the Solar System.

  13. Direct Observation of Sulfur Radicals as Reaction Media in Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Jianming; Walter, Eric; Pan, Huilin; Lv, Dongping; Zuo, Pengjian; Chen, Honghao; Deng, Z. D.; Liaw, Bor Y.; Yu, Xiqian; et al

    2015-01-09

    Lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery has been regaining tremendous interest in recent years because of its attractive attributes such as high gravimetric energy, low cost and environmental benignity. However, it is still not conclusively known how polysulfide ring/chain participates in the whole cycling and whether the discharge and charge processes follow the same pathway. Herein, we demonstrate the direct observation of sulfur radicals by using in situ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. Based on the concentration changes of sulfur radicals at different potentials and the electrochemical characteristics of the cell, it is revealed that the chemical and electrochemical reactions in Li-Smore »cell are driving each other to proceed through sulfur radicals, leading to two completely different reaction pathways during discharge and charge. The proposed radical mechanism may provide new perspectives to investigate the interactions between sulfur species and the electrolyte, inspiring novel strategies to develop Li-S battery technology.« less

  14. Direct Observation of Sulfur Radicals as Reaction Media in Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiang [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zheng, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walter, Eric [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pan, Huilin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lv, Dongping [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zuo, Pengjian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chen, Honghao [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deng, Z. D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liaw, Bor Y. [School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, (United States); Yu, Xiqian [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Zhang, Ji-Guang [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xiao, Jie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-09

    Lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery has been regaining tremendous interest in recent years because of its attractive attributes such as high gravimetric energy, low cost and environmental benignity. However, it is still not conclusively known how polysulfide ring/chain participates in the whole cycling and whether the discharge and charge processes follow the same pathway. Herein, we demonstrate the direct observation of sulfur radicals by using in situ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. Based on the concentration changes of sulfur radicals at different potentials and the electrochemical characteristics of the cell, it is revealed that the chemical and electrochemical reactions in Li-S cell are driving each other to proceed through sulfur radicals, leading to two completely different reaction pathways during discharge and charge. The proposed radical mechanism may provide new perspectives to investigate the interactions between sulfur species and the electrolyte, inspiring novel strategies to develop Li-S battery technology.

  15. Direct Observation of Sulfur Radicals as Reaction Media in lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Jianming; Walter, Eric D.; Pan, Huilin; Lu, Dongping; Zuo, Pengjian; Chen, Honghao; Deng, Zhiqun; Liaw, Bor Yann; Yu, Xiqian; Yang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2014-12-09

    Lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery has been regaining tremendous interest in recent years because of its attractive attributes such as high gravimetric energy, low cost and environmental benignity. However, it is still not conclusively known how polysulfide ring/chain participates in the whole cycling and whether the discharge and charge process follow the same pathway. Herein, we demonstrate the direct observation of sulfur radicals by using in situ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. Based on the concentration changes of sulfur radicals at different potentials, it is revealed that the chemical and electrochemical reactions in Li-S cell are driven each other to proceed through sulfur radicals, leading to two completely different reaction pathways during discharge and charge. The proposed radical mechanism may provide new insights to investigate the interactions between sulfur species and the electrolyte, inspiring novel strategies to develop Li-S battery technology.

  16. Martinez Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Plt Biomass Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas:Montezuma,InformationIllinois:Martin, Michigan: Energy Resources Jump

  17. An Aerosol Condensation Model for Sulfur Trioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant, K E

    2008-02-07

    This document describes a model for condensation of sulfuric acid aerosol given an initial concentration and/or source of gaseous sulfur trioxide (e.g. fuming from oleum). The model includes the thermochemical effects on aerosol condensation and air parcel buoyancy. Condensation is assumed to occur heterogeneously onto a preexisting background aerosol distribution. The model development is both a revisiting of research initially presented at the Fall 2001 American Geophysical Union Meeting [1] and a further extension to provide new capabilities for current atmospheric dispersion modeling efforts [2]. Sulfuric acid is one of the most widely used of all industrial chemicals. In 1992, world consumption of sulfuric acid was 145 million metric tons, with 42.4 Mt (mega-tons) consumed in the United States [10]. In 2001, of 37.5 Mt consumed in the U.S., 74% went into producing phosphate fertilizers [11]. Another significant use is in mining industries. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] estimate that, in 1996, 68% of use was for fertilizers and 5.8% was for mining. They note that H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} use has been and should continue to be very stable. In the United States, the elimination of MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether) and the use of ethanol for gasoline production are further increasing the demand for petroleum alkylate. Alkylate producers have a choice of either a hydrofluoric acid or sulfuric acid process. Both processes are widely used today. Concerns, however, over the safety or potential regulation of hydrofluoric acid are likely to result in most of the growth being for the sulfuric acid process, further increasing demand [11]. The implication of sulfuric acid being a pervasive industrial chemical is that transport is also pervasive. Often, this is in the form of oleum tankers, having around 30% free sulfur trioxide. Although sulfuric acid itself is not a volatile substance, fuming sulfuric acid (referred to as oleum) is [7], the volatile product being sulfur trioxide. Sulfate aerosols and mist may form in the atmosphere on tank rupture. From chemical spill data from 1990-1996, Lawuyi02 and Fingas [7] prioritize sulfuric acid as sixth most serious. During this period, they note 155 spills totaling 13 Mt, out of a supply volume of 3700 Mt. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] summarize information on three major sulfuric acid spills. On 12 February 1984, 93 tons of sulfuric acid were spilled when 14 railroad cars derailed near MacTier, Parry Sound, Ontario. On 13 December 1978, 51 railroad cars derailed near Springhill, Nova Scotia. One car, containing 93% sulfuric acid, ruptured, spilling nearly its entire contents. In July 1993, 20 to 50 tons of fuming sulfuric acid spilled at the General Chemical Corp. plant in Richmond, California, a major industrial center near San Francisco. The release occurred when oleum was being loaded into a nonfuming acid railroad tank car that contained only a rupture disk as a safety device. The tank car was overheated and this rupture disk blew. The resulting cloud of sulfuric acid drifted northeast with prevailing winds over a number of populated areas. More than 3,000 people subsequently sought medical attention for burning eyes, coughing, headaches, and nausea. Almost all were treated and released on the day of the spill. By the day after the release, another 5,000 people had sought medical attention. The spill forced the closure of five freeways in the region as well as some Bay Area Rapid Transit System stations. Apart from corrosive toxicity, there is the additional hazard that the reactions of sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid vapors with water are extremely exothermic [10, 11]. While the vapors are intrinsically denser than air, there is thus the likelihood of strong, warming-induced buoyancy from reactions with ambient water vapor, water-containing aerosol droplets, and wet environmental surface. Nordin [12] relates just such an occurrence following the Richmond, CA spill, with the plume observed to rise to 300 m. For all practical purposes, sulfur trioxide was the constituent released from the heated tank

  18. History of the Canadian West History 393

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Robin

    1 History of the Canadian West History 393 Consider Resources Primary Resources: letters, speeches), theses, the Web Check subject guide under: Research by Subject History By Region Canadian Aboriginal American Indians (Online) Oxford Companion to Canadian History (Online) For more resources on Canada, check

  19. The History of Sexuality History 464

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Robin

    1 The History of Sexuality History 464 Consider Resources Primary Resources: diaries, letters. popular), theses, the Web Check subject guides under: Research by Subject History Gender Studies Find Encyclopedia of European Social History ... REF HN373 .E63 2001 Encyclopedia of Homosexuality REF HQ76.25 .E53

  20. The Automobile in American History History 392

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Robin

    1 The Automobile in American History History 392 Consider Resources Primary Resources: letters. popular), theses, the Web Check subject guide: How-to & Help Research by Subject History American History Find Background Information The following titles are shelved in the Stauffer Library Reference

  1. Modern Latin American History History 315

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Robin

    historicaltextarchive.com/ HuriSearch www.hurisearch.org/ Internet Archive archive.org/index.php Internet History times, such as: Internet Modern History Sourcebook www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook.html 19th1 Modern Latin American History History 315 Consider Resources Primary Resources: diaries, letters

  2. Method of making a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elkins, P. E.

    1981-09-22

    A method of making a portion of a sodium sulfur battery is disclosed. The battery portion made is a portion of the container which defines the volume for the cathodic reactant materials which are sulfur and sodium polysulfide materials. The container portion is defined by an outer metal casing with a graphite liner contained therein, the graphite liner having a coating on its internal diameter for sealing off the porosity thereof. The steel outer container and graphite pipe are united by a method which insures that at the operating temperature of the battery, relatively low electrical resistance exists between the two materials because they are in intimate contact with one another. 3 figs.

  3. Multiple-sulfur isotope effects during photolysis of carbonyl sulfide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Ying

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to determine sulfur isotope effects during ultraviolet photolysis of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) to carbon monoxide (CO) and elemental sulfur (S[superscript 0]). The OCS gas at 3.7 to 501 ...

  4. EPA Diesel Rule and the Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-05-08

    The VT program collaborated with industry stakeholders and the EPA (in an effort initiated in 1998 called Diesel Emission Control – Sulfur Effects study, otherwise known as DECSE) to quantify the effects of fuel sulfur on emission control technologies.

  5. Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases: high calcium fly-ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T. (Austin, TX); Chang, John C. S. (Cary, NC)

    1991-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to improved processes for treating hot sulfur-containing flue gas to remove sulfur therefrom. Processes in accordance with the present invention include preparing an aqueous slurry composed of a calcium alkali source and a source of reactive silica and/or alumina, heating the slurry to above-ambient temperatures for a period of time in order to facilitate the formation of sulfur-absorbing calcium silicates or aluminates, and treating the gas with the heat-treated slurry components. Examples disclosed herein demonstrate the utility of these processes in achieving improved sulfur-absorbing capabilities. Additionally, disclosure is provided which illustrates preferred configurations for employing the present processes both as a dry sorbent injection and for use in conjunction with a spray dryer and/or bagfilter. Retrofit application to existing systems is also addressed.

  6. Mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionation during photochemistry of sulfur dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitehill, Andrew (Andrew Richard)

    2015-01-01

    Mass-independent sulfur isotope signatures are observed in Archean and early Paleoproterozoic sedimentary sulfate and sulfide minerals, and provide the most robust constraints on early atmospheric oxygen levels. Smaller ...

  7. Policy Analysis Changing Trends in Sulfur Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Mark

    Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, New York, and Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto in Asia where the pressing environ- mental problems of urban pollution, acid deposition, and climate change are intimately linked to sulfur (1). Over the last 25 years the primary energy demand in Asia has

  8. On the galactic chemical evolution of sulfur

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Ryde; D. L. Lambert

    2003-12-02

    Sulfur abundances have been determined for ten stars to resolve a debate in the literature on the Galactic chemical evolution of sulfur in the halo phase of the Milky Way. Our analysis is based on observations of the S I lines at 9212.9, 9228.1, and 9237.5 A for stars for which the S abundance was obtained previously from much weaker S I lines at 8694.0 and 8694.6 A. In contrast to the previous results showing [S/Fe] to rise steadily with decreasing [Fe/H], our results show that [S/Fe] is approximately constant for metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] < -1) at [S/Fe] = +0.3. Thus, sulfur behaves in a similar way to the other alpha elements, with an approximately constant [S/Fe] for metallicities lower than [Fe/H] = -1. We suggest that the reason for the earlier claims of a rise of [S/Fe] is partly due to the use of the weak S I 8694.0 and 8694.6 A lines and partly uncertainties in the determination of the metallicity when using Fe I lines. The S I 9212.9, 9228.1, and 9237.5 A lines are preferred for an abundance analysis of sulfur for metal-poor stars.

  9. Sulfur removal from high-sulfur Illinois coal by low-temperature perchloroethylene (PCE) extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.I.M.

    1991-01-01

    A pre-combustion coal desulfurization process at 120{degree}C using perchloroethylene (PCE) to remove up to 70% of the organic sulfur has been developed by the Midwest Ore Processing Co. (MWOPC). However, this process has not yet proven to be as successful with Illinois coals as it has for Ohio and Indiana coals. The organic sulfur removal has been achieved only with highly oxidized Illinois coals containing high sulfatic sulfur. A logical explanation for this observation is vital to successful process optimization for the use of Illinois coals. In addition, the high levels of organic sulfur removals observed by the MWOPC may be due to certain errors involved in the ASTM data interpretation; this needs verification. For example, elemental sulfur extracted by the PCE may be derived from pyrite oxidation during coal pre-oxidation, but it may be interpreted as organic sulfur removed by the PCE using ASTM analysis. The goals of this research are: (1) to independently confirm and possibly to improve the organic sulfur removal from Illinois coals with the PCE desulfurization process reported by the MWOPC, (2) to verify the forms-of-sulfur determination using the ASTM method for the PCE process evaluation, and (3) to determine the suitability of Illinois coals for use in the PCE desulfurization process. This project involves the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), Eastern Illinois University (EIU), the University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign (UI-UC), and the University of Kentucky, Lexington (UK). This is the first year of a two-year project.

  10. Method to prevent sulfur accumulation in membrane electrode assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steimke, John L; Steeper, Timothy J; Herman, David T

    2014-04-29

    A method of operating a hybrid sulfur electrolyzer to generate hydrogen is provided that includes the steps of providing an anolyte with a concentration of sulfur dioxide, and applying a current. During steady state generation of hydrogen a plot of applied current density versus concentration of sulfur dioxide is below a boundary line. The boundary line may be linear and extend through the origin of the graph with a slope of 0.001 in which the current density is measured in mA/cm2 and the concentration of sulfur dioxide is measured in moles of sulfur dioxide per liter of anolyte.

  11. CATALYST EVALUATION FOR A SULFUR DIOXIDE-DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H

    2007-01-31

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. Testing examined the activity and stability of platinum and palladium as the electrocatalyst for the SDE in sulfuric acid solutions. Cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry revealed that platinum provided better catalytic activity with much lower potentials and higher currents than palladium. Testing also showed that the catalyst activity is strongly influenced by the concentration of the sulfuric acid electrolyte.

  12. Fuel-rich sulfur capture in a combustion environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Pershing, D.W.; Kirchgessner, D.A.; Drehmel, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the use of a refactory-lined, natural gas furnace to study the fuel-rich sulfur capture reactions of calcium sorbents under typical combustion conditions. The fuel-rich sulfur species hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide were monitored in a nearly continuous fashion using a gas chromatograph equiped with a flame photometric detector and an automatic system that sampled every 30 seconds. Below the fuel-rich zone, 25% excess air was added, and the ultimate fuel-lean capture was simultaneously measured using a continuous sulfur dioxide monitor. Under fuel-rich conditions, high levels of sulfur capture were obtained, and calcium utilization increased with sulfur concentration. The ultimate lean capture was found to be weakly dependent on sulfur concentration and independent of the sulfur capture level obtained in the fuel-rich zone.

  13. Modern Britain History 329

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Robin

    1 Modern Britain History 329 Consider Resources Primary Resources: diaries, letters, speeches), theses, the Web Check subject guides under: Research by Subject History By Region British Find great britain civilization 19th century encyclopedias great britain history dictionaries great britain

  14. National Women's History Month

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    NATIONAL WOMEN’S HISTORY MONTH is an annual declared month that highlights the contributions of women to events in history and contemporary society.

  15. Costs to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1982-03-01

    Central to the resolution of the acid rain issue are debates about the costs and benefits of controlling man-made emissions of chemicals that may cause acid rain. In this briefing, the position of those who are calling for immediate action and implicating coal-fired powerplants as the cause of the problem is examined. The costs of controlling sulfur dioxide emissions using alternative control methods available today are presented. No attempt is made to calculate the benefits of reducing these emissions since insufficient information is available to provide even a rough estimate. Information is presented in two steps. First, costs are presented as obtained through straightforward calculations based upon simplifying but realistic assumptions. Next, the costs of sulfur dioxide control obtained through several large-scale analyses are presented, and these results are compared with those obtained through the first method.

  16. Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA); Liu, Wei (Cambridge, MA)

    1995-01-01

    A catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(OF.sub.2).sub.1-n (RO.sub.1)n].sub.1-k M.sub.k, [(FO.sub.2).sub.1-n (RO.sub.1.5).sub.n ].sub.1-k M.sub.k, or [Ln.sub.x Zr.sub.1-x O.sub.2-0.5x ].sub.1-k M.sub.k wherein FO.sub.2 is a fluorite-type oxide; RO represents an alkaline earth oxide; RO.sub.1.5 is a Group IIIB or rare earth oxide; Ln is a rare earth element having an atomic number from 57 to 65 or mixtures thereof; M is a transition metal or a mixture of transition metals; n is a number having a value from 0.0 to 0.35; k is a number having a value from 0.0 to about 0.5; and x is a number having a value from about 0.45 to about 0.55.

  17. Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Najjar, Mitri S. (Hopewell Junction, NY); Corbeels, Roger J. (Wappingers Falls, NY); Kokturk, Uygur (Wappingers Falls, NY)

    1989-01-01

    A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

  18. Sulfur control in ion-conducting membrane systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Richards, Robin Edward; Brengel, David Douglas; Carolan, Michael Francis

    2003-08-05

    A method for controlling the sulfur dioxide partial pressure in a pressurized, heated, oxygen-containing gas mixture which is contacted with an ion-conducting metallic oxide membrane which permeates oxygen ions. The sulfur dioxide partial pressure in the oxygen-depleted non-permeate gas from the membrane module is maintained below a critical sulfur dioxide partial pressure, p.sub.SO2 *, to protect the membrane material from reacting with sulfur dioxide and reducing the oxygen flux of the membrane. Each ion-conducting metallic oxide material has a characteristic critical sulfur dioxide partial pressure which is useful in determining the required level of sulfur removal from the feed gas and/or from the fuel gas used in a direct-fired feed gas heater.

  19. WellcomeHistoryISSUE 44 SUMMER 2010 Feature articles 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    VieWs 21 #12;2 Exeter unit WellcomeHistory Issue 41 The `disease of Brazil' Above: Carlos Chagas tendingWellcomeHistoryISSUE 44 SUMMER 2010 Feature articles 2 Chagas' disease in Brazil GlasGOW ceNtre 4 in this field (such as the OCI) were created in Brazil, Chagas' `triple discovery' of a vector, pathogen

  20. Sulfide catalysts for reducing SO2 to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Yun (Peking, CN); Yu, Qiquan (Peking, CN); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A highly efficient sulfide catalyst for reducing sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur, which maximizes the selectivity of elemental sulfur over byproducts and has a high conversion efficiency. Various feed stream contaminants, such as water vapor are well tolerated. Additionally, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or hydrogen sulfides can be employed as the reducing gases while maintaining high conversion efficiency. This allows a much wider range of uses and higher level of feed stream contaminants than prior art catalysts.

  1. Effect of Environmental Factors on Sulfur Gas Emissions from Drywall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maddalena, Randy

    2012-01-01

    sulfide (H 2 S), carbonyl sulfide (OCS), sulfur dioxide (SOof hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, methyl mercaptan,associated with the carbonyl sulfide that typically had very

  2. More Economical Sulfur Removal for Fuel Processing Plants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    crude oil it is present in sulfur-containing organic compounds which are converted into hydrocarbons and H 2 S during the removal process (hydrodesulfurization). In both cases,...

  3. History Ancient, Mediaeval, Modern, Scottish

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brierley, Andrew

    104 History­ Ancient, Mediaeval, Modern, Scottish and Middle East Studies Degree options MA (Single Honours Degree) History BA (International Honours Degree) History (See page 43) (See also Ancient History page 54 History ­ Mediaeval History page 106 History ­ Middle East Studies page 108 History ­ Modern

  4. History Ancient, Mediaeval, Modern, Scottish

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brierley, Andrew

    112 History­ Ancient, Mediaeval, Modern, Scottish and Middle East Studies Degree options MA (Single Honours Degree) History BA (International Honours Degree) History (See page 51) (See also Ancient History page 62 History ­ Mediaeval History page 114 History ­ Middle East Studies page 116 History ­ Modern

  5. OIL & GAS HISTORY 1 History in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OIL & GAS HISTORY 1 History in California 4 Superior figures refer to references at the end of the essay. OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION California oil was always a valued commodity. When the Spanish explorers, and Los Angeles Counties received the most attention. Interest in oil and gas seeps was stirred

  6. Iran in History Iran in History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    1 Iran in History Iran in History by Bernard Lewis In attempting to attain some perspective on Iran. These events have been variously seen in Iran: by some as a blessing, the advent of the true faith, the end remarkable difference between what happened in Iran and what happened in all the other countries

  7. Nonflame, source-induced sulfur fluorescence detector for sulfur-containing compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gage, D.R.; Farwell, S.O.

    1980-12-01

    Results of some preliminary investigations of the fluorescence spectra of S/sub 2/ and the non-flame production of S/sub 2/ from sulfur-containing molecules are reported. Passage of the gas to be analyzed through a catalyst-oven containing a plug of NiO/sub 2//Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst containing 10 wt% NiO/sub 2/ and heated to 400/sup 0/C resulted in conversion of H/sub 2/S to S/sub 2/ and elemental sulfur. The S/sub 2/ was detected by measurement of its fluorescence bands at 260 and 310nm, and elemental sulfur condensed on the cool parts of the apparatus. However, determination of sulfur-content of gas mixtures with the apparatus described herein were not as repeatable as desired, and the work is being continued on various facets of the non-flame system with work being directed toward the evaluation of different catalysts, catalyst temperature, design of a smaller detector geometry utilizing a pulsed-light excitation source, a windowless cell, and optical filters instead of monochromators to select the S/sub 2/ excitation and emission wavelengths. (BLM)

  8. Sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mamantov, Gleb (Knoxville, TN)

    1985-04-02

    A sodium-tetravalent sulfur molten chloroaluminate cell with a .beta."-alumina sodium ion conductor having a S-Al mole ratio of above about 0.15 in an acidic molten chloroaluminate cathode composition is disclosed. The cathode composition has an AlCl.sub.3 -NaCl mole percent ratio of above about 70-30 at theoretical full charge. The cell provides high energy densities at low temperatures and provides high energy densities and high power densities at moderate temperatures.

  9. Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narain, N.K.; Ruether, J.A.; Smith, D.N.

    1987-10-07

    Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product. 2 figs.

  10. Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narain, Nand K. (Bethel Park, PA); Ruether, John A. (McMurray, PA); Smith, Dennis N. (Herminie, PA)

    1988-01-01

    Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product.

  11. An Evolutionary Arms Race for Sulfur

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News Publications TraditionalWith PropaneNaturalTestAn Evolutionary Arms Race for Sulfur An

  12. Using ISC & GIS to predict sulfur deposition from coal-fired power plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez, Jose Ignacio

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this research project was to determine if atmospheric sources have the potential of contributing significantly to the sulfur content of grazed forage. Sulfur deposition resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions from coal- fired power...

  13. Kansas Lawsonians Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mook, John; Mook, Paula; Hunergaaurd, George; Reeve, Jamie

    2009-12-08

    Oral history interview with John and Paula Mook and George Hunergaaurd conducted by Jamie Reeve in Wichita, Kansas, on December 8, 2009. In this interview, John and Paul Mook and George Hunergaaurd discuss the biography of Alfred Lawson, the history...

  14. Village History 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G.yu lha

    2009-12-22

    /relationship if appropriate) Title of track Village History 3 Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Respondent Zhangs skyong provides details of village history (including a legend) and introduces the names of various village hamlets, while...

  15. BLACK HISTORY MONTH

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black History Month is an annual celebration of achievements by black Americans and a time for recognizing the central role of African Americans in U.S. history. The event grew out of “Negro History Week,” created by historian Carter G. Woodson and other prominent African Americans. Other countries around the world, including Canada and the United Kingdom, also devote a month to celebrating black history.

  16. Quantifying Individual Potential Contributions of the Hybrid Sulfur Electrolyzer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    Quantifying Individual Potential Contributions of the Hybrid Sulfur Electrolyzer John A. Staser for the hybrid sulfur electrolyzer is controlled mainly by water transport in the cell. Water is required electrolyzer performance and operation. Experimental The experimental setup was the same as that described

  17. Sulfur removal from diesel fuel-contaminated methanol.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. H. D.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.; Chemical Engineering

    2002-03-01

    Methanol is considered to be a potential on-board fuel for fuel cell-powered vehicles. In current distribution systems for liquid fuels used in the transportation sector, commodity methanol can occasionally become contaminated with the sulfur in diesel fuel or gasoline. This sulfur would poison the catalytic materials used in fuel reformers for fuel cells. We tested the removal of this sulfur by means of ten activated carbons (AC) that are commercially available. Tests were conducted with methanol doped with 1 vol.% grade D-2 diesel fuel containing 0.29% sulfur, which was present essentially as 33-35 wt.% benzothiophenes (BTs) and 65-67 wt.% dibenzothiophenes (DBT). In general, coconut shell-based carbons activated by high-temperature steam were more effective at sulfur removal than coal-based carbons. Equilibrium sorption data showed linear increase in sulfur capture with the increase of sulfur concentration in methanol. Both types of carbons had similar breakthrough characteristics, with the dynamic sorption capacity of each being about one-third of its equilibrium sorption capacity. Results of this study suggest that a fixed-bed sorber of granular AC can be used, such as in refueling stations, for the removal of sulfur in diesel fuel-contaminated methanol.

  18. Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert (Edgewood, NM); Pickard, Paul S. (Albuquerque, NM); Parma, Jr., Edward J. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, Milton E. (Albuquerque, NM); Gelbard, Fred (Albuquerque, NM); Lenard, Roger X. (Edgewood, NM)

    2010-01-12

    A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

  19. Process for removing pyritic sulfur from bituminous coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pawlak, Wanda (Edmonton, CA); Janiak, Jerzy S. (Edmonton, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw L. (Edmonton, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A process is provided for removing pyritic sulfur and lowering ash content of bituminous coals by grinding the feed coal, subjecting it to micro-agglomeration with a bridging liquid containing heavy oil, separating the microagglomerates and separating them to a water wash to remove suspended pyritic sulfur. In one embodiment the coal is subjected to a second micro-agglomeration step.

  20. Art History Degree options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brierley, Andrew

    66 Art History Degree options MA (Single Honours Degree) Art History MA (Joint Honours Degrees) Art knowledge of this subject? ­ No. Subject enquiries E: art.history@st-andrews.ac.uk Features * The School for a learning and teaching review in March 2010. * The modular structure offers the possibility of combining art

  1. Performance and cost models for the direct sulfur recovery process. Task 1 Topical report, Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frey, H.C. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Williams, R.B. [Carneigie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop performance and cost models of the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). The DSRP is an emerging technology for sulfur recovery from advanced power generation technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. In IGCC systems, sulfur present in the coal is captured by gas cleanup technologies to avoid creating emissions of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere. The sulfur that is separated from the coal gas stream must be collected. Leading options for dealing with the sulfur include byproduct recovery as either sulfur or sulfuric acid. Sulfur is a preferred byproduct, because it is easier to handle and therefore does not depend as strongly upon the location of potential customers as is the case for sulfuric acid. This report describes the need for new sulfur recovery technologies.

  2. A HISTORY ofA HISTORY of GEOGEOSCIENCESSCIENCES atat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 A HISTORY ofA HISTORY of GEOGEOSCIENCESSCIENCES atat COLORADO STATECOLORADO STATE HISTORY of GISTORY of GEOEOSCIENCESSCIENCES atat COLORADOCOLORADO STATE UNIVERSITYSTATE UNIVERSITY APPENDIX XII - Major Events in the History of Geology at CSU ........................................ 53

  3. Lake View Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History ViewInformation

  4. Crusades & Latin Kingdoms History 430

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Robin

    1 Crusades & Latin Kingdoms History 430 Consider Resources Primary Resources: diaries, letters. popular), theses, the Web Check subject guides: Research by Subject History By Region British Medieval Online - History Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium Oxford Dictionary of British History Oxford Dictionary

  5. History | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Division (1999) Plant and Equipment Division (1993) Research Reactors Division (1993) Robotics and Process Systems Division (Fuel Recycle Division) (1992) History of the Solid...

  6. Amphiphilic Surface Modification of Hollow Carbon Nanofibers for Improved Cycle Life of Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Sulfur Batteries Guangyuan Zheng, Qianfan Zhang, Judy J. Cha, Yuan Yang, Weiyang Li, Zhi Wei Seh, and Yi lithium sulfur batteries, due to their high specific energy and relatively low cost. Despite recent progress in addressing the various problems of sulfur cathodes, lithium sulfur batteries still exhibit

  7. Low Temperature Sorbents for Removal of Sulfur Compounds from Fluid Feed Streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani

    2004-06-01

    A sorbent material is provided comprising a material reactive with sulfur, a binder unreactive with sulfur and an inert material, wherein the sorbent absorbs the sulfur at temperatures between 30 and 200 C. Sulfur absorption capacity as high as 22 weight percent has been observed with these materials.

  8. Synergistic capture mechanisms for alkali and sulfur species from combustion. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, T.W.; Shadman, F.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Mwabe, P.O.

    1994-02-01

    Experimental work was carried out on a 17 kW, 600 cm long, gas laboratory combustor, to investigate the post flame reactive capture of alkali species by kaolinite. Emphasis was on alkali/sorbent interactions occurring in flue gas at temperatures above the alkali dewpoint and on the formation of water insoluble reaction products. Time-temperature studies were carried out by injecting kaolinite at different axial points along the combustor. The effect of chlorine and sulfur on alkali capture was investigated by doping the flame with SO{sub 2} and Cl{sub 2} gases to simulate coal flame environments. Particle time and temperature history was kept as close as possible to that which would ordinarily be found in a practical boiler. Experiments designed to extract apparent initial reaction rates were carried using a narrow range, 1-2 {mu}m modal size sorbent, while, a coarse, multi size sorbent was used to investigate the governing transport mechanisms. The capture reaction has been proposed to be between alkali hydroxide and activated kaolinite, and remains so in the presence of sulfur and chlorine. The presence of sulfur reduces sodium capture by under 10% at 1300{degree}C. Larger reductions at lower temperatures are attributed to the elevated dewpoint of sodium ({approximately}850{degree}C) with subsequent reduction in sorbent residence time in the alkali gas phase domain. Chlorine reduces sodium capture by 30% across the temperature range covered by the present experiments. This result has been linked to thermodynamic equilibria between sodium hydroxide, sodium chloride and water.

  9. System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J; Weissman, Jeffrey G

    2013-08-13

    A system for adding sulfur to a reformate stream feeding a fuel cell stack, having a sulfur source for providing sulfur to the reformate stream and a metering device in fluid connection with the sulfur source and the reformate stream. The metering device injects sulfur from the sulfur source to the reformate stream at a predetermined rate, thereby providing a conditioned reformate stream to the fuel cell stack. The system provides a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

  10. Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Compound Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    set limits on the sulfur content of allowable fuels (1.0% by weight, dry basis) for combustion, as well as for the heat input of any fuel burning equipment (250,000 Btuhour)....

  11. Physiology of multiple sulfur isotope fractionation during microbial sulfate reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sim, Min Sub

    2012-01-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) utilizes sulfate as an electron acceptor and produces sulfide that is depleted in heavy isotopes of sulfur relative to starting sulfate. The fractionation of S-isotopes is commonly used ...

  12. Impact of Sulfur Oxides on Mercury Capture by Activated Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Presto, A.A.; Granite, E.J.

    2007-09-15

    Recent field tests of mercury removal with activated carbon injection (ACI) have revealed that mercury capture is limited in flue gases containing high concentrations of sulfur oxides (SOx). In order to gain a more complete understanding of the impact of SOx on ACI, mercury capture was tested under varying conditions of SO2 and SO3 concentrations using a packed bed reactor and simulated flue gas (SFG). The final mercury content of the activated carbons is independent of the SO2 concentration in the SFG, but the presence of SO3 inhibits mercury capture even at the lowest concentration tested (20 ppm). The mercury removal capacity decreases as the sulfur content of the used activated carbons increases from 1 to 10%. In one extreme case, an activated carbon with 10% sulfur, prepared by H2SO4 impregnation, shows almost no mercury capacity. The results suggest that mercury and sulfur oxides are in competition for the same binding sites on the carbon surface.

  13. NEWS & VIEWS Glass dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weeks, Eric R.

    NEWS & VIEWS Glass dynamics Diverging views on glass transition Gregory B. mc.mckenna@ttu.edu T he glass transition is one of the most intriguing phenomena in the world of soft condensed matter. Despite decades of study, many aspects of the behaviour of glass-forming liquids remain elusive

  14. World Views From fragmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    World Views From fragmentation to integration Diederik Aerts Leo Apostel Bart De Moor Staf in 1994 by VUB Press: Brussels Internet edition by Clément Vidal and Alexander Riegler #12;World Views 2................................................................................................................... 5 1.1 The fragmentation of our world

  15. Microscale acceleration history discriminators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Plummer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new class of micromechanical acceleration history discriminators is claimed. These discriminators allow the precise differentiation of a wide range of acceleration-time histories, thereby allowing adaptive events to be triggered in response to the severity (or lack thereof) of an external environment. Such devices have applications in airbag activation, and other safety and surety applications.

  16. Art History Degree options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brierley, Andrew

    58 Art History Degree options MA (Single Honours Degree) Art History MA (Joint Honours Degrees) Art.st-andrews.ac.uk/study/international Do I need previous knowledge of this subject? ­ No. Subject enquiries E: art the possibility of combining art-historical courses with those in a range of other subjects. * The School has

  17. Carbonyl sulfide: potential agent of atmospheric sulfur corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graedel, T.E.; Kammlott, G.W.; Franey, J.P.

    1981-05-08

    Laboratory exposure experiments demonstrate that carbonyl sulfide in wet air corrodes copper at 22/sup 0/C at a rate that is approximately linear with total exposure (the product of exposure time and carbonyl sulfide concentration). The corrosion rate is similar to that of hydrogen sulfide, a widely recognized corrodant. The much greater average atmospheric abundance of carbonyl sulfide compared with that of hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide suggests that carbonyl sulfide may be a major agent of atmospheric sulfur corrosion.

  18. Ultra Low Sulfur Home Heating Oil Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batey, John E.; McDonald, Roger

    2015-09-30

    This Ultra Low Sulfur (ULS) Home Heating Oil Demonstration Project was funded by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and has successfully quantified the environmental and economic benefits of switching to ULS (15 PPM sulfur) heating oil. It advances a prior field study of Low Sulfur (500 ppm sulfur) heating oil funded by NYSERDA and laboratory research conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Canadian researchers. The sulfur oxide and particulate matter (PM) emissions are greatly reduced as are boiler cleaning costs through extending cleaning intervals. Both the sulfur oxide and PM emission rates are directly related to the fuel oil sulfur content. The sulfur oxide and PM emission rates approach near-zero levels by switching heating equipment to ULS fuel oil, and these emissions become comparable to heating equipment fired by natural gas. This demonstration project included an in-depth review and analysis of service records for both the ULS and control groups to determine any difference in the service needs for the two groups. The detailed service records for both groups were collected and analyzed and the results were entered into two spreadsheets that enabled a quantitative side-by-side comparison of equipment service for the entire duration of the ULS test project. The service frequency for the ULS and control group were very similar and did indicate increased service frequency for the ULS group. In fact, the service frequency with the ULS group was slightly less (7.5 percent) than the control group. The only exception was that three burner fuel pump required replacement for the ULS group and none were required for the control group.

  19. An electrochemical Claus process for sulfur recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pujare, N.U.; Tsai, K.J.; Sammuells, A.F. (Eltron Research, Inc., Aurora, IL (US))

    1989-12-01

    Electrochemical oxidation of H{sub 2}S to give sulfur and water was achieved at 900{degrees}C using fuel cells possessing the general configuration where anode electrocatalysts experimentally investigated for promoting the subject oxidation reaction included WS{sub 2} and the thiospinels CuNi{sub 2}S{sub 4}, CuCo{sub 2}S{sub 4}, CuFe{sub 2}S{sub 4}, and NiFe{sub 2}S{sub 4}. The predominant oxidizable electroactive species present in the fuel cell anode compartment was suggested to be hydrogen originating from the initial thermal dissociation of H{sub 2}S (H{sub 2}S {r reversible} H{sub 2} + 1/2 S{sub 2}) at fuel cell operating temperatures. Rapid anode kinetics were found for the anodic reaction with the empirical trend for exchange currents (i{sub o}) per geometric area being found to be NiFe{sub 2}S{sub 4}{gt}WS{sub 2}{gt}CuCo{sub 2}S{sub 4}{gt}CuFe{sub 2}S{sub 4}{approx equal}NiCo{sub 2}S{sub 4}{gt}CuNi{sub 2}S{sub 4}.

  20. History 4CZ3 Advanced Research in Early Canadian History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael

    History 4CZ3 Advanced Research in Early Canadian History Resources for Map Project Cathy Moulder with modern imprint and marginal info #12;Finding resources for this assignment... Books on the history of cartography McMaster library catalogue: cartography history in Subject search Map Collection "History

  1. Postgraduate Studentship MA in English Local History and Family History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banaji,. Murad

    Postgraduate Studentship MA in English Local History and Family History The Thaxted Society (www.thaxted.co.uk) would like to sponsor a student to undertake the MA degree in English Local History and Family History in the Centre for English Local History at the University of Leicester. The student will undertake the usual

  2. Undergraduate History Degrees School of History, Archaeology and Religion, Cardiff University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Ralph R.

    Undergraduate History Degrees School of History, Archaeology and Religion, Cardiff University BA History BA History with Welsh History BA Integrated Degree (Archaeology & Medieval History, Ancient History & Medieval History) BA Joint Schemes (with Archaeology, Religious Studies, Languages etc.) Bsc

  3. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: Development of High Energy Lithium-Sulfur Cells for Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    BEEST Project: Sion Power is developing a lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery, a potentially cost-effective alternative to the Li-Ion battery that could store 400% more energy per pound. All batteries have 3 key parts—a positive and negative electrode and an electrolyte—that exchange ions to store and release electricity. Using different materials for these components changes a battery’s chemistry and its ability to power a vehicle. Traditional Li-S batteries experience adverse reactions between the electrolyte and lithium-based negative electrode that ultimately limit the battery to less than 50 charge cycles. Sion Power will sandwich the lithium- and sulfur-based electrode films around a separator that protects the negative electrode and increases the number of charges the battery can complete in its lifetime. The design could eventually allow for a battery with 400% greater storage capacity per pound than Li-Ion batteries and the ability to complete more than 500 recharge cycles.

  4. NEW DIRECTIONS IN LOCAL HISTORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banaji,. Murad

    NEW DIRECTIONS IN LOCAL HISTORY SINCE HOSKINS Edited by Christopher Dyer, Andrew Hopper, Evelyn Lord and Nigel Tringham New Directions in Local History since Hoskins Local history in Britain can of the publication of his Local History in England which was designed to help people researching the history

  5. NEWS AND VIEWS PERSPECTIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahler, D. Luke

    NEWS AND VIEWS PERSPECTIVE Niche diversification follows key innovation in Antarctic fish radiation Oxford Street, Cambridge MA 02138, USA Antarctic notothenioid fishes provide a fascinating evolu- tionary diversification has occurred repeatedly and in parallel. Keywords: community ecology, fish, macroevolution, phylo

  6. Terry Koenig Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koenig, Terry L.; Helmer, Lauren

    2010-11-16

    Oral history interview with Terry Koenig conducted by Lauren Helmer in Lawrence, Kansas, on November 16, 2010. In this interview, Terry Koenig discusses her childhood growing up as a member of the Missouri Synod Lutheran Church, the importance...

  7. Departmental History Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1992-03-26

    The order describes the DOE history program and establishes policy and objectives for the preservation of historical records and institutional memory for DOE and its predecessor agencies. Cancels DOE 1324.7.

  8. Seth Davidson Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, Seth; Stratton, Emily

    2010-10-22

    Oral history interview with Seth Davidson conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on October 22, 2010. In this interview, Seth Davidson, lead pastor and founder of what is now the non-denominational Vintage Church ...

  9. Sandia Energy - SCADA History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1-11-04T14:51:33+00:00 SCADA History The use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems and process control systems became popular in the 1960s as a need arose to...

  10. Sandia Energy - SCADA History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5-05-11T18:41:13+00:00 SCADA Security A Brief History The use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems and process control systems became popular in the 1960s as...

  11. Leni Salkind Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salkind, Leni; Miller, Timothy

    2009-11-11

    Oral history interview with Leni Salkind conducted by Timothy Miller in Lawrence, Kansas, on November 11, 2009. In this interview, Leni Salkind describes her experiences as a member of the Jewish community in Lawrence. She ...

  12. Mike Rose Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Mike; Helmer, Lauren

    2010-12-31

    , marrying a Catholic, attending an Episcopal Church, and then answering a call to become a United Methodist minister. He discusses the history of the Methodist Church, including the philosophy of John Wesley, the introduction of Methodism to the United...

  13. Mary Tholen Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tholen, Mary; Shriner, Clint

    2009-12-10

    Oral history interview with Mary Tholen conducted by Clint Shriner in Kansas City, Missouri, on December 10, 2009. In this interview, Mary Tholen describes her experiences growing up as a member of the Catholic Church, ...

  14. Velda Sloan Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloan, Velda; Heidrick, Sarah

    2009-11-09

    Oral history interview with Velda Sloan conducted by Sarah Heidrick in Salina, Kansas, on November 9, 2009. In this interview, Velda Sloan discusses her experiences attending Methodist and Presybterian churches in a variety of locations during...

  15. Pearlena Moore Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Pearlena; Heidrick, Sarah

    2009-11-14

    Oral history interview with Pearlena Moore conducted by Sarah Heidrick in Hill City, Kansas, on November 14, 2009. In this interview, Pearleena Moore, a member of the Williams Sisters gospel singing group, describes her experiences growing up...

  16. David Nelson Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, David; Gadd-Nelson, Rachel

    2009-10-31

    Oral history interview with David Nelson conducted by Rachel Gadd-Nelson in Kansas City, Kansas, on October 31, 2009. In this interview, David Nelson discusses his journey from his childhood experiences in the Swedish Lutheran church in Burdick...

  17. Glenn Lindell Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindell, Glenn; Caton, Jeffrey

    2009-10-24

    Oral history interview with Glenn Lindell conducted by Jeffrey Caton in Johnson County, Kansas, on October 24, 2009. In this interview, Glen Lindell, pastor emeritus of the Hillcrest Covenant Church in Prairie Village, Kansas, discusses his training...

  18. Anna Manning Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manning, Anna; Manning, Sean

    2009-11-05

    Oral history interview with Anna Manning conducted by Sean Manning in Overland Park, Kansas, on November 5, 2009. In this interview, Anna Manning discusses the Hispanic ministries in Catholic Churches in Johnson County, Kansas. This interview...

  19. Kahler Wiebe Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiebe, Kahler; Roane, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Oral history interview of Kahler Wiebe conducted by Jordan Roane in Lawrence, Kansas, on November 11, 2014. Kahler is 15 years old and the youngest member of the Wiebe family. The Wiebe family regularly attends Grace Evangelical Presbyterian Church...

  20. Pat Miller Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Pat; Albin, Tami

    2009-10-28

    Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex and Queer People in Kansas Pat Miller Oral History Interviewed by Tami Albin March 21, 2008 http...) for the correct citation style for audio/video interviews or transcripts. Please be sure to include: Narrator’s name e.g. Bill Smith Interviewer’s Name e.g. Tami Albin Date of interview e.g. March 26, 2009 Name of project and location e.g. Under...

  1. History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof Energy ServicesContracting OversightEMS PolicyandHighWomenHistory History

  2. Oakes College: An Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    Oakes College: An Oral History Blake: That’s unfortunate. I’Oakes College: An Oral History Charland: It took awhile toOakes College: An Oral History with: J. Herman Blake Roberto

  3. Sulfur gas emissions from stored flue-gas-desulfurization sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.

    1980-01-01

    In field studies conducted for the Electric Power Research Institute by the University of Washington (1978) and the University of Idaho (1979), 13 gas samples from sludge storage sites at coal-burning power plants were analyzed by wall-coated open-tube cryogenic capillary-column gas chromatography with a sulfur-selective flame-photometric detector. Hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide were identified in varying concentrations and ratios in the emissions from both operating sludge ponds and landfills and from FGD sludge surfaces that had been stored in the open for 3-32 mo or longer. Other sulfur compounds, probably propanethiols, were found in emissions from some sludges. Chemical ''stabilization/fixation'' sulfate-sulfite ratio, sludge water content, and temperature were the most significant variables controlling sulfur gas production. The average sulfur emissions from each of the 13 FGD storage sites ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 g/sq m/yr sulfur.

  4. Process for removal of sulfur compounds from fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Raymond H. (Richland, WA); Stegen, Gary E. (Richland, WA)

    1978-01-01

    Fuel gases such as those produced in the gasification of coal are stripped of sulfur compounds and particulate matter by contact with molten metal salt. The fuel gas and salt are intimately mixed by passage through a venturi or other constriction in which the fuel gas entrains the molten salt as dispersed droplets to a gas-liquid separator. The separated molten salt is divided into a major and a minor flow portion with the minor flow portion passing on to a regenerator in which it is contacted with steam and carbon dioxide as strip gas to remove sulfur compounds. The strip gas is further processed to recover sulfur. The depleted, minor flow portion of salt is passed again into contact with the fuel gas for further sulfur removal from the gas. The sulfur depleted, fuel gas then flows through a solid absorbent for removal of salt droplets. The minor flow portion of the molten salt is then recombined with the major flow portion for feed to the venturi.

  5. Weigh options for meeting future gasoline sulfur specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, T.E.

    1997-03-01

    The most frequently mentioned methods for reducing pool gasoline sulfur to the 50-ppm range are FCC feed hydrotreating and desulfurization of heavy cat naptha (HCN). Of these, cat feed hydrotreating (CFH) is preferred because of the compelling economics of improved FCC gasoline yield. Also, the additional C{sub 3}/C{sub 4} olefin yield opens up the possibility of additional production of sulfur-free alkylate and oxygenate. In addition to the obvious yield benefits, the ability to upgrade lower quality, higher sulfur stocks for inclusion in the FCC charge slate, while lowering flue gas SO{sub x} emissions, is also advantageous to the refiner. However, depending o the level of FCC feed sulfur and the severity of hydrotreating used, it may not be possible to meet 50-ppm sulfur in the gasoline pool. Two possible solutions to this problem are to use: (1) a very severe cat feed hydrotreating operation (i.e., 98%-plus desulfurization), (2) partial conversion hydrocracking.

  6. LOW SULFUR HOME HEATING OIL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT SUMMARY REPORT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BATEY, J.E.; MCDONALD, R.J.

    2005-06-01

    This project was funded by NYSERDA and has clearly demonstrated many advantages of using low sulfur content heating oil to provide thermal comfort in homes. Prior laboratory research in the United States and Canada had indicated a number of potential benefits of using lower sulfur (0.05%) heating oil. However, this prior research has not resulted in the widespread use of low sulfur fuel oil in the marketplace. The research project described in this report was conducted with the assistance of a well-established fuel oil marketer in New York State (NYS) and has provided clear proof of the many real-world advantages of marketing and using low sulfur content No. 2 fuel oil. The very positive experience of the participating marketer over the past three years has already helped to establish low sulfur heating oil as a viable option for many other fuel marketers. In large part, based on the initial findings of this project and the experience of the participating NYS oilheat marketer, the National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) has already fully supported a resolution calling for the voluntary use of low sulfur (0.05 percent) home heating oil nationwide. The NORA resolution has the goal of converting eighty percent of all oil-heated homes to the lower sulfur fuel (0.05 percent by weight) by the year 2007. The Oilheat Manufacturers Association (OMA) has also passed a resolution fully supporting the use of lower sulfur home heating oil in the equipment they manufacture. These are important endorsements by prominent national oil heat associations. Using lower sulfur heating oil substantially lowers boiler and furnace fouling rates. Laboratory studies had indicated an almost linear relationship between sulfur content in the oil and fouling rates. The completed NYSERDA project has verified past laboratory studies in over 1,000 occupied residential homes over the course of three heating seasons. In fact, the reduction in fouling rates so clearly demonstrated by this project is almost the same as predicted by past laboratory studies. Fouling deposition rates are reduced by a factor of two to three by using lower sulfur oil. This translates to a potential for substantial service cost savings by extending the interval between labor-intensive cleanings of the internal surfaces of the heating systems in these homes. In addition, the time required for annual service calls can be lowered, reducing service costs and customer inconvenience. The analyses conducted as part of this field demonstration project indicates that service costs can be reduced by up to $200 million a year nationwide by using lower sulfur oil and extending vacuum cleaning intervals depending on the labor costs and existing cleaning intervals. The ratio of cost savings to added fuel costs is economically attractive based on past fuel price differentials for the lower sulfur product. The ratio of cost savings to added costs vary widely as a function of hourly service rates and the additional cost for lower sulfur oil. For typical values, the expected benefit is a factor of two to four higher than the added fuel cost. This means that for every dollar spent on higher fuel cost, two to four dollars can be saved by lowered vacuum cleaning costs when the cleaning intervals are extended. Information contained in this report can be used by individual oil marketers to estimate the benefit to cost ratio for their specific applications. Sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide air emissions are reduced substantially by using lower sulfur fuel oil in homes. Sulfur oxides emissions are lowered by 75 percent by switching from fuel 0.20 percent to 0.05 percent sulfur oil. This is a reduction of 63,000 tons a year nationwide. In New York State, sulfur oxide emissions are reduced by 13,000 tons a year. This translates to a total value of $12 million a year in Sulfur Oxide Emission Reduction Credits for an emission credit cost of $195 a ton. While this ''environmental cost'' dollar savings is smaller than the potential service costs reduction, it is very significant. It represents an important red

  7. Gas phase reaction of sulfur trioxide with water vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolb, C.E.; Molina, M.J.; Jayne, J.T.; Meads, R.F.; Worsnop, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Sulfur trioxide (SO3) has long been known to react with water to produce sulfuric acid (H2S04). It has been commonly assumed that the gas phase reaction in the Earth`s atmosphere between SO3 and water vapor to produce sulfuric acid vapor is an important step in the production of sulfuric acid aerosol particles. The kinetics of the gas phase reaction of SO3 with water vapor have previously been studied by Castleman and co-workers, Wang et al and Reiner and Arnold. Each of these studies was carried out in a flow reactor, with the first two studies performed at low pressure (1-10 Torr) and the latter from approx. 30 to 260 Torr. Each of these studies measured SO3 decays over a range of H2O vapor levels, obtaining data consistent with interpreting the reaction of gaseous SO3 and H2O as a bimolecular process. It is not clear why previous experimental studies failed to observe a nonlinear dependence of SO3 consumption on water vapor concentration. It is probable that sufficient water dimer exists in much of the Earth`s atmosphere to allow dimer reactions to participate in sulfuric acid vapor formation.

  8. ADDITIVE TESTING FOR IMPROVED SULFUR RETENTION: PRELIMINARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amoroso, J.; Fox, K.

    2011-09-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory is collaborating with Alfred University to evaluate the potential for additives in borosilicate glass to improve sulfur retention. This preliminary report provides further background on the incorporation of sulfur in glass and outlines the experiments that are being performed by the collaborators. A simulated waste glass composition has been selected for the experimental studies. The first phase of experimental work will evaluate the impacts of BaO, PbO, and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 wt % on sulfate retention in simulated high level waste borosilicate glass. The second phase of experimental work will evaluate the effects of time at the melt temperature on sulfur retention. The resulting samples will be characterized to determine the amount of sulfur remaining as well as to identify the formation of any crystalline phases. The results will be used to guide the future selection of frits and glass forming chemicals in vitrifying Department of Energy wastes containing high sulfur concentrations.

  9. The Long History of Prototypes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guggenheim, Michael

    2010-01-01

    in the same way as the history of technology did not want toShock of the Old. Technology and Global History Since 1900 .

  10. Process and system for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gaseous streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basu, Arunabha (Aurora, IL); Meyer, Howard S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Lynn, Scott (Pleasant Hill, CA); Leppin, Dennis (Chicago, IL); Wangerow, James R. (Medinah, IL)

    2012-08-14

    A multi-stage UCSRP process and system for removal of sulfur from a gaseous stream in which the gaseous stream, which contains a first amount of H.sub.2S, is provided to a first stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess SO.sub.2 mode at a first amount of SO.sub.2, producing an effluent gas having a reduced amount of SO.sub.2, and in which the effluent gas is provided to a second stage UCSRP reactor vessel operating in an excess H.sub.2S mode, producing a product gas having an amount of H.sub.2S less than said first amount of H.sub.2S.

  11. Visualization of Personal History for Video Navigation Abir Al-Hajri, Gregor Miller, Matthew Fong, and Sidney Fels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    British Columbia, University of

    the Video History System (VHS) aids navigation through the management of a user's personal viewing history summarization. Author Keywords Video; Navigation; History; Visualization ACM Classification Keywords H.5 Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use

  12. The Development of Warm Gas Cleanup Technologies for the Removal of Sulfur Containing Species from Steam Hydrogasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Qian

    2012-01-01

    S breakthrough time and sulfur capture capacity increased asspace velocity on H 2 S on sulfur capture capacity for H 2 Sbased on the optimal sulfur capture capacity under CE-CERT

  13. Preliminary Investigation of Sulfur Loading in Hanford LAW Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Buchmiller, William C.; Ricklefs, Joel S.

    2004-04-01

    A preliminary estimate was developed for loading limits for high-sulfur low-activity waste (LAW) feeds that will be vitrified into borosilicate glass at the Hanford Site in the waste-cleanup effort. Previous studies reported in the literature were consulted to provide a basis for the estimate. The examination of previous studies led to questions about sulfur loading in Hanford LAW glass, and scoping tests were performed to help answer these questions. These results of these tests indicated that a formulation approach developed by Vienna and colleagues shows promise for maximizing LAW loading in glass. However, there is a clear need for follow-on work. The potential for significantly lowering the amount of LAW glass produced at Hanford (after the initial phase of processing) because of higher sulfur tolerances may outweigh the cost and effort required to perform the necessary testing.

  14. Early History of Algebra and Geometry Modern History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tribute Early History of Algebra and Geometry Modern History From Algebraic to Weak Subintegral. Vitulli Algebraic to Subintegral Extensions #12;Tribute Early History of Algebra and Geometry Modern History Etta Zuber Falconer (1933 - 2002) "My entire career has been devoted to increasing the number

  15. History 314, Fall 2013 US History and Historiography, 1877 Present

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gering, Jon C.

    1 History 314, Fall 2013 US History and Historiography, 1877 ­ Present Section 01, 12:30 ­ 1:20 MWF Department of History, McClain Hall 214, 785-7102 We need the past as a storehouse of the possibilities. Without the past, the content of the present seems inevitable. Without history, we are left with simple

  16. History 2RR3 U.S. History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael

    History 2RR3 U.S. History since The Civil War Olga Perkovic Liaison Librarian Mills Research Help 2nd floor - ext. 22533 Need Help? MSN us at library@mcmaster.ca! Fall 2007 #12;History 2RR3: U.S. History Since the Civil War Session Outline 1. PART 1: The Historical New York Times 2. PART 2: America

  17. Sex and Race in the History of Medicine History 447

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Robin

    1 Sex and Race in the History of Medicine History 447 Consider Resources Primary Resources: diaries (scholarly vs. popular), theses, the Web Check subject guide under: Research by Subject History Find Background Information Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine Online and REF WZ13. E565 1993

  18. History of the Caribbean in a Global Perspective History 303

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Robin

    1 History of the Caribbean in a Global Perspective History 303 Consider Resources Primary Resources articles (scholarly vs. popular), theses, the Web Check subject guides under: Research by Subject History on the Caribbean, check the Dictionaries and Encyclopedias section of the Caribbean history subject guide. Research

  19. The Social History of Modern Canada History 458

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Robin

    1 The Social History of Modern Canada History 458 Consider Resources Primary Resources: diaries you find resources on your subject. Go to: Research by Subject History by Region Canadian) Historical Statistics of Canada (Online) Oxford Companion to Canadian History (Online) Find Primary Sources

  20. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Fourth quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams.

  1. Direct sulfur recovery during sorbent regeneration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, S.G.; Little, R.C. [Sorbent Technologies Corp., Twinsburg, OH (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The objective of this research project was to improve the direct elemental sulfur yields that occur during the regeneration of SO{sub 2}-saturated MgO-vermiculite sorbents (MagSorbents) by examining three approaches or strategies. The three approaches were regeneration-gas recycle, high-pressure regeneration, and catalytic reduction of the SO{sub 2} gas using a new catalyst developed by Research Triangle Institute (RTI). Prior to the project, Sorbent Technologies Corporation (Sorbtech) had developed a sorbent-regeneration process that yielded directly a pure elemental sulfur product. In the process, typically about 25 to 35 percent of the liberated S0{sub 2} was converted directly to elemental sulfur. The goal of this project was to achieve a conversion rate of over 90 percent. Good success was attained in the project. About 90 percent or more conversion was achieved with two of the approaches that were examined, regeneration-gas recycle and use of the RTI catalyst. Of these approaches, regeneration-gas recycle gave the best results (essentially 100 percent conversion in some cases). In the regeneration-gas recycle approach, saturated sorbent is simply heated to about 750{degree}C in a reducing gas (methane) atmosphere. During heating, a gas containing elemental sulfur, water vapor, H{sub 2}S, S0{sub 2}, and C0{sub 2} is evolved. The elemental sulfur and water vapor in the gas stream are condensed and removed, and the remaining gas is recycled back through the sorbent bed. After several recycles, the S0{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S completely disappear from the gas stream, and the stream contains only elemental sulfur, water vapor and C0{sub 2}.

  2. Reconstructing the Star Formation Histories of Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uta Fritze; Thomas Lilly

    2007-01-15

    We present a methodological study to find out how far back and to what precision star formation histories of galaxies can be reconstructed from CMDs, from integrated spectra and Lick indices, and from integrated multi-band photometry. Our evolutionary synthesis models GALEV allow to describe the evolution of galaxies in terms of all three approaches and we have assumed typical observational uncertainties for each of them and then investigated to what extent and accuracy different star formation histories can be discriminated. For a field in the LMC bar region with both a deep CMD from HST observations and a trailing slit spectrum across exactly the same field of view we could test our modelling results against real data.

  3. Improving fractionation lowers butane sulfur level at Saudi gas plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harruff, L.G.; Martinie, G.D.; Rahman, A. [Saudi Arabian Oil Co., Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1998-10-12

    Increasing the debutanizer reflux/feed ratio to improve fractionation at an eastern Saudi Arabian NGL plant reduced high sulfur in the butane product. The sulfur resulted from dimethyl sulfide (DMS) contamination in the feed stream from an offshore crude-oil reservoir in the northern Arabian Gulf. The contamination is limited to two northeastern offshore gas-oil separation plants operated by Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco) and, therefore, cannot be transported to facilities outside the Eastern Province. Two technically acceptable solutions for removing this contaminant were investigated: 13X molecular-sieve adsorption of the DMS and increased fractionation efficiency. The latter would force DMS into the debutanizer bottoms.

  4. Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Gorski, A.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1993-05-18

    A process is described for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is [dis]associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

  5. Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, John B. L. (Naperville, IL); Gorski, Anthony J. (Woodridge, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Oak Lawn, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A process for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

  6. URAT: astrometric requirements and design history

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Zacharias; U. Laux; A. Rakich; H. Epps

    2006-06-08

    The U.S. Naval Observatory Robotic Astrometric Telescope (URAT) project aims at a highly accurate (5 mas), ground-based, all-sky survey. Requirements are presented for the optics and telescope for this 0.85 m aperture, 4.5 degree diameter field-of-view, specialized instrument, which are close to the capability of the industry. The history of the design process is presented as well as astrometric performance evaluations of the toleranced, optical design, with expected wavefront errors included.

  7. Michael Johnson Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Michael; Albin, Tami

    2009-12-16

    support groups or whatever like that and then it just turned into, Well there's Michael Johnson January 4, 2009 5 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas porn online too. (laugh) So it's like—it's like you just kind... stepmother had found my Xanga site as well. Along with that she had found, on his computer, links to porn site—like gay porn Michael Johnson January 4, 2009 7 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas sites, right...

  8. LANSCE | About | History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeat Pumps HeatTechnologies| BlandineHistory The History of

  9. Structural insight into the assembly of iron-sulfur clusters and their function in radical generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vey, Jessica L. (Jessica Lynn)

    2008-01-01

    This thesis addresses two emerging areas in the study of iron-sulfur cluster biochemistry: bioassembly of iron-sulfur clusters, and their involvement in initiation of radical chemistry. The structure of a cysteine desulfurase ...

  10. KINETICS AND MECHANISM FOR THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE ON CARBON IN AQUEOUS SUSPENSIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brodzinsky, R.

    2012-01-01

    AND MECHANISM FOR THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDEmechanism for the catalytic oxidation of in an aqueous sus1ECHANISf 1 1 FOR TilE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE

  11. A design strategy applied to sulfur resistant lean NOx̳ automotive catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Hairong

    2005-01-01

    Catalyst poisoning due to sulfur compounds derived from fuel sulfur presents a major challenge, intractable thus far, to development of many advanced technologies for automotive catalysts such as the lean NOx, trap. Under ...

  12. System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mukerjee, Subhasish (Pittsford, NY); Haltiner, Jr., Karl J (Fairport, NY); Weissman, Jeffrey G. (West Henrietta, NY)

    2012-03-06

    A system for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack, having a reformer adapted to reform a hydrocarbon fuel stream containing sulfur contaminants, thereby providing a reformate stream having sulfur; a sulfur trap fluidly coupled downstream of the reformer for removing sulfur from the reformate stream, thereby providing a desulfurized reformate stream; and a metering device in fluid communication with the reformate stream upstream of the sulfur trap and with the desulfurized reformate stream downstream of the sulfur trap. The metering device is adapted to bypass a portion of the reformate stream to mix with the desulfurized reformate stream, thereby producing a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

  13. Quantum histories without contrary inferences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Losada, Marcelo; Laura, Roberto

    2014-12-15

    In the consistent histories formulation of quantum theory it was shown that it is possible to retrodict contrary properties. We show that this problem do not appear in our formalism of generalized contexts for quantum histories. - Highlights: • We prove ordinary quantum mechanics has no contrary properties. • Contrary properties in consistent histories are reviewed. • We prove generalized contexts for quantum histories have no contrary properties.

  14. Kathleen Franz Department of History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlini, David

    -2007. Brooke Hindle Prize, Society for the History of Technology. Fall 2002. Competitive fellowship awardedKathleen Franz Department of History Program in American Studies American University 4400 Civilization Fields of specialization: American cultural history, 1876-1939, popular culture, the history

  15. History of Humanities Associate Editors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mateo, Jill M.

    History of Humanities Associate Editors Rick Altman, Film Studies, University of Iowa Carolyn History of Science and Humanities, Utrecht University David Cram, History of Linguistics, University, Max Planck Institute for the History of Science Caroline van Eck, Art and Architecture, Leiden

  16. Department: History Course No: 206

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Department: History Course No: 206 Credits: 3 Title: History of Science Contact: Nancy Shoemaker Content Area: CA1-Arts and Humanities Catalog Copy: 206. History of Science (Also offered as SCI 206 to the history of science by looking in depth at four topics: the Scientific Revolution (16th and 17th centuries

  17. cultural history New perspectives on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Making cultural history New perspectives on Western heritage Edited by Anna Källén nordic academic-08-26 15:54 #12;7 Making cultural history An introduction Anna Källén & Inga Sanner Cultural history tends academic circumstances, it is not the case with cultural history: much of its strength and analytical

  18. National Museum of American History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Scott

    National Museum of American History Strategic Plan 2013--2018 #12;Contents Looking Ahead 2 Mission Funding the Plan 12 Coda 15 A Tagline to Remember 16 Milestones 17 Credits 21 Love History. Use History. Make History. #12;Mission Through incomparable collections, rigorous research, and dynamic public

  19. Library Abridged Georgia Legislative History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frantz, Kyle J.

    Library Abridged Georgia Legislative History Georgia legislative history research entails looking databases. Print Sources for Georgia Legislative History at the GSU Law Library Journal of the Georgia House of Representatives o Official Account of the legislative history of the Georgia House

  20. Oil Quantity : The histori

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    120 140 160 19 Oil Quantity Con Wel N E A N N ng Results e Bay : The histori Bay over tim : Prudhoe Ba returns plan n in percent m 0% to 300% 968 1973 Oil Productio Productio 5000600 4000500 3000400 2000300 model for Prudhoe Bay. Figure 11: Historical Prudhoe Bay oil production data, modeled economically

  1. History of Air Conditioning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    We take it for granted but what would life be like without the air conditioner? Once considered a luxury, this invention is now an essential, allowing us to cool everything from homes, businesses, businesses, data centers, laboratories and other buildings vital to our daily lives. Explore this timeline to learn some of the key dates in the history of air conditioning.

  2. Chuck Stanford Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford, Chuck; Bowman, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Oral history interview with Lama Chuck Stanford, co-founder and director of the Rime Buddhist Center in Kansas City, Missouri. This interview was conducted on June 4, 2015, at a Starbucks near Stanford’s home in Southern Johnson County, Kansas...

  3. Bell Tests for Histories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jodan Cotler; Frank Wilczek

    2015-03-22

    We describe a procedure to create entangled history states and measurements that would enable one to check for temporal entanglement. The checks take the form of inequalities among observable quantities. They are similar in spirit, but different in detail, to Bell tests for ordinary entanglement.

  4. Warren Wiebe Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiebe, Warren; Roane, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Oral history interview of Warren Wiebe conducted by Jordan Roane in Lawrence, Kansas, on November 12, 2014. Warren grew up in the small western Kansas town of Hillsboro. Hillsboro is known for its Mennonite community as well as the Mennonite college...

  5. Larry Wren Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wren, Larry; Stratton, Emily

    2013-06-16

    Oral history interview with Larry Wren conducted by Emily Stratton in Wichita, Kansas, on June 16, 2013. Larry Wren is a long-time member and leader in Pathway Church, and now also serves as Pathway's Café Campus Pastor. Pathway Church is a well...

  6. Low Quality Natural Gas Sulfur Removal and Recovery CNG Claus Sulfur Recovery Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klint, V.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

    1997-10-01

    Increased use of natural gas (methane) in the domestic energy market will force the development of large non-producing gas reserves now considered to be low quality. Large reserves of low quality natural gas (LQNG) contaminated with hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen (N) are available but not suitable for treatment using current conventional gas treating methods due to economic and environmental constraints. A group of three technologies have been integrated to allow for processing of these LQNG reserves; the Controlled Freeze Zone (CFZ) process for hydrocarbon / acid gas separation; the Triple Point Crystallizer (TPC) process for H{sub 2}S / C0{sub 2} separation and the CNG Claus process for recovery of elemental sulfur from H{sub 2}S. The combined CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus group of processes is one program aimed at developing an alternative gas treating technology which is both economically and environmentally suitable for developing these low quality natural gas reserves. The CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus process is capable of treating low quality natural gas containing >10% C0{sub 2} and measurable levels of H{sub 2}S and N{sub 2} to pipeline specifications. The integrated CFZ / CNG Claus Process or the stand-alone CNG Claus Process has a number of attractive features for treating LQNG. The processes are capable of treating raw gas with a variety of trace contaminant components. The processes can also accommodate large changes in raw gas composition and flow rates. The combined processes are capable of achieving virtually undetectable levels of H{sub 2}S and significantly less than 2% CO in the product methane. The separation processes operate at pressure and deliver a high pressure (ca. 100 psia) acid gas (H{sub 2}S) stream for processing in the CNG Claus unit. This allows for substantial reductions in plant vessel size as compared to conventional Claus / Tail gas treating technologies. A close integration of the components of the CNG Claus process also allow for use of the methane/H{sub 2}S separation unit as a Claus tail gas treating unit by recycling the CNG Claus tail gas stream. This allows for virtually 100 percent sulfur recovery efficiency (virtually zero SO{sub 2} emissions) by recycling the sulfur laden tail gas to extinction. The use of the tail gas recycle scheme also deemphasizes the conventional requirement in Claus units to have high unit conversion efficiency and thereby make the operation much less affected by process upsets and feed gas composition changes. The development of these technologies has been ongoing for many years and both the CFZ and the TPC processes have been demonstrated at large pilot plant scales. On the other hand, prior to this project, the CNG Claus process had not been proven at any scale. Therefore, the primary objective of this portion of the program was to design, build and operate a pilot scale CNG Claus unit and demonstrate the required fundamental reaction chemistry and also demonstrate the viability of a reasonably sized working unit.

  7. A. Paytan and E.T. Gray Chapter 9 Sulfur Isotope Stratigraphy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paytan, Adina

    A. Paytan and E.T. Gray Chapter 9 Sulfur Isotope Stratigraphy Abstract: The sulfur isotopic.4. Measurement and Materials for Sulfur Isotope Stratigraphy 171 9.4.1. Isotope Analyses 171 9.4.2. Materials. The features in the record can also be used to correlate between stratigraphic sections and sequences

  8. The variability of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The variability of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India* A.L. Ganesan of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India A. L. Ganesan1, A. Chatterjee2, R. G-frequency atmospheric measurements of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and sulfur hexafluo- ride (SF6) from Darjeeling

  9. Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia detector for remote sensing of vehicle emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    sulfur diesel fuel is less expensive due to reduced taxes and as such may be prone to illegal use in on-road November 2005; published online 18 January 2006 A remote sensor for measuring on-road vehicles passing of reducing sulfur in fuel for all mobile sources. This process begins with ultralow sulfur on-road diesel

  10. Paper 2008-01-0434 Effects of Sulfur Level and Anisotropy of Sulfide Inclusions on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fatemi, Ali

    to fatigue strength, the high sulfur material had up to 25% lower fatigue strength than the ultra low sulfur, monotonic tensile and CVN impact behavior of SAE 4140 steel with high (0.077% S), low (0.012% S) and ultra low (0.004% S) sulfur contents at two hardness levels (40 HRC and 50 HRC). The longitudinally oriented

  11. Doped carbon-sulfur species nanocomposite cathode for Li--S batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Donghai; Xu, Tianren; Song, Jiangxuan

    2015-12-29

    We report a heteroatom-doped carbon framework that acts both as conductive network and polysulfide immobilizer for lithium-sulfur cathodes. The doped carbon forms chemical bonding with elemental sulfur and/or sulfur compound. This can significantly inhibit the diffusion of lithium polysulfides in the electrolyte, leading to high capacity retention and high coulombic efficiency.

  12. Vapor phase elemental sulfur amendment for sequestering mercury in contaminated soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Jackson, Dennis G.

    2014-07-08

    The process of treating elemental mercury within the soil is provided by introducing into the soil a heated vapor phase of elemental sulfur. As the vapor phase of elemental sulfur cools, sulfur is precipitated within the soil and then reacts with any elemental mercury thereby producing a reaction product that is less hazardous than elemental mercury.

  13. Training History Report Training Services, Organizational Effectiveness/OHR 612-626-1373 UMReports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Training History Report Training Services, Organizational Effectiveness/OHR · 612-626-1373 UMReports www.umn.edu/ohr/trainingservices 1-30-13 Following are the steps to view one's training history. A report will be run in UMReports which displays training courses for one Emplid or by department

  14. Attrition resistant, zinc titanate-containing, reduced sulfur sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vierheilig, Albert A.; Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.

    2004-11-02

    The disclosure is directed to sorbent compositions for removing reduced sulfur species (e.g., H.sub.2 S, COS and CS.sub.2) a feed stream. The sorbent is formed from a multi-phase composition including a zinc titanate phase and a zinc oxide-aluminate phase. The sorbent composition is substantially free of unreacted alumina.

  15. Catalyst added to Claus furnace reduces sulfur losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luinstra, E.A.; d'Haene, P.E. (Shell Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada). Oakville Research Centre)

    1989-07-01

    Several substances effectively catalyze the reduction of carbon disulfide in Claus gas streams at Claus reaction furnace conditions (about 1,000{sup 0}C). Some conversion of carbonyl sulfide also occurs. Carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide as well-known problem compounds that reduce sulfur recovery efficiency in many sulfur recovery plants. Installation of a suitable catalytic material in the reaction furnace promises significant improvement of Claus plant efficiency, and prolonged life of the catalytic converters. Almost every Claus sulfur recovery plant makes some carbon disulfide (CS/sub 2/) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) in the reaction furnace, and in many of these plants, these compounds constitute a significant problem. CS/sub 2/ and COS often comprise more than 50% of sulfur losses in the tail gas. This article reexamines the issue of CS/sub 2/ and COS in the Claus plant. The relative importance of these two troublesome components is explored with data accumulated from Shell Canada Claus plants. The authors discuss which factors tend to produce these components. Then a method for reducing CS/sub 2/ and COS virtually at the source will be introduced.

  16. Emission of reduced malodorous sulfur gases from wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devai, I.; DeLaune, R.D.

    1999-03-01

    The emission of malodorous gaseous compounds from wastewater collection and treatment facilities is a growing maintenance and environmental problem. Numerous gaseous compounds with low odor detection thresholds are emitted from these facilities. Sulfur-bearing gases represent compounds with the lowest odor detection threshold. Using solid adsorbent preconcentration and gas chromatographic methods, the quantity and composition of reduced malodorous sulfur gases emitted from various steps of the treatment process were determined in wastewater treatment plants in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Hydrogen sulfide, which is a malodorous, corrosive, and potentially toxic gas, was the most dominant volatile reduced sulfur (S) compound measured. Concentrations were not only more than the odor detection threshold of hydrogen sulfide, but above levels that may affect health during long-term exposure. The concentrations of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide were significantly less than hydrogen sulfide. However, even though emissions of reduced sulfur gases other than hydrogen sulfide were low, previous studies suggested that long-term exposure to such levels may cause respiratory problems and other symptoms.

  17. Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Remick, Robert J. (Naperville, IL)

    1990-01-01

    Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

  18. Auction design and the market for sulfur dioxide emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    1996-01-01

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 created a market for electric utility emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2). Recent papers have argued that flaws in the design of the auctions that are part of this market have ...

  19. Hydroprocessing key issue in low-sulfur' era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-26

    Refiners gave heavy attention to hydroprocessing operations at the most recent National Petroleum Refiners Association annual question and answer session on refining and petrochemical technology. Among the topics covered were diesel color, blending to meet diesel sulfur specs, and ammonia injection in hydrocracking units. The panelists also related their experiences with increasing vacuum gas oil conversion in hydrocracking operations. These discussions are reproduced here.

  20. Sulfur controls edge closer in acid-rain debate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-10-04

    The role of airborne sulfur emissions from midwestern and southern coal-fired power plants in exacerbating the acid rain problem is discussed. This problem is discussed from the standpoint of legislation, compliance costs, scrubber performance and cost, and chemistry of acid rains.

  1. Workshop on sulfur chemistry in flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, W.E. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    The Flue Gas Desulfurization Workshop was held at Morgantown, West Virginia, June 7-8, 1979. The presentations dealt with the chemistry of sulfur and calcium compounds in scrubbers. DOE and EPRI programs in this area are described. Ten papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  2. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2000-12-01

    This document summarizes progress on the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2000 through September 30, 2000. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid will also be determined, as will the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NOX selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), First Energy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the second reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, the first of four short-term sorbent injection tests were conducted at the First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant. This test determined the effectiveness of dolomite injection through out-of-service burners as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from this unit. The tests showed that dolomite injection could achieve up to 95% sulfuric acid removal. Balance of plant impacts on furnace slagging and fouling, air heater fouling, ash loss-on-ignition, and the flue gas desulfurization system were also determined. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

  3. Stan Norman Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norman, Stan; Claxton, Haley

    2015-01-01

    , the elements of Cowboy Church compared to traditional church, theological and political views of his church, and the future of New Trail’s ministries. This interview was conducted for the Religion in Kansas Project as part of a summer fieldwork internship...

  4. Sulfur removal from high-sulfur Illinois coal by low-temperature perchloroethylene (PCE) extraction. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.I.M; Lytle, J.M.; Ruch, R.R.; Kruse, C.W.; Chaven, C.; Hackley, K.C.; Hughes, R.E.; Harvey, R.D.; Frost, J.K. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Buchanan, D.H. [Eastern Illinois Univ., Charleston, IL (United States); Stucki, J.W. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Huffman, G.; Huggins, F.E. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)

    1992-09-01

    A pre-combustion coal desulfurization process at 120{degree}C using perchloroethylene (PCE) to remove up to 70% of the organic sulfur has been developed by the Midwest Ore Processing Co. (MWOPC). However, this process has not yet proven to be as successful with Illinois coals as it has for Ohio and Indiana coals. In addition, the high levels of organic sulfur removals observed by the MWOPC may be due to certain errors involved in the ASTM data interpretation; this needs verification. For example, elemental sulfur extracted by the PCE may be derived from pyrite oxidation during coal preoxidation, but it may be interpreted as organic sulfur removed by the PCE using ASTM analysis. The purposes of this research are to independently confirm and possibly to improve the organic sulfur removal from Illinois coals with the PCE desulfurization process reported by the MWOPC and to verify the forms-of-sulfur determination using the ASTM method for the PCE process evaluation.

  5. ENGINEERING EVALUATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION WITH SULFUR RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.W. ROBERTS; J.W. PORTZER; S.C. KOZUP; S.K. GANGWAL

    1998-05-31

    Engineering evaluations and economic comparisons of two hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) processes with elemental sulfur recovery, being developed by Research Triangle Institute, are presented. In the first process, known as the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), the SO{sub 2} tail gas from air regeneration of zinc-based HGD sorbent is catalytically reduced to elemental sulfur with high selectivity using a small slipstream of coal gas. DSRP is a highly efficient first-generation process, promising sulfur recoveries as high as 99% in a single reaction stage. In the second process, known as the Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP), the zinc-based HGD sorbent is modified with iron so that the iron portion of the sorbent can be regenerated using SO{sub 2} . This is followed by air regeneration to fully regenerate the sorbent and provide the required SO{sub 2} for iron regeneration. This second-generation process uses less coal gas than DSRP. Commercial embodiments of both processes were developed. Process simulations with mass and energy balances were conducted using ASPEN Plus. Results show that AHGP is a more complex process to operate and may require more labor cost than the DSRP. Also capital costs for the AHGP are higher than those for the DSRP. However, annual operating costs for the AHGP appear to be considerably less than those for the DSRP with a potential break-even point between the two processes after just 2 years of operation for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant using 3 to 5 wt% sulfur coal. Thus, despite its complexity, the potential savings with the AHGP encourage further development and scaleup of this advanced process.

  6. Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

  7. Sulfur Based Thermochemical Heat Storage for Baseload Concentrated Solar Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    wong, bunsen

    2014-11-20

    This project investigates the engineering and economic feasibility of supplying baseload power using a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant integrated with sulfur based thermochemical heat storage. The technology stores high temperature solar heat in the chemical bonds of elemental sulfur. Energy is recovered as high temperature heat upon sulfur combustion. Extensive developmental and design work associated with sulfur dioxide (SO2) disproportionation and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) decomposition chemical reactions used in this technology had been carried out in the two completed phases of this project. The feasibility and economics of the proposed concept was demonstrated and determined.

  8. Method of burning sulfur-containing fuels in a fluidized bed boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A method of burning a sulfur-containing fuel in a fluidized bed of sulfur oxide sorbent wherein the overall utilization of sulfur oxide sorbent is increased by comminuting the bed drain solids to a smaller average particle size, preferably on the order of 50 microns, and reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed. In comminuting the bed drain solids, particles of spent sulfur sorbent contained therein are fractured thereby exposing unreacted sorbent surface. Upon reinjecting the comminuted bed drain solids into the bed, the newly-exposed unreacted sorbent surface is available for sulfur oxide sorption, thereby increasing overall sorbent utilization.

  9. History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof Energy ServicesContracting OversightEMS PolicyandHighWomenHistory

  10. History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFinancial OpportunitiesDepartment ofScience & HistoryAbout

  11. Advanced byproduct recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The team of Arthur D. Little, Tufts University and Engelhard Corporation are conducting Phase 1 of a four and a half year, two-phase effort to develop and scale-up an advanced byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, single-stage, catalytic process for converting sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. More than 95% elemental sulfur yield, corresponding to almost complete sulfur dioxide conversion, was obtained over a Cu-Ce-O oxide catalyst as part of an on-going DOE-sponsored, University Coal Research Program. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning. Tests with CO and CH{sub 4} reducing gases indicate that the catalyst has the potential for flexibility with regard to the composition of the reducing gas, making it attractive for utility use. The performance of the catalyst is consistently good over a range of SO{sub 2} inlet concentration (0.1 to 10%) indicating its flexibility in treating SO{sub 2} tail gases as well as high concentration streams. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, the authors have planned a structured program including: Market/process/cost/evaluation; Lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; Lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; Bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and Utility review. Progress is reported from all three organizations.

  12. Mining Views: Database Views for Data Mining Hendrik Blockeel #1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antwerpen, Universiteit

    Mining Views: Database Views for Data Mining Hendrik Blockeel #1 , Toon Calders 2 , Elisa Fromont adriana.prado}@ua.ac.be Abstract-- We present a system towards the integration of data mining mining views. We show that several types of patterns and models over the data, such as itemsets

  13. Mining Views: Database Views for Data Mining Hendrik Blockeel1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antwerpen, Universiteit

    Mining Views: Database Views for Data Mining Hendrik Blockeel1 , Toon Calders2 , Elisa Fromont1 model towards the inte- gration of data mining into relational database systems, based on the so called virtual mining views. We show that several types of patterns and models over the data, such as itemsets

  14. Integrated Process Configuration for High-Temperature Sulfur Mitigation during Biomass Conversion via Indirect Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta. A.; Cheah, S.; Bain, R.; Feik, C.; Magrini-Bair, K.; Phillips, S.

    2012-06-20

    Sulfur present in biomass often causes catalyst deactivation during downstream operations after gasification. Early removal of sulfur from the syngas stream post-gasification is possible via process rearrangements and can be beneficial for maintaining a low-sulfur environment for all downstream operations. High-temperature sulfur sorbents have superior performance and capacity under drier syngas conditions. The reconfigured process discussed in this paper is comprised of indirect biomass gasification using dry recycled gas from downstream operations, which produces a drier syngas stream and, consequently, more-efficient sulfur removal at high temperatures using regenerable sorbents. A combination of experimental results from NREL's fluidizable Ni-based reforming catalyst, fluidizable Mn-based sulfur sorbent, and process modeling information show that using a coupled process of dry gasification with high-temperature sulfur removal can improve the performance of Ni-based reforming catalysts significantly.

  15. Lin Tongqi : an oral history

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, I explore the life of Professor Lin Tongqi, a well-known scholar of American Chinese studies, by using an oral history methodology. This oral history is named "Suffering and Thinking," and my goal is to ...

  16. Star Formation Histories in the Local Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas M. Brown

    2004-07-09

    Deep color magnitude diagrams extending to the main sequence provide the most direct measure of the detailed star formation history in a stellar population. With large investments of observing time, HST can obtain such data for populations out to 1 Mpc, but its field of view is extremely small in comparison to the size of Local Group galaxies. This limitation severely constrains our understanding of galaxy formation. For example, the largest galaxy in the Local Group, Andromeda, offers an ideal laboratory for studying the formation of large spiral galaxies, but the galaxy shows substructure on a variety of scales, presumably due to its violent merger history. Within its remaining lifetime, HST can only sample a few sight-lines through this complex galaxy. In contrast, a wide field imager could provide a map of Andromeda's halo, outer disk, and tidal streams, revealing the spatially-dependent star formation history in each structure. The same data would enable many secondary studies, such as the age variation in Andromeda's globular cluster system, gigantic samples of variable stars, and microlensing tracers of the galaxy's dark matter distribution.

  17. Forbidden Configurations A shattered history

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fournier, John J.F.

    Forbidden Configurations A shattered history Richard Anstee UBC Vancouver Western Washington University, Bellingham, Nov 22, 2014 Richard AnsteeUBC Vancouver Forbidden Configurations A shattered history Ronyai, and Attila Sali. Richard AnsteeUBC Vancouver Forbidden Configurations A shattered history #12

  18. Submitting Immunizations and Health History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Submitting Immunizations and Health History We at the Schiffert Health Center look forward your health status. #12;Immunization History Packet (REQUIRED) To begin, download this form ­ http Assessment Form This Tuberculosis Risk Assessment Form is also included as part of the Immunization History

  19. Characterizing History Independent Data Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartline, Jason D.

    Characterizing History Independent Data Structures Jason D. Hartline 1 , Edwin S. Hong 1 history independent data structures as proposed for study by Teague and Naor [2]. In a history independent data struc­ ture, nothing can be learned from the representation of the data structure except for what

  20. Characterizing History Independent Data Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohr, Alexander E.

    Characterizing History Independent Data Structures Jason D. Hartline1 , Edwin S. Hong1 , Alexander history independent data structures as proposed for study by Teague and Naor [2]. In a history independent data struc- ture, nothing can be learned from the representation of the data structure except for what

  1. How can I view submitted materials? | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy Resources JumpNew Jersey:Hopkinsville,Advanced ResearchHow can I view

  2. Mountain View, Colorado: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: EnergyInformationOliver, Pennsylvania: EnergyPark, Georgia:View, Colorado:

  3. Prairie View Gas Recovery Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio1975) |Texas:PottawattamiePowerSatMontana: EnergyView Gas Recovery

  4. Method of making sulfur-resistant composite metal membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Way, J. Douglas (Boulder, CO) [Boulder, CO; Lusk, Mark (Golden, CO) [Golden, CO; Thoen, Paul (Littleton, CO) [Littleton, CO

    2012-01-24

    The invention provides thin, hydrogen-permeable, sulfur-resistant membranes formed from palladium or palladium-alloy coatings on porous, ceramic or metal supports. Also disclosed are methods of making these membranes via sequential electroless plating techniques, wherein the method of making the membrane includes decomposing any organic ligands present on the substrate, reducing the palladium crystallites on the substrate to reduced palladium crystallites, depositing a film of palladium metal on the substrate and then depositing a second, gold film on the palladium film. These two metal films are then annealed at a temperature between about 200.degree. C. and about 1200.degree. C. to form a sulfur-resistant, composite PdAu alloy membrane.

  5. Sean Manning Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manning, Sean; Brown, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Interview with Sean Manning on June 20, 2014 Sean: Do you have questions set up for me? Diana: I do. Um, so if you’re ready, uh, this is Diana Brown, interviewing Sean Manning on June 20, 2014, um, can you just say like, your age and where you... live, and what you do, if you— S: Okay. Well, my, I’m thirty six years old, I grew up in Overland Park, Kansas, where I live again. I lived in Lawrence for a while, um, I am a restaurant manager, um, I have academic experience in history...

  6. Photon: history, mass, charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. B. Okun

    2006-02-13

    The talk consists of three parts. ``History'' briefly describes the emergence and evolution of the concept of photon during the first two decades of the 20th century. ``Mass'' gives a short review of the literature on the upper limit of the photon's mass. ``Charge'' is a critical discussion of the existing interpretation of searches for photon charge. Schemes, in which all photons are charged, are grossly inconsistent. A model with three kinds of photons (positive, negative and neutral) seems at first sight to be more consistent, but turns out to have its own serious problems.

  7. Shari T. Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T., Shari; Albin, Tami

    2009-12-17

    of mine in St. Louis, she's not gay or bi or anything, but she Shari T February 25, 2009 10 Under the Rainbow: Oral Histories of GLBTIQ People in Kansas would love to go to Pride. She's (laugh) actually ex-Mormon and because of the whole... Proposition 8 thing, she's finally resigning from the church. And that was the camel that broke—the straw that broke the camel's back. Her dad was like a bishop in the Mormon church for years and years and years. Her whole family is very, very Mormon...

  8. History of Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeat Pumps Heat Pumps An errorSeparationsRelevantHistory of

  9. History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof Energy ServicesContracting OversightEMS PolicyandHighWomenHistoryAbout Us

  10. Modeling sulfur dioxide capture in a pulverized coal combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nair, R.B.; Yavuzkurt, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The formation and capture of sulfur dioxide in a pulverized coal combustor is investigated. A two-dimensional, steady, axisymmetric code, PCGC-2 (Pulverized Coal Gasification and Combustion-two Dimensional), originally developed at Brigham Young University, has been used to simulate combustion of the pulverized coal. This paper represents part of a project to investigate simultaneously enhancing sulfur capture and particulate agglomeration in combustor effluents. Results from the code have been compared to experimental data obtained from MTCI`s (Manufacturing Technology and Conversion International) test pulse combustor, which generates sound pressure levels of {approximately}180 dB. The overall goal behind the pulse combustor program at MTCI is to develop combustors for stationary gas turbines that use relatively inexpensive coal-based fuels. This study attempts to model the capture of sulfur dioxide when injected into a pulse combustor firing micronized coal. While this work does not presume to model the complex gas flow-field generated by the pulsating flow, the effects of the acoustic field are expressed by increased heat and mass transfer to the particles (coal/sorbent) in question. A comprehensive calcination-sintering-sulfation model for single particles was used to model the capture of sulfur dioxide by limestone sorbent. Processes controlling sulfation are external heat and mass transfer, pore diffusion, diffusion through the product layer of CaSO{sub 4}, sintering, and calcination. The model was incorporated into the PCGC-2 program. Comparisons of exit concentrations of SO{sub 2} showed a fairly good agreement (within {approximately}10 percent) with the experimental results from MTCI.

  11. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2000-12-01

    A test program is being sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPRI, FirstEnergy, and TVA to investigate furnace injection of alkaline sorbents as a means of reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in the flue gas from coal-fired boilers. This test program is being conducted at the FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP), although later testing will be conducted at a TVA plant. A sorbent injection test was conducted the week of April 18, 2000. The test was the first of several short-term (one- to two-week duration) tests to investigate the effectiveness of various alkaline sorbents for sulfuric acid control and the effects of these sorbents on boiler equipment performance. This first short-term test investigated the effect of injecting dry dolomite powder (CaCO{sub 3} {center_dot} MgCO{sub 3}), a mineral similar to limestone, into the furnace of Unit 2. During the test program, various analytical techniques were used to assess the effects of sorbent injection. These primarily included sampling with the controlled condensation system (CCS) for determining flue gas SO{sub 3} content and an acid dew-point (ADP) meter for determining the sulfuric acid dew point (and, indirectly, the concentration of sulfuric acid) of the flue gas. EPA Reference Method 26a was used for determining hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydrofluoric acid (HF), as well and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) and fluorine (F{sub 2}) concentrations in the flue gas. Fly ash resistivity was measured using a Southern Research Institute (SRI) point-to-plane resistivity probe, and unburned carbon in fly ash was determined by loss on ignition (LOI). Coal samples were also collected and analyzed for a variety of parameters. Finally, visual observations were made of boiler furnace and convective pass surfaces prior to and during sorbent injection.

  12. Protective laser beam viewing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neil, George R.; Jordan, Kevin Carl

    2012-12-18

    A protective laser beam viewing system or device including a camera selectively sensitive to laser light wavelengths and a viewing screen receiving images from the laser sensitive camera. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the camera is worn on the head of the user or incorporated into a goggle-type viewing display so that it is always aimed at the area of viewing interest to the user and the viewing screen is incorporated into a video display worn as goggles over the eyes of the user.

  13. History | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energyHighland View school4-TP59.01 C5;44 4OFHistory

  14. Glass surface deactivants for sulfur-containing gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farwell, S.O.; Gluck, S.J.

    1980-10-01

    In gas chromatographic technique for measuring reduced sulfur-containing gases in biogenic air fluxes, the major problem seemed to be the irreversible adsorption of the polar sulfur compounds on the glass surfaces of the cryogenic sampling traps. This article discusses the comparative degrees of Pyrex glass surface passivation for over 25 chemical deactivants and their related pretreatment procedures. Since H/sub 2/S was discovered to be the sulfur compound with a consistently lower recovery efficiency than COS, CH/sub 3/SH, CH/sub 3/SCH, CS/sub 2/ or CH/sub 3/SSCH/sub 3/, the percent recovery for H/sub 2/S was employed as the indicator of effectiveness for the various deactivation treatments. Tables are presented summarizing the mean H/sub 2/S recoveries for chlorosilane deactivants and for the mean H/sub 2/S recoveries for different pyrex surface pretreatments with an octadecyltrialkoxysilane deactivation. The general conclusion of this investigation is that the relative degree of passivation for glass surfaces by present deactivation techniques is dependent on the types of analyzed compounds and the nature of the glass surface.

  15. Sibley station low-sulfur coal conversion program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rupinskas, R.L. [Sargent & Lundy LLC, Chicago, IL (United States); Rembold, D.F. [Missouri Public Service, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    1995-03-01

    After embarking on an upgrade project in 1986 that was designed to allow efficient and reliable operation of its coal-fired Sibley station through 2010, Missouri Public Service (MPS) faced the uncertainty of impending acid-rain legislation. To protect its investment in the Sibley Rebuild Program, the utility evaluated compliance options based on the emerging legislation and concluded that switching to low-sulfur coal offered the least-cost compliance approach. Compared to installing a scrubber, switching to a low-sulfur coal was also more straightforward, although not without challenges and complications. This paper reviews the Sibley low-sulfur coal conversion program. At Sibley, fuel switching was chosen only after numerous internal and external studies; it withstood late challenges from natural gas and allowance trading. Switching demanded additional equipment to blend Power River Basin coals and other coals, and demanded additional and upgraded protective equipment in the areas of fire protection, dust collection, and explosion prevention. In the year since the coal conversion project was completed the facility has operated reliably, the economic benefits of the lower cost Powder River Basin coals have been realized, and the station has also met the requirements of both phases of the acid rain legislation. Fuel switching at Sibley required a team approach and careful analysis. The coal conversion project also required attention and dedication by team members in order to minimize fuel costs while maintaining optimum plant efficiency and availability.

  16. Removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olmstead, W.N.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes a process for enhancing the removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale. The process consists of: (a) contacting the oil-shale with a sufficient amount of an aqueous base solution comprised of at least a stoichiometric amount of one or more alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal hydroxides based on the total amount of nitrogen and sulfur present in the oil-shale. Also necessary is an amount sufficient to form a two-phase liquid, solid system, a temperature from about 50/sup 0/C to about 350/sup 0/C., and pressures sufficient to maintain the solution in liquid form; (b) separating the effluents from the treated oil-shale, wherein the resulting liquid effluent contains nitrogen moieties and sulfur moieties from the oil-shale and any resulting gaseous effluent contains nitrogen moieties from the oil-shale, and (c) converting organic material of the treated oil-shale to shale-oil at a temperature from about 450/sup 0/C to about 550/sup 0/C.

  17. How to Obtain Reproducible Results for Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Jianming; Lu, Dongping; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The basic requirements for getting reliable Li-S battery data have been discussed in this work. Unlike Li-ion batteries, electrolyte-rich environment significantly affects the cycling stability of Li-S batteries prepared and tested under the same conditions. The reason has been assigned to the different concentrations of polysulfide-containing electrolytes in the cells, which have profound influences on both sulfur cathode and lithium anode. At optimized S/E ratio of 50 g L-1, a good balance among electrolyte viscosity, wetting ability, diffusion rate dissolved polysulfide and nucleation/growth of short-chain Li2S/Li2S2 has been built along with largely reduced contamination on the lithium anode side. Accordingly, good cyclability, high reversible capacity and Coulombic efficiency are achieved in Li-S cell with controlled S/E ratio without any additive. Other factors such as sulfur content in the composite and sulfur loading on the electrode also need careful concern in Li-S system in order to generate reproducible results and gauge the various methods used to improve Li-S battery technology.

  18. Process for recovery of sulfur from acid gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Towler, Gavin P. (Kirkbymoorside, GB2); Lynn, Scott (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1995-01-01

    Elemental sulfur is recovered from the H.sub.2 S present in gases derived from fossil fuels by heating the H.sub.2 S with CO.sub.2 in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of a catalyst selected as one which enhances the thermal dissociation of H.sub.2 S to H.sub.2 and S.sub.2. The equilibrium of the thermal decomposition of H.sub.2 S is shifted by the equilibration of the water-gas-shift reaction so as to favor elemental sulfur formation. The primary products of the overall reaction are S.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. Small amounts of COS, SO.sub.2 and CS.sub.2 may also form. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture results in a substantial increase in the efficiency of the conversion of H.sub.2 S to elemental sulfur. Plant economy is further advanced by treating the product gases to remove byproduct carbonyl sulfide by hydrolysis, which converts the COS back to CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S. Unreacted CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H.sub.2 and CO, which has value either as a fuel or as a chemical feedstock and recovers the hydrogen value from the H.sub.2 S.

  19. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: from Liquid to Solid Cells?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhan [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries supply a theoretical specific energy 5 times higher than that of lithium-ion batteries (2,500 vs. ~500 Wh kg-1). However, the insulating properties and polysulfide shuttle effects of the sulfur cathode and the safety concerns of the lithium anode in liquid electrolytes are still key limitations to practical use of traditional Li-S batteries. In this review, we start with a brief discussion on fundamentals of Li-S batteries and key challenges associated with the conventional liquid cells. Then, we introduce the most recent progresses in the liquid systems, including the sulfur positive electrodes, the lithium negative electrodes, and the electrolytes and binders. We discuss the significance of investigating electrode reaction mechanisms in liquid cells using in-situ techniques to monitor the compositional and morphological changes. By moving from the traditional liquid cells to recent solid cells, we discuss the importance of this game-changing shift with positive advances in both solid electrolytes and electrode materials. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives for future research on Li-S batteries are presented.

  20. Direct observation of the redistribution of sulfur and polysufides in Li-S batteries during first cycle by in situ X-Ray fluorescence microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Xiquian [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pan, Huilin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Richland, WA (United States); Zhou, Yongning [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Northrup, Paul [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Xiao, Jie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Richland, WA (United States); Bak, Seongmin [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Liu, Mingzhao [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Nam, Kyung-Wan [Dongguk University-Seoul, Department of Energy and Materials Engineering, (Republic of Korea); Qu, Deyang [Univ. of Massachusetts at Boston, Dept. of Chemistry, MA (United States); Liu, Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Richland, WA (United States); Wu, Tianpin [Argonne National Laboratory, X-ray Science Division, Lemont, IL (United States); Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-03-25

    The demands on low cost and high energy density rechargeable batteries for both transportation and large-scale stationary energy storage are stimulating more and more research toward new battery systems. Since sulfur is an earth-abundant material with low cost, research on the high energy density Li–S batteries (2600 W h kg?¹) are getting more and more attention. The reactions between sulfur and lithium during charge–discharge cycling are quite complicated, going through multiple electron transfer process associated with chemical and electrochemical equilibrium between long- and short-chain polysulfide Li?Sx intermediates (1 < x ? 8). It is reported that the long-chain polysulfides can be dissolved into electrolyte with aprotic organic solvents and migrated to the Li anode side. This so-called “shuttle effect” is believed to be the main reason for capacity loss and low columbic efficiency of the Li–S batteries. In the past few years, a great deal of efforts have been made on how to overcome the problem of polysulfide dissolution through new sulfur electrode construction and cell designs, as well as the modification of the electrolyte. Although it has been reported by several publications that some Li–S cells can sustain more than a thousand cycles based on the thin film electrode configurations, the long-term cycling stability is still one of the major barriers for the real application of Li–S batteries. More in-depth studies on the fundamental understanding of the sulfur reaction mechanism and interactions among the different polysulfide species, the electrolyte and the electrodes are still greatly needed. Various in situ techniques have been developed and applied to study the mechanism of the sulfur chemistry in Li–S batteries during electrochemical cycling, such as transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–visible spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The applications of these characterization techniques have demonstrated their power in probing the structure changes, morphology evolutions, and coordination of sulfur and polysulfides with the electrolyte in Li–S cells, providing complementary information to each other thus enhancing the understanding in Li–S battery systems. In this communication, in situ X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy was combined with XAS to directly probe the morphology changes of Li–S batteries during first cycle. The morphology changes of the sulfur electrode and the redistribution of sulfur and polysulfides were monitored in real time through the XRF images, while the changes of the sulfur containing compounds were characterized through the XAS spectra simultaneously. In contrast to other studies using ex situ or single characterization technique as reported in the literatures, the in situ technique used in this work has the unique feature of probing the Li–S cell under operating conditions, as well as the combination of XRF imaging with spectroscopy data. By doing this, the morphology evolution and redistribution of specific sulfur particles during cycling can be tracked and identified at certain locations in a real time. In addition, this technique allows us to select the field-of-view (FOV) area from micrometer to centimeter size, providing the capability to study the Li–S reactions not just at the material level, but also at the electrode level. This is very important for both understanding Li–S chemistry and designing effective strategies for Li–S batteries.

  1. Direct observation of the redistribution of sulfur and polysufides in Li-S batteries during first cycle by in situ X-Ray fluorescence microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Xiquian; Pan, Huilin; Zhou, Yongning; Northrup, Paul; Xiao, Jie; Bak, Seongmin; Liu, Mingzhao; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Qu, Deyang; Liu, Jun; et al

    2015-03-25

    The demands on low cost and high energy density rechargeable batteries for both transportation and large-scale stationary energy storage are stimulating more and more research toward new battery systems. Since sulfur is an earth-abundant material with low cost, research on the high energy density Li–S batteries (2600 W h kg?¹) are getting more and more attention. The reactions between sulfur and lithium during charge–discharge cycling are quite complicated, going through multiple electron transfer process associated with chemical and electrochemical equilibrium between long- and short-chain polysulfide Li?Sx intermediates (1 more »be dissolved into electrolyte with aprotic organic solvents and migrated to the Li anode side. This so-called “shuttle effect” is believed to be the main reason for capacity loss and low columbic efficiency of the Li–S batteries. In the past few years, a great deal of efforts have been made on how to overcome the problem of polysulfide dissolution through new sulfur electrode construction and cell designs, as well as the modification of the electrolyte. Although it has been reported by several publications that some Li–S cells can sustain more than a thousand cycles based on the thin film electrode configurations, the long-term cycling stability is still one of the major barriers for the real application of Li–S batteries. More in-depth studies on the fundamental understanding of the sulfur reaction mechanism and interactions among the different polysulfide species, the electrolyte and the electrodes are still greatly needed. Various in situ techniques have been developed and applied to study the mechanism of the sulfur chemistry in Li–S batteries during electrochemical cycling, such as transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–visible spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The applications of these characterization techniques have demonstrated their power in probing the structure changes, morphology evolutions, and coordination of sulfur and polysulfides with the electrolyte in Li–S cells, providing complementary information to each other thus enhancing the understanding in Li–S battery systems. In this communication, in situ X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy was combined with XAS to directly probe the morphology changes of Li–S batteries during first cycle. The morphology changes of the sulfur electrode and the redistribution of sulfur and polysulfides were monitored in real time through the XRF images, while the changes of the sulfur containing compounds were characterized through the XAS spectra simultaneously. In contrast to other studies using ex situ or single characterization technique as reported in the literatures, the in situ technique used in this work has the unique feature of probing the Li–S cell under operating conditions, as well as the combination of XRF imaging with spectroscopy data. By doing this, the morphology evolution and redistribution of specific sulfur particles during cycling can be tracked and identified at certain locations in a real time. In addition, this technique allows us to select the field-of-view (FOV) area from micrometer to centimeter size, providing the capability to study the Li–S reactions not just at the material level, but also at the electrode level. This is very important for both understanding Li–S chemistry and designing effective strategies for Li–S batteries.« less

  2. RECENT ADVANCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.

    2010-07-22

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In the HyS Process, sulfur dioxide is oxidized in the presence of water at the electrolyzer anode to produce sulfuric acid and protons. The protons are transported through a cation-exchange membrane electrolyte to the cathode and are reduced to form hydrogen. In the second stage of the process, the sulfuric acid by-product from the electrolyzer is thermally decomposed at high temperature to produce sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The two gases are separated and the sulfur dioxide recycled to the electrolyzer for oxidation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been exploring a fuel-cell design concept for the SDE using an anolyte feed comprised of concentrated sulfuric acid saturated with sulfur dioxide. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint compared to a parallel-plate electrolyzer design. This paper will provide a summary of recent advances in the development of the SDE for the HyS process.

  3. Memento Mundi: Are Virtual Worlds History?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lowood, Henry

    2009-01-01

    sets in history, curation, and preservation technologies.University History of Science & Technology Collections;about the history of computer- based technologies, as well

  4. Leprosy in Korea: A Global History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jane Sung Hae

    2012-01-01

    Korean Journal of Medical History] 20 (2011): 225 – 262. Yi,Hanguk kidokkyo ?iryosa [A History of Christian medical workKy?ngsangdo pori mundungi. ” [History excursion – Barley

  5. Review: Car Country: An Environmental History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karalus, Daniel E

    2013-01-01

    Country: An Environmental History By Christopher W. WellsCountry: An Environmental History. Seattle: University ofenvironmental and urban history and offers almost everyone a

  6. Autobiography in Kenyan History: A Critique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okoth, P. Godfrey

    1985-01-01

    AUTOBIOGRAPHY IN KENYAN HISTORY: A CRITIQUE by P. GodfreyCollege wrote his "Autobiography in Kenyan History,"shortly see. That it is "Autobiography in Kenyan History,"

  7. Meta-History’s Dangerous Dream

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harpham, Geoffrey G

    2011-01-01

    Books, 2007. Harpham: Dangerous Dream. Cliodynamics (2011)History Meta-History’s Dangerous Dream Geoffrey Galt Harpham2011. Meta-History’s Dangerous Dream. Cliodynamics Harpham:

  8. Natural sulfur flux from the Gulf of Mexico: dimethyl sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, and sulfur dioxide. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Valin, C.C.; Luria, M.; Wellman, D.L.; Gunter, R.L.; Pueschel, R.F.

    1987-06-01

    Atmospheric measurements of natural sulfur compounds were performed over the northern Gulf of Mexico during the late summer months of 1984. Air samples were collected with an instrumented aircraft at elevations of 30-3500 m, during both day and night. Most air samples were representative of the clean maritime atmosphere, although some were from continental contaminated air during periods of offshore flow at the coastline. In all samples, carbonyl sulfide concentrations were within the range of 400-500 pptv. Conversely, the dimethyl sulfide concentrations showed significant variability: during clean atmospheric conditions the average of all measurements was 27 pptv, whereas under polluted conditions the average was 7 pptv. Measureable quantities of dimethyl sulfide (>5 pptv) were not observed above the boundary layer. The average sulfur dioxide concentration measured in the marine (clean) atmosphere was 215 pptv, which is consistent with the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide being its major source.

  9. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Xuran; Li, Chao; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Sadok, Rachel G.; Qu, Deyu; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2014-12-02

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility ofmore »the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.« less

  10. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Dong [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Zhang, Xuran [Wuhan Univ. of Technology, Hubei (China); Dept. of Chemistry; Li, Chao [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; McKinnon, Meaghan E. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Sadok, Rachel G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Qu, Deyu [Wuhan Univ. of Technology, Hubei (China); Dept. of Chemistry; Yu, Xiqian [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Lee, Hung-Sui [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Qu, Deyang [Univ. of Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-11-01

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility of the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.

  11. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Xuran; Li, Chao; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Sadok, Rachel G.; Qu, Deyu; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2014-12-02

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility of the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.

  12. Mountain View, California: Fiat Res Publica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tung, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    Mountain View, California: Fiat Res Publica Gregory Tungundifferen­ tiated. In Mountain View, California (populationtoward San Francisco. Mountain View is avoiding a "just say

  13. Advanced product recovery: Direct catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. Third quarterly technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied to 72,000 MW of US, coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed form the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its industry and commercialization advisor, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner, Tufts, plans to develop and scale-up an advanced, byproduct recovery technology that is a direct, catalytic process for reducing sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur. The principal objective of the Phase 1 program is to identify and evaluate the performance of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. In order to achieve this goal, they have planned a structured program including: market/process/cost/evaluation; lab-scale catalyst preparation/optimization studies; lab-scale, bulk/supported catalyst kinetic studies; bench-scale catalyst/process studies; and utility review. This catalytic process reduces SO{sub 2} over a fluorite-type oxide (such as ceria and zirconia). The catalytic activity can be significantly promoted by active transition metals, such as copper. This type of mixed metal oxide catalyst has stable activity, high selectivity for sulfur production, and is resistant to water and carbon dioxide poisoning.

  14. Production of low-sulfur binder pitch from high-sulfur Illinois coals. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, R.A. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this project is to produce electrode binder pitch with sulfur content below 0.6 wt% from high-sulfur Illinois coal mild gasification liquids. In this project, two approaches to sulfur reduction are being explored in conjunction with thermocracking: (1) the use of conventionally cleaned coal with low ({approximately}1%) sulfur as a mild gasification feedstock, and (2) direct biodesulfurization of the liquids prior to thermocracking. In Case 1, the crude pitch is being produced by mild gasification of IBC-109 coal in an existing IGT bench-scale reactor, followed by distillation of the scrubbing solvent and light-to-middle oils to isolate the crude pitch. In Case 2, the crude pitch for biodesulfurization is the same material previously studied, which was obtained from Illinois No. 6 coal tests conducted in the IGT mild gasification PRU in 1990. Biodesulfurization is to be performed by contacting the pitch with Rhodococcus Rhodochrous either as live cultures or in the form of concentrated biocatalyst. Following preparation of the crude pitches, pitch upgrading experiments are to be conducted in a continuous flash thermocracker (FTC) constructed in previous ICCI-sponsored studies. The finished pitch is then characterized for physical and chemical properties (density, softening point, QI, TI, coking value, and elemental composition), and compared to typical specifications for binder pitches. This quarter, 45 kg of IBC-109 coal was obtained and sized to 40 x 80 mesh for mild gasification. Laboratory experiments were conducted to identify means of dispersing or emulsifying pitch in water to render is accessible to biocatalysts, and exploratory desulfurization tests on one-gram pitch samples were begun.

  15. ENERGY EFFICIENCY LIMITS FOR A RECUPERATIVE BAYONET SULFURIC ACID DECOMPOSITION REACTOR FOR SULFUR CYCLE THERMOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M.; Edwards, T.

    2009-06-11

    A recuperative bayonet reactor design for the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition step in sulfur-based thermochemical hydrogen cycles was evaluated using pinch analysis in conjunction with statistical methods. The objective was to establish the minimum energy requirement. Taking hydrogen production via alkaline electrolysis with nuclear power as the benchmark, the acid decomposition step can consume no more than 450 kJ/mol SO{sub 2} for sulfur cycles to be competitive. The lowest value of the minimum heating target, 320.9 kJ/mol SO{sub 2}, was found at the highest pressure (90 bar) and peak process temperature (900 C) considered, and at a feed concentration of 42.5 mol% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. This should be low enough for a practical water-splitting process, even including the additional energy required to concentrate the acid feed. Lower temperatures consistently gave higher minimum heating targets. The lowest peak process temperature that could meet the 450-kJ/mol SO{sub 2} benchmark was 750 C. If the decomposition reactor were to be heated indirectly by an advanced gas-cooled reactor heat source (50 C temperature difference between primary and secondary coolants, 25 C minimum temperature difference between the secondary coolant and the process), then sulfur cycles using this concept could be competitive with alkaline electrolysis provided the primary heat source temperature is at least 825 C. The bayonet design will not be practical if the (primary heat source) reactor outlet temperature is below 825 C.

  16. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-04-29

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub X} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub X} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the previous semi-annual technical progress report (April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001). During the current reporting period, additional balance of plant impact information was determined for one of the two tests. These additional balance-of-plant results are presented and discussed in this report. There was no other technical progress to report, because all planned testing as part of this project has been completed.

  17. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2001-11-06

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. Balance of plant impacts, primarily on the ESP particulate control device, were also determined during both tests. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

  18. False color viewing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-05-08

    This invention consists of a viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching, the user`s eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  19. False color viewing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-10-20

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

  20. False color viewing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

  1. Lithium Polysulfidophosphates: A Family of Lithium-Conducting Sulfur-Rich Compounds for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Zengcai [ORNL] [ORNL; Fu, Wujun [ORNL] [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Given the great potential for improving the energy density of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries by a factor of 5, a breakthrough in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries will have a dramatic impact in a broad scope of energy related fields. Conventional Li-S batteries that use liquid electrolytes are intrinsically short-lived with low energy efficiency. The challenges stem from the poor electronic and ionic conductivities of elemental sulfur and its discharge products. We report herein lithium polysulfidophosphates (LPSP), a family of sulfur-rich compounds, as the enabler of long-lasting and energy-efficient Li-S batteries. LPSP have ionic conductivities of 3.0 10-5 S cm-1 at 25 oC, which is 8 orders of magnitude higher than that of Li2S (~10-13 S cm-1). The high Li-ion conductivity of LPSP is the salient characteristic of these compounds that impart the excellent cycling performance to Li-S batteries. In addition, the batteries are configured in an all-solid state that promises the safe cycling of high-energy batteries with metallic lithium anodes.

  2. Harbor View, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainableGlynnMassachusetts: EnergySoftware Inc Jump to:

  3. Grand View Estates, Colorado: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainableGlynn County, Georgia: EnergyGorlitzLedge, Michigan:River, Ohio:

  4. Lake View, Alabama: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas:Montezuma, Arizona: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Utah: Energy

  5. Growth History Of Kilauea Inferred From Volatile Concentrations In

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View New PagesInformationEnergyInformation

  6. Oral History Editors and Writers for the Stanford Historical Society Oral History Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jurafsky, Daniel

    Oral History Editors and Writers for the Stanford Historical Society Oral History Program The Stanford Historical Society's Oral History Program documents the institutional history of the University, publication, dissemination and preservation of the history of the Leland Stanford Junior University

  7. SULFUR REMOVAL FROM PIPE LINE NATURAL GAS FUEL: APPLICATION TO FUEL CELL POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, David L.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2003-11-21

    Pipeline natural gas is being considered as the fuel of choice for utilization in fuel cell-based distributed generation systems because of its abundant supply and the existing supply infrastructure (1). For effective utilization in fuel cells, pipeline gas requires efficient removal of sulfur impurities (naturally occurring sulfur compounds or sulfur bearing odorants) to prevent the electrical performance degradation of the fuel cell system. Sulfur odorants such as thiols and sulfides are added to pipeline natural gas and to LPG to ensure safe handling during transportation and utilization. The odorants allow the detection of minute gas line leaks, thereby minimizing the potential for explosions or fires.

  8. Fact #824: June 9, 2014 EPA Sulfur Standards for Gasoline | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Gasoline Sulfur naturally occurs in gasoline and diesel fuel, contributing to pollution when the fuel is burned. Beginning in 2004, standards were set on the amount of...

  9. Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type, and PAD District (Cents per Gallon Excluding...

  10. Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 41. No. 2 Diesel Fuel Prices by Sulfur Content, Sales Type, and PAD District (Cents per Gallon Excluding...

  11. Portable instrument and method for detecting reduced sulfur compounds in a gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaffney, J.S.; Kelly, T.J.; Tanner, R.L.

    1983-06-01

    A portable real time instrument for detecting concentrations in the part per billion range of reduced sulfur compounds in a sample gas. Ozonized air or oxygen and reduced sulfur compounds in a sample gas stream react to produce chemiluminescence in a reaction chamber and the emitted light is filtered and observed by a photomultiplier to detect reduced sulfur compounds. Selective response to individual sulfur compounds is achieved by varying reaction chamber temperature and ozone and sample gas flows, and by the use of either air or oxygen as the ozone source gas.

  12. Sulfur barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Christensen, Del Scot (Friendswood, TX)

    2009-12-15

    Methods for forming a barrier around at least a portion of a treatment area in a subsurface formation are described herein. Sulfur may be introduced into one or more wellbores located inside a perimeter of a treatment area in the formation having a permeability of at least 0.1 darcy. At least some of the sulfur is allowed to move towards portions of the formation cooler than the melting point of sulfur to solidify the sulfur in the formation to form the barrier.

  13. A Long-Life, High-Rate Lithium/Sulfur Cell: A Multifaceted Approach...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Long-Life, High-Rate LithiumSulfur Cell: A Multifaceted Approach to Enhancing Cell Performance Min-Kyu Song, , Yuegang Zhang,* ,, and Elton J. Cairns* ,, The...

  14. Status of Heavy Vehicle Diesel Emission Control Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Test Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Sverdrup

    1999-06-07

    DECSE test program is well under way to providing data on effects of sulfur levels in diesel fuel on performance of emission control technologies.

  15. Department of History TABLE OF CONTENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turc, Catalin

    ; Instructor, Department of History American Social/Cultural History; History of American Technology John Levin, Ph.D. (University of Massachusetts) Professor of History History of European Technology; Modern-Madison) Distinguished University Professor & Henry Eldridge Bourne Professor History of Science; Science, Technology

  16. carleton.ca Why study history?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawson, Jeff W.

    carleton.ca History #12;Why study history? Quite simply, because history is everywhere. Every day--to name only a few arenas. Unfortunately, most people think that history is little more than remembering dates, names and places. History is so much more. People who study history do not merely memorize

  17. Fermilab | Users' Executive Committee | History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    History Date Established: December 1967 Purpose: To conduct the business affairs of the Fermilab Users Organization between meetings of the general membership. Meeting Pattern: As...

  18. Sulfur removal from high-sulfur Illinois coal by low-temperature perchloroethylene (PCE) extraction. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.I.M.; Lytle, J.M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Buchanan, D.H. [Eastern Illinois Univ., Charleston, IL (United States)] [and others

    1992-12-31

    The purposes of this Testing and Materials (ASTM) forms of sulfur analysis. The purposes of this research are to independently confirm and possibly to improve the organic sulfur removal from Illinois coals with the PCE desulfurization process and to verify the forms-of-sulfur determination using the ASTM method for the PCE process evaluation. Problem that limits commercial application of the PCE process is the high chlorine content in the PCE-treated coals. Hence, to develop a dechlorination procedure to remove excess PCE from the PCE-treated coal is an additional goal of this investigation. MWOPC`s results have been repeated on fresh IBC-104 coal. Oxidation of coals was found to affect subsequent PCE desulfurization. Elemental sulfur is more amenable to removal by PCE. Ohio 5/6 coal appears to produce elemental sulfur more readily than Illinois coal during oxidation. Data from X-Ray Diffraction spectroscopy indicate that sulfate in the oxidized Illinois IBC-104 coal is mainly in gypsum form, whereas, sulfate in oxidized Ohio 5/6 sample is mainly in szomolnokite form. These data suggest that the oxidation reaction for Ohio 5/6 coal might occur under catalytic conditions which readily convert pyrite to produce FeSO{sub 4} and elemental sulfur. The higher elemental sulfur content in that coal results in higher ASTM organic sulfur removal by PCE extraction. From mass balance calculation, 96% of the total sulfur and greater than 95% of total iron were accounted for during our PCE tests with both long-term ambient-oxidized IBC-104 coal and ambient-oxidized Ohio 516 coal.

  19. Effect of Environmental Factors on Sulfur Gas Emissions from Drywall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, Randy

    2011-08-20

    Problem drywall installed in U.S. homes is suspected of being a source of odorous and potentially corrosive indoor pollutants. The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC) investigation of problem drywall incorporates three parallel tracks: (1) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and reported health symptoms; (2) evaluating the relationship between the drywall and electrical and fire safety issues in affected homes; and (3) tracing the origin and the distribution of the drywall. To assess the potential impact on human health and to support testing for electrical and fire safety, the CPSC has initiated a series of laboratory tests that provide elemental characterization of drywall, characterization of chemical emissions, and in-home air sampling. The chemical emission testing was conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The LBNL study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1 of this study, LBNL tested thirty drywall samples provided by CPSC and reported standard emission factors for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, reactive sulfur gases (RSGs) and volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). The standard emission factors were determined using small (10.75 liter) dynamic test chambers housed in a constant temperature environmental chamber. The tests were all run at 25 C, 50% relative humidity (RH) and with an area-specific ventilation rate of {approx}1.5 cubic meters per square meter of emitting surface per hour [m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}/h]. The thirty samples that were tested in Phase 1 included seventeen that were manufactured in China in 2005, 2006 and 2009, and thirteen that were manufactured in North America in 2009. The measured emission factors for VOCs and aldehydes were generally low and did not differ significantly between the Chinese and North American drywall. Eight of the samples tested had elevated emissions of volatile sulfur-containing compounds with total RSG emission factors between 32 and 258 micrograms per square meter per hour [{micro}g/m{sup 2}/h]. The dominant sulfur containing compounds in the RSG emission stream were hydrogen sulfide with emission factors between 17-201 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h, and sulfur dioxide with emission factors between 8-64 {micro}g/m{sup 2}/h. The four highest emitting samples also had a unique signature of VSC emissions including > 40 higher molecular weight sulfur-containing compounds although the emission rate for the VSCs was several orders of magnitude lower than that of the RSGs. All of the high emitting drywall samples were manufactured in China in 2005-2006. Results from Phase 1 provided baseline emission factors for drywall samples manufactured in China and in North America but the results exclude variations in environmental conditions that may exist in homes or other built structures, including various combinations of temperature, RH, ventilation rate and the influence of coatings such as texture and paints. The objective of Phase 2 was to quantify the effect of temperature and RH on the RSG emission factors for uncoated drywall, and to measure the effect of plaster and paint coatings on RSG emission factors from drywall. Additional experiments were also performed to assess the influence of ventilation rate on measured emission factors for drywall.

  20. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-02-04

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to utilities with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species, a precursor to acid aerosol/condensable emissions, and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of SCR for NO{sub x} control on some coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project is testing the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium- and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents have been tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry produced from a wet flue gas desulfurization system waste stream, from a system that employs a Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime scrubbing process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles into the front wall of upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests. The longer-term tests are being conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. This reports presents the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

  1. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: LONG-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-07-03

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corp., the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Dravo Lime, Inc. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to power generators with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NO{sub x} control on many coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project previously tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium-and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide byproduct slurry produced from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization system. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP, Unit 3, and the second test was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant testing provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. This report presents the results from those long-term tests. The tests determined the effectiveness of injecting commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP) for sulfuric acid control. The results show that injecting either slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, this overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NOX control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The long-term tests also determined balance-of-plant impacts from slurry injection during the two tests. These include impacts on boiler back-end temperatures and pressure drops, SCR catalyst properties, ESP performance, removal of other flue gas species, and flue gas opacity. For the most part the balance-of-plant impacts were neutral to positive, although adverse effects on ESP performance became an issue during the BMP test.

  2. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-03-04

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increasing interest to utilities with coal-fired units for a number of reasons. Sulfuric acid is a Toxic Release Inventory species, a precursor to acid aerosol/condensable emissions, and can cause a variety of plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of SCR for NOX control on some coal-fired plants, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project is testing the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different calcium- and/or magnesium-based alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents have been tested during four one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry produced from a wet flue gas desulfurization system waste stream, from a system that employs a Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime scrubbing process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercial magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners, while the other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles into the front wall of upper furnace, either across from the nose of the furnace or across from the pendant superheater tubes. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests. The longer-term tests are being conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the sorbents tested over extended operation and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. This reports presents the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

  3. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-10-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2003 through September, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the eighth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the semi-annual Technical Progress Report for the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. Additional balance of plant impact information for the two tests was reported in the Technical Progress Report for the time period October 1, 2001 through March 30, 2002. Additional information became available about the effects of byproduct magnesium hydroxide injection on SCR catalyst coupons during the long-term test at BMP, and those results were reported in the report for the time period April 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002. During the current period, process economic estimates were developed, comparing the costs of the furnace magnesium hydroxide slurry injection process tested as part of this project to a number of other candidate SO{sub 3}/sulfuric acid control technologies for coal-fired power plants. The results of this economic evaluation are included in this progress report.

  4. A solvent system to provide selective removal of sulfur compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearce, R.L.; Bacon, T.R.

    1986-01-01

    Energy costs and SRU inefficiencies resulting from utilization of low strength MEA technology induced a large refinery to convert to MDEA. One of the seven product streams being treated required extremely low carbonyl sulfide in the treated product. This required careful consideration in making the decision to convert. However, the conclusions were that the advantages outweighed the disadvantages. When the initial converted operations verified a need to improve the carbonyl sulfide removal, GAS/SPEC Tech Service produced an innovative solution which allowed for efficient operation at acceptable COS specification, lower energy utilization, reduced solvent losses, and improved sulfur recovery unit operation.

  5. Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1986-01-01

    Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

  6. Method of preparing graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(JournalspectroscopyReport) |(Patent) | SciTech Connect Patent:lithium-sulfur

  7. Viewing Conditions and Chromatic Adaptation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Majumder, Aditi

    Linear nonlinear #12;2 Viewing field Self-luminous displays CRT, LCD Reflective media Painting Viewing: Adapting stimulus Subscript E: Equal energy illumination #12;13 Fairchild's model (1991) Inter channel brightness #12;6 11 Definition of Color Appearance Model so much description of color such as: wavelength

  8. Sulfur gas emissions from stored flue gas desulfurization solids. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.

    1981-10-01

    The emissions of volatile, sulfur-containing compounds from the surfaces of 13 flue gas desulfurization (FGD) solids field storage sites have been characterized. The sulfur gas emissions from these storage surfaces were determined by measuring the sulfur gas enhancement of sulfur-free sweep air passing through a dynamic emission flux chamber placed over selected sampling areas. Samples of the enclosure sweep air were cryogenically concentrated in surface-deactivated Pyrex U traps. Analyses were conducted by wall-coated, open-tubular, capillary column, cryogenic, temperature-programmed gas chromatography using a sulfur-selective flame photometric detector. Several major variables associated with FGD sludge production processes were examined in relation to the measured range and variations in sulfur fluxes including: the sulfur dioxide scrubbing reagent used, sludge sulfite oxidation, unfixed or stabilized (fixed) FGD solids, and ponding or landfill storage. The composition and concentration of the measured sulfur gas emissions were found to vary with the type of solids, the effectiveness of rainwater drainage from the landfill surface, the method of impoundment, and the sulfate/sulfite ratio of the solids. The FGD solids emissions may contain hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and dimethyl disulfide in varying concentrations and ratios. In addition, up to four unidentified organo-sulfur compounds were found in the emissions from four different FGD solids. The measured, total sulfur emissions ranged from less than 0.01 to nearly 0.3 kg of sulfur per day for an equivalent 40.5 hectare (100 acre) FGD solids impoundment surface.

  9. Water Law in Kansas History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peck, John C.

    1992-01-01

    stream_size 7 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name John C. Peck, Water Law in Kansas History, 61 J. Kan. Bar Assoc. 39 (1992).pdf.txt stream_source_info John C. Peck, Water Law in Kansas History, 61 J. Kan. Bar Assoc. 39 (1992...

  10. ULTRA-LOW SULFUR REDUCTION EMISSION CONTROL DEVICE/DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-BOARD FUEL SULFUR TRAP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ron Rohrbach; Gary Zulauf; Tim Gavin

    2003-04-01

    Honeywell is actively working on a 3-year program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an ''on-vehicle'' desulfurization fuel filter for heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NO{sub x} adsorbers. The NO{sub x} adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and ''2007-Rule'' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters will also be examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. It is anticipated that the technology developed for heavy-duty applications will be applicable to light-duty as well. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consists of four phases. Phase I will focus on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II we will concentrate on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III will study life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV will focus on efficacy and life testing and component integration. The project team will include a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Mack Trucks Inc.), a filter recycler (American Wastes Industries), and a low-sulfur fuel supplier (Equilon, a joint venture between Shell and Texaco).

  11. Crystal structure studies on sulfur oxygenase reductase from Acidianus tengchongensis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Mei [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Chen Zhiwei [State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhang Pingfeng; Pan Xiaowei [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Jiang Chengying [State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); An Xiaomin [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Liu Shuangjiang [State Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Chang Wenrui [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China)], E-mail: wrchang@sun5.ibp.ac.cn

    2008-05-09

    Sulfur oxygenase reductase (SOR) simultaneously catalyzes oxidation and reduction of elemental sulfur to produce sulfite, thiosulfate, and sulfide in the presence of molecular oxygen. In this study, crystal structures of wild type and mutants of SOR from Acidianus tengchongensis (SOR-AT) in two different crystal forms were determined and it was observed that 24 identical SOR monomers form a hollow sphere. Within the icosatetramer sphere, the tetramer and trimer channels were proposed as the paths for the substrate and products, respectively. Moreover, a comparison of SOR-AT with SOR-AA (SOR from Acidianus ambivalens) structures showed that significant differences existed at the active site. Firstly, Cys31 is not persulfurated in SOR-AT structures. Secondly, the iron atom is five-coordinated rather than six-coordinated, since one of the water molecules ligated to the iron atom in the SOR-AA structure is lost. Consequently, the binding sites of substrates and a hypothetical catalytic process of SOR were proposed.

  12. Catalysts for the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivas, Girish (Thornton, CO); Bai, Chuansheng (Baton Rouge, LA)

    2000-08-08

    This invention provides catalysts for the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. In particular, the invention provides catalysts for the partial oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur and water. The catalytically active component of the catalyst comprises a mixture of metal oxides containing titanium oxide and one or more metal oxides which can be selected from the group of metal oxides or mixtures of metal oxides of transition metals or lanthanide metals. Preferred metal oxides for combination with TiO.sub.2 in the catalysts of this invention include oxides of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Hf, Ta, W, Au, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu. Catalysts which comprise a homogeneous mixture of titanium oxide and niobium (Nb) oxide are also provided. A preferred method for preparing the precursor homogenous mixture of metal hydroxides is by coprecipitation of titanium hydroxide with one or more other selected metal hydroxides. Catalysts of this invention have improved activity and/or selectivity for elemental sulfur production. Further improvements of activity and/or selectivity can be obtained by introducing relatively low amounts (up to about 5 mol %)of a promoter metal oxide (preferably of metals other than titanium and that of the selected second metal oxide) into the homogeneous metal/titanium oxide catalysts of this invention.

  13. Sulfur isotope fractionation during oxidation of sulfur dioxide: gas-phase oxidation by OH radicals and aqueous oxidation by H2O2, O3 and iron catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, E.

    The oxidation of SO[subscript 2] to sulfate is a key reaction in determining the role of sulfate in the environment through its effect on aerosol size distribution and composition. Sulfur isotope analysis has been used to ...

  14. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the seventh reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO3 removal results were presented in the semi-annual Technical Progress Report for the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. Additional balance of plant impact information for the two tests was reported in the Technical Progress Report for the time period October 1, 2001 through March 30, 2002. Additional information became available about the effects of byproduct magnesium hydroxide injection on SCR catalyst coupons during the long-term test at BMP, and those results were reported in the previous report (April 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002). During the current period, there was no technical progress to report, because all planned testing as part of this project has been completed. The project period of performance was extended to allow the conduct of testing of another SO{sub 3} control technology, the sodium bisulfite injection process. However, these additional tests have not yet been conducted.

  15. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP Unit 3, and the second was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant test provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. A final task in the project was to compare projected costs for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries to estimated costs for other potential sulfuric acid control technologies. Estimates were developed for reagent and utility costs, and capital costs, for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries and seven other sulfuric acid control technologies. The estimates were based on retrofit application to a model coal-fired plant.

  16. Mechanistic Studies on the Formation of Trifluoromethyl Sulfur Pentafluoride, SF5CF3sa Greenhouse Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    Mechanistic Studies on the Formation of Trifluoromethyl Sulfur Pentafluoride, SF5CF3sa Greenhouse that a source for this potentially dangerous greenhouse gas might be the recombination of SF5(X2A1) and CF3(X2A1 the strongest greenhouse gas trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride (SF5CF3) with a radiative force of 0.59 W m-2

  17. Adsorbed sulfur-gas methods for both near-surface exploration and downhole logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farwell, S.O.; Barinaga, C.J.; Dolenc, M.R.; Farwell, G.H.

    1986-08-01

    The use of sulfur-containing gases in petroleum exploration is supported by (1) the idea that sulfur may play a role in petroleum genesis, (2) the corresponding existence of sulfur-containing compounds in petroleum and the potential for vertical migration of the low-molecular-weight sulfur species from these reservoirs, (3) the production of H/sub 2/S by anaerobic microorganism populations that develop in the subsurface areas overlying petroleum reservoirs due to the concomitant supply of hydrocarbon nutrients, (4) the recent discovery of near-surface accumulations of pyrite and marcasite as the source of induction potential anomalies over certain fields, and (5) the strong adsorptive affinities of sulfur gases to solid surfaces, which enhance both the concentration and localization of such sulfur-expressed anomalies. During the past 3 years, numerous near-surface soil samples and well cuttings from the Utah-Wyoming Overthrust belt have been analyzed for adsorbed sulfur-gas content by two novel analytical techniques: thermal desorption/metal foil collection/flash desorption/sulfur-selective detection (TD/MFC/FD/SSD) and thermal desorption/cryogenic preconcentration/high-resolution-gas chromatography/optimized-flame photometry (TD/CP/HRGC/OFP).

  18. Assessing historical global sulfur emission patterns for the period 1850--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lefohn, A.S.; Husar, J.D.; Husar, R.B.; Brimblecombe, P.

    1996-07-19

    Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions from energy-producing and metal production activities have become an important factor in better understanding the relationship between humans and the environment. Concerns about (1) acid rain effects on the environment and (2) anthropogenic aerosols affecting possible global change have prompted interest in the transformation and fate of sulfur in the environment. One step in assessing the importance of sulfur emissions is the development of a reliable regional emission inventory of sulfur as a function of time. The objective of this research effort was to create a homogeneous database for historical sulfur emission estimates for the world. The time from 1850--1990 was selected to include the period of industrialization form the time the main production of fuels and minerals began until the most recent year for which complete production data exist. This research effort attempts to correct some of the deficiencies associated with previous global sulfur emission estimates by (1) identifying those production activities that resulted in sulfur emissions by country and (2) calculating historical emission trends by country across years. An important component of this study was the comparison of the sulfur emission results with those of previous studies.

  19. Understanding the Role of Different Conductive Polymers in Improving the Nanostructured Sulfur Cathode Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    structural configurations of conductive polymer-sulfur composites employed in previous studies. In this workUnderstanding the Role of Different Conductive Polymers in Improving the Nanostructured Sulfur for the confinement of lithium polysulfides. However, the roles of different conductive polymers

  20. In Operando X-ray Diffraction and Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    In Operando X-ray Diffraction and Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Lithium Sulfur Batteries Johanna Information ABSTRACT: Rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries hold great potential for high not well understood. In this Article, these changes in Li-S batteries are studied in operando by X

  1. High-performance hollow sulfur nanostructured battery cathode through a scalable, room temperature,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    capacity of 849 and 610 mAh/g at 2C and 4C, respectively. lithium sulfur battery | energy storage | long energy storage (1­4). To achieve a quantum leap in the batteries specific energy density, new electrodeHigh-performance hollow sulfur nanostructured battery cathode through a scalable, room temperature

  2. Surface Science 415 (1998) 2936 Structural studies of sulfur-passivated GaAs (100)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yanchao

    1998-01-01

    . Keywords: Atomic force microscopy; Gallium arsenide; Low-energy electron diffraction; Roughness; SulfurSurface Science 415 (1998) 29­36 Structural studies of sulfur-passivated GaAs (100) surfaces Abstract We present the results of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED

  3. Sulfur surface chemistry on the platinum gate of a silicon carbide based hydrogen sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobin, Roger G.

    Sulfur surface chemistry on the platinum gate of a silicon carbide based hydrogen sensor Yung Ho September 2007 We have investigated the effects of sulfur contamination on a Pt-gate silicon carbide based monitoring, solid-oxide fuel cells, and coal gasification, require operation at much higher temperatures than

  4. Memory-Assisted Exciton Diffusion in the Chlorosome Light-Harvesting Antenna of Green Sulfur Bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saikin, Semion

    Memory-Assisted Exciton Diffusion in the Chlorosome Light- Harvesting Antenna of Green Sulfur of bacteriochlorophylls (BChls) enclosed by a lipid monolayer.1-4 They can capture light and transfer it in a form. In green sulfur bacteria, light energy absorbed by the rolls is transferred via a baseplate9 to the Fenna

  5. The sulfur content of volcanic gases on Mars Fabrice Gaillard, a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    The sulfur content of volcanic gases on Mars Fabrice Gaillard, a and Bruno Scaillet1, a a CNRS sulfur contents of the martian regolith and lack of detection of extensive carbonate deposits suggest that the latest geological events that shaped the landscapes of Mars were dominated by acidic waters possibly

  6. Sulfur removal from high-sulfur Illinois coal by low-temperature perchloroethylene (PCE) extraction. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.I.M.

    1991-12-31

    A pre-combustion coal desulfurization process at 120{degree}C using perchloroethylene (PCE) to remove up to 70% of the organic sulfur has been developed by the Midwest Ore Processing Co. (MWOPC). However, this process has not yet proven to be as successful with Illinois coals as it has for Ohio and Indiana coals. The organic sulfur removal has been achieved only with highly oxidized Illinois coals containing high sulfatic sulfur. A logical explanation for this observation is vital to successful process optimization for the use of Illinois coals. In addition, the high levels of organic sulfur removals observed by the MWOPC may be due to certain errors involved in the ASTM data interpretation; this needs verification. For example, elemental sulfur extracted by the PCE may be derived from pyrite oxidation during coal pre-oxidation, but it may be interpreted as organic sulfur removed by the PCE using ASTM analysis. The goals of this research are: (1) to independently confirm and possibly to improve the organic sulfur removal from Illinois coals with the PCE desulfurization process reported by the MWOPC, (2) to verify the forms-of-sulfur determination using the ASTM method for the PCE process evaluation, and (3) to determine the suitability of Illinois coals for use in the PCE desulfurization process. This project involves the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), Eastern Illinois University (EIU), the University of Illinois-Urbana/Champaign (UI-UC), and the University of Kentucky, Lexington (UK). This is the first year of a two-year project.

  7. Nitrous oxide as a substitute for sulfur hexafluoride in the ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method of hood performance evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guffey, Eric J. (Eric Jemison)

    2011-01-01

    The ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method is the standard test for laboratory hood containment performance. Sulfur hexafluoride is specified as the gas most suitable for this test and is most commonly used. Sulfur hexafluoride use has ...

  8. Fractionation of sulfur isotopes by Desulfovibrio vulgaris mutants lacking hydrogenases or type I tetraheme cytochrome c[subscript 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sim, Min Sub

    The sulfur isotope effect produced by sulfate reducing microbes is commonly used to trace biogeochemical cycles of sulfur and carbon in aquatic and sedimentary environments. To test the contribution of intracellular coupling ...

  9. Making History : : The Role of History in Contemporary Native American Art

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cluff, Leah Diane

    Michael. Kumeyaay: A History Textbook. El Cajon, CA: Sycuanby Magdalena Zapedowska, History and Theory, no. 45 (2006):Indian and the Problem of History, edited by Calvin Martin,

  10. Sulfur removal from high-sulfur Illinois coal by low-temperature perchloroethylene (PCE) extraction. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.I.M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Buchanan, D.H. [Eastern Illinois Univ., Charleston, IL (United States); Stucki, J.W. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The purposes of this project are: to independently confirm and possibly to improve the organic sulfur removal from Illinois coals with the PCE process developed by the Midwest Ore Processing Co. (MWOPC), to verify the forms-of-sulfur determination using the ASTM method for evaluation of the PCE process, and to develop a dechlorination procedure to remove excess PCE from the PCE-treated coal. The objectives for the second year are: to verify the possible effects of PCE treatment on coal-derived FeS{sub 2}, FeSO{sub 4}, and Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} on ASTM coal analysis, to investigate the behavior of sulfur during oxidation and PCE desulfurization using the isotopically signatured coal sample, to investigate the effects of conditions and/or reagents on the oxidation of the organic-sulfur-model compounds, to evaluate the extended oxidation condition on the organic sulfur removal by PCE desulfurization, and to study other innovative pretreatment processes for the removal of organic sulfur from coal under mild conditions.

  11. Revolutionizing history education : using augmented reality games to teach histories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrier, Karen L

    2005-01-01

    In an ever-changing present of multiple truths and reconfigured histories, people need to be critical thinkers. Research has suggested the potential for using augmented reality (AR) games- location-based games that use ...

  12. Effect of Prussian blue on organic sulfur of coal in aqueous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-01-15

    This study is an attempt to desulfurize organic sulfur from coal samples with ferric hexacyanoferrate (II), Fe{sub 4} (Fe(CN){sub 6}), as the desulfurization agent. Effect of temperature, particle size and concentration of ferrocyanide ion on desulfurization from the coal samples has been investigated. The temperature and stirring time are the most important parameters for the level of desulfurization of organic sulfur. Removal of organic sulfur content increased continuously with increasing temperature from 298 to 368 K. The organic sulfur removal rate sharply increases from 10 min to 30 min stirring time. After 30 min, it reaches a value of plateau. Particle size between -100 mesh and -200 mesh slightly affects the amount of organic sulfur removal. Gradual increase in the concentration of ferric hexacyanoferrate (II) raised the magnitude of desulfurization, but at higher concentration, the variation is not significant.

  13. Sulfur dioxide capture in the combustion of mixtures of lime, refuse-derived fuel, and coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churney, K.L.; Buckley, T.J. . Center for Chemical Technology)

    1990-06-01

    Chlorine and sulfur mass balance studies have been carried out in the combustion of mixtures of lime, refuse-derived fuel, and coal in the NIST multikilogram capacity batch combustor. The catalytic effect of manganese dioxide on the trapping of sulfur dioxide by lime was examined. Under our conditions, only 4% of the chlorine was trapped in the ash and no effect of manganese dioxide was observed. Between 42 and 14% of the total sulfur was trapped in the ash, depending upon the lime concentration. The effect of manganese dioxide on sulfur capture was not detectable. The temperature of the ash was estimated to be near 1200{degrees}C, which was in agreement with that calculated from sulfur dioxide capture thermodynamics. 10 refs., 12 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. BRS "Symmetry", prehistory and history

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlo M. Becchi

    2011-07-11

    Prehistory - Starting from 't Hooft's (1971) we have a short look at Taylor's and Slavnov's works (1971-72) and at the lectures given by Rouet and Stora in Lausanne-1973 which determine the transition from pre-history to history. History - We give a brief account of the main analyses and results of the BRS collaboration concerning the renormalized gauge theories, in particular the method of the regularization independent, algebraic renormalization, the algebraic proof of S-matrix unitarity and that of gauge choice independence of the renormalized physics. We conclude this report with a suggestion to the crucial question: what could remain of BRS invariance beyond perturbation theory.

  15. Susan Rosenkranz '05 Alumnus MAJOR: History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Susan Rosenkranz '05 Alumnus MAJOR: History DEGREE: M.A. in History, '05, Ph.D. in History, Florida, and the Irish and Indian Nationalist Press, 1899-1914 CURRENT POSITION: I currently teach AP European History and IB Twentieth Century World History at Miramar High School FIRST JOB: After spending more than twenty

  16. Linking Sulfur Metabolism to the Cell Division Machinery in Yeast 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blank, Heidi M.

    2010-07-14

    The longstanding view has been that metabolism allows for cell division to take place, but that metabolic processes do not actively promote cell division. I have recently challenged this notion by identifying a unique gain-of-function metabolic...

  17. Sulfur Poisoning and Regeneration of NOx Storage-Reduction Cu/K2Ti2O5 Qiang Wang,*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    Sulfur Poisoning and Regeneration of NOx Storage-Reduction Cu/K2Ti2O5 Catalyst Qiang Wang,*, Jiahua NOx through the NOx storage-reduction (NSR) process. However, its NSR performance in the presence of sulfur has not been investigated. In this article, the sulfur poisoning of the NOx storage-reduction

  18. Methanol Reaction with Sulfuric Acid: A Vibrational Spectroscopic Study Lisa L. Van Loon and Heather C. Allen*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Methanol Reaction with Sulfuric Acid: A Vibrational Spectroscopic Study Lisa L. Van Loon 43210 ReceiVed: May 27, 2004; In Final Form: August 19, 2004 The reaction between methanol and sulfuric peak in the 800 cm-1 region, not present in either the neat methanol or concentrated sulfuric acid

  19. Population, Economy and Energy Use’s Influence on Sulfur Emissions in the United States Since 1900 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, J. K.; Husar, R. B.

    1990-01-01

    and the transition from coal to less sulfur intensive fuels have reduced sulfur emissions. The net effect of all drivers has been moderate growth in sulfur emissions from 1900 to present. Since 1973, increased energy efficiency and the shift from an industrial to a...

  20. Landscape viewing in metropolitan Boston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teas, Wendy Ann

    1990-01-01

    This thesis recognizes the importance of landscape viewing, especially as a solitary act of contemplation. It suggests the creation of a place from which to gaze upon a vast landscape. It postulates that an observation ...

  1. A Regulator's View of Cogeneration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shanaman, S. M.

    1982-01-01

    of the total national electric generation. In view of the energy requirements of Pennsylvania's industry and the impact of increasing energy costs on employment the Commission directed its technical staff to investigate the potential for industrial cogeneration...

  2. Dorothy Nickel Friesen Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friesen, Dorothy Nickel; Hobson, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Oral history interview with Dorothy Nickel Friesen conducted by Katie Hobson on July 7, 2015. This interview features the interim pastor at Bethel College Mennonite Church in Newton, Kansas. Questions address Dorothy's experiences as an ordained...

  3. Inferring population history from genealogies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lohse, Konrad R.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis investigates a range of genealogical approaches to making quantitative inferences about the spatial and demographic history of populations with application to two insect systems: A local radiation of high ...

  4. BA in FAMILY HISTORY--GENEALOGY (734125) MAP Sheet Department of History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, Tony R.

    BA in FAMILY HISTORY--GENEALOGY (734125) MAP Sheet Department of History For students entering requirement): Rel C 261* Intro to Family History (Genealogy) Rel C 293R*Specialized Studies in Family History

  5. Colonial Invasions, Colonial Lives History 302

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Robin

    1 Colonial Invasions, Colonial Lives History 302 Consider Resources Primary Resources: diaries (scholarly vs popular), theses, the Web... Check subject guide under: Research by Subject History Library Reference collection unless otherwise indicated. Encyclopedia of Cuba: People, History, Culture

  6. Graduate Student Handbook Department of History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    Graduate Student Handbook Department of History University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Revised December..............................................................................4 Option A: Thesis Option B: Comprehensive Exam Public History Specialization Urban Historical..............................................................................9 Guidelines for History PhD: program of study, preliminary examination, and dissertation

  7. Art History and the Invention of Botticelli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melius, Jeremy Norman

    2010-01-01

    Charles. Materials for a History of Oil-Painting. 2 vols.in the Narrative of Art History. Ithaca: Cornell UniversityWarburg’s Tradition. ” Art History 16 (1993): 541-53. James,

  8. Flexible Visual Authoring Using Operation History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Sara

    Flexible Visual Authoring Using Operation History Sara Su Massachusetts Institute of Technology l Revisiting history Storing and retrieving state Hierarchical authoring Grouping, structure, selections #12;Operations and selections today Uses of history System activity logs, instrumentation (not our focus

  9. Removal of sulfur contaminants in methanol for fuel cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Kumar, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Sederquist, R. [International Fuel Cells Corp., South Windsor, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Equilibrium adsorption isotherm and breakthrough data were used to assess feasibility of developing a granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorber for use as a sulfur removal subsystem in transportation fuel cell systems. Results suggest that an on-board GAC adsorber may not be attractive due to size and weight constraints. However, it may be feasible to install this GAC adsorber at methanol distribution stations, where space and weight are not a critical concern. Preliminary economic analysis indicated that the GAC adsorber concept will be attractive if the spent AC can be regenerated for reuse. These preliminary analyses were made on basis of very limited breakthrough data obtained from the bench-scale testing. Optimization on dynamic testing parameters and study on regeneration of spent AC are needed.

  10. Phosphate Glasses for Vitrification of Waste with High Sulfur Content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Cassingham, Nathan J.

    2002-10-31

    The low solubility of sulfate in silicate-based glasses, approximately 1 mass% as SO3, limits the loading of high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) containing high concentrations of sulfur. Based on crucible melting studies, we have shown that the phosphate glasses may incorporate more than 5 mass% SO3; hence, the waste loading can be increased until another constraint is met, such as glass durability. A high-sulfate HLW glass has been formulated and tested to demonstrate the advantages of phosphate glasses. The effect of waste loading on the chemical durability of quenched and slow-cooled phosphate glasses was determined using the Product Consistency Test.

  11. Method of forming and starting a sodium sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paquette, David G. (Costa Mesa, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A method of forming a sodium sulfur battery and of starting the reactive capability of that battery when heated to a temperature suitable for battery operation is disclosed. An anodic reaction zone is constructed in a manner that sodium is hermetically sealed therein, part of the hermetic seal including fusible material which closes up openings through the container of the anodic reaction zone. The hermetically sealed anodic reaction zone is assembled under normal atmospheric conditions with a suitable cathodic reaction zone and a cation-permeable barrier. When the entire battery is heated to an operational temperature, the fusible material of the hermetically sealed anodic reaction zone is fused, thereby allowing molten sodium to flow from the anodic reaction zone into reactive engagement with the cation-permeable barrier.

  12. Ultra-low Sulfur Reduction Emission Control Device/Development of an On-board Fuel Sulfur Trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohrbach, Ron; Barron, Ann

    2008-07-31

    Honeywell has completed working on a multiyear program to develop and demonstrate proof-of-concept for an 'on-vehicle' desulfurization fuel filter for both light duty and heavy-duty diesel engines. Integration of the filter into the vehicle fuel system will reduce the adverse effects sulfur has on post combustion emission control devices such as NOx adsorbers. The NOx adsorber may be required to meet the proposed new EPA Tier II and '2007-Rule' emission standards. The proposed filter concept is based on Honeywell's reactive filtration technology and experience in liquids handling and conditioning. A regeneration and recycling plan for the spent filters was also examined. We have chosen to develop and demonstrate this technology based on criteria set forth for a heavy duty CIDI engine system because it represents a more challenging set of conditions of service intervals and overall fuel usage over light duty systems. In the second phase of the program a light duty diesel engine test was also demonstrated. Further, technology developed under this proposal would also have application for the use of liquid based fuels for fuel cell power generation. The program consisted of four phases. Phase I focused on developing a concept design and analysis and resolution of technical barriers concerning removal of sulfur-containing species in low sulfur fuels. In Phase II concentrated on prototype filter design and preparation followed by qualification testing of this component in a fuel line application. Phase III studied life cycle and regeneration options for the spent filter. Phase IV focused on efficacy and benefits in the desulfation steps of a NOx adsorber on both a heavy and light duty engine. The project team included a number of partners, with Honeywell International as the prime contractor. The partners include an emission control technology developer (Honeywell International), a fuel technology developer (Marathon Ashland Petroleum), a catalyst technology developer (Johnson Matthey), a CIDI engine manufacturer (Navistar Inc. (formerly International Truck & Engine Corporation) and Mack Trucks Inc.), and filter recycler (American Wastes Industries).

  13. Conversation View Outlook Web App User Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    Conversation View Outlook Web App User Guide Email conversations that include multiple replies and sent messages can be viewed simultaneously using Conversation View. In Exchange 2010 Outlook Web App

  14. Sulfur Partitioning During Vitrification of INEEL Sodium Bearing Waste: Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darab, John G.; Graham, Dennis D.; Macisaac, Brett D.; Russell, Renee L.; Smith, Harry D.; Vienna, John D.; Peeler, David K.

    2001-07-31

    The sodium bearing tank waste (SBW) at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) contains high concentrations of sulfur (roughly 5 mass% of SO3 on a nonvolatile oxide basis). The amount of sulfur that can be feed to the melter will ultimately determine the loading of SBW in glass produced by the baseline (low-temperature, joule-heated, liquid-fed, ceramic-lined) melter. The amount of sulfur which can be fed to the melter is determined by several major factors including: the tolerance of the melter for an immiscible salt layer accumulation, the solubility of sulfur in the glass melt, the fraction of sulfur removed to the off-gas, and the incorporation of sulfur into the glass up to it?s solubility limit. This report summarizes the current status of testing aimed at determining the impacts of key chemical and physical parameters on the partitioning of sulfur between the glass, a molten salt, and the off-gas.

  15. Emission of biogenic sulfur gases from Chinese paddy soil and rice plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhen Yang [Nanjing Univ. of Science and Technology (China); Li Kong [Nanjing Agricultural Univ. (China)

    1996-12-31

    Biogenic sulfur gases emitted from terrestrial ecosystem may play in important role in global sulfur cycle and have a profound influence on global climate change. But very little is known concerning emissions from paddy soil and rice plant, which are abundant in many parts of the world. As a big agricultural country, this is about 33 million hectare rice planted in China. With laboratory incubation and closed chamber method in the field, the biogenic sulfur gases emitted from Chinese paddy soil and rice plant were detected in both conditions: hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), methyl mercaptan (MSH), carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}), dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Among which, DMS was predominant part of sulfur emission. Emission of sulfur gases from different paddy field exhibit high spatial and temporal variability. The application of fertilizer and organic manure, total sulfur content in wetland, air temperature were positively correlated to the emission of volatile sulfur gases from paddy soil. Diurnal and seasonal variation of total volatile sulfur gases and DMS indicate that their emissions were greatly influenced by the activity of the rice plant. The annual emission of total volatile sulfur gases, from Nanjing paddy field is ranged from 4.0 to 9.5 mg S m{sup -2}yr{sup -1}, that of DMS is ranged from 3.1 to 6.5 mg S m{sup -2}yr{sup -1}. Rice plant could absorb COS gas, that may be one of the sinks of COS.

  16. Toward understanding the effect of low-activity waste glass composition on sulfur solubility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong -Sang; Muller, Isabelle S.; Piepel, Greg F.; Kruger, Albert A.; Jantzen, C.

    2014-07-24

    The concentration of sulfur in nuclear waste glass melter feed must be maintained below the point where salt accumulates on the melt surface. The allowable concentrations may range from 0.37 to over 2.05 weight percent (of SO3 on a calcined oxide basis) depending on the composition of the melter feed and processing conditions. If the amount of sulfur exceeds the melt tolerance level, a molten salt will accumulate, which may upset melter operations and potentially shorten the useful life of the melter. At the Hanford site, relatively conservative limits have been placed on sulfur loading in melter feed, which inmore »turn significantly increases the amount of glass that will be produced. Crucible-scale sulfur solubility data and scaled melter sulfur tolerance data have been collected on simulated Hanford waste glasses over the last 15 years. These data were compiled and analyzed. A model was developed to predict the solubility of SO3 in glass based on 252 simulated Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) glass compositions. This model represents the data well, accounting for over 85% of the variation in data, and was well validated. The model was also found to accurately predict the tolerance for sulfur in melter feed for 13 scaled melter tests of simulated LAW glasses. The model can be used to help estimate glass volumes and make informed decisions on process options. The model also gives quantitative estimates of component concentration effects on sulfur solubility. The components that most increase sulfur solubility are Li2O > V2O5> CaO ? P2O5 > Na2O ? B2O3 > K2O. The components that most decrease sulfur solubility are Cl > Cr2O3 > Al2O3 > ZrO2 ? SnO2 > Others ? SiO2. As a result, the order of component effects is similar to previous literature data, in most cases.« less

  17. NONEQUILIBRIUM SULFUR CAPTURE & RETENTION IN AN AIR COOLED SLAGGING COAL COMBUSTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bert Zauderer

    2003-04-21

    Calcium oxide injected in a slagging combustor reacts with the sulfur from coal combustion to form sulfur-bearing particles. The reacted particles impact and melt in the liquid slag layer on the combustor wall by the centrifugal force of the swirling combustion gases. Due to the low solubility of sulfur in slag, it must be rapidly drained from the combustor to limit sulfur gas re-evolution. Prior analyses and laboratory scale data indicated that for Coal Tech's 20 MMBtu/hour, air-cooled, slagging coal combustor slag mass flow rates in excess of 400 lb/hr should limit sulfur re-evolution. The objective of this 42-month project was to validate this sulfur-in-slag model in a group of combustor tests. A total of 36 days of testing on the combustor were completed during the period of performance of this project. This was more that double the 16 test days that were required in the original work statement. The extra tests were made possible by cost saving innovations that were made in the operation of the combustor test facility and in additional investment of Coal Tech resources in the test effort. The original project plan called for two groups of tests. The first group of tests involved the injection of calcium sulfate particles in the form of gypsum or plaster of Paris with the coal into the 20 MMBtu/hour-combustor. The second group of tests consisted of the entire two-step process, in which lime or limestone is co-injected with coal and reacts with the sulfur gas released during combustion to form calcium sulfate particles that impact and dissolve in the slag layer. Since this sulfur capture process has been validated in numerous prior tests in this combustor, the primary effort in the present project was on achieving the high slag flow rates needed to retain the sulfur in the slag.

  18. Toward Understanding the Effect of Nuclear Waste Glass Composition on Sulfur Solubility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Muller, I. S.; Kruger, Albert A.; Piepel, Gregory F.

    The concentration of sulfur in nuclear waste glass melter feed must be maintained below the point where salt accumulates on the melt surface. The allowable concentrations may range from 0.37 to over 2.05 weight percent (of SO3 on a calcined oxide basis) depending on the composition of the melter feed and processing conditions. If the amount of sulfur exceeds the melt tolerance level, a molten salt will accumulate, which may upset melter operations and potentially shorten the useful life of the melter. At the Hanford site, relatively conservative limits have been placed on sulfur loading in melter feed, which inmore »turn significantly increases the amount of glass that will be produced. Crucible-scale sulfur solubility data and scaled melter sulfur tolerance data have been collected on simulated Hanford waste glasses over the last 15 years. These data were compiled and analyzed. A model was developed to predict the solubility of SO3 in glass based on 252 simulated Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) glass compositions. This model represents the data well, accounting for over 85% of the variation in data, and was well validated. The model was also found to accurately predict the tolerance for sulfur in melter feed for 13 scaled melter tests of simulated LAW glasses. The model can be used to help estimate glass volumes and make informed decisions on process options. The model also gives quantitative estimates of component concentration effects on sulfur solubility. The components that most increase sulfur solubility are Li2O > V2O5> CaO ? P2O5 > Na2O ? B2O3 > K2O. The components that most decrease sulfur solubility are Cl > Cr2O3 > Al2O3 > ZrO2 ? SnO2 > Others ? SiO2. The order of component effects is similar to previous literature data, in most cases.« less

  19. Toward Understanding the Effect of Low-Activity Waste Glass Composition on Sulfur Solubility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Muller, Isabelle S.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2014-10-01

    The concentration of sulfur in nuclear waste glass melter feed must be maintained below the point where salt accumulates on the melt surface. The allowable concentrations may range from 0.37 to over 2.05 weight percent (of SO3 on a calcined oxide basis). If the amount of sulfur exceeds its tolerance level a molten salt will accumulate and upset melter operations and potentially shorten melter useful life. Therefore relatively conservative limits have been placed on sulfur loading in melter feed which in-turn significantly impacts the amount of glass that will be produced, in particular at the Hanford site. Crucible-scale sulfur solubility data and scaled melter sulfur tolerance data have been collected on simulated Hanford waste glasses over the last 15 years. These data were compiled and analyzed. A model was developed to predict the solubility of SO3 in glass based on 312 individual glass compositions. This model was shown to well represent the data, accounting for over 80% of the variation in data and was well validated. The model was also found to accurately predict the tolerance for sulfur in melter feed based on 19 scaled melter tests. The model is appropriate for control of waste glass processing which includes uncertainty quantification. The model also gives quantitative estimates of component concentration effects on sulfur solubility. The components that most increase sulfur solubility are Li2O > V2O5 ? TiO2 < CaO < P2O5 ? ZnO. The components that most decrease sulfur solubility are Cl > Cr2O3 > SiO2 ? ZrO2 > Al2O3.

  20. Update on Transition to Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    On November 8, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator signed a direct final rule that will shift the retail compliance date for offering ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) for highway use from September 1, 2006, to October 15, 2006. The change will allow more time for retail outlets and terminals to comply with the new 15 parts per million (ppm) sulfur standard, providing time for entities in the diesel fuel distribution system to flush higher sulfur fuel out of the system during the transition. Terminals will have until September 1, 2006, to complete their transitions to ULSD. The previous deadline was July 15, 2006.

  1. Method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tischer, R.P.; Winterbottom, W.L.; Wroblowa, H.S.

    1987-03-10

    This specification is directed to a method of making a current collector for a sodium/sulfur battery. The current collector so-made is electronically conductive and resistant to corrosive attack by sulfur/polysulfide melts. The method includes the step of forming the current collector for the sodium/sulfur battery from a composite material formed of aluminum filled with electronically conductive fibers selected from the group of fibers consisting essentially of graphite fibers having a diameter up to 10 microns and silicon carbide fibers having a diameter in a range of 500--1,000 angstroms. 2 figs.

  2. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1984-06-19

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  3. High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur-containing gases from gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

    1982-07-07

    A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorbtion capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

  4. On the history of multi-particle production in high energy collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Gazdzicki

    2012-01-02

    The 60th birthday of Johann Rafelski was celebrated during the Strangeness in Quark Matter 2011 in Krakow. Johann was born in Krakow and he initiated the series of the SQM conferences. This report, which briefly presents my personal view on a history of multi-particle production in high energy collisions, is dedicated to Johann.

  5. Forest View, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable Urban Transport JumpFlowood,Pevafersa JVOhio: EnergyInformation 5

  6. Lake View, Maine: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas:Montezuma, Arizona: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Utah: EnergyMaine: Energy

  7. Logan View Public Schools Wind Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History ViewInformationWindsCompressedListguided waves fromLocustLoessLogan

  8. Wide field of view telescope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackermann, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); McGraw, John T. (Placitas, NM); Zimmer, Peter C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-01-15

    A wide field of view telescope having two concave and two convex reflective surfaces, each with an aspheric surface contour, has a flat focal plane array. Each of the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary reflective surfaces are rotationally symmetric about the optical axis. The combination of the reflective surfaces results in a wide field of view in the range of approximately 3.8.degree. to approximately 6.5.degree.. The length of the telescope along the optical axis is approximately equal to or less than the diameter of the largest of the reflective surfaces.

  9. Karluk Sockeye Salmon Research History Karluk Sockeye Salmon Research History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    commer- cial ventures, though of limited scale and success, re- quired some knowledge about Karluk history. Even the most basic biological facts remained myster- ies to the scientific community. Yet- ally harvested, dried, and stored as a vital food source, rich in energy and nutrients, which sustained

  10. NMOCD - Form G-107 - Geothermal Resources Well History | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: EnergyInformationOliver,Minnesota:EnergyNARI| OpenNMGWQBInformation 6

  11. History | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energyHighland View school4-TP59.01 C5;44 4OFHistoryHistory

  12. History of electroweak symmetry breaking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. W. B. Kibble

    2015-02-22

    In this talk, I recall the history of the development of the unified electroweak theory, incorporating the symmetry-breaking Higgs mechanism, as I saw it from my standpoint as a member of Abdus Salam's group at Imperial College. I start by describing the state of physics in the years after the Second World War, explain how the goal of a unified gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions emerged, the obstacles encountered, in particular the Goldstone theorem, and how they were overcome, followed by a brief account of more recent history, culminating in the historic discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012.

  13. History | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeat Pumps Heat Pumps AnAbout Energy.gov » History History

  14. Our History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof EnergyApril 2014DepartmentCouncilOfficeBudget Our BudgetHistory OurHistory

  15. Department of the History of Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hale, Piers J.

    Department of the History of Science Graduate Program in the History of Science, Technology IN THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND MEDICINE PROGRAM HANDBOOK Contents A. Information for Students Working and Committees 2 II. History of Science Collections and Other Research Resources 2 III. Graduate College

  16. Department: History Course No.: HIST 230

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Department: History Course No.: HIST 230 Credits: 3 Title: American Environmental History Contact: Daniel Caner WQ: W Catalog Copy: 230W. American Environmental History Prerequisite: ENGL 105 or 110 through the discipline of history. Course readings will be considered and analyzed as examples

  17. Department: History Course No: 1805 [107

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Department: History Course No: 1805 [107] Credits: 3 Title: East Asian History Through Essential History Through Essential Hanzi Either semester. Three credits. Prerequisite: None Guanhua Wang East Asian history taught through in-depth analysis of hanzi (Chinese character-based ideographic symbols). Students

  18. Summer Bulletin 2015 Courses in History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandrova, Ivana

    Summer Bulletin 2015 Courses in History A His 100 American Political and Social History I (3) Survey of American history from early times to the Civil War, with emphasis on the development of our American Political and Social History II (3) This course offered online through the Blackboard Learning

  19. History Concentration Planning Worksheet (Updated Spring 2015)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cantlon, Jessica F.

    History Concentration Planning Worksheet (Updated Spring 2015) Name: Phone: Class: ______ Student) Gateway to History (HIS 100) 1. Pre-1800 Post-1800 1. 1. 2. 2. Geographic Distribution 1. 2. 3. Focus: _______________________ REQUIREMENTS #12;History Major Requirements (in addition to the courses on the front, history

  20. Department: HISTORY Course number: 3412 W

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Department: HISTORY Course number: 3412 W Course title: Intellectual and Social History of Europe]. Intellectual and Social History of Europe in the Nineteenth Century LANSING, DINTENFASS Prerequisite: ENGL 105 or 110 or 111 or 250. Course Information: The course explores the history of European thought in its

  1. Department: History Course No: 131/W

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Department: History Course No: 131/W Credits: 3 Title: United States History to 1877 Contact: Nancy Shoemaker Content Area: CA1-Arts and Humanities WQ: Writing Catalog Copy: 131/W. United States History in United States history through the Civil War and Reconstruction. Reason for the change in course level

  2. Montana State University 1 MA in History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Montana State University 1 MA in History Master of Arts Degree, History The Department of History and Philosophy Graduate Program at MSU is designed to train students to think historically. The department offers concentrated training in three particular areas: the history of science, technology

  3. Old Dominion University Department of History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Old Dominion University Department of History Graduate course offerings Spring 2014 registration opens November 11, 2013 History 645: Spain and Its Empire Dr. Robert H. Holden Mondays, 4:20-7:00pm and the writing of a research paper. #12;History 647: Studies in Maritime History Dr. Ingo Heidbrink Tuesdays, 4

  4. Katharine Dahlstrand '11 & '13 Alumnus MAJOR: History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Katharine Dahlstrand '11 & '13 Alumnus MAJOR: History DEGREE: Bachelor of Arts in English with a History Minor, 2011 Masters in History, 2013 CURRENT POSITION: PhD candidate and teaching assistant at the University of Georgia FIRST JOB: Upon completion of my MA, I worked as an adjunct history professor at Palm

  5. Sarah E. Diebel Assistant Professor, Art History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Mingshen

    Sarah E. Diebel Assistant Professor, Art History Department of Art & Art History School of Art & Design UW-Stout Education: Ph.D. Rutgers University, Graduate Program in Art History M.A. University of Minnesota (Art History) B.A. Macalester College (Cum Laude) (English/Humanities/German) Area

  6. Did the Clean Air Act cause the remarkable decline in sulfur dioxide concentrations?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenstone, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Over the last three decades, ambient concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) air pollution have declined by approximately 80%. This paper tests whether the 1970 Clean Air Act and its subsequent amendments caused this decline. ...

  7. Frataxin (FXN) Based Regulation of the Iron-Sulfur Cluster Assembly Complex 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabb, Jennifer

    2012-07-16

    Iron-sulfur clusters are protein cofactors that are critical for all life forms. Elaborate multi-component systems have evolved for the biosynthesis of these cofactors to protect organisms from the toxic effects of free ...

  8. Transport Properties and Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for the Hybrid Sulfur Electrolyzer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    Transport Properties and Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for the Hybrid Sulfur hydrogen efficiently on a large scale.1 This process has the advantage over traditional i.e., coal gasifica

  9. Relationship between pyrite formation and organic sulfur content of coal as revealed by electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond, R. Jr.; Hagan, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    There are a large number of questions concerning the mode of occurrence of organic sulfur in peat, and what, if anything, alters its occurrence during and after coalification. The formation of pyrite during periods of peatification and coalification has been hypothesized to have a great effect on the organic sulfur content of organic material surrounding the pyrite. Measurement of organic sulfur contents at different distances from pyrite particles would serve as direct experimental proof for or against this pypothesis. A combination of in situ energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) line profiles, EDS x-ray maps, and WDS analyses across pyrite/coal interfaces in a variety of coals shows unequivocally that formation of pyrite does not alter the organic sulfur contents of the surrounding coal macerals.

  10. Sulfur and Oxygen Isotope Analysis of Sulfate at Micromole Levels Using a Pyrolysis Technique in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, Becky

    Sulfur and Oxygen Isotope Analysis of Sulfate at Micromole Levels Using a Pyrolysis Technique sample. The technique takes advantage of the easy pyrolysis of Ag2SO4 to SO2, O2, and Ag metal

  11. SO2 impacts on forage and soil sulfur concentrations near coal-fired power plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beene, Jack Stephen

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this research was to determine if S02 emissions from coal-fired power plants could be contributing to the copper deficiency in cattle. Copper deficiency in cattle can result from excessive sulfur intake which is attributed...

  12. Cost-benefit analysis of ultra-low sulfur jet fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhn, Stephen (Stephen Richard)

    2010-01-01

    The growth of aviation has spurred increased study of its environmental impacts and the possible mitigation thereof. One emissions reduction option is the introduction of an Ultra Low Sulfur (ULS) jet fuel standard for ...

  13. Explaining low sulfur dioxide allowance prices : the effect of expectation errors and irreversibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montero, Juan-Pablo

    1998-01-01

    The low price of allowances has been a frequently noted featured of the implementation of the sulfur dioxide emissions market of the U.S. Acid Rain Program. This paper presents theoretical and numerical analyses that explain ...

  14. Carbon/Sulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation es105liang2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications CarbonSulfur...

  15. Carbon-Sulfur Bond Cleavage of Methyl-Substituted Thiophenes with Iridium(III)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    polluting sulfur compounds are removed during the hydroprocessing of crude oil. Unrefined petroleum contains of a hydrogen acceptor, the thiophene was desulfurized (eq 2).4 Also, in the heterogeneous CoMo system it has

  16. Facile synthesis, spectral properties and formation mechanism of sulfur nanorods in PEG-200

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Xin-yuan; Li, Li-yun; Zheng, Pu-sheng; Zheng, Wen-jie; Bai, Yan; Cheng, Tian-feng; Liu, Jie

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Homogeneous rod-like structure of sulfur with a typical diameter of about 80 nm and an average aspect ratio of about 6–8 was obtained. The sulfur nanoparticles could self-assemble from spherical particles to nanorods in PEG-200. During the self-assembling process, the absorption band showed a red shift which was due to the production of nanorods. Highlights: ? A novel, facile and greener method to synthesize sulfur nanorods by the solubilizing and templating effect of PEG-200 was reported. ? S{sup 0} nanoparticles could self assemble in PEG-200 and finally form monodisperse and homogeneous rod-like structure with an average diameter of about 80 nm, the length ca. 600 nm. ? The absorption band showed a red shift and the RRS intensity enhanced continuously during the self-assembling process. ? PEG-200 induced the oriented attachment of sulfur nanoparticles by the terminal hydroxyl groups. -- Abstract: The synthesis of nano-sulfur sol by dissolving sublimed sulfur in a green solvent-PEG-200 was studied. Homogeneous rod-like structure of sulfur with a typical diameter of about 80 nm and an average aspect ratio of 6–8 was obtained. The structure, morphology, size, and stability of the products were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The spectral properties of the products were investigated by ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis) absorption and resonance Rayleigh scattering spectroscopy (RRS). The results showed that the spherical sulfur nanoparticles could self-assemble into nanorods in PEG-200. During the self-assembling process, the absorption band showed a red shift and the RRS intensity enhanced continuously. There was physical cross-linking between PEG and sulfur nanoparticles. PEG-200 induced the oriented attachment of sulfur nanoparticles by the terminal hydroxyl groups. This research provides a greener and more environment-friendly synthetic method for the production of sulfur nanorods.

  17. Input a journal Viewing Journals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussex, University of

    Journals Contents: Input a journal Viewing Journals Deleting a journal Entering jnl into different period Problems Input a journal 1 Login to Bluqube 2 Select 3 Enter relevant Doc type To select the number of journals you will processing & the total credit value 6 Click on 7 Enter brief description 8

  18. The Catalog View Feature dataset

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Catalog View Feature dataset Hydrography Geometric network HYDRO_NET Polygon feature class defines by FIPS 103, next six digits is a randomly assigned sequential number unique within a CatalogingSeep FCode 485 Water IntakeOutflow Resolution Resolution FCode 48500 Water IntakeOutflow FCode 487 Waterfall

  19. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

    2011-03-15

    Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

  20. View

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-02-28

    Feb 28, 2006 ... AMS 2000 Subject Classification: Primary: ... of free NSO solvers, a possible reason is the lack of a significant library of NSO test functions.

  1. The Greenhouse Culture Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scholz, Jared; Sipp, Kalah; Stratton, Emily

    2013-06-26

    Oral history interview with Jared Scholz and Kalah Sipp conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on June 26, 2013. Jared Scholz is the founder and Senior Pastor of The Greenhouse Culture; Kalah Sipp is The Greenhouse Culture’s Administrative...

  2. THE HISTORY AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE AUSTRALIA ATIO AL U NERSITY #12;THE HISTORY of the AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 1946 - 1996 Peter Alexander Vidot ANU Library Canberra 1996 #12;Copyright The Australian National University by The Library, The Australian National University, Acton, A.C.T. 0200 Australia Book & Cover L ayout & De ign

  3. Publications The History and Literature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Publications The History and Literature of America's Oysters Historically, America's use and enjoy deposited in the library of the Woods Hole Laboratory of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries (now NMFS) and forms and functions of hemocytes (Thomas Cheng), reproduc tive processes and early oyster develop ment

  4. The history of the LHC

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    Abstract: From the civil engineering, to the manufacturing of the various magnet types, each building block of this extraordinary machine required ambitious leaps in innovation. This lecture will review the history of the LHC project, focusing on the many challenges -- scientific, technological, managerial -- that had to be met during the various phases of R&D;, industrialization, construction, installation and commissioning.

  5. Interaction of CuS and sulfur in Li-S battery system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Ke; Su, Dong; Zhang, Qing; Bock, David C.; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.; Gan, Hong

    2015-10-27

    Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) battery has been a subject of intensive research in recent years due to its potential to provide much higher energy density and lower cost than the current state of the art lithiumion battery technology. In this work, we have investigated Cupric Sulfide (CuS) as a capacitycontributing conductive additive to the sulfur electrode in a Li-S battery. Galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling has been used to compare the performance of both sulfur electrodes and S:CuS hybrid electrodes with various ratios. We found that the conductive CuS additive enhanced the utilization of the sulfur cathode under a 1C rate discharge. However, undermore »a C/10 discharge rate, S:CuS hybrid electrodes exhibited lower sulfur utilization in the first discharge and faster capacity decay in later cycles than a pure sulfur electrode due to the dissolution of CuS. The CuS dissolution is found to be the result of strong interaction between the soluble low order polysulfide Li2S3 and CuS. As a result, we identified the presence of conductive copper-containing sulfides at the cycled lithium anode surface, which may degrade the effectiveness of the passivation function of the solid-electrolyte-interphase (SEI) layer, accounting for the poor cycling performance of the S:CuS hybrid cells at low rate.« less

  6. Experimental and computational investigations of sulfur-resistant bimetallic catalysts for reforming of biomass gasification products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rangan, Meghana; Yung, Matthew M.; Medlin, J. William (NREL); (Colorado)

    2011-11-17

    A combination of density functional theory (DFT) calculations and experimental studies of supported catalysts was used to identify H{sub 2}S-resistant biomass gasification product reforming catalysts. DFT calculations were used to search for bimetallic, nickel-based (1 1 1) surfaces with lower sulfur adsorption energies and enhanced ethylene adsorption energies. These metrics were used as predictors for H{sub 2}S resistance and activity toward steam reforming of ethylene, respectively. Relative to Ni, DFT studies found that the Ni/Sn surface alloy exhibited enhanced sulfur resistance and the Ni/Ru system exhibited an improved ethylene binding energy with a small increase in sulfur binding energy. A series of supported bimetallic nickel catalysts was prepared and screened under model ethylene reforming conditions and simulated biomass tar reforming conditions. The observed experimental trends in activity were consistent with theoretical predictions, with observed reforming activities in the order Ni/Ru > Ni > Ni/Sn. Interestingly, Ni/Ru showed a high level of resistance to sulfur poisoning compared with Ni. This sulfur resistance can be partly explained by trends in sulfur versus ethylene binding energy at different types of sites across the bimetallic surface.

  7. Unusual refinery boiler tube failures due to corrosion by sulfuric acid induced by steam leaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Lopez, D.; Wong-Moreno, A.

    1998-12-31

    Corrosion by sulfuric acid in boilers is a low probability event because gas temperature and metal temperature of boiler tubes are high enough to avoid the condensation of sulfuric acid from flue gases. This degradation mechanism is frequently considered as an important cause of air preheaters materials degradation, where flue gases are cooled by heat transfer to the combustion air. Corrosion is associated to the presence of sulfuric acid, which condensates if metal temperature (or gas temperature) is below of the acid dew point. In economizer tubes, sulfuric acid corrosion is an unlikely event because flue gas and tube temperatures are normally over the acid dewpoint. In this paper, the failure analysis of generator tubes (similar to the economizer of bigger boilers) of two small oil-fired subcritical boilers is reported. It is concluded that sulfuric acid corrosion was the cause of the failure. The sulfuric acid condensation was due to the contact of flue gases containing SO{sub 3} with water-steam spray coming from leaks at the interface of rolled tube to the drum. Considering the information gathered from these two cases studied, an analysis of this failure mechanism is presented including a description of the thermodynamics condition of water leaking from the drum, and an analysis of the factors favoring it.

  8. Sulfur oxidation to sulfate coupled with electron transfer to electrodes by Desulfuromonas strain TZ1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, T; Bain, TS; Barlett, MA; Dar, SA; Snoeyenbos-West, OL; Nevin, KP; Lovley, DR

    2014-01-02

    Microbial oxidation of elemental sulfur with an electrode serving as the electron acceptor is of interest because this may play an important role in the recovery of electrons from sulfidic wastes and for current production in marine benthic microbial fuel cells. Enrichments initiated with a marine sediment inoculum, with elemental sulfur as the electron donor and a positively poised (+300 mV versus Ag/AgCl) anode as the electron acceptor, yielded an anode biofilm with a diversity of micro-organisms, including Thiobacillus, Sulfurimonas, Pseudomonas, Clostridium and Desulfuromonas species. Further enrichment of the anode biofilm inoculum in medium with elemental sulfur as the electron donor and Fe(III) oxide as the electron acceptor, followed by isolation in solidified sulfur/Fe(III) medium yielded a strain of Desulfuromonas, designated strain TZ1. Strain TZ1 effectively oxidized elemental sulfur to sulfate with an anode serving as the sole electron acceptor, at rates faster than Desulfobulbus propionicus, the only other organism in pure culture previously shown to oxidize S with current production. The abundance of Desulfuromonas species enriched on the anodes of marine benthic fuel cells has previously been interpreted as acetate oxidation driving current production, but the results presented here suggest that sulfur-driven current production is a likely alternative.

  9. Low-quality natural gas sulfur removal/recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damon, D.A. [CNG Research Co., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Siwajek, L.A. [Acrion Technologies, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Klint, B.W. [BOVAR Inc., AB (Canada). Western Research

    1993-12-31

    Low quality natural gas processing with the integrated CFZ/CNG Claus process is feasible for low quality natural gas containing 10% or more of CO{sub 2}, and any amount of H{sub 2}S. The CNG Claus process requires a minimum CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the feed gas of about 100 psia (15% CO{sub 2} for a 700 psia feed gas) and also can handle any amount of H{sub 2}S. The process is well suited for handling a variety of trace contaminants usually associated with low quality natural gas and Claus sulfur recovery. The integrated process can produce high pressure carbon dioxide at purities required by end use markets, including food grade CO{sub 2}. The ability to economically co-produce high pressure CO{sub 2} as a commodity with significant revenue potential frees process economic viability from total reliance on pipeline gas, and extends the range of process applicability to low quality gases with relatively low methane content. Gases with high acid gas content and high CO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}S ratios can be economically processed by the CFZ/CNG Claus and CNG Claus processes. The large energy requirements for regeneration make chemical solvent processing prohibitive. The cost of Selexol physical solvent processing of the LaBarge gas is significantly greater than the CNG/CNG Claus and CNG Claus processes.

  10. Sulfur dioxide-induced chronic bronchitis in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, S.A.; Wolff, R.K.; Hahn, F.F.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This study was done to produce a model of chronic bronchitis. Twelve beagle dogs were exposed to 500 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) for 2 h/d, 5d/wk for 21 wk and 4 dogs were sham-exposed to filtered ambient air for the same period. Exposure effects were evaluated by periodically examining the dogs using chest radiographs, pulmonary function, tracheal mucous clearance, and the cellular and soluble components of bronchopulmonary lavage fluids. Dogs were serially sacrificed after 13 and 21 wk of exposure and after 6 and 14 wk of recovery. Clinical signs produced in the SO/sub 2/-exposed dogs included mucoid nasal discharge, productive cough, moist rales on auscultation, tonsilitis, and conjunctivitis. Chest radiographs revealed mild peribronchiolar thickening. Histopathology, tracheal mucous clearance measurements, and lavage cytology were consistent with a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. It is concluded that repeated exposure to 500 ppm SO/sub 2/ for 21 wk produced chronic bronchitis in the beagle dog. Complete recovery occurred within 5 wk following cessation of SO/sub 2/ exposure. 43 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Longitudinal study of children exposed to sulfur oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodge, R.; Solomon, P.; Moyers, J.; Hayes, C.

    1985-05-01

    This study is a longitudinal comparison of the health of children exposed to markedly different concentrations of sulfur dioxide and moderately different concentrations of particulate sulfate. The four groups of subjects lived in two areas of one smelter town and in two other towns, one of which was also a smelter town. In the area of highest pollution, children were intermittently exposed to high SO/sub 2/ levels (peak three-hour average concentration exceeded 2,500 micrograms/m3) and moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= levels (average concentration was 10.1 micrograms/m3). When the children were grouped by the four gradients of pollution observed, the prevalence of cough (measured by questionnaire) correlated significantly with pollution levels (trend chi-square = 5.6, p = 0.02). No significant differences in the incidence of cough or other symptoms occurred among the groups of subjects over three years, and pulmonary function and lung function growth over the study were roughly equal among all the groups. These results suggest that intermittent elevations in SO/sub 2/ concentration, in the presence of moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= concentration, produced evidence of bronchial irritation in the subjects, but no chronic effect on lung function or lung function growth was detected.

  12. Sulfur gas sensor using a calcium fluoride solid electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toniguchi, M.; Wakihara, M.; Uchida, T.; Hirakawa, K.; Nii, J.

    1988-01-01

    The sulfur gas potentials in the H/sub 2/S + H/sub 2/ buffer gases were measured by a galvanic cell Ps/sub 2/(g),Au(Pt)/(MoS/sub 2/ + CaS)/CaF/sub 2//(Cu + Cu/sub 2/S + CaS)/Au(Pt) in the temperature range from 650/sup 0/ to 950/sup 0/C and Ps/sub 2/ region from 10/sup -2/ to 10/sup -10/ atm. A quick response time (within 5 to 10 min) in emf with the change of Ps/sub 2/ at a given temperature was observed by placing a MoS/sub 2/ and CaS mixed pellet auxiliary electrode at the bottom of the cylindrical single-crystal CaF/sub 2/ electrolyte. The observed emf's agreed well with with those calculated from the Nernst equation. Using this sensor, Ps/sub 2/ values in the SO/sub 2/ + H/sub 2/ + H/sub 2/S gas system were also evaluated from the measured emf at 827/sup 0/C and were found to be in close agreement with those calculated from the thermochemical tables.

  13. What is History? History is more than simply fact-gathering. Like all

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    What is History? History is more than simply fact-gathering. Like all of the liberal arts, history to formulate conclusions, test results and communicate new ideas. Career Opportunities History majors make good of history requires the ability to investigate, analyze and communicate complex interrelationships

  14. The J.O. Prestwich Fellowship Appeal for History An appeal to make history

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capdeboscq, Yves

    The J.O. Prestwich Fellowship Appeal for History #12;An appeal to make history "Queen's should of History. In particular, the College wishes to endow the J.O. Prestwich Fellowship in History. This fund history, but we face a major financial challenge in maintaining our standing at the forefront of advanced

  15. history

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    the Albuquerque Operations Office with other NNSA operations offices into the NNSA Service Center located in Albuquerque. OTS was renamed the Office of Secure Transportation...

  16. history

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects & Initiatives Finance & Rates Expand Finance & Rates Involvement & Outreach Expand Involvement &...

  17. history

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAboutXu Named| Princetondefault Sign InEnhancedFuel7

  18. history

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal GasAdministration Medal01 Sandia4) August 20123/%2A en46Afed feed

  19. History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenry Bellamy, Ph.D. Title:Highlights

  20. Views of wireless network systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, William Frederick; Duggan, David Patrick

    2003-10-01

    Wireless networking is becoming a common element of industrial, corporate, and home networks. Commercial wireless network systems have become reliable, while the cost of these solutions has become more affordable than equivalent wired network solutions. The security risks of wireless systems are higher than wired and have not been studied in depth. This report starts to bring together information on wireless architectures and their connection to wired networks. We detail information contained on the many different views of a wireless network system. The method of using multiple views of a system to assist in the determination of vulnerabilities comes from the Information Design Assurance Red Team (IDART{trademark}) Methodology of system analysis developed at Sandia National Laboratories.

  1. For current viewing resistor loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, Gregory R. (Tijeras, NM); Hass, Jay B. (Lee's Summit, MO)

    2011-04-19

    The invention comprises a terminal unit for a flat cable comprising a BNC-PCB connector having a pin for electrically contacting one or more conducting elements of a flat cable, and a current viewing resistor having an opening through which the pin extends and having a resistor face that abuts a connector face of the BNC-PCB connector, wherein the device is a terminal unit for the flat cable.

  2. BA in FAMILY HISTORY--GENEALOGY (734125) MAP Sheet Department of History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsen Jr., Dan R.

    BA in FAMILY HISTORY--GENEALOGY (734125) MAP Sheet Department of History For students entering of the University Core Doctrinal Foundation and Religion requirement): Rel C 261* Intro to Family History (Genealogy

  3. Observation of neutral sulfuric acid-amine containing clusters in laboratory and ambient measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuang C.; Zhao, J.; Smith, J. N.; Eisele, F. L.; Chen, M.; McMurry, P. H.

    2011-11-02

    Recent ab initio calculations showed that amines can enhance atmospheric sulfuric acid-water nucleation more effectively than ammonia, and this prediction has been substantiated in laboratory measurements. Laboratory studies have also shown that amines can effectively displace ammonia in several types of ammonium clusters. However, the roles of amines in cluster formation and growth at a microscopic molecular scale (from molecular sizes up to 2 nm) have not yet been well understood. Processes that must be understood include the incorporation of amines into sulfuric acid clusters and the formation of organic salts in freshly nucleated particles, which contributes significantly to particle growth rates. We report the first laboratory and ambient measurements of neutral sulfuric acid-amine clusters using the Cluster CIMS, a recently-developed mass spectrometer designed for measuring neutral clusters formed in the atmosphere during nucleation. An experimental technique, which we refer to as Semi-Ambient Signal Amplification (SASA), was employed. Sulfuric acid was added to ambient air, and the concentrations and composition of clusters in this mixture were analyzed by the Cluster CIMS. This experimental approach led to significantly higher cluster concentrations than are normally found in ambient air, thereby increasing signal-to-noise levels and allowing us to study reactions between gas phase species in ambient air and sulfuric acid containing clusters. Mass peaks corresponding to clusters containing four H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} molecules and one amine molecule were clearly observed, with the most abundant sulfuric acid-amine clusters being those containing a C2- or C4-amine (i.e. amines with masses of 45 and 73 amu). Evidence for C3- and C5-amines (i.e. amines with masses of 59 and 87 amu) was also found, but their correlation with sulfuric acid tetramer was not as strong as was observed for the C2- and C4-amines. The formation mechanisms for those sulfuric acid-amine clusters were investigated by varying the residence time in the inlet. It was concluded that the amines react directly with neutral clusters and that ion-induced clustering of sulfuric acid cluster ions with amines was not a dominant process. Results from ambient measurements using the Cluster CIMS without addition of sulfuric acid have shown that the sulfuric acid-amine clusters were reasonably well correlated with sulfuric acid tetramer and consistent with the SASA experiments at the same Boulder sampling site. Also, clusters that contain C2- or C4-amines were more abundant and better correlated with sulfuric acid tetramer than other types of amine containing clusters. However, ambient measurements of sulfuric acid-amine clusters remain difficult and highly uncertain because their concentrations are only slightly above background levels, even during nucleation events.

  4. Our History | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof EnergyApril 2014DepartmentCouncilOfficeBudget Our BudgetHistory Our

  5. History Publications | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFinancial OpportunitiesDepartment ofScience & History

  6. Mitigation of Sulfur Effects on a Lean NOx Trap Catalyst by Sorbate Reapplication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Lean NOx trap catalysis has demonstrated the ability to reduce NOx emissions from lean natural gas reciprocating engines by >90%. The technology operates in a cyclic fashion where NOx is trapped on the catalyst during lean operation and released and reduced to N2 under rich exhaust conditions; the rich cleansing operation of the cycle is referred to as "regeneration" since the catalyst is reactivated for more NOx trapping. Natural gas combusted over partial oxidation catalysts in the exhaust can be used to obtain the rich exhaust conditions necessary for catalyst regeneration. Thus, the lean NOx trap technology is well suited for lean natural gas engine applications. One potential limitation of the lean NOx trap technology is sulfur poisoning. Sulfur compounds directly bond to the NOx trapping sites of the catalyst and render them ineffective; over time, the sulfur poisoning leads to degradation in overall NOx reduction performance. In order to mitigate the effects of sulfur poisoning, a process has been developed to restore catalyst activity after sulfur poisoning has occurred. The process is an aqueous-based wash process that removes the poisoned sorbate component of the catalyst. A new sorbate component is reapplied after removal of the poisoned sorbate. The process is low cost and does not involve reapplication of precious metal components of the catalyst. Experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility of the washing process on a lean 8.3-liter natural gas engine on a dynamometer platform. The catalyst was rapidly sulfur poisoned with bottled SO2 gas; then, the catalyst sorbate was washed and reapplied and performance was re-evaluated. Results show that the sorbate reapplication process is effective at restoring lost performance due to sulfur poisoning. Specific details relative to the implementation of the process for large stationary natural gas engines will be discussed.

  7. Biodesulfurization techniques: Application of selected microorganisms for organic sulfur removal from coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elmore, B.B.

    1993-08-01

    As an alternative to post-combustion desulfurization of coal and pre-combustion desulfurization using physicochemical techniques, the microbial desulfurization of coal may be accomplished through the use of microbial cultures that, in an application of various microbial species, may remove both the pyritic and organic fractions of sulfur found in coal. Organisms have been isolated that readily depyritize coal but often at prohibitively low rates of desulfurization. Microbes have also been isolated that may potentially remove the organic-sulfur fraction present in coal (showing promise when acting on organic sulfur model compounds such as dibenzothiophene). The isolation and study of microorganisms demonstrating a potential for removing organic sulfur from coal has been undertaken in this project. Additionally, the organisms and mechanisms by which coal is microbially depyritized has been investigated. Three cultures were isolated that grew on dibenzothiophene (DBT), a model organic-sulfur compound, as the sole sulfur source. These cultures (UMX3, UMX9, and IGTS8) also grew on coal samples as the sole sulfur source. Numerous techniques for pretreating and ``cotreating`` coal for depyritization were also evaluated for the ability to improve the rate or extent of microbial depyritization. These include prewashing the coal with various solvents and adding surfactants to the culture broth. Using a bituminous coal containing 0.61% (w/w) pyrite washed with organic solvents at low slurry concentrations (2% w/v), the extent of depyritization was increased approximately 25% in two weeks as compared to controls. At slurry concentrations of 20% w/v, a tetrachloroethylene treatment of the coal followed by depyritization with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans increased both the rate and extent of depyritization by approximately 10%.

  8. Sulfur containing sediments influenced wear of superheater tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoffe, P. [Israel Electric Corp. Ltd., Haifa (Israel)

    1996-10-01

    The failed superheater tube was investigated at the point of failure and at a distance of 25 cm. At both of the cross sections two layers of sediment were detected. The external one contains Na2SO4 and Na3VO3 in concentration relation 6.4:1 approximately. The internal layer that situated on the tube surface consisted of V2O3 mainly (about 70%) and sodium pyrosulfates Na2SO3{center_dot}xSO3. The tube surface was covered with usual passive oxides such as Cr2O3, Fe2CrO4, and magnetite. In the failed section the last layer contained iron and chromium sulfides. Thinning of the wall was detected in both sections, but it was more evident in the failed section. Thermodynamic and kinetic estimations of the results were carried out. The following failure mechanism was proposed: (1) at 460 C the pyrosulfate dissociates with SO3 emanation, during SO3 interaction with steel both passive oxides and iron sulfide are produced simultaneously, sulfides damage the passive (protective) film; (2) in vicinity of partition the temperature increases and the structure of steel is changed, SO3 penetration along grain boundaries is possible, and it leads to embrittlement of the steel through sulfidization; (3) the embrittled layer is stripped off by falling ash deposit and collapsed passive film, thinning of the tube is accelerated at such a region. So, sulfur containing sediment accelerates the wear of the tube. This acceleration is strong especially in the vicinity of the boiler walls.

  9. Write History! Strategies for Success A writing workshop for SFU History students, co-sponsored by the SFU History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -sponsored by the SFU History Student Association and the Student Learning Commons. Critical Analysis "InterpretationWrite History! Strategies for Success A writing workshop for SFU History students, co a focused, limited topic. Don't try to do too much! Techniques for focusing include talking about the topic

  10. The Development of Warm Gas Cleanup Technologies for the Removal of Sulfur Containing Species from Steam Hydrogasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Qian

    2012-01-01

    sulfur was strongly dependent on coal type. Gryglewicz [19]coal) [9] and other factors such as heating rate, time, pressure and velocity of the carrying gas, type

  11. Rebekah Foster-Terry Oral History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foster-Terry, Rebekah; Meador, Stephanie Rae

    2009-01-01

    Oral history interview with Reverend Rebekah Foster-Terry conducted by Stephanie Meador in 2009. In this interview, Rev. Foster-Terry, pastor of the Victory Tabernacle Church in Topeka, Kansas, discusses the history of the church and her family...

  12. The Equal Weight View, Agreement, and Commutativity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buckler, Rose

    2011-11-23

    This paper investigates Elga’s (2007) Equal Weight View (EWV) and its consequences when understood as a view requiring epistemic peers to ‘split the difference’ following disagreement. The traditional disagreement debate ...

  13. View from the Bridge | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    View from the Bridge View from the Bridge This presentation gives an overview of Caterpillar's R&D focus on advanced diesel engines and exhaust aftertreatment. deer08utley.pdf...

  14. California's Energy Future - The View to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    Summit on America’s Energy Future (2008), http://www.natural gas. California’s Energy Future - The View to 2050supply California’ s Energy Future - The View to 2050 and

  15. Toward Understanding the Effect of Nuclear Waste Glass Composition on Sulfur Solubility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Kim, Dong-Sang [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Muller, I. S. [The Catholic University National Laboratory; Kruger, Albert A. [Department of Energy -- Ofice of River Protection; Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2014-10-01

    The concentration of sulfur in nuclear waste glass melter feed must be maintained below the point where salt accumulates on the melt surface. The allowable concentrations may range from 0.37 to over 2.05 weight percent (of SO3 on a calcined oxide basis) depending on the composition of the melter feed and processing conditions. If the amount of sulfur exceeds the melt tolerance level, a molten salt will accumulate, which may upset melter operations and potentially shorten the useful life of the melter. At the Hanford site, relatively conservative limits have been placed on sulfur loading in melter feed, which in turn significantly increases the amount of glass that will be produced. Crucible-scale sulfur solubility data and scaled melter sulfur tolerance data have been collected on simulated Hanford waste glasses over the last 15 years. These data were compiled and analyzed. A model was developed to predict the solubility of SO3 in glass based on 252 simulated Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) glass compositions. This model represents the data well, accounting for over 85% of the variation in data, and was well validated. The model was also found to accurately predict the tolerance for sulfur in melter feed for 13 scaled melter tests of simulated LAW glasses. The model can be used to help estimate glass volumes and make informed decisions on process options. The model also gives quantitative estimates of component concentration effects on sulfur solubility. The components that most increase sulfur solubility are Li2O > V2O5> CaO ? P2O5 > Na2O ? B2O3 > K2O. The components that most decrease sulfur solubility are Cl > Cr2O3 > Al2O3 > ZrO2 ? SnO2 > Others ? SiO2. The order of component effects is similar to previous literature data, in most cases.

  16. Toward Understanding the Effect of Low-Activity Waste Glass Composition on Sulfur Solubility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Muller, Isabelle S.; Piepel, Greg F.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2014-07-24

    The concentration of sulfur in nuclear waste glass melter feed must be maintained below the point where salt accumulates on the melt surface. The allowable concentrations may range from 0.37 to over 2.05 weight percent (of SO3 on a calcined oxide basis) depending on the composition of the melter feed and processing conditions. If the amount of sulfur exceeds the melt tolerance level, a molten salt will accumulate, which may upset melter operations and potentially shorten the useful life of the melter. At the Hanford site, relatively conservative limits have been placed on sulfur loading in melter feed, which in turn significantly increases the amount of glass that will be produced. Crucible-scale sulfur solubility data and scaled melter sulfur tolerance data have been collected on simulated Hanford waste glasses over the last 15 years. These data were compiled and analyzed. A model was developed to predict the solubility of SO3 in glass based on 252 simulated Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) glass compositions. This model represents the data well, accounting for over 85% of the variation in data, and was well validated. The model was also found to accurately predict the tolerance for sulfur in melter feed for 13 scaled melter tests of simulated LAW glasses. The model can be used to help estimate glass volumes and make informed decisions on process options. The model also gives quantitative estimates of component concentration effects on sulfur solubility. The components that most increase sulfur solubility are Li2O > V2O5> CaO ? P2O5 > Na2O ? B2O3 > K2O. The components that most decrease sulfur solubility are Cl > Cr2O3 > Al2O3 > ZrO2 ? SnO2 > Others ? SiO2. The order of component effects is similar to previous literature data, in most cases.

  17. History of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This timeline explores the history of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, or SPR, from conception through current events.

  18. Computational studies of experimentally observed structures of sulfur on metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alfonso, Dominic

    2011-09-01

    First-principles electronic structure calculations were carried out to examine the experimentally observed structures of sulfur on close packed surfaces of a number of important metals - Ag(111), Cu(111), Ni(111), Pt(111), Rh(111), Re(0001) and Ru(0001). At low coverages ({le} 1/3 ML), the prediction is consistent with the typical pattern of preferred sulfur occupancy of threefold hollow sites, notably the fcc site on the (111) surfaces and the hcp site on the (0001) surfaces. Theoretical confirmation for the existence of pure sulfur overlayer phases on Pt(111), Rh(111), Re(0001) and Ru(0001) at higher coverages (> 1/3 ML) was provided. For the ({radical}7 x {radical}7) phase seen on Ag(111), the most preferred structure identified for adsorbed S trimer consists of an S atom on the top site bonded to two S atoms situated on the nearest neighbor off-bridge site positions. Among the different densely packed mixed sulfur-metal overlayer models suggested for the ({radical}7 x {radical}7) phase on Cu(111), the structure which consists of metal and S atoms in a hexagonal-like arrangement on the top substrate was found to be the most energetically favorable. For the (5{radical}3 x 2) phase on Ni(111), the calculations confirm the existence of clock-reconstructed top layer metal atoms onto which sulfur atoms are adsorbed.

  19. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M. ); Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T. ); Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J. )

    1992-05-01

    This topical report on Sulfur Control'' presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT's electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

  20. Mitigation of Sulfur Poisoning of Ni/Zirconia SOFC Anodes by Antimony and Tin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Pederson, Larry R.

    2011-02-28

    Surface Ni/Sb and Ni/Sb alloys were found to efficiently minimize the negative effects of sulfur on the performance of Ni/zirconia anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Prior to operating on fuel gas containing low concentrations of H2S, the nickel/zirconia anodes were briefly exposed to antimony or tin vapor, which only slightly affected the SOFC performance. During the subsequent exposures to 1 and 5 ppm H2S, increases in anodic polarization losses were minimal compared to those observed for the standard nickel/zirconia anodes. Post-test XPS analyses showed that Sb and Sn tended to segregate to the surface of Ni particles, and further confirmed a significant reduction of adsorbed sulfur on the Ni surface in Ni/Sn and Ni/Sb samples compared to the Ni. The effect may be the result of weaker sulfur adsorption on bimetallic surfaces, adsorption site competition between sulfur and Sb or Sn on Ni, or other factors. The use of dilute binary alloys of Ni-Sb or Ni-Sn in the place of Ni, or brief exposure to Sb or Sn vapor, may be effective means to counteract the effects of sulfur poisoning in SOFC anodes and Ni catalysts. Other advantages, including suppression of coking or tailoring the anode composition for the internal reforming, are also expected.

  1. Department: HISTORY Course number: 3551 W

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Department: HISTORY Course number: 3551 W Course title: Topics in U.S. Legal History Credits: 3 Contact Person: Sherri Olson Q/W: W Catalog Copy:HIST 3551W [248W]. Topics in U.S.Legal History. 3 credits

  2. History-Independent Cuckoo Hashing Udi Wieder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    History-Independent Cuckoo Hashing Moni Naor Gil Segev Udi Wieder§ Abstract Cuckoo hashing significant improvements compared to other schemes. In this work we construct a practical history-independent dynamic dictionary based on cuckoo hashing. In a history-independent data structure, the memory

  3. Evolutionary History of Behavior Terry J. Ord

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ord, Terry

    12 Evolutionary History of Behavior Terry J. Ord BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY MEETS PALEONTOLOGY AND PHYLOGENETICS Uncovering the past history of animal behavior seems impossible; unless we can observe behavior. But much can still be learned about the evolutionary history of animal behavior through some clever detec

  4. First Nations of North America History 467

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Robin

    1 First Nations of North America History 467 Consider Resources Primary Resources: diaries, letters. popular), theses, the Web Check subject guide under: Research by Subject History by Region Canadian History of the Native Peoples of North America (Online) Canadian Encyclopedia (Online) Dictionary

  5. ANTHROPOLOGY HISTORY AND MEMORY Anthropology Professors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watkins, Joseph C.

    ANTHROPOLOGY HISTORY AND MEMORY Anthropology Professors Ana Alonzo Maribel Alvarez TJ Ferguson of the Southwest ANTH 417A (MENAS) North African Societies: History, Culture and Politics ANTH 418 Southwest Land, Culture and History ANTH 475A (MAS) The Education of Latinas/Latinos Click here to search for course

  6. Proving the Correctness of Coroutines without History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, Edmund M.

    Proving the Correctness of Coroutines without History Variables Edmund M. Clarke (Duke University) Abstract We examine the question of whether history variables are necessary in formal proofs of correctness for coroutines. History v ~ are special variables which are added to a program to facilitate its Droof

  7. Introduction to Modern India History 310

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Robin

    1 Introduction to Modern India History 310 Consider Resources Primary Resources: diaries, letters. popular), theses, the Web Check subject guides under: Research by Subject History Find Background History, 1707-1947 REF DS463.M45 1985t Encyclopedia of India REF DS407 .E62 1992t Oxford Companion

  8. Department: Art History Course No: 138

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Department: Art History Course No: 138 Credits: 3 Title: Introduction to Art History II Contact: Jean Givens Content Area: CA1-Arts and Humanities Catalog Copy: ARTH 138 Introduction to Art History II Second semester, three credits. Survey of art and architecture from the fifteenth century to the present

  9. BA: Art History Fall--First Year

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gering, Jon C.

    · ART 3/4xx (Art History) · Elective(s) (advisor approval) and/or LSP coursework Fall--Fourth Year · ART(s) and/or LSP coursework Spring--Fourth Year · ART 437 Senior Thesis II OR ART 3/4xx (Art HistoryBA: Art History Fall--First Year · ART 127 New Major Seminar · ART 222 Caves to Cathedrals

  10. Software as History Embodied Nathan Ensmenger, Editor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ensmenger, Nathan

    Software as History Embodied Nathan Ensmenger, Editor In the very last published article of his but profound ques- tion: ``What makes the history of software hard?1 In his characteristically playful style to come to grips with the formidable challenges of writing the history of software-- but also one of great

  11. Making History: New Directions in Computer Historiography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    of the Information Machine, Ceruzzi's A History of Modern Computing, and Abbate's Inventing the Internet. UnlikeMaking History: New Directions in Computer Historiography Twenty-two years after the Annals' first librarians place most books on the history of computers, mixed seemingly ran- domly with social commentaries

  12. TotalView Training 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired Solar FuelTechnologyTel:FebruaryEIA's Today8Topo II: AnUsersTotalView

  13. ISSN 2167-5163 View Publications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waldschmidt, Michel

    ISSN 2167-5163 View Publications View Author/Related Publications View Reviews Refine Search Co: 180085 Earliest Indexed Publication: 1970 Total Publications: 176 Total Author/Related Publications: 189 Chen Publications (by number in area) Associative rings and algebras Dynamical systems and ergodic

  14. High-Capacity Sulfur Dioxide Absorbents for Diesel Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2005-01-05

    High capacity sulfur dioxide absorbents based on manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (OMS) have been identified. These materials are based on MnO6 octahedra sharing faces and edges to form various tunnel structures (2x2, 2x3, 2x4, 3x3) differentiated by the number of octahedra on a side. The SO2 capacities of these materials, measured at 325 C with a feed containing 250 ppmv SO2 in air, are as high as 70wt% (wt/wt), remarkably higher than conventional metal oxide-based SO2 absorbents. Among the OMS materials the 2x2 member, cryptomelane, exhibits the highest capacity and adsorption rate. Its SO2 absorption behavior has been further characterized as a function of temperature, space velocity, and feed composition. The dominant pathway for SO2 absorption is through the oxidation of SO2 to SO3 by Mn4+ followed by SO3 reaction with Mn2+ to form MnSO4. Absorption can occur in the absence of gas phase oxygen, with a moderate loss in overall capacity. The inclusion of reducible gases NO and CO in the feed does not reduce SO2 capacity. The absorption capacity decreases at high space velocity and lower absorption temperature, indicating the important role of diffusion of sulfate from the surface to the bulk of the material in order to reach full capacity. A color change of cryptomelane from black to yellow-brown after SO2 absorption can be used as an indicator of absorption progress. Cryptomelane can be synthesized using MnSO4 as a reagent. Therefore, after full SO2 absorption the product MnSO4 can be re-used as raw material for a subsequent cryptomelane synthesis. Cryptomelane has a similarly high capacity toward SO3, therefore it can be used for removal of all SOx species generated from a variety of combustion sources. Cryptomelane may find application as a replaceable absorbent for the removal of SOx from diesel truck exhaust, protecting downstream emissions control devices such as particulate filters and NOx traps.

  15. history | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAboutXu Named| Princetondefault Sign InEnhancedFuel7history

  16. Y-12 and uranium history

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos Alamos verifies largest single and the history of

  17. history | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLosThe 26th AnnualHistory Over 100 Years of Collaborative Energy

  18. PNNL: About PNNL - Laboratory History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEYI/O Streams forOrhan Kizilkaya,P.FederalStrategic ResearchHistory

  19. Effect of sulfur loading on the desulfation chemistry of a commercial lean NOx trap catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Do Heui; Yezerets, Aleksey; Li, Junhui; Currier, Neal; Chen, Haiying; Hess, Howard .; Engelhard, Mark H.; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF

    2012-12-15

    We investigate the effects of initial sulfur loadings on the desulfation chemistry and the subsequent final activity of a commercial LNT catalyst. Identical total amounts of SO2 are applied to the samples, albeit with the frequency of desulfation varied. The results indicate that performance is better with less frequent desulfations. The greater the amount of sulfur deposited before desulfation, the more amount of SO2 evolution before H2S is observed during desulfation, which can be explained by two sequential reactions; initial conversion of sulfate to SO2, followed by the reduction of SO2 to H2S. After completing all sulfation/desulfation steps, the sample with only a single desulfation results in a fairly uniform sulfur distribution along the z-axis inside of the monolith. We expect that the results obtained in this study will provide useful information for optimizing regeneration strategies in vehicles that utilize the LNT technology.

  20. Desulfurization of organic sulfur from lignite by an electron transfer process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

    2006-10-15

    This study is an attempt to desulfurize organic sulfur from lignite samples with ferrocyanide ion as the electron transferring agent. Effect of temperature, particle size and concentration of ferrocyanide ion on desulfurization from the lignite samples has been investigated. The desulfurization process has been found to be continuous and gradually increases with increase of temperature from 298 to 368 K. The particle size has no significant impact on sulfur removal from the lignite samples. Particle size has no profound impact on the amount of sulfur removal. The desulfurization reaction has been found to be dependent on the concentration of potassium ferrocyanide. Gradual increase in the concentration of potassium ferrocyanide raised the magnitude of desulfurization, but at a higher concentration, the variation is not significant.

  1. Development of Ni-based Sulfur Resistant Catalyst for Diesel Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunther Dieckmann

    2006-06-30

    In order for diesel fuel to be used in a solid oxide fuel cell auxiliary power unit, the diesel fuel must be reformed into hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. One of the major problems facing catalytic reforming is that the level of sulfur found in low sulfur diesel can poison most catalysts. This report shows that a proprietary low cost Ni-based reforming catalyst can be used to reform a 7 and 50 ppm sulfur containing diesel fuel for over 500 hours of operation. Coking, which appears to be route of catalyst deactivation due to metal stripping, can be controlled by catalyst modifications, introduction of turbulence, and/or by application of an electromagnetic field with a frequency from {approx}50 kHz to 13.56 MHz with field strength greater than about 100 V/cm and more preferably greater about 500 V/cm.

  2. Behavior of sulfur and chlorine in coal during combustion and boiler corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to conduct laboratory experiments to clarify the mechanism of boiler corrosion, which may lead to solving the corrosion problem associated with the utilization of Illinois' high-sulfur and high-chlorine coal. The kinetics of the release of sulfur and chlorine species during coal combustion is being determined in the laboratories using temperature-programmed pyrolysis coupled with quadrupole gas analysis (QGA) and thermogravimetric analysis in conjunction with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Samples of boiler deposits and ashes from different locations in boilers using Illinois coal will be analyzed for mineralogical and chemical compositions to understand the relations among deposit compositions, coal compositions, and the gaseous species in combustion gases. The relationship between the level of chlorine in Illinois coal and boiler corrosion will be studied by experiments with simulated combustion gases under combustion conditions. Reduction of sulfur and chloride concentrations in the flue gas using additives will also be evaluated.

  3. Method of removing oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Richard J. (Bethel Park, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A continuous method is presented for removing both oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen from combustion or exhaust gases with the regeneration of the absorbent. Exhaust gas is cleaned of particulates and HCl by a water scrub prior to contact with a liquid absorbent that includes an aqueous solution of bisulfite and sulfite ions along with a metal chelate, such as, an iron or zinc aminopolycarboxylic acid. Following contact with the combustion gases the spent absorbent is subjected to electrodialysis to transfer bisulfite ions into a sulfuric acid solution while splitting water with hydroxide and hydrogen ion migration to equalize electrical charge. The electrodialysis stack includes alternate layers of anion selective and bipolar membranes. Oxides of nitrogen are removed from the liquid absorbent by air stripping at an elevated temperature and the regenerated liquid absorbent is returned to contact with exhaust gases for removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides.

  4. 1 Fine Arts and Art History FINE ARTS AND ART HISTORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos

    1 Fine Arts and Art History FINE ARTS AND ART HISTORY Through the making of art and the study of its history, students develop a visual literacy and skills in critical thinking. The undergraduate grounded in related historical and theoretical issues. In the art history curriculum, students gain an in

  5. UW-Madison Oral History Project Oral History #644 Denice Denton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    UW-Madison Oral History Project Oral History #644 ­ Denice Denton Narrator: Coleman, Joyce Fine (9/11/09) Please note: This oral history and transcript is protected by the 1978 copyright law extensive segments of this interview/transcript must be obtained from the UW-Madison Oral History Program

  6. Finding Secondary Sources History 1B03History 1B03

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael

    Finding Secondary Sources History 1B03History 1B03 The Americas and the WorldThe Americas articles History 1B03 Secondary Sources scholarly articles 2. Using the Library Catalogue to find scholarly Journals Three main types of articles History 1B03 Secondary Sources · Scholarly Journals (e.g. monthly

  7. Sonic enhanced ash agglomeration and sulfur capture. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    A major concern with the utilization of coal in directly fired gas turbines is the control of particulate emissions and reduction of sulfur dioxide, and alkali vapor from combustion of coal, upstream of the gas turbine. Much research and development has been sponsored on methods for particulate emissions control and the direct injection of calcium-based sorbents to reduce SO{sub 2} emission levels. The results of this research and development indicate that both acoustic agglomeration of particulates and direct injection of sorbents have the potential to become a significant emissions control strategy. The Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture program focuses upon the application of an MTCI proprietary invention (Patent No. 5,197,399) for simultaneously enhancing sulfur capture and particulate agglomeration of the combustor effluent. This application can be adapted as either a {open_quotes}hot flue gas cleanup{close_quotes} subsystem for the current concepts for combustor islands or as an alternative primary pulse combustor island in which slagging, sulfur capture, particulate agglomeration and control, and alkali gettering as well as NO{sub x} control processes become an integral part of the pulse combustion process. The goal of the program is to support the DOE mission in developing coal-fired combustion gas turbines. In particular, the MTCI proprietary process for bimodal ash agglomeration and simultaneous sulfur capture will be evaluated and developed. The technology embodiment of the invention provides for the use of standard grind, moderately beneficiated coal and WEM for firing the gas turbine with efficient sulfur capture and particulate emission control upstream of the turbine. The process also accommodates injection of alkali gettering material if necessary. The proposed technology provides for practical, reliable, and capital (and O&M) cost-effective means of protection for the gas turbine from impurities in the coal combustor effluent.

  8. A New History of Banking Panics in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jalil, Andrew Javed

    2010-01-01

    Journal of Economic History (December): Catterall, Ralph.H. 1957. “Conspectus for a History of Economic and BusinessJournal of Economic History 17 (September): 333-388.

  9. A reanalysis of carbonyl sulfide as a source of stratospheric background sulfur aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin, M.; Davis, D.D. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-05-20

    The authors present an analysis of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) in the earth`s atmosphere, with the objective being to assess its role in the formation of sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere. They review the amount of OCS in the atmosphere, its distribution between the troposphere and stratosphere, the estimated source term for emission to the atmosphere, and from one-dimensional model calculations infer a stratospheric lifetime to photochemical reactions of ten years. Calculations infer a sulfur production rate from OCS oxidation which is a factor of 2 to 5 less than recent sulfur aerosol estimates would infer. They discuss a number of possible explanations for the discrepancy.

  10. NO.sub.x reduction by sulfur tolerant coronal-catalytic apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathur, Virendra K. (Durham, NH); Breault, Ronald W. (Kingston, NH); McLarnon, Christopher R. (Exeter, NH); Medros, Frank G. (Waltham, MA)

    1992-01-01

    This invention presents an NO.sub.x environment effective reduction apparatus comprising a sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst such as high dielectric coronal-catalysts like glass wool, ceramic-glass wool or zirconium glass wool and method of use. In one embodiment the invention comprises an NO.sub.x reduction apparatus of sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst adapted and configured for hypercritical presentation to an NO.sub.x bearing gas stream at a minimum of at least about 75 watts/cubic meter.

  11. NOx reduction by sulfur tolerant coronal-catalytic apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathur, V.K.; Breault, R.W.; McLarnon, C.R.; Medros, F.G.

    1993-08-31

    This invention presents an NO[sub x] environment effective reduction apparatus comprising a sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst such as high dielectric coronal-catalysts like glass wool, ceramic-glass wool or zirconium glass wool and method of use. In one embodiment the invention comprises an NO[sub x] reduction apparatus of sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst adapted and configured for hypercritical presentation to an NO[sub x] bearing gas stream at a minimum of at least about 75 watts/cubic meter.

  12. NO.sub.x reduction by sulfur tolerant coronal-catalytic apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathur, Virendra K. (Durham, NH); Breault, Ronald W. (Kingston, NH); McLarnon, Christopher R. (Exeter, NH); Medros, Frank G. (Waltham, MA)

    1993-01-01

    This invention presents an NO.sub.x environment effective reduction apparatus comprising a sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst such as high dielectric coronal-catalysts like glass wool, ceramic-glass wool or zirconium glass wool and method of use. In one embodiment the invention comprises an NO.sub.x reduction apparatus of sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst adapted and configured for hypercritical presentation to an NO.sub.x bearing gas stream at a minimum of at least about 75 watts/cubic meter.

  13. NO[sub x] reduction by sulfur tolerant coronal-catalytic apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathur, V.K.; Breault, R.W.; McLarnon, C.R.; Medros, F.G.

    1992-09-15

    This invention presents an NO[sub x] environment effective reduction apparatus comprising a sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst such as high dielectric coronal-catalysts like glass wool, ceramic-glass wool or zirconium glass wool and method of use. In one embodiment the invention comprises an NO[sub x] reduction apparatus of sulfur tolerant coronal-catalyst adapted and configured for hypercritical presentation to an NO[sub x] bearing gas stream at a minimum of at least about 75 watts/cubic meter. 7 figs.

  14. Selective trace determination of sulfur and aluminum using charged particle activation analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Terrence Dale

    1974-01-01

    for the characterization of ultra-pure materials. In a previous study ( 26) we had analyzed crude oil samples for their sulfur content using the reaction 3 S(p, oc ) P. P is a positron emitter with a half- 29 29 life of 4. . 2 seconds. The 0. 511 MeV gamma... gammas which tended to overload the detector, a lead absorber ( 2" thick) was used. A focused beam of 20 MeV protons was used for irradiating a pure sulfur pellet at very low beam currents (1 nano ampere) and the prompt 2. 23 MeV gamma ray...

  15. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for sodium/sulfur battery technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Triplett, M.B.; Winter, C.; Ashton, W.B.

    1985-07-01

    This document summarizes development trends in sodium/sulfur battery technology based on data from US patents. Purpose of the study was to use the activity, timing and ownership of 285 US patents to identify and describe broad patterns of change in sodium/sulfur battery technology. The analysis was conducted using newly developed statistical and computer graphic techniques for describing technology development trends from patent data. This analysis suggests that for some technologies trends in patent data provide useful information for public and private R and D planning.

  16. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Modified Dominant Lethal Study of Sulfur Mustard in Rats Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasser, L. B.; Cushing, J. A.; Kalkwarf, D. R.; Buschbom, R. L.

    1989-05-01

    Occupational health standards have not been established for sulfur mustard (HD) [bis{2-chloroethyl)-sulfide) ' a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic properties. Little, however, is known about the mutagenic activity of HD in mammalian species and data regarding the dominant lethal effects of HD are ambiguous. The purpose of this study was to determine the dominant lethal effect in male and female rats orally exposed to HD. The study was conducted in two phases; a female dominant lethal phase and a male dominant lethal phase. Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex were administered 0.08, 0.20, or 0.50 mg/kg HD in sesame oil 5 days/week for 10 weeks. For the female phase, treated or untreated males were mated with treated females and their fetuses were evaluated at approximately 14 days after copulation. For the male dominant lethal phase, treated males cohabited with untreated femal (during 5 days of each week for 10 weeks) and females were sacrificed for fetal evaluation 14 days after the midweek of cohabitation during each of the 10 weeks. The appearance and behavior of the rats were unremarkable throughout the experiment and there were no treatment-related deaths. Growth rates were reduced in both female and male rats treated with 0.50 mg/kg HD. Indicators of reproductive performance did not demonstrate significant female dominant lethal effects, although significant male dominant lethal effects were observed at 2 and 3 week post-exposure. These effects included increases of early fetal resorptions and preimplantation losses and decreases of total live embryo implants. These effects were most consistently observed at a dose of 0.50 mg/kg, but frequently occurred at the lower doses. Although no treatment-related effects on male reproductive organ weights or sperm motility were found, a significant increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm was detected in males exposed to 0. 50 mg/kg HD. The timing of these effects is consistent with an effect during the postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis, possibly involving the generally sensitive spermatids.

  17. ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY IN GIANT PLANETS, BROWN DWARFS, AND LOW-MASS DWARF STARS. II. SULFUR AND PHOSPHORUS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY IN GIANT PLANETS, BROWN DWARFS, AND LOW-MASS DWARF STARS. II. SULFUR AND PHOSPHORUS Channon Visscher, Katharina Lodders, and Bruce Fegley, Jr. Planetary Chemistry Laboratory to model sulfur and phosphorus chemistry in giant planets, brown dwarfs, and extrasolar giant planets (EGPs

  18. Carbon Flow of Heliobacteria Is Related More to Clostridia than to the Green Sulfur Bacteria*S

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    Carbon Flow of Heliobacteria Is Related More to Clostridia than to the Green Sulfur Bacteria*S, California 94720 The recently discovered heliobacteria are the only Gram-pos- itive photosynthetic bacteria the photosynthetic green sulfur bacteria (containing the type I reaction center) and Clostridia (forming heat

  19. Fuel switch could bring big savings for HECO Liquefied natural gas beats low-sulfur oil in cost and equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuel switch could bring big savings for HECO Liquefied natural gas beats low-sulfur oil in cost gas instead of continuing to burn low-sulfur fuel oil, a report said. Switching to liquefied natural who switch from gasoline-powered vehicles to ones fueled by compressed natural gas could save as much

  20. Insertion of Elemental Sulfur and SO2 into the Metal-Hydride and Metal-Carbon Bonds of Platinum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    and other alkyl and aryl compounds, followed by insertion of sulfur-bearing species to syn- thesize sulfur-bearing or main- group metals.2,3 A second resonance is seen in the 31P NMR spectrum at 67.02 (JPtP ) 1811 Hz

  1. Improved Visible Light Harvesting of WO3 by Incorporation of Sulfur or Iodine: A Tale of Two Impurities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Jung-Fu "Afu"

    Improved Visible Light Harvesting of WO3 by Incorporation of Sulfur or Iodine: A Tale of Two report the incorporation of sulfur or iodine into monoclinic tungsten trioxide (S:WO3 or I:WO3 pyrolysis with either ammonium sulfide or iodide added to the aqueous WO3 precursor solutions. Red shifts

  2. Better Buildings Network View | March 2015 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Better Buildings Network View | March 2015 Better Buildings Network View | March 2015 The Better Buildings Network View monthly newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy's...

  3. Development of bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery using LiBH{sub 4} electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unemoto, Atsushi, E-mail: unemoto@imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Ikeshoji, Tamio [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Yasaku, Syun; Matsuo, Motoaki [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nogami, Genki; Tazawa, Masaru; Taniguchi, Mitsugu [Mitsubishi Gas Chemicals Co., Ltd., 182 Tayuhama Shinwari, Kita-ku, Niigata 950-3112 (Japan); Orimo, Shin-ichi [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-08-25

    Stable battery operation of a bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery was demonstrated by using a LiBH{sub 4} electrolyte. The electrochemical activity of insulating elemental sulfur as the positive electrode was enhanced by the mutual dispersion of elemental sulfur and carbon in the composite powders. Subsequently, a tight interface between the sulfur-carbon composite and the LiBH{sub 4} powders was manifested only by cold-pressing owing to the highly deformable nature of the LiBH{sub 4} electrolyte. The high reducing ability of LiBH{sub 4} allows using the use of a Li negative electrode that enhances the energy density. The results demonstrate the interface modification of insulating sulfur and the architecture of an all-solid-state Li-S battery configuration with high energy density.

  4. Imperial Sea View Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy Resources JumpNewTexas:HydrothermallyIFBIdeaEnergyFacility | Open Energy

  5. Grand View-on-Hudson, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainableGlynn County, Georgia: EnergyGorlitzLedge, Michigan:River,

  6. HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS REFERENCE DESIGN AND COST ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M.; Summers, W.; Boltrunis, C.; Lahoda, E.; Allen, D.; Greyvenstein, R.

    2009-05-12

    This report documents a detailed study to determine the expected efficiency and product costs for producing hydrogen via water-splitting using energy from an advanced nuclear reactor. It was determined that the overall efficiency from nuclear heat to hydrogen is high, and the cost of hydrogen is competitive under a high energy cost scenario. It would require over 40% more nuclear energy to generate an equivalent amount of hydrogen using conventional water-cooled nuclear reactors combined with water electrolysis compared to the proposed plant design described herein. There is a great deal of interest worldwide in reducing dependence on fossil fuels, while also minimizing the impact of the energy sector on global climate change. One potential opportunity to contribute to this effort is to replace the use of fossil fuels for hydrogen production by the use of water-splitting powered by nuclear energy. Hydrogen production is required for fertilizer (e.g. ammonia) production, oil refining, synfuels production, and other important industrial applications. It is typically produced by reacting natural gas, naphtha or coal with steam, which consumes significant amounts of energy and produces carbon dioxide as a byproduct. In the future, hydrogen could also be used as a transportation fuel, replacing petroleum. New processes are being developed that would permit hydrogen to be produced from water using only heat or a combination of heat and electricity produced by advanced, high temperature nuclear reactors. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing these processes under a program known as the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). The Republic of South Africa (RSA) also is interested in developing advanced high temperature nuclear reactors and related chemical processes that could produce hydrogen fuel via water-splitting. This report focuses on the analysis of a nuclear hydrogen production system that combines the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), under development by PBMR (Pty.) Ltd. in the RSA, with the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, under development by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in the US as part of the NHI. This work was performed by SRNL, Westinghouse Electric Company, Shaw, PBMR (Pty) Ltd., and Technology Insights under a Technical Consulting Agreement (TCA). Westinghouse Electric, serving as the lead for the PBMR process heat application team, established a cost-shared TCA with SRNL to prepare an updated HyS thermochemical water-splitting process flowsheet, a nuclear hydrogen plant preconceptual design and a cost estimate, including the cost of hydrogen production. SRNL was funded by DOE under the NHI program, and the Westinghouse team was self-funded. The results of this work are presented in this Final Report. Appendices have been attached to provide a detailed source of information in order to document the work under the TCA contract.

  7. Sulfur Emissions from Volcanic A c t i v i t y i n 1985 and 1990 Carmen M. Benkovitz and M. A l t a f Mubaraki

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    APPENDIX C Sulfur Emissions from Volcanic A c t i v i t y i n 1985 and 1990 Carmen M. Benkovitz). Global estimates o f anthropogenic emissions o f sulfur f o r 1985 are approximately 65 Tg S y-l (Benkovi Anthropogenic Sulfur Emissions f o r 1985 and 1990 i n t h i s report). Sulfur from biogenic sources i s emitted

  8. Development of a real-time PCR method for the detection of fossil 16S rDNA fragments of phototrophic sulfur bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    of phototrophic sulfur bacteria in the sediments of Lake Cadagno D. F. RAVASI,1 S. PEDUZZI,1 , 2 V. GUIDI,2 , 3 R sulfur bacteria in the chemocline has been monitored since 1994 with molecular methods such as 16S r sulfur bacteria populations from sediment samples. We detected fossil 16S rDNA of nine populations

  9. New Model to Predict Formation Damage due to Sulfur Deposition in Sour M.A. Mahmoud and A.A. Al-Majed, KFUPM, all SPE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Majed, Abdulaziz Abdullah

    SPE 149535 New Model to Predict Formation Damage due to Sulfur Deposition in Sour Gas Wells M of SPE copyright. Abstract Elemental sulfur (S8) is often present in considerable amounts in sour gas to deposit in the formation. Sulfur deposition can cause severe loss in the pore space available for gas

  10. Attrition resistant, zinc titanate-containing, reduced sulfur sorbents and methods of use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vierheilig, Albert A.; Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.

    2006-06-27

    Reduced sulfur gas species (e.g., H.sub.2S, COS and CS.sub.2) are removed from a gas stream by compositions wherein a zinc titanate ingredient is associated with a metal oxide-aluminate phase material in the same particle species. Nonlimiting examples of metal oxides comprising the compositions include magnesium oxide, zinc oxide, calcium oxide, nickel oxide, etc.

  11. Study on removal of organic sulfur compound by modified activated carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan Huiling; Li Chunhu; Guo Hanxian [Taiyuan Univ. of Technology (China). Research Inst. for Chemical Engineering of Coal

    1997-12-31

    With the price of coal increasing in China, more and more small and medium scale chemical plants are turning to high sulfur coal as the raw material in order to cut cost. However, the major drawback is that the lifetime of the ammonia synthesis catalyst is then reduced greatly because of the high concentration of the sulfur compounds in the synthesis gas, especially organic sulfur, usually CS{sub 2} and COS. The effects of water vapor and experimental temperature on removal of organic sulfur compounds by using a modified activated carbon were studied in this paper. It was found that water vapor had a negative effect on removal of carbon disulfide by activated carbon impregnated with organic amine. The use of activated carbon impregnated with K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} for removal of carbonyl sulfide was also investigated over the temperature range 30--60, the results show a favorable temperature (40) existing for carbonyl sulfide removal. Fixed-bed breakthrough curves for the adsorbent bed were also offered in this paper.

  12. Neon and Sulfur Abundances of Planetary Nebulae in the Magellanic Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Bernard-Salas; S. R. Pottasch; S. Gutenkunst; P. W. Morris; J. R. Houck

    2007-09-20

    The chemical abundances of neon and sulfur for 25 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the Magellanic Clouds are presented. These abundances have been derived using mainly infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope. The implications for the chemical evolution of these elements are discussed. A comparison with similarly obtained abundances of Galactic PNe and HII regions and Magellanic Clouds HII regions is also given. The average neon abundances are 6.0x10(-5) and 2.7x10(-5) for the PNe in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds respectively. These are ~1/3 and 1/6 of the average abundances of Galactic planetary nebulae to which we compare. The average sulfur abundances for the LMC and SMC are respectively 2.7x10(-6) and 1.0x10(-6). The Ne/S ratio (23.5) is on average higher than the ratio found in Galactic PNe (16) but the range of values in both data sets is similar for most of the objects. The neon abundances found in PNe and HII regions agree with each other. It is possible that a few (3-4) of the PNe in the sample have experienced some neon enrichment, but for two of these objects the high Ne/S ratio can be explained by their very low sulfur abundances. The neon and sulfur abundances derived in this paper are also compared to previously published abundances using optical data and photo-ionization models.

  13. Understanding Sulfur Poisoning and Regeneration of Nickel Biomass Conditioning Catalysts using X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yung, M. M.; Cheah, S.; Kuhn, J. N.

    2013-01-01

    The production of biofuels can proceed via a biomass gasification to produce syngas, which can then undergo catalytic conditioning and reforming reactions prior to being sent to a fuel synthesis reactor. Catalysts used for biomass conditioning are plagued by short lifetimes which are a result of, among other things, poisoning. Syngas produced from biomass gasification may contain between 30-300 ppm H2S, depending on the feedstock and gasification conditions, and H2S is a key catalyst poison. In order to overcome catalyst poisoning, either an H2S-tolerant catalyst or an efficient regeneration protocol should be employed. In this study, sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) was used to monitor sulfur species on spent catalyst samples and the transformation of these species from sulfides to sulfates during steam and air regeneration on a Ni/Mg/K/Al2O3 catalyst used to condition biomass-derived syngas. Additionally, nickel K-edge EXAFS and XANES are used to examine the state of nickel species on the catalysts. Post-reaction samples showed the presence of sulfides on the H2S-poisoned nickel catalyst and although some gaseous sulfur species were observed to leave the catalyst bed during regeneration, sulfur remained on the catalyst and a transformation from sulfides to sulfates was observed. The subsequent H2 reduction led to a partial reduction of sulfates back to sulfides. A proposed reaction sequence is presented and recommended regeneration strategies are discussed.

  14. Performance of Sulfur Tolerant Reforming Catalysts for Production of Hydrogen from Jet Fuel Simulants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    Performance of Sulfur Tolerant Reforming Catalysts for Production of Hydrogen from Jet Fuel is a critical path for the use of jet fuels in powering the commercial growth of fuel cell systems for air the fuel through adsorptive methods is not practical for long term operations. The current work describes

  15. Impact of anthropogenic atmospheric nitrogen and sulfur deposition on ocean acidification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahowald, Natalie

    3 and H2SO4) and bases (NH3) alter surface seawater alkalinity, pH, and inorganic carbon storage. We and alkaline in the tropics because of am- monia inputs. However, because most of the excess ammonia Tmol/yr), ammonia (NH3, 4 Tmol/yr), and sulfur dioxide (SO2, 2 Tmol/yr) to the atmosphere (1). Globally

  16. Evidence of Quinone Metabolites of Naphthalene Covalently Bound to Sulfur Nucleophiles of Proteins of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Evidence of Quinone Metabolites of Naphthalene Covalently Bound to Sulfur Nucleophiles of Proteins in the mouse is associated with the covalent binding of electrophilic metabolites to cellular proteins. Epoxide binding to proteins. To identify the nature of reactive metabolites bound to proteins (cysteine residues

  17. Multilayer sulfur-resistant composite metal membranes and methods of making and repairing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Way, J. Douglas; Hatlevik, Oyvind

    2014-07-15

    The invention relates to thin, hydrogen-permeable, sulfur-resistant membranes formed from multi-layers of palladium or palladium-alloy coatings on porous, ceramic or metal supports, methods of making these membranes, methods of repairing layers of these membranes and devices that incorporate these membranes.

  18. Sonic enhanced ash agglomeration and sulfur capture. Quarterly report, January 1996--March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    A major concern with the utilization of coal in directly fired gas turbines is the control of particulate emissions and reduction of sulfur dioxide, and alkali vapor from combustion of coal, upstream of the gas turbine. Much research and development has been sponsored on methods for particulate emissions control and the direct injection of calcium-based sorbents to reduce SO{sub 2} emission levels. The results of this research and development indicate that both acoustic agglomeration of particulates and direct injection of sorbents have the potential to become a significant emissions control strategy. The Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture program focuses upon the application of an MTCI proprietary invention (Patent No. 5,197,399) for simultaneously enhancing sulfur capture and particulate agglomeration of the combustor effluent. This application can be adapted as either a {open_quotes}hot flue gas cleanup{close_quotes} subsystem for the current concepts for combustor islands or as an alternative primary pulse combustor island in which stagging, sulfur capture, particulate agglomeration and control, and alkali gettering as well as NO{sub x} control processes become an integral part of the pulse combustion process.

  19. Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture. Technical progress report, October 1992--December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    A major concern with the utilization of coal in directly fired gas turbines is the control of particulate emissions and reduction of sulfur dioxide, and alkali vapor from combustion of coal, upstream of the gas turbine. Much research and development has been sponsored on methods for particulate emissions control and the direct injection of calcium-based sorbents to reduce SO{sub 2} emission levels. The results of this research and development indicate that both acoustic agglomeration of particulates and direct injection of sorbents have the potential to become a significant emissions control strategy. The Sonic Enhanced Ash Agglomeration and Sulfur Capture program focuses upon the application of an MTCI proprietary invention (Invention Disclosure filed) for simultaneously enhancing sulfur capture and particulate agglomeration of the combustor effluent. This application can be adapted as either a ``hot flue gas cleanup`` subsystem for the current concepts for combustor islands or as an alternative primary pulse combustor island in which slagging, sulfur capture, particulate agglomeration and control, and alkali gettering as well as NO{sub x} control processes become an integral part of the pulse combustion process.

  20. Remote Sensing of Ammonia and Sulfur Dioxide from On-Road Light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    Remote Sensing of Ammonia and Sulfur Dioxide from On-Road Light Duty Vehicles D A N I E L A . B U R by dynamometer (16), remote sensing (17), and recently by a chase vehicle (18). Results from these studies vary

  1. Mechanistic Modeling of Sulfur-Deprived Photosynthesis and Hydrogen Production in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechanistic Modeling of Sulfur-Deprived Photosynthesis and Hydrogen Production in Suspensions linked to the photosynthetic chain in such a way that hydrogen and oxygen production need to be separated- modate the production of hydrogen gas by partially- deactivating O2 evolution activity, leading

  2. Evidence of recovery of Juniperus virginiana trees from sulfur pollution after the Clean Air Act

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nippert, Jesse

    Evidence of recovery of Juniperus virginiana trees from sulfur pollution after the Clean Air Act decades of acidic pollution. Acid deposition over much of the 20th century reduced stomatal conductance and temporal gradients in natural systems. For over a century, the combustion of fossil fuels resulted

  3. 1794 J. Phys. Chem. 1988, 92, 1794-1803 Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Sulfur Ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellison, Barney

    in combustion p r o c e s ~ e s . ~ ~ ~Early workes focused on the pho- toelectron spectra of 02-,OH-, HOC, CH30 in air pollution and acid rain. Less well studied are the divalent, reduced forms of sulfur important in combustion. Another, CH3SCH2-,is an example of a carbanion with an electron

  4. KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2005-01-01

    The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and the hot-gas desulfurization using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term process development efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a micro bubble reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 0.059-0.87 seconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperature, H{sub 2}S concentration, reaction pressure, and catalyst loading on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 62-78 v% hydrogen, 3,000-7,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,500-3,500 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to a micro bubble reactor are 50 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 125-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-170 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the bubble reactor is maintained at 2 for all the reaction experiment runs.

  5. KINETICS OF DIRECT OXIDATION OF H2S IN COAL GAS TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2004-01-01

    The direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and the hot-gas desulfurization using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process. The objective of this research is to support the near- and long-term process development efforts to commercialize this direct oxidation technology. The objectives of this research are to measure kinetics of direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and moisture, using 160-{micro}m C-500-04 alumina catalyst particles and a micro bubble reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur were carried out for the space time range of 1-6 milliseconds at 125-155 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperature, moisture concentration, reaction pressure on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into liquid elemental sulfur. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 70 v% hydrogen, 2,500-7,500-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,250-3,750 ppmv sulfur dioxide, and 0-15 vol% moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to a micro bubble reactor are 100 cm{sup 3}/min at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 125-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-170 psia.

  6. Review: Car Country: An Environmental History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karalus, Daniel E

    2013-01-01

    Review: Car Country: An Environmental History By ChristopherUSA Wells, Christopher W. Car Country: An Environmentalabout his experiences with cars. He describes the joy of

  7. History of Load Participation in ERCOT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Mark

    2011-10-25

    Presentation on demand integration by ERCOT for a DOE Workshop. Covers history of load participation in ERCOT from 2002 to present.

  8. Employee Women's History Month Celebration (DC)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Celebrate Women's History Month with the Department of Energy headquarters, and hear from remarkable game-changing women and leading DOE engagement programs.

  9. Regional characteristics, tilt domains, and extensional history...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Report Number 303 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Regional characteristics, tilt domains, and extensional history of the...

  10. High Performance Builder Spotlight: Clifton View Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    Clifton View Homes’s remodel of a 1962 rambler, on Whidbey Island in Washington State, cut energy costs by two-thirds.

  11. Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur from Coal-Derived Fuel Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, Todd H.; Berry, David A.; Lyons, K. David; Beer, Stephen K.; Monahan, Michael J.

    2001-11-06

    The development of low cost, highly efficient, desulfurization technology with integrated sulfur recovery remains a principle barrier issue for Vision 21 integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation plants. In this plan, the U. S. Department of Energy will construct ultra-clean, modular, co-production IGCC power plants each with chemical products tailored to meet the demands of specific regional markets. The catalysts employed in these co-production modules, for example water-gas-shift and Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, are readily poisoned by hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), a sulfur contaminant, present in the coal-derived fuel gases. To prevent poisoning of these catalysts, the removal of H{sub 2}S down to the parts-per-billion level is necessary. Historically, research into the purification of coal-derived fuel gases has focused on dry technologies that offer the prospect of higher combined cycle efficiencies as well as improved thermal integration with co-production modules. Primarily, these concepts rely on a highly selective process separation step to remove low concentrations of H{sub 2}S present in the fuel gases and produce a concentrated stream of sulfur bearing effluent. This effluent must then undergo further processing to be converted to its final form, usually elemental sulfur. Ultimately, desulfurization of coal-derived fuel gases may cost as much as 15% of the total fixed capital investment (Chen et al., 1992). It is, therefore, desirable to develop new technology that can accomplish H{sub 2}S separation and direct conversion to elemental sulfur more efficiently and with a lower initial fixed capital investment.

  12. Analyzing organic sulfur in coal/char: Integrated mild gasification/XANES methods. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, S.R. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes; Huffman, G.P. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The overall goal of this study is to improve the understanding of sulfur in coals/chars via the use of combined advanced non-destructive and advanced destructive methods of sulfur analysis. This study combines selective oxidation, analytical pyrolysis, and sulfur X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure Spectroscopy (XANES) analysis. Samples with a wide variety of sulfur contents, (0.63% to 4.40%) have been prepared for use in this study. This includes steam gasification chars, oxidized coals and desulfurized coals as well of the original unaltered coals. Mild pyrolysis and preliminary XANES data shows that the sulfur chemistry of gasification chars is significantly different from that of the original coals. Mild pyrolysis of the samples that were oxidized with peroxyacetic acid showed that the level of simple thiophene structures observed in the pyrolysis products declines with increasing levels of oxidation. Sulfur XANES spectra of treated samples showed various effects depending on the treatment severity. For the less severely treated samples (demineralization and solvent extraction), the XANES spectra were similar, although not identical, to the untreated coal spectra, whereas the more severe treatments (steam at 450 C; peroxyacetic acid at 25 C) showed preferential oxidation of one or more sulfur-bearing phases in the original coal. Additional samples have recently been examined by XANES and W-band EPR and the data is currently being processed and evaluated.

  13. Interfacial reaction dependent performance of hollow carbon nanosphere - sulfur composite as a cathode for Li-S battery

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Gu, Meng; Wagner, Michael J.; Hays, Kevin A.; Chen, Junzheng; Li, Xiaohong S.; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Ji -Guang; Liu, Jun; et al

    2015-05-26

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a promising energy storage system due to its high energy density, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness of sulfur. However, there are still a number of challenges, such as low Coulombic efficiency and poor long-term cycling stability, impeding the commercialization of Li-S battery. The electrochemical performance of Li-S battery is closely related with the interfacial reactions occurring between hosting substrate and active sulfur species which are poorly conducting at fully oxidized and reduced states. Here, we correlate the relationship between the performance and interfacial reactions in the Li-S battery system, using a hollow carbon nanosphere (HCNS) withmore »highly graphitic character as hosting substrate for sulfur. With an appropriate amount of sulfur loading, HCNS/S composite exhibits excellent electrochemical performance because of the fast interfacial reactions between HCNS and the polysulfides. However, further increase of sulfur loading leads to increased formation of highly resistive insoluble reaction products (Li2S2/Li2S) which limits the reversibility of the interfacial reactions and results in poor electrochemical performance. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the importance of the interfacial reaction reversibility in the whole electrode system on achieving high capacity and long cycle life of sulfur cathode for Li-S batteries.« less

  14. Science History - 2013 | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for high-energy physics. Former Argonne director Albert Crewe stands beside this integral piece called a Cockcroft-Walton preaccelerator. (Click to view larger.) 50 years ago,...

  15. Toto the Robot Figure 1. Toto, front view. Figure 2. Toto, rear view.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indiana University

    Toto the Robot Figure 1. Toto, front view. Figure 2. Toto, rear view. Toto the Robot was created so a robot, helps account for his lack of verbal charm. Second, some younger children may recognize in Toto

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    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P.R. Lawson - History of Stellar Interferometry History of Stellar Interferometry from 1868 to the present P.R. Lawson Jet Propulsion Laboratory 4 8 0 0 O a k G r o v e D r i v e P a sad e n a , CA 9 1 1 0 9 #12;P.R. Lawson - History of Stellar Interferometry #12;P.R. Lawson - History of Stellar

  17. MyRED Mobiles Student Views

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    tap on Shopping Cart, then select term. Tap on Class Search to find courses to place in your shoppingMyRED Mobiles Student Views Mar 2014 Page 1 Login/Sign-in Enter your MyRED /TrueYou credentials. Tap on any Term bar to view a schedule for the selected term. Home Screen/Main Menu Class Schedule

  18. MyRED Mobile Student Views

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    tap on Shopping Cart, then select term. Tap on Class Search to find courses to place in your shoppingMyRED Mobile Student Views Mar 2014 Page 1 Login/Sign-in Enter your MyRED /TrueYou credentials. Tap on any Term bar to view a schedule for the selected term. Home Screen/Main Menu Class Schedule Screen Tap

  19. Division of Human Resources Criminal History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Steven D.

    include a local criminal records check through local law enforcement agencies. The typical turnaround timeDivision of Human Resources Criminal History Background Check Procedures Questions (813) 9742970 HR Services/Background Checks Rev. 12/2012 Criminal History Background Check The University of South Florida

  20. WellcomeHISTORY Issue 47, summer 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    WellcomeHISTORY Issue 47, summer 2011 HOMICIDE FORENSICS The scientific investigation of murder in 20th-century England #12;2 | Wellcome HISTORY "When it is discovered that a murder has been committed, the scene of that murder should instantly become as the Palace of the Sleeping Beauty. Not a grain of dust