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Sample records for vieux desert band

  1. UNLV DESERT SUNRISE DESERT SUNRISE HOME Project Summary

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    UNLV DESERT SUNRISE DESERT SUNRISE HOME Project Summary Desert Sunrise is a net-zero site energy home that combines the culture and traditions of the Moapa Band of Paiutes of Southern Nevada with contemporary, evidence-based design practices to produce a safe, comfortable and energy efficient home in the heart of the Mojave Desert. Relevance of Project to the Goals of the Competition Desert Sunrise was designed using a rigorous research approach to understand how advanced building technologies

  2. Desert Peak EGS Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Desert Peak EGS Project presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  3. DESERT SUNLIGHT | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DESERT SUNLIGHT DESERT SUNLIGHT DESERT SUNLIGHT DESERT SUNLIGHT PROJECT SUMMARY In September 2011, the Department of Energy issued two partial loan guarantees of $1.5 billion in total under the Financial Institution Partnership Program (FIPP) to finance Desert Sunlight, a 550-MW photovoltaic (PV) solar generation plant. The facility is jointly owned by NextEra, General Electric, and Sumitomo of America and reached full commercial operations in January 2015. Desert Sunlight is one of the largest

  4. DESERT SUNLIGHT | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DESERT SUNLIGHT DESERT SUNLIGHT DOE-LPO_Project-Posters_PV_Desert-Sunlight.pdf (249.32 KB) More Documents & Publications Hearing Before the House Natural Resources Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations DESERT SUNLIGHT Powering New Markets: Utility-scale Photovoltaic Solar GENESIS

  5. Desert Peak Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desert Peak Geothermal Area (Redirected from Desert Peak Area) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Desert Peak Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2...

  6. Desert Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Desert Solar Place: Apple Valley, California Zip: 92308 Sector: Renewable Energy, Solar Product: Selling and installing commercial renewable energy projects, mainly...

  7. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Operation Clean Desert

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ZONE > Operation Clean Desert NNSANFO Language Options U.S. DOENNSA - Nevada Field Office Operation Clean Desert FUN FOR ALL AGES Dr. Proton Graphic Adam - Smiling Operation ...

  8. Desert Wind Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind Power Jump to: navigation, search Name Desert Wind Power Facility Desert Wind Power Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status Proposed Developer...

  9. Desert landscape irrigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinones, R.

    1995-06-01

    Industrialization can take place in an arid environment if a long term, overall water management program is developed. The general rule to follow is that recharge must equal or exceed use. The main problem encountered in landscape projects is that everyone wants a lush jungle setting, tall shade trees, ferns, with a variety of floral arrangements mixed in. What we want, what we can afford, and what we get are not always the same. Vegetation that requires large quantities of water are not native to any desert. Surprisingly; there are various types of fruit trees, and vegetables that will thrive in the desert. Peaches, plums, nut trees, do well with drip irrigation as well as tomatoes. Shaded berry plans will also do well, the strawberry being one. In summary; if we match our landscape to our area, we can then design our irrigation system to maintain our landscape and grow a variety of vegetation in any arid or semiarid environment. The application of science and economics to landscaping has now come of age.

  10. Supersymmetry without the Desert

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nomura, Yasunori; Poland, David

    2006-09-26

    Naturalness of electroweak symmetry breaking in weak scale supersymmetric theories may suggest the absence of the conventional supersymmetric desert. We present a simple, realistic framework for supersymmetry in which (most of) the virtues of the supersymmetric desert are naturally reproduced without having a large energy interval above the weak scale. The successful supersymmetric prediction for the low-energy gauge couplings is reproduced due to a gauged R symmetry present in the effective theory at the weak scale. The observable sector superpotential naturally takes the form of the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model, but without being subject to the Landau pole constraints up to the conventional unification scale. Supersymmetry breaking masses are generated by the F-term and D-term VEVs of singlet and U(1){sub R} gauge fields, as well as by anomaly mediation, at a scale not far above the weak scale. We study the resulting pattern of supersymmetry breaking masses in detail, and find that it can be quite distinct. We construct classes of explicit models within this framework, based on higher dimensional unified theories with TeV-sized extra dimensions. A similar model based on a non-R symmetry is also presented. These models have a rich phenomenology at the TeV scale, and allow for detailed analyses of, e.g., electroweak symmetry breaking.

  11. Desert Sky Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sky Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Desert Sky Wind Farm Facility Desert Sky Wind Farm Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service...

  12. Erosion Resistance Index (ERI) to Assess Surface Stability in Desert Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamada, Yuki; Grippo, Mark A.

    2015-11-01

    A new spectral index—erosion resistance index (ERI)—was developed to assess erosion risks in desert landscapes. The index was developed by applying trigonometry to the combination of the green/red band-ratio and the red/near infrared band-ratio from very high spatial resolution imagery. The resultant ERI maps showed spatially cohesive distributions of high and low index values across the study areas. High index values were observed over areas that were resistant to erosion (such as desert pavement and dense vegetation), while low index values overlapped with areas likely dominated by loose sandy soils, such as stream beds and access roads. Although further investigation is warranted, this new index, ERI, shows promise for the assessment of erosion risks in desert regions.

  13. Desert Queen Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ,"group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":"" Hide Map Location Fernley, NV County Churchill County, NV Geothermal Area Desert Queen Geothermal Area Geothermal Region Northwest...

  14. Desert Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Desert Hot Springs Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Desert Hot...

  15. EIS-0448: First Solar Desert Sunlight Project in Riverside County...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8: First Solar Desert Sunlight Project in Riverside County, CA EIS-0448: First Solar Desert Sunlight Project in Riverside County, CA June 24, 2011 EIS-0448: Final Environmental ...

  16. Core Analysis At Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Core Analysis At Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) Exploration...

  17. Gas Flux Sampling At Desert Peak Area (Lechler And Coolbaugh...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desert Peak Area (Lechler And Coolbaugh, 2007) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Desert Peak Area (Lechler And...

  18. Cuttings Analysis At Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) Exploration...

  19. California Desert Fish Farm Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desert Fish Farm Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name California Desert Fish Farm Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  20. BLM California Desert District Office | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    California Desert District Office Jump to: navigation, search Name: California Desert District Office Address: 22835 Calle San Juan De Los Lagos Place: Moreno Valley, CA Zip: 92553...

  1. Geothermometry At Desert Queen Area (Garchar & Arehart, 2008...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desert Queen Area (Garchar & Arehart, 2008) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermometry At Desert Queen Area (Garchar &...

  2. Reflection Survey At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP)...

  3. Refraction Survey At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Refraction Survey At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP)...

  4. Thermal Gradient Holes At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP)...

  5. Desert Sunlight Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sunlight Solar Power Plant Facility Desert Sunlight Sector Solar Facility Type Photovoltaic Developer First Solar Location Desert Center, California Coordinates 33.7541038,...

  6. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- News & Views Camp Desert Rock

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Camp Desert Rock Photo - Camp Desert Rock Camp Desert Rock, also known as Desert Atom Camp, Nevada, was home to the U.S. Army's Atomic Maneuver Battalion in the 1950s. More than 2,300 soldiers were trained here in 1955. The 100 semi-permanent buildings and more than 500 tents often were filled to the 6,000 personnel capacity. Desert Rock Airport, with its 7,500 foot runway, was built on the former Camp Desert Rock. At peak operation Camp Desert Rock comprised of 100 semi-permanent buildings,

  7. California Desert Native Plants Act | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    California Desert Native Plants Act Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: California Desert Native Plants ActLegal...

  8. BLM West Desert District Office | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    West Desert District Office Jump to: navigation, search Name: BLM West Desert District Office Place: Salt Lake City, Utah Phone Number: (801) 977-4300 ParentHolding Organization:...

  9. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Desert Peak Area (Wisian & Blackwell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Desert Peak Area (Wisian & Blackwell, 2004) Exploration Activity...

  10. High performance robotic traverse of desert terrain.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whittaker, William

    2004-09-01

    This report presents tentative innovations to enable unmanned vehicle guidance for a class of off-road traverse at sustained speeds greater than 30 miles per hour. Analyses and field trials suggest that even greater navigation speeds might be achieved. The performance calls for innovation in mapping, perception, planning and inertial-referenced stabilization of components, hosted aboard capable locomotion. The innovations are motivated by the challenge of autonomous ground vehicle traverse of 250 miles of desert terrain in less than 10 hours, averaging 30 miles per hour. GPS coverage is assumed to be available with localized blackouts. Terrain and vegetation are assumed to be akin to that of the Mojave Desert. This terrain is interlaced with networks of unimproved roads and trails, which are a key to achieving the high performance mapping, planning and navigation that is presented here.

  11. Kick-Starting the School Year with Operation Clean Desert

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    September 10, 2012 Kick-Starting the School Year with Operation Clean Desert School is back in session and Operation Clean Desert was there to give it a kick start! On August 21, 2012, the Operation Clean Desert Teacher's Guide made its debut along with the recently revised companion activity book during the 2012 Educator Appreciation Day & Back To School Fair at The Mirage in Las Vegas, NV. Hundreds of teachers attended the event (hosted by MGM Resorts International) and approximately 150

  12. Desert Peak II Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Facility Desert Peak II Sector Geothermal energy Location Information Location Churchill, Nevada Coordinates 39.753854931241, -118.95378112793 Loading map......

  13. Structural Analysis of the Desert Peak-Brady Geothermal Fields...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Structures and Geothermal Reservoirs in the Humboldt Structural Zone Citation James E. Faulds,Larry J. Garside,Gary L. Oppliger. 2003. Structural Analysis of the Desert...

  14. City of Palm Desert - Energy Independence Program | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    conditioners Windows Doors Other EE Program Info Sector Name Local Administrator Palm Desert Website http:www.cityofpalmdesert.orgIndex.aspx?page484 State California Program...

  15. Palm Desert, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desert, California: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 33.7222445, -116.3744556 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingse...

  16. Desert Hot Springs, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Riverside County, California. It falls under California's 41st congressional district.12 Registered Energy Companies in Desert Hot Springs, California BCL Associates Inc...

  17. Desert Peak East EGS Project; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    East EGS Project; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Desert Peak East EGS Project; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report DOE 2010 Geothermal...

  18. Desert Hills, Arizona: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desert Hills, Arizona: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 34.5538996, -114.3724569 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappin...

  19. America's Atomic Army: The Historical Archaeology of Camp Desert Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan R. Edwards

    2007-11-02

    Established in 1951, Camp Desert Rock served as the training ground for America's 'Atomic Army'. For the next six years, U.S. ground troops traveled to the Nevada desert to participate in military maneuvers during atmospheric atomic weapons testing. Nearly 60,000 soldiers received physical and psychological training in atomic warfare. Abandoned when atmospheric testing ended, Camp Desert Rock was dismantled and its buildings moved to other locations. Today, the camp appears as a sterile expanse of desert marked by rock-lined tent platforms, concrete foundations, and trash scatters. Although visually unimposing, the site is rich with the history of America's nuclear testing program.

  20. Ground Magnetics At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Magnetics At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Magnetics At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE...

  1. InSAR At Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United States by developing basic measurements and interpretations that will assist reservoir management and expansion at Bradys, Desert Peak and the Desert Peak EGS study...

  2. Field Mapping At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Field Mapping At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

  3. Ground Gravity Survey At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP)...

  4. Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Western Area Power Administration-Desert Southwest Region

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Categorical Exclusion Determinations issued by Western Area Power Administration-Desert Southwest Region.

  5. InfiniBand Interconnects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MPICH2 MVAPICH2 Equipment InfiniBand 4x 10 GigE Fujitsu switch NetEffect NIC Equipment & Benchmarks Latency Results Bandwidth Results Bidirectional Bandwidth...

  6. Desert View Highlands, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Desert View Highlands is a census-designated place in Los Angeles County, California.1...

  7. Desert Shores, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Desert Shores is a census-designated place in Imperial County, California.1 References ...

  8. LPO5-002-Proj-Poster-PV-DesertSunlight

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DESERT SUNLIGHT By working with 14 commercial lending partners, Desert Sunlight helped pave the way for future utility-scale photovoltaic solar deals. INVESTING in AMERICAN ENERGY OWNERS NextEra Energy, General Electric & Sumitomo of America LOCATION Riverside County, California LOAN AMOUNT $1.5 Billion ISSUANCE DATE September 2011 GENERATION CAPACITY 550 MW PROJECTED ANNUAL GENERATION 1,060,000 MWh CLIMATE BENEFIT 614,000 Metric Tons of C0 2 Prevented Annually

  9. Snails, stable iostopes, and southwestern desert paleoclimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharpe, S.E.; Whelan, J.F.; Forester, R.M.; Burdett, J.

    1995-09-01

    Modern and fossil molluscs (snails) occur in many localities in and semi-arid regions throughout the desert southwest. Live terrestrial snails are found under rocks and in forest litter and aquatic taxa inhabit springs, seeps, and/or wetlands. Molluscs uptake local water during their growing season (spring and summer) and incorporate its delta 180 signature into their shells. Preliminary 180 analysis of modem shells from the southern Great Basin indicates that the shells probably reflect meteoric water 180 values during the growing season. This provides a way to estimate the delta 180 value of precipitation and, thereby, the source of the moisture-bearing air masses. Significant 180 variability in shells analyzed include geographic location, elevation, taxonomy, and habitat (terrestrial, spring, or wetland). We found a rough inverse correlation with elevation in modem shells from the Spring Range in southern Nevada. The delta 180 values of modem and fossil shells are also very different; modem values in this location are much higher than those from nearby late Pleistocene-age molluscs suggesting that the Pleistocene summers were variously colder and wetter than today or less evaporative (more humid). Assuming shell material directly reflects the 180 of the growing-season environment, comparison of modem and fossil shell delta 180 values can potentially identify changes in air-mass moisture sources and can help to define seasonal precipitation change through time. Comprehension and quantification of community and isotopic variability in modem gastropods is required to create probabilistic valid transfer functions with fossil materials. Valid inferences about past environmental conditions can then be established with known confidence limits.

  10. PSInSAR At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    PSInSAR At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: PSInSAR At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP)...

  11. EA-1912: Midway-Benton No. 1 Rebuild Project, near town of Desert...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Midway-Benton No. 1 Rebuild Project, near town of Desert Aire, Benton County, WA EA-1912: Midway-Benton No. 1 Rebuild Project, near town of Desert Aire, Benton County, WA...

  12. EIS-0448: First Solar Desert Sunlight Project in Riverside County, CA |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 8: First Solar Desert Sunlight Project in Riverside County, CA EIS-0448: First Solar Desert Sunlight Project in Riverside County, CA June 24, 2011 EIS-0448: Final Environmental Impact Statement Desert Sunlight Solar Farm Project, California June 24, 2011 EIS-0448: Notice of Adoption of an Environmental Impact Statement First Solar Desert Sunlight Solar Farm Project October 6, 2011 EIS-0448: Record of Decision Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to First Solar, Inc., for the

  13. Science on the Hill: Fragile life underfoot has big impact on desert

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fragile life underfoot has big impact on desert Fragile life underfoot has big impact on desert Anyone who spends time in the high-desert landscape of Northern New Mexico has come across biological soil crusts, or biocrusts. This fragile crust fills a pivotal ecosystem niche. However, its survival is being challenged by threats from climate change and man-made disturbance. June 13, 2016 Science on the Hill: Fragile life underfoot has big impact on desert For years, space scientists thought the

  14. Banded electromagnetic stator core

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fanning, Alan W.; Gonzales, Aaron A.; Patel, Mahadeo R.; Olich, Eugene E.

    1996-01-01

    A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially adjoining groups of flat laminations disposed about a common centerline axis and collectively defining a central bore and a discontinuous outer perimeter, with adjacent groups diverging radially outwardly to form V-shaped gaps. An annular band surrounds the groups and is predeterminedly tensioned to clamp together the laminations, and has a predetermined flexibility in a radial direction to form substantially straight bridge sections between the adjacent groups.

  15. Banded electromagnetic stator core

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fanning, A.W.; Gonzales, A.A.; Patel, M.R.; Olich, E.E.

    1994-04-05

    A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially adjoining groups of flat laminations disposed about a common centerline axis and collectively defining a central bore and a discontinuous outer perimeter, with adjacent groups diverging radially outwardly to form V-shaped gaps. An annular band surrounds the groups and is predeterminedly tensioned to clamp together the laminations, and has a predetermined flexibility in a radial direction to form substantially straight bridge sections between the adjacent groups. 5 figures.

  16. Banded electromagnetic stator core

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fanning, A.W.; Gonzales, A.A.; Patel, M.R.; Olich, E.E.

    1996-06-11

    A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially adjoining groups of flat laminations disposed about a common centerline axis and collectively defining a central bore and a discontinuous outer perimeter, with adjacent groups diverging radially outwardly to form V-shaped gaps. An annular band surrounds the groups and is predeterminedly tensioned to clamp together the laminations, and has a predetermined flexibility in a radial direction to form substantially straight bridge sections between the adjacent groups. 5 figs.

  17. Banded electromagnetic stator core

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fanning, Alan W.; Gonzales, Aaron A.; Patel, Mahadeo R.; Olich, Eugene E.

    1994-01-01

    A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially adjoining groups of flat laminations disposed about a common centerline axis and collectively defining a central bore and a discontinuous outer perimeter, with adjacent groups diverging radially outwardly to form V-shaped gaps. An annular band surrounds the groups and is predeterminedly tensioned to clamp together the laminations, and has a predetermined flexibility in a radial direction to form substantially straight bridge sections between the adjacent groups.

  18. Broad band waveguide spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldman, Don S.

    1995-01-01

    A spectrometer for analyzing a sample of material utilizing a broad band source of electromagnetic radiation and a detector. The spectrometer employs a waveguide possessing an entry and an exit for the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the source. The waveguide further includes a surface between the entry and exit portions which permits interaction between the electromagnetic radiation passing through the wave guide and a sample material. A tapered portion forms a part of the entry of the wave guide and couples the electromagnetic radiation emanating from the source to the waveguide. The electromagnetic radiation passing from the exit of the waveguide is captured and directed to a detector for analysis.

  19. Dramatic Demand Reduction In The Desert Southwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehm, Robert; Hsieh, Sean; Lee, Joon; Baghzouz, Yahia; Cross, Andrew; Chatterjee, Sarah

    2015-07-06

    This report summarizes a project that was funded to the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV), with subcontractors Pulte Homes and NV Energy. The project was motivated by the fact that locations in the Desert Southwest portion of the US demonstrate very high peak electrical demands, typically in the late afternoons in the summer. These high demands often require high priced power to supply the needs, and the large loads can cause grid supply problems. An approach was proposed through this contact that would reduce the peak electrical demands to an anticipated 65% of what code-built houses of the similar size would have. It was proposed to achieve energy reduction through four approaches applied to a development of 185 homes in northwest part of Las Vegas named Villa Trieste. First, the homes would all be highly energy efficient. Secondly, each house would have a PV array installed on it. Third, an advanced demand response technique would be developed to allow the resident to have some control over the energy used. Finally, some type of battery storage would be used in the project. Pulte Homes designed the houses. The company considered initial cost vs. long-term savings and chose options that had relatively short paybacks. HERS (Home Energy Rating Service) ratings for the homes are approximately 43 on this scale. On this scale, code-built homes rate at 100, zero energy homes rate a 0, and Energy Star homes are 85. In addition a 1.764 Wp (peak Watt) rated PV array was used on each house. This was made up of solar shakes that were in visual harmony with the roofing material used. A demand response tool was developed to control the amount of electricity used during times of peak demand. While demand response techniques have been used in the utility industry for some time, this particular approach is designed to allow the customer to decide the degree of participation in the response activity. The temperature change in the residence can be decided by the residents by

  20. Desert Peak East EGS Project; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review Report | Department of Energy East EGS Project; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Desert Peak East EGS Project; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report DOE 2010 Geothermal Technologies Program Peer Review egs_008_zemach.pdf (182.67 KB) More Documents & Publications Feasibility of EGS Development at Bradys Hot Springs, Nevada Concept Testing and Development at the Raft River Geothermal Field, Idaho Creation of an Enhanced Geothermal System

  1. The Mystery of the Gun Turret in the Desert

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, R. D.

    2015-11-30

    The mystery of the gun turret in the desert began with an ingenious idea: to develop a reusable open-air line of sight diagnostic device to support LLNL’s early nuclear weapons development efforts. Obtained from the Mare Island Navy Shipyard (MINS) in January 1957, the gun turret traveled by ship to the Naval Construction Battalion base at Port Hueneme, California, and then by truck to Area 2 in the Yucca Flats valley at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS).

  2. Fire Impacts on the Mojave Desert Ecosystem: Literature Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenstermaker Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) is located within the Mojave Desert, which is the driest region in North America. Precipitation on the NNSS varies from an annual average of 130 millimeters (mm; 5.1 inches) with a minimum of 47 mm (1.9 inches) and maximum of 328 mm (12.9 inches) over the past 15 year period to an annual average of 205 mm (8.1 inches) with an annual minimum of 89 mm (3.5 inches) and maximum of 391 mm (15.4 inches) for the same time period; for a Frenchman Flat location at 970 meters (m; 3182 feet) and a Pahute Mesa location at 1986 m (6516 feet), respectively. The combination of aridity and temperature extremes has resulted in sparsely vegetated basins (desert shrub plant communities) to moderately vegetated mountains (mixed coniferous forest plant communities); both plant density and precipitation increase with increasing elevation. Whereas some plant communities have evolved under fire regimes and are dependent upon fire for seed germination, plant communities within the Mojave Desert are not dependent on a fire regime and therefore are highly impacted by fire (Brown and Minnich, 1986; Brooks, 1999). As noted by Johansen (2003) natural range fires are not prevalent in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts because there is not enough vegetation present (too many shrub interspaces) to sustain a fire. Fire research and hence publications addressing fires in the Southwestern United States (U.S.) have therefore focused on forest, shrub-steppe and grassland fires caused by both natural and anthropogenic ignition sources. In the last few decades, however, invasion of mid-elevation shrublands by non-native Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens and Bromus tectorum (Hunter, 1991) have been highly correlated with increased fire frequency (Brooks and Berry, 2006; Brooks and Matchett, 2006). Coupled with the impact of climate change, which has already been shown to be playing a role in increased forest fires (Westerling et al., 2006), it is likely that the fire

  3. 2-M Probe At Desert Peak Area (Sladek, Et Al., 2007) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: 2-M Probe At Desert Peak Area (Sladek, Et Al., 2007) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  4. Stepout-Deepening Wells At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Stepout-Deepening Wells At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location San Emidio...

  5. Flow Test At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Flow Test At San Emidio Desert Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location San Emidio...

  6. EIS-0448: Department of Energy Loan Guarantee to First Solar for the Proposed Desert Sunlight Solar Farm Project, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    First Solar Desert Sunlight Solar Farm (DSSF) Project, proposes to develop a 550-megawatt photovoltaic solar project and proposes to facilitate the construction and operation of the Red Bluff Substation, California Desert Conservation Area (CDCA) Plan, Riverside County, California.

  7. Band anticrossing in dilute nitrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shan, W.; Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Wu, J.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E.

    2003-12-23

    Alloying III-V compounds with small amounts of nitrogen leads to dramatic reduction of the fundamental band-gap energy in the resulting dilute nitride alloys. The effect originates from an anti-crossing interaction between the extended conduction-band states and localized N states. The interaction splits the conduction band into two nonparabolic subbands. The downward shift of the lower conduction subband edge is responsible for the N-induced reduction of the fundamental band-gap energy. The changes in the conduction band structure result in significant increase in electron effective mass and decrease in the electron mobility, and lead to a large enhance of the maximum doping level in GaInNAs doped with group VI donors. In addition, a striking asymmetry in the electrical activation of group IV and group VI donors can be attributed to mutual passivation process through formation of the nearest neighbor group-IV donor nitrogen pairs.

  8. CO2 EFFECTS ON MOJAVE DESERT PLANT INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. A. DEFALCO; G. C. FERNANDEZ; S. D. SMITH; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    Seasonal and interannual droughts characteristic of deserts have the potential to modify plant interactions as atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations continue to rise. At the Nevada Desert FACE (free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment) facility in the northern Mojave Desert, the effects of elevated atmospheric C02 (550 vs. ambient {approx}360 {micro}mol mol{sup -1}) on plant interactions were examined during two years of high and low rainfall. Results suggest that CO{sub 2} effects on the interaction between native species and their understory herbs are dependent on the strength of competition when rainfall is plentiful, but are unimportant during annual drought. Seasonal rainfall for 1999 was 23% the long-term average for the area, and neither elevated CO{sub 2} nor the low production of herbaceous neighbors had an effect on relative growth rate (RGR, d{sup -1}) and reproductive effort (RE, number of flowers g{sup -1}) for Achnatherum hymenoides (early season perennial C{sub 3} grass), Pleuraphis rigida (late season perennial C{sub 4} grass), and Larrea tridentata (evergreen C{sub 3} shrub). In contrast, 1998 received 213% the average rainfall. Consequently, the decrease in RGR and increase in RE for Achnatherum, whose period of growth overlaps directly with that of its neighbors, was exaggerated at elevated CO{sub 2}. However, competitive effects of neighbors on Eriogonum trichopes (a winter annual growing in shrub interspaces), Pleuraphis and Larrea were not affected by elevated CO{sub 2}, and possible explanations are discussed. Contrary to expectations, the invasive annual neighbor Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens had little influence on target plant responses because densities in 1998 and 1999 at this site were well below those found in other studies where it has negatively affected perennial plant growth. The extent that elevated CO{sub 2} reduces the performance of Achnatherum in successive years to cause its loss from the plant community depends more on future pressure

  9. Project title: Stimulation at Desert Peak and Bradys reservoirs: modeling

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with the coupled THM code FEHM | Department of Energy Project title: Stimulation at Desert Peak and Bradys reservoirs: modeling with the coupled THM code FEHM Project title: Stimulation at Desert Peak and Bradys reservoirs: modeling with the coupled THM code FEHM Project title: Stimulation at Desert Peak and Bradys reservoirs: modeling with the coupled THM code FEHM presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. kelkar_peer2013.pdf (496.77 KB) More

  10. Biotic Processes Regulating the Carbon Balance of Desert Ecosystems - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowak, Robert S; Smith, Stanley D; Evans, Dave; Ogle, Kiona; Fenstermaker, Lynn

    2012-12-13

    Our results from the 10-year elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration study at the Nevada Desert FACE (Free-air CO{sub 2} Enrichment) Facility (NDFF) indicate that the Mojave Desert is a dynamic ecosystem with the capacity to respond quickly to environmental changes. The Mojave Desert ecosystem is accumulating carbon (C), and over the 10-year experiment, C accumulation was significantly greater under elevated [CO{sub 2}] than under ambient, despite great fluctuations in C inputs from year to year and even apparent reversals in which [CO{sub 2}] treatment had greater C accumulations.

  11. Genomic insights into salt adaptation in a desert poplar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Tao; Wang, Junyi; Zhou, Gongke; Yue, Zhen; Hu, Quanjun; Chen, Yan; Liu, Bingbing; Qiu, Qiang; Wang, Zhuo; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Kun; Jaing, Dechun; Gou, Caiyun; Yu, Lili; Zhan, Dongliang; Zhou, Ran; Luo, Wenchun; Ma, Hui; Yang, Yongzhi; Pan, Shengkai; Fang, Dongming; Luo, Yadan; Wang, Xia; Wang, Gaini; Wang, Juan; Wang, Qian; Lu, Xu; Chen, Zhe; Liu, Jinchao; Lu, Yao; Yin, Ye; Yang, Huanming; Abbott, Richard; Wu, Yuxia; Wan, Dongshi; Li, Jia; Yin, Tongming; Yin, Tongming; Lascoux, Martin; DiFazio, Steven P; Tuskan, Gerald A; Wang, Jun; Jianquan, Liu

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high economic and ecological importance of forests, our knowledge of the genomic evolution of trees under salt stress remains very limited. Here we report the genome sequence of the desert poplar, Populus euphratica, which exhibits high tolerance to sa lt stress. Its genome is very similar and collinear to that of the closely related mesophytic congener, P trichocarpa. However, we find that several gene families likely to be involved in tolerance to salt stress contain significantly more gene copies within the P euphratica lineage. Furthermore, genes showing evidence of positive selection are significantly enriched in functional categories related to salt stress. Some of these genes, and others within the same categories, are significantly upregulated under salt stress relative to their expression in another salt-sensitive poplar. Our results provide an important background for understanding tree adaptation to salt stress and facilitating the genetic improvement of cultivated poplars for saline soils.

  12. VP of Transmission System Asset Management for Desert Southwest Region (Maintenance Manager)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    (See Frequently Asked Questions for more information). Where would I be working? Western Area Power Administration Desert Southwest Region Maintenance (G5000) 615 S. 43rd Avenue Phoenix, AZ 85009...

  13. Desert Peak to Humboldt House and Winnemucca, in: Lane, M.A....

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to Humboldt House and Winnemucca, in: Lane, M.A., (ed) Nevada geothermal areas: Desert Peak, Humboldt House, Beoware: Guidebook for field trip Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  14. David Blackwell's Forty Years in the Idaho Desert, The Foundation for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    21st Century Geothermal Research (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: David Blackwell's Forty Years in the Idaho Desert, The Foundation for 21st Century Geothermal Research Citation Details In-Document Search Title: David Blackwell's Forty Years in the Idaho Desert, The Foundation for 21st Century Geothermal Research Dr. David Blackwell has had a profound influence on geo-thermal exploration and R&D in Idaho. Forty years have elapsed since the first Southern Methodist

  15. SunLine Tests HHICE Bus in Desert Climate | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tests HHICE Bus in Desert Climate SunLine Tests HHICE Bus in Desert Climate Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Projects (Fact Sheet). 40107.pdf (395.03 KB) More Documents & Publications SunLine Transit Agency, Hydrogen-Powered Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results SunLine Transit Agency Hydrogen-Powered Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report -- Appendices SunLine Transit Agency Hydrogen-Powered Transit Buses: Third Evaluation Report and Appendices

  16. Broad-band beam buncher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldberg, David A.; Flood, William S.; Arthur, Allan A.; Voelker, Ferdinand

    1986-01-01

    A broad-band beam buncher is disclosed, comprising an evacuated housing, an electron gun therein for producing an electron beam, a buncher cavity having entrance and exit openings through which the beam is directed, grids across such openings, a source providing a positive DC voltage between the cavity and the electron gun, a drift tube through which the electron beam travels in passing through such cavity, grids across the ends of such drift tube, gaps being provided between the drift tube grids and the entrance and exit grids, a modulator for supplying an ultrahigh frequency modulating signal to the drift tube for producing velocity modulation of the electrons in the beam, a drift space in the housing through which the velocity modulated electron beam travels and in which the beam is bunched, and a discharge opening from such drift tube and having a grid across such opening through which the bunched electron beam is discharged into an accelerator or the like. The buncher cavity and the drift tube may be arranged to constitute an extension of a coaxial transmission line which is employed to deliver the modulating signal from a signal source. The extended transmission line may be terminated in its characteristic impedance to afford a broad-band response and the device as a whole designed to effect broad-band beam coupling, so as to minimize variations of the output across the response band.

  17. Resistive band for turbomachine blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, Herbert Chidsey; Taxacher, Glenn Curtis

    2015-08-25

    A turbomachine system includes a rotor that defines a longitudinal axis of the turbomachine system. A first blade is coupled to the rotor, and the first blade has first and second laminated plies. A first band is coupled to the first blade and is configured to resist separation of the first and second laminated plies.

  18. Observed 20th Century Desert Dust Variability: Impact on Climate and Biogeochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahowald, Natalie; Kloster, Silvia; Engelstaedter, S.; Moore, Jefferson Keith; Mukhopadhyay, S.; McConnell, J. R.; Albani, S.; Doney, Scott C.; Bhattacharya, A.; Curran, M. A. J.; Flanner, Mark G.; Hoffman, Forrest M; Lawrence, David M.; Lindsay, Keith; Mayewski, P. A.; Neff, Jason; Rothenberg, D.; Thomas, E.; Thornton, Peter E; Zender, Charlie S.

    2010-01-01

    Desert dust perturbs climate by directly and indirectly interacting with incoming solar and outgoing long wave radiation, thereby changing precipitation and temperature, in addition to modifying ocean and land biogeochemistry. While we know that desert dust is sensitive to perturbations in climate and human land use, previous studies have been unable to determine whether humans were increasing or decreasing desert dust in the global average. Here we present observational estimates of desert dust based on paleodata proxies showing a doubling of desert dust during the 20th century over much, but not all the globe. Large uncertainties remain in estimates of desert dust variability over 20th century due to limited data. Using these observational estimates of desert dust change in combination with ocean, atmosphere and land models, we calculate the net radiative effect of these observed changes (top of atmosphere) over the 20th century to be -0.14 {+-} 0.11 W/m{sup 2} (1990-1999 vs. 1905-1914). The estimated radiative change due to dust is especially strong between the heavily loaded 1980-1989 and the less heavily loaded 1955-1964 time periods (-0.57 {+-} 0.46 W/m{sup 2}), which model simulations suggest may have reduced the rate of temperature increase between these time periods by 0.11 C. Model simulations also indicate strong regional shifts in precipitation and temperature from desert dust changes, causing 6 ppm (12 PgC) reduction in model carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere over the 20th century. Desert dust carries iron, an important micronutrient for ocean biogeochemistry that can modulate ocean carbon storage; here we show that dust deposition trends increase ocean productivity by an estimated 6% over the 20th century, drawing down an additional 4 ppm (8 PgC) of carbon dioxide into the oceans. Thus, perturbations to desert dust over the 20th century inferred from observations are potentially important for climate and biogeochemistry, and our understanding

  19. Augustine Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians- 2006 Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Deep in the Coachella Valley, the tribe's reservation is a desert environment entirely below sea level, with an average elevation of minus 90 feet. Strong, consistent winds cross the desert floor, indicating that wind power might be viable for this underdeveloped reservation.

  20. Campo Band of Mission Indians- 2010 Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Campo Band of Mission Indians ("Band") goal is to develop a 300 MW wind energy project ("Kumeyaay Wind II") in two phases over the next two to five years.

  1. Countering third world weapons of mass destruction: Desert storm as a prototype. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, S.M.

    1993-02-19

    The proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs)--nuclear, biological, and chemical--is occurring throughout the Third World. Desert Storm offers an excellent case study for assessing the various measures and operations which can be employed to protect U.S.. forces against an adversary possessing a WMD capability. The elements of Desert Storm's successful strategy can be categorized in three broad approaches--deterrence, denial, and defense. All three approaches were necessary and syngergistic. In the future, the ability to quickly deny or destroy an adversary's WMD capability will be increasingly important, due to the unacceptability of exposing forces to any type of NBC agent, the likelihood for increased uncertainty surrounding deterrent threats, and the diplomatic, political, and psychological dilemmas posed by an adversary's first use....Weapons of mass destruction, Desert Storm.

  2. WIDE BAND REGENERATIVE FREQUENCY DIVIDER AND MULTIPLIER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laine, E.F.

    1959-11-17

    A regenerative frequency divider and multiplier having wide band input characteristics is presented. The circuit produces output oscillations having frequencies related by a fixed ratio to input oscillations over a wide band of frequencies. In accomplishing this end, the divider-multiplier includes a wide band input circuit coupled by mixer means to a wide band output circuit having a pass band related by a fixed ratio to that of the input circuit. A regenerative feedback circuit derives a fixed frequency ratio feedback signal from the output circuit and applies same to the mixer means in proper phase relation to sustain fixed frequency ratio oscillations in the output circuit.

  3. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 ON ROOT FUNCTION AND SOIL RESPIRATION IN A MOJAVE DESERT ECOSYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowak, Robert S.

    2007-12-19

    Increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration during the last 250 years are unequivocal, and CO{sub 2} will continue to increase at least for the next several decades (Houghton et al. 2001, Keeling & Whorf 2002). Arid ecosystems are some of the most important biomes globally on a land surface area basis, are increasing in area at an alarming pace (Dregne 1991), and have a strong coupling with regional climate (Asner & Heidebrecht 2005). These water-limited ecosystems also are predicted to be the most sensitive to elevated CO{sub 2}, in part because they are stressful environments where plant responses to elevated CO{sub 2} may be amplified (Strain & Bazzaz 1983). Indeed, all C{sub 3} species examined at the Nevada Desert FACE Facility (NDFF) have shown increased A{sub net} under elevated CO{sub 2} (Ellsworth et al. 2004, Naumburg et al. 2003, Nowak et al. 2004). Furthermore, increased shoot growth for individual species under elevated CO{sub 2} was spectacular in a very wet year (Smith et al. 2000), although the response in low to average precipitation years has been smaller (Housman et al. 2006). Increases in perennial cover and biomass at the NDFF are consistent with long term trends in the Mojave Desert and elsewhere in the Southwest, indicating C sequestration in woody biomass (Potter et al. 2006). Elevated CO{sub 2} also increases belowground net primary production (BNPP), with average increases of 70%, 21%, and 11% for forests, bogs, and grasslands, respectively (Nowak et al. 2004). Although detailed studies of elevated CO{sub 2} responses for desert root systems were virtually non-existent prior to our research, we anticipated that C sequestration may occur by desert root systems for several reasons. First, desert ecosystems exhibit increases in net photosynthesis and primary production at elevated CO{sub 2}. If large quantities of root litter enter the ecosystem at a time when most decomposers are inactive, significant quantities of carbon may be stored

  4. Desert Sunlight is Shining Example of How DOE Loan Guarantees Helped Launch

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Utility-scale PV Solar Market | Department of Energy Desert Sunlight is Shining Example of How DOE Loan Guarantees Helped Launch Utility-scale PV Solar Market Desert Sunlight is Shining Example of How DOE Loan Guarantees Helped Launch Utility-scale PV Solar Market February 9, 2015 - 12:01am Addthis In 2011, LPO issued loan guarantees to the first 5 PV projects larger than 100 MW in the U.S. An additional 17 projects have been financed since without loan guarantees. In 2011, LPO issued loan

  5. Photonic band gap structure simulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Chiping; Shapiro, Michael A.; Smirnova, Evgenya I.; Temkin, Richard J.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.

    2006-10-03

    A system and method for designing photonic band gap structures. The system and method provide a user with the capability to produce a model of a two-dimensional array of conductors corresponding to a unit cell. The model involves a linear equation. Boundary conditions representative of conditions at the boundary of the unit cell are applied to a solution of the Helmholtz equation defined for the unit cell. The linear equation can be approximated by a Hermitian matrix. An eigenvalue of the Helmholtz equation is calculated. One computation approach involves calculating finite differences. The model can include a symmetry element, such as a center of inversion, a rotation axis, and a mirror plane. A graphical user interface is provided for the user's convenience. A display is provided to display to a user the calculated eigenvalue, corresponding to a photonic energy level in the Brilloin zone of the unit cell.

  6. Project Reports for Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians - 2010 Project Project Reports for Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians - 2010 Project The Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians (ACBCI) ...

  7. Photovoltaic at Hollywood and Desert Breeze Recreational Centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, Shane

    2015-09-24

    Executive Summary Renewable Energy Initiatives for Clark County Parks and Recreation Solar Project DOE grant # DE-EE0003180 In accordance with the goals of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy for promoting solar energy as clean, carbon-free and cost-effective, the County believed that a recreational center was an ideal place to promote solar energy technologies to the public. This project included the construction of solar electricity generation facilities (40kW) at two Clark County facility sites, Desert Breeze Recreational Center and Hollywood Recreational Center, with educational kiosks and Green Boxes for classroom instruction. The major objectives and goals of this Solar Project include demonstration of state of the art technologies for the generation of electricity from solar technology and the creation of an informative and educational tool in regards to the benefits and process of generating alternative energy. Clark County partnered with Anne Johnson (design architect/consultant), Affiliated Engineers Inc. (AEI), Desert Research Institute (DRI), and Morse Electric. The latest photovoltaic technologies were used in the project to help create the greatest expected energy savings for60443 each recreational center. This coupled with the data created from the monitoring system will help Clark County and NREL further understand the real time outputs from the system. The educational portion created with AEI and DRI incorporates material for all ages with a focus on K - 12. The AEI component is an animated story telling the fundamentals of how sunlight is turned into electricity and DRI‘s creation of Solar Green Boxes brings environmental education into the classroom. In addition to the educational component for the public, the energy that is created through the photovoltaic system also translates into saved money and health benefits for the general public. This project has helped Clark County to further add to its own

  8. First Tracer Test After Circulation in Desert Peak 27-15

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Rose, Peter

    Following the successful stimulation of Desert Peak target EGS well 27-15, a circulation test was initiated by injecting a conservative tracer (1,5-nds) in combination with a reactive tracer (7-amino-1,3-naphthalene disulfonate). The closest production well 74-21 was monitored over the subsequent several months.

  9. First Tracer Test After Circulation in Desert Peak 27-15

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Rose, Peter

    2013-11-16

    Following the successful stimulation of Desert Peak target EGS well 27-15, a circulation test was initiated by injecting a conservative tracer (1,5-nds) in combination with a reactive tracer (7-amino-1,3-naphthalene disulfonate). The closest production well 74-21 was monitored over the subsequent several months.

  10. Stimulation at Desert Peak -modeling with the coupled THM code FEHM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    kelkar, sharad

    2013-04-30

    Numerical modeling of the 2011 shear stimulation at the Desert Peak well 27-15. This submission contains the FEHM executable code for a 64-bit PC Windows-7 machine, and the input and output files for the results presented in the included paper from ARMA-213 meeting.

  11. Stimulation at Desert Peak -modeling with the coupled THM code FEHM

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    kelkar, sharad

    Numerical modeling of the 2011 shear stimulation at the Desert Peak well 27-15. This submission contains the FEHM executable code for a 64-bit PC Windows-7 machine, and the input and output files for the results presented in the included paper from ARMA-213 meeting.

  12. Operation Clean Desert Educates Hundreds of Students on EM Program in Nevada

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    LAS VEGAS – Operation Clean Desert — EM’s effort to educate students on the science of environmental cleanup and other missions at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) — kicked into gear with the start of the school year.

  13. X-BAND KLYSTRON DEVELOPMENT AT SLAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlieks, Arnold E.; /SLAC

    2009-08-03

    The development of X-band klystrons at SLAC originated with the idea of building an X-band Linear Collider in the late 1980's. Since then much effort has been expended in developing a reliable X-band Power source capable of delivering >50 MW RF power in pulse widths >1.5 {micro}s. I will report on some of the technical issues and design strategies which have led to the current SLAC klystron designs.

  14. Broad-band beam buncher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldberg, D.A.; Flood, W.S.; Arthur, A.A.; Voelker, F.

    1984-03-20

    A broad-band beam bunther is disclosed, comprising an evacuated housing, an electron gun therein for producing an electron beam, a buncher cavity having entrance and exit openings through which the beam is directed, grids across such openings, a source providing a positive DC voltage between the cavity and the electron gun, a drift tube through which the electron beam travels in passing through such cavity, grids across the ends of such drift tube, gaps being provided between the drift tube grids and the entrance and exit grids, a modulator for supplying an ultrahigh frequency modulating signal to the drift tube for producing velocity modulation of the electrons in the beam, a drift space in the housing through which the velocity modulated electron beam travels and in which the beam is bunched, and a discharge opening from such drift tube and having a grid across such opening through which the bunched electron beam is discharged into an accelerator or the like. The buncher cavity and the drift tube may be arranged to constitute an extension of a coaxial transmission line which is employed to deliver the modulating signal from a signal source. The extended transmission line may be terminated in its characteristic impedance to afford a broad-

  15. Aroostook Band of Micmac Indians- 2005 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The goal of the project is to develop a strategic energy plan in order to reduce energy costs in the Aroostook Band of Micmacs' government buildings and homes.

  16. Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians- 2010 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (EBCI) is using the grant funds from the Department of Energy to complete the Energy Efficiency Improvements to seven EBCI facilities.

  17. Apparatus for loading a band saw blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, S.R.

    1990-03-20

    A band saw blade is loaded between pairs of guide wheels upon tensioning the blade by guiding the blade between pairs of spaced guide plates which define converging slots that converge toward the guide wheels. The approach is particularly useful in loading blades on underwater band saw machines used to cut radioactive materials. 2 figs.

  18. Apparatus for loading a band saw blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, Steven R.

    1990-01-01

    A band saw blade is loaded between pairs of guide wheels upon tensioning the blade by guiding the blade between pairs of spaced guide plates which define converging slots that converge toward the guide wheels. The approach is particularly useful in loading blades on underwater band saw machines used to cut radioactive materials.

  19. Narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madan, A.; Mahan, A.H.

    1985-01-10

    Disclosed is a narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductor comprising an alloy of amorphous silicon and a band gap narrowing element selected from the group consisting of Sn, Ge, and Pb, with an electron donor dopant selected from the group consisting of P, As, Sb, Bi and N. The process for producing the narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductor comprises the steps of forming an alloy comprising amorphous silicon and at least one of the aforesaid band gap narrowing elements in amount sufficient to narrow the band gap of the silicon semiconductor alloy below that of amorphous silicon, and also utilizing sufficient amounts of the aforesaid electron donor dopant to maintain the amorphous silicon alloy as an n-type semiconductor.

  20. Wood-Producing Sunflower? Mining Genetic Diversity in Desert-Dwelling Wild Species (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Knapp, Steve

    2011-04-26

    Steve Knapp from Monsanto on "Wood-Producing Sunflower? Mining Genetic Diversity in Desert-Dwelling Wild Species" on March 25, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  1. Wind-dependent desert aerosol model: radiative properties. Technical report, November 1986-April 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longtin, D.R.; Shettle, E.P.; Hummel, J.R.; Pryce, J.D.

    1988-04-19

    This report presents a desert aerosol model that predicts aerosol radiative properties during background and severe dust-storm conditions. The model treats the desert aerosol as an external mixture of natural carbon, water soluble, and sand particles. The sand consists of two kinds of particles, pure quartz and quartz contaminated with a small amount of hematite. Mie calculations are performed using different size distributions and indices of refraction for each type of particle, and then a volume-weighting scheme is used to obtain the radiative properties of the aerosol as a whole. Attenuation coefficients, single scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter are given for 68 wavelengths between 0.2 and 300 micro. The results indicate that extinction is wavelength-dependent for background conditions, but increases and becomes nearly constant for dust-storm conditions.

  2. ARM - Campaign Instrument - s-band-profiler

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentss-band-profiler Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : NOAA S-band (2835 Mhz) Profiler (S-BAND-PROFILER) Instrument Categories Atmospheric Profiling, Cloud Properties Campaigns CRYSTAL-FACE [ Download Data ] Off Site Campaign : various, including non-ARM sites, 2002.06.26 - 2002.08.01 Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) [ Download Data ] Southern Great Plains, 2011.04.22 -

  3. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in multiple frequency bands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Hong-xiang; Yuan, Shou-qi; Zhang, Shu-yi

    2015-11-23

    We report both experimentally and numerically that the multi-band device of the asymmetric acoustic transmission is realized by placing two periodic gratings with different periods on both sides of two brass plates immersed in water. The asymmetric acoustic transmission can exist in four frequency bands below 1500 kHz, which arises from the interaction between various diffractions from the two gratings and Lamb modes in the brass plates immersed in water. The results indicate that the device has the advantages of multiple band, broader bandwidth, and simpler structure. Our finding should have great potential applications in ultrasonic devices.

  4. Ecological energetics of the desert tortoise (Gopherus Agassizii): Effects of rainfall and drought

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, C.C.

    1996-09-01

    To elucidate ecological effects of variation in the temporal distribution of a limiting resource (water in the Mojave Desert), energetics of two free-living populations of desert tortoises (Gopherus [=Xerobates] agassizii) were studied concurrently over 18 mo with use of doubly-labeled water. Field metabolic rates (FMR) and feeding rates were highly variable. This variability was manifested at several levels, including seasonal changes within populations, year-to-year differences within populations, and differences between populations. Underlying observed patterns and contrasts was considerable variation among individuals. Much of the variation in energetic variables was associated with a single climatic variable, rainfall. Seasonal, annual, and interpopulation differences in FMR and foraging rates corresponded to differences in availability of free-standing water from rainstorms. Some differences among individuals were apparently due to differences in proclivity or ability to drink. Tortoises had very low FMRs relative to other reptiles, allowed them to tolerate long periods of chronic energy shortage during a drought. Calculations suggested that tortoises experienced a net loss of energy shortage during a drought and tortoises experienced a net loss of energy on their spring diet of succulent annual plants. If so, tortoises require drier forage to accrue an energy profit, emphasizing reliance on drinking rainwater. Further, it suggests that growth (as protein deposition) and net acquisition of energy may be temporally decoupled in desert tortoises, with potential consequences for geographic variation in life history. Energy acquisition and expenditure in desert tortoises are strongly constrained by the contingencies of rainfall, both indirectly through effects on availability and quality of food, and directly through reliance on free-standing water for drinking, which is apparently necessary for achieving a net annual energy profit. 61 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Desert architecture for educational buildings, a case study: A center for training university graduates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebeid, M.

    1996-10-01

    A new program for training graduates in desert development is being implemented by the Desert Development Center (DDC) of the American University in Cairo. The facilities consist of fifty bed/sitting rooms for accommodating 100 students. Each unit consists of two rooms and a bathroom for the use of 4 students; a lecture theater which can house 120 students, with adjoining office for trainers as well as necessary facilities; a general cafeteria which can serve 120--150 persons and an adjoining dining room for teaching staff. The cafeteria building also houses the kitchen; a cold storage area; a laundry room, storerooms, sleeping quarters and services for the labor force of the building complex; a system of solar water heaters; and a special sanitary sewage system for treatment of waste water produced by the building`s activities. When designing and implementing this complex, architectural elements and building philosophy based on the concept of integrating with the environment were considered. Elements included orientation heights and building materials suited to the desert environment, thick walls, outer and inner finishing materials, roofs, malkafs, floors, colors, solar heaters, lighting, green areas, windbreaks, terraces, and furniture. The paper includes a general evaluation of this educational building based on the PRA approach (Participatory Rapid Appraisal) involving those living and working in it. As a result of her position with the project, the author was able to evaluate the original designs, recommend modifications, and evaluate their implementation and fulfillment of the original goals of the projects.

  6. Control Banding and Nanotechnology Synergist

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zalk, D; Paik, S

    2009-12-15

    The average Industrial Hygienist (IH) loves a challenge, right? Okay, well here is one with more than a few twists. We start by going through the basics of a risk assessment. You have some chemical agents, a few workers, and the makings of your basic exposure characterization. However, you have no occupational exposure limit (OEL), essentially no toxicological basis, and no epidemiology. Now the real handicap is that you cannot use sampling pumps, cassettes, tubes, or any of the media in your toolbox, and the whole concept of mass-to-dose is out the window, even at high exposure levels. Of course, by the title, you knew we were talking about nanomaterials (NM). However, we wonder how many IHs know that this topic takes everything you know about your profession and turns it upside down. It takes the very foundations that you worked so hard in college and in the field to master and pulls it out from underneath you. It even takes the gold standard of our profession, the quantitative science of exposure assessment, and makes it look pretty darn rusty. Now with NM there is the potential to get some aspect of quantitative measurements, but the instruments are generally very expensive and getting an appropriate workplace personal exposure measurement can be very difficult if not impossible. The potential for workers getting exposures, however, is very real, as evidenced by a recent publication reporting worker exposures to polyacrylate nanoparticles in a Chinese factory (Song et al. 2009). With something this complex and challenging, how does a concept as simple as Control Banding (CB) save the day? Although many IHs have heard of CB, most of their knowledge comes from its application in the COSHH Essentials toolkit. While there is conflicting published research on COSHH Essentials and its value for risk assessments, almost all of the experts agree that it can be useful when no OELs are available (Zalk and Nelson 2008). It is this aspect of CB, its utility with

  7. Dipole Bands in {sup 196}Hg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrie, J. J.; Lawrie, E. A.; Newman, R. T.; Sharpey-Schafer, J. F.; Smit, F. D.; Msezane, B.; Benatar, M.; Mabala, G. K.; Mutshena, K. P.; Federke, M.; Mullins, S. M.; Ncapayi, N. J.; Vymers, P.

    2011-10-28

    High spin states in {sup 196}Hg have been populated in the {sup 198}Pt({alpha},6n) reaction at 65 MeV and the level scheme has been extended. A new dipole band has been observed and a previously observed dipole has been confirmed. Excitation energies, spins and parities of these bands were determined from DCO ratio and linear polarization measurements. Possible quasiparticle excitations responsible for these structures are discussed.

  8. Ramona Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RAMONA RAMONA BAND BAND OF OF CAHUILLA CAHUILLA INDIANS INDIANS Concept and Design for the Ramona Concept and Design for the Ramona Eco Eco - - Tourism Center Tourism Center Tribal History Tribal History The Reservation was established on The Reservation was established on February 10, 1893. February 10, 1893. Ramona is part of the Bear Clan of the Ramona is part of the Bear Clan of the Cahuilla Nation and are descendents of the Cahuilla Nation and are descendents of the Apapatcem Apapatcem

  9. Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bands Campaign (RHUBC) D. Turner and E. Mlawer RHUBC Breakout Session 2008 ARM Science Team Meeting 13 March, 2008 Norfolk, Virginia Motivation * Radiative heating/cooling in the mid-troposphere modulate the vertical motions of the atmosphere - This heating/cooling occurs primarily in water vapor absorption bands that are opaque at the surface * Approximately 40% of the OLR comes from the far-IR * Until recently, the observational tools were not available to evaluate the accuracy of the far-IR

  10. ISM band to U-NII band frequency transverter and method of frequency transversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stepp, Jeffrey David; Hensley, Dale

    2006-09-12

    A frequency transverter (10) and method for enabling bi-frequency dual-directional transfer of digitally encoded data on an RF carrier by translating between a crowded or otherwise undesirable first frequency band, such as the 2.4 GHz ISM band, and a less-crowded or otherwise desirable second frequency band, such as the 5.0 GHz 6.0 GHz U-NII band. In a preferred embodiment, the transverter (10) connects between an existing data radio (11) and its existing antenna (30), and comprises a bandswitch (12); an input RF isolating device (14); a transmuter (16); a converter (18); a dual output local oscillator (20); an output RF isolating device (22); and an antenna (24) tuned to the second frequency band. The bandswitch (12) allows for bypassing the transverter (10), thereby facilitating its use with legacy systems. The transmuter (14) and converter (16) are adapted to convert to and from, respectively, the second frequency band.

  11. ISM band to U-NII band frequency transverter and method of frequency transversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stepp, Jeffrey David; Hensley, Dale

    2006-04-04

    A frequency transverter (10) and method for enabling bi-frequency dual-directional transfer of digitally encoded data on an RF carrier by translating between a crowded or otherwise undesirable first frequency band, such as the 2.4 GHz ISM band, and a less-crowded or otherwise desirable second frequency band, such as the 5.0 GHz-6.0 GHz U-NII band. In a preferred embodiment, the transverter (10) connects between an existing data radio (11) and its existing antenna (30), and comprises a bandswitch (12); an input RF isolating device (14); a transmuter (16); a converter (18); a dual output local oscillator (20); an output RF isolating device (22); and an antenna (24) tuned to the second frequency band. The bandswitch (12) allows for bypassing the transverter (10), thereby facilitating its use with legacy systems. The transmuter (14) and converter (16) are adapted to convert to and from, respectively, the second frequency band.

  12. Band structure anisotropy in semiconductor quantum wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novotny, S.J.

    1999-03-01

    The focus of this research is an investigation of energy band anisotropy in simple quantum well structures. This anisotropy results from the asymmetry of the periodic potential within the crystal lattice. For sufficiently high doping levels, band structure anisotropy is expected to play an important role in the evaluation of the electronic and optical properties of the quantum well structures. The analysis uses a model based on a 6x6 Luttinger-Kohn k.p approach for bulk material valence band structure together with the Envelope Function Approximation. The model is used to analyze Si/SiGe, AlGaAs/GaAs, and GaAs/InGaAs quantum wells for the 001 and the 110 growth directions. The resulting band structures show significant anisotropy for materials grown in both the 110 and 001 directions. In all cases the materials grown in the 110 direction show a more pronounced anisotropy than the materials grown in the 001 directions. For the 001 growth directions, the band structures were effectively isotropic for values of k-parallel less than 0.4 inverse angstrom for Si/SiGe, 0.6 inverse angstrom for GaAs/AlGaAs, and 0.5 inverse angstrom for InGaAs/GaAs.

  13. Modeling fluid flow in deformation bands with stabilized localization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modeling fluid flow in deformation bands with stabilized localization mixed finite elements. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling fluid flow in deformation bands...

  14. IR Spectral Bands and Performance | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2013 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for IR Spectral Bands and Performance Citation Chris Douglass. IR Spectral Bands...

  15. High power W-band klystrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caryotakis, George; Scheitrum, Glenn; Jongewaard, Erik; Vlieks, Arnold; Fowkes, Randy [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Li, Jeff [University of California Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    The development of W-band klystrons is discussed. Modeling of the klystron performance predicts 100 kW output power from a single klystron. The permanent magnet focusing and small size of the circuit permit combination of multiple klystrons in a module. A six-klystron module in a single vacuum envelope is expected to produce 500 kW peak power and up to 5 kW average power. The critical issues in the W-band klystron development are the electron beam transport and the fabrication of the klystron circuit. Two microfabrication techniques, EDM and LIGA, are being evaluated to produce the W-band circuit. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Band filling effects on temperature performance of intermediate band quantum wire solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunets, Vas. P. Furrow, C. S.; Ware, M. E.; Souza, L. D. de; Benamara, M.; Salamo, G. J.; Mortazavi, M.

    2014-08-28

    Detailed studies of solar cell efficiency as a function of temperature were performed for quantum wire intermediate band solar cells grown on the (311)A plane. A remotely doped one-dimensional intermediate band made of self-assembled In{sub 0.4}Ga{sub 0.6}As quantum wires was compared to an undoped intermediate band and a reference p-i-n GaAs sample. These studies indicate that the efficiencies of these solar cells depend on the population of the one-dimensional band by equilibrium free carriers. A change in this population by free electrons under various temperatures affects absorption and carrier transport of non-equilibrium carriers generated by incident light. This results in different efficiencies for both the doped and undoped intermediate band solar cells in comparison with the reference GaAs p-i-n solar cell device.

  17. Band-gap and band-edge engineering of multicomponent garnet scintillators from first principles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yadav, Satyesh K.; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Nikl, Martin; Jiang, Chao; Stanek, Christopher R.

    2015-11-24

    Complex doping schemes in R3Al5O12 (where R is the rare-earth element) garnet compounds have recently led to pronounced improvements in scintillator performance. Specifically, by admixing lutetium and yttrium aluminate garnets with gallium and gadolinium, the band gap is altered in a manner that facilitates the removal of deleterious electron trapping associated with cation antisite defects. Here, we expand upon this initial work to systematically investigate the effect of substitutional admixing on the energy levels of band edges. Density-functional theory and hybrid density-functional theory (HDFT) are used to survey potential admixing candidates that modify either the conduction-band minimum (CBM) or valence-bandmore » maximum (VBM). We consider two sets of compositions based on Lu3B5O12 where B is Al, Ga, In, As, and Sb, and R3Al5O12, where R is Lu, Gd, Dy, and Er. We find that admixing with various R cations does not appreciably affect the band gap or band edges. In contrast, substituting Al with cations of dissimilar ionic radii has a profound impact on the band structure. We further show that certain dopants can be used to selectively modify only the CBM or the VBM. Specifically, Ga and In decrease the band gap by lowering the CBM, while As and Sb decrease the band gap by raising the VBM, the relative change in band gap is quantitatively validated by HDFT. These results demonstrate a powerful approach to quickly screen the impact of dopants on the electronic structure of scintillator compounds, identifying those dopants which alter the band edges in very specific ways to eliminate both electron and hole traps responsible for performance limitations. Furthermore, this approach should be broadly applicable for the optimization of electronic and optical performance for a wide range of compounds by tuning the VBM and CBM.« less

  18. A Microcantilever Sensor Array for the Detection and Inventory of Desert Tortoises

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venedam, R. J.; Dillingham, T. R.

    2008-07-01

    Wehavedesignedandtestedaportableinstrumentconsistingofasmallinfraredcameracoupledwithanarrayofpiezoresistivemicrocantileversensorsthatisusedtoprovidereal-time,non-invasive data on desert tortoise den occupancy. The piezoresistive microcantilever (PMC) sensors are used to obtain a chemical signature of tortoise presence from the air deep within the dens, and provide data in cases where the camera cannot extend deep enough into the den to provide visual evidence of tortoise presence. The infrared camera was used to verify the PMC data during testing, and in many cases, such as shallower dens, may be used to provide exact numbers on den populations.

  19. Cabazon Band of Mission Indians- 2011 Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Cabazon Band of Mission Indians' long-range goals are to become energy self-sufficient, foster economic diversity, grow jobs, and improve the well-being of members of the tribe as well as those in its region of Southern California.

  20. X-Band Photoinjector Beam Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Feng; Adolphsen, Chris; Ding, Yuantao; Li, Zenghai; Vlieks, Arnold; /SLAC

    2011-12-13

    SLAC is studying the feasibility of using an X-band RF photocathode gun to produce low emittance bunches for applications such as a mono-energetic MeV {gamma} ray source (in collaboration with LLNL) and a photoinjector for a compact FEL. Beam dynamics studies are being done for a configuration consisting of a 5.5-cell X-band gun followed by several 53-cell high-gradient X-band accelerator structures. A fully 3D program, ImpactT, is used to track particles taking into account space charge forces, short-range longitudinal and transverse wakefields, and the 3D rf fields in the structures, including the quadrupole component of the couplers. The effect of misalignments of the various elements, including the drive-laser, gun, solenoid and accelerator structures, are evaluated. This paper presents these results and estimates of the expected bunch emittance vs cathode gradient, and the effects of mixing between the fundamental and off-frequency longitudinal modes. An X-band gun at SLAC has been shown to operate reliably with a 200 MV/m acceleration gradient at the cathode, which is nearly twice the 115 MV/m acceleration gradient in the LCLS gun. The higher gradient should roughly balance the space charge related transverse emittance growth for the same bunch charge but provide a 3-4 times shorter bunch length. The shorter length would make the subsequent bunch compression easier and allow for a more effective use of emittance exchange. Such a gun can also be used with an X-band linac to produce a compact FEL or g ray source that would require rf sources of only one frequency for beam generation and acceleration. The feasibility of using an X-band rf photocathode gun and accelerator structures to generate high quality electron beams for compact FELs and g ray sources is being studied at SLAC. Results from the X-band photoinjector beam dynamics studies are reported in this paper.

  1. Assessment of damage to the desert surfaces of Kuwait due to the Gulf War

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Baz, F. . Center for Remote Sensing); Al-Ajmi, D. . Environmental and Earth Sciences Div.)

    1993-01-01

    This is a preliminary report on a joint research project by Boston University and the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research that commenced in April 1992. The project aim is to establish the extent and nature of environmental damage to the desert surface and coastal zone of Kuwait due to the Gulf War and its aftermath. Change detection image enhancement techniques were employed to enhance environmental change by comparison of Landsat Thematic Mapper images obtained before the wars and after the cessation of the oil and well fires. Higher resolution SPOT images were also utilized to evaluate the nature of the environmental damage to specific areas. The most prominent changes were due to: (1) the deposition of oil and course-grained soot on the desert surface as a result of oil rain'' from the plume that emanated from the oil well fires; (2) the formation of hundreds of oil lakes, from oil seepage at the damaged oil well heads; (3) the mobilization of sand and dust and (4) the pollution of segments of the coastal zone by the deposition of oil from several oil spills. Interpretation of satellite image data are checked in the field to confirm the observations, and to assess the nature of the damage. Final results will be utilized in establishing the needs for remedial action to counteract the harmful effects of the various types of damage to the environment of Kuwait.

  2. Project Reports for Augustine Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians- 2006 Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Deep in the Coachella Valley, the tribe's reservation is a desert environment entirely below sea level, with an average elevation of minus 90 feet. Strong, consistent winds cross the desert floor, indicating that wind power might be viable for this underdeveloped reservation.

  3. X-Band RF Gun Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlieks, Arnold; Dolgashev, Valery; Tantawi, Sami; Anderson, Scott; Hartemann, Fred; Marsh, Roark; /LLNL, Livermore

    2012-06-22

    In support of the MEGa-ray program at LLNL and the High Gradient research program at SLAC, a new X-band multi-cell RF gun is being developed. This gun, similar to earlier guns developed at SLAC for Compton X-ray source program, will be a standing wave structure made of 5.5 cells operating in the pi mode with copper cathode. This gun was designed following criteria used to build SLAC X-band high gradient accelerating structures. It is anticipated that this gun will operate with surface electric fields on the cathode of 200 MeV/m with low breakdown rate. RF will be coupled into the structure through a final cell with symmetric duel feeds and with a shape optimized to minimize quadrupole field components. In addition, geometry changes to the original gun, operated with Compton X-ray source, will include a wider RF mode separation, reduced surface electric and magnetic fields.

  4. S-Band Loads for SLAC Linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasnykh, A.; Decker, F.-J.; LeClair, R.; /INTA Technologies, Santa Clara

    2012-08-28

    The S-Band loads on the current SLAC linac RF system were designed, in some cases, 40+ years ago to terminate 2-3 MW peak power into a thin layer of coated Kanthal material as the high power absorber [1]. The technology of the load design was based on a flame-sprayed Kanthal wire method onto a base material. During SLAC linac upgrades, the 24 MW peak klystrons were replaced by 5045 klystrons with 65+ MW peak output power. Additionally, SLED cavities were introduced and as a result, the peak power in the current RF setup has increased up to 240 MW peak. The problem of reliable RF peak power termination and RF load lifetime required a careful study and adequate solution. Results of our studies and three designs of S-Band RF load for the present SLAC RF linac system is discussed. These designs are based on the use of low conductivity materials.

  5. Manzanita Band of Mission Indians- 2002 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Manzanita Band of Mission Indians ("the tribe") has long recognized that its reservation has an abundant wind resource that could be commercially utilized to its benefit. The tribe is now investigating the feasibility of commercial scale development of a wind power project on tribal lands. The proposed project is a joint effort between the tribe and its subcontractor and consultant, SeaWest Consulting.

  6. 12. mu. m band tunable ammonia laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Yuteh; Kuang Ichung; Hsun Hungtao

    1987-01-01

    The 9.4 ..mu..m R(30) line from a TEA-CO/sub 2/ laser was used to pump a NH/sub 3/ laser. Tunable NH/sub 3/ laser emission in the 12 ..mu..m band has been obtained. The output energy at 12.247, 12.261, and 12.079 ..mu..m is 18.6, 23, and 26 mJ, respectively.

  7. Fabrication of photonic band gap materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Constant, Kristen; Subramania, Ganapathi S.; Biswas, Rana; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2002-01-15

    A method for forming a periodic dielectric structure exhibiting photonic band gap effects includes forming a slurry of a nano-crystalline ceramic dielectric or semiconductor material and monodisperse polymer microspheres, depositing a film of the slurry on a substrate, drying the film, and calcining the film to remove the polymer microspheres therefrom. The film may be cold-pressed after drying and prior to calcining. The ceramic dielectric or semiconductor material may be titania, and the polymer microspheres may be polystyrene microspheres.

  8. HIGH CURRENT L-BAND LINAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. RUSSELL; B. CARLSTEN; J. GOETTEE

    2001-02-01

    The Sub-Picosecond Accelerator (SPA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is an L-band photoinjector. Using magnetic compression, the SPA routinely compresses 8 MeV, 1 nC per bunch electron beams from an initial temporal FWHM bunch length of 20 ps to less than 1 ps. In recent plasma wakefield accelerator experiments, we have compressed a 2 nC per bunch electron beam to an approximate temporal length of 1 ps.

  9. Permanent magnet focused X-band photoinjector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, David U. L.; Rosenzweig, James

    2002-09-10

    A compact high energy photoelectron injector integrates the photocathode directly into a multicell linear accelerator with no drift space between the injection and the linac. High electron beam brightness is achieved by accelerating a tightly focused electron beam in an integrated, multi-cell, X-band rf linear accelerator (linac). The photoelectron linac employs a Plane-Wave-Transformer (PWT) design which provides strong cell-to-cell coupling, easing manufacturing tolerances and costs.

  10. Agua Caliente Band - Strategic Energy Plan Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    STRATEGIC ENERGY PLAN DEVELOPMENT Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians Agua Caliente Indian Reservation Program Overview GOALS * Establishment of a Comprehensive Tribal Energy Policy * Incorporate Energy Efficiency, Renewable Resources into Tribal Economic Development Framework * Capture Economic and Environmental Benefits While Maintaining Respect for Tribal Culture and Traditions PROGRAM OVERVIEW Goals * Create a Living Document That Will Be Responsive to the Planning Needs of the Tribe *

  11. Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC) Feb 22 - Mar 14, 2007 Dave Turner, Eli Mlawer RHUBC Breakout Session ARM Science Team Meeting Monterey, California 27 March 2007 Not a Lot of Time Between IOP and STM! RHUBC Motivation * Radiative cooling due to water vapor in mid- to-upper trop contribute significantly to the dynamical processes and radiative balance the regulate Earth's climate * ~40% of the OLR comes from far-IR (wavelengths > 15 µm) * Far-IR has not been well studied because: -

  12. W-Band Sheet Beam Klystron Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colby, E.R.; Caryotakis, G.; Fowkes, W.R.; /SLAC; Smithe, D.N.; /Mission Res., Newington

    2005-09-12

    With the development of ever higher energy particle accelerators comes the need for compactness and high gradient, which in turn require very high frequency high power rf sources. Recent development work in W-band accelerating techniques has spurred the development of a high-power W-band source. Axisymmetric sources suffer from fundamental power output limitations (P{sub sat} {approx} {lambda}{sup 2}) brought on by the conflicting requirements of small beam sizes and high beam current. The sheet beam klystron allows for an increase in beam current without substantial increase in the beam current density, allowing for reduced cathode current densities and focusing field strengths. Initial simulations of a 20:1 aspect ratio sheet beam/cavity interaction using the 3 dimensional particle-in-cell code Magic3D have demonstrated a 35% beam-power to RF power extraction efficiency. Calculational work and numerical simulations leading to a prototype W-band sheet beam klystron will be presented, together with preliminary cold test structure studies of a proposed RF cavity geometry.

  13. W-band sheet beam klystron simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colby, E.R.; Caryotakis, G.; Fowkes, W.R. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, 2575 Sand Hill Rd., Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Smithe, D.N. [Mission Research Corporation, 8560 Cinderbed Road, Ste. 700, Newington, Virginia 22122 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    With the development of ever higher energy particle accelerators comes the need for compactness and high gradient, which in turn require very high frequency high power rf sources. Recent development work in W-band accelerating techniques has spurred the development of a high-power W-band source. Axisymmetric sources suffer from fundamental power output limitations (P{sub sat}{approximately}{lambda}{sup 2}) brought on by the conflicting requirements of small beam sizes and high beam current. The sheet beam klystron allows for an increase in beam current without substantial increase in the beam current density, allowing for reduced cathode current densities and focussing field strengths. Initial simulations of a 20:1 aspect ratio sheet beam/cavity interaction using the 3 dimensional particle-in-cell code Magic3D have demonstrated a 35{percent} beam-power to RF power extraction efficiency. Calculational work and numerical simulations leading to a prototype W-band sheet beam klystron will be presented, together with preliminary cold test structure studies of a proposed RF cavity geometry. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Final Technical Report: Effects of Changing Water and Nitrogen Inputs on a Mojave Desert Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Stanley, D.; Nowak, Robert S.; Fenstermaker, Lynn, F.; Young, Michael,H.

    2007-11-30

    In order to anticipate the effects of global change on ecosystem function, it is essential that predictive relationships be established linking ecosystem function to global change scenarios. The Mojave Desert is of considerable interest with respect to global change. It contains the driest habitats in North America, and thus most closely approximates the worlds great arid deserts. In order to examine the effects of climate and land use changes, in 2001 we established a long-term manipulative global change experiment, called the Mojave Global Change Facility. Manipulations in this study include the potential effects of (1) increased summer rainfall (75 mm over three discrete 25 mm events), (2) increased nitrogen deposition (10 and 40 kg ha-1), and (3) the disturbance of biological N-fixing crusts . Questions addressed under this grant shared the common hypothesis that plant and ecosystem performance will positively respond to the augmentation of the most limiting resources to plant growth in the Mojave Desert, e.g., water and nitrogen. Specific hypotheses include (1) increased summer rainfall will significantly increase plant production through an alleviation of moisture stress in the dry summer months, (2) N-deposition will increase plant production in this N-limited system, particularly in wet years or in concert with added summer rain, and (3) biological crust disturbance will gradually decrease bio-available N, with concomitant long-term reductions in photosynthesis and ANPP. Individual plant and ecosystem responses to global change may be regulated by biogeochemical processes and natural weather variability, and changes in plant and ecosystem processes may occur rapidly, may occur only after a time lag, or may not occur at all. During the first PER grant period, we observed changes in plant and ecosystem processes that would fall under each of these time-response intervals: plant and ecosystem processes responded rapidly to added summer rain, whereas most

  15. Coupled Environmental Processes and Long-term Performance of Landfill Covers in the northern Mojave Desert

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Shafer; Michael Young; Stephen Zitzer; Eric McDonald; Todd Caldwell

    2004-05-12

    Evapotransiration (ET) covers have gained widespread acceptance as a closure feature for waste disposal sites, particularly in the arid and semi-arid regions of the southwestern U.S. But as landforms, ET covers are subject to change over time because of processes such as pedogenesis, hydrologic processes, vegetation establishment and change, and biological processes. To better understand the effects of coupled process changes to ET covers, a series of four primary analog sites in Yucca Flat on the Nevada Test Site, along with measurements and observations from other locations in the Mojave Desert, were selected to evaluate changes in ET covers over time. The analog sites, of varying ages, were selected to address changes in the early post-institutional control period, the 1,000-year compliance period for disposal of low-level and mixed low-level waste, and the 10,000-year compliance period for transuranic waste sites.

  16. Project Reports for Campo Band of Mission Indians- 2010 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Campo Band of Mission Indians ("Band") goal is to develop a 300 MW wind energy project ("Kumeyaay Wind II") in two phases over the next two to five years.

  17. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product Citation Details In-Document Search Title: G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) ...

  18. W-band ARM Cloud Radar (WACR) Update and Status

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    W-band ARM Cloud Radar (WACR) Update and Status PopStefanija, Ivan ProSensing, Inc. Mead, ... Widener, Kevin Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Category: Instruments Two W-band ARM ...

  19. W-Band ARM Cloud Radar - Specifications and Design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    W-Band ARM Cloud Radar - Specifications and Design K. B. Widener Pacific Northwest ... to develop and deploy the W-band ARM Cloud Radar (WACR) at the SGP central facility. ...

  20. Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Research Data from the Nevada Desert FACE Facility (NDFF)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    DOE has conducted trace gas enrichment experiments since the mid 1990s. The FACE Data Management System is a central repository and archive for Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) data, as well as for the related open-top chamber (OTC) experiments. FACE Data Management System is located at the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). While the data from the various FACE sites, each one a unique user facility, are centralized at CDIAC, each of the FACE sites presents its own view of its activities and information. For that reason, DOE Data Explorer users are advised to see both the central repository at http://public.ornl.gov/face/index.shtml and the individual home pages of each site. NDFF whole-ecosystem manipulation is a flagship experiment of the Terrestrial Carbon Process (TCP) research program of the US Dept. of Energy. It is also a core project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) and a contribution to the US Global Change Research Program. The NDFF was developed in conjunction with the National Science Foundation (NSF) and DOE-EPSCoR programs. FACE (Free-Air-Carbon dioxide-Enrichment) technology allows researchers to elevate the carbon dioxide level in large study plots while minimizing ecosystem disturbance. At the NDFF the concentration of CO2 was elevated by 50 percent above the present atmospheric levels in three plots in the Mojave Desert ecosystem, while six other plots remained at the current level. This experimental design provided a large area in which integrated teams of scientists could describe and quantify processes regulating carbon, nutrient, and water balances in desert ecosystems.

  1. Cabazon Band of Mission Indians- 2003 Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Strategic energy planning effort to assist in achieving the tribe's primary goals of economic diversity, economic self-sufficiency, and protecting the health and welfare of tribal members. The Cabazon Band Reservation, located on four sections of non-contiguous land on the eastern half of the Coachella Valley in Riverside County is approximately 25 miles east of Palm Springs, comprises 1500 acres and currently has the seventh highest residential electricity rates among U.S. Native American reservations. The Strategic Energy Plan will enable the tribe to make informed decisions in creating and conducting an effective energy management program for their people.

  2. W-Band Sheet Beam Klystron Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheitrum, G.; Caryotakis, G.; Burke, A.; Jensen, A.; Jongewaard, E.a Krasnykh, A.; Neubauer, M.; Phillips, R.; Rauenbuehler, K.; /SLAC

    2011-11-11

    Sheet beam devices provide important advantages for very high power, narrow bandwidth RF sources like accelerator klystrons [1]. Reduced current density and increased surface area result in increased power capabi1ity, reduced magnetic fields for focusing and reduced cathode loading. These advantages are offset by increased complexity, beam formation and transport issues and potential for mode competition in the ovennoded cavities and drift tube. This paper will describe the design issues encountered in developing a 100 kW peak and 2 kW average power sheet beam k1ystron at W-band including beam formation, beam transport, circuit design, circuit fabrication and mode competition.

  3. Universal EUV in-band intensity detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berger, Kurt W.

    2004-08-24

    Extreme ultraviolet light is detected using a universal in-band detector for detecting extreme ultraviolet radiation that includes: (a) an EUV sensitive photodiode having a diode active area that generates a current responsive to EUV radiation; (b) one or more mirrors that reflects EUV radiation having a defined wavelength(s) to the diode active area; and (c) a mask defining a pinhole that is positioned above the diode active area, wherein EUV radiation passing through the pinhole is restricted substantially to illuminating the diode active area.

  4. Inter-band optoelectronic properties in quantum dot structure of low band gap III-V semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dey, Anup; Maiti, Biswajit; Chanda, Debasree

    2014-04-14

    A generalized theory is developed to study inter-band optical absorption coefficient (IOAC) and material gain (MG) in quantum dot structures of narrow gap III-V compound semiconductor considering the wave-vector (k{sup ?}) dependence of the optical transition matrix element. The band structures of these low band gap semiconducting materials with sufficiently separated split-off valance band are frequently described by the three energy band model of Kane. This has been adopted for analysis of the IOAC and MG taking InAs, InSb, Hg{sub 1?x}Cd{sub x}Te, and In{sub 1?x}Ga{sub x}As{sub y}P{sub 1?y} lattice matched to InP, as example of IIIV compound semiconductors, having varied split-off energy band compared to their bulk band gap energy. It has been found that magnitude of the IOAC for quantum dots increases with increasing incident photon energy and the lines of absorption are more closely spaced in the three band model of Kane than those with parabolic energy band approximations reflecting the direct the influence of energy band parameters. The results show a significant deviation to the MG spectrum of narrow-gap materials having band nonparabolicity compared to the parabolic band model approximations. The results reflect the important role of valence band split-off energies in these narrow gap semiconductors.

  5. Morongo Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians- 2006 Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Southwest Tribal Energy Consortium, represented by the Morongo Band, is comprised of tribes in California, Arizona and New Mexico.

  6. Aroostook Band of Micmacs - Strategic Energy Planning Initiative

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Initiative Presented by: Fred Corey Environmental Director October 2006 Aroostook Band of Micmacs Overview * About the Aroostook Band of Micmacs * Project Background and Introduction * Project Goals and Objectives * Summary of Report * Vision Statement * Discussion on Vision and Plan * Next Steps Aroostook Band of Micmacs Aroostook Band of Micmacs * Federally Recognized by Congress in 1991 * 1,000 Enrolled Members * Largest Maritime Tribe in Eastern Canada (50,000+ Members, 27 Reserves) * Tribal

  7. Excitation of Banded Whistler Waves in the Magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, S. Peter; Liu, Kaijun; Winske, Dan

    2012-07-13

    Banded whistler waves can be generated by the whistler anisotropy instability driven by two bi-Maxwellian electron components with T{sub {perpendicular}}/T{sub {parallel}} > 1 at different T{sub {parallel}} For typical magnetospheric condition of 1 < {omega}{sub e}/{Omega}{sub e} < 5 in regions associated with strong chorus, upper-band waves can be excited by anisotropic electrons below {approx} 1 keV, while lower-band waves are excited by anisotropic electrons above {approx} 10 keV. Lower-band waves are generally field-aligned and substantially electromagnetic, while upper-band waves propagate obliquely and have quasi-electrostatic fluctuating electric fields. The quasi-electrostatic feature of upper-band waves suggests that they may be more easily identified in electric field observations than in magnetic field observations. Upper-band waves are liable to Landau damping and the saturation level of upperband waves is lower than lower-band waves, consistent with observations that lower-band waves are stronger than upper-band waves on average. The oblique propagation, the lower saturation level, and the more severe Landau damping together would make upper-band waves more tightly confined to the geomagnetic equator (|{lambda}{sub m}| < {approx}10{sup o}) than lower-band waves.

  8. Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2015-08-04

    Scanning probe microscopy may include a method for generating a band excitation (BE) signal and simultaneously exciting a probe at a plurality of frequencies within a predetermined frequency band based on the excitation signal. A response of the probe is measured across a subset of frequencies of the predetermined frequency band and the excitation signal is adjusted based on the measured response.

  9. W-band free-electron masers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freund, H. P. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, Virginia 22102 (United States); Jackson, R. H.; Danly, B. G.; Levush, B. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States)

    1999-05-07

    Theoretical analyses of high power W-band (i.e., {approx_equal}94 GHz) free-electron maser amplifiers are presented for a helical wiggler/cylindrical waveguide configuration using the three-dimensional slow-time-scale ARACHNE simulation code [9]. The geometry treated by ARACHNE is that of an electron beam propagating through the cylindrical waveguide subject to a helical wiggler and an axial guide magnetic field. Two configurations are discussed. The first is the case of a reversed-guide field geometry where the guide field is oriented antiparallel to the helicity of the wiggler field. Using a 330 kV/20 A electron beam, efficiencies of the order of 7% are calculated with a bandwidth (FWHM) of 5 GHz. The second example employs a strong guide field of 20 kG oriented parallel to the helicity of the wiggler. Here, efficiencies of greater than 8% are possible with a FWHM bandwidth of 4.5 GHz using a 300 kV/20 A electron beam. A normalized emittance of 95 mm-mrad is assumed in both cases, and no beam losses are observed for either case. Both cases assume interaction with the fundamental TE{sub 11} mode, which has acceptably low losses in the W-band.

  10. Hybrid Band effects program (Lockheed Martin shared vision CRADA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacon, L. D.

    2012-03-01

    Hybrid Band{trademark} (H-band) is a Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control (LMMFC) designation for a specific RF modulation that causes disruption of select electronic components and circuits. H-Band enables conventional high-power microwave (HPM) effects (with a center frequency of 1 to 2 GHz, for example) using a higher frequency carrier signal. The primary technical objective of this project was to understand the fundamental physics of Hybrid Band{trademark} Radio Frequency effects on electronic systems. The follow-on objective was to develop and validate a Hybrid Band{trademark} effects analysis process.

  11. Fine structure on the green band in ZnO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, D. C.; Look, D. C.; Jogai, B.

    2001-06-01

    An emission band at 2.4 eV, called the green band, is observed in most ZnO samples, no matter what growth technique is used. Sometimes this band includes fine structure, which consists mainly of doublets, repeated with a longitudinal-optical-phonon-energy spacing (72 meV). We have developed a vibronic model for the green band, based on transitions from two separate shallow donors to a deep acceptor. The donors, at energies 30 and 60 meV from the conduction-band edge, respectively, are also found from Hall-effect measurements. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Eastern Band of Cherokee Strategic Energy Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souther Carolina Institute of energy Studies-Robert Leitner

    2009-01-30

    The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians was awarded a grant under the U.S. Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program (TEP) to develop a Tribal Strategic Energy Plan (SEP). The grant, awarded under the “First Steps” phase of the TEP, supported the development of a SEP that integrates with the Tribe’s plans for economic development, preservation of natural resources and the environment, and perpetuation of Tribal heritage and culture. The Tribe formed an Energy Committee consisting of members from various departments within the Tribal government. This committee, together with its consultant, the South Carolina Institute for Energy Studies, performed the following activities: • Develop the Tribe’s energy goals and objectives • Establish the Tribe’s current energy usage • Identify available renewable energy and energy efficiency options • Assess the available options versus the goals and objectives • Create an action plan for the selected options

  13. Wide band stepped frequency ground penetrating radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bashforth, M.B.; Gardner, D.; Patrick, D.; Lewallen, T.A.; Nammath, S.R.; Painter, K.D.; Vadnais, K.G.

    1996-03-12

    A wide band ground penetrating radar system is described embodying a method wherein a series of radio frequency signals is produced by a single radio frequency source and provided to a transmit antenna for transmission to a target and reflection therefrom to a receive antenna. A phase modulator modulates those portions of the radio frequency signals to be transmitted and the reflected modulated signal is combined in a mixer with the original radio frequency signal to produce a resultant signal which is demodulated to produce a series of direct current voltage signals, the envelope of which forms a cosine wave shaped plot which is processed by a Fast Fourier Transform Unit 44 into frequency domain data wherein the position of a preponderant frequency is indicative of distance to the target and magnitude is indicative of the signature of the target. 6 figs.

  14. Wide band stepped frequency ground penetrating radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bashforth, Michael B.; Gardner, Duane; Patrick, Douglas; Lewallen, Tricia A.; Nammath, Sharyn R.; Painter, Kelly D.; Vadnais, Kenneth G.

    1996-01-01

    A wide band ground penetrating radar system (10) embodying a method wherein a series of radio frequency signals (60) is produced by a single radio frequency source (16) and provided to a transmit antenna (26) for transmission to a target (54) and reflection therefrom to a receive antenna (28). A phase modulator (18) modulates those portion of the radio frequency signals (62) to be transmitted and the reflected modulated signal (62) is combined in a mixer (34) with the original radio frequency signal (60) to produce a resultant signal (53) which is demodulated to produce a series of direct current voltage signals (66) the envelope of which forms a cosine wave shaped plot (68) which is processed by a Fast Fourier Transform unit 44 into frequency domain data (70) wherein the position of a preponderant frequency is indicative of distance to the target (54) and magnitude is indicative of the signature of the target (54).

  15. Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians- 2002 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians (MBCI) always seeks new opportunities to diversify its economy and create new career opportunities for tribal members, which is the purpose of this feasibility study. The MBCI will study the feasibility of locating a renewable energy installation on tribal lands. The technologies to be utilized in the renewable energy installation will be those that can readily handle poultry litter, either alone or in combination with wood residues. The purpose of the study is to determine whether such an installation can be both economically sustainable and consistent with the cultural, social, and economic goals of the tribe. The feasibility study will result in the development of a thorough business plan that will allow the MBCI to make an informed decision regarding this project.

  16. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RESOURCE ALLOCATION OF THREE MOJAVE DESERT GRASSES IN RESPONSE TO ELEVATED ATMOSPHERIC CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. A. DEFALCO; C. K. IVANS; P. VIVIN; J. R. SEEMANN; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    Gas exchange, biomass and N allocation were compared among three Mojave Desert grasses representing different functional types to determine if photosynthetic responses and the associated allocation of resources within the plant changed after prolonged exposure to elevated CO{sub 2}. Leaf gas exchange characteristics were measured for Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens (C{sub 3} invasive annual), Achnatherum hymenoides (C{sub 3} native perennial) and Pleuraphis rigida (C{sub 4} native perennial) exposed to 360 {micro}mol mol{sup -1} (ambient) and 1000 {micro}mol mol{sup -1} (elevated) CO{sub 2} concentrations in a glasshouse experiment, and tissue biomass and total N pools were quantified from three harvests during development. The maximum rate of carboxylation by the N-rich enzyme Rubisco (Vc{sub max}), which was inferred from the relationship between net CO{sub 2} assimilation (A{sub net}) and intracellular CO{sub 2} concentration (c{sub i}), declined in the C{sub 3} species Bromus and Achnatherum across all sampling dates, but did not change at elevated CO{sub 2} for the C{sub 4} Pleuraphis. Whole plant N remained the same between CO{sub 2} treatments for all species, but patterns of allocation differed for the short- and long-lived C{sub 3} species. For Bromus, leaf N used for photosynthesis was reallocated to reproduction at elevated CO{sub 2} as inferred from the combination of lower Vc{sub max} and N per leaf area (NLA) at elevated CO{sub 2}, but similar specific leaf area (SLA, cm{sup 2} g{sup -1}), and of greater reproductive effort (RE) for the elevated CO{sub 2} treatment. Vc{sub max}, leaf N concentration and NLA declined for the perennial Achnatherum at elevated CO{sub 2} potentially due to accumulation of carbohydrates or changes in leaf morphology inferred from lower SLA and greater total biomass at elevated CO{sub 2}. In contrast, Vc{sub max} for the C{sub 4} perennial Pleuraphis did not change at elevated CO{sub 2}, and tissue biomass and total N were

  17. PLUTONIUM UPTAKE AND BEHAVIOR IN PLANTS OF THE DESERT SOUTHWEST: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldwell, E.; Duff, M.; Ferguson, C.

    2011-03-01

    Eight species of desert vegetation and associated soils were collected from the Nevada National Security Site (N2S2) and analyzed for 238Pu and 239+240Pu concentrations. Amongst the plant species sampled were: atmospheric elemental accumulators (moss and lichen), the very slow growing, long-lived creosote bush and the rapidly growing, short-lived cheatgrass brome. The diversity of growth strategies provided insight into the geochemical behavior and bio-availability of Pu at the N2S2. The highest concentrations of Pu were measured in the onion moss (24.27 Bq kg-1 238Pu and 52.78 Bq kg-1 239+240Pu) followed by the rimmed navel lichen (8.18 Bq kg-1 and 18.4 Bq kg-1 respectively), pointing to the importance of eolian transport of Pu. Brome and desert globemallow accumulated between 3 and 9 times higher concentrations of Pu than creosote and sage brush species. These results support the importance of species specific elemental accumulation strategies rather than exposure duration as the dominant variable influencing Pu concentrations in these plants. Total vegetation elemental concentrations of Ce, Fe, Al, Sm and others were also analyzed. Strong correlations were observed between Fe and Pu. This supports the conclusion that Pu was accumulated as a consequence of the active accumulation of Fe and other plant required nutrients. Cerium and Pu are considered to be chemical analogs. Strong correlations observed in plants support the conclusion that these elements displayed similar geochemical behavior in the environment as it related to the biochemical uptake process of vegetation. Soils were also sampled in association with vegetation samples. This allowed for the calculation of a concentration ratio (CR). The CR values for Pu in plants were highly influenced by the heterogeneity of Pu distribution among sites. Results from the naturally occurring elements of concern were more evenly distributed between sample sites. This allowed for the development of a pattern of plant

  18. Feasibility study of the seismic reflection method in Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brocher, T.M.; Hart, P.E.; Carle, S.F.

    1990-11-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) working under an Interagency agreement with the Department of Energy is engaged in a broad geoscience program to assess and identify a potential repository for high level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. The USGS program, referred to as the Yucca Mountain Project, or YMP, consists of integrated geologic, hydrologic and geophysical studies which range in nature from site specific to regional. This report is an evaluation of different acquisition methods for future regional seismic reflection studies to be conducted in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, located in the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). In January 1988, field studies were conducted to investigate the feasibility of using the common-depth point (CDP) seismic reflection method to map subsurface geological horizons within the Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada. The goal of the field study was to investigate which seismic reflection method(s) should be used for mapping shallow to lower-crustal horizons. Therefore, a wide-variety of field acquisition parameters were tested, included point versus linear receiver group arrays; Vibroseis (service and trademark of Conoco, Inc.) versus explosive sources; Vibroseis array patterns; and Vibroseis sweep and frequency range. 31 refs., 33 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. HYDROPHOBIC CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPOSITE INSULATORS IN SIMULATED INLAND ARID DESERT ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Yasin; Al-Arainy, Abdulrehman Ali; Malik, Nazar Hussain; Qureshi, Muhammad Iqbal

    2010-06-15

    Presently along with traditional insulators i.e. glass and porcelain, etc., the polymeric insulators are also used world widely. These polymeric insulators are very sensitive to various environmental parameters e.g. UV radiations, heat, etc. The UV radiation level in the central region of Saudi Arabia is high as compared to the recommended IEC-61109 standard for the accelerated aging of the composite insulators. In this study, thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) and Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) insulators were subjected to accelerated aging stress as per IEC standard as well as modified IEC standard simulating the inland arid desert's atmospheric conditions. The hydrophobic characteristics were studied by measuring the contact angle along the insulator surface before and after the accelerated aging of the samples. It was found that TPE loses its hydrophobic properties more as compared to EPDM insulator. This loss was proportional to the intensity of UV irradiation. The rate of recovery is also low for both the tested materials as compared to Silicone Rubber insulators.

  20. Secondary production of benthic insects in three cold-desert streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, W.L.

    1987-07-01

    Aquatic insect production was studied in three cold-desert streams in eastern Washington (Douglas Creek, Snively Springs, and Rattlesnake Springs). The size-frequency method was applied to individual taxa to estimate total insect production. production was also assessed for functional groups and trophic levels in each stream. Optioservus sp. (riffle beetles) and Baetis sp. (mayflies) accounted for 72% of the total insect numbers and 50% of the total biomass in Douglas Creek. Baetis sp. accounted for 42% of the total insect numbers and 25% of the total biomass in Snively Springs. Simulium sp. (blackflies) and Baetis sp. comprised 74% of the total insect numbers and 55% of the total biomass in Rattlesnake Springs. Grazer-scrapers (49%) and collectors (48%) were the most abundant functional groups in Douglas Creek. Collectors were the most abundant functional group in Snively Springs and Rattlesnake Springs. Herbivores and detritivores were the most abundant trophic level in Snively Springs and Rattlesnake Springs. Dipterans (midges and blackflies) were the most productive taxa within the study streams, accounting for 40% to 70% of the total community production. Production by collectors and detritivores was the highest of all functional groups and trophic levels in all study streams.

  1. Corrosion of Uranium in Desert Soil, with Application to GCD Source Term M

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANDERSON, HOWARD L.; BACA, JULIANNE; KRUMHANSL, JAMES L.; STOCKMAN, HARLAN W.; THOMPSON, MOLLIE E.

    1999-09-01

    Uranium fragments from the Sandia Sled Track were studied as analogues for weapons components and depleted uranium buried at the Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) site in Nevada. The Sled Track uranium fragments originated as weapons mockups and counterweights impacted on concrete and soil barriers, and experienced heating and fragmentation similar to processes thought to affect the Nuclear Weapons Accident Residues (NWAR) at GCD. Furthermore, the Sandia uranium was buried in unsaturated desert soils for 10 to 40 years, and has undergone weathering processes expected to affect the GCD wastes. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and microprobe analyses of the fragments show rapid alteration from metals to dominantly VI-valent oxy-hydroxides. Leaching studies of the samples give results consistent with published U-oxide dissolution rates, and suggest longer experimental periods (ca. 1 year) would be required to reach equilibrium solution concentrations. Thermochemical modeling with the EQ3/6 code indicates that the uranium concentrations in solutions saturated with becquerelite could increase as the pore waters evaporate, due to changes in carbonate equilibria and increased ionic strength.

  2. Estimating Annual Precipitation in the Fenner Basin of the Eastern Mojave Desert, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davisson, M.L.; Rose, T.P.

    2000-05-15

    Metropolitan Water District (MWD) of southern California and Cadiz Inc. investigated the feasibility of storing Colorado River water in groundwater aquifers of the eastern Mojave Desert as a future drought mitigation strategy. This culminated in the public release of the Cadiz Groundwater Storage and Dry-Year Supply program Draft EIR, which included pilot percolation studies, groundwater modeling, and precipitation/runoff analysis in the Fenner groundwater basin, which overlies the proposed storage site. The project proposes to store and withdrawal Colorado River water over a 50-year period, but will not exceed the natural replenishment rates of the groundwater basin. Several independent analyses were conducted to estimate the rates of natural groundwater replenishment to the Fenner Groundwater Basin which was included in the Draft EIR. The US Geologic Survey, Water Resources Division (WRD) officially submitted comments during public review and concluded that the natural groundwater replenishment rates calculated for the Draft EIR were too high. In the WRD review, they provided a much lower recharge calculation based on a Maxey-Eakin estimation approach. This approach estimates annual precipitation over an entire basin as a function of elevation, followed by calibration against annual recharge rates. Previous attempts to create precipitation-elevation functions in western Nevada have been difficult and result in large uncertainty. In the WRD data analysis, the effect of geographic scale on the precipitation-elevation function was overlooked. This contributed to an erroneous Maxey-Eakin recharge estimate.

  3. Aroostook Band of Micmacs - Strategic Enegy Planning Initiative

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Initiative Presented by: Russell Dennis Economic Development Director Presented to: US DOE Tribal Energy Program FY05 Program Review Meeting Aroostook Band of Micmacs Presentation Overview * ABM Background and Demographics * Geographic Area * Energy Perspective * Project Goals and Objectives * Project Activities * Project Partners * Next Steps Aroostook Band of Micmacs ABM Background and Demographics * 1,000 Members in ABM * Micmac Nation: 7 districts of 29 bands with 30,000 members * Federally

  4. Germanium blocked impurity band infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossington, C.S.; Haller, E.E.

    1988-08-01

    Germanium blocked impurity band (BIB) photoconductors have been fabricated and characterized for responsivity, dark current, and noise equivalent power. BIB photoconductors theoretically provide an extension of the spectral response, a reduction in sensitivity to cosmic radiation and a reduction in noise characteristics compared with conventional photoconductors. Silicon BIB detectors have been successfully developed by researchers at Rockwell International, which do indeed meet their theoretical potential. In the proper configuration, these same Si BIB detectors are capable of continuous detection of individual photons in the wavelength range from 0.4 to 28 ..mu..m. Until the BIB concept was developed, detection of individual photons was only possible with photomultiplier tubes which detected visible light. Due to the successes of the Si BIB detectors, it seemed natural to extend this concept to Ge detectors, which would then allow an extension of the spectral response over conventional Ge detectors from /approximately/100 ..mu..m to /approximately/200 ..mu..m. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Metallic photonic band-gap materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sigalas, M.M.; Chan, C.T.; Ho, K.M.; Soukoulis, C.M.

    1995-10-15

    We calculate the transmission and absorption of electromagnetic waves propagating in two-dimensional (2D) and 3D periodic metallic photonic band-gap (PBG) structures. For 2D systems, there is substantial difference between the {ital s}- and {ital p}-polarized waves. The {ital p}-polarized waves exhibit behavior similar to the dielectric PBG`s. But, the {ital s}-polarized waves have a cutoff frequency below which there are no propagating modes. For 3D systems, the results are qualitatively the same for both polarizations but there are important differences related to the topology of the structure. For 3D structures with isolated metallic scatterers (cermet topology), the behavior is similar to that of the dielectric PBG`s, while for 3D structures with the metal forming a continuous network (network topology), there is a cutoff frequency below which there are no propagating modes. The systems with the network topology may have some interesting applications for frequencies less than about 1 THz where the absorption can be neglected. We also study the role of the defects in the metallic structures.

  6. Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The BE signal can be synthesized prior to imaging (static band excitation), or adjusted at each pixel or spectroscopy step to accommodate changes in sample properties (adaptive ...

  7. Ramona Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians- 1999 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Ramona Band of Cauhilla Indians is establishing an ecotourism facility on their Reservation at the southern end of the San Bernardino National Forest in southern California.

  8. Agua Caliente Band's Pursuit of Energy Self-Sufficiency Gains...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians in the Palm Springs area of California is a ... Caliente Resort and Casino in Rancho Mirage, California. View the workshop presentations. ...

  9. High Performance Computing with Harness over InfiniBand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentini, Alessandro; Di Biagio, Christian; Batino, Fabrizio; Pennella, Guido; Palma, Fabrizio; Engelmann, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Harness is an adaptable and plug-in-based middleware framework able to support distributed parallel computing. By now, it is based on the Ethernet protocol which cannot guarantee high performance throughput and real time (determinism) performance. During last years, both, the research and industry environments have developed new network architectures (InfiniBand, Myrinet, iWARP, etc.) to avoid those limits. This paper concerns the integration between Harness and InfiniBand focusing on two solutions: IP over InfiniBand (IPoIB) and Socket Direct Protocol (SDP) technology. They allow the Harness middleware to take advantage of the enhanced features provided by the InfiniBand Architecture.

  10. Project Reports for Aroostook Band of Micmac Indians- 2005 Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The goal of the project is to develop a strategic energy plan in order to reduce energy costs in the Aroostook Band of Micmacs' government buildings and homes.

  11. Dependence of Band Renormalization Effect on the Number of Copper...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Dependence of Band Renormalization Effect on the Number of Copper-oxide ... Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ...

  12. Band structure of topological insulators from noise measurements...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    noise measurements in tunnel junctions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Band structure of topological insulators from noise measurements in tunnel junctions The unique ...

  13. Substrate-Induced Band-Gap Opening in Epitaxial Graphene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Substrate-Induced Band-Gap Opening in Epitaxial Graphene Print Prospective challengers to silicon, the long-reigning king of semiconductors for computer chips and other electronic...

  14. Santa Ynez Band of Chumash Indians- 2011 Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Santa Ynez Band of Chumash Indians (SYBCI) will prepare a comprehensive, strategic energy plan that incorporates energy efficiency, renewable energy, and other energy management and development options.

  15. Battle Mountain Band - Te-Moak: Solar Energy Park

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Battle Mountain Band - Te-Moak Chairman Joseph Holley and Vice-chairman Mark Oppenhein, Members Donna Hill, Delbert Holley, Lydia Johnson, and Lydell Oppenhein Solar Energy Park ...

  16. Project Reports for Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians- 2010 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (EBCI) is using the grant funds from the Department of Energy to complete the Energy Efficiency Improvements to seven EBCI facilities.

  17. Ewiiaapaayp Band of Kumeyaay Indians - Wind Meteorological Tower...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Band of Kumeyaay Indians Meteorlogical Tower Deployment and Data Measurement and Analysis ... from the previously collected raw wind data and correlations among the towers show: * ...

  18. Engineering the Electronic Band Structure for Multiband Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, N.; Reichertz, L.A.; Yu, K.M.; Campman, K.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2010-07-12

    Using the unique features of the electronic band structure of GaNxAs1-x alloys, we have designed, fabricated and tested a multiband photovoltaic device. The device demonstrates an optical activity of three energy bands that absorb, and convert into electrical current, the crucial part of the solar spectrum. The performance of the device and measurements of electroluminescence, quantum efficiency and photomodulated reflectivity are analyzed in terms of the Band Anticrossing model of the electronic structure of highly mismatched alloys. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using highly mismatched alloys to engineer the semiconductor energy band structure for specific device applications.

  19. Minnesota Chippewa Tribe: White Earth Band- 2003 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Several northern Minnesota tribes interested in building a common foundation for strategic tribal energy capacity have banded together for strategic energy resource planning.

  20. Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2013-05-28

    Methods and apparatus are described for scanning probe microscopy. A method includes generating a band excitation (BE) signal having finite and predefined amplitude and phase spectrum in at least a first predefined frequency band; exciting a probe using the band excitation signal; obtaining data by measuring a response of the probe in at least a second predefined frequency band; and extracting at least one relevant dynamic parameter of the response of the probe in a predefined range including analyzing the obtained data. The BE signal can be synthesized prior to imaging (static band excitation), or adjusted at each pixel or spectroscopy step to accommodate changes in sample properties (adaptive band excitation). An apparatus includes a band excitation signal generator; a probe coupled to the band excitation signal generator; a detector coupled to the probe; and a relevant dynamic parameter extractor component coupled to the detector, the relevant dynamic parameter extractor including a processor that performs a mathematical transform selected from the group consisting of an integral transform and a discrete transform.

  1. Shell model description of band structure in 48Cr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargas, Carlos E.; Velazquez, Victor M.

    2007-02-12

    The band structure for normal and abnormal parity bands in 48Cr are described using the m-scheme shell model. In addition to full fp-shell, two particles in the 1d3/2 orbital are allowed in order to describe intruder states. The interaction includes fp-, sd- and mixed matrix elements.

  2. Excited bands in even-even rare-earth nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargas, Carlos E.; Hirsch, Jorge G.

    2004-09-13

    The energetics of states belonging to normal parity bands in even-even dysprosium isotopes, and their B(E2) transition strengths, are studied using an extended pseudo-SU(3) shell model. States with pseudospin 1 are added to the standard pseudospin 0 space, allowing for a proper description of known excited normal parity bands.

  3. Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jesse, Stephen [Knoxville, TN; Kalinin, Sergei V. [Knoxville, TN

    2010-08-17

    Methods and apparatus are described for scanning probe microscopy. A method includes generating a band excitation (BE) signal having finite and predefined amplitude and phase spectrum in at least a first predefined frequency band; exciting a probe using the band excitation signal; obtaining data by measuring a response of the probe in at least a second predefined frequency band; and extracting at least one relevant dynamic parameter of the response of the probe in a predefined range including analyzing the obtained data. The BE signal can be synthesized prior to imaging (static band excitation), or adjusted at each pixel or spectroscopy step to accommodate changes in sample properties (adaptive band excitation). An apparatus includes a band excitation signal generator; a probe coupled to the band excitation signal generator; a detector coupled to the probe; and a relevant dynamic parameter extractor component coupled to the detector, the relevant dynamic parameter extractor including a processor that performs a mathematical transform selected from the group consisting of an integral transform and a discrete transform.

  4. The electronic structure of heavy fermions: Narrow temperature independent bands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arko, A.J.; Joyce, J.J.; Smith, J.L.; Andrews, A.B.

    1996-08-01

    The electronic structure of both Ce and U heavy fermions appears to consist of extremely narrow temperature independent bands. There is no evidence from photoemission for a collective phenomenon normally referred to as the Kondo resonance. In uranium compounds a small dispersion of the bands is easily measurable.

  5. Highly Mismatched Alloys for Intermediate Band Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walukiewicz, W.; Yu, K.M.; Wu, J.; Ager III, J.W.; Shan, W.; Scrapulla, M.A.; Dubon, O.D.; Becla, P.

    2005-03-21

    It has long been recognized that the introduction of a narrow band of states in a semiconductor band gap could be used to achieve improved power conversion efficiency in semiconductor-based solar cells. The intermediate band would serve as a ''stepping stone'' for photons of different energy to excite electrons from the valence to the conduction band. An important advantage of this design is that it requires formation of only a single p-n junction, which is a crucial simplification in comparison to multijunction solar cells. A detailed balance analysis predicts a limiting efficiency of more than 50% for an optimized, single intermediate band solar cell. This is higher than the efficiency of an optimized two junction solar cell. Using ion beam implantation and pulsed laser melting we have synthesized Zn{sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}O{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} alloys with x<0.03. These highly mismatched alloys have a unique electronic structure with a narrow oxygen-derived intermediate band. The width and the location of the band is described by the Band Anticrossing model and can be varied by controlling the oxygen content. This provides a unique opportunity to optimize the absorption of solar photons for best solar cell performance. We have carried out systematic studies of the effects of the intermediate band on the optical and electrical properties of Zn{sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}O{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} alloys. We observe an extension of the photovoltaic response towards lower photon energies, which is a clear indication of optical transitions from the valence to the intermediate band.

  6. Physical properties and analytical models of band-to-band tunneling in low-bandgap semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, Chun-Hsing Dang Chien, Nguyen

    2014-01-28

    Low-bandgap semiconductors, such as InAs and InSb, are widely considered to be ideal for use in tunnel field-effect transistors to ensure sufficient on-current boosting at low voltages. This work elucidates the physical and mathematical considerations of applying conventional band-to-band tunneling models in low-bandgap semiconductors, and presents a new analytical alternative for practical use. The high-bandgap tunneling generates most at maximum field region with shortest tunnel path, whereas the low-bandgap generations occur dispersedly because of narrow tunnel barrier. The local electrical field associated with tunneling-electron numbers dominates in low-bandgap materials. This work proposes decoupled electric-field terms in the pre-exponential factor and exponential function of generation-rate expressions. Without fitting, the analytical results and approximated forms exhibit great agreements with the sophisticated forms both in high- and low-bandgap semiconductors. Neither nonlocal nor local field is appropriate to be used in numerical simulations for predicting the tunneling generations in a variety of low- and high-bandgap semiconductors.

  7. Evaluation of stress experienced by soldiers wearing chemical protective clothing during varying work loads in desert or tropical environments. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudgens, G.A.; Banderet, L.E.; Cadarette, B.S.

    1994-04-01

    A stress evaluation was conducted in a laboratory test in which the physiological and psychological reactions of soldiers were monitored while they wore either the standard battle dress overgarment (MOPPI) or the full complement of chemical protective clothing with mask (MOPPIV) and worked at low, moderate, or high work loads in simulated desert (hot and dry) or tropic (hot and humid) environments. The psychological instruments indicated greater stress responses for soldiers wearing MOPPIV than wearing MOPPI and for soldiers working at a high work load than working at a low work load. Chemical protective clothing, MOPPIV, Tropics, Desert, Psychological stress, Work load, MOPPI, Stress evaluation.

  8. Pay-banding | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Resources Pay-banding NNSA has begun a project designed to attract and retain the best and brightest workers in the national security field. Known as "pay-banding," this pilot project will focus on pay-for-performance rather than pay increases based on longevity. NNSA has begun a project designed to attract and retain the best and brightest workers in the national security field. Known as "pay-banding," this pilot project will focus on pay-for-performance rather than pay

  9. Fast, narrow-band computer model for radiation calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Z.; Holmstedt, G.

    1997-01-01

    A fast, narrow-band computer model, FASTNB, which predicts the radiation intensity in a general nonisothermal and nonhomogeneous combustion environment, has been developed. The spectral absorption coefficients of the combustion products, including carbon dioxide, water vapor, and soot, are calculated based on the narrow-band model. FASTNB provides an accurate calculation at reasonably high speed. Compared with Grosshandler`s narrow-band model, RADCAL, which has been verified quite extensively against experimental measurements, FASTNB is more than 20 times faster and gives almost exactly the same results.

  10. Project Reports for Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians - 2011 Project |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians - 2011 Project Project Reports for Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians - 2011 Project The Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians would like to begin to focus on renewable sources for electricity and to actively target lowering the energy usage of the community. Learn more about this project or find details in the below status reports. November 2011 status report (1.04 MB) November 2012 status report (1.11 MB) Final report (1.62 MB) More Documents &

  11. A Calibrated Maxey-Eakin Curve for the Fenner Basin of the Eastern Mojave Desert, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davisson, M.L.; Rose, T.P.

    2000-05-15

    Metropolitan Water District (MWD) of southern California and Cadiz Inc. investigated the feasibility of storing Colorado River water in groundwater aquifers of the eastern Mojave Desert as a future drought mitigation strategy. This culminated in the public release of the Cadiz Groundwater Storage and Dry-Year Supply program Draft EIR, which included pilot percolation studies, groundwater modeling, and precipitation/runoff analysis in the Fenner groundwater basin, which overlies the proposed storage site. The project proposes to store and withdrawal Colorado River water over a 50-year period, but will not exceed the natural replenishment rates of the groundwater basin. Several independent analyses were conducted to estimate the rates of natural groundwater replenishment to the Fenner Groundwater Basin, which was included in the Draft EIR. The US Geologic Survey, Water Resources Division (WRD) officially submitted comments during public review and concluded that the natural groundwater replenishment rates calculated for the Draft EIR were too high. In the WRD review, they provided a much lower recharge calculation based on a Maxey-Eakin estimation approach. This approach estimates annual precipitation over an entire basin as a function of elevation, followed by calibration against annual recharge rates. Recharge rates are estimated on the basis that some fraction of annual precipitation will recharge, and that fraction will increase with increasing elevation. This results in a hypothetical curve relating annual groundwater recharge to annual precipitation. Field validation of recharge rates is critical in order to establish credibility to any estimate. This is due to the fact that the Maxey-Eakin model is empirical. An empirical model is derived from practical experience rather than basic theory. Therefore, a validated Maxey-Eakin model in one groundwater basin does not translate to a different one. In the WRD's Maxey-Eakin model, they used a curve calibrated against

  12. ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL COLONIZATION OF LARREA TRIDENTATA AND AMBROSIA DUMOSA ROOTS VARIES WITH PRECIPITATION AND SEASON IN THE MOJAVE DESERT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. E. APPLE; C. I. THEE; V. L. SMITH-LONGOZO; C. R. COGAR; C. E. WELLS; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    The percentage of fine roots colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi varied with season and with species in the co-dominant shrubs Lurreu tridentutu and Ambrosia dumosu at a site adjacent to the Nevada Desert FACE (Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment) Facility (NDFF) in the Mojave Desert. We excavated downward and outward from the shrub bases in both species to collect and examine fine roots (< 1.0 mm diameter) at monthly intervals throughout 2001 and from October 2002 to September 2003. Fungal structures became visible in cleared roots stained with trypan blue. We quantified the percent colonization of roots by AM fungi via the line intercept method. In both years and for both species, colonization was highest in fall, relatively low in spring when root growth began, increased in late spring, and decreased during summer drought periods. Increases in colonization during summer and fall reflect corresponding increases in precipitation. Spring mycorrhizal colonization is low despite peaks in soil water availability and precipitation, indicating that precipitation is not the only factor influencing mycorrhizal colonization. Because the spring decrease in mycorrhizal colonization occurs when these shrubs initiate a major flush of fine root growth, other phenological events such as competing demands for carbon by fine root initiation, early season shoot growth, and flowering may reduce carbon availability to the fungus, and hence decrease colonization. Another possibility is that root growth exceeds the rate of mycorrhizal colonization.

  13. Band gap engineering strategy via polarization rotation in perovskite ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Fenggong Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2014-04-14

    We propose a strategy to engineer the band gaps of perovskite oxide ferroelectrics, supported by first principles calculations. We find that the band gaps of perovskites can be substantially reduced by as much as 1.2 eV through local rhombohedral-to-tetragonal structural transition. Furthermore, the strong polarization of the rhombohedral perovskite is largely preserved by its tetragonal counterpart. The B-cation off-center displacements and the resulting enhancement of the antibonding character in the conduction band give rise to the wider band gaps of the rhombohedral perovskites. The correlation between the structure, polarization orientation, and electronic structure lays a good foundation for understanding the physics of more complex perovskite solid solutions and provides a route for the design of photovoltaic perovskite ferroelectrics.

  14. Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians- 2005 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians will establish a comprehensive energy strategic plan that captures economic and environmental benefits while continuing to respect tribal cultural practices and traditions.

  15. Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians- 2012 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians (ACBCI) plans to complete a feasibility study to evaluate a combined wind/solar power generation project on its Whitewater Ranch trust lands in southern California.

  16. Linear Scaling of the Exciton Binding Energy versus the Band...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Linear Scaling of the Exciton Binding Energy versus the Band Gap of Two-Dimensional Materials This content will become publicly available on August 6, 2016 Prev Next Title:...

  17. Scotts Valley Band of Pomo Indians- 2010 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Scotts Valley Band of Pomo Indians in Lakeport, California, will establish a Tribal Multi-County Weatherization Energy Program to provide training, outreach, and education on energy assistance and conservation to low-income families.

  18. An X-Band Gun Test Area at SLAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Limborg-Deprey, C.; Adolphsen, C.; Chu, T.S.; Dunning, M.P.; Jobe, R.K.; Jongewaard, E.N.; Hast, C.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wang, F.; Walz, D.R.; Marsh, R.A.; Anderson, S.G.; Hartemann, F.V.; Houck, T.L.; /LLNL, Livermore

    2012-09-07

    The X-Band Test Area (XTA) is being assembled in the NLCTA tunnel at SLAC to serve as a test facility for new RF guns. The first gun to be tested will be an upgraded version of the 5.6 cell, 200 MV/m peak field X-band gun designed at SLAC in 2003 for the Compton Scattering experiment run in ASTA. This new version includes some features implemented in 2006 on the LCLS gun such as racetrack couplers, increased mode separation and elliptical irises. These upgrades were developed in collaboration with LLNL since the same gun will be used in an injector for a LLNL Gamma-ray Source. Our beamline includes an X-band acceleration section which takes the electron beam up to 100 MeV and an electron beam measurement station. Other X-Band guns such as the UCLA Hybrid gun will be characterized at our facility.

  19. Little River Band of Ottawa Indians- 2011 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    he main purpose of this project is to increase human capacity of the Little River Band of Ottawa Indians (LRBOI) to understand the components of renewable energy and the importance of energy efficiency.

  20. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: W-Band ARM...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kevin Pacific Northwest National Laboratory The W-Band ARM Cloud Radar (WACR) is a dual polarization 95 GHz radar that will be deployed at the SGP CART site in the spring of...

  1. Substrate-Induced Band-Gap Opening in Epitaxial Graphene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Substrate-Induced Band-Gap Opening in Epitaxial Graphene Substrate-Induced Band-Gap Opening in Epitaxial Graphene Print Wednesday, 26 March 2008 00:00 Prospective challengers to silicon, the long-reigning king of semiconductors for computer chips and other electronic devices, have to overcome silicon's superb collection of materials properties as well as sophisticated fabrication technologies refined by six decades of effort by materials scientists and engineers. Graphene, one of the latest

  2. Ramona Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians- 2002 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Ramona Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians ("Ramona Band" or "tribe") will be the first tribe to develop its entire reservation off-grid, using renewable energy as the primary power source. The tribe will purchase and install the primary components for a 65-80 kilowatt-hours per day central wind/PV/propane generator hybrid system that will power the reservation's housing, offices, ecotourism, and training businesses. The electricity is planned to be distributed through an underground mini-grid.

  3. Method for Creating Photonic Band Gap Materials - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Method for Creating Photonic Band Gap Materials Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Innovative microstructures that can direct light in a manner similar to the way semiconductors can influence electrons can be produced by creating what is termed a photonic band gap. These microstructures have the potential to change the way optoelectronic devices, such as photodiodes, LEDs, and integrated optical circuit elements, are designed and used. Ames Laboratory

  4. Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign, Phase II

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bands Campaign, Phase II From August to October 2009, a team of researchers from the United States and Italy are gathering in Chile to obtain precious climate data from the far reaches of Earth's atmosphere. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, the second phase of the Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC-II) takes place on Cerro Toco. This mountain rises from the Chajnantor Plateau in Chile's Atacama

  5. Project Reports for Yakama Nation, Confederated Tribes and Bands - 2008

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project | Department of Energy Yakama Nation, Confederated Tribes and Bands - 2008 Project Project Reports for Yakama Nation, Confederated Tribes and Bands - 2008 Project It is the intention of the Yakama Nation (YN) to make improvements on the Wapato Irrigation Project (WIP) for the benefit of all stakeholders. Learn more about this project or find details in the below status reports. November 2008 status report (3.29 MB) November 2009 status report (8.95 MB) More Documents &

  6. AN H-BAND SPECTROSCOPIC METALLICITY CALIBRATION FOR M DWARFS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terrien, Ryan C.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Bender, Chad F.; Deshpande, Rohit; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Bochanski, John J., E-mail: rct151@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2012-03-10

    We present an empirical near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic method for estimating M dwarf metallicities, based on features in the H band, as well as an implementation of a similar published method in the K band. We obtained R {approx} 2000 NIR spectra of a sample of M dwarfs using the NASA IRTF-SpeX spectrograph, including 22 M dwarf metallicity calibration targets that have FGK companions with known metallicities. The H-band and K-band calibrations provide equivalent fits to the metallicities of these binaries, with an accuracy of {+-}0.12 dex. We derive the first empirically calibrated spectroscopic metallicity estimate for the giant planet-hosting M dwarf GJ 317, confirming its supersolar metallicity. Combining this result with observations of eight other M dwarf planet hosts, we find that M dwarfs with giant planets are preferentially metal-rich compared to those that host less massive planets. Our H-band calibration relies on strongly metallicity-dependent features in the H band, which will be useful in compositional studies using mid- to high-resolution NIR M dwarf spectra, such as those produced by multiplexed surveys like SDSS-III APOGEE. These results will also be immediately useful for ongoing spectroscopic surveys of M dwarfs.

  7. Draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain Wb2n-11, a desert isolate with broad-spectrum antagonism against soilborne phytopathogens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koeberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-06

    Streptomyces sp. strain Wb2n-11, isolated from native desert soil, exhibited broad-spectrum antagonism against plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria and nematodes. The 8.2 Mb draft genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol activity and genes which enable the soil bacterium to directly interact beneficially with plants.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. Strain Wb2n-11, a Desert Isolate with Broad-Spectrum Antagonism against Soilborne Phytopathogens

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Köberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-06

    Streptomyces sp. strain Wb2n-11, isolated from native desert soil, exhibited broad-spectrum antagonism against plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and nematodes. The 8.2-Mb draft genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol activity and genes which enable the soil bacterium to directly interact beneficially with plants.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. Strain Wb2n-11, a Desert Isolate with Broad-Spectrum Antagonism against Soilborne Phytopathogens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Köberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-06

    Streptomyces sp. strain Wb2n-11, isolated from native desert soil, exhibited broad-spectrum antagonism against plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and nematodes. The 8.2-Mb draft genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol activity and genes which enable the soil bacterium to directly interact beneficially with plants.

  10. C-Band Scanning ARM Precipitation Radar (C-SAPR) Handbook (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    C-Band Scanning ARM Precipitation Radar (C-SAPR) Handbook Citation Details In-Document Search Title: C-Band Scanning ARM Precipitation Radar (C-SAPR) Handbook The C-band scanning ...

  11. Table of superdeformed nuclear bands and fission isomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firestone, R.B.; Singh, B.

    1994-06-01

    A minimum in the second potential well of deformed nuclei was predicted and the associated shell gaps are illustrated in the harmonic oscillator potential shell energy surface calculations shown in this report. A strong superdeformed minimum in {sup 152}Dy was predicted for {beta}{sub 2}-0.65. Subsequently, a discrete set of {gamma}-ray transitions in {sup 152}DY was observed and, assigned to the predicted superdeformed band. Extensive research at several laboratories has since focused on searching for other mass regions of large deformation. A new generation of {gamma}-ray detector arrays is already producing a wealth of information about the mechanisms for feeding and deexciting superdeformed bands. These bands have been found in three distinct regions near A=l30, 150, and 190. This research extends upon previous work in the actinide region near A=240 where fission isomers were identified and also associated with the second potential well. Quadrupole moment measurements for selected cases in each mass region are consistent with assigning the bands to excitations in the second local minimum. As part of our committment to maintain nuclear structure data as current as possible in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Reference File (ENSDF) and the Table of Isotopes, we have updated the information on superdeformed nuclear bands. As of April 1994, we have complied data from 86 superdeformed bands and 46 fission isomers identified in 73 nuclides for this report. For each nuclide there is a complete level table listing both normal and superdeformed band assignments; level energy, spin, parity, half-life, magneto moments, decay branchings; and the energies, final levels, relative intensities, multipolarities, and mixing ratios for transitions deexciting each level. Mass excess, decay energies, and proton and neutron separation energies are also provided from the evaluation of Audi and Wapstra.

  12. Oxygen isotope variability within Nautilus shell growth bands

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Linzmeier, Benjamin J.; Kozdon, Reinhard; Peters, Shanan E.; Valley, John W.

    2016-04-21

    Nautilus is often used as an analogue for the ecology and behavior of extinct externally shelled cephalopods. Nautilus shell grows quickly, has internal growth banding, and is widely believed to precipitate aragonite in oxygen isotope equilibrium with seawater. Pieces of shell from a wild-caught Nautilus macromphalus from New Caledonia and from a Nautilus belauensis reared in an aquarium were cast in epoxy, polished, and then imaged. Growth bands were visible in the outer prismatic layer of both shells. The thicknesses of the bands are consistent with previously reported daily growth rates measured in aquarium reared individuals. In situ analysis ofmore » oxygen isotope ratios using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) with 10 μm beam-spot size reveals inter- and intra-band δ18O variation. In the wild-caught sample, a traverse crosscutting 45 growth bands yielded δ18O values ranging 2.5‰, from +0.9 to -1.6 ‰ (VPDB), a range that is larger than that observed in many serial sampling of entire shells by conventional methods. The maximum range within a single band (~32 μm) was 1.5‰, and 27 out of 41 bands had a range larger than instrumental precision (±2 SD = 0.6‰). The results from the wild individual suggest depth migration is recorded by the shell, but are not consistent with a simple sinusoidal, diurnal depth change pattern. In addition, to create the observed range of δ18O, however, this Nautilus must have traversed a temperature gradient of at least ~12°C, corresponding to approximately 400 m depth change. Isotopic variation was also measured in the aquarium-reared sample, but the pattern within and between bands likely reflects evaporative enrichment arising from a weekly cycle of refill and replacement of the aquarium water. Overall, this work suggests that depth migration behavior in ancient nektonic mollusks could be elucidated by SIMS analysis across individual growth bands.« less

  13. The Origin of Lueders's Bands in Deformed Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsson, W.A.

    1999-03-31

    Lueders' bands are shear deformation features commonly observed in rock specimens that have been deformed experimentally in the brittle-ductile transition regime. For specimens that contain both faults (shear fractures that separate the specimen) and bands, the bands form earlier in the deformation history and their orientations are often different from the fault These differences pose the question of the relationship between these two structures. Understanding the origin of these features may shed light on the genesis of apparent natural analogues, and on the general process of rock deformation and fracture in the laboratory. This paper presents a hypothesis for the formation of Lueders' bands in laboratory specimens based on deformation localization theory considered in the context of the nonuniform stress distribution of the conventional triaxial experiment Lueders' bands and faults appear to be equivalent reflections of the localization process as it is controlled by nonuniform distributions of stress and evolution of incremental constitutive parameters resulting from increasing damage. To relate conditions for localization in laboratory specimens to natural settings, it will be necessary to design new experiments that create uniform stress and deformation fields, or to extract constitutive data indirectly from standard experiments using computational means.

  14. ARM: Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (KASACR) Corner Reflector...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (KASACR) Corner Reflector Calibration Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (KASACR) Corner Reflector Calibration Authors: Dan Nelson ; ...

  15. Fond du Lac Band Leads Climate Resilience Efforts on Lake Superior...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Fond du Lac Band Leads Climate Resilience Efforts on Lake Superior Chippewa Indian Reservation Fond du Lac Band Leads Climate Resilience Efforts on Lake Superior Chippewa Indian ...

  16. Topological system with a twisting edge band: A position-dependent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Topological system with a twisting edge band: A position-dependent Hall resistance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Topological system with a twisting edge band: A ...

  17. Little River Band of Ottawa Indians … First Steps to Human Capacity...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Little River Band of Ottawa Indians Melissa Waitner, GPC Grant Writer 375 River Street Manistee, Michigan 49660 mwaitner@lrboi.com The Little River Band of Ottawa Indians ...

  18. David Blackwell’s Forty Years in the Idaho Desert, The Foundation for 21st Century Geothermal Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLing, Travis; McCurry, Mike; Cannon, Cody; Neupane, Ghanashyam; Wood, Thomas; Podgorney, Robert; Welhan, John; Mines, Greg; Mattson, Earl; Wood, Rachel; Palmer, Carl

    2015-04-01

    Dr. David Blackwell has had a profound influence on geo-thermal exploration and R&D in Idaho. Forty years have elapsed since the first Southern Methodist University (SMU) temperature logging truck rolled onto the high desert in Southern Idaho, yet even after so much time has elapsed, most recent and ongoing geothermal R&D can trace its roots to the foundational temperature studies led by Dr. Blackwell. We believe that the best way to honor any scientist is to see their work carried forward by others. As this paper demonstrates, it has been an easy task to find a host of Idaho researchers and students eager to contribute to this tribute paper. We organize this paper by ongoing or recent projects that continue to benefit left to Idaho by Dr. David Blackwell.

  19. [Climate implications of terrestrial paleoclimate]. Quaternary Sciences Center, Desert Research Institute annual report, fiscal year 1994/1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigand, P.E.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this study is to collect terrestrial climate indicators for paleoclimate synthesis. The paleobiotic and geomorphic records are being examined for the local and regional impact of past climates to assess Yucca Mountain`s suitability as a high-level nuclear waste repository. In particular these data are being used to provide estimates of the timing, duration and extremes of past periods of moister climate for use in hydrological models of local and regional recharge that are being formulated by USGS and other hydrologists for the Yucca Mountain area. The project includes botanical, faunal, and geomorphic components that will be integrated to accomplish this goal. To this end personnel at the Quaternary Sciences Center of the Desert Research Institute in Reno, Nevada are conducting the following activities: Analyses of packrat middens; Analysis of pollen samples; and Determination of vegetation climate relationships.

  20. Robotic end gripper with a band member to engage object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pollard, Roy E.; Robinson, Samuel C.; Thompson, William F.; Couture, Scott A.; Sutton, Bill J.

    1994-01-01

    An end effector for use with robotic arms and like devices that utilizes a flexible band to draw an object against an anvil having a concave surface. One typical convex surface is created by a V-block, with an apex of the V being centrally located. If an object to be grasped is fragile, the contour of the concave surface closely matches the surface of the object. Typically the movement of the band is effected by a linear actuator, with the anvil remaining fixed relative to a support base. Several embodiments are described that utilize variations in drawing the band toward the anvil, with one of these embodiments described in detail in the form of a fabricated unit. One embodiment includes a cover element that can be moved over an object after the grasping thereof, with this cover potentially serving various functions. Movement of the cover can be effected with a second linear actuator.

  1. Blocked impurity band hybrid infrared focal plane arrays for astronomy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, D.B.; Seib, D.H.; Stetson, S.B.; Herter, T.; Rowlands, N.; Schoenwald, J.

    1989-02-01

    High-performance infrared hybrid focal plane arrays using 10 x 50 element Si:As Blocked-Impurity-Band (BIB) detectors (cut-off wavelength = 28 ..mu..m) and matching switched MOSFET multiplexers have been developed and characterized for space astronomy. Use of impurity band conduction technology provides detectors which are nuclear radiation hard and free of the many anomalies associated with conventional silicon photoconductive detectors. Emphasis in this paper is on recent advances in detector material quality which have led to significantly improved detector and hybrid characteristics. Results demonstrating increase quantum efficiency (particular at short wavelength infrared), obtained by varying the Blocked-Impurity-Band detector properties (infrared active layer thickness and arsenic doping profile), are summarized. Read noise and dark current for different temperatures have been measured and are also described. The hybrid array performance achieved clearly demonstrates that BIB detectors are well suited for use in astronomical instrumentation.

  2. Amorphous copper tungsten oxide with tunable band gaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Le; Shet, Sudhakar; Tang Houwen; Wang Heli; Yan Yanfa; Turner, John; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Ahn, Kwang-soon

    2010-08-15

    We report on the synthesis of amorphous copper tungsten oxide thin films with tunable band gaps. The thin films are synthesized by the magnetron cosputtering method. We find that due to the amorphous nature, the Cu-to-W ratio in the films can be varied without the limit of the solubility (or phase separation) under appropriate conditions. As a result, the band gap and conductivity type of the films can be tuned by controlling the film composition. Unfortunately, the amorphous copper tungsten oxides are not stable in aqueous solution and are not suitable for the application of photoelectrochemical splitting of water. Nonetheless, it provides an alternative approach to search for transition metal oxides with tunable band gaps.

  3. Numerical method for shear bands in ductile metal with inclusions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plohr, Jee Yeon N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Plohr, Bradley J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    A numerical method for mesoscale simulation of high strain-rate loading of ductile metal containing inclusions is described. Because of small-scale inhomogeneities, such a composite material is prone to localized shear deformation (adiabatic shear bands). The modeling framework is the Generalized Method of Cells of Paley and Aboudi [Mech. Materials, vol. 14, pp. /27-139, 1992], which ensures that the micromechanical response of the material is reflected in the behavior of the composite at the mesoscale. To calculate the effective plastic strain rate when shear bands are present, the analytic and numerical analysis of shear bands by Glimm, Plohr, and Sharp [Mech. Materials, vol. 24, pp. 31-41, 1996] is adapted and extended.

  4. Robotic end gripper with a band member to engage object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pollard, R.E.; Robinson, S.C.; Thompson, W.F.; Couture, S.A.; Sutton, B.J.

    1994-05-10

    An end effector for use with robotic arms and like devices is described that utilizes a flexible band to draw an object against an anvil having a concave surface. One typical convex surface is created by a V-block, with an apex of the V being centrally located. If an object to be grasped is fragile, the contour of the concave surface closely matches the surface of the object. Typically the movement of the band is effected by a linear actuator, with the anvil remaining fixed relative to a support base. Several embodiments are described that utilize variations in drawing the band toward the anvil, with one of these embodiments described in detail in the form of a fabricated unit. One embodiment includes a cover element that can be moved over an object after the grasping thereof, with this cover potentially serving various functions. Movement of the cover can be effected with a second linear actuator. 8 figures.

  5. Continuously controlled optical band gap in oxide semiconductor thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Herklotz, Andreas; Rus, Stefania Florina; Ward, Thomas Zac

    2016-02-02

    The optical band gap of the prototypical semiconducting oxide SnO2 is shown to be continuously controlled through single axis lattice expansion of nanometric films induced by low-energy helium implantation. While traditional epitaxy-induced strain results in Poisson driven multidirectional lattice changes shown to only allow discrete increases in bandgap, we find that a downward shift in the band gap can be linearly dictated as a function of out-of-plane lattice expansion. Our experimental observations closely match density functional theory that demonstrates that uniaxial strain provides a fundamentally different effect on the band structure than traditional epitaxy-induced multiaxes strain effects. In conclusion, chargemore » density calculations further support these findings and provide evidence that uniaxial strain can be used to drive orbital hybridization inaccessible with traditional strain engineering techniques.« less

  6. Cabazon Band of Mission Indians Strategic Energy Plan Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cabazon Band of Mission Indians Strategic Energy Plan Presentation Prepared by Philip Rentz 11/1/2004 2 Developed for the Cabazon Band of Mission Indians (CBMI) In Cooperation With The Department of Energy 11/1/2004 3 Site Location Maps 11/1/2004 4 Tribal Land 11/1/2004 5 Fantasy Springs Resort and Casino 11/1/2004 6 Cabazon Resource Recovery Park 11/1/2004 7 Organizational Chart 11/1/2004 8 Vision Statement The primary objective of the Strategic energy Plan is to aide in the social and economic

  7. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen-Tuong, Viet; Dylla, III, Henry Frederick

    1997-01-01

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost.

  8. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen-Tuong, V.; Dylla, H.F. III

    1997-11-04

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost. 5 figs.

  9. Special purpose modes in photonic band gap fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spencer, James; Noble, Robert; Campbell, Sara

    2013-04-02

    Photonic band gap fibers are described having one or more defects suitable for the acceleration of electrons or other charged particles. Methods and devices are described for exciting special purpose modes in the defects including laser coupling schemes as well as various fiber designs and components for facilitating excitation of desired modes. Results are also presented showing effects on modes due to modes in other defects within the fiber and due to the proximity of defects to the fiber edge. Techniques and devices are described for controlling electrons within the defect(s). Various applications for electrons or other energetic charged particles produced by such photonic band gap fibers are also described.

  10. ARM - Field Campaign - Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (RHUBC) govCampaignsRadiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC) Campaign Links RHUBC Website ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC) 2007.02.22 - 2007.03.14 Website : http://www.arm.gov/campaigns/rhubc/ Lead Scientist : David Turner For data sets, see below. Abstract Radiative cooling and heating in the mid-to-upper

  11. Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians - 2011 Project | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Luiseno Indians - 2011 Project Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians - 2011 Project Summary The Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians would like to begin to focus on renewable sources for electricity and to actively target lowering the energy usage of the community. Based on a past U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded study, it was decided that the tribe would aim to achieve a 5% reduction in energy each year over a five-year period. This would be a total reduction of 25% of the 2009 baseline energy data

  12. Electronic band structure of magnetic bilayer graphene superlattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pham, C. Huy; Nguyen, T. Thuong

    2014-09-28

    Electronic band structure of the bilayer graphene superlattices with ?-function magnetic barriers and zero average magnetic flux is studied within the four-band continuum model, using the transfer matrix method. The periodic magnetic potential effects on the zero-energy touching point between the lowest conduction and the highest valence minibands of pristine bilayer graphene are exactly analyzed. Magnetic potential is shown also to generate the finite-energy touching points between higher minibands at the edges of Brillouin zone. The positions of these points and the related dispersions are determined in the case of symmetric potentials.

  13. Structure of dipole bands in {sup 106}In

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deo, A. Y.; Palit, R.; Naik, Z.; Joshi, P. K.; Mazumdar, I.; Sihotra, S.; Mehta, D.; Kumar, S.; Chakrabarti, R.; Kshetri, R.

    2009-06-15

    High spin states in neutron-deficient {sup 106}In were investigated using {sup 78}Se({sup 32}S,p3n) reaction at 125 MeV. The level scheme is extended up to 7 MeV of excitation energy for the negative parity states constituting four dipole bands, and the positive parity states which mainly exhibit single-particle excitations are extended up to 5 MeV. Projected deformed Hartree-Fock calculations were carried out to understand the configurations of different bands in this nucleus.

  14. Center for Inverse Design: Modality 1 - Inverse Band Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1: Inverse Band Structure Modality 1 applies to cases where we have a single material system, but an astronomical number of configurations, and where the target properties can be calculated on the fly. The approach is also called Inverse Band Structure (IBS). The IBS approach began a dozen years ago within the Solid-State Theory group at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Imagine that you have a

  15. Energy distribution of nonequilibrium electrons and optical phonons in GaAs under band-to-band pumping by intense short pulses of light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altybaev, G. S.; Kumekov, S. E. Mahmudov, A. A.

    2009-03-15

    Deviation from the Fermi distribution of nonequilibrium electrons and distribution of 'hot' optical phonons in GaAs under band-to-band pumping by picosecond pulses of light are calculated.

  16. Project Reports for Cabazon Band of Mission Indians- 2011 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Cabazon Band of Mission Indians' long-range goals are to become energy self-sufficient, foster economic diversity, grow jobs, and improve the well-being of members of the tribe as well as those in its region of Southern California.

  17. Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians- 2015 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians is seeking to install a 76.9-kilowatt (kW) solar photovoltaic (PV) system to offset the energy costs of the Tribal Education and Family Services offices located at the Heritage Plaza office building.

  18. Modeling Multi-Bunch X-band Photoinjector Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsh, R A; Anderson, S G; Gibson, D J; Barty, C J

    2012-05-09

    An X-band test station is being developed at LLNL to investigate accelerator optimization for future upgrades to mono-energetic gamma-ray technology at LLNL. The test station will consist of a 5.5 cell X-band rf photoinjector, single accelerator section, and beam diagnostics. Of critical import to the functioning of the LLNL X-band system with multiple electron bunches is the performance of the photoinjector. In depth modeling of the Mark 1 LLNL/SLAC X-band rf photoinjector performance will be presented addressing important challenges that must be addressed in order to fabricate a multi-bunch Mark 2 photoinjector. Emittance performance is evaluated under different nominal electron bunch parameters using electrostatic codes such as PARMELA. Wake potential is analyzed using electromagnetic time domain simulations using the ACE3P code T3P. Plans for multi-bunch experiments and implementation of photoinjector advances for the Mark 2 design will also be discussed.

  19. Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa and Chippewa Indians- 2005 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa and Chippewa Indians (GTB) will conduct a feasibility study to determine the cost effectiveness and other economic, environmental, cultural, and social benefits of maximizing the diversity of energy sources used at GTB facilities. This includes an assessment of energy conservation measures as well as renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, and biomass.

  20. Mesa Grande Band of Mission Indians- 2004 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Mesa Grande Band of Mission Indians, located in northern San Diego County, will conduct a study of the feasibility of reducing air pollution generated on the reservation by an over-reliance on wood-burning stoves, kerosene heaters, and gasoline generators, and to identify the types of renewable energy systems that could be used for residential structures and well-pump systems.

  1. Evidence for hybrid surface metallic band in (4??4) silicene on Ag(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsoutsou, D. Xenogiannopoulou, E.; Golias, E.; Tsipas, P.; Dimoulas, A.

    2013-12-02

    The electronic band structure of monolayer (4??4) silicene on Ag(111) is imaged by angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. A dominant hybrid surface metallic band is observed to be located near the bulk Ag sp-band which is also faintly visible. The two-dimensional character of the hybrid band has been distinguished against the bulk character of the Ag(111) sp-band by means of photon energy dependence experiments. The surface band exhibits a steep linear dispersion around the K{sup }{sub Ag} point and has a saddle point near the M{sup }{sub Ag} point of Ag(111) resembling the ?-band dispersion in graphene.

  2. Broad-band characteristics of circular button pickups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barry, W.C.

    1992-10-01

    A broad-band.theory of the circular button pickup is presented. Expressions for the longitudinal and transverse transfer impedance of a pair of such pickups are derived in the frequency domain. The broad-band expressions are shown to reduce to the standard electrostatic transfer functions for wavelengths large compared to the button diameter. The theory is shown to be in reasonable agreement with measurements performed on standard LEP button electrodes. In particular, the theory explains a resonance in the response of the LEP buttons which made them unsuitable, in standard form, for their intended application as pickups in the LBL Advanced Light Source feedback system. The buttons were modified to suppress the resonance and subsequently incorporated into the feedback system.

  3. Substrate-Induced Band-Gap Opening in Epitaxial Graphene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Substrate-Induced Band-Gap Opening in Epitaxial Graphene Print Prospective challengers to silicon, the long-reigning king of semiconductors for computer chips and other electronic devices, have to overcome silicon's superb collection of materials properties as well as sophisticated fabrication technologies refined by six decades of effort by materials scientists and engineers. Graphene, one of the latest contenders, has a rather impressive list of features of its own but has lacked a key

  4. Substrate-Induced Band-Gap Opening in Epitaxial Graphene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Substrate-Induced Band-Gap Opening in Epitaxial Graphene Print Prospective challengers to silicon, the long-reigning king of semiconductors for computer chips and other electronic devices, have to overcome silicon's superb collection of materials properties as well as sophisticated fabrication technologies refined by six decades of effort by materials scientists and engineers. Graphene, one of the latest contenders, has a rather impressive list of features of its own but has lacked a key

  5. Substrate-Induced Band-Gap Opening in Epitaxial Graphene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Substrate-Induced Band-Gap Opening in Epitaxial Graphene Print Prospective challengers to silicon, the long-reigning king of semiconductors for computer chips and other electronic devices, have to overcome silicon's superb collection of materials properties as well as sophisticated fabrication technologies refined by six decades of effort by materials scientists and engineers. Graphene, one of the latest contenders, has a rather impressive list of features of its own but has lacked a key

  6. Substrate-Induced Band-Gap Opening in Epitaxial Graphene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Substrate-Induced Band-Gap Opening in Epitaxial Graphene Print Prospective challengers to silicon, the long-reigning king of semiconductors for computer chips and other electronic devices, have to overcome silicon's superb collection of materials properties as well as sophisticated fabrication technologies refined by six decades of effort by materials scientists and engineers. Graphene, one of the latest contenders, has a rather impressive list of features of its own but has lacked a key

  7. Project Reports for Manzanita Band of Mission Indians- 2002 Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Manzanita Band of Mission Indians ("the tribe") has long recognized that its reservation has an abundant wind resource that could be commercially utilized to its benefit. The tribe is now investigating the feasibility of commercial scale development of a wind power project on tribal lands. The proposed project is a joint effort between the tribe and its subcontractor and consultant, SeaWest Consulting.

  8. Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians- 2003 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians, located in the northwest corner of Minnesota near the Canadian border, will assess the potential to expand the use of biomass resources for energy autonomy and economic development on tribal lands. Specifically, the tribe will evaluate the technical, market, financial, and cultural aspects of using its extensive, forested lands to create a sustainable bioproducts-based business and will develop a business plan to guide tribal industry development.

  9. ARM - Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Related Links RHUBC Home NSA Home ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Experiment Planning RHUBC Proposal Abstract Full Proposal (pdf, 420kb) Science Plan (pdf) Operations Plan (pdf, 144kb) Instruments Contacts News ARM Press Release (Feb. 26, 2007) Images flickr_dots Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC) Now available: RHUBC-II website Between February and March 2007 at the ACRF North Slope of Alaska site in Barrow, high-spectral-resolution observations were collected by two

  10. Substrate-Induced Band-Gap Opening in Epitaxial Graphene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Substrate-Induced Band-Gap Opening in Epitaxial Graphene Print Prospective challengers to silicon, the long-reigning king of semiconductors for computer chips and other electronic devices, have to overcome silicon's superb collection of materials properties as well as sophisticated fabrication technologies refined by six decades of effort by materials scientists and engineers. Graphene, one of the latest contenders, has a rather impressive list of features of its own but has lacked a key