Sample records for vi rgi ni

  1. Renewable and alteRnative eneRgy Fact Sheet Using Biodiesel Fuel in Your Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    Renewable and alteRnative eneRgy Fact Sheet Using Biodiesel Fuel in Your Engine introduction Biodiesel is an engine fuel that is created by chemically reacting fatty acids and alcohol. Practically sodium hydroxide). Biodiesel is much more suitable for use as an engine fuel than straight vegetable oil

  2. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF I!NI!RGY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NFPA...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the Iowa Office of Energy STATE: IA Independence) PROJECf TITLE: Magellan Des Moines Biodiesel Terminal Project Page 10f3 Funding Opportunity Announcement Number Procurement...

  3. Renewable and alteRnative eneRgy Fact Sheet College of Agricultural Sciences Agricultural Research and Cooperative Extension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    Renewable and alteRnative eneRgy Fact Sheet College of Agricultural Sciences · Agricultural are as follows: 1. Biodiesel has higher lubricity (it is more "slippery") than petroleum diesel.This is a good thing, as it can be expected to reduce engine wear. 2. Biodiesel contains practically no sulfur

  4. VI-1 PAPERS PUBLISHED

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    148030ENAS%206038.pdf. A new detection system for very low-energy protons from -delayed p-decay, A. Spiridon, Proceedings of VI European Summer School on Experimental...

  5. Energy for the future with Ris from nuclear power to sustainable energy Ris NatioNal laboRatoRy foR sustaiNable eNeRgy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy for the future ­ with Risø from nuclear power to sustainable energy Risø NatioNal laboRatoRy foR sustaiNable eNeRgy edited by MoRteN JastRup #12;Energy for the future #12;Energy for the future ­ with Risø from nuclear power to sustainable energy Translated from 'Energi til fremtiden ­ med Risø fra

  6. LABORATORY VI ELECTRICITY FROM MAGNETISM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    LABORATORY VI ELECTRICITY FROM MAGNETISM Lab VI - 1 In the previous problems you explored by electric currents. This lab will carry that investigation one step further, determining how changing magnetic fields can give rise to electric currents. This is the effect that allows the generation

  7. LABORATORY VI ELECTRICITY FROM MAGNETISM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    LABORATORY VI ELECTRICITY FROM MAGNETISM Lab VI - 1 In the previous problems you explored the magnetic field and its effect on moving charges. You also saw how electric currents could create magnetic can give rise to electric currents. This is the effect that allows the generation of electricity

  8. Uranium(VI) Diffusion in Low-Permeability Subsurface Materials...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Uranium(VI) Diffusion in Low-Permeability Subsurface Materials. Uranium(VI) Diffusion in Low-Permeability Subsurface Materials. Abstract: Uranium(VI) diffusion was investigated in...

  9. Chapter VI Conclusion and Suggestions Chapter VIChapter VIChapter VIChapter VI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    design for low cost, short range, low data rate and dense WSN application. Because of its low-cost are presented for future works. VI.1 Conclusion This work is an attempt toward low-power mm-wave transceiver of the fabricated LNA showed that this noise model can describe the noise behaviour of the transistors with good

  10. Title VI | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you wantJoin us for|Idahothe New Funding Constructs forofDOETipsVI

  11. LABORATORY VI ENERGY AND THERMAL PROCESSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    LABORATORY VI ENERGY AND THERMAL PROCESSES Lab VI - 1 The change of the internal energy of a system temperature. In this lab you will concentrate on quantifying the changes in internal energy within the framework of conservation of energy. In the problems of this lab, you will master the relation

  12. Determining Individual Mineral Contributions To U(VI) Adsorption...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Individual Mineral Contributions To U(VI) Adsorption In A Contaminated Aquifer Sediment: A Fluorescence Spectroscopy Determining Individual Mineral Contributions To U(VI)...

  13. VI Congreso de CEISAL: Independencias Dependencias Interdependencias

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 VI Congreso de CEISAL: Independencias ­ Dependencias ­ Interdependencias Toulouse, 30 de Junio al avances del bloque hacia la integración. Esa tendencia no se contradice con la existencia de determinados

  14. X-RAYING THE INTERGALACTIC O VI ABSORBERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Y.

    The observed intergalactic O vi absorbers at z > 0 have been regarded as a significant reservoir of the “missing

  15. Bulk Migration of Ni/NiO in Ni-YSZ during Reducing Conditions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of NiNiO in Ni-YSZ can potentially help to design a better solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode. We have observed that extensive hydrogen reduction and methane steam reforming...

  16. April 22, 2010 Seismic Reflection VI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Garrett

    4/21/2010 1 GG450 April 22, 2010 Seismic Reflection VI Data Interpretation II Today's material section Chrono- stratigraphic section Relations of strata to boundaries of a depositional sequence Seismic stratigraphic reflection terminations within an idealized seismic sequence Reflection configurations #12

  17. FINAL DRAFT VI. Application 3: Recruitment Prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Tom

    FINAL DRAFT 106 VI. Application 3: Recruitment Prediction Contributors: S. Sarah Hinckley, Bernard Megrey, Thomas Miller Definition What do we mean by recruitment prediction? The first thing to consider in defining this term is the time horizon of the prediction. Short-term predictions mean the use of individual

  18. NUREG/CR-6911 Tests of Uranium (VI) Adsorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NUREG/CR-6911 Tests of Uranium (VI) Adsorption Models in a Field Setting U.S. Geological Survey U/CR-6911 Tests of Uranium (VI) Adsorption Models in a Field Setting Manuscript Completed: August 2006 Date observations clearly demonstrated that in aquifers where U(VI) concentrations are controlled by adsorption

  19. U(VI) reduction to mononuclear U(VI) by desulfitobacterium spp.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, K. E.; Boyanov, M. I.; Thomas, S. H.; Wu, Q.; Kemner, K. M.; Loffler, F. E. (Biosciences Division); (Georgia Inst. of Tech.)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The bioreduction of U(VI) to U(IV) affects uranium mobility and fate in contaminated subsurface environments and is best understood in Gram-negative model organisms such as Geobacter and Shewanella spp. This study demonstrates that U(VI) reduction is a common trait of Gram-positive Desulfitobacterium spp. Five different Desulfitobacterium isolates reduced 100 {mu}M U(VI) to U(IV) in <10 days, whereas U(VI) remained soluble in abiotic and heat-killed controls. U(VI) reduction in live cultures was confirmed using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis. Interestingly, although bioreduction of U(VI) is almost always reported to yield the uraninite mineral (UO{sub 2}), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis demonstrated that the U(IV) produced in the Desulfitobacterium cultures was not UO{sub 2}. The EXAFS data indicated that the U(IV) product was a phase or mineral composed of mononuclear U(IV) atoms closely surrounded by light element shells. This atomic arrangement likely results from inner-sphere bonds between U(IV) and C/N/O- or P/S-containing ligands, such as carbonate or phosphate. The formation of a distinct U(IV) phase warrants further study because the characteristics of the reduced material affect uranium stability and fate in the contaminated subsurface.

  20. AFS-2 FLOWSHEET MODIFICATIONS TO ADDRESS THE INGROWTH OF PU(VI) DURING METAL DISSOLUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crapse, K.; Rudisill, T.; O'Rourke, P.; Kyser, E.

    2014-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the Alternate Feed Stock Two (AFS-2) PuO{sub 2} production campaign, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted a series of experiments concluding that dissolving Pu metal at 95°C using a 6–10 M HNO{sub 3} solution containing 0.05–0.2 M KF and 0–2 g/L B could reduce the oxidation of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI) as compared to dissolving Pu metal under the same conditions but at or near the boiling temperature. This flowsheet was demonstrated by conducting Pu metal dissolutions at 95°C to ensure that PuO{sub 2} solids were not formed during the dissolution. These dissolution parameters can be used for dissolving both Aqueous Polishing (AP) and MOX Process (MP) specification materials. Preceding the studies reported herein, two batches of Pu metal were dissolved in the H-Canyon 6.1D dissolver to prepare feed solution for the AFS-2 PuO{sub 2} production campaign. While in storage, UV-visible spectra obtained from an at-line spectrophotometer indicated the presence of Pu(VI). Analysis of the solutions also showed the presence of Fe, Ni, and Cr. Oxidation of Pu(IV) produced during metal dissolution to Pu(VI) is a concern for anion exchange purification. Anion exchange requires Pu in the +4 oxidation state for formation of the anionic plutonium(IV) hexanitrato complex which absorbs onto the resin. The presence of Pu(VI) in the anion feed solution would require a valence adjustment step to prevent losses. In addition, the presence of Cr(VI) would result in absorption of chromate ion onto the resin and could limit the purification of Pu from Cr which may challenge the purity specification of the final PuO{sub 2} product. Initial experiments were performed to quantify the rate of oxidation of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI) (presumed to be facilitated by Cr(VI)) as functions of the HNO{sub 3} concentration and temperature in simulated dissolution solutions containing Cr, Fe, and Ni. In these simulated Pu dissolutions studies, lowering the temperature from near boiling to 95 °C reduced the oxidation rate of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI). For 8.1 M HNO{sub 3} simulated dissolution solutions, at near boiling conditions >35% Pu(VI) was present in 50 h while at 95 °C <10% Pu(VI) was present at 50 h. At near boiling temperatures, eliminating the presence of Cr and varying the HNO{sub 3} concentration in the range of 7–8.5 M had little effect on the rate of conversion of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI). HNO{sub 3} oxidation of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI) in a pure solution has been reported previously. Based on simulated dissolution experiments, this study concluded that dissolving Pu metal at 95°C using a 6 to 10 M HNO{sub 3} solution 0.05–0.2 M KF and 0–2 g/L B could reduce the rate of oxidation of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI) as compared to near boiling conditions. To demonstrate this flowsheet, two small-scale experiments were performed dissolving Pu metal up to 6.75 g/L. No Pu-containing residues were observed in the solutions after cooling. Using Pu metal dissolution rates measured during the experiments and a correlation developed by Holcomb, the time required to completely dissolve a batch of Pu metal in an H-Canyon dissolver using this flowsheet was estimated to require nearly 5 days (120 h). This value is reasonably consistent with an estimate based on the Batch 2 and 3 dissolution times in the 6.1D dissolver and Pu metal dissolution rates measured in this study and by Rudisill et al. Data from the present and previous studies show that the Pu metal dissolution rate decreases by a factor of approximately two when the temperature decreased from boiling (112 to 116°C) to 95°C. Therefore, the time required to dissolve a batch of Pu metal in an H-Canyon dissolver at 95°C would likely double (from 36 to 54 h) and require 72 to 108 h depending on the surface area of the Pu metal. Based on the experimental studies, a Pu metal dissolution flowsheet utilizing 6–10 M HNO{sub 3} containing 0.05–0.2 M KF (with 0–2 g/L B) at 95°C is recommended to reduce the oxidation of Pu(IV) to Pu(VI) as compared to near boiling conditions. The time required to completely di

  1. Characterization of uranium(VI) in seawater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djogic, R.; Sipos, L.; Branica, M.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The physicochemical characterization of uranium(VI) in seawater is described on the basis of species distribution calculations and experiments using polarography and spectrophotometry in artificial seawater at elevated uranium concentrations. Various dissolved uranium(VI) species are identified under different conditions of pH and carbonate concentration. Below pH 4, the hydrated uranyl ion is present in the free state (forming labile complexes). Above pH 4, a stepwise coordination of uranyl by the carbonate ion occurs. The monocarbonate complex is formed in the pH range 4-5, the bicarbonate uranyl complex between 5 and 6. Above pH 8, uranium is present predominately as the tricarbonate and to a smaller extent as a trihydroxide complex. There is satisfactory agreement between our experiments and the theoretically computed distribution of uranium(VI) in seawater based on published stability constants. The experiments done at higher concentrations are justified by theoretical distributions showing that there is no great difference in species distribution between the uranium at concentrations of 10/sup -4/ and /sup -8/ mol dm/sup -3/.

  2. Microbial Reduction of Intragrain U(VI) in Contaminated Sediment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Chongxuan; Zachara, John M.; Zhong, Lirong; Heald, Steve M.; Wang, Zheming; Jeon, Byong Hun; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The accessibility of precipitated, intragrain U(VI) in a contaminated sediment to microbial reduction was investigated to ascertain geochemical and microscopic transport phenomena controlling U(VI) bioavailability. The sediment was collected from the US DOE Hanford site, and contained uranyl precipitates in a form of Na-boltwoodite within the mm-sized granitic lithic fragments in the sediment. Microbial reduction was investigated in a culture of a dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium (DMRB), Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1, in bicarbonate solutions at pH 6.8 buffered by PIPES. Measurements of uranium concentration, speciation, and valence in aqueous and solid phases indicated that microbial reduction of intragrain U(VI) proceeded by two mechanisms: 1) sequentially coupled dissolution of intragrain uranyl precipitates, diffusion of dissolved U(VI) out of intragrain regions, and microbial reduction of dissolved U(VI); and 2) U(VI) reduction in the intragrain regions by soluble, diffusible biogenic reductants. The bioreduction rate in the first pathway was over 3 orders of magnitude slower than that in comparable aqueous solutions containing aqueous U(VI) only. The slower bioreduction rate was attributed to: 1) the release of calcium from the desorption/dissolution of calcium-containing minerals in the sediment, which subsequently altered U(VI) aqueous speciation and slowed U(VI) bioreduction and 2) alternative electron transfer pathways that reduced U(VI) in the intragrain regions and changed its dissolution and solubility behavior. The results implied that the overall rate of microbial reduction of intragrain U(VI) will be influenced by the reactive mass transfer of U(VI) and biogenic reductants within intragrain regions, and geochemical reactions controlling major ion concentrations that affect U(VI) aqueous speciation and microbial activity.

  3. Ni Ni: University of California - Los Angeles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy:Nanowire Solar541,9337,2April 2013 ESH&SNextNexus of EnergyNi

  4. Air quality VI details environmental progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A report is given of the International Conference on Air Quality VI where key topics discussed were control of mercury, trace elements, sulphur trioxide and particulates. This year a separate track was added on greenhouse gas reduction, with panels on greenhouse gas policy and markets, CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration, and monitoring, mitigation and verification. In keynote remarks, NETL Director Carl Bauer noted that emissions have gone down since 1990 even though coal consumption has increased. The conference provided an overview of the state-of-the-science regarding key pollutants and CO{sub 2}, the corresponding regulatory environment, and the technology readiness of mitigation techniques. 1 photo.

  5. Flyer, Title VI | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy: Thomas P. D'Agostino, Undersecretary forCITI Briefing.pdfTitles VI and

  6. Microsoft Word - FeVI.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA / USACE SWPAURTeC:8CO6 Figure 1. Proposed Fe(VI)-nitrido

  7. Blue Canyon VI | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: EnergyAvignon,Belcher HomesLyonsBirchBlockVI Jump to: navigation,

  8. DarkStar VI | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE Facility Database Data and Resources11-DNADalyDanishDarajatDarien,DarkStar VI

  9. Bulk Migration of Ni/NiO in Ni-YSZ during Reducing Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Baer, Donald R.; Lea, Alan S.; Zhu, Zihua; Strohm, James J.; Sitzman, S. D.; King, David L.

    2010-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the migration of Ni/NiO in Ni-YSZ can potentially help to design a better solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode. We have observed that extensive hydrogen reduction and methane steam reforming of Ni-YSZ caused bulk migration of Ni/NiO to at least ~ 5 µm deeper from the Ni-YSZ surface. No significant bulk migration effects were detected after simple thermal treatments in non-reducing/non-reforming environment. Surface analysis of a single zirconia grain in the first 10-20 nm region from annealed, hydrogen reduced and methane steam reformed Ni-YSZ shows Ni-enriched surface supporting earlier claims of Ni exsolution. 3D-EBSD analysis of thermally treated sample before exposing it to reducing and reforming environment indicated mixed NiO/YSZ phase with some porosity and random grain orientation. The surface analysis and mapping were carried out using ToF-SIMS and AES whereas EDS maps on FIB sliced areas on Ni-YSZ were utilized for the bulk analysis. The results provide additional information related to complex reactions occurring in SOFC during internal reforming conditions.

  10. KENO-VI Primer: A Primer for Criticality Calculations with SCALE/KENO-VI Using GeeWiz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, Stephen M [ORNL

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) computer software system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is widely used and accepted around the world for criticality safety analyses. The well-known KENO-VI three-dimensional Monte Carlo criticality computer code is one of the primary criticality safety analysis tools in SCALE. The KENO-VI primer is designed to help a new user understand and use the SCALE/KENO-VI Monte Carlo code for nuclear criticality safety analyses. It assumes that the user has a college education in a technical field. There is no assumption of familiarity with Monte Carlo codes in general or with SCALE/KENO-VI in particular. The primer is designed to teach by example, with each example illustrating two or three features of SCALE/KENO-VI that are useful in criticality analyses. The primer is based on SCALE 6, which includes the Graphically Enhanced Editing Wizard (GeeWiz) Windows user interface. Each example uses GeeWiz to provide the framework for preparing input data and viewing output results. Starting with a Quickstart section, the primer gives an overview of the basic requirements for SCALE/KENO-VI input and allows the user to quickly run a simple criticality problem with SCALE/KENO-VI. The sections that follow Quickstart include a list of basic objectives at the beginning that identifies the goal of the section and the individual SCALE/KENO-VI features that are covered in detail in the sample problems in that section. Upon completion of the primer, a new user should be comfortable using GeeWiz to set up criticality problems in SCALE/KENO-VI. The primer provides a starting point for the criticality safety analyst who uses SCALE/KENO-VI. Complete descriptions are provided in the SCALE/KENO-VI manual. Although the primer is self-contained, it is intended as a companion volume to the SCALE/KENO-VI documentation. (The SCALE manual is provided on the SCALE installation DVD.) The primer provides specific examples of using SCALE/KENO-VI for criticality analyses; the SCALE/KENO-VI manual provides information on the use of SCALE/KENO-VI and all its modules. The primer also contains an appendix with sample input files.

  11. Effect of Grain Size on Uranium(VI) Surface Complexation Kinetics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grain Size on Uranium(VI) Surface Complexation Kinetics and Adsorption Additivity. Effect of Grain Size on Uranium(VI) Surface Complexation Kinetics and Adsorption Additivity....

  12. Identification of simultaneous U(VI) sorption complexes and U...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conditions under which U (VI)-CO3-Ca complexes inhibit U reduction. Citation: Singer DM, SME Chatman, ES Ilton, KM Rosso, JF Banfield, and G Waychunas.2012."Identification of...

  13. Building on lessons learned : too high hopes without HOPE VI?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Kristen J

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By providing substantial grants to public housing authorities to demolish and rebuild distressed public housing and provide services to public housing residents, the HOPE VI program has helped transform these developments ...

  14. Chromium(VI) Reduction by Hydrogen Sulfide in Aqueous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Baolin

    experiments with excess [Cr(VI)] over [H2S]T indicated that the molar amount of sulfide required for the reduction of 1 M Cr(VI) was 1.5, suggesting the following stoichi- ometry: 2CrO4 2- + 3H2S + 4H+ f 2Cr(OH)3 of fully protonated sulfide (H2S) in the pH range of 6.5-10. The nature of buffers did not influence

  15. Remediation of chromium(VI) in the vadose zone: stoichiometry and kinetics of chromium(VI) reduction by sulfur dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahn, Min

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    and kinetics of chromium reduction both in aqueous solutions at pH values near neutrality and in soil. First, batch experiments and elemental analyses were conducted to characterize the stoichiometry and kinetics of Cr(VI) reduction in water...

  16. Enhanced collectivity in 74Ni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Aoi; S. Kanno; S. Takeuchi; H. Suzuki; D. Bazin; M. D. Bowen; C. M. Campbell; J. M. Cook; D. -C. Dinca; A. Gade; T. Glasmacher; H. Iwasaki; T. Kubo; K. Kurita; T. Motobayashi; W. F. Mueller; T. Nakamura; H. Sakurai; M. Takashina; J. R. Terry; K. Yoneda; H. Zwahlen

    2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The neutron-rich nucleus 74Ni was studied with inverse-kinematics inelastic proton scattering using a 74Ni radioactive beam incident on a liquid hydrogen targetat a center-of-mass energy of 80 MeV. From the measured de-excitation gamma-rays, the population of the first 2+ state was quantified. The angle-integrated excitation cross section was determined to be 14(4) mb. A deformation length of delta = 1.04(16) fm was extracted in comparison with distorted wave theory, which suggests that the enhancement of collectivity established for 70Ni continues up to 74Ni. A comparison with results of shell model and quasi-particle random phase approximation calculations indicates that the magic character of Z = 28 or N = 50 is weakened in 74Ni.

  17. Interstellar O VI in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Christopher Howk

    2001-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    I summarize Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) observations of interstellar O VI absorption towards 12 early-type stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), the closest disk galaxy to the Milky Way. LMC O VI is seen towards all 12 stars with properties (average column densities, kinematics) very similar to those of the Milky Way halo, even though O/H in the LMC is lower by a factor of ~2.5. Sight lines projected onto known LMC superbubbles show little enhancement in O VI column density compared to sight lines towards quiescent regions of the LMC. The O VI absorption is displaced by \\~-30 km/sec from the corresponding low-ionization absorption associated with the bulk of the LMC gas. The LMC O VI most likely arises in a vertically-extended distribution, and I discuss the measurements in the context of a halo composed of radiatively-cooling hot gas. In this case, the mass-flow rate from one side of the LMC disk is of the order 1 solar mass/yr.

  18. Energy and momentum of Bianchi Type VI_h Universes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tripathy, S K; Pandey, G K; Singh, A K; Kumar, T; Xulu, S S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We obtain the energy and momentum of the Bianchi type VI_h universes using different prescriptions for the energy-momentum complexes in the framework of general relativity. The energy and momentum of the Bianchi VI_h universe are found to be zero for the parameter h = -1 of the metric. The vanishing of these results support the conjecture of Tryon that Universe must have a zero net value for all conserved quantities.This also supports the work of Nathan Rosen with the Robertson-Walker metric. Moreover, it raises an interesting question: "Why h=-1 case is so special?"

  19. Energy and momentum of Bianchi Type VI_h Universes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. K. Tripathy; B. Mishra; G. K. Pandey; A. K. Singh; T. Kumar; S. S. Xulu

    2015-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We obtain the energy and momentum of the Bianchi type VI_h universes using different prescriptions for the energy-momentum complexes in the framework of general relativity. The energy and momentum of the Bianchi VI_h universe are found to be zero for the parameter h = -1 of the metric. The vanishing of these results support the conjecture of Tryon that Universe must have a zero net value for all conserved quantities.This also supports the work of Nathan Rosen with the Robertson-Walker metric. Moreover, it raises an interesting question: "Why h=-1 case is so special?"

  20. Nitrate Enhanced Microbial Cr(VI) Reduction-Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John F. Stolz

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A major challenge for the bioremediation of radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium) and metals (i.e., Cr(VI), Hg) is the co-occurrence of nitrate as it can inhibit metal transformation. Denitrification (nitrate reduction to dinitrogen gas) is considered the most important ecological process. For many metal and metalloid reducing bacteria, however, ammonia is the end product through respiratory nitrate reduction (RNRA). The focus of this work was to determine how RNRA impacts Cr(VI) transformation. The goal was to elucidate the specific mechanism(s) that limits Cr(VI) reduction in the presence of nitrate and to use this information to develop strategies that enhance Cr(VI) reduction (and thus detoxification). Our central hypothesis is that nitrate impacts the biotransformation of metals and metalloids in three ways 1) as a competitive alternative electron acceptor (inhibiting transformation), 2) as a co-metabolite (i.e., concomitant reduction, stimulating transformation), and 3) as an inducer of specific proteins and pathways involved in oxidation/reduction reactions (stimulating transformation). We have identified three model organisms, Geobacter metallireducens (mechanism 1), Sulfurospirillum barnesii, (mechasism 2), and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (mechanisms 3). Our specific aims were to 1) investigate the role of Cr(VI) concentration on the kinetics of both growth and reduction of nitrate, nitrite, and Cr(VI) in these three organisms; 2) develop a profile of bacterial enzymes involved in nitrate transformation (e.g., oxidoreductases) using a proteomic approach; 3) investigate the function of periplasmic nitrite reductase (Nrf) as a chromate reductase; and 4) develop a strategy to maximize microbial chromium reduction in the presence of nitrate. We found that growth on nitrate by G. metallireducens was inhibited by Cr(VI). Over 240 proteins were identified by LC/MS-MS. Redox active proteins, outer membrane heavy metal efflux proteins, and chemotaxis sensory proteins (Gmet_2478 and Gmet_1641) were up-regulated with exposure to Cr(VI). A nine-heme cytochrome C was purified that could reduce nitrite and could be oxidized by Cr(VI). For D. desulfuricans, we found that confirmed that Cr(VI) induced a prolonged lag period when Cr(VI) was reduced. Over three hundred proteins were unequivocally identified by LC/MS-MS and a significant number of down-regulated proteins for which the levels were changed >2 fold compared to control. Sulfite reductase levels were similar, however, nitrate and nitrite reductase were down-regulated. The supernatant of spent cultures was found to contain a filterable, heat stable compound that rapidly reduced Cr(VI). In addition, desulfoviridin was purified from nitrate grown cells and shown to have nitrite reductase activity that was inhibited by Cr(VI). For S. barnesii, periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap), nitrite reductase (Nrf), and the metalloid reductase (Rar) were purified and characterized. The supernatant of spent cultures was also found to contain a filterable, heat stable compound that rapidly reduced Cr(VI) but that Rar also reduced Cr(VI). Our results from specific aims 1 through 3 indicate that for G. metallireducens, Cr(VI) inhibits nitrate respiration as it oxidizes cytochromes involved in nitrate respiration. Iron reduction is apparently not affected and the inhibitory affects of Cr(VI) may be attenuated by the addition of sufficient Fe(III) to generate Fe(II) that abiotically reduces the chromium. For S. barnesii, although the enzyme assays indicate that the components of the respiratory pathway for nitrate (e.g. Nap and Nrf) are inhibited by chromate, the organism has a mechanism to prevent this from actually occurring. Our current hypothesis is that the non-specific metalloid reductase (Rar) is providing resistance by reducing the Cr(VI). The strategy here would be to enhance its growth and metabolism in the natural setting. Lactate is a suitable electron donor for S. barnesii but other donors are possible. Although the version of the Phylochip used for monitoring the microb

  1. Realities and perceptions : HOPE VI poverty deconcentration and implications for broader neighborhood revitalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vanderford, Carrie Ann

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HOPE VI was developed in 1992 as program to demolish and revitalize the nation's most severely distressed public housing. One element of the HOPE VI program is to move low-income households out of an environment of ...

  2. Investigation of U(VI) Adsorption in Quartz-Chlorite Mineral...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U(VI) Adsorption in Quartz-Chlorite Mineral Mixtures. Investigation of U(VI) Adsorption in Quartz-Chlorite Mineral Mixtures. Abstract: A batch and cryogenic laser-induced...

  3. Incorporation of Np(V) and U(VI) in Carbonate and Sulfate Minerals...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Np(V) and U(VI) in Carbonate and Sulfate Minerals Crystallized from Aqueous Solution. Incorporation of Np(V) and U(VI) in Carbonate and Sulfate Minerals Crystallized from Aqueous...

  4. Reaction of U-VI with titanium-substituted magnetite: Influence...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U-VI with titanium-substituted magnetite: Influence of Ti on U-IV speciation. Reaction of U-VI with titanium-substituted magnetite: Influence of Ti on U-IV speciation. Abstract:...

  5. Examination of Uranium(VI) Leaching During Ligand Promoted Dissolution of Waste Tank Sludge Surrogates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Brian A.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U(VI) and citric acid on goethite, gibbsite, and kaolinite.on uranium(VI) adsorption to goethite-coated sand. Env. Sci.of phosphonates onto goethite. Env. Sci. Tech. 33, 3627-

  6. Influence of nuclear structure on sub-barrier hindrance in Ni+Ni fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. L. Jiang; K. E. Rehm; R. V. F. Janssens; H. Esbensen; I. Ahmad; B. B. Back; P. Collon; C. N. Davids; J. P. Greene; D. J. Henderson; G. Mukherjee; R. C. Pardo; M. Paul; T. O. Pennington; D. Seweryniak; S. Sinha; Z. Zhou

    2004-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Fusion-evaporation cross sections for $^{64}$Ni+$^{64}$Ni have been measured down to the 10 nb level. For fusion between two open-shell nuclei, this is the first observation of a maximum in the $S$-factor, which signals a strong sub-barrier hindrance. A comparison with the $^{58}$Ni+$^{58}$Ni, $^{58}$Ni+$^{60}$Ni, and $^{58}$Ni+$^{64}$Ni systems indicates a strong dependence of the energy where the hindrance occurs on the stiffness of the interacting nuclei.

  7. Identification of simultaneous U(VI) sorption complexes and U(IV) nanoprecipitates on the magnetite (111) surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, D.M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Malmström, M. E. , Removal of uranium(VI) from the aqueousMalmström, M. E. , Removal of uranium(VI) from the aqueous

  8. Probing the 5f electrons in a plutonyl(VI) cluster complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Iain [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report the structural, spectroscopic and preliminary magnetic characterization of a tri-metallic plutonyl(VI) polyoxometalate complex.

  9. THE HYMENOPTEROUS POISON APPARATUS. VI. CAMPONOTU8 PENNSYLYANICUS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villemant, Claire

    THE HYMENOPTEROUS POISON APPARATUS. VI. CAMPONOTU8 PENNSYLYANICUS (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE:or illustrations are in millimeters. In preparation for chemical analysis, poison sacs were dissected rom workers compounds present in the poison gland secretion were re- solved by applying the .contents of fifty glands

  10. Introduc)on of lab ac)vi)es

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Po

    ·Overview of lab ac)vi)es #12;·En-Jui (En-Ray) Lee · h@p://www.gg.uwyo.edu/ggstudent/elee8 of Water · The characteris)cs of tsunamis & the early warning systems. #12 · Hydraulic gradient and its calcula)on · How to determina)on of groundwater flow

  11. AM(VI) PARTITIONING STUDIES: FY14 FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce J Mincher

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of higher oxidation states of americium in partitioning from the lanthanides is under continued investigation by the sigma team. This is based on the hypothesis that Am(VI) can be produced and remain stable in irradiated first cycle raffinate solution long enough to perform solvent extraction for separations. The stability of Am(VI) to autoreduction was measured using millimolar americium concentrations in a 1-cm cell with a Cary 6000 UV/Vis spectrophotometer for data acquisition. At millimolar americium concentrations, Am(VI) is stable enough against its own autoreduction for separations purposes. A second major accomplishment during FY14 was the hot test. Americium oxidation and extraction was performed using a centrifugal contactor-based test bed consisting of an extraction stage and two stripping stages. Sixty-three percent americium extraction was obtained in one extraction stage, in agreement with batch contacts. Promising electrochemical oxidation results have also been obtained, using terpyridine ligand derivatized electrodes for binding of Am(III). Approximately 50 % of the Am(III) was oxidized to Am(V) over the course of 1 hour. It is believed that this is the first demonstration of the electrolytic oxidation of americium in a non-complexing solution. Finally, an initial investigation of Am(VI) extraction using diethylhexylbutyramide (DEHBA) was performed.

  12. Diplomatic Metonymy and Antithesis in 3 Henry VI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craigwood, J.

    2014-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    love that leads inevitably from corporeal ‘feeble shadow’ (al corpo una debil umbra) to the soul’s immaterial and divine ‘substance’ (sustanzia).44 In other words, Camilla sceptically suspects a world like that of the Henry VI plays, a world of obscured...

  13. air pollution vi: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air pollution vi First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Environmental Pollution Air Pollution...

  14. 2009 -Asia rld Reneuvable ffxx*rgy Smxlgr&$$ XSSS * Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ofthe world that plan to embark on the use of high ethanol content vehiclefuels. Keywords: Bioethanol

  15. The effect of temperature on the speciation of U(VI) in sulfate solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfate, one of the inorganic constituents that could be present in the nuclear waste repository, forms complexes with U(VI) and affects its migration in the environment. Results show that the complexation of U(VI) with sulfate is enhanced by the increase in temperature. The effect of temperature on the complexation and speciation of U(VI) in sulfate solutions is discussed.

  16. VI.4. SINGUL ARE KOHOMOLOGIE 313 VI.4.20. Beispiel. Aus Satz VI.4.11 und Beispiel V.4.13 bzw. Beispiel V.7.37

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Stefan

    , 12, . . . 0 sonst Ist n m dann induziert die kanonische Inklusion : HPn HPm Isomor- phismen : Hq (HPm ; G) = - Hq (HPn ; G), f¨ur alle q 2n. VI.4.22. Beispiel. Aus Satz VI.4.11 und Proposition V

  17. Infrared diode laser spectroscopy of jet-cooled NiCO, Ni,,CO...3,,13 and Ni,,CO...3,,C18

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morse, Michael D.

    Infrared diode laser spectroscopy of jet-cooled NiCO, Ni,,CO...3,,13 CO..., and Ni,,CO...3,,C18 O infrared spectroscopic investigations of the CO vibration of jet-cooled NiCO, Ni CO 3 13 CO , and Ni CO 3 C diode laser spectrometer. The rotationally resolved spectrum of NiCO was collected as it was formed

  18. ENDF-201: ENDF/B-VI summary documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, P.F. (comp.)

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Responsibility for oversight of the ENDF/B Evaluated Nuclear Data file lies with the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG), which is comprised of representatives from various governmental and industrial laboratories in the United States. Individual evaluations are provided by scientists at several US laboratories, including significant contributions by scientists from all over the world. In addition, ENDF/B-VI includes for the first time complete evaluations for three materials that were provided from laboratories outside the US. All data are checked and reviewed by CSEWG, and the data file is maintained and issued by the National Nuclear Data Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The previous version of the library, ENDF/B-V, was issued in 1979, and two revisions to the data file were provided in subsequent years, the latest occurring in 1981. A total of 75 new or extensively modified neutron sublibrary evaluations are included in ENDF/B-VI, and are summarized in this document. One incident proton sublibrary is described for Fe{sup 56}. The remaining evaluations in ENDF/B-VI have been carried over from earlier versions of ENDF, and have been updated to reflect the new formats. The release of ENDF/B-VI was carried out between January and June of 1990, with groups of materials being released on tapes.'' Table 1 is an index to the evaluation summaries, and includes the material identification or MAT number, the responsible laboratory, and the tape'' number. These evaluations have been released without restrictions on their distribution or use.

  19. ENDF-201: ENDF/B-VI summary documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, P.F. [comp.

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Responsibility for oversight of the ENDF/B Evaluated Nuclear Data file lies with the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG), which is comprised of representatives from various governmental and industrial laboratories in the United States. Individual evaluations are provided by scientists at several US laboratories, including significant contributions by scientists from all over the world. In addition, ENDF/B-VI includes for the first time complete evaluations for three materials that were provided from laboratories outside the US. All data are checked and reviewed by CSEWG, and the data file is maintained and issued by the National Nuclear Data Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The previous version of the library, ENDF/B-V, was issued in 1979, and two revisions to the data file were provided in subsequent years, the latest occurring in 1981. A total of 75 new or extensively modified neutron sublibrary evaluations are included in ENDF/B-VI, and are summarized in this document. One incident proton sublibrary is described for Fe{sup 56}. The remaining evaluations in ENDF/B-VI have been carried over from earlier versions of ENDF, and have been updated to reflect the new formats. The release of ENDF/B-VI was carried out between January and June of 1990, with groups of materials being released on ``tapes.`` Table 1 is an index to the evaluation summaries, and includes the material identification or MAT number, the responsible laboratory, and the ``tape`` number. These evaluations have been released without restrictions on their distribution or use.

  20. Implementation of MP{_}Lite for the VI Architecture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiyi Chen

    2002-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    MP{_}Lite is a light weight message-passing library designed to deliver the maximum performance to applications in a portable and user friendly manner. The Virtual Interface (VI) architecture is a user-level communication protocol that bypasses the operating system to provide much better performance than traditional network architectures. By combining the high efficiency of MP{_}Lite and high performance of the VI architecture, they are able to implement a high performance message-passing library that has much lower latency and better throughput. The design and implementation of MP{_}Lite for M-VIA, which is a modular implementation of the VI architecture on Linux, is discussed in this thesis. By using the eager protocol for sending short messages, MP{_}Lite M-VIA has much lower latency on both Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet. The handshake protocol and RDMA mechanism provides double the throughput that MPICH can deliver for long messages. MP{_}Lite M-VIA also has the ability to channel-bonding multiple network interface cards to increase the potential bandwidth between nodes. Using multiple Fast Ethernet cards can double or even triple the maximum throughput without increasing the cost of a PC cluster greatly.

  1. Microstructural Characterization and Shape Memory Response of Ni-Rich NiTiHf and NiTiZr High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evirgen, Alper

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    NiTiHf and NiTiZr high temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs) have drawn a great deal of attention as cheaper alternatives to Pt, Pd and Au alloyed NiTi-based HTSMAs while NiTiZr alloys also providing at least 20% weight reduction then its Ni...

  2. VI Symposium of Specialists in Electric Operational and Expansion Planning -VI SEPOPE, May 24-29,1998, Bahia, Brazil POWER SYSTEM PLANNING IN THE SOUTH AMERICA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    -29,1998, Bahia, Brazil POWER SYSTEM PLANNING IN THE SOUTH AMERICA ELECTRIC MARKET RESTRUCTURING Hugh Rudnick for the electricity infrastructure than for the transport one. Both integrate different components (whileVI Symposium of Specialists in Electric Operational and Expansion Planning - VI SEPOPE, May 24

  3. Microstructural analyses of Cr(VI) speciation in chromite ore processing Residue (COPR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHRYSOCHOOU, MARIA; FAKRA, SIRINE C .; Marcus, Matthew A.; Moon, Deok Hyun; Dermatas, Dimitris

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The speciation and distribution of Cr(VI) in the solid phase was investigated for two types of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) found at two deposition sites in the United States: gray-black (GB) granular and hard brown (HB) cemented COPR. COPR chemistry and mineralogy were investigated using micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy and micro-X-ray diffraction, complemented by laboratory analyses. GB COPR contained 30percent of its total Cr(VI) (6000 mg/kg) as large crystals(>20 ?m diameter) of a previously unreported Na-rich analog of calcium aluminum chromate hydrates. These Cr(VI)-rich phases are thought to be vulnerable to reductive and pH treatments. More than 50percent of the Cr(VI) was located within nodules, not easily accessible to dissolved reductants, and bound to Fe-rich hydrogarnet, hydrotalcite, and possibly brucite. These phases are stable over a large pH range, thus harder to dissolve. Brownmilleritewasalso likely associated with physical entrapment of Cr(VI) in the interior of nodules. HB COPR contained no Cr(VI)-rich phases; all Cr(VI) was diffuse within the nodules and absent from the cementing matrix, with hydrogarnet and hydrotalcite being the main Cr(VI) binding phases. Treatment ofHBCOPRis challenging in terms of dissolving the acidity-resistant, inaccessible Cr(VI) compounds; the same applies to ~;;50percent of Cr(VI) in GB COPR.

  4. Summary of the planning, management, and evaluation process for the Geothermal Program Review VI conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to present an overview of the planning, facilitation, and evaluation process used to conduct the Geothermal Program Review VI (PR VI) conference. This document was also prepared to highlight lessons learned from PR VI and, by utilizing the evaluation summaries and recommendations, be used as a planning tool for PR VII. The conference, entitled Beyond Goals and Objectives,'' was sponsored by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technology Division (GTD), PR VI was held in San Francisco, California on April 19--21, 1988 and was attended by 127 participants. PR VI was held in conjunction with the National Geothermal Association's (NGA) Industry Round Table. This document presents a brief summary of the activities, responsibilities, and resources for implementing the PR VI meeting and provides recommendations, checklists, and a proposed schedule for assisting in planning PR VII.

  5. Method for making graded I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductors and solar cell obtained thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devaney, Walter E. (Seattle, WA)

    1987-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved cell photovoltaic conversion efficiencies are obtained by the simultaneous elemental reactive evaporation process of Mickelsen and Chen for making semiconductors by closer control of the evaporation rates and substrate temperature during formation of the near contact, bulk, and near junction regions of a graded I-III-VI.sub.2, thin film, semiconductor, such as CuInSe.sub.2 /(Zn,Cd)S or another I-III-VI.sub.2 /II-VI heterojunction.

  6. Effects of Phosphate on Uranium(VI) Adsorption to Goethite-Coated Sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roden, Eric E.

    Effects of Phosphate on Uranium(VI) Adsorption to Goethite-Coated Sand T A O C H E N G , M A R K O natural and contaminated environments. We studied U(VI) adsorption on goethite-coated sand (to mimic of increase in U(VI) adsorption. Phosphate was strongly bound by the goethite surface in the low pH range

  7. Method of manufacturing semiconductor having group II-group VI compounds doped with nitrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compaan, Alvin D.; Price, Kent J.; Ma, Xianda; Makhratchev, Konstantin

    2005-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a semiconductor comprises depositing a group II-group VI compound onto a substrate in the presence of nitrogen using sputtering to produce a nitrogen-doped semiconductor. This method can be used for making a photovoltaic cell using sputtering to apply a back contact layer of group II-group VI compound to a substrate in the presence of nitrogen, the back coating layer being doped with nitrogen. A semiconductor comprising a group II-group VI compound doped with nitrogen, and a photovoltaic cell comprising a substrate on which is deposited a layer of a group II-group VI compound doped with nitrogen, are also included.

  8. U(VI) sorption and reduction kinetics on the magnetite (111) surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, D.M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C. ; Anderson, R. T. , Uranium removal from groundwater viaMalmström, M. E. , Removal of uranium(VI) from the aqueous

  9. Integrated Ecogenomics Study for Bioremediation of Cr(VI) at Hanford 100H Area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakraborty, Romy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ecogenomics study for bioremediation of Cr(VI) at HanfordRegenesis In-situ bioremediation at Hanford 100H area ??

  10. Influence of Calcium on Microbial Reduction of Solid Phase Uranium (VI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Chongxuan; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Zachara, John M.; Wang, Zheming

    2007-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of calcium on microbial reduction of a solid phase U(VI), sodium boltwoodite (NaUO2SiO3OH ?1.5H2O), was evaluated in a culture of a dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium (DMRB), Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1. Batch experiments were performed in a non-growth bicarbonate medium with lactate as electron donor at pH 7 buffered with PIPES. Calcium increased both the rate and extent of Na-boltwoodite dissolution by increasing its solubility through the formation of a ternary aqueous calcium-uranyl-carbonate species. The ternary species, however, decreased the rates of microbial reduction of aqueous U(VI). Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that microbial reduction of solid phase U(VI) is a sequentially coupled process of Na-boltwoodite dissolution, U(VI) aqueous speciation, and microbial reduction of dissolved U(VI) to U(IV) that accumulated on bacterial surfaces/periplasm. The overall rates of microbial reduction of solid phase U(VI) can be described by the coupled rates of dissolution and microbial reduction that were both influenced by calcium. The results demonstrated that dissolved U(VI) concentration during microbial reduction was a complex function of solid phase U(VI) dissolution kinetics, aqueous U(VI) speciation, and microbial activity.

  11. Kinetics of Uranium(VI) Desorption from Contaminated Sediments: Effect of Geochemical Conditions and Model Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Chongxuan; Shi, Zhenqing; Zachara, John M.

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stirred-flow cell experiments were performed to investigate the kinetics of uranyl [U(VI)] desorption from a contaminated sediment collected from the Hanford 300 Area at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, Washington. Three influent solutions of variable pH, Ca and carbonate concentrations that affected U(VI) aqueous and surface speciation were used under dynamic flow conditions to evaluate the effect of geochemical conditions on the rate of U(VI) desorption. The measured rate of U(VI) desorption varied with solution chemical composition that evolved as a result of thermodynamic and kinetic interactions between the influent solutions and sediment. The solution chemical composition that led to a lower equilibrium U(VI) sorption to the solid phase yielded a faster desorption rate. The experimental results were used to evaluate a multi-rate, surface complexation model (SCM) that has been proposed to describe U(VI) desorption kinetics in the Hanford sediment that contained complex sorbed U(VI) species in mass transfer limited domains. The model was modified and supplemented by including multi-rate, ion exchange reactions to describe the geochemical interactions between the solutions and sediment. With the same set of model parameters, the modified model reasonably well described the evolution of major ions and the rates of U(VI) desorption under variable geochemical and flow conditions, implying that the multi-rate SCM is an effective way to describe U(VI) desorption kinetics in subsurface sediments.

  12. Molecular Interactions of Plutonium(VI) with Synthetic Manganese-Substituted Goethite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Yung-Jin

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VI) with the Iron Oxide Goethite, University of California,Values for Synthetic Goethite and Pyrolusite" submitted tothe two Mn-substituted goethite minerals used in this study.

  13. Imaging Chemical Aggregation of Ni/NiO Particles from Reduced...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from Reduced NiO-YSZ. Abstract: Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mapping of nickel oxide yttria-stabilized zirconia (NiO-YSZ) was carried out after various hydrogen...

  14. Nonlinear Spinor Fields in Bianchi type-$VI_0$ spacetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bijan Saha

    2015-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the scope of Bianchi type-$VI_0$ space time we study the role of spinor field on the evolution of the Universe. It is found that the presence of nontrivial non-diagonal components of energy-momentum tensor of the spinor field plays vital role on the evolution of the Universe. As a result of their mutual influence the invariants constructed from the bilinear forms of the spinor field become trivial, thus giving rise to a massless and linear spinor field Lagrangian. This result shows that the spinor field is highly sensitive to the gravitational one.

  15. Geothermal Program Review VI: proceedings. Beyond goals and objectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Program Review VI was comprised of six sessions, including an opening session, four technical sessions that addressed each of the major DOE research areas, and a session on special issues. The technical sessions were on Hydrothermal, Hot Dry Rock, Geopressured and Magma resources. Presenters in the technical sessions discussed their R and D activities within the context of specific GTD Programmatic Objectives for that technology, their progress toward achieving those objectives, and the value of those achievements to industry. The ''Special Issues'' presentations addressed several topics such as the interactions between government and industry on geothermal energy R and D; the origin and basis for the programmatic objectives analytical computer model; and international marketing opportunities for US geothermal equipment and services. The unique aspect of Program Review VI was that it was held in conjunction with the National Geothermal Association's Industry Round Table on Federal R and D. The Round Table provided a forum for open and lively discussions between industry and government researchers and gave industry an opportunity to convey their needs and perspectives on DOE's research programs. These discussions also provided valuable information to DOE regarding industry's priorities and directions.

  16. Monopole Strength in Ni-58

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Youngblood, David H.; Lui, YW.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PHYSICAL REVIEW C VOLUME 44, NUMBER 5 Monopole strength in Ni NOVEMBER 1991 D. H. Youngblood and Y.-W. Lui Cyclotron Institute, Texas AdkM Uni Uersi ty, College Station, Texas 77843 (Received 20 June 1991) Differential cross-section data from... strength is locat- ed nearer the quadrupole (for Ca [3] and Si [4] at vir- tually the same energy). Only two reports of substantial strength in lighter nuclei are in the literature. Lui et al. [4] reported 66%%uo of the EO energy-weighted sum rule...

  17. anketo chosa ni: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Recent research shows that the resistance switching characteristics of NiO thin film, in combinations conversion into NiSi using Ni-AMD, and discuss the chemistry of...

  18. anteisei ni kansuru: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Recent research shows that the resistance switching characteristics of NiO thin film, in combinations conversion into NiSi using Ni-AMD, and discuss the chemistry of...

  19. atsumitsu katei ni: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Recent research shows that the resistance switching characteristics of NiO thin film, in combinations conversion into NiSi using Ni-AMD, and discuss the chemistry of...

  20. arikata ni kansuru: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Recent research shows that the resistance switching characteristics of NiO thin film, in combinations conversion into NiSi using Ni-AMD, and discuss the chemistry of...

  1. ataeru eikyo ni: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Recent research shows that the resistance switching characteristics of NiO thin film, in combinations conversion into NiSi using Ni-AMD, and discuss the chemistry of...

  2. aisorui ni taisuru: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Recent research shows that the resistance switching characteristics of NiO thin film, in combinations conversion into NiSi using Ni-AMD, and discuss the chemistry of...

  3. anzensei ni kansuru: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Recent research shows that the resistance switching characteristics of NiO thin film, in combinations conversion into NiSi using Ni-AMD, and discuss the chemistry of...

  4. Tracking the Sun VI: An Historical Summary of the Installed Price of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998 to 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory. Tracking the Sun VI: The Installed Price ofRange ?10 kW Tracking the Sun VI: The Installed Price ofRange ?10 kW Tracking the Sun VI: The Installed Price of

  5. ORNL/TM-2008/069 KENO-VI Primer: A Primer for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    ORNL/TM-2008/069 KENO-VI Primer: A Primer for Criticality Calculations with SCALE/KENO-VI Using Gee Nuclear Information System (INIS) representatives from the following source. Office of Scientific or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. #12;ORNL/TM-2008/069 Nuclear Science

  6. Indledning Velkommen til Microsoft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Side 4 Inspiration Vi er drevet af passion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Side 8

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Galen

    af software og it-løsninger . Siden 1990 har Microsoft været repræsenteret i Danmark, hvor vi i dag Danmark kombinerer det bedste fra to verdener: det ameri- kanske fokus på performance og talentudvikling,fleksibilitetogklaremålervoresDNA. Hos Microsoft Danmark er vi 450 medarbejdere med vidt forskellige baggrunde og kompetenc

  7. Simulation of reactive transport of uranium(VI) in groundwater with variable chemical conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    stored in poorly designed facilities or where it has been leached from U mill tailings [USDOE, 1996Simulation of reactive transport of uranium(VI) in groundwater with variable chemical conditions alluvial aquifer beneath a former U(VI) mill located near Naturita, CO, was simulated using a surface

  8. Modeling the Removal of Uranium U(VI) from Aqueous Solutions in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    include natural U deposits, mining, milling, and tailing operations and U.S. Department of Energy (DOEModeling the Removal of Uranium U(VI) from Aqueous Solutions in the Presence of Sulfate Reducing The reduction kinetics of soluble hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) to insoluble tetravalent U(IV) by both a mixed

  9. UMBC Policy on Facilities Use UMBC Policy # VI-4.10.01 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adali, Tulay

    UMBC Policy on Facilities Use UMBC Policy # VI-4.10.01 1 I. Introduction This policy is predicated on the University System of Maryland Policy 145.0 VI-4.10- POLICY ON THE USE of Regents on January 11, 1990. The policy reads: 1. The physical facilities of the University System may

  10. Effects of Solid-to-Solution Ratio on Uranium(VI) Adsorption and Its

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roden, Eric E.

    grade uranium standard (depleted uranium). Synthetic Effects of Solid-to-Solution Ratio on Uranium(VI) Adsorption and Its Implications T A O C H E N G interacting ligands. Introduction The migration of uranium(VI), as well as other radionuclides and metal

  11. The role of nanopores on U(VI) sorption and redox behavior in U(VI)-contaminated subsurface sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Huifang; Roden, Eric E.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Jung, Hun-Bok; Konishi, Hiromi; Boyanov, Maxim; Sun, Yubing; Mishra, Bhoopesh

    2013-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Most reactive surfaces in clay-dominated sediments are present within nanopores (pores of nm dimension). The behavior of geological fluids and minerals in nanopores is significantly different from those in normal non-nanoporous environments. The effect of nanopore surfaces on U(VI) sorption/desorption and reduction is likely to be significant in clay-rich subsurface environments. Our research results from both model nanopore system and natural sediments from both model system (synthetic nanopore alumina) and sediments from the ORNL Field Research Center prove that U(VI) sorption on nanopore surfaces can be greatly enhanced by nanopore confinement environments. The results from the project provide advanced mechanistic, quantitative information on the physiochemical controls on uranium sorption and redox behavior in subsurface sediments. The influence of nanopore surfaces on coupled uranium sorption/desorption and reduction processes is significant in virtually all subsurface environments, because most reactive surfaces are in fact nanopore surfaces. The results will enhance transfer of our laboratory-based research to a major field research initiative where reductive uranium immobilization is being investigated. Our results will also provide the basic science for developing in-situ colloidal barrier of nanoporous alumina in support of environmental remediation and long term stewardship of DOE sites.

  12. Electrodeposited NiCo/Cu Superlattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Safak, M.; Alper, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Literature, University of Uludag, Goeruekle, Bursa (Turkey)

    2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    NiCo/Cu superlattices were electrodeposited on polycrystalline Cu substrates from a single electrolyte under potentiostatic control. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that NiCo/Cu superlattices have the same crystal structure and texture as in their substrates. The films exhibited giant magnetoresistance (GMR) or anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR), depending on the Cu layer thicknesses.

  13. ELECTRONIC SOLUTION SPECTRA FOR URANIUM AND NEPTUNIUM IN OXIDATION STATES (III) TO (VI) IN ANHYDROUS HYDROGEN FLUORIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baluka, M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    III) TO (VI) IN ANHYDROUS HYDROGEN FLUORIDE M. Baluka, N.III) TO (VI) IN ANHYDROUS HYDROGEN FLUORIDE M. Baluka(t), N.solutions in anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) of uranium

  14. Simulation of Reduction of Cr(VI) by Fe(II) Produced Electrochemically in a Parallel-Plate Electrochemical Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at the cathode, electrocoagulation uses electricity to produce a reducing agent ferrous ions from an iron anode the reduction of Cr VI by permeable reactive barriers. Gheju and Lovi7 reported that the re- duction of Cr VI

  15. Nanoscale structural heterogeneity in Ni-rich half-Heusler TiNiSn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas, Jason E., E-mail: jedouglas@mrl.ucsb.edu; Pollock, Tresa M. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Chater, Philip A. [Diamond Light Source, Chilton, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Brown, Craig M. [Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Seshadri, Ram [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The structural implications of excess Ni in the TiNiSn half-Heusler compound are examined through a combination of synchrotron x-ray and neutron scattering studies, in conjunction with first principles density functional theory calculations on supercells. Despite the phase diagram suggesting that TiNiSn is a line compound with no solid solution, for small x in TiNi{sub 1+x}Sn there is indeed an appearance—from careful analysis of the scattering—of some solubility, with the excess Ni occupying the interstitial tetrahedral site in the half-Heusler structure. The analysis performed here would point to the excess Ni not being statistically distributed, but rather occurring as coherent nanoclusters. First principles calculations of energetics, carried out using supercells, support a scenario of Ni interstitials clustering, rather than a statistical distribution.

  16. Purification and Characterization of [NiFe]-Hydrogenase of Shewanella...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Purification and Characterization of NiFe-Hydrogenase of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Purification and Characterization of NiFe-Hydrogenase of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1....

  17. al ni shape: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NiAl NANOLAMINATES . Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??To characterize the self-propagating, high-temperature exothermic alloying reactions of NiAl nanoscaled...

  18. Integrated Ecogenomics Study for Bioremediation of Cr(VI) at Hanford 100H Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, Romy; Chakraborty, Romy

    2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Hexavalent chromium is a widespread contaminant found in groundwater. In order to stimulate microbially mediated Cr(VI)-reduction, a poly-lactate compound was injected into Cr(VI)-contaminated aquifers at site 100H at Hanford. Investigation of bacterial community composition using high-density DNA microarray analysis of 16S rRNA gene products revealed a stimulation of Pseudomonas, Desulfovibrio and Geobacter species amongst others. Enrichment of these organisms coincided with continued Cr(VI) depletion. Functional gene-array analysis of DNA from monitoring well indicated high abundance of genes involved in nitrate-reduction, sulfate-reduction, iron-reduction, methanogenesis, chromium tolerance/reduction. Clone-library data revealed Psedomonas was the dominant genus in these samples. Based on above results, we conducted lab investigations to study the dominant anaerobic culturable microbial populations present at this site and their role in Cr(VI)-reduction. Enrichments using defined anaerobic media resulted in isolation of an iron-reducing, a sulfate-reducing and a nitrate-reducing isolate among several others. Preliminary 16S rDNA sequence analysis identified the isolates as Geobacter metallireducens, Pseudomonas stutzeri and Desulfovibrio vulgaris species respectively. The Pseudomonas isolate utilized acetate, lactate, glycerol and pyruvate as alternative carbon sources, and reduced Cr(VI). Anaerobic washed cell suspension of strain HLN reduced almost 95?M Cr(VI) within 4 hr. Further, with 100?M Cr(VI) as sole electron-acceptor, cells grew to 4.05 x 107 /ml over 24 h after an initial lag, demonstrating direct enzymatic Cr(VI) reduction coupled to growth. These results demonstrate that Cr(VI)-immobilization at Hanford 100H site could be mediated by direct microbial metabolism in addition to indirect chemical reduction of Cr(VI) by end-products of microbial activity.

  19. Fision product evaluations for ENDF/B-VI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, R.Q.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the ENDF/B-V fission-product evaluations were completed during the time period 1974--1980, and some of these were based on very limited experimental data. For short-lived fission products, there is still very little experimental data available because of the difficulty of obtaining these measurements. However, since 1980 a considerable amount of new experimental data have become available for stable and long-lived fission products. By utilizing the new data, significant improvements are now possible for some fission-product evaluations. The purpose of this paper is to report on 16 ENDF/B-VI evaluations that have been done at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The primary emphasis in this work has been placed on the resolved resonance region, but for some nuclides, new experimental data were also used to improve the evaluations for energies above the resolved resonance range.

  20. Enthalpy of mixing of liquid Ni-Zr and Cu-Ni-Zr alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witusiewicz, V.T.; Sommer, F.

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the Al-Cu-Ni-Zr system is a basis for the production of bulk amorphous materials by rapid solidification techniques from the liquid state, it is of great scientific interest to determine the partial and the integral thermodynamic functions of liquid and undercooled liquid alloys. Such data, as was pointed out previously, are important in order to understand their extremely good glass-forming ability in multicomponent metallic systems as well as for processing improvements. In order to measure the thermodynamic properties of the Al-Cu-Ni-Zr quaternary, it is necessary to have reliable thermochemical data for its constituent canaries and ternaries first. In a series of articles, the authors have reported in detail the thermodynamic properties of liquid Al-Cu, Al-Ni, Cu-Ni, Cu-Zr, Al-Zr, Al-Cu-Ni, and Al-Cu-Zr alloys. This article deals with the direct calorimetric measurements of the partial and the integral enthalpies of mixing of liquid Ni-Zr and Cu-Ni-Zr alloys and the heat capacity of liquid Ni{sub 26}Zr{sub 74}. In a subsequent article, the authors will present similar data for the liquid ternary Al-Ni-Zr and for the liquid quaternary Al-Cu-Ni-Zr alloys.

  1. Reduction of Fe(III), Cr(VI), U(VI), and Tc(VII) by Deinococcus radiodurans R1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fredrickson, J.K.; Kostandarithes, H.M.; Li, S.W.; Plymake, A.E.; Daly, M.J.

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deinococcus radiodurans is an exceptionally radiation-resistant microorganism capable of surviving acute exposures to ionizing radiation doses of 15,000 Gy and previously described as having a strictly aerobic respiratory metabolism. Under strict anaerobic conditions, D. radiodurans R1 reduced Fe(III)-nitrilotriacetic acid coupled to the oxidation of lactate to CO{sub 2} and acetate but was unable to link this process to growth. D. radiodurans reduced the humic acid analog anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) to its dihydroquinone form, AH{sub 2}DS, which subsequently transferred electrons to the Fe(III) oxides hydrous ferric oxide and goethite via a previously described electron shuttle mechanism. D. radiodurans reduced the solid-phase Fe(III) oxides in the presence of either 0.1 mM AQDS or leonardite humic acids (2 mg ml{sup {minus}1}) but not in their absence. D. radiodurans also reduced U(VI) and Tc(VII) in the presence of AQDS. In contrast, Cr(VI) was directly reduced in anaerobic cultures with lactate although the rate of reduction was higher in the presence of AQDS. The results are the first evidence that D. radiodurans can reduce Fe(III) coupled to the oxidation of lactate or other organic compounds. Also, D. radiodurans, in combination with humic acids or synthetic electron shuttle agents, can reduce U and Tc and thus has potential applications for remediation of metal- and radionuclide-contaminated sites where ionizing radiation or other DNA-damaging agents may restrict the activity of more sensitive organisms.

  2. Thermal diffusion in Ni/Al multilayer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swain, M.; Bhattacharya, D.; Singh, S.; Basu, S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400085 (India); Gupta, M. [UGC-DAE-Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India)

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Two Ni/Al multilayers deposited by ion beam sputtering of nominal design [Ni(200A)/Al(100A)] Multiplication-Sign 5 and [Ni(50A)/Al(227A)] Multiplication-Sign 5 on Si substrates were annealed at 200 Degree-Sign C. As-deposited and annealed samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray reflectometry (XRR). The effort was to study the path of alloying in the above two multilayers of same elements but of opposite stoichiometric ratio. We find distinct differences in alloying of these samples.

  3. Metastable phase diagram for Ni-implanted Al and pulse surface melted Al(Ni)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Follstaedt, D.M.; Picraux, S.T.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The microstructure of <110> Al implanted with Ni was examined before and after subsequent electron beam pulsed surface melting (65 ns, 1.7 J/cm/sup 2/). Both processes were done with the Al substrate at room temperature. Implantation at several energies (160 to 15 keV) into a given sample produced a nearly constant measured Ni concentration through a approx. 0.1 ..mu..m region below the surface (7). Such samples with concentrations from 8 to 25 at. % Ni were examined, along with a sample with a peak concentration of 32 at. % Ni.

  4. Layering and temperature-dependent magnetization and anisotropy of naturally produced Ni/NiO multilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pappas, S. D.; Trachylis, D.; Velgakis, M. J. [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Kapaklis, V.; Joensson, P. E.; Papaioannou, E. Th. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Delimitis, A. [Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute (CPERI), Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki (Greece); Poulopoulos, P. [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin-Dahlem (Germany); Materials Science Department, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Fumagalli, P. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin-Dahlem (Germany); Politis, C. [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019 (United States)

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ni/NiO multilayers were grown by magnetron sputtering at room temperature, with the aid of the natural oxidation procedure. That is, at the end of the deposition of each single Ni layer, air is let to flow into the vacuum chamber through a leak valve. Then, a very thin NiO layer ({approx}1.2 nm) is formed. Simulated x-ray reflectivity patterns reveal that layering is excellent for individual Ni-layer thickness larger than 2.5 nm, which is attributed to the intercalation of amorphous NiO between the polycrystalline Ni layers. The magnetization of the films, measured at temperatures 5-300 K, has almost bulk-like value, whereas the films exhibit a trend to perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) with an unusual significant positive interface anisotropy contribution, which presents a weak temperature dependence. The power-law behavior of the multilayers indicates a non-negligible contribution of higher order anisotropies in the uniaxial anisotropy. Bloch-law fittings for the temperature dependence of the magnetization in the spin-wave regime show that the magnetization in the multilayers decreases faster as a function of temperature than the one of bulk Ni. Finally, when the individual Ni-layer thickness decreases below 2 nm, the multilayer stacking vanishes, resulting in a dramatic decrease of the interface magnetic anisotropy and consequently in a decrease of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  5. Electroslag surfacing of steel shafting with Ni alloy 625 and 70Cu-30Ni strip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devletian, J.H.; Gao, Y.P.; Wood, W.E. [Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive study of electroslag surfacing (ESS) of steel with Ni Alloy 625 and 70Cu-30Ni strip electrodes was conducted to establish the feasibility of replacing forged bearing sleeves on propulsion shafting with integral weld surfacing. The base material was MIL-S-23284, Class 1 steel in the form of 41--66 cm (16--26 in.) diameter shafting and 76 mm (3 in.) thick flat plate. All ESS was carried out at a heat input level of approximately 5.9kJ/mm (150 kJ/in.) using 30 x 0.5 mm (1.2 x 0.02 in.) strip electrodes. Assessments of mechanical properties and microstructure of Ni Alloy 625 surfacing and 70Cu-30Ni surfacing were conducted to establish the structure-property relationships in these complex alloy systems. In addition, a solidification cracking test was developed to determine the relative cracking susceptibilities of these strip surfacing alloys. Although the Ni Alloy 625 surfacing contained small islands of interdendritic MC type carbides and Laves phase, the mechanical properties of this surfacing were satisfactory. The 70Cu-30Ni surfacing required a buttering layer of 30Cu-70Ni or pure Ni to prevent solidification cracking. The inherent ductility-dip sensitivity of 70Cu-30Ni surfacing was overcome by the development of a suitable ESS procedure.

  6. Giant Quadrupole-Resonance in Ni Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Youngblood, David H.; Lui, YW; Garg, U.; Peterson, R. J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PHYSICAL REVIEW C VOLUME 45, NUMBER 5 MAY 1992 Giant quadrupole resonance in Ni isotopes D. H. Youngblood and Y.-%. Lui Texas A&M UniUersity, College Station, Texas 77843 U. Garg University of Notre Dame, South Bend, Indiana 46556 R. J...R )' 0.53 0.68 0.69 0.78 E2 EWSR (%) 58+12 76+14 78+14 90+16 Cp 0.80+0.04 0.84+0.04 0.82+0. 12 1.05+0. 10 2174 YOUNGBLOOD, LUI, GARG, AND PETERSON 45 1000 100 60Ni(n, n') E = 129 MeV 1 000 100 58Ni(n, n') 10 10 100 z' 1000 64Ni...

  7. Reduction of U(VI) Complexes by Anthraquinone Disulfonate: Experiment and Molecular Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ainsworth, C.C.; Wang, Z.; Rosso, K.M.; Wagnon, K.; Fredrickson, J.K.

    2004-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Past studies demonstrate that complexation will limit abiotic and biotic U(VI) reduction rates and the overall extent of reduction. However, the underlying basis for this behavior is not understood and presently unpredictable across species and ligand structure. The central tenets of these investigations are: (1) reduction of U(VI) follows the electron-transfer (ET) mechanism developed by Marcus; (2) the ET rate is the rate-limiting step in U(VI) reduction and is the step that is most affected by complexation; and (3) Marcus theory can be used to unify the apparently disparate U(VI) reduction rate data and as a computational tool to construct a predictive relationship.

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - alfa survey vi Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Paris VI pastel-00636920,version1-28Oct2011 12;11 elaboration of nitrogen-doped aerogels and xerogels Source: Paris-Sud XI, Universit de - Institut d'Optique, Laboratoire...

  9. U(VI) sorption and reduction kinetics on the magnetite (111)...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    information in real-time under batch-flow conditions. Citation: Singer DM, SME Chatman, ES Ilton, KM Rosso, JF Banfield, and G Waychunas.2012."U(VI) sorption and...

  10. Cr(VI) reduction in aqueous solutions by using copper smelter slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiyak, B.; Oezer, A.; Altundogan, H.S.; Erdem, M.; Tuemen, F. (Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey))

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of Copper Smelter Slag (CSS) to reduce Cr(VI) in aqueous solutions has been investigated. The extent of reduction if dependent on the amounts of acid and reductant, contact time, Cr(VI) concentration, temperature of the solution and particle size of CSS. The amount of acid is the most important variable affecting the reduction process. When twice the amount of acid required with respect to Cr(VI) was used, Cr(VI) in 100 ml solution (100 mg/l) was completely reduced in a contact period less than 5 min by a 10 g/l dosage of CSS. Reduction efficiency increased with increase in temperature of solution, showing that the process is endothermic. Reduced chromium, and iron and other metals dissolved from CSS were effectively precipitated by using NaOH or calcinated carbonation sludge from sugar plant.

  11. Cr(VI) reduction in aqueous solutions by using copper smelter slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiyak, B.; Oezer, A.; Altundogan, H.S.; Erdem, M.; Tuemen, F. [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey)] [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of Copper Smelter Slag (CSS) to reduce Cr(VI) in aqueous solutions has been investigated. The extent of reduction if dependent on the amounts of acid and reductant, contact time, Cr(VI) concentration, temperature of the solution and particle size of CSS. The amount of acid is the most important variable affecting the reduction process. When twice the amount of acid required with respect to Cr(VI) was used, Cr(VI) in 100 ml solution (100 mg/l) was completely reduced in a contact period less than 5 min by a 10 g/l dosage of CSS. Reduction efficiency increased with increase in temperature of solution, showing that the process is endothermic. Reduced chromium, and iron and other metals dissolved from CSS were effectively precipitated by using NaOH or calcinated carbonation sludge from sugar plant.

  12. Reduction of Health Risks Due to Chromium(VI)Using Mesquite: A Potential Cr Phytoremediator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.; Aldrich, Mary V.; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Parsons, Jason G.

    2004-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Chromium is a transition metal extensively used in industry. Cr mining and industrial operations account for chromium wastes at Superfund sites in the United States. A study was performed to investigate the possibility of using mesquite (Prosopis spp.), which is an indigenous desert plant species, to remove Cr from contaminated sites. In this study, mesquite plants were grown in an agar-based medium containing 75 mg L-1 and 125 mg L-1 of Cr(VI). The Cr content of leaf tissue (992 mg kg-1 of dry weight, from 125 mg L-1 of Cr(VI)) indicated that mesquite could be classified as a chromium hyperaccumulator. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies performed to experimental samples showed that mesquite roots absorbed some of the supplied Cr(VI). However, the data analyses of plant tissues demonstrated that the absorbed Cr(VI) was fully reduced to Cr(III) in the leaf tissue.

  13. Microsoft Word - ViArray_Fact_ Sheet_SAND2011-3935P_updated_format...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ng ViASIC(tm) e circuits tha operations. power and g n high-reliab D Category 1 plined ISO 9 al, analog an bility, Sandia national secu d ASIC grated Circui ASIC-like p (NRE)...

  14. A method to attenuate U(VI) mobility in acidic waste plumes using humic acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    base properties of a goethite surface model: A theoreticalcomplexation of U(VI) on goethite (alpha-FeOOH). Geochim.acid and humic-acid on goethite, gibbsite and imogolite. J.

  15. Regulation of Myosin VI transport, tethering to actin and cargo binding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naccache, Samia Nidal

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M. Walker, J. Trinick, F. Buss, C. Veigel and J. Kendrick-J. Kendrick-Jones and F. Buss (2005). "Optineurin linksJ. Kendrick-Jones and F. Buss (2003). "Loss of myosin VI

  16. Upscaling of U(VI) Desorption and Transport Using Decimeter-Scale Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Derrick [Colorado School of Mines

    2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental work was used to validate modeling studies and develop multicontinuum models of U(VI) transport in a contaminated aquifer. At the bench scale, it has been shown that U(VI) desorption is rate-limited and that rates are dependent on the bicarbonate concentration. Two decimeter-scale experiments were conducted in order to help establish rigorous upscaling approaches that could be tested at the tracer test and plume scales.

  17. Influences of Water Vapor on Cr(VI) Reduction by Gaseous Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Baolin

    Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 In Situ Gaseous Reduction (ISGR) using hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a technology the contaminants, H2S, and various soil components. In this study, Cr(VI) reduction by gaseous H2S was examined under various relative humidities (0-96.7%), concentrations of Cr(VI) (127-475 µg/g of solid), and H2S

  18. Chromium Isotope Fractionation During Reduction of Cr(VI) Under Saturated Flow Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jamieson-Hanes, Julia H.; Gibson, Blair D.; Lindsay, Matthew B.J.; Kim, Yeongkyoo; Ptacek, Carol J.; Blowes, David W. (Waterloo); (Kyungpook National University)

    2012-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Chromium isotopes are potentially useful indicators of Cr(VI) reduction reactions in groundwater flow systems; however, the influence of transport on Cr isotope fractionation has not been fully examined. Laboratory batch and column experiments were conducted to evaluate isotopic fractionation of Cr during Cr(VI) reduction under both static and controlled flow conditions. Organic carbon was used to reduce Cr(VI) in simulated groundwater containing 20 mg L{sup -1} Cr(VI) in both batch and column experiments. Isotope measurements were performed on dissolved Cr on samples from the batch experiments, and on effluent and profile samples from the column experiment. Analysis of the residual solid-phase materials by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy confirmed association of Cr(III) with organic carbon in the column solids. Decreases in dissolved Cr(VI) concentrations were coupled with increases in {delta}{sup 53}Cr, indicating that Cr isotope enrichment occurred during reduction of Cr(VI). The {delta}{sup 53}Cr data from the column experiment was fit by linear regression yielding a fractionation factor ({alpha}) of 0.9979, whereas the batch experiments exhibited Rayleigh-type isotope fractionation ({alpha} = 0.9965). The linear characteristic of the column {delta}{sup 53}Cr data may reflect the contribution of transport on Cr isotope fractionation.

  19. Electronic circuits having NiAl and Ni.sub.3 Al substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deevi, Seetharama C. (Midlothian, VA); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electronic circuit component having improved mechanical properties and thermal conductivity comprises NiAl and/or Ni.sub.3 Al, upon which an alumina layer is formed prior to applying the conductive elements. Additional layers of copper-aluminum alloy or copper further improve mechanical strength and thermal conductivity.

  20. nucl-ex/970400924Apr1997 Charged pions from Ni on Ni collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , Poland 11 Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia 1 #12;Abstract Charged pions from Ni + Ni reactions number of participants increase with beam energy, in accordance with earlier studies of the Ar + KCl and La + La systems. The pion kinetic energy spectra have concave shape and are fitted

  1. Ni Sorption on Pyrophyllite: Evidence for the Formation of Ni-Al Hydroxide and Its Transformation into Ni-Silicate by Visible,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    into Ni-Silicate by Visible, Infrared and XANES Spectroscopy and Thermogravimetry A. C. Scheinost, R. G suggest either the formation of layered double hydroxides or of layer silicates. Desorption studies polymerization of SiO causes the formation of 1:1 or 2:1 Ni silicates, where the original Ni-Al hydroxide

  2. Recycling of used Ni-MH rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshida, T.; Ono, H.; Shirai, R. [Mitsui Mining and Smelting Co., Ltd., Ageo, Saitama (Japan). Corporate R and D Center

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ni-MH (nickel metal hydride) rechargeable battery was developed several years ago. Its higher electrochemical capacity and greater safety compared with the Ni-Cd rechargeable battery have resulted in very rapid increase in its production. The Ni-MH rechargeable battery consists of Ni, Co and rare earth metals, so that recycling is important to recover these valuable mineral resources. In this study, a basic recycling process for used Ni-MH rechargeable batteries has been developed, in which the Ni, Co and rare earth elements are recovered through a combination of mechanical processing and hydrometallurgical processing.

  3. Nickel recovery from electronic waste II Electrodeposition of Ni and Ni–Fe alloys from diluted sulfate solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robotin, B. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos Street, RO-400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Ispas, A. [Fachgebiet Elektrochemie und Galvanotechnik II, Technische Universität Ilmenau, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Coman, V. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos Street, RO-400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Bund, A. [Fachgebiet Elektrochemie und Galvanotechnik II, Technische Universität Ilmenau, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Ilea, P., E-mail: pilea@chem.ubbcluj.ro [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos Street, RO-400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Ni can be recovered from EG wastes as pure Ni or as Ni–Fe alloys. • The control of the experimental conditions gives a certain alloy composition. • Unusual deposits morphology shows different nucleation mechanisms for Ni vs Fe. • The nucleation mechanism was progressive for Ni and instantaneous for Fe and Ni–Fe. - Abstract: This study focuses on the electrodeposition of Ni and Ni–Fe alloys from synthetic solutions similar to those obtained by the dissolution of electron gun (an electrical component of cathode ray tubes) waste. The influence of various parameters (pH, electrolyte composition, Ni{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 2+} ratio, current density) on the electrodeposition process was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) were used to provide information about the obtained deposits’ thickness, morphology, and elemental composition. By controlling the experimental parameters, the composition of the Ni–Fe alloys can be tailored towards specific applications. Complementarily, the differences in the nucleation mechanisms for Ni, Fe and Ni–Fe deposition from sulfate solutions have been evaluated and discussed using cyclic voltammetry and potential step chronoamperometry. The obtained results suggest a progressive nucleation mechanism for Ni, while for Fe and Ni–Fe, the obtained data points are best fitted to an instantaneous nucleation model.

  4. Exchange bias beyond the superparamagnetic blocking temperature of the antiferromagnet in a Ni-NiO nanoparticulate system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, Aparna, E-mail: aparna.roy@ua.pt, E-mail: aparnaroy15@gmail.com; Ferreira, J. M. F. [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering and CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); De Toro, J. A.; Muniz, P.; Riveiro, J. M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Amaral, V. S. [Department of Physics and CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We report magnetic and exchange bias studies on Ni-NiO nanoparticulate systems synthesized by a two-step process, namely, chemical reduction of a Ni salt followed by air annealing of the dried precipitate in the temperature range 400–550?°C. Size of Ni and NiO crystallites as estimated from X–ray diffraction line broadening ranges between 10.5–13.5?nm and 2.3–4?nm, respectively. The magneto-thermal plots (M-T) of these bi-magnetic samples show a well developed peak in the vicinity of 130?K. This has been identified as the superparamagnetic blocking temperature “T{sub B}” of NiO. Interestingly, all samples exhibit exchange bias even above their respective NiO blocking temperatures, right up to 300?K, the maximum temperature of measurement. This is in contrast to previous reports since exchange bias requires the antiferromagnetic NiO to have a stable direction of its moment in order to pin the ferromagnet (Ni) magnetization, whereas such stability is unlikely above T{sub B} since the NiO is superparamagnetic, its moment flipping under thermal activation. Our observation is elucidated by taking into account the core-shell morphology of the Ni-NiO nanoparticles whereby clustering of some of these nanoparticles connects their NiO shells to form extended continuous regions of NiO, which because of their large size remain blocked at T?>?T{sub B}, with thermally stable spins capable of pinning the Ni cores and giving rise to exchange bias. The investigated samples may thus be envisaged as being constituted of both isolated core-shell Ni-NiO nanoparticles as well as clustered ones, with T{sub B} denoting the blocking temperature of the NiO shell of the isolated particles.

  5. Structure Analysis of a Precipitate Phase in an Ni-Rich High...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure Analysis of a Precipitate Phase in an Ni-Rich High Temperature NiTiHf Shape Memory Alloy. Structure Analysis of a Precipitate Phase in an Ni-Rich High Temperature NiTiHf...

  6. Preparation of PtNi Nanoparticles for the Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deivaraj, T.C.

    Carbon supported PtNi nanoparticles were prepared by hydrazine reduction of Pt and Ni precursor salts under different conditions, namely by conventional heating (PtNi-1), by prolonged reaction at room temperature (PtNi-2) ...

  7. Thermodynamics of the Complexation of Uranium(VI) by oxalate in aqueous solution at 10-70oC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Bernardo, Plinio

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    O. Tochiyama in Chemical Thermodynamics of Compounds andUpdate on the Chemical Thermodynamics of Uranium, Neptunium,Thermodynamics of the Complexation of Uranium(VI) with

  8. Energy absorption in Ni-Mn-Ga/ polymer composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feuchtwanger, Jorge

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years Ni-Mn-Ga has attracted considerable attention as a new kind of actuator material. Off-stoichiometric single crystals of Ni2MnGa can regularly exhibit 6% strain in tetragonal martensites and orthorhombic ...

  9. Carbon Nanotube Growth Using Ni Catalyst in Different Layouts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, H. Q.

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes have been grown using Ni as catalyst by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system (PECVD) in various pre-patterned substrates. Ni was thermally evaporated on silicon substrates ...

  10. ag fe ni: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conduction-band states of NiO 100 thin films grown onto Ag 100 have charac- terized NiO monocrystalline thin films has shown up both onto insulating i.e., MgO, Ref. 21 Marcon,...

  11. Fabrication and temperature-dependent magnetic properties of one-dimensional multilayer Au–Ni–Au–Ni–Au nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishrat, S. [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering and Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Maaz, K. [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering and Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Nanomaterials Research Group, Physics Division, PINSTECH, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Lee, Kyu-Joon [Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Myung-Hwa, E-mail: mhjung@sogang.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gil-Ho, E-mail: ghkim@skku.edu [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering and Sungkyunkwan Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Multilayer Au–Ni–Au–Ni–Au nanowires with a controlled diameter of ?100 nm were synthesized by electrochemical deposition in porous alumina templates. The length of each Ni-segment was controlled up to ?230 nm, while the length of the Au segment sandwiched between two Ni segments was ?180 nm. X-ray diffraction patterns and energy-dispersive X-ray spectra confirmed the formation of purely crystalline nanowires. The magnetic properties of the multilayer Au–Ni–Au–Ni–Au nanowires were investigated in the temperature range 2–300 K. Room-temperature magnetic hysteresis confirmed the ferromagnetic nature of the nanowires. The plot of coercivity as a function of temperature (from 2 to 300 K) followed law applicable for ferromagnetic nanostructures. The magnetization tended to increase as the temperature decreased, following the modified Bloch's law similar to ferromagnetic nanoparticles. - Graphical abstract: (a) SEM image of Au–Ni–Au–Ni–Au nanowire with 230 nm Ni segment length and 180 nm Au sandwiched between Ni segments (b) Kneller's law (c) Bloch's law Display Omitted - Highlights: • Electrochemical fabrication of Au–Ni–Au–Ni–Au nanowires in alumina templates. • Formation of beadlike structure of Ni segments. • Coercivity versus T follows Kneller's law for ferromagnetic materials. • Magnetization as a function of temperature follows the modified Bloch's law.

  12. Improving Memory Subsystem Performance Using ViVA: Virtual Vector Architecture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gebis, Joseph; Oliker, Leonid; Shalf, John; Williams, Samuel; Yelick, Katherine

    2009-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The disparity between microprocessor clock frequencies and memory latency is a primary reason why many demanding applications run well below peak achievable performance. Software controlled scratchpad memories, such as the Cell local store, attempt to ameliorate this discrepancy by enabling precise control over memory movement; however, scratchpad technology confronts the programmer and compiler with an unfamiliar and difficult programming model. In this work, we present the Virtual Vector Architecture (ViVA), which combines the memory semantics of vector computers with a software-controlled scratchpad memory in order to provide a more effective and practical approach to latency hiding. ViVA requires minimal changes to the core design and could thus be easily integrated with conventional processor cores. To validate our approach, we implemented ViVA on the Mambo cycle-accurate full system simulator, which was carefully calibrated to match the performance on our underlying PowerPC Apple G5 architecture. Results show that ViVA is able to deliver significant performance benefits over scalar techniques for a variety of memory access patterns as well as two important memory-bound compact kernels, corner turn and sparse matrix-vector multiplication -- achieving 2x-13x improvement compared the scalar version. Overall, our preliminary ViVA exploration points to a promising approach for improving application performance on leading microprocessors with minimal design and complexity costs, in a power efficient manner.

  13. Microbial Reductive Transformation of Phyllosilicate Fe(III) and U(VI) in Fluvial Subsurface Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Ji-Hoon; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Boyanov, Maxim I.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Lin, Xueju; Kennedy, David W.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Konopka, Allan; Moore, Dean A.; Resch, Charles T.; Phillips, Jerry L.

    2012-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The microbial reduction of Fe(III) and U(VI) were investigated in shallow aquifer sediments collected from subsurface Pleistocene flood deposits near the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River in Washington State. Increases in 0.5 N HCl-extractable Fe(II) were observed in incubated sediments and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed that Fe(III) associated with phyllosilicates and pyroxene was reduced to Fe(II). Aqueous uranium(VI) concentrations decreased in incubated Hanford sediments with the rate and extent being greater in sediment amended with organic carbon. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of bioreduced sediments indicated that 67-77% of the U signal was U(VI), probably as an adsorbed species associated with a new or modified reactive mineral phase. Phylotypes within the Deltaproteobacteria were more common in Hanford sediments incubated with U(VI) than without and in U(VI)-free incubations, members of the Clostridiales were dominant with sulfate-reducing phylotypes more common in the sulfate-amended sediments. These results demonstrate the potential for anaerobic reduction phyllosilicate Fe(III) and sulfate in Hanford unconfined aquifer sediments and biotransformations involving reduction and adsorption leading to decreased aqueous U concentrations.

  14. High Temperature coatings based on {beta}-NiAI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Severs, Kevin

    2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    High temperature alloys are reviewed, focusing on current superalloys and their coatings. The synthesis, characerization, and oxidation performance of a NiAl–TiB{sub 2} composite are explained. A novel coating process for Mo–Ni–Al alloys for improved oxidation performance is examined. The cyclic oxidation performance of coated and uncoated Mo–Ni–Al alloys is discussed.

  15. Three-Dimensional EBSD Analysis of YSZ, NiO-YSZ and Ni-Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saraf, Laxmikant V.

    2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, a method is discussed to perform successive milling on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), NiO-YSZ and Ni-alloy at the intervals of 85 nm 50 nm and 100 nm, respectively using a focused ion beam (FIB) followed by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis on each slice. The EBSD data is then reconstructed to generate 3D volume. The 3D-EBSD band quality data is superimposed on inverse pole figure (IPF) grain orientation analysis to get a correlation with quality of band indexing. For the NiO-YSZ case, grain orientations and band quality factors were matched for grains {approx}250 nm diameters producing a high resolution 3D-EBSD data. For this case, a pore space in 3D volume was visible due to nanocrystalline NiO-YSZ grain network. The advantages of 3D EBSD are discussed in the context of its applications to SOFC research community.

  16. Magnetic Properties of Monodisperse NiHx Nanoparticles and Comparison to Those of Monodisperse Ni Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Bongsoo

    for hydrogen storage for both fuel cells and electrodes in batteries.3-7 As a solid, NiHx has an advantage over Yongmin Chang Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National Uni

  17. Sediment studies of the biological factors controlling the reduction of U(VI).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lovley, derek, R.

    2004-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies were conducted primarily with sediments, both in laboratory incubations and in a field experiment, with supporting studies with pure cultures. To our knowledge the sediment studies were the first on microbial U(VI) reduction in actual uranium-contaminated subsurface sediments, under conditions that mimic those found in situ. Important findings included: (1) U(VI) reduction is a biotic process in subsurface sediments. (2) U(VI) reduction can be stimulated most effectively with the addition of acetate. Although it had been speculated that microbial U(VI) reduction might be capable of this type of environmental remediation ever since the discovery of microbial U(VI) reduction, this had not been previously demonstrated under environmentally relevant conditions. (3) U(VI) is reduced concurrently with Fe(III) and prior to sulfate reduction. U(VI) and Fe(III) reduction proceeded concurrently, accompanied by a dramatic enrichment in organisms in the Geobacteraceae. Sulfate-reducing microorganisms do not appear to be important components of the microbial community reducing U(VI) in these subsurface sediments. (4) Nitrate has important influences on U(VI) reduction. Nitrate inhibits the reduction of metals until nitrate is depleted. Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms such as Geobacter metallireducens and Desulfitobacterium species can oxidize Fe(II) with the reduction of nitrate which is an important consideration because our previous studies have demonstrated that freshly precipitated Fe(III) oxides can reoxidize U(IV) to U(VI). The discovery that G. metallireducens can ''run backwards'' and oxidize U(IV) when nitrate is present reveals another mechanism preventing precipitation of U(IV) in the presence of nitrate as well as potential novel strategy for removing uranium from the subsurface after a site has been remediated. (5) Importance of understanding Fe(III) forms available for microbial reduction. Fe(III) is orders of magnitude more abundant than U(VI) as an electron acceptor to support microbial growth. It was demonstrated that poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxides and structural Fe(III) in clays are the predominant forms of microbially reducible Fe(III). Such findings are important for the development of models of Fe(III) reduction in similar aquifer environments, such as those found at many UMTRA sites. (6) Mechanisms for Fe(III) oxide reduction. It was discovered that phylogenetically distinct Fe(III) reducer have different strategies for reducing Fe(III) and the fact that Geobacter species must directly contact Fe(III) in order to reduce it may help explain its predominance over other Fe(III) reducers in the subsurface. (7) Transfer of laboratory results to the field. Results from laboratory studies were used to design a field experiment in which U(VI) reduction was successfully precipitated from the contaminated water with the injection of acetate.

  18. Geometric structures of thin film: Pt on Pd(110) and NiO on Ni(100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, O.L.

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is divided into 3 papers: dynamical low-energy electron- diffraction investigation of lateral displacements in topmost layer of Pd(110); determination of (1{times}1) and (1{times}2) structures of Pt thin films on Pd(110) by dynamical low-energy electron-diffraction analysis; and structural determination of a NiO(111) film on Ni(100) by dynamical low-energy electron-diffraction analysis.

  19. Electronic structure mechanism of spin-polarized electron transport in a NiC60Ni system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pandey, Ravi

    Laboratory, Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ATTN: AMSRD-ARL-WM, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 Abstract The nature of chemical bonding and its effect on spin-polarized electron transport in Ni­C60­Ni couple with metallic electrodes (e. g. Ni and Au), a key requirement for the Kondo effect

  20. Influence of Ni on Martensitic Phase Transformations in NiTi Shape Memory Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frenzel, J. [Ruhr University, Bochum, Germany; George, Easo P [ORNL; Dlouhy, A. [Institute of Physics of Materials, Brno, Czech Republic; Somsen, Ch. [Ruhr University, Bochum, Germany; Wagner, M. F.-X [Ruhr University, Bochum, Germany; Eggeler, G. [Ruhr University, Bochum, Germany

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-precision data on phase transformation temperatures in NiTi, including numerical expressions for the effect of Ni on M{sub S}, M{sub F}, A{sub S}, A{sub F} and T{sub 0}, are obtained, and the reasons for the large experimental scatter observed in previous studies are discussed. Clear experimental evidence is provided confirming the predictions of Tang et al. 1999 regarding deviations from a linear relation between the thermodynamic equilibrium temperature and Ni concentration. In addition to affecting the phase transition temperatures, increasing Ni contents are found to decrease the width of thermal hysteresis and the heat of transformation. These findings are rationalized on the basis of the crystallographic data of Prokoshkin et al. 2004 and the theory of Ball and James. The results show that it is important to document carefully the details of the arc-melting procedure used to make shape memory alloys and that, if the effects of processing are properly accounted for, precise values for the Ni concentration of the NiTi matrix can be obtained.

  1. Properties of electroless Ni-W-P amorphous alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Bangwei [Academia Sinica, Shenyang (China). International Centre of Materials Physics] [Academia Sinica, Shenyang (China). International Centre of Materials Physics; [Hunan Univ., Changsha (China). Dept. of Applied Physics; Hu Wangyu; Zhang Qinglong; Qu Xuanyuan [Hunan Univ., Changsha (China). Dept. of Applied Physics] [Hunan Univ., Changsha (China). Dept. of Applied Physics

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes work performed to determine some of the properties of the electroless Ni-W-P amorphous deposits. Phosphorus contents were varied up to 32 at.%, and the amorphous structure was found to be present at phosphorus contents above 5 at.%. Irrespective of P content, all the deposits exhibits excellent adhesion to metallic substrates. The addition of even small amounts of W provided greatly increased hardness compared with the plain Ni-P deposits. The wettability properties of the Ni-W-P deposits were found to be comparable to those of Ni-P and N-B-P deposits but inferior to those of Ni-B deposits.

  2. Microstructure of electrodeposited Cu-Ni binary alloy films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mizushima, Io; Chikazawa, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Tohru [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The codeposition of Cu and Ni in the electrodeposition method without a complexing agent is difficult, since the standard electrode potentials of Cu and Ni differ by approximately 600 mV. In this study, the electrodeposited Cu-Ni alloy films with various compositions were obtained using glycine as the complexing agent. Consequently, composition of the deposited Cu-Ni alloy films can be controlled by bath composition and pH, and the crystallographic structure of all the deposited Cu-Ni alloy films consists of a single solid solution and is not influenced by pH.

  3. In Situ XAS of Ni-W Hydrocracking Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, N. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Mickelson, G. E.; Greenlay, N.; Bare, Simon R. [UOP LLC, Des Plaines, IL 60016 (United States); Kelly, S. D. [EXAFS Analysis, Bolingbrook, IL 60440 (United States)

    2007-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Ni-W based catalysts are very attractive in hydrotreating of heavy oil due to their high hydrogenation activity. In the present research, two catalyst samples, prepared by different methods, that exhibit significant differences in activity were sulfided in situ, and the local structure of the Ni and W were studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The Ni XANES spectra were analyzed using a linear component fitting, and the EXAFS spectra of the WS2 platelets in the sulfided catalysts were modeled. The Ni and W are fully sulfided in the higher activity sample, and there are both unsulfided Ni ({approx}25%) and W (<10%) in the lower activity sample.

  4. Differential isotopic fractionation during Cr(VI) reduction by an aquifer-derived bacterium under arobic versus denitrifying conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, R.; Qin, L.; Brown, S. T.; Christensen, J. N.; Beller, H. R.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We studied Cr isotopic fractionation during Cr(VI) reduction by Pseudomonas stutzeri strain RCH2. Despite the fact that strain RCH2 reduces Cr(VI) co-metabolically under both aerobic and denitrifying conditions and at similar specific rates, fractionation was markedly different under these two conditions (ε ~2? aerobically and ~0.4? under denitrifying conditions).

  5. UMBC Policy VI-10.00.01 Page 1 of 5 UMBC POLICY ON POLICY FORMULATION AND MANAGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adali, Tulay

    UMBC Policy VI-10.00.01 Page 1 of 5 UMBC POLICY ON POLICY FORMULATION AND MANAGEMENT UMBC Policy No. VI-10.00.01 I. POLICY STATEMENT The UMBC community should have access to well-articulated and understandable University Policies and related Operating Procedures. Those responsible for writing, updating

  6. From 1D Chain to 3D Network: Tuning Hybrid II-VI Nanostructures and Their Optical Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    and synthesized a family of novel organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites based on II-VI semiconductorsFrom 1D Chain to 3D Network: Tuning Hybrid II-VI Nanostructures and Their Optical Properties of these nanocomposite materials have been characterized by single crystal and/or powder X-ray diffraction methods. [Zn

  7. In situ NiTi/Nb(Ti) composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Daqiang, E-mail: dq80jiang@126.com; Cui, Lishan; Jiang, Jiang; Zheng, Yanjun

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • In situ NiTi/Nb(Ti) composites were fabricated. • The transformation temperature was affected by the mixing Ti:Ni atomic ratios. • The NiTi component became micron-scale lamella after forging and rolling. • The composite exhibited high strength and high damping capacity. - Abstract: This paper reports on the creation of a series of in situ NiTi/Nb(Ti) composites with controllable transformation temperatures based on the pseudo-binary hypereutectic transformation of NiTi–Nb system. The composite constituent morphology was controlled by forging and rolling. It is found that the thickness of the NiTi lamella in the composite reached micron level after the hot-forging and cold-rolling. The NiTi/Nb(Ti) composite exhibited high damping capacity as well as high yield strength.

  8. Stripe-to-bubble transition of magnetic domains at the spin reorientation of (Fe/Ni)/Cu/Ni/Cu(001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, J.; Choi, J.; Won, C.; Wu, Y. Z.; Scholl, A.; Doran, A.; Hwang, Chanyong; Qiu, Z.

    2010-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic domain evolution at the spin reorientation transition (SRT) of (Fe/Ni)/Cu/Ni/Cu(001) is investigated using photoemission electron microscopy. While the (Fe/Ni) layer exhibits the SRT, the interlayer coupling of the perpendicularly magnetized Ni layer to the (Fe/Ni) layer serves as a virtual perpendicular magnetic field exerted on the (Fe/Ni) layer. We find that the perpendicular virtual magnetic field breaks the up-down symmetry of the (Fe/Ni) stripe domains to induce a net magnetization in the normal direction of the film. Moreover, as the virtual magnetic field increases to exceed a critical field, the stripe domain phase evolves into a bubble domain phase. Although the critical field depends on the Fe film thickness, we show that the area fraction of the minority domain exhibits a universal value that determines the stripe-to-bubble phase transition.

  9. Adsorption of Chromium (VI) by metal hydroxide sludge from the metal finishing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Adsorption of Chromium (VI) by metal hydroxide sludge from the metal finishing Loïc Perrin Ecole sludge (MHS) during the treatment of their liquid effluents charged with heavy metals. Generally, a small part of these sludge is valorized because of their important metal fickleness. Consequently

  10. Clostridium chromiireducens sp. nov., isolated from Cr(VI)-contaminated soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    by its ability to reduce Cr(VI) in low concentrations. Mixed acid fermentation during growth on glucose resulted in accumulation of acetate, butyrate, formate and lactate. Morphological studies indicated the presence of peritrichous flagella, pili and an S-layer. The major cellular fatty acids (.5 %) were C16 : 0

  11. Microbial reduction of iron(III)-rich nontronite and uranium(VI)1 Gengxin Zhang1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burgos, William

    speciation and varied sorption affinity for sediment minerals. Poorly41 soluble U(IV) minerals and highly). Soluble U(VI) species can be43 biologically or chemically reduced to the sparingly soluble U(IV) mineral situ remediation of contaminated sites (Anderson et al., 2003; Istok et al., 2004; Wu et46 al., 2006a

  12. Dendritic Chelating Agents. 2. U(VI) Binding to Poly(amidoamine) and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    fuel rods (2). While sorption has been primarily employed in nuclear waste management to treat aqueous nitric acid solutions in spent nuclear fuel processing facilities. Although SE and IX are well streams is a key compo- nent of the uranium nuclear fuel cycle (1­4). Uranyl [U(VI)] is the most stable

  13. VI. ICRF HEATING D. B. BATCHELOR (ORNL), M. D. CARTER (ORNL), R. H. GOULDING (ORNL),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VI. ICRF HEATING D. B. BATCHELOR (ORNL), M. D. CARTER (ORNL), R. H. GOULDING (ORNL), D. J. HOFFMAN in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) has been chosen as the primary auxiliary heating technique for BPX. This decision is based on the wide successof ICRF heating in existing large-scale experiments

  14. Field Investigations of Lactate-Stimulated Bioreduction of Cr(VI) at Hanford 100H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. C. Hazen; B. Faybishenko; D. Joyner; S. Borglin; E. Brodie; S.; K. Williams; J. Peterson; J. Wan; T. Tokunaga; M.; P. E. Long; Resch, C.T.; Newcomer, D.; Koenigsberg, S.; Willet, A.

    2005-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this paper is to carry out field investigations to assess the potential for immobilizing and detoxifying chromium-contaminated groundwater using lactate-stimulated bioreduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) at the Hanford 100H site.

  15. ViDE: A Vision-Based Approach for Deep Web Data Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ViDE: A Vision-Based Approach for Deep Web Data Extraction Wei Liu, Xiaofeng Meng, Member, IEEE, and Weiyi Meng, Member, IEEE Abstract--Deep Web contents are accessed by queries submitted to Web databases and the returned data records are enwrapped in dynamically generated Web pages (they will be called deep Web pages

  16. RisNyt NO2 2005 I de kommende rtier vil vi se store

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fjerde i en se- rie, der sætter energiemner i perspektiv på globalt, regionalt og dansk niveau. Danmark har gode muligheder for at bevare førertrøjen I Danmark er vi allerede nået langt. Energi vigtigere rolle og især vindenergi er kraftigt udbygget. Samtidig kan Danmark fungere som en slags "buffer

  17. Klumme til Politikens Vid&Sans 17/12-2006 Hvad skal vi med rumforskning?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andersen, Anja C.

    investering i rumforskning til verdens fattigste, så ville det ikke batte meget. Danmark bruger omkring 250 omkanalisere. Danmark bør tværtimod satse endnu mere på rumforskning. Hvis vi valgte at etablere os mere givet konkurrencefordele. Danmark kan som medlem af den Europæiske Rumfartsorganisation (ESA) spille en

  18. Characterization of a type vi secretion system and related proteins of pseudomonas syringae 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Records, Angela Renee

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    728a genome encodes a novel secretion pathway, the type VI secretion system (T6SS), that functions to deliver at least one protein outside of the bacterial cell. Western blot analyses show that this secretion is dependent on clpV, a gene that likely...

  19. PHYS 2750, Winter 2014 page 1 of 2 General Physics VI: Modern Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quirion, Guy

    PHYS 2750, Winter 2014 page 1 of 2 General Physics VI: Modern Physics PHYS 2750 1. What is this course all about? The Golden Age of Physics is often referred to as the the period from the late 1800's up to about the mid 1900's. Physics 2750 is a course which explores many of the fundamental

  20. VI. SENSOR CALIBRATIONS One of the most important aspects of high

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    13 VI. SENSOR CALIBRATIONS One of the most important aspects of high quality solar radiation be determined (in volts/watts/meter2 ). This is done by simulta- neously comparing the measured output to an input signal must be determined. For the CR-10 data logger this means check- ing the relation between

  1. NiW and NiRu Bimetallic Catalysts for Ethylene Steam Reforming: Alternative Mechanisms for Sulfur Resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rangan, M.; Yung, M. M.; Medlin, J. W.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous investigations of Ni-based catalysts for the steam reforming of hydrocarbons have indicated that the addition of a second metal can reduce the effects of sulfur poisoning. Two systems that have previously shown promise for such applications, NiW and NiRu, are considered here for the steam reforming of ethylene, a key component of biomass derived tars. Monometallic and bimetallic Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported Ni and W catalysts were employed for ethylene steam reforming in the presence and absence of sulfur. The NiW catalysts were less active than Ni in the absence of sulfur, but were more active in the presence of 50 ppm H{sub 2}S. The mechanism for the W-induced improvements in sulfur resistance appears to be different from that for Ru in NiRu. To probe reasons for the sulfur resistance of NiRu, the adsorption of S and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} on several bimetallic NiRu alloy surfaces ranging from 11 to 33 % Ru was studied using density functional theory (DFT). The DFT studies reveal that sulfur adsorption is generally favored on hollow sites containing Ru. Ethylene preferentially adsorbs atop the Ru atom in all the NiRu (111) alloys investigated. By comparing trends across the various bimetallic models considered, sulfur adsorption was observed to be correlated with the density of occupied states near the Fermi level while C{sub 2}H{sub 4} adsorption was correlated with the number of unoccupied states in the d-band. The diverging mechanisms for S and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} adsorption allow for bimetallic surfaces such as NiRu that enhance ethylene binding without accompanying increases in sulfur binding energy. In contrast, bimetallics such as NiSn and NiW appear to decrease the affinity of the surface for both the reagent and the poison.

  2. Transformation Induced Fatigue of Ni-Rich NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Actuators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schick, Justin Ryan

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    TRANSFORMATION INDUCED FATIGUE OF NI-RICH NITI SHAPE MEMORY ALLOY ACTUATORS A Thesis by JUSTIN RYAN SCHICK Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 2009 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering TRANSFORMATION INDUCED FATIGUE OF NI-RICH NITI SHAPE MEMORY ALLOY ACTUATORS A Thesis by JUSTIN RYAN SCHICK Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment...

  3. Engineering the Martensitic Transformation Hysteresis of Ni-Rich NiTi Alloys 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Brian Eelan

    2014-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Ti is an intermetallic compound that forms in the Ni-Ti system when the Ni content is between 49-57% (at%) [21]. Its structure can take three distinct forms depending on the temperature; the CsCl B2 structure, the trigonal R phase, and the 9 monoclinic B19....2.1. Thermodynamic aspects of the martensitic transformation The martensitic transformation occurs via nucleation and growth of martensite inside of the austenite matrix. The condition for nucleation of martensite is described by: = 0...

  4. Proton inelastic scattering on {sup 56}Ni in inverse kinematics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraus, G.; Egelhof, P.; Fischer, C.; Geissel, H.; Himmler, A.; Nickel, F.; Muenzenberg, G.; Schwab, W.; Weiss, A. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Chulkov, L.; Golovkov, M.; Ogloblin, A. [I.V. Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Friese, J.; Gillitzer, A.; Koerner, H.J.; Peter, M. [TU, Munich (Germany); Henning, W.; Schiffer, J.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kratz, J.V. [Univ. of Mainz (Germany)

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inelastic proton scattering to the first excited 2{sup +} state at 2.701 MeV in doubly magic {sup 56}Ni was studied at 101 MeV/u in inverse kinematics. The radioactive {sup 56}Ni ion beam was obtained from the SIS heavy ion synchrotron at GSI Darmstadt via fragmentation of a {sup 58}Ni beam, and separation by the fragment separator (FRS). A value B(E2, 0{sup +} {yields} 2{sup +}) = 600 {+-} 120 e{sup 2} fm{sup 4} was obtained which corresponds to a deformation parameter {beta} ({sup 56}Ni) = 0.173 {+-} 0.017.

  5. Fusion of radioactive $^{132}$Sn with $^{64}$Ni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. F. Liang; D. Shapira; J. R. Beene; C. J. Gross; R. L. Varner; A. Galindo-Uribarri; J. Gomez del Campo; P. A. Hausladen; P. E. Mueller; D. W. Stracener; H. Amro; J. J. Kolata; J. D. Bierman; A. L. Caraley; K. L. Jones; Y. Larochelle; W. Loveland; D. Peterson

    2007-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaporation residue and fission cross sections of radioactive $^{132}$Sn on $^{64}$Ni were measured near the Coulomb barrier. A large sub-barrier fusion enhancement was observed. Coupled-channel calculations including inelastic excitation of the projectile and target, and neutron transfer are in good agreement with the measured fusion excitation function. When the change in nuclear size and shift in barrier height are accounted for, there is no extra fusion enhancement in $^{132}$Sn+$^{64}$Ni with respect to stable Sn+$^{64}$Ni. A systematic comparison of evaporation residue cross sections for the fusion of even $^{112-124}$Sn and $^{132}$Sn with $^{64}$Ni is presented.

  6. Computing Free Energy Landscapes: Application to Ni-based Electrocatal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computing Free Energy Landscapes: Application to Ni-based Electrocatalysts with Pendant Amines for H2 Production and Oxidation. Computing Free Energy Landscapes: Application to...

  7. Wide magnetic field range of Ni-P/PZT/Ni-P cylindrical layered magnetoelectric composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    magnetoelectric (ME) composites were prepared by electroless deposition. The Ni-P layer has an amorphous with epoxy,5 electrodeposition,6,7 and electroless deposition.8,9 The objective and the develop- ment trend films with good interfacial bonding.12 Nickel is a kind of conventional magnetic material suitable

  8. Epitaxial growth of NiTiO3 with a distorted ilmenite structure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    growth of NiTiO3 with a distorted ilmenite structure. Epitaxial growth of NiTiO3 with a distorted ilmenite structure. Abstract: MTiO3 (M Fe, Mn, Ni) compounds have received...

  9. ag ni zn-addition: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Recent research shows that the resistance switching characteristics of NiO thin film, in combinations conversion into NiSi using Ni-AMD, and discuss the chemistry of...

  10. Ni(II) Salts and 2-Propanol Effect Catalytic Reductive Coupling of Epoxides and Alkynes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaver, Matthew G.

    A Ni-catalyzed reductive coupling of alkynes and epoxides using Ni(II) salts and simple alcohol reducing agents is described. Whereas previously reported conditions relied on Ni(cod)2 and Et3B, this system has several ...

  11. Morphology and composition of Ni-Co electrodeposited powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maksimovic, V.M., E-mail: vesnam@vinca.rs [Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 'Vinca', University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade, P. O. Box 522 (Serbia); Lacnjevac, U.C. [Institute for Multidisciplinary research, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 33, 11030 Belgrade (Serbia); Stoiljkovic, M.M. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 'Vinca', University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade, P. O. Box 522 (Serbia); Pavlovic, M.G. [Institute of Electrochemistry, ICTM, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Njegoseva 12 (Serbia); Jovic, V.D. [Institute for Multidisciplinary research, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 33, 11030 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The morphology, phase and chemical composition of Ni-Co alloy powders electrodeposited from an ammonium sulfate-boric acid containing electrolyte with different ratio of Ni/Co ions were investigated. The ratios of Ni/Co ions were 1/1, 1/2 and 1/3. The morphology, chemical composition and phase composition of the electrodeposited alloy powders were investigated using AES, SEM, EDS and XRD analysis. Composition of the electrolyte, i.e. the ratio of Ni/Co concentrations was found to influence both, the alloy phase composition and the morphology of Ni-Co alloy powders. At the highest ratio of Ni/Co = 1/1 concentrations typical 2D fern-like dendritic particles were obtained. With a decrease of Ni/Co ions ratio among 2D fern-like dendrites, 3D dendrites and different agglomerates were obtained. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the alloy powders mainly consisted of the face-centered cubic {alpha}-nickel phase and hexagonal close-packed {epsilon}-cobalt phase and minor proportions of face-centered cubic {alpha}-cobalt phase. The occurrence of the latter phase was observed only in the alloy powder with the higher cobalt concentration in electrolyte. The electrodeposition of Ni-Co powders occurred in an anomalous manner. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-Co alloys powders were successfully electrodeposited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composition of the electrolyte (Ni/Co ions ratio) was found to influence on morphology of powders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electrodeposition of Ni-Co powders occurred in an anomalous manner.

  12. Adsorption of Fe(II) and U(VI) to carboxyl-functionalized microspheres: The influence of speciation on uranyl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roden, Eric E.

    Adsorption of Fe(II) and U(VI) to carboxyl-functionalized microspheres: The influence of speciation­1912 #12;controlled by adsorption and/or precipitation reactions, which can be manipulated to cont

  13. Lord Julian Hunt FRS Meteorological Office 1990-1992 Professor VI Arnold Steklov Institute, Moscow 1990-1993

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lord Julian Hunt FRS Meteorological Office 1990-1992 Professor VI Arnold Steklov Institute, Moscow 1990-1993 Professor PG Burke FRS Queen's University, Belfast 1990-1993 Professor IG Halliday University

  14. Process for forming shaped group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals, and product formed using process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Peng, Xiaogang (Fayetteville, AR); Manna, Liberato (Palo del Colle, IT)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the formation of shaped Group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals comprises contacting the semiconductor nanocrystal precursors with a liquid media comprising a binary mixture of phosphorus-containing organic surfactants capable of promoting the growth of either spherical semiconductor nanocrystals or rod-like semiconductor nanocrystals, whereby the shape of the semiconductor nanocrystals formed in said binary mixture of surfactants is controlled by adjusting the ratio of the surfactants in the binary mixture.

  15. Gain measurements at 182 /angstrom/ in C VI generated by a Nd/glass laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, D.; Skinner, C.H.; Umesh, G.; Suckewer, S.

    1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present recent gain measurements in C VI at 182 A for a soft x-ray amplifier produced by a line-focused glass laser(1.053 ..mu..m) on a solid carbon target. The maximum gain measured was 8 +- 1 cm/sup /minus/1/ in the recombining plasma column with additional radiation cooling by iron impurities. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  16. TREATMENT TESTS FOR EX SITU REMOVAL OF CHROMATE & NITRATE & URANIUM (VI) FROM HANFORD (100-HR-3) GROUNDWATER FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BECK MA; DUNCAN JB

    1994-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes batch and ion exchange column laboratory scale studies investigating ex situ methods to remove chromate (chromium [VI]), nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) and uranium (present as uranium [VI]) from contaminated Hanford site groundwaters. The technologies investigated include: chemical precipitation or coprecipitation to remove chromate and uranium; and anion exchange to remove chromate, uranium and nitrate. The technologies investigated were specified in the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan. The method suggested for future study is anion exchange.

  17. Electrode Induced Removal and Recovery of Uranium (VI) from Acidic Subsurfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory, Kelvin [Carnegie Mellon University

    2013-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The overarching objective of this research is to provide an improved understanding of how aqueous geochemical conditions impact the removal of U and Tc from groundwater and how engineering design may be utilized to optimize removal of these radionuclides. Experiments were designed to address the unique conditions in Area 3 of ORNL while also providing broader insight into the geochemical effectors of the removal rates and extent for U and Tc. The specific tasks of this work were to: 1) quantify the impact of common aqueous geochemical and operational conditions on the rate and extent of U removal and recovery from water, 2) investigate the removal of Tc with polarized graphite electrode, and determine the influence of geochemical and operational conditions on Tc removal and recovery, 3) determine whether U and Tc may be treated simultaneous from Area 3 groundwater, and examine the bench-scale performance of electrode-based treatment, and 4) determine the capacity of graphite electrodes for U(VI) removal and develop a mathematical, kinetic model for the removal of U(VI) from aqueous solution. Overall the body of work suggests that an electrode-based approach for the remediation of acidic subsurface environments, such as those observed in Area 3 of ORNL may be successful for the removal for both U(VI) and Tc. Carbonaceous (graphite) electrode materials are likely to be the least costly means to maximize removal rates and efficiency by maximizing the electrode surface area.

  18. Interactions of Aqueous U(VI) with Soil Minerals in Slightly Alkaline Natural Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nik; Icenhower, Jonathan P.

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium (U) is a common contaminant at numerous surface and subsurface sites around the world. This paper covers some important aspects of the aqueous hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] interactions with soil minerals that are present in contaminated soils and sediments. The retention of U via interactions with soil minerals has significant consequences for the prediction of its short – and long – term behavior in soils and geological systems. Studies of the nature and type of these interactions have provided the necessary evidence for assessing the geochemical behavior of U in natural systems under different physical, biogeochemical, hydrological, and reducing or oxidizing conditions. Over the last 20 years, aqueous U(VI):solid phase interactions have been studied by geochemists, soil chemists, soil mineralogists and soil microbiologists, and the progress in some areas is remarkable. Although a mechanistic description and understanding of the complex interactions involving U and soil minerals of natural systems is currently impossible, results from carefully designed and executed experiments with these materials have improved our understanding of the heterogeneous system’s behavior and U contaminant mobility and transport. There are, however, areas that need further exploration and study. Numerous research publications were reviewed in this paper to present important findings coming out of the research, to reveal the current level of the understanding of the U(VI) interactions with soil minerals, and to provide ideas for future needs and research directions.

  19. Equations of state of ice VI and ice VII at high pressure and high temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bezacier, Lucile; Hanfland, Michael [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38000 Grenoble (France); Journaux, Baptiste; Perrillat, Jean-Philippe; Cardon, Hervé; Daniel, Isabelle [Laboratoire de Géologie de Lyon, UMR 5276 CNRS, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon – Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 2 rue Raphael Dubois, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    High-pressure H{sub 2}O polymorphs among which ice VI and ice VII are abundant in the interiors of large icy satellites and exo-planets. Knowledge of the elastic properties of these pure H{sub 2}O ices at high-temperature and high-pressure is thus crucial to decipher the internal structure of icy bodies. In this study we assess for the first time the pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) relations of both polycrystalline pure ice VI and ice VII at high pressures and temperatures from 1 to 9 GPa and 300 to 450 K, respectively, by using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The PVT data are adjusted to a second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state and give V{sub 0} = 14.17(2) cm{sup 3}?mol{sup ?1}, K{sub 0} = 14.05(23) GPa, and ?{sub 0} = 14.6(14) × 10{sup ?5} K{sup ?1} for ice VI and V{sub 0} = 12.49(1) cm{sup 3}?mol{sup ?1}, K{sub 0} = 20.15(16) GPa, and ?{sub 0} = 11.6(5) × 10{sup ?5} K{sup ?1} for ice VII.

  20. Microscale Investigations of Ni Uptake by Cement Using a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Microscale Investigations of Ni Uptake by Cement Using a Combination of Scanning Electron Laboratory, IMX, Ecole Polytechnique Fe´de´ral de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland Cement is used-level radioactive waste. In this study, Ni uptake by hardened cement paste has been investigated with the aim

  1. Lanthanide Al-Ni base Ericsson cycle magnetic refrigerants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetic refrigerant for a magnetic refrigerator using the Ericsson thermodynamic cycle comprises DyAlNi and (Gd{sub 0.54}Er{sub 0.46})AlNi alloys having a relatively constant {Delta}Tmc over a wide temperature range. 16 figs.

  2. Hydrides of CeNi/sub 5/, MmNi/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/(Ce/sub 0/ /sub 65/Mm/sub 0/ /sub 35/)/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/Ce/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/Mm/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, and mixed CeNi/sub 5//MmNi/sub 5/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lakner, J.F.; Chow, T.S.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Six intermetallic alloys (CeNi/sub 5/, MmNi/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/(Ce/sub 0/ /sub 65/Mm/sub 0/ /sub 35/)/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/Ce/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/Mm/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, and a mixed alloy, CeNi/sub 5//MmNi/sub 5/) were investigated with respect to their suitability to provide high hydrogen capacity and their potential for use in providing substantial hydrogen pressure at both low and high temperatures. A second phase of our investigation dealt with ball-milling and hydriding and dehydriding cycles to produce fine particles for use in hydride powder transfer studies. A summary of several Van't Hoff plots is also included for hydride-forming alloys.

  3. Selenium(IV) and (VI) sorption by soils surrounding fly ash management facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyun, S.; Burns, P.E.; Murarka, I.; Lee, L.S. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Leachate derived from unlined coal ash disposal facilities is one of the most significant anthropogenic sources of selenium to the environment. To establish a practical framework for predicting transport of selenium in ash leachate, sorption of Se(IV) and Se(VI) from 1 mM CaSO{sub 4} was measured for 18 soils obtained down-gradient from three ash landfill sites and evaluated with respect to several soil properties. Furthermore, soil attenuation from lab-generated ash leachate and the effect of Ca{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations as well as pH on both Se(IV) and Se(VI) was quantified for a subset of soils. For both Se(IV) and Se(VI), pH combined with either percentage clay or dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB)-extractable Fe described {gt} 80% of the differences in sorption across all soils, yielding an easy approach for making initial predictions regarding site-specific selenium transport to sensitive water bodies. Se(IV) consistently exhibited an order of magnitude greater sorption than Se(VI). Selenium sorption was highest at lower pH values, with Se(IV) sorption decreasing at pH values above 6, whereas Se(VI) decreased over the entire pH range (2.5-10). Using these pH adsorption envelopes, the likely effect of ash leachate-induced changes in soil pore water pH with time on selenium attenuation by down gradient soils can be predicted. Selenium sorption increased with increasing Ca{sup 2+} concentrations while SO{sub 4}2- suppressed sorption well above enhancements by Ca{sup 2+}. Soil attenuation of selenium from ash leachates agreed well with sorption measured from 1 mM CaSO{sub 4}, indicating that 1 mM CaSO{sub 4} is a reasonable synthetic leachate for assessing selenium behavior at ash landfill sites.

  4. Investigations of HRC®-Stimulated Bioreduction of Cr(VI) at Hanford 100H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.C. Hazen; B. Faybishenko; D. Joyner; S. Borglin; E.Brodie; S. Hubbard; K. Williams; J. Peterson; J. Wan; T. Tokunaga; Long, P.E.; Newcomer, D.; Koenigsberg, S.; Willet, A.

    2005-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Hypothesis: Lactate (Hydrogen Release Compound-HRC{trademark}) injection into chromium contaminated groundwater through an injection well will cause indirect or direct bioreduction of chromate [Cr(VI)] and precipitation of insoluble species of [Cr(III)] on soil particles, probably catalyzed at oxide surfaces, at the field scale. Objective: Assess the potential for immobilizing and detoxifying chromium-contaminated groundwater using lactate-stimulated bioreduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) at the Hanford Site's 100-H Area field site. Types of Research: A three-well system (injection well and upgradient and downgradient monitoring wells) was used for conducting the in situ biostimulation and monitoring. To assess the pre- and post-injection test groundwater conditions, we used an integrated monitoring approach, involving hydraulic, geochemical, microbial, and geophysical techniques and analytical methods, as well as conducted five Br-tracer injection tests and four pumping tests (concurrently with the Br-tracer tests). Groundwater biostimulation was conducted by injection of 40 lbs of {sup 13}C-labeled HRC into the injection well (over the depth interval from 44-50 ft) on 8/3/2004, followed by low-flow pumping (1.2 to 2.5 l/min) through the downgradient well (to ensure capture of groundwater flow lines passing through the injection well) for 27 days. Main Results: Although the total microbial population in sediments is relatively low (<10{sup 5} cells g-1) under background conditions, which is likely insufficient for direct enzymatic Cr(VI) reduction, several types of bacteria, e.g., Bacillus/Arthrobacter and Geobacter, are present in the Hanford sediments, which are known to reduce or sorb hexavalent chromium. The HRC injection stimulated microbial cell counts to reach the maximum of 2 x 10{sup 7} cells g{sup -1} 13-17 days after the injection, and generated highly reducing conditions. Geochemical and isotopic observations confirmed microbial metabolism of HRC. The Cr(VI) concentration in the monitoring and pumping wells decreased below drinking water minimum contaminant limits and remained below background concentrations even after 1.5 years, when redox conditions and microbial densities had returned to background levels. Fe(II) levels have remained high and may account for the continued reduction of Cr(VI).

  5. Investigations of HRC®-Stimulated Bioreduction of Cr(VI) at Hanford 100H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazen, T.C.; Faybishenko, B.; Joyner, D.; Borglin, S.; Brodie, E.; Hubbard, S.; Williams, K.; Peterson, J.; Wan, J.; Tokunaga, T.; Firestone, M.; Long, P.E.; Resch, C.T.; Cantrell, K.; Newcomer, D.; Koenigsberg, S.; Willet, A.

    2006-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Hypothesis: Lactate (Hydrogen Release Compound-HRC{trademark}) injection into chromium contaminated groundwater through an injection well will cause indirect or direct bioreduction of chromate [Cr(VI)] and precipitation of insoluble species of [Cr(III)] on soil particles, probably catalyzed at oxide surfaces, at the field scale. Objective: Assess the potential for immobilizing and detoxifying chromium-contaminated groundwater using lactate-stimulated bioreduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) at the Hanford Site's 100-H Area field site. Types of Research: A three-well system (injection well and upgradient and downgradient monitoring wells) was used for conducting the in situ biostimulation and monitoring. To assess the pre- and post-injection test groundwater conditions, we used an integrated monitoring approach, involving hydraulic, geochemical, microbial, and geophysical techniques and analytical methods, as well as conducted five Br-tracer injection tests and four pumping tests (concurrently with the Br-tracer tests). Groundwater biostimulation was conducted by injection of 40 lbs of {sup 13}C-labeled HRC into the injection well (over the depth interval from 44-50 ft) on 8/3/2004, followed by low-flow pumping (1.2 to 2.5 l/min) through the downgradient well (to ensure capture of groundwater flow lines passing through the injection well) for 27 days. Main Results: Although the total microbial population in sediments is relatively low (<10{sup 5} cells g{sup -1}) under background conditions, which is likely insufficient for direct enzymatic Cr(VI) reduction, several types of bacteria, e.g., Bacillus/Arthrobacter and Geobacter, are present in the Hanford sediments, which are known to reduce or sorb hexavalent chromium. The HRC injection stimulated microbial cell counts to reach the maximum of 2 x 10{sup 7} cells g{sup -1} 13-17 days after the injection, and generated highly reducing conditions. Geochemical and isotopic observations confirmed microbial metabolism of HRC. The CR(VI) concentration in the monitoring and pumping wells decreased below drinking water minimum contaminant limits and remained below background concentrations even after 1.5 years, when redox conditions and microbial densities had returned to background levels. Fe(II) levels have remained high and may account for the continued reduction of Cr(VI).

  6. Preparation of Ni-Sn alloys by an electroless-deposition method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimauchi, Hidenori; Ozawa, Susumu; Tamura, Keiu; Osaka, Tetsuya (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry)

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ni-Sn alloy is expected for as a functional material, because of its excellent corrosion resistance, wear resistance, and solderability. Electroless-deposited Ni-Sn alloy films were investigated to increase tin content in the deposit. The maximum tin contents of electroless Ni-Sn-P and Ni-Sn-B were ca. 30 atom percent (a/o) and 42 a/o, respectively. The maximum tin contents in the case of Ni-Sn-B was nearly equal to that of electrodeposited Ni-Sn alloy already reported. The crystallinity of Ni-Sn-P and Ni-Sn-B alloys was raised up with an increase in tin content. The corrosion resistance of Ni-Sn-P and Ni-Sn-B alloys was between that of amorphous and crystalline electroless-deposited Ni-P. Codeposition of tin into Ni-P films improved solderability, but into the Ni-B films, the solderability of Ni-Sn-B films situated in the region between those of Ni-P and NiB, because the solderability of NiB is higher.

  7. The first principle study of Ni{sub 2}ScGa and Ni{sub 2}TiGa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Özduran, Mustafa [Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Fen Edebiyat Fakültesi Fizik Bölümü, K?r?ehir (Turkey); Turgut, Kemal [Yüksek Lisans Ö?rencisi, K?r?ehir (Turkey); Arikan, Nihat [Ahi Evran Üniversitesi E?itim Fakültesi ?lkö?retim Bölümü, K?r?ehir (Turkey); ?yigör, Ahmet; Candan, Abdullah [Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Merkezi Ara?t?rma Laboratuvar?, K?r?ehir (Turkey)

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We computed the electronic structure, elastic moduli, vibrational properties, and Ni{sub 2}TiGa and Ni{sub 2}ScGa alloys in the cubic L2{sub 1} structure. The obtained equilibrium lattice constants of these alloys are in good agreement with available data. In cubic systems, there are three independent elastic constants, namely C{sub 11}, C{sub 12} and C{sub 44}. We calculated elastic constants in L2{sub 1} structure for Ni{sub 2}TiGa and Ni{sub 2}ScGa using the energy-strain method. The electronic band structure, total and partial density of states for these alloys were investigated within density functional theory using the plane-wave pseudopotential method implemented in Quantum-Espresso program package. From band structure, total and projected density of states, we observed metallic characters of these compounds. The electronic calculation indicate that the predominant contributions of the density of states at Fermi level come from the Ni 3d states and Sc 3d states for Ni{sub 2}TiGa, Ni 3d states and Sc 3d states for Ni{sub 2}ScGa. The computed density of states at Fermi energy are 2.22 states/eV Cell for Ni{sub 2}TiGa, 0.76 states/eV Cell for Ni{sub 2}ScGa. The vibrational properties were obtained using a linear response in the framework at the density functional perturbation theory. For the alloys, the results show that the L2{sub 1} phase is unstable since the phonon calculations have imagine modes.

  8. Innovative Approach to Prevent Acid Drainage from Uranium Mill Tailings Based on the Application of Na-Ferrate (VI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandes, H.M.; Reinhart, D.; Lettie, L.; Franklin, M.R. [University of Central Florida, P.O. Box. 162450, Orlando, FL, 32816-2450 (United States); Fernandes, H.M.; Franklin, M.R. [Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD), Av. Salvador Allende s/n - Recreio - Rio de Janeiro - RJ - 22795-090 (Brazil); Sharma, V. [Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Daly, L.J. [Ferrate Treatment Technologies, LLC, 6432 Pine Castle Blvd. Unit 2C, Orlando, FL, 32809 (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The operation of uranium mining and milling plants gives rise to huge amounts of wastes from both mining and milling operations. When pyrite is present in these materials, the generation of acid drainage can take place and result in the contamination of underground and surface waters through the leaching of heavy metals and radionuclides. To solve this problem, many studies have been conducted to find cost-effective solutions to manage acid mine drainage; however, no adequate strategy to deal with sulfide-ric h wastes is currently available. Ferrate (VI) is a powerful oxidizing agent in aqueous media. Under acidic conditions, the redox potential of the Ferrate (VI) ion is the highest of any other oxidant used in wastewater treatment processes. The standard half cell reduction potential of ferrate (VI) has been determined as +2.20 V to + 0.72 V in acidic and basic solutions, respectively. Ferrate (VI) exhibits a multitude of advantageous properties, including higher reactivity and selectivity than traditional oxidant alternatives, as well as disinfectant, flocculating, and coagulant properties. Despite numerous beneficial properties in environmental applications, ferrate (VI) has remained commercially unavailable. Starting in 1953, different methods for producing a high purity, powdered ferrate (VI) product were developed. However, producing this dry, stabilized ferrate (VI) product required numerous process steps which led to excessive synthesis costs (over $20/lb) thereby preventing bulk industrial use. Recently a novel synthesis method for the production of a liquid ferrate (VI) based on hypochlorite oxidation of ferric ion in strongly alkaline solutions has been discovered (USPTO 6,790,428; September 14, 2004). This on-site synthesis process dramatically reduces manufacturing cost for the production of ferrate (VI) by utilizing common commodity feedstocks. This breakthrough means that for the first time ferrate (VI) can be an economical alternative to treating acid mining drainage generating materials. The objective of the present study was to investigate a methodology of preventing the generation of acid drainage by applying ferrate (VI) to acid generating materials prior to the disposal in impoundments or piles. Oxidizing the pyritic material in mining waste could diminish the potential for acid generation and its related environmental risks and long-term costs at disposal sites. The effectiveness of toxic metals removal from acid mine drainage by applying ferrate (VI) is also examined. Preliminary results presented in this paper show that the oxidation of pyrite by ferrate is a first-order rate reaction in Fe(VI) with a half-life of about six hours. The stability of Fe(VI) in water solutions will not influence the reaction rate in a significant manner. New low-cost production methods for making liquid ferrate on-site makes this technology a very attractive option to mitigate one of the most pressing environmental problems in the mining industry. (authors)

  9. Ni/metal hydride secondary element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bauerlein, Peter

    2005-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A Ni/metal hydride secondary element having a positive nickel hydroxide electrode, a negative electrode having a hydrogen storage alloy, and an alkaline electrolyte, the positive electrode, provided with a three-dimensional metallic conductive structure, also contains an aluminum compound which is soluble in the electrolyte, in addition to nickel hydroxide and cobalt oxide. The aluminum compound is aluminum hydroxide and/or aluminum oxide, and the mass of the aluminum compound which is present in the positive bulk material mixture is 0.1 to 2% by weight relative to the mass of the nickel hydroxide which is present. In combination with aluminum hydroxide or aluminum oxide, the positive electrode further contains lanthanoid oxidic compounds Y.sub.2 O.sub.3, La.sub.2 O.sub.3 and Ca(OH).sub.2, as well as mixtures of these compounds.

  10. US. DEPARThIENI OFI!Nl!RGY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMDH CENTER NEPA...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DITIRMINATION Page I of2 RECIPIENT: Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University STATE: CA PROJECr TlTl.E : PVMI Bay Area Photovoltaic Consortium Funding...

  11. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF l!Nl!RGY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of thermostat sellings, placement of timers on hot water heaters, instailation of solar hot water systems, instailation of efficlentlighting, improvements in generator...

  12. U.S. DEPARTMENT OFENl!RGY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER Nl!PA...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    NlPA DETlffiMINATION RCIPIENT:New York State Energy Research and Development Authority PROJECf TITLE: Program Year 2012 Formula Grants - State Energy Program Page 1 of3 STATE: NY...

  13. U.S DEPARTMENT OFl!NllRGY EERE PROJ ECT MANAG EMENT CENTER NEPA...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    that are directly conservation of fi sh, wildlife, related to the conservation of fish and wildlife resources or to the protection of cultural and cultural resources...

  14. DFPARThIFNT OFENJ!RGY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA DETER1...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    audits and process and facility analysis work would be completed at selected small or medium-sized manufacturing companies and would involve data collection, analysis and...

  15. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENl!RGY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER Nl...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (U.S .) Corp. Page 1 of3 STATE: NV PROJECf TITLE: Recovery Act: A 3D3C Reflection Seismic Survey and Data Integration to Identify the Seismic Response of Fractures and...

  16. BUDGET DETAILS BOOK FOUR DPRMN OF N RGY U.S. Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy:WhetherNovember 13, 2009Oak Ridge National

  17. Reaction synthesis of Ni-Al based particle composite coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SUSAN,DONALD F.; MISIOLEK,WOICECK Z.; MARDER,ARNOLD R.

    2000-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrodeposited metal matrix/metal particle composite (EMMC) coatings were produced with a nickel matrix and aluminum particles. By optimizing the process parameters, coatings were deposited with 20 volume percent aluminum particles. Coating morphology and composition were characterized using light optical microscopy (LOM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Differential thermal analysis (DTA) was employed to study reactive phase formation. The effect of heat treatment on coating phase formation was studied in the temperature range 415 to 1,000 C. Long-time exposure at low temperature results in the formation of several intermetallic phases at the Ni matrix/Al particle interfaces and concentrically around the original Al particles. Upon heating to the 500--600 C range, the aluminum particles react with the nickel matrix to form NiAl islands within the Ni matrix. When exposed to higher temperatures (600--1,000 C), diffusional reaction between NiAl and nickel produces ({gamma})Ni{sub 3}Al. The final equilibrium microstructure consists of blocks of ({gamma}{prime})Ni{sub 3}Al in a {gamma}(Ni) solid solution matrix, with small pores also present. Pore formation is explained based on local density changes during intermetallic phase formation and microstructural development is discussed with reference to reaction synthesis of bulk nickel aluminides.

  18. Microstructural Investigations On Ni-Ta-Al Ternary Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negache, M. [Laboratoire de Science et Genie des Materiaux Universite of Sciences and Technologies Houari, Boumediene, FGMGP, BP32 El Alia Bab Ezzouar 16111 Algiers (Algeria); Department of Metallurgy, Nuclear Research Center of Algiers, BP 43 Sebala/Draria (Algeria); Taibi, K.; Lounis, Z. [Laboratoire de Science et Genie des Materiaux Universite of Sciences and Technologies Houari, Boumediene, FGMGP, BP32 El Alia Bab Ezzouar 16111 Algiers (Algeria); Souami, N. [Departement of Spetroscopie, Nuclear Research Center of Algiers, 2Bd Frantz Fanon BP399 Algiers (Algeria)

    2010-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ni-Al-Ta ternary alloys in the Ni-rich part present complex microstructures. They are composed of multiple phases that are formed according to the nominal composition of the alloy, primary Ni(gamma), Ni{sub 3}Al(gamma'), Ni{sub 6}AlTa(tau{sub 3}), Ni{sub 3}Ta(delta) or in equilibrium: two solid phases (gamma'-tau{sub 3}), (tau{sub 3}-delta), (tau{sub 3}-gamma), (gamma-delta) or three solid phases (gamma'-tau{sub 3}-delta). The nature and the volume fraction of these phases give these alloys very interesting properties at high temperature, and this makes them attractive for specific applications. We have developed a series of ternary alloys in electric arc furnace, determining their solidification sequences using Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), characterized by SEM-EDS, X-ray diffraction and by a microhardness tests. The follow-up results made it possible to make a correlation between the nature of the formed phases and their solidifying way into the Ni{sub 75}Al{sub x}Ta{sub y} (x+y = 25at.%) system, which are varied and complex. In addition to the solid solution Ni (gamma), the formed intermetallics compounds (gamma', tau{sub 3} and delta) has been identified and correlated with a complex balance between phases.We noticed that the hardness increases with the tantalum which has a hardening effect and though the compound Ni{sub 3}Ta(delta) is the hardest. The below results provide a better understanding of the complex microstructure of these alloys.

  19. Graphene Monolayer Rotation on Ni(111) Facilities Bilayer Graphene Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batzill M.; Sutter P.; Dahal, A.; Addou, R.

    2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis of bilayer graphene by chemical vapor deposition is of importance for graphene-based field effect devices. Here, we demonstrate that bilayer graphene preferentially grows by carbon-segregation under graphene sheets that are rotated relative to a Ni(111) substrate. Rotated graphene monolayer films can be synthesized at growth temperatures above 650 C on a Ni(111) thin-film. The segregated second graphene layer is in registry with the Ni(111) substrate and this suppresses further C-segregation, effectively self-limiting graphene formation to two layers.

  20. Nondestructive evaluation of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meir, S.; Gordon, S.; Karsh, M.; Ayers, R.; Olson, D. L. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Wiezman, A. [Netania (Israel)

    2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The nondestructive evaluation of nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) alloys for applications such as heat treatment for biomaterials applications (dental) and welding was investigated. Ni-Ti alloys and its ternary alloys are valued for mechanical properties in addition to the shape memory effect. Two analytical approaches were perused in this work. Assessment of the microstructure of the alloy that determines the martensitic start temperature (Ms) of Ni-Ti alloy as a function of heat treatment, and secondly, an attempt to evaluate a Friction Stir Welding, which involves thermo-mechanical processing of the alloy.

  1. Minority anion substitution by Ni in ZnO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pereira, Lino Miguel da Costa; Correia, João Guilherme; Amorim, Lígia Marina; Silva, Daniel José; David-Bosne, Eric; Decoster, Stefan; da Silva, Manuel Ribeiro; Temst, Kristiaan; Vantomme, André

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the lattice location of implanted Ni in ZnO using the $\\beta$? emission channeling technique. In addition to the majority substituting for the cation (Zn), a significant fraction of the Ni atoms occupy anion (O) sites. Since Ni is chemically more similar to Zn than it is to O, the observed O substitution is rather puzzling. We discuss these findings with respect to the general understanding of lattice location of dopants in compound semiconductors. In particular, we discuss potential implications on the magnetic behavior of transition metal doped dilute magnetic semiconductors.

  2. Standard test method for uranium in presence of plutonium by iron(II) reduction in phosphoric acid followed by chromium(VI) titration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Standard test method for uranium in presence of plutonium by iron(II) reduction in phosphoric acid followed by chromium(VI) titration

  3. Excess Ni-doping induced enhanced room temperature magneto-functionality in Ni-Mn-Sn based shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pramanick, S.; Giri, S.; Majumdar, S., E-mail: sspsm2@iacs.res.in [Department of Solid State Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A and B Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Chatterjee, S. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, Sector III, LB-8, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 098 (India)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Present work reports on the observation of large magnetoresistance (??30% at 80 kOe) and magnetocaloric effect (?12?J·kg{sup ?1}·K{sup ?1} for 0–50 kOe) near room temperature (?290?K) on the Ni-excess ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Ni{sub 2.04}Mn{sub 1.4}Sn{sub 0.56}. The sample can be thought of being derived from the parent Ni{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.4}Sn{sub 0.6} alloy, where excess Ni was doped at the expense of Sn. Such Ni doping enhances the martensitic transition temperature and for the Ni{sub 2.04}Mn{sub 1.4}Sn{sub 0.56} it is found to be optimum (288?K). The doped alloy shows enhanced magneto-functional properties as well as reduced saturation magnetization as compared to the undoped counterpart at low temperature. A probable increment of antiferromagnetic correlation between Mn-atoms on Ni substitution can be accounted for the enhanced magneto-functional properties as well as reduction in saturation moment.

  4. Application of cluster-plus-glue-atom model to barrierless Cu–Ni–Ti and Cu–Ni–Ta films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiaona, E-mail: lixiaona@dlut.edu.cn; Ding, Jianxin; Wang, Miao; Dong, Chuang [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Dalian University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China); Chu, Jinn P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To improve the thermal stability of copper and avoid its diffusion into surrounding dielectrics or interfacial reactions with them, the authors applied the cluster-plus-glue-atom model to investigate barrierless Cu–Ni–M (M?=?Ti or Ta) seed layers. The dissolution of the third element (Ti or Ta) in the Cu lattice with the aid of Ni significantly improved the thermal stability of the Cu seed layer. The appropriate M/Ni (M?=?Ti or Ta) ratio was selected to obtain a low resistivity: the resistivity was as low as 2.5??? cm for the (Ti{sub 1.5/13.5}Ni{sub 12/13.5}){sub 0.3}Cu{sub 99.7} film and 2.8??? cm for the (Ta{sub 1.1/13.1}Ni{sub 12/13.1}){sub 0.4}Cu{sub 99.6} film after annealing at 500?°C for 1?h. After annealing at 500?°C for 40?h, the two films remained stable without forming a Cu{sub 3}Si compound. The authors confirmed that the range of applications of the cluster-plus-glue-atom model could be extended. Therefore, a third element M with negative enthalpies of mixing with both Cu and Ni could be selected, under the premise that the mixing enthalpy of M–Ni is more negative than that of M–Cu.

  5. Comparison of S, Pt, and Hf adsorption on NiAl(110) Karin M. Carling a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Emily A.

    Gunaydin b , Tracy A. Mitchell b , Emily A. Carter a,b,* a Department of Mechanical and Aerospace. Keywords: NiAl alloy; (110) surface; Adsorption; Hf; Pt; S; DFT 1. Introduction NiAl alloys alloys either contain primarily Ni, with Cr, Al, and Y do- pants [6­8], or are based on NiAlPt alloys [9

  6. TiNi shape memory alloy thin films for microactuator application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Yongqing

    TiNi films were prepared by co-sputtering TiNi target and a separate Ti target. Crystalline structure and phase transformation behaviors of TiNi films were investigated. Results showed that TiNi films had fine grain size ...

  7. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in ion beam sputtered Co/Ni multilayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasin, Boris

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Co/Ni multilayers display perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and have applications in magnetic devices that could lead to a large increase in the density of magnetic storage. Co/Ni 10-(2 Å Co/ 8Å Ni) and 10-(2 Å Co/ 4 Å Ni) ...

  8. CONCERNING THE CLASSICAL CEPHEID VI{sub C} WESENHEIT FUNCTION'S STRONG METALLICITY DEPENDENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majaess, D.; Turner, D. [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, NS (Canada); Gieren, W., E-mail: dmajaess@cygnus.smu.ca [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile)

    2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Evidence is presented which supports findings that the classical Cepheid VI{sub C} period Wesenheit function is relatively insensitive to metallicity. The viability of a recently advocated strong metallicity dependence was evaluated by applying the proposed correction ({gamma} = -0.8 mag dex{sup -1}) to distances established for the Magellanic Clouds via a Galactic VI{sub C} Wesenheit calibration, which is anchored to 10 nearby classical Cepheids with measured Hubble Space Telescope (HST) parallaxes. The resulting {gamma}-corrected distances for the Magellanic Clouds (e.g., Small Magellanic Cloud, {mu}{sub 0,{gamma}} {approx} 18.3) are in significant disagreement with that established from a mean of >300 published estimates (NED-D), and a universal Wesenheit template featuring 11 {delta} Scuti, SX Phe, RR Lyrae, and Type II Cepheid variables with HST/Hipparcos parallaxes. Conversely, adopting a null correction (i.e., {gamma} = 0 mag dex{sup -1}) consolidates the estimates. In tandem with existing evidence, the results imply that variations in chemical composition among Cepheids are a comparatively negligible source of uncertainty for W{sub VIc}-based extragalactic distances and determinations of H{sub 0}. A new approach is described which aims to provide additional Galactic Cepheid calibrators to facilitate subsequent assessments of the VI{sub C} Wesenheit function's relative (in) sensitivity to abundance changes. VVV/UKIDSS/Two Micron All Sky Survey JHK{sub s} photometry for clusters in spiral arms shall be employed to establish a precise galactic longitude-distance relation, which can be applied in certain cases to determine the absolute Wesenheit magnitudes for younger Cepheids.

  9. Optimizing Cr(VI) and Tc(VII) remediation through nano-scale biomineral engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutting, R. S.; Coker, V. S.; Telling, N. D.; Kimber, R. L.; Pearce, C. I.; Ellis, B.; Lawson, R; van der Laan, G.; Pattrick, R.A.D.; Vaughan, D.J.; Arenholz, E.; Lloyd, J. R.

    2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    To optimize the production of biomagnetite for the bioremediation of metal oxyanion contaminated waters, the reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by two biogenic magnetites and a synthetic magnetite was evaluated under batch and continuous flow conditions. Results indicate that nano-scale biogenic magnetite produced by incubating synthetic schwertmannite powder in cell suspensions of Geobacter sulfurreducens is more efficient at reducing Cr(VI) than either biogenic nano-magnetite produced from a suspension of ferrihydrite 'gel' or synthetic nano-scale Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} powder. Although X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements obtained from post-exposure magnetite samples reveal that both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) are associated with nanoparticle surfaces, X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) studies indicate that some Cr(III) has replaced octahedrally coordinated Fe in the lattice of the magnetite. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) measurements of total aqueous Cr in the associated solution phase indicated that, although the majority of Cr(III) was incorporated within or adsorbed to the magnetite samples, a proportion ({approx}10-15 %) was released back into solution. Studies of Tc(VII) uptake by magnetites produced via the different synthesis routes also revealed significant differences between them as regards effectiveness for remediation. In addition, column studies using a {gamma}-camera to obtain real time images of a {sup 99m}Tc(VII) radiotracer were performed to visualize directly the relative performances of the magnetite sorbents against ultra-trace concentrations of metal oxyanion contaminants. Again, the magnetite produced from schwertmannite proved capable of retaining more ({approx}20%) {sup 99m}Tc(VII) than the magnetite produced from ferrihydrite, confirming that biomagnetite production for efficient environmental remediation can be fine-tuned through careful selection of the initial Fe(III) mineral substrate supplied to Fe(III)-reducing bacteria.

  10. Rotational Augmentation Disparities in the MEXICO and UAE Phase VI Experiments: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreck, S.; Sant, T.; Micallef, D.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wind turbine structures and components suffer excessive loads and premature failures when key aerodynamic phenomena are not well characterized, fail to be understood, or are inaccurately predicted. Turbine blade rotational augmentation remains incompletely characterized and understood, thus limiting robust prediction for design. Pertinent rotational augmentation research including experimental, theoretical, and computational work has been pursued for some time, but large scale wind tunnel testing is a relatively recent development for investigating wind turbine blade aerodynamics. Because of their large scale and complementary nature, the MEXICO and UAE Phase VI wind tunnel experiments offer unprecedented synergies to better characterize and understand rotational augmentation of blade aerodynamics.

  11. First use of a HyViSI H4RG for Astronomical Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simms, Lance M.; /SLAC; Figer, Donald F.; Hanold, Brandon J.; Kerr, Daniel J.; /Rochester Imaging Lab.; Gilmore, D.Kirk; Kahn, Steven M.; /SLAC; Tyson, J.Anthony; /UC,

    2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first astronomical results from a 4K2 Hybrid Visible Silicon PIN array detector (HyViSI) read out with the Teledyne Scientific and Imaging SIDECAR ASIC. These results include observations of astronomical standards and photometric measurements using the 2.1m KPNO telescope. We also report results from a test program in the Rochester Imaging Detector Laboratory (RIDL), including: read noise, dark current, linearity, gain, well depth, quantum efficiency, and substrate voltage effects. Lastly, we highlight results from operation of the detector in window read out mode and discuss its potential role for focusing, image correction, and use as a telescope guide camera.

  12. Tank Operations Contract No. DE-AC27-08R Vi4800

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesis of 2D AlloysTrails TakingR Vi4800 Modification

  13. Ni(NiO)/single-walled carbon nanotubes composite: Synthesis of electro-deposition, gas sensing property for NO gas and density functional theory calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Li; Zhang, Guo; Chen, Lei [Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering Process and Technology for High-efficiency Conversion, College of Heilongjiang Province, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering Process and Technology for High-efficiency Conversion, College of Heilongjiang Province, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Bi, Hong-Mei [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Shi, Ke-Ying, E-mail: shikeying2008@yahoo.cn [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: The Ni(NiO)/semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes composite collected from the cathode after electro-deposition shows a high sensitivity to low-concentration NO gas at room temperature (18 °C). Display Omitted Highlights: ? Ni(NiO) nanoparticles were deposited on semiconducting SWCNTs by electro-deposition. ? Ni(NiO)/semiconducting SWCNTs film shows a high sensitivity to NO gas at 18 °C. ?Theoretical calculation reveals electron transfer from SWCNTs to NO via Ni. -- Abstract: Single-walled carbon nanotubes which contains metallic SWCNTs (m-SWCNTs) and semiconducting SWCNTs (s-SWCNTs) have been obtained under electric arc discharge. Their separation can be effectively achieved by the electro-deposition method. The Ni(NiO)/s-SWCNTs composite was found on cathode where Ni was partially oxidized to NiO at ambient condition with Ni(NiO) nanoparticles deposited uniformly on the bundles of SWCNTs. These results were confirmed by Raman spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–vis–NIR and TG characterizations. Furthermore, investigation of the gas sensing property of Ni(NiO)/s-SWCNTs composite film to NO gas at 18 °C demonstrated the sensitivity was approximately 5% at the concentration of 97 ppb. Moreover, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to explore the sensing mechanism which suggested the adsorption of NO molecules onto the composite through N–Ni interaction as well as the proposition of electron transfer mechanisms from SWCNTs to NO via the Ni medium.

  14. $^{64}$Ni+$^{64}$Ni fusion reaction calculated with the density-constrained time-dependent Hartree-Fock formalism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. S. Umar; V. E. Oberacker

    2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We study fusion reactions of the $^{64}$Ni+$^{64}$Ni system using the density-constrained time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) formalism. In this formalism the fusion barriers are directly obtained from TDHF dynamics. In addition, we incorporate the entrance channel alignments of the slightly deformed (oblate) $^{64}$Ni nuclei due to dynamical Coulomb excitation. We show that alignment leads to a fusion barrier distribution and alters the naive picture for defining which energies are actually sub-barrier. We also show that core polarization effects could play a significant role in fusion cross section calculations.

  15. Transverse acoustic actuation of Ni-Mn-Ga single crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, Jesse Matthew

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two methods for the transverse acoustic actuation of {110}-cut Ni-Mn-Ga single crystals are discussed. In this actuation mode, crystals are used that have the {110}- type twinning planes parallel to the base of the crystal. ...

  16. Focus Article El Ni ~no and our future climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wittenberg, Andrew

    Focus Article El Ni ~no and our future climate: where do we stand? Gabriel A. Vecchi and Andrew T activity, including a decrease in Atlantic hurricane activity6 and an eastward shift of western Pacific

  17. Grain boundary relaxation strengthening of nanocrystalline Ni–W alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rupert, Timothy J.

    The hardening effect caused by the relaxation of nonequilibrium grain boundary structure has been explored in nanocrystalline Ni–W alloys. First, the kinetics of relaxation hardening are studied, showing that higher annealing ...

  18. Mechanical Behavior of Cryomilled Ni Superalloy by Spark Plasma Sintering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ni Superalloy by Spark Plasma Sintering Z. ZHANG, B.Q. HAN,cryomilling and spark plasma sintering (SPS) was studied.prepared by the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. To

  19. TiNi-based thin films for MEMS applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Yongqing

    In this paper, some critical issues and problems in the development of TiNi thin films were discussed, including preparation and characterization considerations, residual stress and adhesion, frequency improvement, fatigue ...

  20. The stellar (n,gamma) cross section of 62Ni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Nassar; M. Paul; I. Ahmad; D. Berkovits; M. Bettan; P. Collon; S. Dababneh; S. Ghelberg; J. P. Greene; A. Heger; M. Heil; D. J. Henderson; C. L. Jiang; F. Kaeppeler; H. Koivisto; S. O'Brien; R. C. Pardo; N. Patronis; T. Pennington; R. Plag; K. E. Rehm; R. Reifarth; R. Scott; S. Sinha; X. Tang; R. Vondrasek

    2005-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The 62Ni(n,gamma)63Ni(t_1/2=100+-2 yrs) reaction plays an important role in the control of the flow path of the slow neutron-capture (s-) nucleosynthesis process. We have measured for the first time the total cross section of this reaction for a quasi-Maxwellian (kT = 25 keV) neutron flux. The measurement was performed by fast-neutron activation, combined with accelerator mass spectrometry to detect directly the 63Ni product nuclei. The experimental value of 28.4+-2.8 mb, fairly consistent with a recent theoretical estimate, affects the calculated net yield of 62Ni itself and the whole distribution of nuclei with 62

  1. Electrodeposition of amorphous matrix Ni-W/Wp̳ composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jenket, Donald R. (Donald Robert)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An amorphous Ni-W alloy matrix was incorporated with W particulate through two types of electrodeposition. The plating bath for the electrodeposition contained nickel sulfate, sodium tungstate, sodium citrate, ammonium ...

  2. Double dumbbell shaped AgNi alloy by pulsed electrodeposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhanapal, K.; Vasumathi, M.; Santhi, Kalavathy [Materials Science Centre, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India); Narayanan, V., E-mail: stephen-arum@hotmail.com; Stephen, A., E-mail: stephen-arum@hotmail.com [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai-600 025 (India)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Silver-Nickel is the well-known thermally immiscible system that makes them quite complex for the formation of alloy. This kind of alloy can be attained from electrodeposition method. In the present work, AgNi alloy was synthesized by pulsed electrodeposition in a single bath two electrode system with the use of anodic alumina membrane. The prepared AgNi alloy and pure Ag were characterized with X-ray Diffraction (XRD) for structural confirmation, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for morphological, and magnetic properties by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer, respectively. The X-ray Diffraction study shows the formation of cubic structure for pure Ag. SEM analysis reveals the double dumbbell morphology for AgNi alloy and spherically agglomeration for pure silver. Hysteresis behaviour from VSM measurement indicates that the AgNi alloy have good ferro-magnetic properties.

  3. alloying ni yoru: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    memory alloy Elastic modulus Wrinkling Thermoelastic strain in a polycrystalline Fe-Pd thin film 213 (X?1.5) Alloys 1 CiteSeer Summary: A series Ni41-xMn50Sn9+x of Heusler...

  4. alloy films ni: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    memory alloy Elastic modulus Wrinkling Thermoelastic strain in a polycrystalline Fe-Pd thin film 22 Magnetic and Structural Properties of Ni-Mn-Ga Films Produced Via Physical...

  5. Microbial Community Changes in Response to Ethanol or Methanol Amendments for U(VI) Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Madden, Andrew [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Drake, Meghan M [ORNL; Kostka, Joel [Florida State University; Akob, Denise M. [Florida State University; Kusel, Kirsten [Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena Germany; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microbial community responses to ethanol, methanol and methanol + humics amendments in relationship to uranium bioremediation were studied in laboratory microcosm experiments using sediments and ground water from a uranium-contaminated site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Ethanol addition always resulted in uranium reduction at rate of 0.8-1.0 mol l-1 d-1 while methanol addition did so occasionally at rate 0.95 mol l-1 d-1. The type of carbon source added, the duration of incubation, and the sampling site influenced the bacterial community structure upon incubation. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries indicated (1) bacterial communities found in ethanol- and methanol-amended samples with U(VI) reduction were similar due to presence of -Proteobacteria, and -Proteobacteria (members of the families Burkholderiaceae, Comamonadaceae, Oxalobacteraceae, and Rhodocyclaceae); (2) methanol-amended samples without U(VI) reduction exhibited the lowest diversity and the bacterial community contained 69.2-92.8% of the family Methylophilaceae; and (3) the addition of humics resulted in an increase of phylogenetic diversity of -Proteobacteria (Rodoferax, Polaromonas, Janthinobacterium, Methylophilales, unclassified) and Firmicutes (Desulfosporosinus, Clostridium).

  6. Anomalous magnetic behavior in nanocomposite materials of reduced graphene oxide-Ni/NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kollu, Pratap, E-mail: pk419@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: anirmalagrace@vit.ac.in, E-mail: dhirenb@iitb.ac.in [DST-INSPIRE Faculty, Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Prathapani, Sateesh; Varaprasadarao, Eswara K.; Mallick, Sudhanshu; Bahadur, D., E-mail: pk419@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: anirmalagrace@vit.ac.in, E-mail: dhirenb@iitb.ac.in [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Santosh, Chella; Grace, Andrews Nirmala, E-mail: pk419@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: anirmalagrace@vit.ac.in, E-mail: dhirenb@iitb.ac.in [Centre for Nanotechnology Research, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India)

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic Reduced Graphene Oxide-Nickel/NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (RGO-Ni/NF) nanocomposite has been synthesized by one pot solvothermal method. Respective phase formations and their purities in the composite are confirmed by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope and X Ray Diffraction, respectively. For the RGO-Ni/NF composite material finite-size effects lead to the anomalous magnetic behavior, which is corroborated in temperature and field dependent magnetization curves. Here, we are reporting the behavior of higher magnetization values for Zero Field Cooled condition to that of Field Cooled for the RGO-Ni/NF nanocomposite. Also, the observed negative and positive moments in Hysteresis loops at relatively smaller applied fields (100?Oe and 200?Oe) are explained on the basis of surface spin disorder.

  7. Shape memory behavior of ultrafine grained NiTi and TiNiPd shape memory alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockar, Benat

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The cyclic instability in shape memory characteristics of NiTi-based shape memory alloys (SMAs), such as transformation temperatures, transformation and irrecoverable strains and transformation hysteresis upon thermal and mechanical cycling limits...

  8. Microbial community changes during sustained Cr(VI) reduction at the 100H site in Hanford, WA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, Romy; Brodie, Eoin L; Faybishenko, Boris; Piceno, Yvette M; Tom, Lauren; Choudhuri, Swati; Beller, Harry R; Liu, Jenny; Torok, Tamas; Joyner, Dominique C; Joachimiak, Marcin P; Zhou, Aifen; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Joe; Long, Phil E; Newcomer, Darrell R; Andersen, Gary L; Hazen, Terry C.

    2010-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Hexavalent Chromium is a widespread contaminant found in soil, sediment, and groundwater. In order to stimulate microbially-mediated reduction of Cr(VI), a poly-lactate compound (HRC) was injected into the Chromium-contaminated aquifer at the Hanford (WA) 100H site in 2004. Cr(VI) concentrations rapidly declined to below the detection limit and remained so for more than three years after injection. Based on the results of the bacterial community composition using high-density DNA 16S rRNA gene microarrays, we observed the community to transition through denitrifying, ironreducing and sulfate-reducing populations. As a result, we specifically focused isolation efforts on three bacterial species that were significant components of the community. Positive enrichments in defined anaerobic media resulted in the isolation of an iron-reducing Geobacter metallireducens-like isolate, a sulfate-reducing Desulfovibrio vukgaris-like strain and a nitrate-reducing Pseudomonas stutzeri-like isolate among several others. All of these isolates were capable of reducing Cr(VI) anoxically and have been submitted for genome sequencing to JGI. To further characterize the microbial, and geochemical mechanisms associated with in situ Cr(VI) reduction at the site, additional HRC was injected in 2008. The goal was to restimulate the indigenous microbial community and to regenerate the reducing conditions necessary for continued Cr(VI) bio-immobilization in the groundwater. Analysis of the microbial populations post-injection revealed that they recovered to a similar density as after the first injection in 2004. In this study, we present the results from our investigation into microbially-mediated Cr(VI) reduction at Hanford, and a comparison of the microbial community development following two HRC injections four years apart.

  9. Interaction of Pu(IV,VI) hydroxides/oxides with metal hydroxides/oxides in alkaline media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedoseev, A.M.; Krot, N.N.; Budantseva, N.A.; Bessonov, A.A.; Nikonov, M.V.; Grigoriev, M.S.; Garnov, A.Y.; Perminov, V.P.; Astafurova, L.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of this investigation was to obtain data on the possibility, extent, and characteristics of interaction of Pu(IV) and (VI) with hydroxides and oxides of d-elements and other metals [Al(III), LA(III), and U(VI)] in alkaline media. Such information is important in fundamental understanding of plutonium disposition and behavior in Hanford Site radioactive tank waste sludge. These results supply essential data for determining criticality safety and in understanding transuranic waste behavior in storage, retrieval, and treatment of Hanford Site tank waste.

  10. MCNP calculations for criticality-safety benchmarks with ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI libraries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iverson, J.L.; Mosteller, R.D.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The MCNP Monte Carlo code, in conjunction with its continuous-energy ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI cross-section libraries, has been benchmarked against results from 27 different critical experiments. The predicted values of k{sub eff} are in excellent agreement with the benchmarks, except for the ENDF/B-V results for solutions of plutonium nitrate and, to a lesser degree, for the ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI results for a bare sphere of {sup 233}U.

  11. Structure and phase transformation behaviour of electroless Ni-P composite coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balaraju, J.N. [Surface Engineering Division, National Aerospace Laboratory, Bangalore 560017 (India)]. E-mail: jnbalraj@css.nal.res.in; Narayanan, T.S.N. Sankara [National Metallurgical Laboratory, Madras Centre, CSIR Complex Taramani, Chennai 600113 (India)]. E-mail: tsnsn@rediffmail.com; Seshadri, S.K. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)]. E-mail: sks@iitm.ac.in

    2006-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper addresses the structural characteristics and phase transformation behaviour of plain electroless Ni-P coating and electroless Ni-P-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, Ni-P-CeO{sub 2} and Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} composite coatings. The X-ray diffraction patterns of electroless Ni-P-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, Ni-P-CeO{sub 2} and Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} composite coatings are very similar to that of plain electroless Ni-P coating, both in as plated and heat-treated conditions. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns obtained on the Ni-P matrix of Ni-P-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, Ni-P-CeO{sub 2} and Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} composite coatings exhibit diffuse ring patterns resembling the one obtained for plain electroless Ni-P coating. Phase transformation behaviour studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) indicates that the variation in crystallization temperature and the energy evolved during crystallization of plain electroless Ni-P coating and electroless Ni-P-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, Ni-P-CeO{sub 2} and Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} composite coatings is not significant. The study concludes that incorporation of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, CeO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} particles in the Ni-P matrix does not have any influence on the structure and phase transformation behaviour of electroless Ni-P coatings.

  12. Electron Density Distributions Calculated for the Nickel Sulfides Millerite, Vaesite, and Heazlewoodite and Nickel Metal: A Case for the Importance of Ni-Ni Bond Paths for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Downs, Robert T.

    Electron Density Distributions Calculated for the Nickel Sulfides Millerite, Vaesite, and Heazlewoodite and Nickel Metal: A Case for the Importance of Ni-Ni Bond Paths for Electron Transport G. V. Gibbs's)) have been calculated for the bonded interactions comprising the nickel sulfide minerals millerite, Ni

  13. The Universal Arrow of Time V-VI: (Part V) Unpredictable dynamics (Part VI) Future of artificial intelligence - Art, not Science: Practical Application of Unpredictable Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg Kupervasser

    2013-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper consists of the two independent papers:(Part V) We see that exact equations of quantum and classical mechanics describe ideal dynamics which is reversible and leads to Poincare's returns. Real equations of physics describing observable dynamics, for example, hydrodynamic equations of viscous fluid, are irreversible and exclude Poincare's returns to the initial state. Besides, these equations describe systems in terms of macroparameters or phase distribution functions of microparameters. For many systems introduction of macroparameters that allow exhaustive describing of dynamics of the system is impossible. Their dynamics becomes unpredictable in principle, sometimes even unpredictable by the probabilistic way. We will refer to dynamics describing such system as unpredictable dynamics. Dynamics of unpredictable systems is not described and not predicted by scientific methods. Thus, the science itself puts boundaries for its applicability. But such systems can intuitively "understand itself" and "predict" the behavior "of its own" or even "communicate with each other" at intuitive level. (Part VI) Perspective of the future of artificial intellect (AI) is considered. It is shown that AI development in the future will be closer rather to art than to science. Complex dissipative systems whose behavior cannot be understood completely in principle will be the basis of AI. Nevertheless, it will not be a barrier for their practical use.

  14. Sequential Extraction Method for Determination of Fe(II/III) and U(IV/ VI) in Suspensions of Iron-Bearing Phyllosilicates and Uranium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burgos, William

    (IV/VI) in clay mineral-U suspensions such that advanced spectroscopic techniques are required. Instead, we-times more Fe(II) than U(VI). INTRODUCTION Uranium contamination is a problem at many U.S. Department associated with phyllosilicate minerals is higher than the mass of iron associated with oxide minerals

  15. A modified model for calculating lattice thermal expansion of I{sub 2}-IV-VI{sub 3} and I{sub 3}-V-VI{sub 4} tetrahedral compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omar, M.S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Salahaddin, Arbil, Kurdistan (Iraq)]. E-mail: dr_m_s_omar@yahoo.com

    2007-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A general empirical formula was found for calculating lattice thermal expansion for compounds having their properties extended for compound groups having different mean ionicity as well as more than one type of cation atoms with that of different numbers of them such as I{sub 2}-IV-VI{sub 3} and I{sub 3}-V-VI{sub 4}. The difference in the valence electrons for cations and anions in the compound was used to correlate the deviations caused by the compound ionicity. The ionicity effects, which are due to their different numbers for their types, were also added to the correlation equation. In general, the lattice thermal expansion for a compound semiconductor can be calculated from a relation containing melting point, mean atomic distance and number of valence electrons for the atoms forming the compound. The mean ionicity for the group compounds forming I{sub 2}-IV-VI{sub 3} was found to be 0.323 and 0.785 for the ternary group compounds of I{sub 3}-V-VI{sub 4}.

  16. Anomalous codeposition of Fe-Ni alloys and Fe-Ni-SiO{sub 2} composites under potentiostatic conditions: Experimental study and mathematical model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasubramanian, M.; Popova, S.N.; Popov, B.N.; White, R.E. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Yin, K.M. [Yuan-Ze Inst. of Tech., Taoyuan (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mathematical model has been developed to describe the electrodeposition of Fe-Ni alloys and Fe-Ni-SiO{sub 2} composites under potentiostatic conditions. This model can be used to predict the polarization behavior, partial current densities, and alloy composition of each of the components as a function of the applied potential. Fe-Ni-SiO{sub 2} samples were deposited on platinum rotating disk electrodes from sulfate electrolytes under potentiostatic conditions, and the results obtained were compared to the model. The model predictions were found to agree well with the experimental observations for the Fe-Ni and Fe-Ni-SiO{sub 2} systems.

  17. Modified Ni-Cu catalysts for ethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan, M.; Mihet, M.; Almasan, V.; Borodi, G. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Street, 400293, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Street, 400293, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Katona, G.; Muresan, L. [Univ. Babes Bolyai, Fac. Chem. and Chem. Eng.,11 Arany Janos, 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Univ. Babes Bolyai, Fac. Chem. and Chem. Eng.,11 Arany Janos, 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Lazar, M. D., E-mail: diana.lazar@itim-cj.ro [65-103 Donath Street (Romania)

    2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Three Ni-Cu catalysts, having different Cu content, supported on ?-alumina were synthesized by wet co-impregnation method, characterized and tested in the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. The catalysts were characterized for determination of: total surface area and porosity (N{sub 2} adsorption - desorption using BET and Dollimer Heal methods), Ni surface area (hydrogen chemisorption), crystallinity and Ni crystallites size (X-Ray Diffraction), type of catalytic active centers (Hydrogen Temperature Programmed Reduction). Total surface area and Ni crystallites size are not significantly influenced by the addition of Cu, while Ni surface area is drastically diminished by increasing of Cu concentration. Steam reforming experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure, temperature range 150-350°C, and ethanol - water molar ration of 1 at 30, using Ar as carrier gas. Ethanol conversion and hydrogen production increase by the addition of Cu. At 350°C there is a direct connection between hydrogen production and Cu concentration. Catalysts deactivation in 24h time on stream was studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) on used catalysts. Coke deposition was observed at all studied temperatures; at 150°C amorphous carbon was evidenced, while at 350°C crystalline, filamentous carbon is formed.

  18. Evidence for ice VI as an inclusion in cuboid diamonds from high P-T near infrared spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hemley, Russell J.

    Evidence for ice VI as an inclusion in cuboid diamonds from high P-T near infrared spectroscopy H.W., Washington, D.C. 20015-1305, USA ABSTRACT Near infrared absorption (NIR) spectra of natural morphologically on heating to 1208C. The combination band of H2O at high pressure and temperature was measured using

  19. VI-8.00(B) UMCP POLICY ON STUDENT ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUG ABUSE APPROVED BY PRESIDENT SEPTEMBER 9, 1992

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Teng

    VI-8.00(B) UMCP POLICY ON STUDENT ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUG ABUSE APPROVED BY PRESIDENT SEPTEMBER 9, 1992 I. Policy The University of Maryland at College Park is dedicated to the pursuit and dissemination of drugs and alcohol. In keeping with this commitment, it is the policy of the University that the illegal

  20. Chemical modeling of arsenic(III, V) and selenium(IV, VI) adsorption by soils surrounding ash disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, S.; Hyun, S.; Lee, L.S. [USDA, Riverside, CA (United States). US Salinity Laboratory

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Leachate derived from coal ash disposal facilities is a potential anthropogenic source of As and Se to the environment. To establish a practical framework for predicting attenuation and transport of As and Se in ash leachates, the adsorption of As(III), As(V), Se(IV), and Se(VI) had been characterized in prior studies for 18 soils obtained downgradient from ash landfill sites and representing a wide range of soil properties. The constant capacitance model was applied for the first time to describe As(III), As(V), Se(IV), and Se(VI) adsorption on soils as a function of equilibrium solution As(III), As(V), Se(IV), and Se(VI) concentrations. Prior applications of the model had been restricted to describing Se(IV) and As(V) adsorption by soils as a function of solution pH. The constant capacitance model was applied for the first time to describe As(III) and Se(VI) adsorption by soils. The model was able to describe adsorption of these ions on all soils as a function of solution ion concentration by optimizing only one adjustable parameter, the anion surface complexation constant. This chemical model represents an advancement over adsorption isotherm equation approaches that contain two empirical adjustable parameters. Incorporation of these anion surface complexation constants obtained with the constant capacitance model into chemical speciation transport models will allow simulation of soil solution anion concentrations under diverse environmental and agricultural conditions.

  1. Single-Cell Imaging and Spectroscopic Analyses of Cr(VI) Reduction on the Surface of Bacterial Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yuanmin; Sevinc, Papatya C.; Belchik, Sara M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Shi, Liang; Lu, H. Peter

    2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate single-cell reduction of toxic Cr(VI) by the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (MR-1), an important bioremediation process, using Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Our experiments indicate that the toxic and highly soluble Cr(VI) can be efficiently reduced to the less toxic and non-soluble Cr2O3 nanoparticles by MR-1. Cr2O3 is observed to emerge as nanoparticles adsorbed on the cell surface and its chemical nature is identified by EDX imaging and Raman spectroscopy. Co-localization of Cr2O3 and cytochromes by EDX imaging and Raman spectroscopy suggests a terminal reductase role for MR-1 surface-exposed cytochromes MtrC and OmcA. Our experiments revealed that the cooperation of surface proteins OmcA and MtrC makes the reduction reaction most efficient, and the sequence of the reducing reactivity of the MR-1 is: wild type > single mutant @mtrC or mutant @omcA > double mutant (@omcA-@mtrC). Moreover, our results also suggest that the direct microbial Cr(VI) reduction and Fe(II) (hematite)-mediated Cr(VI) reduction mechanisms may co-exist in the reduction processes.

  2. Model-based Analysis of Mixed Uranium(VI) Reduction by Biotic and Abiotic Pathways During in Situ Bioremediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Jiao; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan

    2013-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium bioremediation has emerged as a potential strategy of cleanup of radionuclear contamination worldwide. An integrated geochemical & microbial community model is a promising approach to predict and provide insights into the bioremediation of a complicated natural subsurface. In this study, an integrated column-scale model of uranium bioremediation was developed, taking into account long-term interactions between biotic and abiotic processes. It is also combined with a comprehensive thermodynamic analysis to track the fate and cycling of biogenic species. As compared with other bioremediation models, the model increases the resolution of the connection of microbial community to geochemistry and establishes direct quantitative correlation between overall community evolution and geochemical variation, thereby accurately predicting the community dynamics under different sedimentary conditions. The thermodynamic analysis examined a recently identified homogeneous reduction of U(VI) by Fe(II) under dynamic sedimentary conditions across time and space. It shows that the biogenic Fe(II) from Geobacter metabolism can be removed rapidly by the biogenic sulphide from sulfate reducer metabolism, hence constituting one of the reasons that make the abiotic U(VI) reduction thermodynamically infeasible in the subsurface. Further analysis indicates that much higher influent concentrations of both Fe(II) and U(VI) than normal are required to for abiotic U(VI) reduction to be thermodynamically feasible, suggesting that the abiotic reduction cannot be an alternative to the biotic reduction in the remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater.

  3. Improving Soil Oklahoma State University, in compliance with Title VI and VII of the Civil Rights Act of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    Improving Soil Quality Oklahoma State University, in compliance with Title VI and VII of the Civil and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Director of Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma. This publication is printed

  4. Myosin VI is required for structural integrity of the apical surface of sensory hair cells in zebrafish

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avraham, Karen

    Myosin VI is required for structural integrity of the apical surface of sensory hair cells deafness in humans and deafness in Snell's waltzer mice associated with abnormal fusion of hair cell and epithelial morphogenesis, the role of this protein in the sensory hair cells remains unclear. To investigate

  5. Influence of calcite on uranium(VI) reactive transport in the groundwater–river mixing zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Rui; Liu, Chongxuan; Greskowiak, Janek; Prommer, Henning; Zachara, John M.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2014-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Calcite is an important mineral that can affect uranyl reactive transport in subsurface sediments. This study investigated the distribution of calcite and its influence on uranyl adsorption and reactive transport in the groundwater-river mixing zone at US Hanford 300A, Washington State. Simulations using a 2D reactive transport model under field-relevant hydrogeochemical conditions revealed a complex distribution of calcite concentration as a result of dynamic groundwater-river interactions. The calcite concentration distribution in turn affected the spatial and temporal changes in aqueous carbonate, calcium, and pH, which subsequently influenced U(VI) mobility and discharge rates into the river. The results implied that calcite distribution and its concentration dynamics is an important consideration for field characterization, monitoring, and reactive transport prediction.

  6. Thermodynamic stabilities of U(VI) minerals: Estimated and observed relationships

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finch, R.J. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Gibbs free energies of formation ({Delta}G{degree}{sub f}) for several structurally related U(VI) minerals are estimated by summing the Gibbs energy contributions from component oxides. The estimated {Delta}G{degree}{sub f} values are used to construct activity-activity (stability) diagrams, and the predicted stability fields are compared with observed mineral occurrences and reaction pathways. With some exceptions, natural occurrences agree well with the mineral stability fields estimated for the systems SiO{sub 2}-CaO-UO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}-CaO-UO{sub 3}H{sub 2}O, providing confidence in the estimated thermodynamic values. Activity-activity diagrams are sensitive to small differences in {Delta}G{degree}{sub f} values, and mineral compositions must be known accurately, including structurally bound H{sub 2}O. The estimated {Delta}G{degree}{sub f} values are not considered reliable for a few minerals for two major reasons: (1) the structures of the minerals in question are not closely similar to those used to estimate the {Delta}G{sub f}* values of the component oxides, and/or (2) the minerals in question are exceptionally fine grained, leading to large surface energies that increase the effective mineral solubilities. The thermodynamic stabilities of uranium(VI) minerals are of interest for understanding the role of these minerals in controlling uranium concentrations in oxidizing groundwaters associated with uranium ore bodies, uranium mining and mill tailings and geological repositories for nuclear waste.

  7. Acceleration of Microbially Mediated U(VI) Reduction at a Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Colorado Plateau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phil Long; Todd Anderson; Aaron Peacock; Steve Heald; Yun-Juan Chang; Dick Dayvault; Derek R. Lovley; C.T. Resch; Helen Vrionis; Irene Ortiz-Bernad; D.C. White

    2004-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A second field-scale electron donor amendment experiment was conducted in 2003 at the Old Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) site in Rifle, Colorado. The objective of the 2003 experiment (done in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy's UMTRA Groundwater Project) was to test the hypothesis that amendment of increased concentration of electron donor would result in an increased export of electron donor down gradient which in turn would create a larger zone of down-gradient U(VI) bioreduction sustained over a longer time period relative to the 2002 experiment (Anderson et al. 2003). During the first experiment (2002), {approx}3 mM acetate was amended to subsurface over a period of 3 months in a 15m by 18m by 2.5m volume comprised of 3 upgradient monitoring wells, 20 injection wells, and 15 down-gradient monitoring wells. After an initial one-month phase of metal reduction, bioavailable oxidized Fe was consumed near the injection gallery and the dominant terminal electron accepting process became sulfate reduction, rapidly consuming the injected acetate. For the 2003 experiment, we amended sufficient acetate ({approx}10 mM) to consume available sulfate and export acetate down-gradient where bioavailable oxidized Fe was still present. Data from the experiment indicate that acetate was exported further down gradient, resulting in a larger zone of microbial U(VI) reduction than for the 2002 experiment. Geohydrologic, geochemical, and microbiological data collected during the course of both experiments enable assessment of relative importance of a number of factors controlling the experimental outcomes. Companion posters by Anderson et al. and White et al. provide additional results.

  8. Mitigation of Sulfur Poisoning of Ni/Zirconia SOFC Anodes by Antimony and Tin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Coyle, Christopher A.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Pederson, Larry R.

    2011-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface Ni/Sb and Ni/Sb alloys were found to efficiently minimize the negative effects of sulfur on the performance of Ni/zirconia anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Prior to operating on fuel gas containing low concentrations of H2S, the nickel/zirconia anodes were briefly exposed to antimony or tin vapor, which only slightly affected the SOFC performance. During the subsequent exposures to 1 and 5 ppm H2S, increases in anodic polarization losses were minimal compared to those observed for the standard nickel/zirconia anodes. Post-test XPS analyses showed that Sb and Sn tended to segregate to the surface of Ni particles, and further confirmed a significant reduction of adsorbed sulfur on the Ni surface in Ni/Sn and Ni/Sb samples compared to the Ni. The effect may be the result of weaker sulfur adsorption on bimetallic surfaces, adsorption site competition between sulfur and Sb or Sn on Ni, or other factors. The use of dilute binary alloys of Ni-Sb or Ni-Sn in the place of Ni, or brief exposure to Sb or Sn vapor, may be effective means to counteract the effects of sulfur poisoning in SOFC anodes and Ni catalysts. Other advantages, including suppression of coking or tailoring the anode composition for the internal reforming, are also expected.

  9. Electrodeposition and corrosion resistance of Ni-W-B coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steffani, C.P.; Dini, J.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Manufacturing and Materials Engineering Div.; Groza, J.R.; Palazoglu, A. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A ternary nickel-base alloy Ni-W-B has been developed for surface corrosion and wear resistance to replace chromium plating, which uses environmentally hazardous solutions. The deposition conditions used an alkaline bath and insoluble anodes. The as-deposited alloy typically contains 40 wt% W and 1 wt% B and has an amorphous or partially amorphous structure. These deposits compare favorably with hexavalent chromium deposits in throwing power, color uniformity, and reflectivity. The corrosion resistance of Ni-W-B alloy was compared with hexavalent chromium and electroless nickel deposits in a variety of acids, including hydrochloric, sulfuric, fluoroboric, and phosphoric. In all cases, best results were obtained with the Ni-W-B deposits.

  10. Hydrotreatment of Athabasca bitumen derived gas oil over Ni-Mo, Ni-W, and Co-Mo catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz-Real, R.A.; Mann, R.S.; Sambi, I.S. (Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydrotreatment of Athabasca bitumen derived heavy gas oil containing 4.08% S and 0.49% N was carried out in a trickle bed reactor over Ni-W, Ni-Mo, and Co-Mo catalysts supported on zeolite-alumina-silica at 623-698 K, LHSV of 1-4, gas flow rate 890 m[sup 3][sub H2]/m[sup 3][sub oil] (5,000 sef/bbl), and pressure of 6.89 MPa. Analyses for viscosity, density, aniline point, ASTM mid boiling point distillation, C/H ratio, and percentage of N and S in the final product were carried out to characterize the product oil. The amounts of N and S removed indicated the hydrodenitrogenation and hydrodesulfurization activity of the catalysts. Results of zeolite-alumina-silica-supported catalysts are compared to those obtained with commercially available Ni-Mo, Ni-W, and Co-Mo on [gamma]-alumina. Ni-Mo supported on zeolite-alumina-silica was most active and could remove as much as 99 % S and 89% N present in the oil at 698 K. The data for HDN and HDS fitted the pseudo first order model. The kinetic model is described in detail.

  11. Electrochromic devices embodying W oxide/Ni oxide tandem films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azens, A.; Vaivars, G.; Veszelei, M.; Kullman, L.; Granqvist, C. G.

    2001-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Six-layer electrochromic devices of indium tin oxide (ITO)/NiO{sub x}H{sub y}/WO{sub 3}/ZrP-electrolyte/WO{sub 3}/ITO were made by reactive dc magnetron sputtering and lamination. The WO{sub 3} layer between the acidic ZrP-based electrolyte and the NiO{sub x}H{sub y} layer served as optically passive protective layer. The optical inactivity of the protective layer could be understood from arguments based on electron density of states. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  12. A Hydrogen-Evolving Ni(P2N2)2 Electrocatalyst Covalently Attached...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Hydrogen-Evolving Ni(P2N2)2 Electrocatalyst Covalently Attached to a Glassy Carbon Electrode: Preparation, Characterization, A Hydrogen-Evolving Ni(P2N2)2 Electrocatalyst...

  13. SciTech Connect: Neutron Scattering of CeNi at the SNS-ORNL:...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Neutron Scattering of CeNi at the SNS-ORNL: A Preliminary Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron Scattering of CeNi at the SNS-ORNL: A Preliminary...

  14. Proton Delivery and Removal in [Ni(PR2NR?2)2]2+ Hydrogen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Delivery and Removal in Ni(PR2NR?2)22+ Hydrogen Production and Oxidation Catalysts. Proton Delivery and Removal in Ni(PR2NR?2)22+ Hydrogen Production and Oxidation...

  15. Dynamical deformation effects in subbarrier fusion of $^{64}$Ni+$^{132}$Sn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. S. Umar; V. E. Oberacker

    2006-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that dynamical deformation effects play an important role in fusion reactions involving the $^{64}$Ni nucleus, in particular the $^{64}$Ni+$^{132}$Sn system. We calculate fully microscopic interaction potentials and the corresponding subbarrier fusion cross sections.

  16. Study of Martensitic Phase transformation in a NiTiCu Thin Film...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Martensitic Phase transformation in a NiTiCu Thin Film Shape Memory Alloy Using Photoelectron Emission Microscopy. Study of Martensitic Phase transformation in a NiTiCu Thin Film...

  17. Bulk Glass Formation in Eutectic of La-Cu-Ni-Al Metallic Alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yong

    A eutectic in La-rich La-Cu?.?Ni?.?-Al alloys was determined by studying the melting behaviors and the microstructure observations. The microstructures of the La-Cu-Ni-Al alloys prepared by ...

  18. Origin of transverse magnetization in epitaxial Cu/Ni/Cu nanowire arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciria, M.

    The patterning-induced changes in the magnetic anisotropy and hysteresis of epitaxial (100)-oriented Cu/Ni(9, 10, 15 nm)/Cu planar nanowires have been quantified. When the Ni films are patterned into lines, strain relaxation ...

  19. Assessing the Bioavailability of Ni in Smelter Contaminated Soils. (S11-everhart242852-oral)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Assessing the Bioavailability of Ni in Smelter Contaminated Soils. (S11-everhart242852-oral efforts. In this study, Welland Loam and Quarry Muck soils contaminated with Ni from a smelter facility

  20. A MOSSBAUER STUDY OF AUSTENITE STABILITY AND IMPACT FRACTURE IN Fe - 6 Ni STEEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fultz, Brent

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IMPACT FRACTURE IN Fe-6Ni STEEL Brent Thomas Fultz Materialscommercial cryogenic alloy steel was studied with regard toThe Experiments Fe-6Ni-lMn steel plate was received from the

  1. WELDABILITY OF GRAIN-REFINED Fe-12Ni-0.25Ti STEEL FOR CRYOGENIC APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris Jr., J.W.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the Cryogenic Nickel Steels, WRC Bull, 205, May, 1975.REFINED Fe-12Ni-0.25Ti STEEL FOR CRYOGENIC APPLICATIONS D.E.REFINED Fe-12Ni-0.25Ti STEEL FOR CRYOGENIC APPLICATIONS D.

  2. Calorimetry study of the synthesis of amorphous Ni-Ti alloys by mechanical alloying. [Ni33 Ti67

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwarz, R.B.; Petrich, R.R.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We synthesized amorphous Ni/sub 33/Ti/sub 67/ alloy powder by ball milling (a) a mixture of elemental nickel and titanium powders and (b) powders of the crystalline intermetallic NiTi/sub 2/. We characterized the reaction products as a function of ball-milling time by differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray diffraction. The measurements suggest that in process (a) the amorphous alloy forms by a solid-state interdiffusion reaction at the clean Ni/Ti interfaces generated by the mechanical attrition. In process (b), the crystalline alloy powder stores energy in the form of chemical disorder and lattice and point defects. The crystal-to-amorphous transformation occurs when the stored energy reaches a critical value. The achievement of the critical stored energy competes with the dynamic recovery of the lattice. 23 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Superior performance of Ni-W-Ce mixed-metal oxide catalysts for ethanol steam reforming: Synergistic effects of W- and Ni-dopants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez, Jose A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); State Univ. of New York Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Liu, Zongyuan [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); State Univ. of New York Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Xu, Wenqian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yao, Siyu [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Johnson-Peck, Aaron C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zhao, Fuzhen [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Michorczyk, Piotr [Inst. de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, Madrid (Spain); Kubacka, Anna [Inst. de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, Madrid (Spain); Stach, Eric A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fernandez-Garica, Marcos [State Univ. of New York Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Senanayake, Sanjaya D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction was studied over a series of Ni-W-Ce oxide catalysts. The structures of the catalysts were characterized using in-situ techniques including X-ray diffraction, Pair Distribution Function, X-ray absorption fine structure and transmission electron microscopy; while possible surface intermediates for the ESR reaction were investigated by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. In these materials, all the W and part of the Ni were incorporated into the CeO? lattice, with the remaining Ni forming highly dispersed nano NiO (< 2 nm) outside the Ni-W-Ce oxide structure. The nano NiO was reduced to Ni under ESR conditions. The Ni-W-Ce systeme exhibited a much larger lattice strain than those seen for Ni-Ce and W-Ce. Synergistic effects between Ni and W inside ceria produced a substantial amount of defects and O vacancies that led to high catalytic activity, selectivity and stability (i.e. resistance to coke formation) during ethanol steam reforming.

  4. Superior performance of Ni-W-Ce mixed-metal oxide catalysts for ethanol steam reforming: Synergistic effects of W- and Ni-dopants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Jose A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); State Univ. of New York Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Liu, Zongyuan [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); State Univ. of New York Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Xu, Wenqian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yao, Siyu [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Johnson-Peck, Aaron C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zhao, Fuzhen [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Michorczyk, Piotr [Inst. de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, Madrid (Spain); Kubacka, Anna [Inst. de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, Madrid (Spain); Stach, Eric A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fernandez-Garica, Marcos [State Univ. of New York Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Senanayake, Sanjaya D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction was studied over a series of Ni-W-Ce oxide catalysts. The structures of the catalysts were characterized using in-situ techniques including X-ray diffraction, Pair Distribution Function, X-ray absorption fine structure and transmission electron microscopy; while possible surface intermediates for the ESR reaction were investigated by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. In these materials, all the W and part of the Ni were incorporated into the CeO? lattice, with the remaining Ni forming highly dispersed nano NiO (< 2 nm) outside the Ni-W-Ce oxide structure. The nano NiO was reduced to Ni under ESR conditions. The Ni-W-Ce systeme exhibited a much larger lattice strain than those seen for Ni-Ce and W-Ce. Synergistic effects between Ni and W inside ceria produced a substantial amount of defects and O vacancies that led to high catalytic activity, selectivity and stability (i.e. resistance to coke formation) during ethanol steam reforming.

  5. Development of a new electrodeposition process for plating of Zn-Ni-X (X=Cd, P) alloys. 1. Corrosion characteristics of Zn-Ni-Cd ternary alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durairajan, A.; Haran, B.S.; White, R.E.; Popov, B.N.

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new Zn-Ni-Cd plating process was developed which offers a unique way of controlling and optimizing the Ni and Cd contents in the final deposit. Zinc-nickel-cadmium alloy was deposited from a 0.5 M NiSO{sub 4} + 0.2 M ZnSO{sub 4} bath in the presence of 0.015 M CdSO{sub 4} and 1 g/L nonyl phenyl polyethylene oxide. Using this process a Zn-Ni-Cd ternary alloy, with a higher nickel content as compared to that obtained from conventional Zn-Ni baths, was synthesized. The Zn-Ni-Cd alloy coatings deposited from an electrolyte containing 0.015 M (0.3%) CdSO{sub 4} has a Zn to Ni ratio of 2.5:1. The increase in nickel content accounts for the observed decrease in the corrosion potential to a value lower than that of Cd but higher than the corrosion potential of iron. The coatings have superior corrosion resistance and barrier properties than the typical Zn-Ni and cadmium coatings. Polarization studies and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis on Zn-Ni-Cd coatings show a barrier resistance that is ten times higher than that of a conventional Zn-Ni coating.

  6. XES Nanoprobe for Hard X-Ray Region: Mitigating Degradation in Ni-ZEBRA Batteries Research Team: Mark Bowden, Kyle Alvine, Nancy Hess, Guosheng Li, Tamas Varga

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    XES Nanoprobe for Hard X-Ray Region: Mitigating Degradation in Ni-ZEBRA Batteries Research Team scientific understanding of link between Ni-NiCl2 ZEBRA battery cycle degradation and FeS additive Chemical battery performance by poisoning Ni surfaces ­ optimizing Ni/NiCl2 distributions and conductive pathways

  7. Functionally grading the shape memory response in NiTi films: Laser irradiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Y. Lawrence

    Functionally grading the shape memory response in NiTi films: Laser irradiation A. J. Birnbaum, G://jap.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Functionally grading the shape memory response in NiTi films: Laser irradiation A. J. Birnbaum,a G and mechanism are presented for controlling the shape memory response spatially within monolithic NiTi thin film

  8. Mechanical characterization and comparison of different NiTi/silicone rubber interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Mechanical characterization and comparison of different NiTi/silicone rubber interfaces T. Rey(1 on the mechanical resistance of interface between wires of NiTi shape memory alloy and silicone rubber. Three of exposure to the plasma alone get the debonding force higher. Consequently, NiTi/silicone rubber interface

  9. Crystallization and Martensitic Transformation Behavior of NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crystallization and Martensitic Transformation Behavior of NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Thin Films Alloy Thin Films Abstract The microstructure evolution and shape memory properties of near-equiatomic Ni-Ti thin films were investigated. Ni-Ti thin films sputter-deposited at room tem- perature are usually

  10. Shape memory response of ni2mnga and nimncoin magnetic shape memory alloys under compression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, Andrew Lee

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, the shape memory response of Ni2MnGa and NiMnCoIn magnetic shape memory alloys was observed under compressive stresses. Ni2MnGa is a magnetic shape memory alloy (MSMA) that has been shown to exhibit fully reversible, stressassisted...

  11. Plastic Deformation in an Amorphous Ni-P Coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Yongfeng; Liu, Wenning; Sun, Xin; Xue, W. Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Zuo, Liang; Liaw, Peter K.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental and numerical investigation of the hardness and associated plastic deformation in as-deposited and as-annealed nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) coatings was conducted. In addition to the indentation-deformation behavior, the deformation morphology underneath the indenter was examined. The yield strength extracted from the indentation data is as high as 5.6 GPa, indicating pressure-sensitive plasticity. Results show that the as-deposited Ni-P coating was deformed appreciably through the shear-band mechanism with semi-circular and radial shear-band morphologies. From the incremental loading-unloading cyclic experiments, the phenomena on hardening and recovery, which have scarcely been recognized in amorphous materials at room temperature, were observed in the amorphous coating using instrumented nanoindentation. A numerical simulation of the interfacial indentation test between the Ni-P coating and the substrate reveals the pile-up and shear bands of the Ni-P coating that were observed during the indentation tests.

  12. ''Bare'' single-particle energies in Ni-56

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trache, L.; Kolomiets, A.; Shlomo, S.; Heyde, K.; Dejbakhsh, H.; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Tribble, Robert E.; Zhou, XG; Jacob, VE; Oros, AM.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The differences between the Coulomb energy shifts of various orbitals in Ni-56 are discussed and compared with those resulting from Hartree-Fock calculations carried out using a broad range of Skyrme interactions. The parameters of the Woods-Saxon potential...

  13. www.ni-environment.gov.uk Agency Northern Ireland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    www.ni-environment.gov.uk Agency Northern Ireland Environment Summary of Radioactivity in Food and the Environment 2004-2008 #12;#12;ENVIRONMENT AGENCY FOOD STANDARDS AGENCY NORTHERN IRELAND ENVIRONMENT AGENCY SCOTTISH ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AGENCY Summary of Radioactivity in Food and the Environment 2004-2008 April

  14. 90° magnetic coupling in a NiFe/FeMn/biased NiFe multilayer spin valve component investigated by polarized neutron reflectometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callori, S. J., E-mail: sara.callori@ansto.gov.au; Bertinshaw, J. [School of Physics, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Cortie, D. L. [The Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, The University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Cai, J. W., E-mail: jwcai@aphy.iphy.ac.cn; Zhu, T. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Le Brun, A. P. [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Klose, F. [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We have observed 90° magnetic coupling in a NiFe/FeMn/biased NiFe multilayer system using polarized neutron reflectometry. Magnetometry results show magnetic switching for both the biased and free NiFe layers, the latter of which reverses at low applied fields. As these measurements are only capable of providing information about the total magnetization within a sample, polarized neutron reflectometry was used to investigate the reversal behavior of the NiFe layers individually. Both the non-spin-flip and spin-flip neutron reflectometry signals were tracked around the free NiFe layer hysteresis loop and were used to detail the evolution of the magnetization during reversal. At low magnetic fields near the free NiFe coercive field, a large spin-flip signal was observed, indicating magnetization aligned perpendicular to both the applied field and pinned layer.

  15. Complexation of Gluconate with Uranium(VI) in Acidic Solutions: Thermodynamic Study with Structural Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhicheng; Helms, G.; Clark, S. B.; Tian, Guoxin; Zanonato, PierLuigi; Rao, Linfeng

    2009-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the pC{sub H} range of 2.5 to 4.2, gluconate forms three uranyl complexes UO{sub 2}(GH{sub 4}){sup +}, UO{sub 2}(GH{sub 3})(aq), and UO{sub 2}(GH{sub 3})(GH{sub 4}){sup -}, through the following reactions: (1) UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} + GH{sub 4}{sup -} = UO{sub 2}(GH{sub 4}){sup +}, (2) UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} + GH{sub 4}{sup -} = UO{sub 2}(GH{sub 3})(aq) + H{sup +}, and (3) UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} + 2GH{sub 4}{sup -} = UO{sub 2}(GH{sub 3})(GH{sub 4}){sup -} + H{sup +}. Complexes were inferred from potentiometric, calorimetric, NMR, and EXAFS studies. Correspondingly, the stability constants and enthalpies were determined to be log {Beta}{sub 1} = 2.2 {+-} 0.3 and {Delta}H{sub 1} = 7.5 {+-} 1.3 kJ mol{sup -1} for reaction (1), log {Beta}{sub 2} = -(0.38 {+-} 0.05) and {Delta}H{sub 2} = 15.4 {+-} 0.3 kJ mol{sup -1} for reaction (2), and log {Beta}{sub 3} = 1.3 {+-} 0.2 and {Delta}H{sub 3} = 14.6 {+-} 0.3 kJ mol{sup -1} for reaction (3), at I = 1.0 M NaClO{sub 4} and t = 25 C. The UO{sub 2}(GH{sub 4}){sup +} complex forms through the bidentate carboxylate binding to U(VI). In the UO{sub 2}(GH{sub 3})(aq) complex, hydroxyl-deprotonated gluconate (GH{sub 3}{sup 2-}) coordinates to U(VI) through the five-membered ring chelation. For the UO{sub 2}(GH{sub 3})(GH{sub 4}){sup -} complex, multiple coordination modes are suggested. These results are discussed in the context of trivalent and pentavalent actinide complexation by gluconate.

  16. The reaction of Fe and Ni at intermediate energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liddick, Sean Nicholas

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    of the LtVrIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FEI LOtVS April 2001 Group. Physical Sciences THE REACTION OF Fe AND Vi AT IlvTFRMEDIATE ENERGIFS A Senior Honors Thesis B& SEAN NICHOLAS I. IDDICK Submitted to the Office of Honors Progran & Academic..., and the energy of the incident beam. Sean Nicholas Liddick Department of Chemistry Texas AilcM University Fellows Advisor: Dr, Sherry Yennello Department of Chemistry TABLE OF CONTFNTS ABSTRACT Page i 1 i TABI E OF CONTENTS. LIST OF FIGURES...

  17. ELECTRONIC SOLUTION SPECTRA FOR URANIUM AND NEPTUNIUM IN OXIDATION STATES (III) TO (VI) IN ANHYDROUS HYDROGEN FLUORIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baluka, M.; Edelstein, N.; O'Donnell, T. A.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectra have been recorded for solutions in anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) of uranium and neptunium in oxidation states (III) to (VI). The spectra for U(III), Np(III) and Np(IV) in AHF are very similar to those in acidified aqueous solution, but that for U(IV) suggests that the cationic species is UF{sub 2}{sup 2+}. The AHF spectra for the elements in oxidation states (V) and (VI) are not comparable with those of the formally analogous aqueous solutions, where the elements exist as well-defined dioxo-cations. However, the AHF spectra can be related to spectra in the gas phase, in the solid state or in non-aqueous solvents for each element in its appropriate oxidation state.

  18. Treatment tests for ex situ removal of chromate, nitrate, and uranium (VI) from Hanford (100-HR-3) groundwater. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, M.A.; Duncan, J.B.

    1993-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes batch and anion exchange column laboratory-scale studies investigating ex situ methods to remove chromate (chromium [VI]), nitrate (NO{sub 3}), and uranium (present as uranyl (uranium [VI]) carbonato anionic species) from contaminated Hanford Site groundwaters. The technologies investigated include chemical precipitation or coprecipitation to remove chromate and uranium, and anion exchange to remove chromate, uranium, and nitrate. The technologies investigated were specified in the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1993). The goal of these tests was to determine the best method to remove selected contaminants to below the concentration of the project performance goals. The raw data and observations made during these tests can be found in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) laboratory notebooks (Beck 1992, Herting 1993). The method recommended for future study is anion exchange with Dowex 21K resin.

  19. Shape memory behavior of ultrafine grained NiTi and TiNiPd shape memory alloys 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockar, Benat

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    , (b) SAD pattern taken from the circled area in (a) showing the >compound twinning and )001( }111{ ? Type I twinning, respectively...... 59... martensite, respectively .................................................... 63 SIM ? M y Figure 4.9 Monotonic mechanical response of the hot rolled and ECAE processed Ni 49.7 Ti 50.3 samples under tension at to be thermodynamically same condition...

  20. El Ni~no and La Ni~na: Causes and Global Consequences Michael J McPhaden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    releases heat into the middle and upper troposphere. This heat provides a source of energy to drive global wind fields that extend El Ni~no's influence to remote parts of the planet. Altered circulation patterns produce droughts, floods, unusual storminess, heat waves, and other weather extremes that have

  1. Improved magnetoelectric performance of the Ni-P/Ni/Pb(Zr,TiO)3 cylindrical layered composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    ) cylindrical layered magnetoelectric (ME) composites have been prepared by electroless deposition, and electroless deposition.9­12 Improving magnetoelectric device characteristics can be achieved by enhancing via magnetic flux concentration. Nickel is a kind of universal strong magnetic material, while Ni

  2. First-principles investigations of Ni3Al(111) and NiAl(110) surfaces at metal dusting conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saadi, Souheil

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the structure and surface composition of the {gamma}{prime}-Ni{sub 3}Al(111) and {beta}-NiAl(110) alloy surfaces at conditions relevant for metal dusting corrosion related to catalytic steam reforming of natural gas. In regular service as protective coatings, nickel-aluminum alloys are protected by an oxide scale, but in case of oxide scale spallation, the alloy surface may be directly exposed to the reactive gas environment and vulnerable to metal dusting. By means of density functional theory and thermochemical calculations for both the Ni{sub 3}Al and NiAl surfaces, the conditions under which CO and OH adsorption is to be expected and under which it is inhibited, are mapped out. Because CO and OH are regarded as precursors for nucleating graphite or oxide on the surfaces, phase diagrams for the surfaces provide a simple description of their stability. Specifically, this study shows how the CO and OH coverages depend on the steam to carbon ratio (S/C) in the gas and thereby provide a ranking of the carbon limits on the different surface phases.

  3. Au microstructure and the functional properties of Ni/Au finishes on ceramic IC packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winters, E.D.; Baxter, W.K. [Coors Electronic Package Co., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Braski, D.N.; Watkins, T.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ni/Au plated finishes used on thick-film metallized multilayer ceramic packages for integrated circuits must meet functional requirements such as bondability, sealability, and solderability. Their ability to do so is dependent, among other things, on the ability of the Au deposit to inhibit the grain boundary diffusion and subsequent surface oxidation of Ni. In this study, the relation between functional performance, Ni diffusionr ate, and Au microstructure was examined. Extent of Ni diffusion during heating was determined by Auger electron spectroscopy for several electrolytic and electroless Ni/Au finishing processes. Results were correlated with differences in Au microstructures determined by SEM, atomic force microscopy, and XRD.

  4. O. DONY-HNAULT. 2014 Sur la radio-activit du peroxyde d'hydrogne. Travaux du laboratoire de l'Institut Physiologie. Solvay. t. VI. f 03.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    l'Institut Physiologie. Solvay. t. VI. f 03. L'eau oxygénée a la propriété d'émettre les radiations

  5. Co-implantation of group VI elements and N for formation of non-alloyed ohmic contacts for n-type semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Yu, Kin M.

    2004-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-alloyed, low resistivity contacts for semiconductors using Group III-V and Group II-VI compounds and methods of making are disclosed. Co-implantation techniques are disclosed.

  6. A comparative study of magnetic behaviors in TbNi{sub 2}, TbMn{sub 2} and TbNi{sub 2}Mn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J. L., E-mail: jianli@uow.edu.au [Institute for Superconductivity and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Bragg Institute, ANSTO, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Md Din, M. F.; Hong, F.; Cheng, Z. X.; Dou, S. X. [Institute for Superconductivity and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Kennedy, S. J.; Studer, A. J. [Bragg Institute, ANSTO, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Campbell, S. J. [School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Canberra, ACT 2600 (Australia); Wu, G. H. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    All TbNi{sub 2}, TbMn{sub 2}, and TbNi{sub 2}Mn compounds exhibit the cubic Laves phase with AB{sub 2}-type structure in spite of the fact that the ratio of the Tb to transition-metal components in TbNi{sub 2}Mn is 1:3. Rietveld refinement indicates that in TbNi{sub 2}Mn the Mn atoms are distributed on both the A (8a) and B (16d) sites. The values of the lattice constants were measured to be a?=?14.348?Å (space group F-43?m), 7.618?Å, and 7.158?Å (space group Fd-3?m) for TbNi{sub 2}, TbMn{sub 2}, and TbNi{sub 2}Mn, respectively. The magnetic transition temperatures T{sub C} were found to be T{sub C}?=?38?K and T{sub C}?=?148?K for TbNi{sub 2} and TbNi{sub 2}Mn, respectively, while two magnetic phase transitions are detected for TbMn{sub 2} at T{sub 1}?=?20?K and T{sub 2}?=?49?K. Clear magnetic history effects in a low magnetic field are observed in TbMn{sub 2} and TbNi{sub 2}Mn. The magnetic entropy changes have been obtained.

  7. Upscaling of Long-Term U(VI) Desorption from Pore Scale Kinetics to Field-Scale Reactive Transport Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steefel, Carl I.; Li Li; Davis, J.A.; Curtis, G.P.; Honeyman, B.D.; Kent, D.B.; Kohler, M.; Rodriguez, D.R.; Johnson, K.J.; Miller, A.

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of the project is the development of scientifically defensible approaches for upscaling reactive transport models (RTM) through a detailed understanding of U(VI) desorption across several spatial scales: bench-, intermediate-, and field-scales. The central hypothesis of the project is that the development of this methodology will lead to a scientifically defensible approach for conceptual model development for multicomponent RTM at contaminated DOE sites, leading to predictive transport simulations with reduced uncertainty.

  8. Measurement of chromium VI and chromium III in stainless steel welding fumes with electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis and neutron activation analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lautner, Gerald Myron

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MEASUREMENT OF CHROMIUM VI AND CHROMIUM III IN STAINLESS STEEL WELDING FUMES WITH ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS A Thesis by GERALD MYRON LAUTNER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas Al...!M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene MEASUREMENT OF CHROMIUM VI AND CHROMIUM III IN STAINLESS STEEL WELDING FUMES WITH ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY...

  9. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI.sub. 2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, Reid A. (Bellevue, WA) [Bellevue, WA; Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA) [Seattle, WA

    1985-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin "composition-graded" layer ranging from on the order ot about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns (.congruent.2.5 .mu.m to .congruent.5.0 .mu.m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, causes the The Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. EG-77-C-01-4042, Subcontract No. XJ-9-8021-1 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  10. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI{sub 2}

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1985-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same are disclosed, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI{sub 2} chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin ``composition-graded`` layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns ({approx_equal}2.5 {mu}m to {approx_equal}5.0 {mu}m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii) a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion occurs (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer. 16 figs.

  11. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI[sub 2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1982-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same are disclosed, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (1) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI[sub 2] chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin composition-graded'' layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns ([approx equal]2.5[mu]m to [approx equal]5.0[mu]m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (2), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, is allowed.

  12. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI.sub. 2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, Reid A. (Bellevue, WA); Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin "composition-graded" layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns (.congruent.2.5.mu.m to .congruent.5.0.mu.m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, causes the transient n-type material in The Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. EG-77-C-01-4042, Subcontract No. XJ-9-8021-1 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  13. Ballistic magnetoresistance over 3000% in Ni nanocontacts at room temperature Harsh Deep Chopra* and Susan Z. Hua

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chopra, Harsh Deep

    . In the present study, the BMR measurements were made on Ni nanocontacts electrodeposited between Ni wires to electrodeposition of the Ni nanocontact, the Ni wires except for the region in the im- mediate vicinity of the tip a nickel sulfamate electro- lyte (pH 3.4). We used a cathode potential of 1.1 V ver- sus a saturated

  14. Monopole resonance strengths in Ni-58 and Pb-208

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Youngblood, David H.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fold- ing model predictions. Unfortunately, those data did not ex- tend to the small angles necessary to identify the GMR and to separate it from other multipoles. Both authors speculate of the E0 EWSR @7# are shown in Table I. Folded potentials... from 58Ni and 208Pb were calculated and TABLE I. Parameters for folding model calculations. Nucleus c ~fm! a ~fm! ^r2& ~fm2! a02 Ex ~MeV! V ~MeV! W ~MeV! 58Ni 4.08 0.515 13.653 0.0194 17.0 35.5 21.5 208Pb 6.67 0.545 30.798 0.00297 13...

  15. ''Bare'' single-particle energies in Ni-56 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trache, L.; Kolomiets, A.; Shlomo, S.; Heyde, K.; Dejbakhsh, H.; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Tribble, Robert E.; Zhou, XG; Jacob, VE; Oros, AM.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of 57Ni and 57Cu that the lowest orbital in the N53 shell is 2p3/2 @1#. The first and second excited states in 57Ni at E*50.768 MeV, Jp55/22 and E*51.113 MeV, Jp51/22 have good single-particle character @2# and corre- spond to the next two orbitals.... A quick look higher into the energy spectrum shows a group of three levels of negative parity and spins Jp55/22, 7/22, and 3/22 around the energy of the first excited state in the core at E(211)52701 keV with half-lives T1/25 31, 47, and 12 fs...

  16. Novel electrolyte chemistries for Mg-Ni rechargeable batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Diaz, Brenda (Savannah River National Laboratory); Kane, Marie; Au, Ming (Savannah River National Laboratory)

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and battery electric vehicles (BEV) serve as means to reduce the nation's dependence on oil. Current electric vehicles use relatively heavy nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) rechargeable batteries. Li-ion rechargeable batteries have been developed extensively as the replacement; however, the high cost and safety concerns are still issues to be resolved before large-scale production. In this study, we propose a new highly conductive solid polymer electrolyte for Mg-Ni high electrochemical capacity batteries. The traditional corrosive alkaline aqueous electrolyte (KOH) is replaced with a dry polymer with conductivity on the order of 10{sup -2} S/cm, as measured by impedance spectroscopy. Several potential novel polymer and polymer composite candidates are presented with the best-performing electrolyte results for full cell testing and cycling.

  17. Martensite transformation of epitaxial Ni-Ti films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buschbeck, J.; Kozhanov, A. [Department Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Kawasaki, J. K. [Department of Materials, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); James, R. D. [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Palmstroem, C. J. [Department Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Department of Materials, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure and phase transformations of thin Ni-Ti shape memory alloy films grown by molecular beam epitaxy are investigated for compositions from 43 to 56 at. % Ti. Despite the substrate constraint, temperature dependent x-ray diffraction and resistivity measurements reveal reversible, martensitic phase transformations. The results suggest that these occur by an in-plane shear which does not disturb the lattice coherence at interfaces.

  18. Sources of stress gradients in electrodeposited Ni MEMS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hearne, Sean Joseph; Floro, Jerrold Anthony; Dyck, Christopher William

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of future integrated metal-semiconductor micro-systems such as RF MEMS to perform highly complex functions will depend on developing freestanding metal structures that offer improved conductivity and reflectivity over polysilicon structures. For example, metal-based RF MEMS technology could replace the bulky RF system presently used in communications, navigation, and avionics systems. However, stress gradients that induce warpage of active components have prevented the implementation of this technology. Figure 1, is an interference micrograph image of a series of cantilever beams fabricated from electrodeposited Ni. The curvature in the beams was the result of stress gradients intrinsic to the electrodeposition process. To study the sources of the stress in electrodeposition of Ni we have incorporated a wafer curvature based stress sensor, the multibeam optical stress sensor, into an electrodeposition cell. We have determined that there are two regions of stress induced by electrodepositing Ni from a sulfamate-based bath (Fig 2). The stress evolution during the first region, 0-1000{angstrom}, was determined to be dependent only on the substrate material (Au vs. Cu), whereas the stress evolution during the second region, >1000{angstrom}, was highly dependent on the deposition conditions. In this region, the stress varied from +0.5 GPa to -0.5GPa, depending solely on the deposition rate. We examined four likely sources for the compressive intrinsic stress, i.e. reduction in tensile stress, and determined that only the adatom diffusion into grain boundaries model of Sheldon, et al. could account for the observed compressive stress. In the presentation, we shall discuss the compressive stress generation mechanisms considered and the ramifications of these results on fabrication of electrodeposited Ni for MEMS applications.

  19. Magnetic field-induced phase transformation and variant reorientation in Ni2MnGa and NiMnCoIn magnetic shape memory alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karaca, Haluk Ersin

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this work is to reveal the governing mechanisms responsible for the magnetic field-induced i) martensite reorientation in Ni2MnGa single crystals, ii) stress-assisted phase transformation in Ni2MnGa single crystals and iii) phase...

  20. Effect of partial substitution of Ni by Co on the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of Ni50Mn35In15 Heusler alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, Philip W.

    /ferromagnetic transition (T ¼ TC). The effective refrigeration capacity at TM and TC for magnetizing field was found [magnetic entropy change (DSM), adiabatic temperature change (DTad), and refrigeration capacity (RC)] shouldEffect of partial substitution of Ni by Co on the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of Ni50Mn

  1. The significant effect of the thickness of Ni film on the performance of the Ni/Au Ohmic contact to p-GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, X. J.; Zhao, D. G., E-mail: dgzhao@red.semi.ac.cn; Jiang, D. S.; Liu, Z. S.; Chen, P.; Zhu, J. J.; Le, L. C.; Yang, J.; He, X. G. [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, S. M.; Zhang, B. S.; Liu, J. P. [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Yang, H. [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The significant effect of the thickness of Ni film on the performance of the Ohmic contact of Ni/Au to p-GaN is studied. The Ni/Au metal films with thickness of 15/50?nm on p-GaN led to better electrical characteristics, showing a lower specific contact resistivity after annealing in the presence of oxygen. Both the formation of a NiO layer and the evolution of metal structure on the sample surface and at the interface with p-GaN were checked by transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The experimental results indicate that a too thin Ni film cannot form enough NiO to decrease the barrier height and get Ohmic contact to p-GaN, while a too thick Ni film will transform into too thick NiO cover on the sample surface and thus will also deteriorate the electrical conductivity of sample.

  2. Facile approach to prepare hollow core–shell NiO microspherers for supercapacitor electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Dandan [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); College of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology, Jilin 132022 (China); Xu, Pengcheng [College of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology, Jilin 132022 (China); Jing, Xiaoyan [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Jun, E-mail: zhqw1888@sohu.com [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Institute of Advanced Marine Materials, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Song, Dalei; Liu, Jingyuan; Zhang, Milin [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A facile lamellar template method (see image) has been developed for the preparation of uniform hollow core–shell structure NiO (HCS–NiO) with a nanoarchitectured wall structure. The prepared NiO was found to be highly crystalline in uniform microstructures with high specific surface area and pore volume. The results indicated that ethanol interacted with trisodium citrate played an important role for the formation of hollow core–shell spheres. On the basis of the analysis of the composition and the morphology, a possible formation mechanism was investigated. NiO microspheres with hollow core–shell showed excellent capacitive properties. The exceptional cyclic, structural and electrochemical stability with ?95% coulombic efficiency, and very low ESR value from impedance measurements promised good utility value of hollow core–shell NiO material in fabricating a wide range of high-performance electrochemical supercapacitors. - The hollow core–shell NiO was prepared with a facile lamellar template method. The prepared NiO show higher capacitance, lower ion diffusion resistance and better electroactive surface utilization for Faradaic reactions. - Highlights: • Formation of hollow core–shell NiO via a novel and facile precipitation route. • Exhibited uniform feature sizes and high surface area of hollow core–shell NiO. • Synthesized NiO has high specific capacitance ( 448 F g{sup 1}) and very low ESR value. • Increased 20% of long life cycles capability after 500 charge–discharge cycles.

  3. Water adsorption and dissociation on Ni(110): How is it different from its close packed counterparts?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seenivasan, H.; Tiwari, Ashwani K., E-mail: ashwani@iiserkol.ac.in [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Mohanpur 741252 (India)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Water adsorption and dissociation on Ni(110) surface is studied in detail and compared with its close packed counterparts using density functional theory calculations. Water adsorption occurs on the top site as found on Ni(100) and Ni(111) but the adsorption is stronger on Ni(110). H and OH preferably adsorb on the short bridge sites (brgshort) opposed to hollow sites on (100) and (111) surfaces. Energy barriers for water molecule dissociation on Ni(110) as obtained from the transition state (TS) calculations were low compared to other Ni low indexed surfaces. TS geometries at different positions of the lattice coordinate, Q, were obtained to study the effect of surface temperature on dissociation of H{sub 2}O molecules. These calculations revealed that second layer atoms were also involved in the TS. Dissociation probabilities are obtained using a semi-classical approximation by sampling Q for a Boltzmann distribution at different temperatures. Results showed that the increasing surface temperature significantly increases the dissociation probabilities at lower energies and saturates near the barrier for dissociation. Although the contribution from both top and second layers is similar at low surface temperatures, motion of top layer atoms contribute more towards dissociation probability at higher surface temperatures. Dissociation probabilities obtained are more than one order of magnitude higher than that on Ni(100) and Ni(111) surfaces suggesting Ni(110) to be more reactive among the low indexed Ni surfaces.

  4. Electronic structure of Co-Ni-Ga Heusler alloys studied by resonant photoemission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baral, Madhusmita, E-mail: madhusmita@rrcat.gov.in; Banik, Soma, E-mail: madhusmita@rrcat.gov.in; Ganguli, Tapas, E-mail: madhusmita@rrcat.gov.in; Chakrabarti, Aparna, E-mail: madhusmita@rrcat.gov.in; Deb, S. K. [Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India); Thamizhavel, A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India); Wadikar, Avinash; Phase, D. M. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore-452017 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The electronic structures of Co{sub 2.01}Ni{sub 1.05}Ga{sub 0.94} and Co{sub 1.76}Ni{sub 1.46}Ga{sub 0.78} Heusler alloys have been investigated by resonant photoemission spectroscopy across the 3p-3d transition of Co and Ni. For the Ni excess composition Co{sub 1.76}Ni{sub 1.46}Ga{sub 0.78}, the valence band peak shows a shift of 0.25 eV as compared to the near stoichiometric composition Co{sub 2.01}N1{sub 1.05}Ga{sub 0.94}. Also an enhancement is observed in the Ni related satellite features in the valence band for the Ni excess composition. Due to hybridization of Co and Ni 3d states in these systems, the Co and Ni 3p-3d resonance energies are found to be higher as compared to Co and Ni metals. Theoretical first principle calculation is performed to understand the features in the valence band and the shape of the resonance profile.

  5. Cell Degradation of a Na-NiCl2 (ZEBRA) Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, the parameters influencing the degradation of a Na-NiCl2 (ZEBRA) battery were investigated. Planar Na-NiCl2 cells using ?”-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) were tested with different C-rates, Ni/NaCl ratios, and capacity windows, in order to identify the key parameters for the degradation of Na-NiCl2 battery. The morphology of NaCl and Ni particles were extensively investigated after 60 cycles under various test conditions using a scanning electron microscope. A strong correlation between the particle size (NaCl and Ni) and battery degradation was observed in this work. Even though the growth of both Ni and NaCl can influence the cell degradation, our results indicate that the growth of NaCl is a dominant factor in cell degradation. The use of excess Ni seems to play a role in tolerating the negative effects of particle growth on degradation since the available active surface area of Ni particles can be still sufficient even after particle growth. For NaCl, a large cycling window was the most significant factor, of which effects were amplified with decrease in Ni/NaCl ratio.

  6. Proton spectroscopy of 48Ni, 46Fe, and 44Cr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Pomorski; M. Pfützner; W. Dominik; R. Grzywacz; A. Stolz; T. Baumann; J. S. Berryman; H. Czyrkowski; R. D?browski; A. Fija?kowska; T. Ginter; J. Johnson; G. Kami?ski; N. Larson; S. N. Liddick; M. Madurga; C. Mazzocchi; S. Mianowski; K. Miernik; D. Miller; S. Paulauskas; J. Pereira; K. P. Rykaczewski; S. Suchyta

    2014-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of decay spectroscopy on nuclei in vicinity of the doubly magic 48Ni are presented. The measurements were performed with a Time Projection Chamber with optical readout which records tracks of ions and protons in the gaseous volume. Six decays of 48Ni including four events of two-proton ground-state radioactivity were recorded. An advanced reconstruction procedure yielded the 2p decay energy for 48Ni of Q2p = 1.29(4) MeV. In addition, the energy spectra of \\b{eta}-delayed protons emitted in the decays of 44Cr and 46Fe, as well as half-lives and branching ratios were determined. The results were found to be consistent with the previous measurements made with Si detectors. A new proton line in the decay of 44Cr corresponding to the decay energy of 760 keV is reported. The first evidence for the \\b{eta}2p decay of 46 Fe, based on one clear event, is shown.

  7. Present status of the KADoNiS database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Dillmann; R. Plag; M. Heil; F. Käppeler; T. Rauscher

    2008-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The "Karlsruhe Astrophysical Database of Nucleosynthesis in Stars" (KADoNiS) project is an online database for experimental cross sections relevant to the $s$ process and $p$ process. It is available under \\http://nuclear-astrophysics.fzk.de/kadonis and consists of two parts. Part 1 is an updated sequel to the well-known Bao et al. compilations from 1987 and 2000, which is online since April 2005. An extension of this $s$-process database to $(n,p)$ and $(n,\\alpha)$ cross sections at $kT$= 30 keV, as in the first version of the Bao compilation, is planned. The second part of KADoNiS is a $p$-process library, which includes all available experimental data from $(p,\\gamma)$, $(p,n)$, $(\\alpha,\\gamma)$, $(\\alpha,n)$, $(\\alpha,\\alpha)$, $(n,\\alpha)$ and $(\\gamma,n)$ reactions in or close to the respective Gamow window. Despite the great number of reactions required for a $p$-process reaction network, experimental data is still scarce and up to now restricted to stable targets. Given here is a short overview about the present status of the KADoNiS database.

  8. Glass nanoimprint using amorphous Ni-P mold etched by focused-ion beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mekaru, Harutaka; Kitadani, Takeshi; Yamashita, Michiru; Takahashi, Masaharu [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-2-1, Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564 (Japan); SAWA Plating Co., Ltd., 753 Hoshiro, Himeji, Hyogo 670-0804 (Japan); Hyogo Prefectural Institute of Technology, 3-1-12 Yukihira-cho, Suma-ku, Kobe 654-0037 (Japan); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564 (Japan)

    2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors succeeded in glass-nanoimprint lithography of micropatterns and nanopatterns using an amorphous Ni-P alloy mold. Glasslike carbon has been used as a mold material to mold not only Pyrex glass but also quartz, because it is still stable at a temperature of 1650 deg. C. However, it is difficult to process glasslike carbon substrates into arbitrary shapes by machining. They thought that amorphous Ni-P alloy could be used as a mold material for industrial glass molding. If Ni is electroless plated when mixed with suitable amount of P on a Si wafer, the Ni-P alloy layer becomes amorphous. An appropriate ratio of Ni and P was determined by the results of x-ray-diffraction measurements. The optimized composition ratio of Ni-P was Ni:P=92:8 wt %. Moreover, line and space patterns and dot arrays with linewidths of as little as 500 nm were etched on the mold using focused-ion beam (FIB) and the processing accuracy for the amorphous Ni-P layer was compared with that for the pure Ni layer. The result was that patterns of 500 nm width were etched to a depth of 2 {mu}m on an amorphous Ni-P alloy mold and the processed surfaces were smooth. In contrast, in the case of the pure Ni layer, the processing line was notched and the sidewalls were very rough. The crystal grain seems to hinder the processing of the nanopattern. After FIB etching, the amorphous Ni-P alloy was thermally treated at 400 deg. C to improve the hardness. Finally, line and space patterns and dot arrays on the amorphous Ni-P alloy mold were nanoimprinted on Pyrex glass using a glass-nanoimprint system (ASHE0201) that National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology developed.

  9. Influence of phosphate and silica on U(VI) precipitation from acidic and neutralized wastewaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanematsu, Masakazu; Perdrial, Nicolas; Um, Wooyong; Chorover, Jon; O'Day, Peggy A.

    2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium speciation and physical-chemical characteristics were studied in solids precipitated from synthetic acidic to circumneutral wastewaters in the presence and absence of dissolved silica and phosphate to examine thermodynamic and kinetic controls on phase formation. Composition of synthetic wastewater was based on disposal sites 216-U-8 and 216-U-12 Cribs at the Hanford site (WA, USA). In the absence of dissolved silica or phosphate, crystalline or amorphous uranyl oxide hydrates, either compreignacite or meta-schoepite, precipitated at pH 5 or 7 after 30 d of reaction, in agreement with thermodynamic calculations. In the presence of 1 mM dissolved silica representative of groundwater concentrations, amorphous phases dominated by compreignacite precipitated rapidly at pH 5 or 7 as a metastable phase and formation of poorly-crystalline boltwoodite, the thermodynamically stable uranyl silicate phase, was slow. In the presence of phosphate (3 mM), meta-ankoleite initially precipitated as the primary phase at pH 3, 5, or 7 regardless of the presence of 1 mM dissolved silica. Analysis of precipitates by U LIII-edge EXAFS indicated that “autunite-type” sheets of meta-ankoleite transformed to “phosphuranylite-type” sheets after 30 d of reaction, probably due to Ca substitution in the structure. Low solubility of uranyl phosphate phases limits dissolved U(VI) concentrations but differences in particle size, crystallinity, and precipitate composition vary with pH and base cation concentration, which will influence the thermodynamic and kinetic stability of these phases.

  10. Low-temperature magnetization in Ni-rich gamma-Ni100-x-yFexVy alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakraborty, S.; Mukherjee, GD; Rathnayaka, KDD; Naugle, Donald G.; Majumdar, AK.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transition-metal alloys have PRB 620163-1829/2000/62~1!/476~5!/$15.00 Ni-rich g-Ni100?x?yFexVy alloys G. D. Mukherjee , Kanpur 208016, Uttar Pradesh, India and D. G. Naugle , College Station, Texas 77843-4242 r? , Kanpur 208016, Uttar Pradesh, India... 83-10-7 48662 8.60 56.7 3 80.5-10.5-9 41763 8.54 64.5 4 77-12-11 39361 8.45 47.2 5 82.5-5.5-12 36263 8.54 41.2 2BT 6 77-7-16 15561 8.38 26.7 7 79-5-16 6260.5 8.40 16.2 8 78-4-18 4360.5 8.35 13.9 PRB 62 LOW-TEMPERATURE MAGNETIZATIO present set...

  11. Near-Infrared Photoluminescence Enhancement in Ge/CdS and Ge/ZnS Core/Shell Nanocrystals: Utilizing IV/II-VI Semiconductor Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Yijun [Ames Laboratory; Rowland, Clare E [Argonne National Laboratory; Schaller, Richard D [Argonne National Laboratory; Vela, Javier [Ames Laboratory

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Ge nanocrystals have a large Bohr radius and a small, size-tunable band gap that may engender direct character via strain or doping. Colloidal Ge nanocrystals are particularly interesting in the development of near-infrared materials for applications in bioimaging, telecommunications and energy conversion. Epitaxial growth of a passivating shell is a common strategy employed in the synthesis of highly luminescent II–VI, III–V and IV–VI semiconductor quantum dots. Here, we use relatively unexplored IV/II–VI epitaxy as a way to enhance the photoluminescence and improve the optical stability of colloidal Ge nanocrystals. Selected on the basis of their relatively small lattice mismatch compared with crystalline Ge, we explore the growth of epitaxial CdS and ZnS shells using the successive ion layer adsorption and reaction method. Powder X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy techniques, including energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction, clearly show the controllable growth of as many as 20 epitaxial monolayers of CdS atop Ge cores. In contrast, Ge etching and/or replacement by ZnS result in relatively small Ge/ZnS nanocrystals. The presence of an epitaxial II–VI shell greatly enhances the near-infrared photoluminescence and improves the photoluminescence stability of Ge. Ge/II–VI nanocrystals are reproducibly 1–3 orders of magnitude brighter than the brightest Ge cores. Ge/4.9CdS core/shells show the highest photoluminescence quantum yield and longest radiative recombination lifetime. Thiol ligand exchange easily results in near-infrared active, water-soluble Ge/II–VI nanocrystals. We expect this synthetic IV/II–VI epitaxial approach will lead to further studies into the optoelectronic behavior and practical applications of Si and Ge-based nanomaterials.

  12. Influence of Reactive Transport on the Reduction of U(VI) in the Presence of Fe(III) and Nitrate: Implications for U(VI) Immobilization by Bioremediation / Biobarriers- Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.D. Wood

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subsurface contamination by metals and radionuclides represent some of the most challenging remediation problems confronting the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. In situ remediation of these contaminants by dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria (DMRB) has been proposed as a potential cost effective remediation strategy. The primary focus of this research is to determine the mechanisms by which the fluxes of electron acceptors, electron donors, and other species can be controlled to maximize the transfer of reductive equivalents to the aqueous and solid phases. The proposed research is unique in the NABIR portfolio in that it focuses on (i) the role of flow and transport in the initiation of biostimulation and the successful sequestration of metals and radionuclides [specifically U(VI)], (ii) the subsequent reductive capacity and stability of the reduced sediments produced by the biostimulation process, and (iii) the potential for altering the growth of biomass in the subsurface by the addition of specific metabolic uncoupling compounds. A scientifically-based understanding of these phenomena are critical to the ability to design successful bioremediation schemes. The laboratory research will employ Shewanella putrefaciens (CN32), a facultative DMRB that can use Fe(III) oxides as a terminal electron acceptor. Sediment-packed columns will be inoculated with this organism, and the reduction of U(VI) by the DMRB will be stimulated by the addition of a carbon and energy source in the presence of Fe(III). Separate column experiments will be conducted to independently examine: (1) the importance of the abiotic reduction of U(VI) by biogenic Fe(II); (2) the influence of the transport process on Fe(III) reduction and U(VI) immobilization, with emphasis on methods for controlling the fluxes of aqueous species to maximize uranium reduction; (3) the reductive capacity of biologically-reduced sediments (with respect to re-oxidation by convective fluxes of O2 and NO3-) and the long-term stability of immobilized uranium mineral phases after bioremediation processes are complete, and (4) the ability for metabolic uncoupling compounds to maintain microbial growth while limiting biomass production. The results of the laboratory experiments will be used to develop mathematical descriptive models for the coupled transport and reduction processes.

  13. Tribological behavior of NiTi alloy against 52100 steel and WC at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abedini, M. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghasemi, H.M., E-mail: hghasemi@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadabadi, M. Nili [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The dry tribological behavior of a Ti-50.3 at.% Ni alloy at temperatures of 25 deg. C, 50 deg. C and 200 deg. C was studied. The wear tests were performed on a high temperature pin-on-disk tribometer using 52100 steel and tungsten carbide pins. The worn surfaces of the NiTi alloy were examined by scanning electron microscope. The results showed that in the wear tests involving steel pins, the wear rate of the NiTi decreased as the wear testing temperature was increased. However, for the NiTi/WC contact, a reverse trend was observed. There was also a large decrease in the coefficient of friction for the NiTi/steel contact with increasing wear testing temperature. The formation of compact tribological layers could be the main reason for the reduction of the wear rate and coefficient of friction of the NiTi/steel contact at higher wear testing temperatures.

  14. Surface structure and electrochemical characteristics of Ti-V-Cr bcc-type solid solution alloys sintered with Ni

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsuji, Yoichiro; Yamamoto, Osamu; Matsuda, Hiromu; Toyoguchi, Yoshinori

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ti-V-Cr bcc-type solid solution alloys can absorb a large amount of hydrogen and be applied to active materials of the negative electrode in Ni-MH batteries. However, because of the insolubility of Ni into these alloys, the electrochemical characteristics like discharge capacity and cycle life were poor. In order to increase the discharge capacity of hydrogen absorbing alloy electrodes, Ti-V-Cr bcc-type alloy powders were sintered with Ni in order to form Ni contained surface layer on the alloy surface. As sintering temperature rose up, the surface composition changed from TiNi to Ti{sub 2}Ni. TiNi surface layer showed better electrochemical characteristics. For the Ni adding method, Ni electroless plating was preferred because of good adhesion. As a result of optimized conditions, a discharge capacity of 570 mAh/g and an improvement of cycle life were achieved.

  15. Structural and Mössbauer spectroscopic study of Fe-Ni alloy nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Asheesh; Banerjee, S., E-mail: vsudar@barc.gov.in; Sudarsan, V., E-mail: vsudar@barc.gov.in [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Meena, S. S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Nano-crystalline Fe-Ni alloys have been synthesized in ethylene glycol medium. Based on XRD studies it is confirmed that, in these alloys Fe atoms are incorporated at Ni site to form Ni-Fe solid solutions. Mössbauer studies have established that for alloy particles having smaller size there is significant concentration of two different types of paramagnetic Fe species and their relative concentration decreased with increase in particle size.

  16. The structure of Serratia marcescens Lip, a membrane-bound component of the type VI secretion system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Vincenzo A.; Shepherd, Sharon M.; English, Grant; Coulthurst, Sarah J.; Hunter, William N., E-mail: w.n.hunter@dundee.ac.uk [College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The high-resolution crystal structure of S. marcescens Lip reveals a new member of the transthyretin family of proteins. Lip, a core component of the type VI secretion apparatus, is localized to the outer membrane and is positioned to interact with other proteins forming this complex system. Lip is a membrane-bound lipoprotein and a core component of the type VI secretion system found in Gram-negative bacteria. The structure of a Lip construct (residues 29–176) from Serratia marcescens (SmLip) has been determined at 1.92 Å resolution. Experimental phases were derived using a single-wavelength anomalous dispersion approach on a sample cocrystallized with iodide. The membrane localization of the native protein was confirmed. The structure is that of the globular domain lacking only the lipoprotein signal peptide and the lipidated N-terminus of the mature protein. The protein fold is dominated by an eight-stranded ?-sandwich and identifies SmLip as a new member of the transthyretin family of proteins. Transthyretin and the only other member of the family fold, 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase, form homotetramers important for their function. The asymmetric unit of SmLip is a tetramer with 222 symmetry, but the assembly is distinct from that previously noted for the transthyretin protein family. However, structural comparisons and bacterial two-hybrid data suggest that the SmLip tetramer is not relevant to its role as a core component of the type VI secretion system, but rather reflects a propensity for SmLip to participate in protein–protein interactions. A relatively low level of sequence conservation amongst Lip homologues is noted and is restricted to parts of the structure that might be involved in interactions with physiological partners.

  17. The O VI Absorbers Toward PG0953+415: High Metallicity, Cosmic-Web Gas Far From Luminous Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todd M. Tripp; Bastien Aracil; David V. Bowen; Edward B. Jenkins

    2006-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The spectrum of the low-redshift QSO PG0953+415 shows two strong, intervening O VI absorption systems. To study the nature of these absorbers, we have used the Gemini Multiobject Spectrograph to conduct a deep spectroscopic galaxy redshift survey in the 5' x 5' field centered on the QSO. This survey is fully complete for r' web. Evidently, some regions of the web filaments are highly metal enriched. We discuss the origin of the high-metallicity gas and suggest that the enrichment might have occurred long ago (at high z).

  18. NiSource Energy Technologies: Optimizing Combined Heat and Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summarizes NiSource Energy Technologies' work under contract to DOE's Distribution and Interconnection R&D. Includes studying distributed generation interconnection issues and CHP system performance.

  19. NiSource Energy Technologies Inc.: System Integration of Distributed Power for Complete Building Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summarizes NiSource Energy Technologies' work under contract to DOE's Distribution and Interconnection R&D. Includes studying distributed generation interconnection issues and CHP system performance.

  20. Strain mediated coupling in magnetron sputtered multiferroic PZT/Ni-Mn-In/Si thin film heterostructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Kirandeep; Kaur, Davinder, E-mail: dkaurfph@iitr.ernet.in [Functional Nanomaterials Research Lab, Department of Physics and Centre of Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee-247667, Uttarakhand (India); Singh, Sushil Kumar [Functional Materials Division, Solid State Physics Lab (SSPL), DRDO, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110054 (India)

    2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The strain mediated electrical and magnetic properties were investigated in PZT/Ni-Mn-In heterostructure deposited on Si (100) by dc/rf magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction pattern revealed that (220) orientation of Ni-Mn-In facilitate the (110) oriented tertragonal phase growth of PZT layer in PZT/Ni-Mn-In heterostructure. A distinctive peak in dielectric constant versus temperature plots around martensitic phase transformation temperature of Ni-Mn-In showed a strain mediated coupling between Ni-Mn-In and PZT layers. The ferroelectric measurement taken at different temperatures exhibits a well saturated and temperature dependent P-E loops with a highest value of P{sub sat}???55 ?C/cm{sup 2} obtained during martensite-austenite transition temperature region of Ni-Mn-In. The stress induced by Ni-Mn-In layer on upper PZT film due to structural transformation from martensite to austenite resulted in temperature modulated Tunability of PZT/Ni-Mn-In heterostructure. A tunability of 42% was achieved at 290?K (structural transition region of Ni-Mn-In) in these heterostructures. I-V measurements taken at different temperatures indicated that ohmic conduction was the main conduction mechanism over a large electric field range in these heterostructures. Magnetic measurement revealed that heterostructure was ferromagnetic at room temperature with a saturation magnetization of ?123?emu/cm{sup 3}. Such multiferroic heterostructures exhibits promising applications in various microelectromechanical systems.

  1. Ductile Ni.sub.3 Al alloys as bonding agents for ceramic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); McDonald, Robert R. (Traverse City, MI)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved ceramic-metal composite comprising a mixture of a ceramic material with a ductile intermetallic alloy, preferably Ni.sub.3 Al.

  2. Simple route for the synthesis of supercapacitive Co-Ni mixed hydroxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubal, D.P. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (M.S.) (India) [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (M.S.) (India); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Jagadale, A.D.; Patil, S.V. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (M.S.) (India)] [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (M.S.) (India); Lokhande, C.D., E-mail: l_chandrakant@yahoo.com [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (M.S.) (India)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel method for deposition of Co-Ni mixed hydroxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticle network of Co-Ni hydroxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High specific capacitance of 672 F g{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High discharge/charge rates. -- Abstract: Facile synthesis of Co-Ni mixed hydroxides films with interconnected nanoparticles networks through two step route is successfully established. These films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared technique (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and wettability test. Co-Ni film formation is confirmed from XRD and FTIR study. SEM shows that the surface of Co-Ni films is composed of interconnected nanoparticles. Contact angle measurement revealed the hydrophilic nature of films which is feasible for the supercapacitor. The electrochemical performance of the film is evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, and constant-current charge/discharge cycling techniques. Specific capacitance of the Co-Ni mixed hydroxide electrode achieved 672 F g{sup -1}. Impedance analysis shows that Co-Ni mixed hydroxide electrode provides less resistance for the intercalation and de-intercalation of ions. The Co-Ni mixed electrode exhibited good charge/discharge rate at different current densities. The results demonstrated that Co-Ni mixed hydroxide composite is very promising for the next generation high performance electrochemical supercapacitors.

  3. High-performance Ni[sub 3]Al synthesized from composite powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiou, W.C.; Hu, C.T. (National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Specimens of Ni[sub 3]Al + B of high density (>99.3 pct RD) and relatively large dimension have been synthesized from composite powders through processes of replacing plating and electroless Ni-B plating on Al powder, sintering, and thermal-mechanical treatment. The uniformly coated Ni layer over fine Al or Ni core particles constituting these coating/core composite powders has advantages such as better resistance to oxidation relative to pure Al powder, a greater green density as a compacted powder than prealloyed powder, the possibility of atomically added B to the material by careful choice of a suitable plating solution, and avoidance of the expensive powder metallurgy (PM) equipment such as a hot isostatic press (HIP), hot press (HP), etc. The final Ni[sub 3]Al + B product is made from Ni-B-Al and Ni-B-Ni mixed composite powders by means of traditional PM processes such as compacting, sintering, rolling, and annealing, and therefore, the dimensions of the product are not constrained by the capacity of an HIP or HP. The properties of Ni[sub 3]Al composite powder metallurgy (CPM) specimens tested at room temperature have been obtained, and comparison with previous reports is conducted. A tensile elongation of about 16 pct at room temperature was attained.

  4. Ductile Ni[sub 3]Al alloys as bonding agents for ceramic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, T.N.; McDonald, R.R.

    1990-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved ceramic-metal composite is described comprising a mixture of a ceramic material with a ductile intermetallic alloy, preferably Ni[sub 3]Al. 2 figs.

  5. Ductile Ni[sub 3]Al alloys as bonding agents for ceramic materials in cutting tools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, T.N.; McDonald, R.R.

    1991-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved ceramic-metal composite comprising a mixture of a ceramic material with a ductile intermetallic alloy, preferably Ni[sub 3]Al is disclosed. 2 figures.

  6. Synthesis, crystal structure, and structural conversion of Ni molybdate hydrate NiMoO{sub 4}.nH{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eda, Kazuo, E-mail: eda@kobe-u.ac.j [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Kato, Yasuyuki; Ohshiro, Yu; Sugitani, Takamitu [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Whittingham, M. Stanley [Institute for Materials Research, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY 13902-6000 (United States)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The synthesis and crystal structure of NiMoO{sub 4}.nH{sub 2}O were investigated. The hydrate crystallized in the triclinic system with space group P-1, Z=4 with unit cell parameters of a=6.7791(2) A, b=6.8900(2) A, c=9.2486(2) A, {alpha}=76.681(2){sup o}, {beta}=83.960(2){sup o}, {gamma}=74.218(2){sup o}. Its ideal chemical composition was NiMoO{sub 4}.3/4H{sub 2}O rather than NiMoO{sub 4}.1H{sub 2}O. Under hydrothermal conditions the hydrate turned directly into {alpha}-NiMoO{sub 4} above 483 K, giving nanorods thinner than the crystallites of the mother hydrate. On the other hand, it turned into Anderson type of polyoxomolybdate via a solid-solution process in a molybdate solution at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: NiMoO{sub 4}.nH{sub 2}O crystallized in the triclinic system with space group P-1, and its ideal chemical composition was NiMoO{sub 4}.3/4H{sub 2}O rather than NiMoO{sub 4}.1H{sub 2}O.

  7. Cu-Ni-Fe anodes having improved microstructure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergsma, S. Craig; Brown, Craig W.

    2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing aluminum in a low temperature electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell containing the electrolyte. A non-consumable anode and cathode is disposed in the electrolyte, the anode comprised of Cu--Ni--Fe alloys having single metallurgical phase. Electric current is passed from the anode, through the electrolyte to the cathode thereby depositing aluminum on the cathode, and molten aluminum is collected from the cathode.

  8. Improved oxidation sulfidation resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Natesan, K.; Baxter, D.J.

    1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    High temperature resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni alloy compositions to oxidative and/or sulfidative conditions is provided by the incorporation of about 1 to 8 wt % of Zr or Nb and results in a two-phase composition having an alloy matrix as the first phase and a fine grained intermetallic composition as the second phase. The presence and location of the intermetallic composition between grains of the matrix provides mechanical strength, enhanced surface scale adhesion, and resistance to corrosive attack between grains of the alloy matrix at temperatures of 500 to 1000/sup 0/C.

  9. Oxidation sulfidation resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Natesan, Ken (Naperville, IL); Baxter, David J. (Woodridge, IL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High temperature resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni alloy compositions to oxidative and/or sulfidative conditions is provided by the incorporation of about 1-8 wt. % of Zr or Nb and results in a two-phase composition having an alloy matrix as the first phase and a fine grained intermetallic composition as the second phase. The presence and location of the intermetallic composition between grains of the matrix provides mechanical strength, enhanced surface scale adhesion, and resistance to corrosive attack between grains of the alloy matrix at temperatures of 500.degree.-1000.degree. C.

  10. Large -Delayed Neutron Emission Probabilities in the 78Ni Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winger, J. A. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr [ORNL; Gross, Carl J [ORNL; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz [ORNL; Shapira, Dan [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The -delayed neutron branching ratios (P n) for nuclei near doubly magic 78Ni have been directly measured using a new method combining high-resolution mass separation, reacceleration, and digital - spectroscopy of 238U fission products. The P n values for the very neutron-rich isotopes 76 78Cu and 83Ga were found to be much higher than previously reported and predicted. Revised calculations of the n process, accounting for new mass measurements and an inversion of the 2p3/2 and 1f5/2 orbitals, are in better agreement with these new experimental results.

  11. Stable atomic structure of NiTi austenite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarkevich, Nikolai A [Ames Laboratory; Johnson, Duane D [Ames Laboratory

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitinol (NiTi), the most widely used shape-memory alloy, exhibits an austenite phase that has yet to be identified. The usually assumed austenitic structure is cubic B2, which has imaginary phonon modes, hence it is unstable. We suggest a stable austenitic structure that “on average” has B2 symmetry (observed by x-ray and neutron diffraction), but it exhibits finite atomic displacements from the ideal B2 sites. The proposed structure has a phonon spectrum that agrees with that from neutron scattering, has diffraction spectra in agreement with x-ray diffraction, and has an energy relative to the ground state that agrees with calorimetry data.

  12. Subsurface Biogeochemical Heterogeneity (Field-scale removal of U(VI) from groundwater in an alluvial aquifer by electron donor amendment)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Philip E.; Derek R. Lovley; A. L. N’Guessan; Kelly Nevin; C. T. Resch; Evan Arntzen; Jenny Druhan; Aaron Peacock; Brett Baldwin; Dick Dayvault; Dawn Holmes; Ken Williams; Susan Hubbard; Steve Yabusaki; Yilin Fang; D.C. White; John Komlos; Peter Jaffe

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Determine if biostimulation of alluvial aquifers by electron donor amendment can effectively remove U(VI) from groundwater at the field scale. Uranium contamination in groundwater is a significant problem at several DOE sites. In this project, the possibility of accelerating bioreduction of U(VI) to U(IV) as a means of decreasing U(VI) concentrations in groundwater is directly addressed by conducting a series of field-scale experiments. Scientific goals include demonstrating the quantitative linkage between microbial activity and U loss from groundwater and relating the dominant terminal electron accepting processes to the rate of U loss. The project is currently focused on understanding the mechanisms for unexpected long-term ({approx}2 years) removal of U after stopping electron donor amendment. Results obtained in the project successfully position DOE and others to apply biostimulation broadly to U contamination in alluvial aquifers.

  13. Process and properties of electroless Ni-Cu-P-ZrO{sub 2} nanocomposite coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ranganatha, S. [Department of Studies in Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta 577451, Shimoga, Karnataka (India)] [Department of Studies in Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta 577451, Shimoga, Karnataka (India); Venkatesha, T.V., E-mail: drtvvenkatesha@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Studies in Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta 577451, Shimoga, Karnataka (India); Vathsala, K. [Nanotribology Laboratory, Mechanical engineering department, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India)] [Nanotribology Laboratory, Mechanical engineering department, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ni-P and Ni-P-Cu-ZrO{sub 2} coatings were produced by electroless technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The influence of copper and ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles on Ni-P was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface morphology, structure and electrochemical behavior were evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ni-Cu-P-ZrO{sub 2} and Ni-P-ZrO{sub 2} coatings are more resistant to corrosion than Ni-P. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Introduction of Cu and ZrO{sub 2} in the matrix aids to the enhancement of microhardness. -- Abstract: Electroless Ni-Cu-P-ZrO{sub 2} composite coating was successfully obtained on low carbon steel matrix by electroless plating technique. Coatings with different compositions were obtained by varying copper as ternary metal and nano sized zirconium oxide particles so as to obtain elevated corrosion resistant Ni-P coating. Microstructure, crystal structure and composition of deposits were analyzed by SEM, EDX and XRD techniques. The corrosion behavior of the deposits was studied by anodic polarization, Tafel plots and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. The ZrO{sub 2} incorporated Ni-P coating showed higher corrosion resistance than plain Ni-P. The introduction of copper metal into Ni-P-ZrO{sub 2} enhanced the protection ability against corrosion. The influence of copper metal and nanoparticles on microhardness of coatings was evaluated.

  14. IMPACT Vol. 5 No. 1 | Spring 2010 CLeAn eneRGy DeMAnDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Wendell T.

    policy, computer and physical sciences, social science and agriculture to join with a core group- prehensive computer simula- tions of plasma turbulence, which may one day lead to nuclear fusion energy. NuclEAR, designs and tests digital instrumentation and software needed to make nuclear power plants safer

  15. A review of "The Making of the Jacobean Regime: James VI and I and the Government of England, 1603-1605." by Diana Newton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles W. A. Prior

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REVIEWS 189 Diana Newton. The Making of the Jacobean Regime: James VI and I and the Government of England, 1603-1605. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, 2005. x + 164 pp. $80.00. Review by CHARLES W. A. PRIOR, UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE. King James... VI and I has tended to suffer at the hands of historians. Described by a contemporary as the wisest fool in England, the impression that has come down though the centuries is of an unprepossessing closet homosexual with horrid table manners and a...

  16. Oxygen-induced changes in electron-energy-loss spectra for Al, Be and Ni. [Al; Be; Ni

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madden, H.H.; Landers, R.; Kleiman, G.G. (Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), 13081-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brasil); Zehner, D.M. (Solid State Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States))

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) data are presented to illustrate line shape changes that occur as a result of oxygen interaction with metal surfaces. The metals were aluminum, beryllium and nickel. Core-level EELS data were taken for excitations from Al(2p), Be(1s), Ni(3p/3s) and O(1s) levels to the conduction band (CB) density of states (DOS) of the materials. The primary beam energies for the spectra were 300, 450, 300, and 1135 eV, respectively. The data are presented in both the (as measured) first-derivative and the integral forms. The integral spectra were corrected for coherent background losses and analyzed for CB DOS information. These spectra were found to be in qualitative agreement with published experimental and theoretical studies of these materials. One peak in the spectra for Al oxide is analyzed for its correlation with excitonic screening of the Al(2p) core hole. Similar evidence for exciton formation is found in the Ni(3p) spectra for Ni oxide. Data are also presented showing oxygen-induced changes in the lower-loss-energy EELS curves that, in the pure metal, are dominated by plasmon-loss and interband-transition signals. Single-scattering loss profiles in the integral form of the data were calculated using a procedure of Tougaard and Chorkendorff [S. Tougaard and I. Chorkendorff, Phys. Rev. B. [bold 35], 6570 (1987)]. For all three oxides these profiles are dominated by a feature with a loss energy of around 20[endash]25 eV. Although this feature has been ascribed by other researchers as due to bulk plasmon losses in the oxide, an alternative explanation is that the feature is simply due to O(2s)-to-CB-level excitations. An even stronger feature is found at 7 eV loss energy for Ni oxide. Speculation is given as to its source. The line shapes in both the core-level and noncore-level spectra can also be used simply as [open quotes]fingerprints[close quotes] of the surface chemistry of the materials. Our data were taken using commercially available surface analysis equipment and serve to complement surface information provided by Auger electron and/or x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. [copyright] [ital 1999 American Vacuum Society.

  17. TSNo s02-roberts104537-O Microscopic and Spectroscopic Speciation of Ni in Soils in the Vicinity of a Ni Refinery.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    in the Vicinity of a Ni Refinery. abstract Accurately predicting the fate and bioavailability of metals in smelter REFINERY ASA-CSSA-SSSA Annual Meetings - October 21 - 25, 2001 - Charlotte, NC #12;

  18. THE LINK BETWEEN CLAY MINERAL WEATHERING AND THE FORMATION OF NI SURFACE PRECIPITATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    THE LINK BETWEEN CLAY MINERAL WEATHERING AND THE FORMATION OF NI SURFACE PRECIPITATES Andreas C, Schlieren, Switzerland Spectroscopic and microscopic studies have shown that Ni and Co sorption by clay:1 or 2:1 phyllosilicates requires the release ofA1 and Si from clay minerals. Due to similar metal

  19. Thermomechanical Characterization of a TiPdNi High Temperature SMA under Tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermomechanical Characterization of a TiPdNi High Temperature SMA under Tension Parikshith K issues, a nominal composition of Ti50Pd40Ni10 HTSMA was used. The alloy was fabricated using a vacuum arc Electrode Discharge Machining (EDM). A high temperature experimental setup was developed on a load frame

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Silica-Supported AuNi Catalysts for the Dehydrogenation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    . The dehydrogenation of propane to propylene was observed on the Au­Ni bime- tallic catalysts, whereas only hydrogenolysis products were observed on the monometallic Ni catalyst. The selectivity to propylene was found catalysts. Keywords Bimetallic catalyst Á Nickel Á Gold Á Dehydrogenation of propane Á Propylene 1

  1. D2O Adsorption on an Ultrathin Alumina Film on NiAl(110). | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    D2O Adsorption on an Ultrathin Alumina Film on NiAl(110). D2O Adsorption on an Ultrathin Alumina Film on NiAl(110). Abstract: The structure of an ordered, ultra-thin Al2O3 film...

  2. COMPARATIVE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ALCALINE CELLS AND NI-MH RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Page 1 COMPARATIVE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ALCALINE CELLS AND NI-MH RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES Jean by applying the LCA methodology to evaluate the environmental footprint of alkaline cells and Ni-MH batteries phase. Besides, the emphasis on rechargeable batteries is only justified from an environmental point

  3. LES EXCITATIONS 1 TROU -1 PARTICULE DANS LES NOYAUX 58Ni et 56Co

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    in 58Ni and 56Co using shell model technics and SDI potential. Nuclear levels and reduced transition for levels at low energies in 58Ni and 56Co, 1p-1h excitations do not however improve greatly earlier results couche f7/2) et qu'en outre les energies individuelles sont insuffisamment connues. D'autres travaux [3

  4. Method For Making Electronic Circuits Having Nial And Ni3al Substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deevi, Seetharama C. (Midlothian, VA); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for making electronic circuit component having improved mechanical properties and thermal conductivity comprises steps of providing NiAl and/or Ni.sub.3 Al, and forming an alumina layer thereupon prior to applying the conductive elements. Additional layers of copper-aluminum alloy or copper further improve mechanical strength and thermal conductivity.

  5. Dynamical deformation effects in subbarrier fusion of {sup 64}Ni+{sup 132}Sn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umar, A. S.; Oberacker, V. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that dynamical deformation effects play an important role in fusion reactions involving the {sup 64}Ni nucleus, in particular the {sup 64}Ni+{sup 132}Sn system. We calculate fully microscopic interaction potentials and the corresponding subbarrier fusion cross-sections.

  6. Dehydrogenation of Propane to Propylene over Supported Model NiAu Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    Dehydrogenation of Propane to Propylene over Supported Model Ni­Au Catalysts Zhen Yan · Yunxi Yao 2012 Ó Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012 Abstract Hydrogenolysis and dehydrogenation of propane. For the conversionofpropane in the presence of hydrogen, the dehydrogenation of propane to propylene was observed onthe Ni

  7. Industrial Cu-Ni alloys for HTS coated conductor tape. A Girard1,2,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Industrial Cu-Ni alloys for HTS coated conductor tape. A Girard1,2,3 , C E Bruzek4 , J L Jorda1 , L efficient substrates for coated conductor wires. The study is focused on two industrial compositions: Cu55Ni-textured substrate is one of the critical steps for the HTS coated conductor development. The RABiTS (Rolling

  8. Liquid metal feeding through dendritic region in Ni-Hard white iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Dogan, Omer N.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid permeability in the dendritic regions is one of the factors that determine porosity formation and macro segregation in castings. Permeability in the dendritic structure of Ni-Hard white iron was measured as a function of temperature. Effect of microstructural coarsening on the permeability was also investigated. Permeability increased with coarsening dendritic structure in Ni-Hard white iron.

  9. Strain rate dependence of deformation mechanisms in a NiTiCr shape-memory alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    Strain rate dependence of deformation mechanisms in a Ni­Ti­Cr shape-memory alloy Sia Nemat of a Ni­Ti­Cr shape-memory alloy is investigated at various initial temperatures, over a wide range significantly affects the superelastic and yielding behavior of this shape-memory alloy within the superelastic

  10. Nanoscale compositional analysis of NiTi shape memory alloy films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, S. K.; Mohan, S. [Centre for Nano Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India)] [Centre for Nano Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India); Bysakh, S. [Central Glass and Ceramics Research Institute, Kolkata-700032 (India)] [Central Glass and Ceramics Research Institute, Kolkata-700032 (India); Kumar, A.; Kamat, S. V. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad-500058 (India)] [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad-500058 (India)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of surface oxide layer as well as compositional changes along the thickness for NiTi shape memory alloy thin films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering at substrate temperature of 300 °C in the as-deposited condition as well as in the postannealed (at 600 °C) condition have been thoroughly studied by using secondary ion mass spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy techniques. Formation of titanium oxide (predominantly titanium dioxide) layer was observed in both as-deposited and postannealed NiTi films, although the oxide layer was much thinner (8 nm) in as-deposited condition. The depletion of Ti and enrichment of Ni below the oxide layer in postannealed films also resulted in the formation of a graded microstructure consisting of titanium oxide, Ni{sub 3}Ti, and B2 NiTi. A uniform composition of B2 NiTi was obtained in the postannealed film only below a depth of 200–250 nm from the surface. Postannealed film also exhibited formation of a ternary silicide (Ni{sub x}Ti{sub y}Si) at the film–substrate interface, whereas no silicide was seen in the as-deposited film. The formation of silicide also caused a depletion of Ni in the film in a region ?250–300 nm just above the film substrate interface.

  11. Functionally grading the shape memory response in NiTi films: Laser irradiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Y. Lawrence

    Functionally grading the shape memory response in NiTi films: Laser irradiation A. J. Birnbaum,a G and mechanism are presented for controlling the shape memory response spatially within monolithic NiTi thin film and exhibits control over aspects of the mechanical and shape memory responses as well. Specifically

  12. Microstructural Evolution Model of the Sintering Behavior and Magnetic Properties of NiZn Ferrite Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McHenry, Michael E.

    Microstructural Evolution Model of the Sintering Behavior and Magnetic Properties of NiZn Ferrite jlwoods@andrew.cmu.edu, c SCalvin@slc.edu, d jhuth@Spang.co, e mm7g@andrew.cmu.edu Keywords: Ferrite, nanoparticle, sintering, microstructure. Abstract. The sintering of RF plasma synthesized NiZn ferrite

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of NiMnGa Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloy Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jetta, Nishitha

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    for fabricating NiMnGa thin films with desired composition and microstructure and hence unique properties for future MEMS actuator materials and characterize their properties to aid better understanding of their behavior. In this project NiMnGa thin films have...

  14. Oxygen driven reconstruction dynamics of Ni,,977... measured by time-lapse scanning tunneling microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    Oxygen driven reconstruction dynamics of Ni,,977... measured by time-lapse scanning tunneling-lapse scanning tunneling microscopy STM has been used to observe the oxygen induced reconstruction behavior of Ni for the merging of steps in the presence of small amounts of adsorbed oxygen, less than 2% of a monolayer. Point

  15. Bilayer thickness effects on nanoindentation behavior of Ag/Ni multilayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Soon Hyung

    by nanoindentation hardness and creep tests. The hardness increased with decreasing bilayer thickness, although of nanoindentation creep tests on Ag/Ni nanomultilayers with various bilayer thicknesses. Multilayered Ag/Ni films thickness. A nanoindentation creep test was used to study the creep behavior of nano- scale multilayers

  16. Microstructural Degradation of Ni-YSZ Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Microstructural Degradation of Ni- YSZ Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Karl Thydén Risø-PhD-32(EN 2008 #12;Author: Karl Thydén Title: Microstructural Degradation of Ni-YSZ Anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Department: Fuel Cells and Solid State Chemistry Department Risø-PhD-32(EN) March 2008 This thesis

  17. UNCORRECTEDPROOF 2 Compression behavior of porous NiTi shape memory alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taya, Minoru

    Ti by self-propagating 41high temperature synthesis (SHS), and again the porous 42NiTi fabricated. The compression behavior of the 11 porous NiTi was examined with the aim of using it possibly as a high energy for possible application 30 in medical implant devices and as high energy absorp- 31 tion structural material

  18. Intermixing criteria for reaction synthesis of Ni/Al multilayered microfoils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Soon Hyung

    synthesis technique for intermetallics involves both a self-propagating high-temperature synthe- sis (SHSIntermixing criteria for reaction synthesis of Ni/Al multilayered microfoils Hee Y. Kim a , Dong S are proposed for determining the microstructure of the reaction products during the reaction synthesis of Ni

  19. A Novel Electrodeposition Process for Plating Zn-Ni-Cd Alloys Hansung Kim,a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    A Novel Electrodeposition Process for Plating Zn-Ni-Cd Alloys Hansung Kim,a, * Branko N. Popov Sciences Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0834, USA Zn-Ni-Cd alloy was electrodeposited from in the literature.7-9 Typical nickel composition in the alloy is approximately 10%, and any further increase

  20. Biomaterials 24 (2003) 39313939 Corrosion and wear-corrosion behavior of NiTi modified

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crone, Wendy C.

    Biomaterials 24 (2003) 3931­3939 Corrosion and wear-corrosion behavior of NiTi modified by plasma Received 10 November 2002; accepted 8 April 2003 Abstract The understanding of corrosion behavior in NiTi such as corrosion resistance, plasma source ion implantation (PSII) technique was employed with oxygen as incident

  1. Influence of the morphology and impurities of Ni(OH){sub 2} on the synthesis of neutral Ni(II)-amino acid complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Vicente [Laboratoire de Reactivite de Surface (UMR 7609 CNRS), Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Marceau, Eric [Laboratoire de Reactivite de Surface (UMR 7609 CNRS), Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: eric.marceau@upmc.fr; Che, Michel [Laboratoire de Reactivite de Surface (UMR 7609 CNRS), Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Institut Universitaire de France (France); Pepe, Claude [Laboratoire de Dynamique, Interactions et Reactivite (UMR 7075 CNRS), Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis of neutral complexes of Ni{sup 2+} with amino acids has often been reported on a qualitative basis, with a lack of information on the parameters involved in the dissolution of the nickel-containing solid precursor. This paper reports on a systematic study of the reactivity of Ni(OH){sub 2} toward glycine in aqueous solution. The crystallinity and size of hydroxide particles are found to be key parameters in the rapid glycine-promoted dissolution of the hydroxide and synthesis of [Ni(glycinate){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]. These parameters derive from the nature of the salt used to prepare the hydroxide. Ni(II) chloride leads to the most reactive solid precursor, because of the presence of defects in the Ni(OH){sub 2} sheets arrangements, assigned to the substitution of Cl{sup -} ions to OH{sup -} ions at the edges of the particles. The reaction between this hydroxide and glycine at 80 deg. C is quantitative after 7 min and similar rates of dissolution are obtained with other amino acids, alanine or histidine, the reaction with serine being slower. When the hydroxide contains nitrate or carbonate ions, a glycinato complex with composition similar to [Ni(glycinate){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}], but with a different crystal structure, is also formed. Spectroscopic results may suggest a structure involving bridging ligands. - Graphical abstract: Ni(OH){sub 2} solid precursors can be readily selected on the basis of their defects, themselves stemming from the nickel salt chosen for precipitation, to rapidly synthesize neutral Ni(II)-aminoacid complexes by ligand-promoted dissolution.

  2. Direct synthesis of porous NiO nanowall arrays on conductive substrates for supercapacitor application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jianhui; Jiang, Jian; Liu, Jingping; Ding, Ruimin; Ding, Hao; Feng, Yamin; Wei, Guangming [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Department of Physics, Huazhong Normal University, 430079 Wu Han (China); Huang, Xintang, E-mail: xthuang@phy.ccnu.edu.c [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Department of Physics, Huazhong Normal University, 430079 Wu Han (China)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous NiO nanowall arrays (NWAs) grown on flexible Fe-Co-Ni alloy have been successfully synthesized by using nullaginite (Ni{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3}) as precursor and investigated as supercapacitor electrodes. In details, we adopted a simple hydrothermal method to realize Ni{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3} NWAs and examined their robust mechanical adhesion to substrate via a long-time ultrasonication test. Porous NiO NWAs were then obtained by a post-calcination towards precursors at 500 {sup o}C in nitrogen atmosphere. Electrochemical properties of as-synthesized NiO NWAs were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge; porous NiO NWAs electrode delivered a specific capacitance of 270 F/g (0.67 A/g); even at high current densities, the electrode could still deliver a high capacitance up to 236 F/g (13.35 A/g). Meanwhile, it exhibited excellent cycle lifetime with {approx}93% specific capacitance kept after 4000 cycles. These results suggest that as-made porous NiO NWAs electrode is a promising candidate for future thin-film supercapacitors and other microelectronic systems. -- Graphical abstract: Porous NiO nanowall arrays (NWAs) grown on alloy substrate have been made using nullaginite as precursor and studied as supercapacitor electrodes. Porous nanowalls interconnected with each other resulting in the formation of extended-network architectures and exhibited excellent capacitor properties. NiO NWAs electrode delivered a capacitance of 270 F/g (0.67 A/g); even at high current density, the electrode could still deliver a high capacitance up to 236 F/g (13.35 A/g). Besides, it exhibited excellent cycle lifetime with {approx}93% capacitance kept after 4000 cycles. These remarkable results made it possible for mass production of NiO NWAs and future thin-film microelectronic applications. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Large-scale nullaginite (Ni{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3}) nanowall arrays (NWAs) have been synthesized on flexible alloy substrate by a facile hydrothermal method. {yields} Ultrasonication test has been conducted to demonstrate the robust mechanical adhesion between NWAs and substrate. {yields} As supercapacitor electrodes porous NiO NWAs obtained by a post-calcination towards Ni{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3} precursors have exhibited excellent electrochemical properties.

  3. Monodisperse core/shell Ni/FePt nanoparticles and their con-version to Ni/Pt to catalyze oxygen reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Sen [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Su, Dong [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Doan-Nguyen, Vicky V. T. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wu, Yaoting [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Li, Jing [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sun, Shouheng [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Murray, Christopher B. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hao, Yizhou [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a size-controllable synthesis of monodisperse core/shell Ni/FePt nanoparticles (NPs) via a seed-mediated growth and their subsequent conversion to Ni/Pt NPs. Preventing surface oxidation of the Ni seeds is essential for the growth of uniform FePt shells. These Ni/FePt NPs have a thin (? 1 nm) FePt shell, and can be converted to Ni/Pt by acetic acid wash to yield active catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Tuning the core size allow for optimization of their electrocatalytic activity. The specific activity and mass activity of 4.2 nm/0.8 nm core/shell Ni/FePt reach 1.95 mA/cm² and 490 mA/mgPt at 0.9 V (vs. reversible hydrogen electrode, RHE), which are much higher than those of benchmark commercial Pt catalyst (0.34 mA/cm² and 92 mA/mgPt at 0.9 V). Our studies provide a robust approach to monodisperse core/shell NPs with non-precious metal core, making it possible to develop advanced NP catalysts with ultralow Pt content for ORR and many other heterogeneous reactions.

  4. An APFIM and TEM study of Ni{sub 4}Mo precipitation in a commercial Ni-28% Mo-1.4% Fe-0.4% Cr wt. % alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomson, R.C.; Brown, N.; Bates, J.S. [Loughborough Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Polymer Technology and Materials Engineering; Russell, K.F.; Miller, M.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ni-Mo alloys containing at least 26 wt.% Mo have a negligible corrosion rate in boiling 10% hydrochloric acid and are therefore used in corrosive environments. A series of commercial Ni-Mo alloys has been developed with subtle variations in chemical composition. These alloys usually contain {approximately} 28 wt.% Mo with additions of up to 5% Fe and Cr. A significant amount of research has been performed to understand the microstructure and properties of these alloys, although most of the effort has concentrated on the Ni-Mo binary system. In some alloys with low Fe and Cr contents, a severe embrittlement problem has been observed due to the formation of the Ni{sub 4}Mo (D1{sub a}-ordered) phase within the microstructure. This research focuses on a commercial alloy with nominal composition Ni-28% Mo-1.4% Fe-0.4% Cr-0.1% Mn-0.003 wt.% C. The material supplied was a heat treatment coupon which had been attached to a large vessel during fabrication. Assessment of the chemical analysis of the alloy suggested that detrimental phases could be present or might appear during subsequent repair work. Therefore, it was important to assess the microstructural condition of the vessel, and in particular the kinetics of precipitation of Ni{sub 4}Mo.

  5. Monodisperse core/shell Ni/FePt nanoparticles and their con-version to Ni/Pt to catalyze oxygen reduction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Sen; Su, Dong; Doan-Nguyen, Vicky V. T.; Wu, Yaoting; Li, Jing; Sun, Shouheng; Murray, Christopher B.; Hao, Yizhou

    2014-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a size-controllable synthesis of monodisperse core/shell Ni/FePt nanoparticles (NPs) via a seed-mediated growth and their subsequent conversion to Ni/Pt NPs. Preventing surface oxidation of the Ni seeds is essential for the growth of uniform FePt shells. These Ni/FePt NPs have a thin (? 1 nm) FePt shell, and can be converted to Ni/Pt by acetic acid wash to yield active catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Tuning the core size allow for optimization of their electrocatalytic activity. The specific activity and mass activity of 4.2 nm/0.8 nm core/shell Ni/FePt reach 1.95 mA/cm² and 490 mA/mgPt at 0.9 Vmore »(vs. reversible hydrogen electrode, RHE), which are much higher than those of benchmark commercial Pt catalyst (0.34 mA/cm² and 92 mA/mgPt at 0.9 V). Our studies provide a robust approach to monodisperse core/shell NPs with non-precious metal core, making it possible to develop advanced NP catalysts with ultralow Pt content for ORR and many other heterogeneous reactions.« less

  6. Correlating Extent of Pt–Ni Bond Formation with Low-temperature Hydrogenation of Benzene and 1,3-butadiene over Supported Pt/Ni Bimetallic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lonergan, W.; Vlachos, D; Chen, J

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-temperature hydrogenation of benzene and 1,3-butadiene on supported Pt/Ni catalysts have been used as probe reactions to correlate hydrogenation activity with the extent of Pt-Ni bimetallic bond formation. Pt/Ni bimetallic and Pt and Ni monometallic catalysts were supported on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using incipient wetness impregnation. Two sets of bimetallic catalysts were synthesized: one set to study the effect of metal atomic ratio and the other to study the effect of impregnation sequence. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) CO adsorption studies were performed to characterize the surface composition of the bimetallic nanoparticles, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was utilized to characterize the particle size distribution. Batch reactor studies with FTIR demonstrated that all bimetallic catalysts outperformed monometallic catalysts for both benzene and 1,3-butadiene hydrogenation. Within the two sets of bimetallic catalysts, it was found that catalysts with a smaller Pt:Ni ratio possessed higher hydrogenation activity and that catalysts synthesized using co-impregnation had greater activity than sequentially impregnated catalysts. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements were performed in order to verify the extent of Pt-Ni bimetallic bond formation, which was found to correlate with the hydrogenation activity.

  7. Monodisperse core/shell Ni/FePt nanoparticles and their con-version to Ni/Pt to catalyze oxygen reduction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Sen [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Su, Dong [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Doan-Nguyen, Vicky V. T. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wu, Yaoting [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Li, Jing [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sun, Shouheng [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Murray, Christopher B. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hao, Yizhou [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a size-controllable synthesis of monodisperse core/shell Ni/FePt nanoparticles (NPs) via a seed-mediated growth and their subsequent conversion to Ni/Pt NPs. Preventing surface oxidation of the Ni seeds is essential for the growth of uniform FePt shells. These Ni/FePt NPs have a thin (? 1 nm) FePt shell, and can be converted to Ni/Pt by acetic acid wash to yield active catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Tuning the core size allow for optimization of their electrocatalytic activity. The specific activity and mass activity of 4.2 nm/0.8 nm core/shell Ni/FePt reach 1.95 mA/cm² and 490 mA/mgPt at 0.9 V (vs. reversible hydrogen electrode, RHE), which are much higher than those of benchmark commercial Pt catalyst (0.34 mA/cm² and 92 mA/mgPt at 0.9 V). Our studies provide a robust approach to monodisperse core/shell NPs with non-precious metal core, making it possible to develop advanced NP catalysts with ultralow Pt content for ORR and many other heterogeneous reactions.

  8. Electrically induced insulator to metal transition in epitaxial SmNiO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shukla, Nikhil, E-mail: nss152@psu.edu; Dasgupta, Sandeepan; Datta, Suman [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Joshi, Toyanath; Borisov, Pavel; Lederman, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the electrically induced insulator to metal transition (IMT) in SmNiO{sub 3} thin films grown on (001) LaAlO{sub 3} by pulsed laser deposition. The behavior of the resistivity as a function of temperature suggests that the primary transport mechanism in the SmNiO{sub 3} insulating state is dominated by Efros-Shklovskii variable range hopping (ES-VRH). Additionally, the magnetic transition in the insulating state of SmNiO{sub 3} modifies the characteristics of the ES-VRH transport. Systematic DC and pulsed current-voltage measurements indicate that current-induced joule heating is the fundamental mechanism driving the electrically induced IMT in SmNiO{sub 3}. These transport properties are explained in context of the IMT in SmNiO{sub 3} being related to the strong electron-lattice coupling.

  9. Eutectic bonding of a Ti sputter coated, carbon aerogel wafer to a Ni foil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jankowski, A.F.; Hayes, J.P.; Kanna, R.L.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of high energy density, storage devices is achievable using composite material systems. Alternate layering of carbon aerogel wafers and Ni foils with rnicroporous separators is a prospective composite for capacitor applications. An inherent problem exists to form a physical bond between Ni and the porous carbon wafer. The bonding process must be limited to temperatures less than 1000{degrees}C, at which point the aerogel begins to degrade. The advantage of a low temperature eutectic in the Ni-Ti alloy system solves this problem. Ti, a carbide former, is readily adherent as a sputter deposited thin film onto the carbon wafer. A vacuum bonding process is then used to join the Ni foil and Ti coating through eutectic phase formation. The parameters required for successfld bonding are described along with a structural characterization of the Ni foil-carbon aerogel wafer interface.

  10. Solution deposited NiO thin-films as hole transport layers in organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steirer, K. Xerxes [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Chesin, Jordan P. [Division of Engineering, Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Widjonarko, N. Edwin [University of Colorado, Dept of Physics, Boulder, CO (United States); Berry, Joseph J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miedaner, Alexander [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ginley, David S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olson, Dana C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic solar cells require suitable anode surface modifiers in order to selectively collect positive charge carriers and improve device performance. We employ a nickel metal organic ink precursor to fabricate NiO hole transport layers on indium tin oxide anodes. This solution deposited NiO annealed at 250 °C and plasma treated, achieves similar OPV device results reported with NiO films from PLD as well as PEDOT:PSS. We demonstrate a tunable work function by post-processing the NiO with an O{sub 2}-plasma surface treatment of varied power and time. We find that plasma treatment is necessary for optimal device performance. Optimal devices utilizing a solution deposited NiO hole transport layer show lower series resistance and increased fill factor when compared to solar cells with PEDOT:PSS.

  11. Neutron diffraction study of MnNiGa{sub 2}—Structural and magnetic behaviour

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J. L., E-mail: jianli@uow.edu.au [Institute for Superconductivity and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Bragg Institute, ANSTO, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Canberra, ACT 2600 (Australia); Ma, L.; Wu, G. H. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Hofmann, M. [FRM-II, Technische Universität München, 85747 Garching (Germany); Avdeev, M.; Kennedy, S. J. [Bragg Institute, ANSTO, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Campbell, S. J. [School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Canberra, ACT 2600 (Australia); Md Din, M. F.; Dou, S. X. [Institute for Superconductivity and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Hoelzel, M. [FRM-II, Technische Universität München, 85747 Garching (Germany); Fachbereich Materialwissenschaften, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    MnNiGa{sub 2} crystallizes in the L21 (Heusler) structure and has a ferromagnetic ordering temperature T{sub C}???192?K. Rietveld refinement of the neutron diffraction patterns indicates that the Ga atoms occupy the equivalent 8c position, while Mn and Ni share the 4a (0, 0, 0) and 4b (0.5, 0.5, 0.5) sites with a mixed occupancy of Mn and Ni atoms. It is found that that ?83% of Mn and ?17% Ni are located at the 4a site while ?83% of Ni and ?17% Mn occupy the 4b site. There is no evidence of a magneto-volume effect around T{sub C}. In agreement with this finding, our detailed critical exponent analyses of isothermal magnetization curves and the related Arrott plots confirm that the magnetic phase transition at T{sub C} is second order.

  12. Understanding and engineering of NiGe/Ge junction formed by phosphorus ion implantation after germanidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oka, Hiroshi, E-mail: oka@asf.mls.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Minoura, Yuya; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji [Department of Material and Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Modulation of the effective electron Schottky barrier height (eSBH) of NiGe/Ge contacts induced by phosphorus ion implantation after germanide formation was investigated by considering local inhomogeneity in the eSBH. Systematic studies of NiGe/Ge contact devices having various germanide thicknesses and ion implantation areas indicated the threshold dopant concentration at the NiGe/Ge interface required for eSBH modulation and negligible dopant diffusion even at NiGe/Ge interface during drive-in annealing, leading to variation in the eSBH between the bottom and sidewall portions of the NiGe regions. Consequently, this method makes it possible to design source/drain contacts with low-resistivity Ohmic and ideal rectifying characteristics for future Ge-based transistors.

  13. The evolution of texture during annealing of electroless Ni-Co-P deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, D.N.; Hur, K.H.

    1999-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ni-Co-P alloy deposits can be obtained from alkaline solutions over the entire range of Co compositions. The deposits with higher Co concentrations are applied to magnetic recording media and vertical magnetic recording media by adding Mn and Re. An increase in Co concentration causes a decrease in P content and increase in grain size. No study has been made of texture changes during annealing of the Ni-Co-P alloy deposits. Microstructures and crystallization of the electroless Ni-P deposits and magnetic properties and microstructures of electroless Ni-Cu-P deposits were studied by the present authors. In this paper, the evolution of texture and phase transformation behavior during annealing of the Ni-Co-P deposits have been discussed.

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical performance of NiO microspheres with different nanoscale building blocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Ling; Hao Yanjing; Zhao Yan [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Lai Qiongyu, E-mail: laiqy5@hotmail.co [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Xu Xiaoyun [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    NiO microspheres were successfully obtained by calcining the Ni(OH){sub 2} precursor, which were synthesized via the hydrothermal reaction of nickel chloride, glucose and ammonia. The products were characterized by TGA, XRD and SEM. The influences of glucose and reaction temperature on the morphologies of NiO samples were investigated. Moreover, the possible growth mechanism for the spherical morphology was proposed. The charge/discharge test showed that the as-prepared NiO microspheres composed of nanoparticles can serve as an ideal electrode material for supercapacitor due to the spherical hollow structure. -- Graphical Abstract: Fig. 5 is the SEM image of NiO that was prepared in the different hydrothermal reaction temperatures. It showed that reaction temperature played a crucial role for the morphology of products.

  15. Fabrication of NiO thin film electrode for supercapacitor applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mali, V. V.; Navale, S. T.; Chougule, M. A.; Khuspe, G. D.; Godse, P. R.; Patil, V. B., E-mail: drvbpatil@gmail.com [Functional Materials Research Laboratory, School of Physical Sciences, Solapur University, Solapur-413255 (India); Pawar, S. A. [Department of Electronics, Shri Shivaji Mahavidhyala, Barshi, Solapur-413411 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanocrystalline NiO electrode is successfully electrosynthesized for supercapacitor application. The nanocrystalline NiO electrode is characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Nickel oxide is a highly porous and the film surface looked smooth and composed of fine elongated particles. The supercapacitive performance of NiO electrode is tested using cyclic voltammetry (C-V) technique in 0.5M Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrolyte within potential range of ?1.2 to +1.2 V. The effect of scan rate on the capacitance of NiO electrode is studied. The highest specific capacitance of 439 Fg{sup ?1} at the voltage scan rate of 50mVs{sup ?1} is achieved. Additionally stability and charging–discharging of NiO electrode are studied.

  16. Na, Mg, Ni and Cs distribution and speciation after long-term alteration of a simulated nuclear waste glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    distribution and speciation of Na, Mg, Ni and Cs in a simulated (inactive) nuclear waste glass were studied and Cs represent dose determining long-lived radionuclides (59 Ni, 135 Cs) in vitrified nuclear wasteNa, Mg, Ni and Cs distribution and speciation after long-term alteration of a simulated nuclear

  17. The interfacial reaction of Ni on (100) Si?â??xGex (x=0, 0.25) and (111) Ge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Lijuan

    The interfacial reaction of Ni with Si, Si?.??Ge?.??, and Ge at 400°C has been investigated. A uniform epitaxial NiSi film was obtained at 400°C for Ni-Silicidation on Si using rapid thermal annealing method. Similarly, ...

  18. Applying NiTi Shape-Memory Thin Films to Thermomechanical Data Storage Technology Wendy C. Crone1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crone, Wendy C.

    Applying NiTi Shape-Memory Thin Films to Thermomechanical Data Storage Technology Wendy C. Crone1 robustness, NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) is the most widely used of the shape memory materials. NiTi derives by the shape memory effect, through a solid state phase change known as a martensitic transformation. Although

  19. Structural and magnetic properties of NiZn and Zn ferrite thin films obtained by laser ablation deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McHenry, Michael E.

    Structural and magnetic properties of NiZn and Zn ferrite thin films obtained by laser ablation ferrite structures. Our investigations were performed on NiZn and Zn ferrite films deposited on silicon of the blocking temperature in both NiZn and Zn ferrite systems. © 2005 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10

  20. High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of gamma-Ni+gamma'-Ni3Al Alloys and Coatings Modified with Pt and Reactive Elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nan Mu

    2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials for high-pressure turbine blades must be able to operate in the high-temperature gases (above 1000 C) emerging from the combustion chamber. Accordingly, the development of nickel-based superalloys has been constantly motivated by the need to have improved engine efficiency, reliability and service lifetime under the harsh conditions imposed by the turbine environment. However, the melting point of nickel (1455 C) provides a natural ceiling for the temperature capability of nickel-based superalloys. Thus, surface-engineered turbine components with modified diffusion coatings and overlay coatings are used. Theses coatings are capable of forming a compact and adherent oxide scale, which greatly impedes the further transport of reactants between the high-temperature gases and the underlying metal and thus reducing attack by the atmosphere. Typically, these coatings contain {beta}-NiAl as a principal constituent phase in order to have sufficient aluminum content to form an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale at elevated temperatures. The drawbacks to the currently-used {beta}-based coatings, such as phase instabilities, associated stresses induced by such phase instabilities, and extensive coating/substrate interdiffusion, are major motivations in this study to seek next-generation coatings. The high-temperature oxidation resistance of novel Pt + Hf-modified {gamma}-Ni + {gamma}-Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys and coatings were investigated in this study. Both early-stage and 4-days isothermal oxidation behavior of single-phase {gamma}-Ni and {gamma}{prime}-Ni{sub 3}Al alloys were assessed by examining the weight changes, oxide-scale structures, and elemental concentration profiles through the scales and subsurface alloy regions. It was found that Pt promotes Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} formation by suppressing the NiO growth on both {gamma}-Ni and {gamma}{prime}Ni{sub 3}Al single-phase alloys. This effect increases with increasing Pt content. Moreover, Pt exhibits this effect even at lower temperatures ({approx}970 C) in the very early stage of oxidation. It was also inferred that Pt enhances the diffusive flux of aluminum from the substrate to the scale/alloy interface. Relatively low levels of hafnium addition to Pt-free {gamma}{prime}-Ni{sub 3}Al increased the extent of external NiO formation due to non-protective HfO{sub 2} formation. Accordingly, this effect intensified with increasing Hf content from 0.2 to 0.5 at.%.

  1. Ab initio all-electron calculation of absolute volume deformation potentials of IV-IV, III-V, and II-VI semiconductors: The chemical trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Xingao

    University, Shanghai 200433, China Su-Huai Wei National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 decreases as the ionicity increases. Our calculated chemical trends of the AVDPs are explained in terms-V, and II-VI semiconductors: The chemical trends Yong-Hua Li and X. G. Gong Physics Department, Fudan

  2. A Spectroscopic Study of the effect of Ligand Complexation on the Reduction of Uranium(VI) by Anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AH2DS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zheming; Wagnon, Ken B.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Liu, Chongxuan; Rosso, Kevin M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2008-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, the reduction rate of uranyl complexes with hydroxide, carbonate, EDTA, and Desferriferrioxamine B (DFB) by anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AH2DS), a potential electron shuttle for microbial reduction of metal ions (Newman and Kolter 2000), is studied by stopped-flow kinetics techniques under anoxic atmosphere. The apparent reaction rates varied with ligand type, solution pH, and U(VI) concentration. For each ligand, a single largest kobs within the studied pH range was observed, suggesting the influence of pH-dependent speciation on the U(VI) reduction rate. The maximum reaction rate found in each case followed the order of OH- > CO32- > EDTA > DFB, consistent with the same trend of the thermodynamic stability of the uranyl complexes and ionic sizes of the ligands. Increasing the stability of uranyl complexes and ligand size decreased the maximum reduction rate. The pH-dependent rates were modeled using a second-order rate expression that was assumed to be dependent on a single U(VI) complex and AH2DS species. By quantitatively comparing the calculated and measured apparent rate constants as a function of pH, species AHDS3- was suggested as the primary reductant in all cases examined. Species UO2CO3(aq) , UO2HEDTA-, and (UO2)2(OH)22+ were suggested as the principal electron acceptors among the U(VI) species mixture in carbonate, EDTA, and hydroxyl systems, respectively.

  3. VI 1.50 Policy on the Reporting of Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect (Approved by the Board of Regents on December 9, 2011)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milchberg, Howard

    1 VI ­ 1.50 Policy on the Reporting of Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect (Approved by the Board of Regents on December 9, 2011) I. PURPOSE The purpose of this policy is to provide guidance to staff into contact with the USM community. II. AUTHORITY The reporting requirements addressed in this policy

  4. The Regulation of Salmonella Typhi Vi Capsular Antigen Expression in Intestinal Model Epithelia and the Bovine Ligated-Ileal Loop Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tran, Quynh Tien-Ngoc

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, a major public health concern in developing countries, continues to be a priority for the World Health Organization. S. Typhi possesses a viaB locus responsible for the biosynthesis of the Vi-capsular antigen, a...

  5. A review of "King James VI and I and his English Parliaments" by Conrad Russell, edited by Richard Cust and Andrew Thrush

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peacey, Jason

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . It is the Duke?s #23; nal speech?the one explaining why things happened the way you thought that they would probably happen?that you really want to hear. Conrad Russell, King James VI and I and his English Parliaments. Edited by Richard Cust and Andrew #22...

  6. WVU FY 2009Expanding West Virginia's Economy WE s t Vi rg i n i a U n i V E r s i t y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    WVU FY 2009Expanding West Virginia's Economy WE s t Vi rg i n i a U n i V E r s i t y: amy The opinions herein reflect those of the authors and do not reflect those of the West Virginia University Board Direct expenditures from West Virginia University led to a total economic impact of approximately $4

  7. Living Village K i o n i Vi l l a g e , I t h a c a , G r e e c e

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    A A Western Washington University | 2010 #12;Living | Village Kioni Village Ithaca, Greece Sustainable IthacaLiving Village K i o n i Vi l l a g e , I t h a c a , G r e e c e A X Nicholas Zaferatos Zaferatos, Sustainable Ithaca Faculty Program Director, at nicholas.zaferatos@wwu.edu #12;Table of Contents

  8. PROBING THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM/GALAXY CONNECTION. V. ON THE ORIGIN OF Ly? AND O VI ABSORPTION AT z < 0.2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prochaska, J. Xavier

    We analyze the association of galaxies with Ly? and O VI absorption, the most commonly detected transitions of the low-z intergalactic medium (IGM), in the fields of 14 quasars with z[subscript em] = 0.06–0.57. Confirming ...

  9. Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control VI, August 22-27, 2004, Cortina D'Ampezzo, Italy A Probabilistic Approach to Evaluate Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cañizares, Claudio A.

    Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control VI, August 22-27, 2004, Cortina D'Ampezzo, Italy introduces a novel approach to security cost analysis in competitive electricity markets. Modern power investments are competing forces in modern power system operations. As numerous jurisdictions move toward

  10. Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control -VI, August 22-27, 2004, Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy Transmission Investment in Competitive Electricity Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control - VI, August 22-27, 2004, Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy Transmission Investment in Competitive Electricity Markets Javier Contreras George Gross E.T.S. de Ingenieros of the transmission network in competitive markets. To illustrate our framework, several case studies are presented

  11. AN ORIGIN FOR THE SOUTH POLE-AITKEN BASIN THORIUM. V.I. Chikmachev, S.G.Pugacheva, Sternberg State Astronomical institute. Moscow University.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chikmachov, Vadim I.

    AN ORIGIN FOR THE SOUTH POLE-AITKEN BASIN THORIUM. V.I. Chikmachev, S.G.Pugacheva, Sternberg State, that within the limits of the possible Al-Khwarizmi/King basin [3]. The SPA basin thorium map: The using data Lunar Prospector [4] the thorium distribution map demonstrated a hemisphere of the Moon which contains

  12. Growth of alternating (1OO)/(lll )-oriented II-VI regions for quasi-phase-matched nonlinear optical devices on GaAs substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fejer, Martin M.

    ferroelectrics such as lithium nio- bate and potassium titanyl phosphate. Efficient operation is possible) nonlinear interactions. II-VI semiconductors, with transparency from the far in- frared to the visible phasematched interactions.' A powerful alternative technique, QPM, re- quires periodic patterning of the sign

  13. Band structures of II-VI semiconductors using Gaussian basis functions with separable ab initio pseudopotentials: Application to prediction of band offsets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    -74), Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (CN9043), California Institute of Technology, Pasadena of pseudopotentials PP signifi- cantly reduces numerical errors since the energy spectra width is greatly reduced due general cases; 3 to provide an electronic structure database for II-VI semiconductors for further studies

  14. A Tungsten(VI) Nitride Having a W2(-N)2 Core Zachary J. Tonzetich, Richard R. Schrock,* Keith M. Wampler, Brad C. Bailey,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Peter

    A Tungsten(VI) Nitride Having a W2(µ-N)2 Core Zachary J. Tonzetich, Richard R. Schrock,* Keith M-331, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 Received September 27, 2007 The tungsten that the tungsten alkylidyne species W(C-t-Bu)(CH2-t-Bu)(OAr)2 (Ar ) 2,6-diisopropylphenyl) can be prepared readily

  15. Chromium Remediation or Release? Effect of Iron(II) Sulfate Addition on Chromium(VI) Leaching from Columns of Chromite Ore Processing Residue 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geelhoed, Jeanine S; Meeussen, Johannes CL; Roe, Martin J; Hillier, Stephen; Thomas, Rhodri P; Farmer, John G; Paterson, Edward

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chromite ore processing residue (COPR), derived from the so-called high lime processing of chromite ore, contains high levels of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) and has a pH between 11 and 12. Ferrous sulfate, which is used for ...

  16. Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control -VI, August 22-27, 2004, Cortina D'Ampezzo, Italy Prediction of Instability Points Using System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cañizares, Claudio A.

    Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control - VI, August 22-27, 2004, Cortina D'Ampezzo, Italy-- Determining maximum loading margins is an im- portant issue in power system operation, as system operators Power systems are very complex nonlinear systems; hence, proper modeling of such systems is an issue

  17. VI INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYMPOSIUM (ITS2006), SEPTEMBER 3-6, 2006, FORTALEZA-CE, BRAZIL 1 Fringe Benefits of the H.264/AVC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Queiroz, Ricardo L.

    of the Motion Picture Experts Groups (MPEG) from the International Standards Organization (ISO) and of the VideoVI INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYMPOSIUM (ITS2006), SEPTEMBER 3-6, 2006, FORTALEZA-CE, BRAZIL, and Tiago A. Fonseca Abstract-- H.264/AVC is the newest, state-of-the-art, video compression standard

  18. (CANCER RESEARCH 53. I02.VI026. March I. 1993] Benzene and Its Phenolic Metabolites Produce Oxidative DNA Damage in HL60

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    (CANCER RESEARCH 53. I02.VI026. March I. 1993] Benzene and Its Phenolic Metabolites Produce ABSTRACT Benzene, an important industrial chemical, is myelotoxic and leuke- mogenic in humans effects. Here we report the induction of oxida- tive DNA damage by benzene and its phenolic metabolites

  19. CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} reforming over Ni-substituted barium hexaaluminate catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, Todd H. [U.S. DOE; Spivey, James J. [ORISE; Kugler, Edwin L.; Pakhare, Devendra

    2013-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of Ni-substituted barium hexaaluminate catalysts, Ba{sub 0.75}Ni{sub y}Al{sub 12?y}O{sub 19??} (y = 0.4, 0.6 and 1.0), were tested for CO{sub 2} reforming of CH{sub 4} at temperatures between 200 and 900 °C. Temperature programmed surface reaction results show that the reaction lights-off in a temperature range between 448 and 503 °C with a consistent decrease in light-off temperature with increasing Ni substitution. Isothermal runs performed at 900 °C show near equilibrium conversion and stable product concentrations for 18 h on all catalysts. Temperature programmed oxidation of the used catalysts show that the amount of carbon deposited on the catalyst increases with Ni substitution. High resolution XRD of the used Ba{sub 0.75}Ni{sub 0.4}Al{sub 11.6}O{sub 19??} catalyst shows a statistically significant contraction of the unit cell which is the result of NiO reduction from the lattice. XRD of the used catalyst also confirms the presence of graphitic carbon. XPS and ICP measurements of the as prepared catalysts show that lower levels of Ni substitution result in an increasing proportion of Ba at the surface.

  20. Fabrication of hollow mesoporous NiO hexagonal microspheres via hydrothermal process in ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Jinbo, E-mail: zhaojinb@gmail.com [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China) [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China); Wu, Lili, E-mail: wulili@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China) [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China); Zou, Ke, E-mail: zouk2005@163.com [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China) [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan (China)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni(OH){sub 2} precursors were synthesized in ionic liquid and water solution by hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO hollow microspheres were prepared by thermal treatment of Ni(OH){sub 2} precursors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO hollow microspheres were self-assembled by mesoporous cubic and hexagonal nanocrystals with high specific surface area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mesoporous structure is stable at 773 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ionic liquid absorbed on the O-terminate surface of the crystals to form hydrogen bond and played key roles in determining the final shape of the NiO novel microstructure. -- Abstract: The novel NiO hexagonal hollow microspheres have been successfully prepared by annealing Ni(OH){sub 2}, which was synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The results show that the hollow NiO microstructures are self-organized by mesoporous cubic and hexagonal nanocrystals. The mesoporous structure possessed good thermal stability and high specific surface area (ca. 83 m{sup 2}/g). The ionic liquid 1-butyl-3methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF{sub 4}]) was found to play a key role in controlling the morphology of NiO microstructures during the hydrothermal process. The special hollow mesoporous architectures will have potential applications in many fields, such as catalysts, absorbents, sensors, drug-delivery carriers, acoustic insulators and supercapacitors.

  1. Structure Analysis of a Precipitate Phase in an Ni-Rich High Temperature NiTiHf Shape Memory Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Fan; Coughlin, D. R.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Yang, L.; Devaraj, Arun; Kovarik, Libor; Noebe, Ronald D.; Mills, M. J.

    2013-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal aging of the high temperature shape memory alloy 50.3Ni-29.7Ti-20Hf (at.%) introduces a novel precipitate phase, which plays an important role in improving shape memory properties. The precipitate phase was investigated by conventional electron diffraction, high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and three dimensional atom probe tomography. An unrelaxed orthorhombic atomic structural model is proposed based on these observations. This model was subsequently relaxed by ab initio calculations. As a result of the relaxation, atom shuffle displacements occur, which in turn yields improved agreement with the STEM images. The relaxed structure, which is termed the “H-phase”, has also been verified to be thermodymanically stable at 0 K.

  2. Nanoparticle size and morphology control using ultrafast laser induced forward transfer of Ni thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Ryan D. [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Abere, Michael J.; Schrider, Keegan J.; Yalisove, Steven M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Torralva, Ben [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a nanoparticle (NP) printing technique using Ni thin film lift-off from glass substrates after ultrafast irradiation in air. Unique interactions of ultrafast laser pulses with thin films allow for control over NP faceting and size distributions. Control is achieved by changing the laser fluence, film thickness, and film-substrate distance. We demonstrate 20 nm Ni film removal from substrates and rapid NP printing, with size distributions centered at a 6 nm diameter. When the Ni film thickness is lowered to 10 nm, NPs are printed with distributions peaked at a 2 nm diameter.

  3. Mass Measurements of Proton-Rich Nuclei Fe-50 and Ni-54 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tribble, Robert E.; Cossairt, J. D.; May, D. P.; Kenefick, R. A.

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PHYSICAL REUIE% C VOLUME 16, N UMBER 2 AUGUST 1977 Mess measurements of' the proton-rich nuciei Fe and ~Nit R. E. Tribble, ~ J. D. Cossairt, D. P. May, and R. A. Kenefick Cyclotron Institute and Physics Department, Texas A AM University, College... Station, Texas 77843 {Received 6 December 1976) The reactions "Fe{'He,'He)' Fe and "Ni{'He,'He)"Ni have been observed at an incident a energy of 110 MeV. The reaction Q values are found to be Q{ Fe) = ?50.95 + 0.06 MeV and Q{' Ni) = ?50.19 + 0.05 Me...

  4. Implications of NiMH Hysteresis on HEV Battery Testing and Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motloch, Chester George; Belt, Jeffrey R; Hunt, Gary Lynn; Ashton, Clair Kirkendall; Murphy, Timothy Collins; Miller, Ted J.; Coates, Calvin; Tataria, H. S.; Lucas, Glenn E.; Duong, T.Q.; Barnes, J.A.; Sutula, Raymond

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nickel Metal-Hydride (NiMH) is an advanced high-power battery technology that is presently employed in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and is one of several technologies undergoing continuing research and development by FreedomCAR. Unlike some other HEV battery technologies, NiMH exhibits a strong hysteresis effect upon charge and discharge. This hysteresis has a profound impact on the ability to monitor state-of-charge and battery performance. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have been investigating the implications of NiMH hysteresis on HEV battery testing and performance. Experimental results, insights, and recommendations are presented.

  5. Effects of aging on the characteristics of TiNiPd shape memory alloy thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Congchun [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Micro-fabrication Technology of Ministry of Education, Research Institute of Micro/Nanometer Science and Technology (China)], E-mail: zhcc@mail.sjtu.edu.cn; Yang Chunsheng; Ding Guifu [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Micro-fabrication Technology of Ministry of Education, Research Institute of Micro/Nanometer Science and Technology (China); Wu Jiansheng [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 200030, Shanghai (China)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    TiNiPd thin films have been deposited on glass substrate using R.F. magnetron sputtering. Effects of annealing and aging on the microstructure, phase transformation behaviors and shape memory effects of these thin films have been studied by X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimeter, tensile tests and internal friction characteristics. The TiNiPd thin films annealed at 750 deg. C exhibit uniform martensite/austenite transformations and shape memory effect. Aging at 450 deg. C for 1 h improved the uniformity of transformations and shape memory effect. Long time aging decreased transformation temperatures and increased the brittleness of TiNiPd thin films.

  6. Phonon densities of states of face-centered-cubic Ni-Fe alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Matthew [United States Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base] [United States Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base; Mauger, L [California Institute of Technology, W. M. Keck Laboratory, Pasadena] [California Institute of Technology, W. M. Keck Laboratory, Pasadena; Munoz, Jorge A. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena] [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena; Halevy, I [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena] [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena; Horwath, J [United States Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base] [United States Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base; Semiatin, S L [United States Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base] [United States Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base; Leontsev, S. O. [University of Kentucky, Lexington] [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Stone, Matthew B [ORNL] [ORNL; Abernathy, Douglas L [ORNL] [ORNL; Xiao, Yuming [Carnegie Institution of Washington] [Carnegie Institution of Washington; Chow, P [HPCAT Geophysical Lab, Argonne, IL] [HPCAT Geophysical Lab, Argonne, IL; Fultz, B. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena] [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inelastic neutron scattering and nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering were used to determine the phonon densities of states of face-centered-cubic Ni-Fe alloys. Increasing Fe concentration results in an average softening of the phonon modes. Chemical ordering of the Ni0.72Fe0.28 alloy results in a reduction of the partial vibrational entropy of the Fe atoms but does not significantly change the partial vibrational entropy of the Ni atoms. Changes in the phonon densities of states with composition and chemical ordering are discussed and analyzed with a cluster expansion method.

  7. Cyclic voltammetric study of Co-Ni-Fe alloys electrodeposition in sulfate medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanafi, I.; Daud, A. R.; Radiman, S. [Material Science Program, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochemical technique has been used to study the electrodeposition of cobalt, nickel, iron and Co-Ni-Fe alloy on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate. To obtain the nucleation mechanism, cyclic voltammetry is used to characterize the Co-Ni-Fe system. The scanning rate effect on the deposition process was investigated. Deposition of single metal occurs at potential values more positive than that estimated stability potential. Based on the cyclic voltammetry results, the electrodeposition of cobalt, nickel, iron and Co-Ni-Fe alloy clearly show that the process of diffusion occurs is controlled by the typical nucleation mechanism.

  8. Isospin Diffusion in $^{58}$Ni-Induced Reactions at Intermediate Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galichet, E; Borderie, B; Colonna, M; Bougault, R; Durand, D; Neindre, N Le; Lopez, O; Manduci, L; Vient, E; Chbihi, A; Frankland, J D; Wieleczko, J P; Dayras, R; Volant, C; Guinet, D C R; Lautesse, P; Parlog, M; Rosato, E; Vigilante, M

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isospin diffusion is probed as a function of the dissipated energy by studying two systems $^{58}$Ni+$^{58}$Ni and $^{58}$Ni+$^{197}$Au, over the incident energy range 52-74\\AM. Experimental data are compared with the results of a microscopic transport model with two different parameterizations of the symmetry energy term. A better overall agreement between data and simulations is obtained when using a symmetry term with a potential part linearly increasing with nuclear density. The isospin equilibration time at 52 \\AM{} is estimated to 130$\\pm$10 fm/$c$.

  9. Improved synthesis and crystal structure of the flexible pillared layer porous coordination polymer: Ni(1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene)[Ni(CN)(4)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong-Ng, W.; Culp, J. T.; Chen, Y. S.; Zavalij, P.; Espinal, L.; Siderius, D. W.; Allen, A. J.; Scheins, S Matranga, C

    2013-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports our synthesis of flexible coordination polymer, Ni(L)[Ni(CN){sub 4}], (L = 1,2-bis(4- pyridyl)ethylene (nicknamed bpene)), and its structural characterization using synchrotron single crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure of the purplish crystals has been determined to be monoclinic, space group P2{sub 1}/m, a = 13.5941(12) Å, b = 14.3621(12) Å, c = 14.2561(12) Å, {beta} = 96.141(2){degrees|, V = 2767.4(4) Å{sup 3}, Z = 4, D{sub c} = 1.46 g cm{sup -1}. Ni(bpene)[Ni(CN){sub 4}] assumes a pillared layer structure with layers defined by Ni[Ni(CN){sub 4}]{sub n} nets and bpene ligands acting as pillars. With the present crystallization technique which involves the use of concentrated ammonium hydroxide solution and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), disordered free bpene ligands and solvents of crystallization (DMSO and water molecules) occupy the pores, resulting in a formula of Ni(bpene)[Ni(CN){sub 4}](1/2)bpene.DMSO.2H{sub 2}O, or Ni{sub 2}N{sub 7}C{sub 24}H{sub 2}.5SO{sub 3}. Without the inclusion of free bpene ligands and solvent molecules, the free volume is approximately 61% of the total volume; this free volume fraction is reduced to 50% with the free ligands present. Pores without the free ligands were found to have a local diameter of 5.7 Å and a main aperture of 3.5 Å. Based on the successful crystal synthesis, we also devised a new bulk synthetic technique which yielded a polycrystalline material with a significantly improved CO{sub 2} uptake as compared to the originally reported powder material. The improved synthetic technique yielded a polycrystalline material with 40% higher CO{sub 2} uptake compared to the previously reported powder material. An estimated 14.4 molecules of CO{sub 2} per unit cell was obtained.

  10. Significant Reduction in NiO Band Gap upon Formation of LixNi1?xO Alloys: Applications to Solar Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alidoust, Nima; Toroker, Maytal; Keith, John A.; Carter, Emily A.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Long-term sustainable solar energy conversion relies on identifying economical and versatile semiconductor materials with appropriate band structures for photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications (e.g., band gaps of ?1.5–2.0 eV). Nickel oxide (NiO) is an inexpensive yet highly promising candidate. Its charge-transfer character may lead to longer carrier lifetimes needed for higher efficiencies, and its conduction band edge is suitable for driving hydrogen evolution via water-splitting. However, NiO’s large band gap (?4 eV) severely limits its use in practical applications. Our first-principles quantum mechanics calculations show band gaps dramatically decrease to ?2.0 eV when NiO is alloyed with Li2O. We show that LixNi1?xO alloys (with x=0.125 and 0.25) are p-type semiconductors, contain states with no impurity levels in the gap and maintain NiO’s desirable charge-transfer character. Lastly, we show that the alloys have potential for photoelectrochemical applications, with band edges well-placed for photocatalytic hydrogen production and CO2 reduction, as well as in tandem dye-sensitized solar cells as a photocathode.

  11. Suppression of g phase in Ni38Co12Mn41Sn9 alloy by melt spinning and its effect on martensitic transformation and magnetic properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    Ni43Co7Mn39Sn11 alloy fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) [3]. In NiMnSn, NiMnGa and Ni by spark plasma sintering [3]. The g phase usually deteriorates shape memory effect due to its impediment

  12. Phase equilibria in W-Fe-Co-Ni system alloys I. Alloys containing 10% (Fe+Co+Ni) at 1400-1200/sup 0/ C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakharov, A.M.

    1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors investigate the phase composition of W-Fe-Co-Ni system alloys with a total (Fe + Co + Ni) content of 10% at 1400-1200 C and also of their solidus temperature. The alloys were prepared from powders of tungsten (not less than 99.87% ), carbonyl nickel (not less than 99.98%), type ChDA iron (not less than 99.55%), and cobalt (not less than 99.5%) with a particle size of 1.7-70 um. The phase composition of the alloys was studied by methods of metallographic, x-ray, and micro-x-ray spectral analysis and also by measurement of the microhardness of the coexisting phases. upon Completiodnof crystallization and at temperatures of 1400-1200 C alloys of the primary section with 10% (Fe + Co + Ni) have a two-(alpha + u or alpha + gamma) or three phase (alpha + u + gamma) structure.

  13. Low Spring Index NiTi Coil Actuators for Use in Active Compression Garments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holschuh, Bradley

    This paper describes the modeling, development, and testing of low spring index nickel titanium (NiTi) coil actuators designed for use in wearable compression garments, and presents a prototype tourniquet system using these ...

  14. Identification of Highly Active Fe Sites in (Ni,Fe)OOH for Electrocata...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    enhanced OER activity in Fe-doped -NiOOH, in which Fe sites have near-optimum binding energies for OER intermediates. The conversion of solar energy and water to hydrogen is a...

  15. Hydrogen absorption characteristics of amorphous LaNi[sub 5. 0] films prepared by reactive sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakaguchi, H.; Tsujimoto, T.; Adachi, Ginya (Osaka University, Suita (Japan))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Amorphous LaNi[sub 5] thin films are expected to be one of the promising materials for use in hydrogen separation and battery electrodes, because the durability of the films is great in regard to the hydrogen absorption-desorption cycling process and the films have excellent resistance to harmful impurities in the hydrogen gas in comparison with the crystalline bulk material. An amorphous LaNi[sub 5.0] film having high hydrogen density and low hydrogen-induced stress was obtained by means of a reactive sputtering method using an Ar-H[sub 2] gas mixture. Pressure-composition isotherms show that the amount of hydrogen (H/LaNi[sub 5.0]) taken up by a formula weight of LaNi[sub 5.0] is about 1.5 times larger for the reactive sputtered film than for the conventional sputtered film prepared by using Ar gas. 18 refs., 1 fig, 1 tabs.

  16. Understanding and development of combined acoustic and magnetic actuation of Ni?MnGa single crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Techapiesancharoenkij, Ratchatee, 1979-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ni-Mn-Ga based ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMAs) have emerged as a promising new class of active materials capable of producing a large (several %) magnetic-field-induced strain (MFIS). FSMAs still have several ...

  17. Study on Degradation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell With Pure Ni Anode Zhenjun Jiaoa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasagi, Nobuhide

    Study on Degradation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell With Pure Ni Anode Zhenjun Jiaoa , Naoki Shikazonoa Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has attracted more and more attentions in the last few decades

  18. Effect of Aging Heat Treatments on Ni52Ti48 Shape Memory Alloy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akin, Erhan

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    temperatures, microstructural evolution, and shape memory behavior were investigated for a Ni52Ti48 shape memory alloy (SMA) by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermo-mechanical testing...

  19. Fabrication of NiTi shape memory alloy from elemental powders by hot isostatic pressing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeese, Matthew Doyle

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research involved in this thesis was conducted to develop a procedure for producing cylindrical specimens of NiTi shape memory alloy for mechanical testing from elemental powders by hot isostatic pressing. Powders were mixed to ratios of 50...

  20. Thermal properties of Ni-substituted LaCoO{sub 3} perovskite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thakur, Rasna, E-mail: rasnarishu@gmail.com; Thakur, Rajesh K., E-mail: rasnarishu@gmail.com; Gaur, N. K. [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal - 462026 (India); Srivastava, Archana [Department of Physics, Sri Sathya Sai College for Women, Bhopal- 462024 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    With the objective of exploring the unknown thermodynamic behavior of LaCo{sub 1?x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} family, we present here an investigation of the temperature-dependent (10K ? T ? 300K) thermodynamic properties of LaCo{sub 1?x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} (x=0.1, 0.3, 0.5). The specific heat of LaCoO3 with Ni doping in the perovskite structure at B-site has been studied by means of a Modified Rigid Ion Model (MRIM). This replacement introduces large cation variance at B-site hence the specific heat increases appreciably. We report here probably for the first time the cohesive energy, Reststrahlen frequency (?) and Debye temperature (?{sub D}) of LaCo{sub 1?x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 3} compounds.

  1. Thermomechanical Cyclic Response of TiNiPd High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atli, Kadri

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    TiNiPd high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs) have attracted considerable attention as potential solid-state actuators capable of operating at temperatures up to 500 °C, exhibiting excellent corrosion resistance, adequate ductility levels...

  2. Fabrication of NiTi shape memory alloy from elemental powders by hot isostatic pressing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeese, Matthew Doyle

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research involved in this thesis was conducted to develop a procedure for producing cylindrical specimens of NiTi shape memory alloy for mechanical testing from elemental powders by hot isostatic pressing. Powders were mixed to ratios of 50...

  3. CO[subscript 2] hydrogenation to formic acid on Ni(111)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Guowen

    Periodic, self-consistent, density functional theory (DFT) calculations are employed to study CO[subscript 2] hydrogenation on Ni(111). CO[subscript 2] hydrogenation with H adsorbed on the surface and with H absorbed in ...

  4. Thermodynamic modeling and experimental validation of the Fe-Al-Ni-Cr-Mo alloy system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teng, Zhenke [ORNL; Zhang, F [CompuTherm LLC, Madison, WI; Miller, Michael K [ORNL; Liu, Chain T [Hong Kong Polytechnic University; Huang, Shenyan [ORNL; Chou, Y.T. [Multi-Phase Services Inc., Knoxville; Tien, R [Multi-Phase Services Inc., Knoxville; Chang, Y A [ORNL; Liaw, Peter K [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NiAl-type precipitate-strengthened ferritic steels have been known as potential materials for the steam turbine applications. In this study, thermodynamic descriptions of the B2-NiAl type nano-scaled precipitates and body-centered-cubic (BCC) Fe matrix phase for four alloys based on the Fe-Al-Ni-Cr-Mo system were developed as a function of the alloy composition at the aging temperature. The calculated phase structure, composition, and volume fraction were validated by the experimental investigations using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and atom probe tomography. With the ability to accurately predict the key microstructural features related to the mechanical properties in a given alloy system, the established thermodynamic model in the current study may significantly accelerate the alloy design process of the NiAl-strengthened ferritic steels.

  5. Characterization of LiNi?.?Mn?.?O? Thin Film Cathode Prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xia, Hui

    LiNi?.?Mn?.?O? thin films have been grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on stainless steel (SS) substrates. The crystallinity and structure of thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Microstructure and ...

  6. Metallographic study of gamma - gamma prime structure in the Ni-based superalloy GTD111

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kountras, Apostolos, 1970-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential for land-based turbine buckets material rejuvenation presents a significant commercial and scientific interest. Ni-based superalloy GTD111 is used at a number of GE-manufactured power generation turbines. The ...

  7. The thermomechanical constitutive experimentation of NiTi shape memory alloy strips and rods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, Stephen David

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this thesis was to study the effect of temperature on the thermomechanical constitutive behavior of NiTi shape memory alloy strip and rod specimens. The stress-strain relationship is analyzed for isothermal monotonic tensile testing...

  8. Electronic Structure and Lattice Dynamics of the Magnetic Shape Memory Alloy Co2NiGa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siewert, M.; Shapiro, S.; Gruner, M.E.; Dannenberg, A.; Hucht, A.; Xu, G.; Schlagel, D.L.; Lograsso, T.A.; Entel1, P.

    2010-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In addition to the prototypical Ni-Mn-based Heusler alloys, the Co-Ni-Ga systems have recently been suggested as another prospective materials class for magnetic shape-memory applications. We provide a characterization of the dynamical properties of this material and their relation to the electronic structure within a combined experimental and theoretical approach. This relies on inelastic neutron scattering to obtain the phonon dispersion while first-principles calculations provide the link between dynamical properties and electronic structure. In contrast to Ni{sub 2}MnGa, where the softening of the TA{sub 2} phonon branch is related to Fermi-surface nesting, our results reveal that the respective anomalies are absent in Co-Ni-Ga, in the phonon dispersions as well as in the electronic structure.

  9. Shape memory and superelasticity in polycrystalline Cu-Al-Ni microwires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ying

    We report a strategy to significantly improve the ductility and achieve large superelastic and shape memory strains in polycrystalline Cu–Al–Ni shape memory alloys that are normally brittle. We use a liquid-phase (Taylor) ...

  10. Frequency Response of Acoustic-Assisted Ni–Mn–Ga Ferromagnetic- Shape-Memory-Alloy Actuator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Techapiesancharoenkij, Ratchatee

    A prototype of Ni–Mn–Ga based ferromagnetic-shape-memory-alloy (FSMA) actuator was designed and built; an acoustic-assist technique was applied to the actuator to enhance its performance. A piezoelectric stack actuator was ...

  11. Computational Thermodynamics of CoNiGa High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chari, Arpita

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Alloys (HTSMAs), with possible applications in the aerospace and automotive industries. Although the CoNiGa system shows significant promise for its use as HTSMAs, limited studies are available on them. Hence, a more intensive investigation...

  12. Preparation and Comparison of Two Electrodes for Supercapacitors: Pani/CNT/Ni and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Ning

    Preparation and Comparison of Two Electrodes for Supercapacitors: Pani/CNT/Ni and Pani words: electrochemical supercapacitor; polymer- coated carbon nanotubes; nickel surface treatment for such electrochemical supercapacitors include any applications where intense pulse power supply and fast charge

  13. Magnetism of NiMn2O4-Fe3O4 spinel interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson-Cheeseman, B. B.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetism of NiMn 2 O 4 –Fe 3 O 4 spinel interfaces B. B.2. Element-specific magnetism of Fe 3 O 4 /NMO interface inin these structures, 6 the magnetism near the isostructural

  14. Graphene-on-Insulator Transistors Made Using C on Ni Chemical-Vapor Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keast, Craig L.

    Graphene transistors are made by transferring a thin graphene film grown on Ni onto an insulating SiO[subscript 2] substrate. The properties and integration of these graphene-on-insulator transistors are presented and ...

  15. Modeling and Characterization of the Magnetocaloric Effect in Ni2MnGa Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicholson, Don M [ORNL; Odbadrakh, Khorgolkhuu [ORNL; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Hodges, Jason P [ORNL; Ludtka, Gerard Michael [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Sefat, A. S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rusanu, Aurelian [ORNL; Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic shape memory alloys have great promise as magneto-caloric effect refrigerant materials due to their combined magnetic and structural transitions. Computational and experimental research is reported on the Ni2MnGa material system. The magnetic states of this system have been explored using the Wang-Landau statistical approach in conjunction with the Locally Self-consistent Multiple-Scattering (LSMS) method to explore the magnetic states responsible for the magnet-caloric effect in this material. The effects of alloying agents on the transition temperatures of the Ni2MnGa alloy were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Neutron scattering experiments were performed to observe the structural and magnetic phase transformations at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on alloys of Ni-Mn-Ga and Ni-Mn-Ga-Cu-Fe. Data from the observations are discussed in comparison with the computational studies.

  16. al-ni intermetallic compound: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    multilayer foils Jonathan C. Trenkle,1 Physics Websites Summary: August 2008 We have used self-propagating exothermic reactions in AlNi multilayers as a means to explore the...

  17. Fabrication and characterization of porous NiTi Shape Memory Alloy by elevated pressure sintering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vandygriff, Eric Layton

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    have not been adequately developed. Currently, three methods are commonly used for producing porous NiTi SMAs from elemental powders. These methods include conventional sintering, Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS), and sintering...

  18. Nanostructured Ni-Co Alloys with Tailorable Grain Size and Twin Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira, Paulo J.

    grain sizes and twin densities in the Ni-Co binary system. Using electrodeposition with various applied nanocrystalline nickel. I. INTRODUCTION BULK nanocrystalline materials are characterized by a large volume

  19. Electrodeposition of corrosion-resistant Ni-Zn alloy. I. Cyclic voltammetric study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Yu-Po; Selman, J.R. (Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago (United States))

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction between different reacting species involved in the initial stage of electrodeposition of nickel-zinc alloy was investigated. A cyclic voltammetric study indicates that codeposition of hydrogen and nickel occurs, with formation of two types of hydrogen-nickel solid solution, i.e., [beta]-Ni and [alpha]-Ni. This nickel hydride formation during Ni-Zn alloy electrodeposition was verified by analyzing the voltammograms of nickel, zinc, and Ni-Zn alloy during initial deposition on various substrates. The dissolution potential of zinc and nickel from electrodeposited nickel-zinc alloy spans a wide range (ca. 400 mV). The influence of the interaction between nickel, hydrogen, and zinc on the nucleation of nickel-zinc electrodeposition is reported in part II of this paper.

  20. Effect of ausforming via severe plastic deformation on shape memory behavior of NiTi 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Ajay V.

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, Thermomechanical properties of Ti-50.8 and 50.7 at% Ni alloy severely deformed using Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE) are investigated. The aim of this study is to reveal the effects of severe plastic ...

  1. Kinetics of Mixed Ni-Al Precipitate Formation on a Soil Clay Fraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Kinetics of Mixed Ni-Al Precipitate Formation on a Soil Clay Fraction D A R R Y L R . R O B E R-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) precipitate formation on a soil clay fraction was monitored using X in 0.1 M NaNO3. Initial Ni sorption kinetics on the soil clay were rapid at all pH values but differed

  2. Photoelectron spectroscopic study of the cleaned, thermally treated and oxidized Zr??Ni?? amorphaus alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Guiping

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF THE CLEANED, THERMALLY TREATED AND OXIDIZED ZrssNi34 AMORPHOUS ALLOY A Thesis by GUIPING LIANG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A & 51 University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1987 Major Subject: Physics PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF THE CLEANED, THERMALLY TREATED AND OXIDIZED ZrssNi34 AMORPHOUS ALLOY A Thesis by GUIPING LIANG Approved as to style and content by: Donald G...

  3. PVD synthesis and high-throughput property characterization of Ni?Fe?Cr alloy libraries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rar, A.; Frafjord, J.J.; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Specht, E.D.; Rack, P.D.; Santella, M.L.; Bei, H.; George, E.P.; Pharr, G.M. (Tennessee-K); (Tennessee-K); (ORNL)

    2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Three methods of alloy library synthesis, thick-layer deposition followed by interdiffusion, composition-spread codeposition and electron-beam melting of thick deposited layers, have been applied to Ni-Fe-Cr ternary and Ni-Cr binary alloys. Structural XRD mapping and mechanical characterization by means of nanoindentation have been used to characterize the properties of the libraries. The library synthesis methods are compared from the point of view of the structural and mechanical information they can provide.

  4. Heat treatment of NiCrFe alloy to optimize resistance to intergrannular stress corrosion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steeves, Arthur F. (Schenectady, NY); Bibb, Albert E. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of producing a NiCrFe alloy having a high resistance to stress corrosion cracking comprising heating a NiCrFe alloy to a temperature sufficient to enable the carbon present in the alloy body in the form of carbide deposits to enter into solution, rapidly cool the alloy body, and heat the cooled body to a temperature between 1100.degree. to 1500.degree. F. for about 1 to 30 hours.

  5. Synthesis of pure, active, and fine NiFe?O? by aerosolization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Hsuan-Fu

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and format of the Am. Ceram. Soc. This thesis deals with preparing nickel ferrite by the aerosol techniques to demonstrate the formation of double oxides in simple systems containing precursors that yield only one intermediate oxide phase. Ferrites... solution that contains Ni(II) and Fe(III) to form NiFez0~ is selected as the starting material for the aerosolization process. (b) to investigate the feasibility of the proposed aerosol technique by using an aqueous solution of corresponding salts...

  6. Electrodeposition of high Mo content Ni-Mo alloys under forced convection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Podlaha, E.J.; Matlosz, M.; Landolt, D. (Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanee (Switzerland). Dept. des materiaux)

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bright, compact, adherent, metallic Ni-Mo alloys, containing over 48 wt % Mo have been electrodeposited from an aqueous solution. The Mo content, which is the highest achieved so far in induced codeposition of Ni-Mo, was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The absence of oxygen was verified by Auger electron spectroscopy. Electrodeposition experiments were performed on rotating cylinder electrodes and demonstrate that the Mo content of the alloy is strongly influenced by convective transport.

  7. Experimental determination of band offsets of NiO-based thin film heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawade, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Mutsumi, E-mail: mutsumi@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp [Faculty of Science and Technology/Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda 278-8510 (Japan); Chichibu, Shigefusa F. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba, Sendai 980–8577 (Japan)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy band diagrams of NiO-based solar cell structures that use various n-type oxide semiconductors such as ZnO, Mg{sub 0.3}Zn{sub 0.7}O, Zn{sub 0.5}Sn{sub 0.5}O, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sn (ITO), SnO{sub 2}, and TiO{sub 2} were evaluated by photoelectron yield spectroscopy. The valence band discontinuities were estimated to be 1.6?eV for ZnO/NiO and Mg{sub 0.3}Zn{sub 0.7}O/NiO, 1.7?eV for Zn{sub 0.5}Sn{sub 0.5}O/NiO and ITO/NiO, and 1.8?eV for SnO{sub 2}/NiO and TiO{sub 2}/NiO heterojunctions. By using the valence band discontinuity values and corresponding energy bandgaps of the layers, energy band diagrams were developed. Judging from the band diagram, an appropriate solar cell consisting of p-type NiO and n-type ZnO layers was deposited on ITO, and a slight but noticeable photovoltaic effect was obtained with an open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 0.96?V, short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of 2.2??A/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor of 0.44.

  8. Determination of mechanical properties of Ni-Cr-P amorphous alloys 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kondlapudi, Swaroop Kumar R

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    unstable as they tend to relax to a more stable state. An amorphous alloy becomes fully stable only when it crystallizes. Metallic glasses are generally produced by the melt- spinning process. In this process a molten alloy stream impinging on a... materials of Ni~P, CrP, Ni and Cr powders and then produced in the amorphous phase using the melt-spinner. The density, crystallization temperatures, microhardness, tensile fracture strength and dynamic Young's modulus were determined so...

  9. Dielectric property of NiTiO{sub 3} doped substituted ortho-chloropolyaniline composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lakshmi, Mohana; Faisal, Muhammad [Department of Physics, PES Institute of Technology, BSC, Bangalore- 560100 (India)] [Department of Physics, PES Institute of Technology, BSC, Bangalore- 560100 (India); Roy, Aashish S. [Department of Materials Science, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga-585106, Karnataka (India)] [Department of Materials Science, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga-585106, Karnataka (India); Khasim, Syed, E-mail: syed.pes@gmail.com [Department of Physics, PES Institute of Technology, BSC, Bangalore- 560100 (India) [Department of Physics, PES Institute of Technology, BSC, Bangalore- 560100 (India); Department of Physics, University of Tabuk-71491 (Saudi Arabia); Sajjan, K. C. [Department of Physics, Veerashaiva College, Bellary - 583 104, Karnataka (India)] [Department of Physics, Veerashaiva College, Bellary - 583 104, Karnataka (India); Revanasiddappa, M. [Department of Chemistry, PES Institute of Technology, BSC, Bangalore - 560100 (India)] [Department of Chemistry, PES Institute of Technology, BSC, Bangalore - 560100 (India)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ortho-chloropolyaniline (OCP)-NiTiO{sub 3} composites have been synthesized via in-situ polymerization of ortho-chloroaniline with various weight percentages of NiTiO{sub 3.} Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopic studies of Ortho-chloropolyaniline and its composites indicated the formation of composites as a result of Vander Waal's interaction between OCP and NiTiO{sub 3} particles. Surface morphology of OCP and OCP-NiTiO{sub 3} composites were studied using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The SEM micrographs indicated a modified morphology after the composite formation. Dielectric properties and electric modulus of OCP and OCP-NiTiO{sub 3} composites have been investigated in the frequency range of 50 Hz – 5 MHz. It has been noticed that electrical resistance decreases with increase in weight percentage of NiTiO{sub 3} particles in polymer matrix as well as with applied frequency. The display of semicircular arcs in Cole-Cole plots indicates the formation of series resistor and capacitor in network causing a decrease in the relaxation time and as a result conductivity enhances in these composites. The facile and cost effective synthesis process and excellent dielectric and conductivity response of these materials makes them promising materials for practical applications.

  10. Alloying effects on mechanical and metallurgical properties of NiAl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, C.T.; Horton, J.A.; Lee, E.H.; George, E.P.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alloying effects were investigated in near-stoichiometric NiAl for improving its mechanical and metallurgical properties. Ternary additions of 19 elements at levels up to 10 at. % were added to NiAl; among them, molybdenum is found to be most effective in improving the room-temperature ductility and high-temperature strength. Alloying with 1.0 {plus_minus} 0.6% molybdenum almost doubles the room-temperature tensile ductility of NiAl and triples its yield strength at 1000C. The creep properties of molybdenum-modified NiAl alloys can be dramatically improved by alloying with up to 1% of niobium or tantalum. Because of the low solubilities of molybdenum and niobium in NiAl, the beneficial effects mainly come from precipitation hardening. Fine and coarse precipitates are revealed by both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron microprobe analyses. Molybdenum-containing alloys possess excellent oxidation resistance and can be fabricated into rod stock by hot extrusion at 900 to 1050C. This study of alloying effects provides a critical input for the alloy design of ductile and strong NiAl aluminide alloys for high-temperature structural applications.

  11. An Update on Improvements to NiCE Support for RELAP-7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCaskey, Alex [ORNL; Wojtowicz, Anna [ORNL; Deyton, Jordan H [ORNL; Patterson, Taylor C [ORNL; Billings, Jay Jay [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) is a framework that facilitates the development of applications that rely on finite-element analysis to solve a coupled, nonlinear system of partial differential equations. RELAP-7 represents an update to the venerable RELAP-5 simulator that is built upon this framework and attempts to model the balance-of-plant concerns in a full nuclear plant. This report details the continued support and integration of RELAP-7 and the NEAMS Integrated Computational Environment (NiCE). RELAP-7 is fully supported by the NiCE due to on-going work to tightly integrate NiCE with the MOOSE framework, and subsequently the applications built upon it. NiCE development throughout the first quarter of FY15 has focused on improvements, bug fixes, and feature additions to existing MOOSE-based application support. Specifically, this report will focus on improvements to the NiCE MOOSE Model Builder, the MOOSE application job launcher, and the 3D Nuclear Plant Viewer. This report also includes a comprehensive tutorial that guides RELAP-7 users through the basic NiCE workflow: from input generation and 3D Plant modeling, to massively parallel job launch and post-simulation data visualization.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of flower-like {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} nanoarchitectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo Yuanyuan [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Anhui Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials, Nanotechnology Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Duan Guotao [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Anhui Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials, Nanotechnology Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Li Guanghai [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Anhui Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials, Nanotechnology Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)], E-mail: ghli@issp.ac.cn

    2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Flower-like Ni(OH){sub 2} nanoarchitectures have been synthesized through a one-step mild hydrothermal reaction with the aid of ethylenediamine in NiCl{sub 2} aqueous solution. The flower with the size of several micrometers in diameter is composed of the ultra-thin nanosheets of several nanometers in thickness. It was found the ethylenediamine is vital to the formation of the flower-like nanoarchitectures. The influence of the concentration of the ethylenediamine and the reaction temperature on the formation of the flowers was analyzed and the formation mechanism of the flowers was proposed. Such flower-like {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} nanoarchitectures will find potential applications in the fields, such as electrode, or will be used as a starting material to produce NiO, which is widely used in the magnetic, catalysts, sensor and electrochromic devices. - Graphical abstract: Flower-like Ni(OH){sub 2} nanoarchitectures were synthesized by a one-step mild hydrothermal reaction with the aid of ethylenediamine in NiCl{sub 2} aqueous solution. The flower with the size of several micrometers in diameter is composed of the ultra-thin nanosheets of several nanometers in thickness. The flowers could be in catalysts, sensor and electrochromic devices, and alkaline rechargeable batteries.

  13. NiO-silica based nanostructured materials obtained by microemulsion assisted sol-gel procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihaly, M.; Comanescu, A.F. [University POLITEHNICA Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, 1 Polizu, 011061 Bucharest (Romania)] [University POLITEHNICA Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, 1 Polizu, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Rogozea, A.E. [ILIE MURGULESCU Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania)] [ILIE MURGULESCU Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Vasile, E. [METAV Research and Development, 31 C.A. Rosetti, 020011 Bucharest (Romania)] [METAV Research and Development, 31 C.A. Rosetti, 020011 Bucharest (Romania); Meghea, A., E-mail: a.meghea@gmail.com [University POLITEHNICA Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, 1 Polizu, 011061 Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: TEM micrograph of NiO/SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Highlights: {yields} Microemulsion assisted sol-gel procedure for NiO silica nanomaterials synthesis. {yields} Controlling the size and shape of nanoparticles and avoiding their aggregation. {yields} Narrow band-gap semiconductors (energies <3 eV) absorbing VIS or near-UV light biologically and chemically inert semiconductors entrapping/coating in silica network. {yields} Low cost as the microemulsion is firstly used in water metallic cation extraction. -- Abstract: NiO-silica based materials have been synthesized by microemulsion assisted sol-gel procedure. The versatility of these soft nanotechnology techniques has been exploited in order to obtain different types of nanostructures, such as NiO nanoparticles, NiO silica coated nanoparticles and NiO embedded in silica matrix. These materials have been characterized by adequate structural and morphology techniques: DLS, HR-TEM/SAED, BET, AFM. Optical and semiconducting properties (band-gap values) of the synthesized materials have been quantified by means of VIS-NIR diffuse reflectance spectra, thus demonstrating their applicative potential in various electron transfer phenomena such as photocatalysis, electrochromic thin films, solid oxide fuel cells.

  14. EFFECT OF FUEL IMPURITY ON STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY OF Ni-YSZ ANODE OF SOFCs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity production through the integration of coal gasification with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) may potentially be an efficient technique for clean energy generation. However, multiple minor and trace components are naturally present in coals. These impurities in coal gas not only degrade the electrochemical performance of Ni-YSZ anode used in SOFCs, but also severely endanger the structural integrity of the Ni-YSZ anode. In this paper, effect of the trace impurity of the coal syngases on the mechanical degradation of Ni-YSZ anode was studied by using an integrated experimental/modeling approach. Phosphorus is taken as an example of impurity. Anode-support button cell was used to experimentally explore the migration of phosphorous impurity in the Ni-YSZ anode of SOFCs. X-ray mapping was used to show elemental distributions and new phase formation. The subsequent finite element stress analyses were conducted using the actual microstructure of the anode to illustrate the degradation mechanism. It was found that volume expansion induced by the Ni phase change produces high stress level such that local failure of the Ni-YSZ anode is possible under the operating conditions

  15. CH4-CO2 reforming over Ni-substituted barium hexaaluminate catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, Todd H. [U.S. DOE; Spivey, James J. [Louisiana State University; Kugler, Edwin L. [WVU; Pakhare, Devendra [Louisiana State University

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of Ni-substituted barium hexaaluminate catalysts, Ba0.75NiyAl12?yO19?? (y = 0.4, 0.6 and 1.0), were tested for CO2 reforming of CH4 at temperatures between 200 and 900 ?C. Temperature programmed surface reaction results show that the reaction lights-off in a temperature range between 448 and 503 ?C with a consistent decrease in light-off temperature with increasing Ni substitution. Isothermal runs performed at 900 ?C show near equilibrium conversion and stable product concentrations for 18 h on all catalysts. Temperature programmed oxidation of the used catalysts show that the amount of carbon deposited on the catalyst increases with Ni substitution. High resolution XRD of the used Ba0.75Ni0.4Al11.6O19?? catalyst shows a statistically significant contraction of the unit cell which is the result of NiO reduction from the lattice. XRD of the used catalyst also confirms the presence of graphitic carbon. XPS and ICP measurements of the as prepared catalysts show that lower levels of Ni substitution result in an increasing proportion of Ba at the surface.

  16. Interplay between out-of-plane anisotropic L1{sub 1}-type CoPt and in-plane anisotropic NiFe layers in CoPt/NiFe exchange springs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saravanan, P. [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India); Hsu, Jen-Hwa, E-mail: jhhsu@phys.ntu.edu.tw; Tsai, C. L. [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Tsai, C. Y.; Lin, Y. H. [Graduate Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Kuo, C. Y.; Wu, J.-C. [Department of Physics, National Chang Hua University of Education, Chang Hua 50000, Taiwan (China); Lee, C.-M. [Graduate School of Materials Science, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliou 64002, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Films of L1{sub 1}-type CoPt/NiFe exchange springs were grown with different NiFe (Permalloy) layer thickness (t{sub NiFe}?=?0–10?nm). X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the characteristic peak position of NiFe(111) is not affected by the CoPt-layer—confirming the absence of any inter-diffusion between the CoPt and NiFe layers. Magnetic studies indicate that the magnetization orientation of NiFe layer can be tuned through varying t{sub NiFe} and the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of L1{sub 1}-type CoPt/NiFe films cannot sustain for t{sub NiFe} larger than 3.0?nm due to the existence of exchange interaction at the interface of L1{sub 1}-CoPt and NiFe layers. Magnetic force microscopy analysis on the as-grown samples shows the changes in morphology from maze-like domains with good contrast to hazy domains when t{sub NiFe}???3.0?nm. The three-dimensional micro-magnetic simulation results demonstrate that the magnetization orientation in NiFe layer is not uniform, which continuously increases from the interface to the top of NiFe layer. Furthermore, the tilt angle of the topmost NiFe layers can be changed over a very wide range from a small number to about 75° by varying t{sub NiFe} from 1 to 10?nm. It is worth noting that there is an abrupt change in the magnetization direction at the interface, for all the t{sub NiFe} investigated. The results of present study demonstrate that the tunable tilted exchange springs can be realized with L1{sub 1}-type CoPt/NiFe bilayers for future applications in three-axis magnetic sensors or advanced spintronic devices demanding inclined magnetic anisotropy.

  17. The beta-delayed neutron emission in 78Ni region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. N. Borzov

    2004-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A systematic study of the total $\\beta$-decay half-lives and $\\beta$-delayed neutron emission probabilities is performed. The $\\beta$-strength function is treated within the self-consistent density-functional + continuum-QRPA framework including the Gamow-Teller and first-forbidden transitions. The experimental total $\\beta$-decay half-lives for the Ni isotopes with $A\\leq$76 are described satisfactorily. The half-lives predicted from $A$=70 up to $A$=86 reveal fairly regular $A$-behaviour which results from simultaneous account for the Gamow-Teller and first-forbidden transitions. For $Z\\approx$ 28 nuclei, a suppression of the delayed neutron emission probability is found when the $N$=50 neutron closed shell is crossed. The effect originates from the high-energy first-forbidden transitions to the states outside the $Q_{\\beta} - S_n$-window in the daughter nuclei. PACS numbers: 23.40.Bw,21.60.Jz,25.30.Pt,26.30.+k

  18. The beta-delayed neutron emission in 78Ni region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borzov, I N

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A systematic study of the total $\\beta$-decay half-lives and $\\beta$-delayed neutron emission probabilities is performed. The $\\beta$-strength function is treated within the self-consistent density-functional + continuum-QRPA framework including the Gamow-Teller and first-forbidden transitions. The experimental total $\\beta$-decay half-lives for the Ni isotopes with $A\\leq$76 are described satisfactorily. The half-lives predicted from $A$=70 up to $A$=86 reveal fairly regular $A$-behaviour which results from simultaneous account for the Gamow-Teller and first-forbidden transitions. For $Z\\approx$ 28 nuclei, a suppression of the delayed neutron emission probability is found when the $N$=50 neutron closed shell is crossed. The effect originates from the high-energy first-forbidden transitions to the states outside the $Q_{\\beta} - S_n$-window in the daughter nuclei. PACS numbers: 23.40.Bw,21.60.Jz,25.30.Pt,26.30.+k

  19. Magnetostructural phase transition in electroless-plated Ni nanoarrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Chun-Chao; Lo, Chih-Chieh; Tseng, Yuan-Chieh; Liu, Chien-Min; Chen, Chih [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University 1001, Ta Hsueh Road, Hsin-Chu 30010, Taiwan (China)

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ni nanoarrays were synthesized by electroless-plating and shaped by an anodic aluminum oxide template. The as-plated arrays exhibited superparamagnetic (SM) ordering resulting from nanocrystalline microstructure. Ferromagnetic (FM) ordering was found to be restored as the arrays' crystallinity was enhanced upon post-annealing. The microstructure (crystallinity) and the FM ordering are strongly coupled, revealing a magneto-structural correlation for the arrays. The magnetostructural properties of the arrays can be controlled by post-annealing, where the magnetization is proportional to the annealing temperature. The electroless-plated arrays synthesized in this work display magnetic anisotropy not found in electroplated ones. This is likely attributed to the nature of the clusterlike microstructure, whose cluster-boundaries may confine the FM rotation within the cluster. The spin-polarization was probed by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism while the arrays underwent the SM{yields}FM phase transition. The sum-rules results reveal that the total magnetization of the arrays is dominated by spin moment (m{sub spin}). The change in m{sub spin} is responsible for the SM{yields}FM phase transition upon annealing, as well as for the loss of magnetization upon temperature increase that we observed macroscopically.

  20. In pursuit of clean air: a data book of problems and strategies at the state level. Volume 3: Federal Regions IV and VI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garvey, D.B.; Streets, D.G.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the third volume of a five-volume report, designed to provide useful information for policy analysis in the Department of Energy, especially for the examination of possible areas of conflict between the implementation of a national energy policy calling for the increased use of coal and the pursuit of clean air. Information is presented for each state in Federal Regions IV and VI under the following section headings: state title page (includes a summary of air quality data); revised state implementation plan outline; maps of nonattainment areas, as designated; Storage and Retrieval of Aerometric Data (SAROAD); SAROAD data maps; power plant data; power plant maps; and county maps. States in Federal Region IV include: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Those in Federal Region VI include: Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. (JGB)

  1. Applications of ENDF/B-VI and JENDL-3.1 iron data to reactor pressure vessel fluence analysis using continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jungo-Do; Gil, Choong-Sup [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A comparison is made of results obtained from neutron transmissions analysis of RPV performed by MCNP with ENDF/B-VI and JENDL-3.1 iron data. At first, a one-dimensional discrete ordinates transport calculation using VITAMIN-C fine-group library based on ENDF/B-IV was performed for a cylindrical model of a PWR to generate the source spectrum at the front of the RPV. And then, the transmission of neutrons through RPV was calculated by MCNP with the moderated fission spectrum incident on the vessel face. For these ENDF/B-IV, -VI and JENDL-3.1 iron data were processed into continuous energy point data form by NJOY91.91. The fast neutron fluxes and dosimeter reaction rates through RPV using each iron data were intercompared.

  2. Btodzernlcal Pharmacolog~ V,',I 35 No 13 pp 2073-2080 1986 00062952, 86 $3 IX) + I) 00 Prmted m Great Britain Pergdmon Journ,ds Lid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Btodzernlcal Pharmacolog~ V,',I 35 No 13 pp 2073-2080 1986 00062952, 86 $3 IX) + I) 00 Prmted m of trans- and cts-stilbene oxide and benzo[a]pyrene-4,5-oxlde was measured m cytosol and mlcrosomes sulfhydryls were detected in cytosol from hver (4.6 mM) and testis (1 5 mM) Glutathxone was moderately stable

  3. Identifying key controls on the behavior of an acidic-U(VI) plume in the Savannah River Site using reactive transport modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubbard, Susan

    National Lab., 1 Cyclotron Road Mail Stop 90R1116, Berkeley, CA 94720-8126, United States b Savannah RiverIdentifying key controls on the behavior of an acidic-U(VI) plume in the Savannah River Site using National Lab., Bldg. 773-42A, Aiken, SC 29808, United States a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t Article

  4. An investigation on how the Scottish teachers for V.I. pupils differentiate Mathematics curriculum through flexible and effective methods of teaching and learning and adaptations and modifications, and support to meet the needs of V.I. pupils in integrated mainstream schools, with the view to drawing implications for the situation in Botswana 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Habangana-Magogodi, Neo

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is a small scale investigation in what the teachers of V.I. pupils in Scotland consider as the problems encountered in learning Maths and the causes to those problems. Also how they view differentiation of the Mathematics curriculum...

  5. Three-Dimensional Topological Insulators in I-III-VI2 and II-IV-V2 Chalcopyrite Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, wanxiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Ding, Jun [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics/Chinese Academy of Scie; Xiao, Di [ORNL; Yao, yugui [Chinese Academy of Sciences

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent discovery of topological insulators with exotic metallic surface states has garnered great interest in the fields of condensed matter physics and materials science.1 A number of spectacular quantum phenomena have been predicted when the surface states are under the influence of magnetism and superconductivity,2 5 which could open up new opportunities for technological applications in spintronics and quantum computing. To achieve this goal, material realization of topological insulators with desired physical properties is of crucial importance. Based on first-principles calculations, here we show that a large number of ternary chalcopyrite compounds of composition I-III-VI2 and II-IV-V2 can realize the topological insulating phase in their native states. The crystal structure of chalcopyrites is derived from the frequently used zinc-blende structure, and many of them possess a close lattice match to important mainstream semiconductors, which is essential for a smooth integration into current semiconductor technology. The diverse optical, electrical and structural properties of chalcopyrite semiconductors,6 and particularly their ability to host room-temperature ferromagnetism,7 9 make them appealing candidates for novel spintronic devices.

  6. Three-Dimensional Topological Insulators in I-III-VI$_2$ and II-IV-V$_2$ Chalcopyrite Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wanxiang Feng; Jun Ding; Di Xiao; Yugui Yao

    2010-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent discovery of topological insulators with exotic metallic surface states has garnered great interest in the fields of condensed matter physics and materials science. A number of spectacular quantum phenomena have been predicted when the surface states are under the influence of magnetism and superconductivity, which could open up new opportunities for technological applications in spintronics and quantum computing. To achieve this goal, material realization of topological insulators with desired physical properties is of crucial importance. Based on first-principles calculations, here we show that a large number of ternary chalcopyrite compounds of composition I-III-VI$_2$ and II-IV-V$_2$ can realize the topological insulating phase in their native states. The crystal structure of chalcopyrites is derived from the frequently used zinc-blende structure, and many of them possess a close lattice match to important mainstream semiconductors, which is essential for a smooth integration into current semiconductor technology. The diverse optical, electrical and structural properties of chalcopyrite semiconductors, and particularly their ability to host room-temperature ferromagnetism, make them appealing candidates for novel spintronic devices.

  7. Intrazeolite metal carbonyl phototopotaxy: From Tungsten(VI) oxide quantum dots to a zero-dimensional semiconductor quantum supralattice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozin, G.A.; Oezkar, S. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Attention is focused on the use of simple binary metal carbonyls for the nucleation, growth, and stabilization of intrazeolite semiconductor quantum nanostructures. The rationale for selecting this particular group of precursor molecules relates to their volatility, molecular dimensions, ease of purification, availability, and facile and quantitative conversion to the respective metal oxide materials with minimal contamination by carbon. In this study the intrazeolite photooxidation chemistry of {alpha}-cage encapsulated hexacarbonyltungsten(0) in Na{sub 56}Y and H{sub 56}Y, n(W(CO){sub 6})-Na{sub 56}Y(H{sub 56}Y), with O{sub 2} provides a novel synthetic pathway to {alpha}-cage-located tungsten(VI) oxide n(WO{sub 3})-Na{sub 56}Y(H{sub 56}Y) intrazeolite quantum dots and a zero-dimensional semiconductor quantum supralattice (where n = 0-32), which might find applications as new solid-state materials for use in quantum electronic and nonlinear optic devices.

  8. U(VI) bioreduction with emulsified vegetable oil as the electron donor-Model application to a field test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Guoping [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Wu, Wei-min [Stanford University; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Parker, Jack C [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A one-time 2-hour emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) injection in a fast flowing aquifer decreased U discharge to a stream for over a year. Using a comprehensive biogeochemical model developed in the companion article based on microcosm tests, we approximately matched the observed acetate, nitrate, Fe, U, and sulfate concentrations, and described the major evolution trends of multiple microbial functional groups in the field test. While the lab-determined parameters were generally applicable in the field-scale simulation, the EVO hydrolysis rate constant was estimated to be an order of magnitude greater in the field than in the microcosms. The model predicted substantial biomass (sulfate reducers) and U(IV) accumulation near the injection wells and along the side boundaries of the treatment zone where electron donors (long-chain fatty acids) from the injection wells met electron acceptors (sulfate) from the surrounding environment. While EVO retention and hydrolysis characteristics were expected to control treatment longevity, modeling results indicated that electron acceptors such as sulfate may not only compete for electrons but also play a conducive role in degrading complex substrates and enhancing U(VI) reduction and immobilization. As a result, the spacing of the injection wells could be optimized for effective sustainable bioremediation.

  9. Theoretical modeling of the uranium 4f XPS for U(VI) and U(IV) oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagus, Paul S.; Nelin, Constance J.; Ilton, Eugene S.

    2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and in particular the U4f level, has been widely used to elucidate the chemical state of uranium in various materials. In large part, previous experimental work has relied on comparing the U4f spectra of an unknown to some “standard” or using qualitative intuitive judgments on the expected behavior of the primary lines and satellite structures as a function of oxidation state and bonding environment. Such approaches are useful and can be sufficiently robust to make defensible claims. Nonetheless, there is no quantitative understanding of the chemistry and physics that control satellite structures or even the shape of the primary peaks. To address this issue, we used a rigorous, strictly ab initio theoretical approach to investigate the U(4f) XPS of U oxides with formal U(VI) and U(IV) oxidation states. Our theoretical studies are based on the electronic structures of embedded cluster models, where bonding between U and O is explicitly incorporated. We demonstrate that treatment of the many-body character of the cluster wavefunctions is essential to correctly model and interpret the U4f XPS. Here we definitively show that shake configurations, where an electron is transferred from a dominantly O2p bonding orbital into dominantly 5f or 6d antibonding orbitals, are indeed responsible for the major satellite features. Based on this rigorous theoretical framework, it is possible to establish quantitative relationships between features of the XPS spectra and the chemistry of the material.

  10. Insulating and metallic spin glass in Ni-doped K x Fe 2 - y Se 2 single crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ryu, Hyejin; Abeykoon, Milinda; Wang, Kefeng; Lei, Hechang; Lazarevic, N.; Warren, J. B.; Bozin, E. S.; Popovic, Z. V.; Petrovic, C.

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report electron doping effects by Ni in KxFe2-?-yNiySe?(0.06?y?1.44) single-crystal alloys. A rich ground-state phase diagram is observed. A small amount of Ni (~4%) suppressed superconductivity below 1.8 K, inducing insulating spin-glass magnetic ground state for higher Ni content. With further Ni substitution, metallic resistivity is restored. For high Ni concentration in the lattice the unit cell symmetry is high symmetry I4/mmm with no phase separation whereas both I4/m+I4/mmm space groups were detected in the phase separated crystals when concentration of Ni < Fe. The absence of superconductivity coincides with the absence of crystalline Fe vacancy order.

  11. Insulating and metallic spin glass in Ni-doped KxFe2-ySe? single crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ryu, Hyejin; Abeykoon, Milinda; Wang, Kefeng; Lei, Hechang; Lazarevic, N.; Warren, J. B.; Bozin, E. S.; Popovic, Z. V.; Petrovic, C.

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report electron doping effects by Ni in KxFe2???yNiySe? (0.06 ? y ? 1.44) single crystal alloys. A rich ground state phase diagram is observed. A small amount of Ni (~ 4%) suppressed superconductivity below 1.8 K, inducing insulating spin glass magnetic ground state for higher Ni content. With further Ni substitution, metallic resistivity is restored. For high Ni concentration in the lattice the unit cell symmetry is high symmetry I4/mmm with no phase separation whereas both I4/m + I4/mmm space groups were detected in the phase separated crystals when concentration of Ni more »with the absence of crystalline Fe vacancy order.« less

  12. Fe(III) Reduction and U(VI) Immobilization by Paenibacillus sp. Strain 300A, Isolated from Hanford 300A Subsurface Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, B.; Cao, B.; McLean, Jeffrey S.; Ica, Tuba; Dohnalkova, Alice; Istanbullu, Ozlem; Paksoy, Akin; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2012-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A facultative iron-reducing (Fe(III)-reducing) Paenibacillus sp. strain was isolated from Hanford 300A subsurface sediment biofilms that was capable of reducing soluble Fe(III) complexes (Fe(III)-NTA and Fe(III)-citrate) but unable to reduce poorly crystalline ferrihydrite (Fh). However, Paenibacillus sp. 300A was capable of reducing Fh in the presence of low concentrations (2 µM) of either of electron transfer mediators (ETMs) flavin mononucleotide (FMN) or anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS). Maximum initial Fh reduction rates were observed at catalytic concentrations (<10 µM) of either FMN or AQDS. Higher FMN concentrations inhibited Fh reduction, while increased AQDS concentrations did not. We found that Paenibacillus sp. 300A also could reduce Fh in the presence of natural ETMs from Hanford 300A subsurface sediments. In the absence of ETMs, Paenibacillus sp. 300A was capable of immobilizing U(VI) through both reduction and adsorption. The relative contributions of adsorption and microbial reduction to U(VI) removal from the aqueous phase were ~7:3 in PIPES and ~1:4 in bicarbonate buffer. Our study demonstrated that Paenibacillus sp. 300A catalyzes Fe(III) reduction and U(VI) immobilization and that these reactions benefit from externally added or naturally existing ETMs in 300A subsurface sediments.

  13. Hydrogen Insertion Effects on the Electronic Structure of Equiatomic MgNi Traced by ab initio Calculations.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Hydrogen Insertion Effects on the Electronic Structure of Equiatomic MgNi Traced by ab initio-xxx / Received October 18, 2012. Doi: 10.5560/ ZNB.2012-xxx For equiatomic MgNi which can be hydrogenated up to the composition MgNiH1.6 at an absorption/desorption temperature of 200 °C, the effects of hydrogen are approached

  14. Effect of temperature and time on properties of Spark Plasma Sintered NiCuZn: Co ferrite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effect of temperature and time on properties of Spark Plasma Sintered NiCuZn: Co ferrite K. Zehani hundred MHz, and a high resistivity, but the conventional sintering temperature is too high for co. EXPERIMENTAL: Powders of basic oxides Fe2O3, NiO, CuO and ZnO and Co2O3 were used for the preparation of Ni

  15. Behavior of the electroless composite films plated from a Ni-P bath with metallic dispersion of Zr and Nb powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osaka, T.; Koiwa, I.; Usuda, M.; Arai, K.; Saito, I.

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electroless Ni-Zr-P composite film and a Ni-Nb-P composite film were plated and their heat-treating behaviors were investigated. The addition of 20g dm/sup -3/ of metallic powder resulted in a composite film that contained 21.2 weight percent (w/o) of Zr. (13.8 atom percent (a/o)), or 4.8 w/o of Nb. (2.9 a/o), respectively. Both metallic powders were dispersed uniformly throughout the film. The metallic Ni formed by the crystallization on the Ni-P matrix diffused into the metallic powders, and the amorphous Ni-Zr and Ni-Nb phases were formed by heat-treatment at 500/sup 0/ or 300/sup 0/C. Some parts of the amorphous Ni-Zr phases and the metallic Ni phases combined to form intermetallic compounds by heat-treatment at 600/sup 0/C. The nickel-rich parts of the amorphous Ni-Nb phase were converted into a metastable Ni-Nb phase (zeta phase) or a Ni-Nb solid solution by heat-treatment at 700/sup 0/C. The longer heating time at 400/sup 0/C increased the amount of the Ni-Zr amorphous phase: however, it decreased the reactivity of the amorphous Ni-Zr phase. The same heat-treatment of 400/sup 0/C did not give the considerable change on the amorphous Ni-Nb phase.

  16. (001) Oriented piezoelectric films prepared by chemical solution deposition on Ni foils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeo, Hong Goo, E-mail: hxy162@psu.edu; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan [Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Flexible metal foil substrates are useful in some microelectromechanical systems applications including wearable piezoelectric sensors or energy harvesters based on Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films. Full utilization of the potential of piezoelectrics on metal foils requires control of the film crystallographic texture. In this study, (001) oriented PZT thin films were grown by chemical solution deposition (CSD) on Ni foil and Si substrates. Ni foils were passivated using HfO{sub 2} grown by atomic layer deposition in order to suppress substrate oxidation during subsequent thermal treatment. To obtain the desired orientation of PZT film, strongly (100) oriented LaNiO{sub 3} films were integrated by CSD on the HfO{sub 2} coated substrates. A high level of (001) LaNiO{sub 3} and PZT film orientation were confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns. Before poling, the low field dielectric permittivity and loss tangents of (001) oriented PZT films on Ni are near 780 and 0.04 at 1?kHz; the permittivity drops significantly on poling due to in-plane to out-of-plane domain switching. (001) oriented PZT film on Ni displayed a well-saturated hysteresis loop with a large remanent polarization ?36??C/cm{sup 2}, while (100) oriented PZT on Si showed slanted P-E hysteresis loops with much lower remanent polarizations. The |e{sub 31,f}| piezoelectric coefficient was around 10.6?C/m{sup 2} for hot-poled (001) oriented PZT film on Ni.

  17. Electrodeposition of Ni[sub 1[minus]x]Al[sub x] in a chloroaluminate melt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moffat, T.P. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Materials Science and Engineering Lab.)

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of Ni[sub 1[minus]x]Al[sub x] from a molten 2 AlCl[sub 3]-NaCl electrolyte containing up to 0.17 mol/liter Ni(II) has been investigated using a variety of electrochemical techniques. The standard reversible potential for Ni/Ni(II) is found to be in the range of 0.86 to 0.93 V (vs. Al). In a nickel-free electrolyte aluminum deposition on tungsten occurs via instantaneous nucleation upon an underpotential deposition aluminum layer. In contrast, bulk nickel deposition occurs by progressive formation and diffusion-limited growth of three-dimensional nuclei. The number of nickel atoms forming a critical nuclei, n[sub c], is dependent on overpotential. At potentials below 0.750 V, n[sub c] = 0 with the active sites on the electrode playing the role of critical nuclei. These sites are occupied according to first-order kinetics. At potentials above 0.7 V compact nickel deposits are obtained. As the potential is decreased below 0.6 V Ni[sub 1[minus]x]-Al[sub x] formation occurs. Between 0.6 and 0.0 V alloy composition is a function of potential. The rate of the aluminum partial reaction is first order in the Ni(II) concentration which makes alloy composition independent of Ni(II) concentration over the range investigated. Separate experiments demonstrate that aluminum underpotential deposition on nickel occurs in this potential regime. Thus, alloy formation may be envisioned as aluminum underpotential deposition proceeding simultaneously with diffusion-limited nickel deposition. The underpotential deposition reaction occurs rapidly such that the alloy composition is determined by the free energy of alloy formation. When the potential is decreased below the reversible potential of aluminum, 0.0 V, phase formation is complicated by a competition between alloy formation and overpotential driven kinetics of aluminum deposition.

  18. Characteristic losses in metals: Al, Be, and Ni

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madden, H.H.; Landers, R.; Kleiman, G.G. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Caixa Postal 6165, 13081-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brasil] [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Caixa Postal 6165, 13081-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brasil; Zehner, D.M. [Solid State Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6057 (United States)] [Solid State Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6057 (United States)

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information about the {ital occupied} portion of the surface density of states of materials can be derived from electron-excited Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), which is a standard experimental technique in most surface science laboratories. Surface sensitive experimental techniques that provide information regarding the {ital unoccupied} portion of the surface density of states are often not standard and are not so readily available. Here we explore the possibility of utilizing the same experimental equipment as in AES to derive information about the unoccupied portion of the surface density of states from a characteristic loss spectroscopy, in particular, from core-level inelastic electron-scattering spectroscopy (CLIESS). An important application of this technique is in comparative studies. CLIESS spectra from clean surfaces of aluminum, beryllium and nickel are presented. These data were taken in the first-derivative mode using the reflection of monoenergetic primary beams of 450 eV energy for Be, and 300 eV for Al and Ni. The Al and Be spectra had to be extracted from overlapping plasmon signals using synthesized plasmon spectra based on the behavior of these spectra between the elastic peak energy and the respective core level threshold energies. After applying loss-deconvolution techniques to remove secondary loss spectral distortions, integral spectra were obtained which compared well to corresponding experimental soft x-ray absorption and transmission electron-energy loss data as well as to theoretical calculations of the unoccupied density-of-states for these materials. Comparison similarities as well as some differences are discussed. Finally, in order to illustrate the potential these signals have in serving as {open_quotes}fingerprints{close_quotes} of surface chemistry, derivative metal-CLIESS curves for the three oxide surfaces of the metals are also presented. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Vacuum Society.}

  19. Synthesis of nanocrystalline aluminum matrix composites reinforced with in situ devitrified Al-Ni-La amorphous particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhihui H; Han, B Q; Witkin, D; Ajdelsztajn, L; Laverna, E J

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    metals, RE = rare earth metals) alloys [4] provides a newwith Al and Ni, the rare earth metal La, however, has the

  20. Influence of ammonium availability on expression of nifD and amtB genes during biostimulation of a U(VI) contaminated aquifer: implications for U(VI) removal and monitoring the metabolic state of Geobacteraceae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mouser, Paula J.; N'Guessan, A. Lucie; Elifantz, Hila; Holmes, Dawn E.; Williams, Kenneth H; Wilkins, Michael J.; Long, Philip E.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2009-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of ammonium availability on bacterial community structure and the physiological status of Geobacter species during in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater was evaluated. Ammonium concentrations varied by 2 orders of magnitude (<4 to 400 ?M) across the study site. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences suggested that ammonium may have been one factor influencing the community composition prior to acetate amendment with Rhodoferax species predominating over Geobacter species with higher ammonium and Dechloromonas species dominating at the site with lowest ammonium. However, once acetate was added and dissimilatory metal reduction was stimulated, Geobacter species became the predominant organisms at all locations. Rates of U(VI) reduction appeared to be more related to acetate concentrations rather than ammonium levels. In situ mRNA transcript abundance of the nitrogen fixation gene, nifD, and the ammonium transporter gene, amtB, in Geobacter species indicated that ammonium was the primary source of nitrogen during uranium reduction. The abundance of amtB was inversely correlated to ammonium levels, whereas nifD transcript levels were similar across all sites examined. These results suggest that nifD and amtB expression are closely regulated in response to ammonium availability to ensure an adequate supply of nitrogen while conserving cell resources. Thus, quantifying nifD and amtB transcript expression appears to be a useful approach for monitoring the nitrogen-related physiological status of subsurface Geobacter species. This study also emphasizes the need for more detailed analysis of geochemical and physiological interactions at the field scale in order to adequately model subsurface microbial processes during bioremediation.

  1. Effect of Surface Termination on the Electonic Properties of LaNiO? Films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kumah, Divine P. [Yale Univ., Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena and Department of Applied Physics, New Haven, CT (United States); Malashevich, Andrei [Yale Univ., Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena and Department of Applied Physics, New Haven, CT (United States); Disa, Ankit S. [Yale Univ., Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena and Department of Applied Physics, New Haven, CT (United States); Arena, Dario A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, National Synchrotron Light Source, Upton, NY (United States); Walker, Fred J. [Yale Univ., Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena and Department of Applied Physics, New Haven, CT (United States); Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab [Yale Univ., Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena and Department of Applied Physics, New Haven, CT (United States); Ahn, Charles H. [Yale Univ., Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena and Department of Applied Physics, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electronic and structural properties of thin LaNiO? films grown by using molecular beam epitaxy are studied as a function of the net ionic charge of the surface terminating layer. We demonstrate that electronic transport in nickelate heterostructures can be manipulated through changes in the surface termination due to a strong coupling of the surface electrostatic properties to the structural properties of the Ni—O bonds that govern electronic conduction. We observe experimentally and from first-principles theory an asymmetric response of the structural properties of the films to the sign of the surface charge, which results from a strong interplay between electrostatic and mechanical boundary conditions governing the system. The structural response results in ionic buckling in the near-surface NiO? planes for films terminated with negatively charged NiO? and bulklike NiO? planes for films terminated with positively charged LaO planes. The ability to modify transport properties by the deposition of a single atomic layer can be used as a guiding principle for nanoscale device fabrication.

  2. Effect of Surface Termination on the Electonic Properties of LaNiO? Films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kumah, Divine P.; Malashevich, Andrei; Disa, Ankit S.; Arena, Dario A.; Walker, Fred J.; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Ahn, Charles H.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electronic and structural properties of thin LaNiO? films grown by using molecular beam epitaxy are studied as a function of the net ionic charge of the surface terminating layer. We demonstrate that electronic transport in nickelate heterostructures can be manipulated through changes in the surface termination due to a strong coupling of the surface electrostatic properties to the structural properties of the Ni—O bonds that govern electronic conduction. We observe experimentally and from first-principles theory an asymmetric response of the structural properties of the films to the sign of the surface charge, which results from a strong interplay betweenmore »electrostatic and mechanical boundary conditions governing the system. The structural response results in ionic buckling in the near-surface NiO? planes for films terminated with negatively charged NiO? and bulklike NiO? planes for films terminated with positively charged LaO planes. The ability to modify transport properties by the deposition of a single atomic layer can be used as a guiding principle for nanoscale device fabrication.« less

  3. Measurement of chromium VI and chromium III in stainless steel welding fumes with electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis and neutron activation analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lautner, Gerald Myron

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    percent; Ni = 8. 00 - 12. 00 percent. Iron comprises the remainder of the alloy. All filler metal. was Type 308 stainless steel. The covered rods, 0. 239 cm (3/32 of an inch) in diameter, were of the low hydrogen Titania AC-DC type E308...-16. The manufacturer lists the typical deposit analysis of the rods as follows: C = 0. 06 percent; Mn = 1. 80 percent; Si = 0. 50 percent; Cr = 19. 80 percent; Ni = 10. 00 percent. As in the base metal, iron makes up the remainder of the rod alloy. Figure 3...

  4. Nonlinear response of ultrathin Ni films in degenerate four-photon spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuznetsova, L P [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Petnikova, V M; Rudenko, K V; Shuvalov, Vladimir V [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultrathin (17 - 25 nm thick) continuous Ni films deposited on K8 glass and ZrO{sub 2} substrates are experimentally studied. The degenerate four-photon spectroscopy showed typical resonances in the dependence of the self-diffraction efficiency on the wavelength of pump components. It is shown within the framework of the model of electronic cubic nonlinear susceptibility - taking into account the real structure of the spectrum of electronic states of Ni, its quantum-size renormalisation and spin splitting, the inter- and intraband relaxation, saturation, and the selection rules for the electronic transitions - that the electronic subsystem makes the dominant contribution to the nonlinear response of Ni films to picosecond laser pulses (20 ps long) in the 620 - 634 nm spectral range. The interband-polarisation relaxation time T{sub 2} was found to be {approx}200 fs. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  5. Micro-PIXE measurement of Ni distribution over supported nickel oxide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, M.; Rahman, A.; Nickel, J. [King Fahd Univ., Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)] [and others

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Supported nickel oxide catalysts have a wide range of applications in petrochemical industry. This work reports the results of a micro-PIXE measurement of Ni distribution in a supported nickel oxide catalyst over individual silica base particles, 60-200 {mu}m in size. These catalysts were synthesized with 1% and 5% then calcined at 400 {degrees}C. A 2.5 MeV proton microbeam was used to scan the samples of individual grains. Two dimensional distribution maps of Ni and Si have been measured. This paper discusses the important effects of the process of calcination on the distribution of Ni. The effects of different nickel loading and other synthesis conditions will also be discussed.

  6. Importance of Size and Distribution of Ni Nanoparticles for the Hydrodeoxygenation of Microalgae Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Wenji; Zhao, Chen; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved synthetic approaches for preparing small-sized Ni nanoparticles (d=3 nm) supported on HBEA zeolite have been explored and compared with the traditional impregnation method. The formation of surface nickel silicate/aluminate involved in the two precipitation processes are inferred to lead to the stronger interaction between the metal and the support. The lower Brønsted acid concentrations of these two Ni/HBEA catalysts compared with the parent zeolite caused by the partial exchange of Brønsted acid sites by Ni2+ cations do not influence the hydrodeoxygenation rates, but alter the product selectivity. Higher initial rates and higher stability have been achieved with these optimized catalysts for the hydrodeoxygenation of stearic acid and microalgae oil. Small metal particles facilitate high initial catalytic activity in the fresh sample and size uniformity ensures high catalyst stability.

  7. Boron doping effects in electrochromic properties of NiO films prepared by sol-gel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lou, Xianchun; Zhao, Xiujian; He, Xin [Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, 122 Luoshi Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, NiO films doped with B{sub 2}O{sub 3} were first prepared by sol-gel. The effects of boron content on the structure and electrochromic properties of NiO films were studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cyclic voltammetric (CV) and UV-vis spectrophotometer, respectively. In addition, the roughness and phase of the bleached/colored were studied by atom force microscopy (AFM). B-doped prevent the crystallization of the films. The colored state transmittance could be significantly lowered when the boron added. The NiO film doped with boron exhibited a noticeable electrochromism with a variation of transmittance up to {proportional_to}60% at the wavelength range of 300-500 nm. (author)

  8. Dual-bath electrodeposition of Cu/Ni compositionally modulated multilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Celis, J.P.; Roos, J.R. [Katholieke Univ. Leuven de Croylaan (Belgium). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrodeposition of Cu/Ni compositionally modulated multilayers with sublayer thickness in the nanometer range has been carried out. The deposition was conducted under galvanostatic conditions using dual-bath technique. The structure of the multilayers was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and conventional and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Cu/Ni multilayers with distinct and continuous sublayers in the range of 100 to < 5 nm can be produced by dual-bath electrodeposition. Cu and Ni sublayers grow epitaxially on top of one another. The local variation in the growth rate of copper leads to a faceted morphology of the multilayers. The extent of this faceting is reduced as the sublayer thickness is decreased. A surface reaction like oxidation during transfer of the substrate does not adversely affect the crystallographic continuity at the interfaces between sublayers. The thin-film formation is discussed based on available growth models.

  9. Thickness dependent exchange bias in martensitic epitaxial Ni-Mn-Sn thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behler, Anna [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 27 01 16, 01171 Dresden (Germany) [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 27 01 16, 01171 Dresden (Germany); Department of Physics, Institute for Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Teichert, Niclas; Auge, Alexander; Hütten, Andreas [Department of Physics, Thin Films and Physics of Nanostructures, Bielefeld University, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany)] [Department of Physics, Thin Films and Physics of Nanostructures, Bielefeld University, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Dutta, Biswanath; Hickel, Tilmann [Max-Planck Institut für Eisenforschung, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany)] [Max-Planck Institut für Eisenforschung, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Waske, Anja [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 27 01 16, 01171 Dresden (Germany)] [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 27 01 16, 01171 Dresden (Germany); Eckert, Jürgen [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 27 01 16, 01171 Dresden (Germany) [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 27 01 16, 01171 Dresden (Germany); Institute of Materials Science, Dresden University of Technology, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A thickness dependent exchange bias in the low temperature martensitic state of epitaxial Ni-Mn-Sn thin films is found. The effect can be retained down to very small thicknesses. For a Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 32}Sn{sub 18} thin film, which does not undergo a martensitic transformation, no exchange bias is observed. Our results suggest that a significant interplay between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic regions, which is the origin for exchange bias, is only present in the martensite. The finding is supported by ab initio calculations showing that the antiferromagnetic order is stabilized in the phase.

  10. KADoNiS-$p$: The astrophysical $p$-process database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Szücs; I. Dillmann; R. Plag; Zs. Fülöp

    2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The KADoNiS-$p$ project is an online database for cross sections relevant to the $p$-process. All existing experimental data was collected and reviewed. With this contribution a user-friendly database using the KADoNiS (Karlsruhe Astrophysical Database of Nucleosynthesis in Stars) framework is launched, including all available experimental data from (p,$\\gamma$), (p,n), (p,$\\alpha$), ($\\alpha$,$\\gamma$), ($\\alpha$,n) and ($\\alpha$,p) reactions in or close to the respective Gamow window with cut-off date of August 2012 (www.kadonis.org/pprocess).

  11. Surface segregation effects in electrocatalysis: Kinetics ofoxygen reduction reaction on polycrystalline Pt3Ni alloy surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stamenkovic, V.; Schmidt, T.J.; Ross, P.N.; Markovic, N.M.

    2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effects of surface segregation on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) have been studied on a polycrystalline Pt3Ni alloy in acid electrolyte using ultra high vacuum (UHV) surface sensitive probes and the rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) method. Preparation, modification and characterization of alloy surfaces were done in ultra high vacuum (UHV). Depending on the preparation method, two different surface compositions of the Pt3Ni alloy are produced: a sputtered surface with 75 % Pt and an annealed surface (950 K ) with 100 % Pt. The latter surface is designated as the 'Pt-skin' structure, and is a consequence of surface segregation, i.e., replacement of Ni with Pt atoms in the first few atomic layers. Definitive surface compositions were established by low energy ion scattering spectroscopy (LEISS). The cyclic voltammetry of the 'Pt-skin' surface as well as the pseudocapacitance in the hydrogen adsorption/desorption potential region is similar to a polycrystalline Pt electrode. Activities of ORR on Pt3Ni alloy surfaces were compared to polycrystalline Pt in 0.1M HClO4 electrolyte for the observed temperature range of 293 < T < 333 K. The order of activities at 333 K was: 'Pt-skin' > Pt3Ni (75% Pt) > Pt with the maximum catalytic enhancement obtained for the 'Pt-skin' being 4 times that for pure Pt. Catalytic improvement of the ORR on Pt3Ni and 'Pt-skin' surfaces was assigned to the inhibition of Pt-OHad formation (on Pt sites) versus polycrystalline Pt. Production of H2O2 on both surfaces were similar compared to the pure Pt. Kinetic analyses of RRDE data confirmed that kinetic parameters for the ORR on the Pt3Ni and 'Pt-skin' surfaces are the same as on pure Pt: reaction order, m=1, two identical Tafel slopes, activation energy, {approx} 21-25 kJ/mol. Therefore the reaction mechanism on both Pt3Ni and 'Pt-skin' surfaces is the same as one proposed for pure Pt i.e. 4e{sup -} reduction pathway.

  12. Study of $^{64}$Ni+$^{132}$Sn Fusion with Density Constrained TDHF Formalism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. S. Umar; V. E. Oberacker

    2007-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We study fusion reactions of the $^{64}$Ni+$^{132}$Sn system using the recently introduced density constrained time-dependent Hartree-Fock formalism. In this formalism the fusion barriers are directly obtained from TDHF dynamics. In addition, we incorporate the entrance channel alignment of the deformed (oblate) $^{64}$Ni nucleus due to dynamical Coulomb excitation. We discuss the influence of particle transfer and other dynamical effects on the fusion cross sections. Calculated cross sections are in very good agreement with data and other calculations.

  13. Characterizations Of Precipitate Phases In a Ti-Ni-Pd Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Fan; Kovarik, Libor; Phillips, Patrick J.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Mills, M. J.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Precipitates in the Ti46Ni37.5Pd16.5 alloy were investigated by electron diffraction and high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. The phase content and stability were determined at several different temperatures and times. Aging at 400 C for an hour results in a new phase, which is consumed by P-phase at longer aging time. At 450 C, the new phase appears first, and then coexists with P-phase. At 500 C, the entire alloy transformed into the new phase. At 550 C, Ti3(Ni,Pd)4 phase begins to form.

  14. Structural transformations in Mn{sub 2}NiGa due to residual stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Sanjay; Maniraj, M.; D'Souza, S. W.; Barman, S. R. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Ranjan, R. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2010-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Powder x-ray diffraction study of Mn{sub 2}NiGa ferromagnetic shape memory alloy shows the existence of a 7M monoclinic modulated structure at room temperature (RT). The structure of Mn{sub 2}NiGa is found to be highly dependent on residual stress. For higher stress, the structure is tetragonal at RT, and for intermediate stress it is 7M monoclinic. However, only when the stress is considerably relaxed, the structure is cubic, as is expected at RT since the martensitic transition temperature is 230 K.

  15. Contact-induced spin polarization in BNNT(CNT)/TM (TM=Co, Ni) nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzubov, Alexander A. [Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk 660041 (Russian Federation); L.V. Kirensky Institute of Physics SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Siberian State Technological University, Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russian Federation); Kovaleva, Evgenia A., E-mail: kovaleva.evgeniya1991@mail.ru; Avramov, Paul; Kuklin, Artem V.; Mikhaleva, Natalya S.; Tomilin, Felix N. [Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk 660041 (Russian Federation); L.V. Kirensky Institute of Physics SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Sakai, Seiji; Entani, Shiro; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Naramoto, Hiroshi [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata Shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan)

    2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction between carbon and BN nanotubes (NT) and transition metal Co and Ni supports was studied using electronic structure calculations. Several configurations of interfaces were considered, and the most stable ones were used for electronic structure analysis. All NT/Co interfaces were found to be more energetically favorable than NT/Ni, and conductive carbon nanotubes demonstrate slightly stronger bonding than semiconducting ones. The presence of contact-induced spin polarization was established for all nanocomposites. It was found that the contact-induced polarization of BNNT leads to the appearance of local conductivity in the vicinity of the interface while the rest of the nanotube lattice remains to be insulating.

  16. KADoNiS-$p$: The astrophysical $p$-process database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szücs, T; Plag, R; Fülöp, Zs

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The KADoNiS-$p$ project is an online database for cross sections relevant to the $p$-process. All existing experimental data was collected and reviewed. With this contribution a user-friendly database using the KADoNiS (Karlsruhe Astrophysical Database of Nucleosynthesis in Stars) framework is launched, including all available experimental data from (p,$\\gamma$), (p,n), (p,$\\alpha$), ($\\alpha$,$\\gamma$), ($\\alpha$,n) and ($\\alpha$,p) reactions in or close to the respective Gamow window with cut-off date of August 2012 (www.kadonis.org/pprocess).

  17. Modeling and Characterization of the Magnetocaloric Effect in Ni2MnGa Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicholson, Don M [ORNL; Odbadrakh, Khorgolkhuu [ORNL; Shassere, Benjamin [ORNL; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Hodges, Jason P [ORNL; Ludtka, Gerard Michael [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Safa-Sefat, Athena [ORNL; Rusanu, Aurelian [ORNL; Brown, Greg [ORNL; Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic shape memory alloys have great promise as magneto-caloric effect refrigerant materials due to their combined magnetic and structural transitions. Computational and experimental research is reported on the Ni2MnGa material system. The magnetic states of this system are explored using the Wang-Landau statistical approach in conjunction with the Locally Self-consistent Multiple-Scattering method. The effects of alloying agents on the transition temperatures of the Ni2MnGa alloy are investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and superconducting quantum interference device. Experiments are performed at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to observe the structural and magnetic phase transformations.

  18. Preparation and characterization of nanodiamond cores coated with a thin Ni-Zn-P alloy film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Rui; Ye Weichun; Ma Chuanli [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, 730000 Lanzhou (China); Wang Chunming [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, 730000 Lanzhou (China)], E-mail: wangcm@lzu.edu.cn

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanodiamond cores coated with a thin Ni-Zn-P alloy film were prepared by an electroless deposition method under the conditions of tin chloride sensitization and palladium chloride activation. The prepared materials were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The nanostructure of the materials was then characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The alloy film composition was characterized by Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The results indicated the approximate composition 49.84%Ni-37.29%Zn-12.88%P was obtained.

  19. Effect of ethylenediamine on the electrodeposition of Ni-Fe alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, T.M.; Wilson, J.L.; Bleakley, M. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethylenediamine (EDA) greatly affects the phenomenon of anomalous codeposition observed in the nickel-iron electrodeposition system. EDA increases the Ni/Fe ratio of the deposit when the bath is chloride based and the pH is at least 5. Ion microprobe analysis indicates that EDA is incorporated in the deposit. It is hypothesized that EDA adsorbs on the deposit surface and serves as a bridge for Ni{sup 2+} deposition in preference to that for Fe{sup 2+}, which forms less stable complexes with EDA. Chloride ion in the bath is necessary for the adsorption of EDA, and thus the relative increase in the nickel deposition rate.

  20. Electrodeposition of Cu/Fe{sub 20}Ni{sub 80} magnetic multilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chassaing, E.; Nallet, P.; Trichet, M.F. [CNRS, Vitry-sur-Seine (France). Centre d`Etudes de Chimie Metallurgique

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrodeposition conditions have been studied in order to prepare Cu/Fe{sub 20}Ni{sub 80} multilayers by the pulse potential method using a single electrolyte. Individual layer thicknesses ranged between 0.5 and 3 nm. Up to 40 bilayers were electrodeposited either on copper or glass plate substrates. Grazing angle X-ray diffraction showed good coherency between the layers. A magnetic coupling between FeNi layers has been observed with a magnetoresistance ratio of 2% at 2 kOe and 77 K.