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1

Energy Storage Management for VG Integration (Presentation), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Storage Management for VG Integration Energy Storage Management for VG Integration UWIG FALL TECHNIICAL WORKSHOP Brendan Kirby National Renewable Energy Laboratory Consultant October 13, 2011 NREL/PR-5500-53295 Photo by NREL/PIX 19498 National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future Increases Value Through Optimized Ancillary Service (AS) Provision: Pumped Storage Generator Example (320 MW pump, 200-400 MW gen, 40 MW reg, 200 MW spin, 400 MW non) * Total profits increased 133%; * Energy profits reduced -48%; * Regulation profits added +41%; * Spinning profits added +89%; * Non-Spin profits added +50%. CAISO market modeled for all 2010

2

Sandia VG Template  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Company for the United States Company for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. * DOE/ARM = Dept of Energy/Atmospheric Radiation Measurement, DOE's principal climate research program; www.arm.gov DOE/ARM UAS Plans Through Sandia, DOE/ARM* is putting in place a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft Systems) hosting capability on the North Slope of Alaska ARM Climate Research Facilities (ACRF) already exist at Barrow and Atqasuk; DOE/ARM restricted airspace exists at Oliktok Point; only restricted airspace on the North Slope of Alaska Atqasuk ACRF UAS Basing Capability: Restricted Airspace R2204 along with Permit to Use the USAF Oliktok Point Radar Station Facilities under R2204 Oliktok Point USAF Long Range Radar Station

3

vg.dvi  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Deviatoric Deviatoric Constitutive Model Domain of Strain Rate Validity M.A. Zocher, 1 V.A. Raevsky, 2 O.N. Ignatova, 2 1 Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) 2 All-Russia Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) US-Russia Conference on Advances in Materials Science Prague, Czech Republic Aug 30 - Sep 4, 2009 Initial Boundary Value Problem Mechanical Load Thermal "Load" ∂Ω 1 ∂Ω T 1 x 3 x 2 x 1 CM ∂ρ ∂t + ( ρu i ) ,i = 0 CLM ∂ ∂t ( ρu i ) + ρu i u j ,j = σ ji,j + ρf i CE ∂ ∂t ( ρh ) + ( ρhu i ) ,i = σ ji D ij -q i,i +ρr + dp dt +pu i,i D ij = 1 2 v i,j + v j,i u i = u i on ∂Ω 1 θ = θ on ∂Ω T 2 T i = σ ji n j = T on ∂Ω 2 k ij θ ,i n j = T T on ∂Ω T 2 θ ( x k , t ) = 0 u i ( x k , t ) = 0 for t < 0 σ ij ( x k , t ) = 0 ∂Ω 1 ∪ ∂Ω 2 = ∂Ω and ∂Ω 1 ∩ ∂Ω 2 = ∅ ∂Ω T 1 ∪ ∂Ω T 2 = ∂Ω and ∂Ω T 1 ∩ ∂Ω T 2 = ∅ σ ij = σ ij { kl , ˙ kl , T, T k , . . .} Classical Plasticity 4 Parts: (1) stress-strain

4

Sequence VG Test FIELD SERVICE SIMULATED  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

" and "cold" stuck piston compression rings. Rate clogging of oil pump screen and piston oil rings. Measure EVALUATION Rate sludge deposits on rocker arm covers, cam baffles, timing chain cover, oil pan baffle, oil. Press., kPa Oil Temp, °C Coolant Temp, °C Rocker Cover Temp, °C E114323 PARAMETER PASS LIMIT Average

Chapman, Clark R.

5

Energy Storage Management for VG Integration (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation describes how you economically manage integration costs of storage and variable generation.

Kirby, B.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

&*F??uF?**vg81\\.!?*A&?2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... ??PH. ?tGf?!??Rp*I?B&?4%?Qk?*?*???R?'O[?*?? G*?S?Mmm???????????%?*j?ǥ??tU ...

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

7

Microsoft Word - D2G Lab Report_FINAL _6_12_13 VG mm.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

San Ramon, CA http:www.pge.comsmartgrid Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Electricity Infrastructure Operations Center (EIOC) Electricity transmission and distribution,...

8

Virtual Grids: Resource Abstractions for Grid Applications 8/9/2004 The Virtual Grid Description Language: vgDL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of distributed grid application? - What resource models are sufficient to enable expression by the programmer CNode Execution DatabasesDatabases Figure 5. Parallel Workers and Databases EOL (EOL3) Smart-Distributed Databases Databases Figure 6. Smart-Distributed EOL (EOL4) Data Smart Distributed EOL (EOL5) EOL5 has all

Chien, Andrew A.

9

The list of books by Sergei A. Nazarov 1. Maz'ya V.G., Nazarov S.A., Plamenevskii B.A. Asymptotics of solutions to elliptic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of solutions to elliptic boundary-value problems under a singular perturbation of the domain. Tbilisi: Tbilisi

Freidin, Alexander B.

10

U.S. Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Operation, Maintenance, and End of Life of VG PlasmaQuad II ICPMS Units Savannah River Site AikenAikenSouth Carolina The Analytical Development VG PlasmaQuad II Inductively...

11

(a,d)-edge-antimagic total labelings of caterpillars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For a graph G = (V,E), a bijection g from V(G) ? E(G) into { 1,2, ..., ? V(G) ? + ? E(G) ? } is called (a,d)-edge-antimagic ...

K. A. Sugeng; M. Miller; Slamin; M. Ba?a

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Balancing Options for the Integration of Variable Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Significant Challenges There are significant operating challenges to integrate VG on a large scale due to VG ramping, uncertainty and production counter to demand Variability and uncertainty not new scale is increased with VG May need approx. 50 GW of Balancing Resources by 2030 potential resources may include (but not limited to): Demand Side Resources New gas turbines and Conventional Generation Energy Storage (non pumped hydro) Plug In Electric Vehicles Pumped Hydro Markets, VGPM and other enabling ...

2011-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

13

316.ps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(ALENEX 01), Washington DC, 2001. [7] V.G. Deineko and G.J. Woeginger, A study of exponential neighbourhoods. for the traveling salesman problem and the ...

14

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Release Date:","12122013" ,"Next Release Date:","172014" ,"Excel File Name:","ngprodsumaepg0vg9mmcfm.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:www.eia.govdnavng...

15

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Release Date:","12122013" ,"Next Release Date:","172014" ,"Excel File Name:","ngprodppaepg0vg9mmcfa.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:www.eia.govdnavng...

16

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,"Release Date:","12122013" ,"Next Release Date:","172014" ,"Excel File Name:","ngprodppaepg0vg9mmcfm.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http:www.eia.govdnavng...

17

A&A 515, A62 (2010) DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200912567  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

= - 2 v,g (FWHMz,g/2.35)2 , (1) where 2 v,g is the vertical velocity dispersion of the gas and FWHMz of the luminous disk. For a given vertical gas ve- locity dispersion, the flaring will decrease and the gas that the gas velocity dispersion is isotropic and vertically isothermal. 2. Results for kinematic modelling

Kruit, Piet van der

18

Device and circuit-level performance of carbon nanotube field-effect transistor with benchmarking against a nano-MOSFET  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 VDS (Volt) I D S (A ) VG = 0.2 VG = 0.4 VG = 0.6 VG = 0.8 VG = 1.0 Figure 2 Simulated CNT drain characteristic versus 80-nm experimental data. Simulated single-subband CNT drain characteristic (solid lines) versus 80... . Although the CNT has similar ON-current, it sustains Ion/Ioff ratio of two orders of magnitude lower 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 VDS (Volt) I D S (A ) 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 I D S (A ) VDS (V) MOSFET Metallic...

Tan, Michael Loong P; Lentaris, Georgios; Amaratunga AJ, Gehan

2012-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

19

PII S0016-7037(00)00627-5 Platinum-group element abundances in the upper mantle: New constraints from in situ and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lithosphere ( 60 km) above a mantle plume (Bedini et al., 1997; Xu et al., 1998). 3. LOCATION AND MAIN, as described by Bedini et al. (1997). 4. ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES PGE and gold were analyzed with a VG 353

Demouchy, Sylvie

20

USGv6 Test Program: NIST Test Sample System v1.0  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... to use kickstart to direct an installation, see ... to set up an IPv4 address, for network install. ... sda #volgroup vg_ipv6tester1 --pesize=4096 pv.lbI9vk-FArc ...

2011-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vg vg vg" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

CX-010116: Categorical Exclusion Determination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Operation, Maintenance, and End of Life of VG PlasmaQuad II ICPMS Units CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 03/28/2013 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

22

Density Functional Theory Study of CO Adsorption on Cu(I)-ZSM-5 Xiaobo Zheng,* Yihua Zhang, and Alexis T. Bell*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lithiumionsolvationby HMPA: Vandyshev, V.N.;Korolev,V.P.;Krest0v.G. A. Thermochim.Acta 1990,169,57.Goralski, P National Supercomputer Facility, a resource of the Center for Theory and Simulations in Science

Bell, Alexis T.

23

Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be reflected in energy market prices because the costs areVG. The DA market prices for energy and ancillary services (of the year the market price for energy is based on the

Mills, Andrew

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

oil and Gas Resources of the West Siberian Basin, Russia  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

IOIP 7758 (1 S w) Bo IGIP 7758 (1 Sw) B g VO IOIP A h 1,000,000 VG IGIP A h 1,000,000 Energy Information Administration Oil and Gas Resources of the West ...

25

Bulk Energy Storage Technologies: Performance Potential, Grid Services, and Cost Expectations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bulk energy storage (BES) can play a valuable role in enhancing grid flexibility for variable generation (VG) integration. Other approaches, such as combustion turbines, over-sizing renewable generation, and over-sizing transmission capacity, do not solve the spectrum of challenges associated with VG integration. Without BES, fossil generators will be operating more at part load with higher emissions, wind spillage rates will tend to rise, and wind plant economics will tend to deteriorate. Given the ...

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

26

Impact of Wind and Solar on the Value of Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

This analysis evaluates how the value of energy storage changes when adding variable generation (VG) renewable energy resources to the grid. A series of VG energy penetration scenarios from 16% to 55% were generated for a utility system in the western United States. This operational value of storage (measured by its ability to reduce system production costs) was estimated in each VG scenario, considering provision of different services and with several sensitivities to fuel price and generation mix. Overall, the results found that the presence of VG increases the value of energy storage by lowering off-peak energy prices more than on-peak prices, leading to a greater opportunity to arbitrage this price difference. However, significant charging from renewables, and consequently a net reduction in carbon emissions, did not occur until VG penetration was in the range of 40%-50%. Increased penetration of VG also increases the potential value of storage when providing reserves, mainly by increasing the amount of reserves required by the system. Despite this increase in value, storage may face challenges in capturing the full benefits it provides. Due to suppression of on-/off-peak price differentials, reserve prices, and incomplete capture of certain system benefits (such as the cost of power plant starts), the revenue obtained by storage in a market setting appears to be substantially less than the net benefit (reduction in production costs) provided to the system. Furthermore, it is unclear how storage will actually incentivize large-scale deployment of renewables needed to substantially increase VG penetration. This demonstrates some of the additional challenges for storage deployed in restructured energy markets.

Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Hummon, M.; Palchak, D.; Kirby, B.; Ma, O.; O'Malley, M.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Probabilistic Approach to Quantifying the Contribution of Variable Generation and Transmission to System Reliability: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The increasing electrical load served by variable generation (VG), such as wind and solar energy, in the United States and many other countries has stimulated an interesting line of research to better quantify the capacity value of these resources. Methods applied traditionally to thermal units based on their average outage rates do not apply to VG because of their uncertain and non-dispatchable nature. The North American Electric Reliability Corporation's Integration of Variable Generation Task Force recently released a report that highlighted the need to develop and benchmark underlying loss-of-load expectation and related metrics that reasonably and fairly calculate the contribution to planning reserves, or capacity value, of solar and wind power. As the fraction of generation coming from VG becomes more significant, their estimated capacity value will have a larger impact on system planning. In this paper, we provide a method to include VG in traditional probabilistic-based adequacy methods. This method has been implemented in the Renewable Energy Probabilistic Resource Assessment tool developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Through an example based on the U.S. Western Interconnection, this method is applied to assess the effect that transmission can have on resource adequacy. We also analyze the interactions between available transmission and capacity value for VG.

Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Probabilistic Approach to Quantifying the Contribution of Variable Generation and Transmission to System Reliability: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The increasing electrical load served by variable generation (VG), such as wind and solar energy, in the United States and many other countries has stimulated an interesting line of research to better quantify the capacity value of these resources. Methods applied traditionally to thermal units based on their average outage rates do not apply to VG because of their uncertain and non-dispatchable nature. The North American Electric Reliability Corporation's Integration of Variable Generation Task Force recently released a report that highlighted the need to develop and benchmark underlying loss-of-load expectation and related metrics that reasonably and fairly calculate the contribution to planning reserves, or capacity value, of solar and wind power. As the fraction of generation coming from VG becomes more significant, their estimated capacity value will have a larger impact on system planning. In this paper, we provide a method to include VG in traditional probabilistic-based adequacy methods. This method has been implemented in the Renewable Energy Probabilistic Resource Assessment tool developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Through an example based on the U.S. Western Interconnection, this method is applied to assess the effect that transmission can have on resource adequacy. We also analyze the interactions between available transmission and capacity value for VG.

Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

One more experiment on "fast-light"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Contemporary observational and theoretical studies on the temporal nature of microscopic measurements renewed the discussion about the fundamental constants, leading to the possibility of light speed variation and superluminal pulse propagation. Gain assisted experiments using anomalous dispersion near an absorption line in atomic gas, a "fast - light" medium, seem to lead to a wave group velocity vG exceeding c, the vacuum speed of light; moreover, definition of the information velocity vi sets the question of interpretation of the three speeds: one view is that vi = vG, but this violates Causality; another view is that vi = c in all situations, but this limits, a priori, the transport of information. Another view is that vi, vG and c are distinct. This contribution follows the last possibility. A draft discussion on space-time is given.

R Assumpcao

2003-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

30

Project Listings by Organization; DOE Hydrogen Program FY 2008 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 7 FY 2008 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen Program 3M Company V.C.1 Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .861 V.G.5 Membranes and MEAs for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .962 V.G.8 Novel Approaches to Immobilized Heteropoly Acid (HPA) Systems for High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Polymer-Type Membranes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 978 A Mountain Top, LLC X.8 HyDRA: Hydrogen Demand and Resource Analysis Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1275 Addison Bain VIII.6 Hydrogen Safety Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1202

31

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

" " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent ",1,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1973" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","ng_prod_pp_a_epg0_vg9_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/ng/ng_prod_pp_a_epg0_vg9_mmcf_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/19/2013 7:02:18 AM"

32

TheSingleElectronTransistorAsaRadioFrequencyMixer http://www.iquest. ucsb. edu/sites/cleland  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

preamp 0 15 30 0.5 1.0 (pA) 0 CGVS/e (RF) w S=20 MHz Isd CG VG /e n n+1 VDC VRF VRF RF/e) for sinusoidal Ids(VG). Confirmsandcalibrates RFgateaction J0(qRF/e) VRF(S) HomodyneDetection VS(w S) Vsd SET IsdQuantum-limitedMotionDetection I(q)ds CGVG/e n n+1 VDC VRF Gate Charge n-1 VLO VLO VRF (LO) (S) Time I(t)dsI()ds if = |LO-S| LO

Knobel, Robert

33

Workbook Contents  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

at Processing Plants " at Processing Plants " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent at Processing Plants ",1,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/1973" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","ng_prod_sum_a_epg0_vg9_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/ng/ng_prod_sum_a_epg0_vg9_mmcf_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov"

34

Carbon nanotubes as near infrared laser susceptors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power (W) q Momentum (kg m s-1) Qc Heat loss through conduction (W) Qr Heat loss through radiation (W) rnuc Nucleation radius (m) Rf Reflection fraction Tf Transmission fraction V Volume (m3) VG Steam specific volume (m3 kg-1) VL Water...

Bahrami, Amir

2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

35

Numerical Model of Graphene-Based Radiation Detector Response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be known with a high level of accuracy (e.g. 1%). For these reasons, we explore the use of a graphene gate voltage, VG, produces an electric field which is focused to the graphene sample. A gamma ray in size of the electrodes results in the electric field lines funneling towards the graphene

Chen, Yong P.

36

Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

absorption (magenta dashed line) is also present as a result of graphene absorption outside the fabricated as gate voltage Vg 2 VCNP varies from 20.3 to 22.2 V. The voltages corresponding to the unlabelled lines. Li, X. S. et al. Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils

Martin, Michael C.

37

Temperature dependence of the diffusive conductivity of bilayer graphene Shaffique Adam and M. D. Stiles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for linear dispersion upper curve and parabolic dis- persion lower curve graphene. Dashed lines show the high to be linear in gate voltage so it is unclear what the dominant scattering mechanism in bi- layer graphene. Color online Bilayer graphene mobility as a function of backgate voltage Vg, normalized by the mobility

Adam, Shaffique

38

Detection of Ionizing Radiation Using Graphene Field Effect Transistors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electrode, while the other electrode is the graphene layer. Applying a gate voltage, VG, field lines) of graphite, which has unique electronic properties [1]. Graphene has a high carrier mobility, about 10 times, and a layer of graphene on top (Fig. 2). The electric field is created by applying the gate voltage from

Chen, Yong P.

39

Electrically Tunable Damping of Plasmonic Resonances with Naresh K. Emani,,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, spectroscopy, and sensing. Graphene shows a highly tunable carrier concentration under electrostatic gating of a graphene sheet, their optical properties will be signifi- cantly influenced by the applied gate voltage of carrier concentration in graphene with gate voltage is shown in Figure 2a. We define V = VG - VDP, where

Chen, Yong P.

40

Forms of Corrosion and General Mitigation Approaches  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 2   Organic coating classifications and characteristics...Resin Type Estimated chemical and weather resistance Comments Acid Alkali Solvent Water Weather One-component systems Alkyd (oil base) F P P F VG Excellent adhesion to poorly prepared surfaces. Adequate

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vg vg vg" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Contaminated Variance-Mean mixing model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Generalised Normal Variance-Mean (GNVM) model in which the mixing random variable is Gamma distributed is considered. This model generalises the popular Variance-Gamma (VG) distribution. This GNVM model can be interpreted as the addition of noise ... Keywords: DIC, JAGS, Maximum likelihood estimation, Mixing representation, Normal Variance-Mean distribution, Variance-Gamma distribution

Thomas Fung, Joanna J. J. Wang, Eugene Seneta

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Environmental Energy Technologies Division Energy Analysis Department Changes in the Economic Value of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reliability and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy #12;2 Environmental Energy Technologies is an evaluation of the economic value of the energy generated · Use a long-run modeling framework to evaluate economic benefits of several different VG technologies: · Wind, single-axis tracking photovoltaics (PV

43

Group velocity dependence of propagation losses in single-line-defect photonic crystal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of 7, an additional loss is found to be only 5 dB=mm, thus proving a feasible usage of low vg by electron-beam lithography, and transferred into the core surface by reactive-ion-beam etching. The lower of the TE-like mode (electric field in slab plane). There is a singlemode below the light line, as indicated

44

Market-Based Indian Grid Integration Study Options: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The Indian state of Gujarat is forecasting solar and wind generation expansion from 16% to 32% of installed generation capacity by 2015. Some states in India are already experiencing heavy wind power curtailment. Understanding how to integrate variable generation (VG) into the grid is of great interest to local transmission companies and India's Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. This paper describes the nature of a market-based integration study and how this approach, while new to Indian grid operation and planning, is necessary to understand how to operate and expand the grid to best accommodate the expansion of VG. Second, it discusses options in defining a study's scope, such as data granularity, generation modeling, and geographic scope. The paper also explores how Gujarat's method of grid operation and current system reliability will affect how an integration study can be performed.

Stoltenberg, B.; Clark, K.; Negi, S. K.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Market-Based Indian Grid Integration Study Options: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Indian state of Gujarat is forecasting solar and wind generation expansion from 16% to 32% of installed generation capacity by 2015. Some states in India are already experiencing heavy wind power curtailment. Understanding how to integrate variable generation (VG) into the grid is of great interest to local transmission companies and India's Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. This paper describes the nature of a market-based integration study and how this approach, while new to Indian grid operation and planning, is necessary to understand how to operate and expand the grid to best accommodate the expansion of VG. Second, it discusses options in defining a study's scope, such as data granularity, generation modeling, and geographic scope. The paper also explores how Gujarat's method of grid operation and current system reliability will affect how an integration study can be performed.

Stoltenberg, B.; Clark, K.; Negi, S. K.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Investigation of vortex generators for augmentation of wind turbine power performance  

SciTech Connect

This study focuses on the use of vortex generators (VGs) for performance augmentation of the stall-regulated AWT-26 wind turbine. The goal was to design a VG array which would increase annual energy production (AEP) by increasing power output at moderate wind speeds, without adversely affecting the loads or stall-regulation performance of the turbine. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted at the University of Washington to evaluate the effect of VGs on the AWT-26 blade, which is lofted from National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) S-series airfoils. Based on wind-tunnel results and analysis, a VG array was designed and then tested on the AWT-26 prototype, designated P1. Performance and loads data were measured for P1, both with and without VGs installed. the turbine performance with VGs met most of the design requirements; power output was increased at moderate wind speeds with a negligible effect on peak power. However, VG drag penalties caused a loss in power output for low wind speeds, such that performance with VGs resulted in a net decrease in AEP for sites having annual average wind speeds up to 8.5 m/s. While the present work did not lead to improved AEP for the AWT-2 turbine, it does provide insight into performance augmentation of wind turbines with VGs. The safe design of a VG array for a stall-regulated turbine has been demonstrated, and several issues involving optimal performance with VGs have been identified and addressed. 15 refs., 34 figs., 10 tabs.

Griffin, D.A. [Lynette (R.) and Associates, Seattle, WA (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Load diagram for a perforated plate tray  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 decimals noggrannhet c. Upprita i x,y-diagrammet q-linjen och bestäm (grafiskt, eller med must be produced. The feed stream F is a saturated liquid, i.e. q = 1, while the reflux ratio R = 1Load diagram for a perforated plate tray vG, vL: velocities G, L: densities QL, QG: volume flows H

Zevenhoven, Ron

48

Nano Res. 2011, 4(4): 385392 385 Massless and Massive Particle-in-a-Box States in Single-and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) and a bi-layer graphene device (b). Longitudinal and Hall conductivity as a function of gate voltage-layer graphene device (d). Two-probe conductance as a function of gate voltage at zero magnetic fieldI/dV as a function of bias voltage V and gate voltage Vg measured in single (a)­(c) and bi-layer (d)­(f) graphene

Fuhrer, Michael S

49

Hydrogen-Isotope Mass-Spectrometer Evaluation Program. Bimonthly progress report, July/September 1982  

SciTech Connect

The joint SRL-SRP Hydrogen Isotope Mass Spectrometer Evaluation Program was undertaken to: (1) evaluate a prototype hydrogen isotope mass spectrometer that was developed for the Mass Spectrometer Technical Group by VG-Isotopes, Ltd., and (2) obtain sufficient data to permit SRP personnel to specify the mass spectrometes that will be purchased under Schedule 44 Budget Project 81-SR-010 to replace obsolete mass spectrometers in Buildings 232-H and 224-H.

Chastagner, P.; Daves, H.L.; Hess, W.B.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Chemical Engineering Journal 86 (2002) 343368 Dioxin characterisation, formation and minimisation during  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is in solution." CHAPTER 3 p. 63 Table 3.1 title, first line, subscript is cg not cw so change Dcw to Dcg p. 66 4 replace DAw with Dcw. p. 70 First line below eq. 3-39, change subscript from A to G or VA,b to VG,b Eq. 3/DAw with DCw First line after equation 6-76, symbol is a not Greek letter alpha so replace Ja"a:a with Jaaa

Columbia University

51

Mass Market Demand Response and Variable Generation Integration Issues: A Scoping Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This scoping study focuses on the policy issues inherent in the claims made by some Smart Grid proponents that the demand response potential of mass market customers which is enabled by widespread implementation of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) through the Smart Grid could be the silver bullet for mitigating variable generation integration issues. In terms of approach, we will: identify key issues associated with integrating large amounts of variable generation into the bulk power system; identify demand response opportunities made more readily available to mass market customers through widespread deployment of AMI systems and how they can affect the bulk power system; assess the extent to which these mass market Demand Response (DR) opportunities can mitigate Variable Generation (VG) integration issues in the near-term and what electricity market structures and regulatory practices could be changed to further expand the ability for DR to mitigate VG integration issues over the long term; and provide a qualitative comparison of DR and other approaches to mitigate VG integration issues.

Cappers, Peter; Mills, Andrew; Goldman, Charles; Wiser, Ryan; Eto, Joseph H.

2011-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

52

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Aerogels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article we report a detailed study of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels prepared under different processing conditions, [resorcinol]/[catalyst] (R/C) ratios in the starting sol-gel solutions, using continuous flow hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR in combination with solid-state 13C and two-dimensional wide-line separation (2D-WISE) NMR techniques. The degree of polymerization and the mobility of the cross-linking functional groups in RF aerogels are examined and correlated with the R/C ratios. The origin of different adsorption regions is evaluated using both co-adsorption of chloroform and 2D EXSY 129Xe NMR. A hierarchical set of Xe exchange processes in RF aerogels is found using 2D EXSY 129Xe NMR. The exchange of Xe gas follows the sequence (from fastest to slowest): mesopores with free gas, gas in meso- and micro-pores, free gas with micropores, and, finally, among micropore sites. The volume-to-surface-area (Vg/S) ratios for aerogels are measured for the first time without the use of geometric models. The Vg/S parameter, which is related both to the geometry and the interconnectivity of the pore space, has been found to correlate strongly with the R/C ratio and exhibits an unusually large span: an increase in the R/C ratio from 50 to 500 results in about a 5-fold rise in Vg/S.

Moudrakovski, Igor L.; Ratcliffe, C I.; Ripmeester, J A.; Wang, Li Q.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Baumann, T; Satcher, J H.

2005-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

53

L(p,q)-labeling of digraphs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Given a graph G and two positive integers p,q with p>q an L(p,q)-labeling of G is a function f from the vertex set V(G) to the set of all nonnegative integers such that |f(x)-f(y)|>=p if d"G(x,y)=1 and |f(x)-f(y)|>=q if d"G(x,y)=2. A k-L(p,q)-labeling ... Keywords: Cycle, Digraph, L(p,q)-labeling, Path, Tree

Yi-Ting Chen; Ma-Lian Chia; David Kuo

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

A photon-like wavepacket with quantised properties based on classical Maxwell's equations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A photon-like wavepacket based on novel solutions of Maxwell's equations is proposed. It is believed to be the first 'classical' model that contains so many of the accepted quantum features. In this new work, novel solutions to Maxwell's classical equations in dispersive guides are considered where local helical twists with an arbitrary angular frequency W modulate a classical mode (angular frequency w, group velocity vg). The modal field patterns are unchanged, apart from the twist, provided that the helical velocity vh equals vg. Pairs of resonating retarded and advanced waves with modal and helical frequencies (w,W) and (w,-W)respectively, trap one temporal period of the underlying classical mode forming a photon-like packet provided W = (M+1/2)w: 'Schrodinger' frequencies. This theory supports experimental evidence that the photon velocity does not change with M in dispersive systems. Promotion and demotion increase or decrease the helical frequencies in units of w. An energy of interaction between retarded and advanced waves in the wave-packet is also proportional to these helical frequencies W = (M+1/2)w similar to Planck's law. Group velocity and polarisation are unaffected by the value of M. Advanced waves enable phase and polarisation to be predicted along all future paths and may help to explain the outcomes of experiments on delayed-choice interference and entanglement, without causality being violated.

John E. Carroll

2006-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

55

Seabased AB | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Seabased AB Seabased AB Jump to: navigation, search Name Seabased AB Address Dag Hammarskjlds vg 52B Place Uppsala Zip S-75183 Sector Marine and Hydrokinetic Phone number 46,705,325,560 Website http://www.seabased.com Region Sweden LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This company is listed in the Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Database. This company is involved in the following MHK Projects: Uppsala University Seabased AB Lysekil Sweden This company is involved in the following MHK Technologies: Seabased This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Seabased_AB&oldid=678449" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations Companies Organizations Stubs

56

Microsoft PowerPoint - Proceedings Cover Sheets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Storage Storage - Storage Mechanisms Development of an in situ "window" into below-ground geological sequestration reaction processes May 8-11, 2006 * Hilton Alexandria Mark Center * Alexandria, Virginia Andrew V.G. Chizmeshya, Michael J. McKelvy, George H. Wolf, Hamdallah Béarat, Robert Marzke, Emmanuel Soignard, and Jason Diefenbacher Background: * Mineral Sequestration Working Group (NETL-DOE) (1998-present) * ASU: 5 faculty, 2 postdocs, 4 grad students, 2 undergrads * Specialization: atomic level mechanistic analysis in situ process characterization atomic level property/reaction simulations multi-phase fluid dynamics simulations * Support: DOE-NETL, Argonne National Laboratory GEOLOGICAL SEQUESTRATION of CO 2 1) Enormous storage capacity: 2) Geologic formations in close proximity to

57

Final_Tech_Session_Schedule_and_Location.xls  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Exploring the Potential to Enhance Aqueous Olivine Exploring the Potential to Enhance Aqueous Olivine Carbonation Reactivity, While Avoiding the Cost of Mineral Pretreatment Activation Michael J. McKelvy May 2-5, 2005, Hilton Alexandria Mark Center, Alexandria Virginia EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL TO ENHANCE AQUEOUS OLIVINE CARBONATION REACTIVITY, WHILE AVOIDING THE COST OF MINERAL PRETREATMENT ACTIVATION Michael J. McKelvy,*° Hamdallah Béarat,* Kyle Squires, + Andrew V.G. Chizmeshya,*° Kringan Saha, + Firas Alawneh,° R.W. Carpenter,*° Youngchul Kim,° and Larry Penner. ● *Center for Solid State Science, °Science and Engineering of Materials Graduate Program, and + Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Arizona State University; Tempe, AZ 85287 ● Albany Research Center, U.S. Department of Energy; Albany Oregon

58

Th  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2 2 S-LWR Integral Inherently Safe Light Water Reactor Bojan Petrovic Nuclear and Radiological Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA DOE-NE Materials Crosscut Coordination Meeting - 2013 Webinar, 8/21/2013 VG 2 DOE-NE Materials Crosscut Coordination Meeting - Webinar, 8/21/2013 DOE NEUP IRP 3-year program; recently started IRP FOA requirements: -Large (~1,000 MWe) PWR for US market - economics -Inherent safety Multi-institutional, multi-disciplinary: Lead: Georgia Tech (B. Petrovic, PI) Ten other partnering organizations: Universities: U. of Michigan, U. of Tennessee, Virginia Tech, U. of Idaho, Morehouse College National Lab: INL Industry: Westinghouse and Utility: Southern Nuclear Int'l (U. of Cambridge, UK; Politecnico di Milano, Italy)

59

The Child-Langmuir law in the quantum domain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is shown using dimensional analysis that the maximum current density J_{QCL} transported on application of a voltage V_g across a gap of size D follows the relation J_{QCL} ~ \\hbar^{3 - 2\\alpha} V_g^\\alpha /D^{5 - 2\\alpha}. The classical Child-Langmuir result is recovered at \\alpha = 3/2 on demanding that the scaling law be independent of \\hbar. For a nanogap in the deep quantum regime, additional inputs in the form of appropriate boundary conditions and the behaviour of the exchange-correlation potential show that \\alpha = 5/14. This is verified numerically for several nanogaps. It is also argued that in this regime, the limiting mechanism is quantum reflection from a downhill potential due to a sharp change in slope seen by the electron on emerging through the barrier.

Debabrata Biswas; Raghwendra Kumar

2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

60

Solar Neutrino Measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. A review of solar neutrino experiments is provided, including experimental measurements to date and proposed future measurements. Experiments to date have provided a clear determination that solar neutrinos are undergoing flavor transformation and that the dominant mechanism for this transformation is oscillation. The mixing parameters are well defined and limits are placed on subdominant modes. The measurements also provide strong confirmation of solar model calculations. New experiments under development will study neutrino oscillation parameters and sub-dominant modes with greater precision and will investigate solar fluxes further, concentrating primarily on the low energy pp, 7Be, pep and CNO reactions. PACS numbers: 26.65+t, 95.55.Vj, 95.85.Ry, 96.60.Vg, 14.60.PqSolar Neutrino Measurements 2 1.

A. B. Mcdonald

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vg vg vg" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

vibrations.dvi  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

VIBRATIONAL VIBRATIONAL MEASUREMENTS IN 3-ID-B J. Sutter 1 , E. Alp 1 , J. Barraza 2 , D. Shu 2 1 INTRODUCTION We have undertaken a series of vibrational measurements in hutch 3-ID-B. Our motivation was to compare two di erent methods of mounting an interferometer for e ectiveness in vibrational isolation and stability. In addition, we were able to compare the stability of our optical table with and without its eight large bolts inserted. 2 PROCEDURE We used two accelerometers to measure the amplitude of the vibrational acceleration as a function of frequency in steps of 0.0625 Hz from 1 to 25 Hz. The accelerations could then be transformed into displacement amplitudes by the simple harmonic equation of motion x = ,! 2 x, where x is the displacement and ! is the frequency times 2. The accelerometers had been calibrated before our experiment and were found to output a voltage of 7:44G V=g,

62

Slide 1  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

coupled interaction between crack coupled interaction between crack growth, diffusion and chemical reactions E.Vilchevskaya, A.Freidin Institute of Problems in Mechanical Engineering Russian Academy of Science Joint U.S.-Russia Conference on Advances in Material Science August 31 - September 3, 2009 Silicon oxidation Statement of the problem In the steady-state approximation c J qc J c t x x α μ β ∂ ∂ ∂ = - - , = - ∂ ∂ ∂ 0 at ( ) c c x l t = = at ( ) c kc x x t x μ β ∗ ∂ = - = ∂ c c c l l x l t x ξ ξ ∂ ∂ ∂ = - ≡ - , = - ∂ ∂ ∂ & & A simplified model c J D x ∂ = - ∂ 2 2 [0 ] c c D qc l α ξ ξ ξ ξ ∗ ∂ ∂ - = - ∈ , ∂ ∂ & 0 at 0 at c c c D kc ξ ξ ξ ξ ∗ ∂ = = , = - = ∂ c D kc nVg ξ ξ ξ ∗ ∗ ∂ - | = | = ∂ Barenblatt-Dugdale approach 0 0 0 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) s x l l p x t x l l x l l a σ σ ξ

63

FY 2012 Annual Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A - 1 Energy Storage R&D A - 1 Energy Storage R&D Appendix A: List of Contributors and Research Collaborators Contributor/Collaborator (with Affiliation) FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Section(s) Abe, Yasuhiro (Toda America) II.C.2 Abkemeier, Kristin (NWTech) III.G Abouimrane, Ali (ANL) IV.B.1, IV.B.3.1, IV.B.4.1 Abraham, Daniel P. (ANL) IV.B.1, IV.B.2.7, IV.C.1, IV.C.3, IV.C.4, IV.E.3.2 Alamgir, Mohamed (LG Chem, MI) III.A.2.2, IV.B.2.5 Allen, Jan L. (ARL) IV.B.5.3 Allu, S. (ORNL) III.E.2 Alvarez, Jesus M. (A123 Systems) II.A.2 Amine, Khalil (ANL) IV.B.1, IV.B.2.2, IV.B.3.1, IV.B.3.3, IV.B.4.1, IV.B.4.2, IV.B.5.1, IV.D.2, IV.E.3.1, V.D.5, V.G.2 Anderson, Travis (SNL) IV.D.3 Angell, C. Austen (ASU) V.D.8 Armand, Michel (NCSU) V.D.6 Arnold, John (Miltec) III.A.5.2

64

DISCLAIMER  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lawrence Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited UCRL-ID-151619 Results from the First 249 Cf+ 48 Ca Experiment Y.T. Oganessian, V.K. Utyonkov, Y.V. Lobanov, F.S. Abdullin, A.N. Polyakov, I.V. Shirokovsky, Y.S. Tsyganov, A.N. Mezentsev, S. Iliev, V.G. Subbotin, A.M. Sukhov, O.V. Ivanov, A.A. Voinov, K. Subotic, V.I. Zagrebaev, M.G. Itkis, K.J. Moody, J.F. Wild, M.A. Stoyer, N.J. Stoyer, C.A. Laue, D.A. Shaughnessy, J.B. Patin, R.W. Lougheed February 3, 2003 DISCLAIMER This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor the University of California nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for

65

Reaction products of aquatic humic substances with chlorine. Environ. Health Perspect. 46  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A major concern of the chlorination of aquatic humic materials is the ubiquitous production of trihalomethanes. A large number of other chlorinated organic compounds, however, have been shown to be formed by chlorine's reaction with humic substances. In this study, humic material was concentrated from a coastal North Carolina lake and chlorinated at a chlorine to carbon mole ratio of 1.5 at pH 12. A high pH was necessary for complete dissolution of the humic material and for production of adequate quantities of oxidation and chlorination products for extraction, separation and mass spectrometric identification. After concentration in ether, samples were methylated, separated with a 50-m OV-17 glass capillary column or a 25 m SP-2100 fused-silica column and identified. A Hewlett-Packard 5710A gas chromatograph interfaced to a VG Micromass 7070F double-focusing mass spectrometer was used. Low resolution, accurate mass measurements were made with a combined EI-CI source. The ability to do low resolution, accurate mass measurements made possible a rapid scan function necessary for capillary column gas chromatography. Accurate mass measurements allowed increased confidence in the identification of compounds, most of which are not available as standards. The products identified in these studies were chlorinated aliphatic straight-chain acids dominated by di- and trichloroacetic acid and the chlorinated dicarboxylic acids: succinic, fumaric and maleic acids. Chlorinated and unchlorinated aliphatic mono- and dicarboxylic acids and unchlorinated polycarboxylic aromatic acids comprise the remaining bulk of the compounds identified.

J. D. Johnson; R. F. Christman; D. L. Norwood; D. S. Millington

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Efficient light coupling into a photonic crystal waveguide with flatband slow mode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We design an efficient coupler to transmit light from a strip waveguide into the flatband slow mode of a photonic crystal waveguide with ring-shaped holes. The coupler is a section of a photonic crystal waveguide with a higher group velocity, obtained by different ring dimensions. We demonstrate coupling efficiency in excess of 95% over the 8 nm wavelength range where the photonic crystal waveguide exhibits a quasi constant group velocity vg = c/37. An analysis based on the small Fabry-P\\'erot resonances in the simulated transmission spectra is introduced and used for studying the effect of the coupler length and for evaluating the coupling efficiency in different parts of the coupler. The mode conversion efficiency within the coupler is more than 99.7% over the wavelength range of interest. The parasitic reflectance in the coupler, which depends on the propagation constant mismatch between the slow mode and the coupler mode, is lower than 0.6% within this wavelength range.

Syntjoki, A; Mulot, M; Cassagne, D; Ahopelto, J; Lipsanen, H

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Probing the Geometry and Interconnectivity of Pores in Organic Aerogels Using Hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Aerogels represent a class of novel open-pore materials with high surface area and nanometer pore sizes. They exhibit extremely low mass densities, low thermal conductivity, good acoustic insulation, and low dielectric constants. These materials have potential applications in catalysis, advanced separation techniques, energy storage, environmental remediation, and as insulating materials. Organic aerogels are stiffer and stronger than silica aerogels and are better insulators with higher thermal resistance. Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) aerogels are typically prepared through the base-catalyzed sol-gel polymerization of resorcinol with formaldehyde in aqueous solution to produce gels, which are then dried in supercritical CO2.1,2 The [resorcinol]/ [catalyst] (R/C) ratio of the starting sol-gel solution has been determined to be the dominant factor that affects the properties of RF aerogels. Since the unique microstructures of aerogels are responsible for their unusual properties, characterizing the detailed porous structures and correlating them with the processing parameters are vital to establish rational design principles for novel organic aerogels with tailored properties. In this communication we report the first use of hyperpolarized (HP) 129Xe NMR to probe the geometry and interconnectivity of pores in RF aerogels and to correlate these with synthetic conditions. Our work demonstrates that HP 129Xe NMR is so far the only method for accurately measuring the free volume-to-surface-area (Vg/S) ratios for soft mesoporous materials without using any geometric models.

Moudrakovski, Igor L.; Wang, Li Q.; Baumann, T.; Satcher, J. H.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Ratcliffe, C. I.; Ripmeester, J. A.

2004-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

68

Radiolytic gas generation in plutonium contaminated waste materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many plutonium contaminated waste materials decompose into gaseous products because of exposure to alpha radiation. The gases generated (usually hydrogen) over long-storage periods may create hazardous conditions. To determine the extent of such hazards, knowing the gas generation yields is necessary. These yields were measured by contacting some common Rocky Flats Plant waste materials with plutonium and monitoring the enclosed atmospheres for extensive periods of time. The materials were Plexiglas, polyvinyl chloride, glove-box gloves, machining oil, carbon tetrachloride, chlorothene VG solvent, Kimwipes (dry and wet), polyethylene, Dowex-1 resin, and surgeon's gloves. Both /sup 239/Pu oxide and /sup 238/Pu oxide were used as radiation sources. The gas analyses were made by mass spectrometry and the results obtained were the total gas generation, the hydrogen generation, the oxygen consumption rate, and the gas composition over the entire storage period. Hydrogen was the major gas produced in most of the materials. The total gas yields varied from 0.71 to 16 cm/sup 3/ (standard temperature pressure) per day per curie of plutonium. The oxygen consumption rates varied from 0.0088 to 0.070 millimoles per day per gram of plutonium oxide-239 and from 0.0014 to 0.0051 millimoles per day per milligram /sup 238/Pu.

Kazanjian, A.R.

1976-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

69

FRIT SELECTION TO SUPPORT STEKLO METALLICHESKIE KONSTRUKTSII MELTER TESTING WITH SRNL FEEDS  

SciTech Connect

Four frits were developed for possible use in melter testing with V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute's Steklo Metallicheskie Konstruktsii (SMK) melter. The frits were selected using Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) assessments of an array of frit formulations and two Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) flowsheets, one with the anticipated effect of the implementation of Al-dissolution and one without. Test glasses were fabricated in the laboratory to verify that the property and performance models used to select the frits were applicable to the frit/sludge systems of interest. Each of the four frits was tested with each of the two sludges at two different waste loadings, for a total of 16 test glasses. Each glass was both quenched and subjected to the canister centerline cooled (CCC) thermal profile. Samples of each glass were examined for crystallization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and durability using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The quenched version of each glass appeared amorphous by visual observations, although XRD results indicated a small amount of crystallization in four of the quenched glasses. Visual observations identified surface crystallization on the CCC versions of all 16 glasses. Three of the 35% waste loading (WL), CCC glasses were found to contain trevorite (a spinel) by XRD, and all of the 40% WL CCC glasses were found to contain trevorite. Nepheline was not observed in any of the test glasses, which is consistent with model predictions.

Fox, K; James Gillam, J; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

2007-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

70

Experimental study of the air side performance of louver and wave fin-and-tube coils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present paper reports results from an investigation of the air side thermal performance of fin-and-tube coils with herringbone-wavy and convex-louver fins. The tube diameter of the tested coils was 12.7mm. Coils with different fin pitch and tube rows have been tested in order to determine their effect over the thermal performance. In addition, the performance of the convex-louver fins has been evaluated with respect to that of the wavy fins according to the Webb VG1 procedure. The collar diameter Reynolds number covered in the tests varied from 1000 to 6000, corresponding to face velocities of 1-6m/s. It has been found that the fin pitch affects lightly the heat transfer coefficient, its value being incremented of the order of 10% by reducing the fin pitch from 3.17mm to 1.81mm. Opposite trends have been found for the friction factor of wavy and louver fins regarding the effect of the fin pitch. The thermal performance is not affected by the number of tube rows in either of the fin configurations in coils for more than two rows. One and two row coils present non-negligible differences either with respect to the Colburn or friction factors. It has been found that area reductions in louver with respect to wavy fins can attain values of the order of 30% for Reynolds number of the order of 1000 and fin pitch of 3.17mm. (author)

Saiz Jabardo, J.M.; Salamanca, A. [Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de la Coruna, Mendizabal s/n Esteiro, 15403 Ferrol, Coruna (Spain); Bastos Zoghbi Filho, J.R. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, EESC, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Trabalhador Saocarlense 400 Centro, 13566-590 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

71

APPLICATION OF HIGH TECHNOLOGY POLYMERS FOR THE IMMOBILIZATION AND SOLIDIFICATION OF COMPLEX LIQUID RADWASTE TYPES  

SciTech Connect

The Cold War era created a massive build-up of nuclear weapon stockpiles in the former Soviet Union and the United States. The primary objective during this period was the development of nuclear technologies for weapons, space and power with lack of attention to the impact of radioactive and hazardous waste products on the environment. Effective technologies for radioactive and hazardous waste treatment and disposal were not well investigated or promoted during the arms build-up; and consequently, environmental contamination has become a major problem. These problems in Russia and the United States are well documented. Significant amounts of liquid radwaste have existed since the 1950's. The current government of the Russian Federation is addressing the issues of land remediation and permanent storage of radwaste resulting from internal and external pressures for safe cleanup and storage. The Russian government seeks new technologies from internal sources and from the West that will provide high performance, long term stability, safe for transport and for long-term storage of liquid radwaste at a reasonable economic cost. With the great diversity of liquid chemical compositions and activity levels, it is important to note that these waste products cannot be processed with commonly used methods. Different techniques and materials can be used for this problem resolution including the use of polymer materials that are capable of forming chemically stable, solidified waste products. In 2001, the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (St. Petersburg, Russia) and Pacific World Trade (Indianapolis, Indiana) began an extensive research and test program to determine the effectiveness and performance of high technology polymers for the immobilization and solidification of complex liquid radwaste types generated by the Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom), Russia, organization. The high tech polymers used in the tests were provided by Nochar, Inc. (Indianapolis, Indiana).

Kelley, Dennis; Brunkow, Ward; Pokhitonov, Yuri; Starchenko, Vadim

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

72

Mass Market Demand Response and Variable Generation Integration Issues: A  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mass Market Demand Response and Variable Generation Integration Issues: A Mass Market Demand Response and Variable Generation Integration Issues: A Scoping Study Title Mass Market Demand Response and Variable Generation Integration Issues: A Scoping Study Publication Type Report Refereed Designation Unknown Year of Publication 2011 Authors Cappers, Peter, Andrew D. Mills, Charles A. Goldman, Ryan H. Wiser, and Joseph H. Eto Pagination 76 Date Published 10/2011 Publisher LBNL City Berkeley Keywords demand response, electricity markets and policy group, energy analysis and environmental impacts department, renewable generation integration, smart grid Abstract The penetration of renewable generation technology (e.g., wind, solar) is expected to dramatically increase in the United States during the coming years as many states are implementing policies to expand this sector through regulation and/or legislation. It is widely understood, though, that large scale deployment of certain renewable energy sources, namely wind and solar, poses system integration challenges because of its variable and often times unpredictable production characteristics (NERC, 2009). Strategies that rely on existing thermal generation resources and improved wind and solar energy production forecasts to manage this variability are currently employed by bulk power system operators, although a host of additional options are envisioned for the near future. Demand response (DR), when properly designed, could be a viable resource for managing many of the system balancing issues associated with integrating large-scale variable generation (VG) resources (NERC, 2009). However, demand-side options would need to compete against strategies already in use or contemplated for the future to integrate larger volumes of wind and solar generation resources. Proponents of smart grid (of which Advanced Metering Infrastructure or AMI is an integral component) assert that the technologies associated with this new investment can facilitate synergies and linkages between demand-side management and bulk power system needs. For example, smart grid proponents assert that system-wide implementation of advanced metering to mass market customers (i.e., residential and small commercial customers) as part of a smart grid deployment enables a significant increase in demand response capability.1 Specifically, the implementation of AMI allows electricity consumption information to be captured, stored and utilized at a highly granular level (e.g., 15-60 minute intervals in most cases) and provides an opportunity for utilities and public policymakers to more fully engage electricity customers in better managing their own usage through time-based rates and near-real time feedback to customers on their usage patterns while also potentially improving the management of the bulk power system. At present, development of time-based rates and demand response programs and the installation of variable generation resources are moving forward largely independent of each other in state and regional regulatory and policy forums and without much regard to the complementary nature of their operational characteristics.2 By 2020, the electric power sector is expected to add ~65 million advanced meters3 (which would reach ~47% of U.S. households) as part of smart grid and AMI4 deployments (IEE, 2010) and add ~40-80 GW of wind and solar capacity (EIA, 2010). Thus, in this scoping study, we focus on a key question posed by policymakers: what role can the smart grid (and its associated enabling technology) play over the next 5-10 years in helping to integrate greater penetration of variable generation resources by providing mass market customers with greater access to demand response opportunities? There is a well-established body of research that examines variable generation integration issues as well as demand response potential, but the nexus between the two has been somewhat neglected by the industry. The studies that have been conducted are informative concerning what could be accomplished with strong broad-based support for the expansion of demand response opportunities, but typically do not discuss the many barriers that stand in the way of reaching this potential. This study examines how demand side resources could be used to integrate wind and solar resources in the bulk power system, identifies barriers that currently limit the use of demand side strategies, and suggests several factors that should be considered in assessing alternative strategies that can be employed to integrate wind and solar resources in the bulk power system. It is difficult to properly gauge the role that DR could play in managing VG integration issues in the near future without acknowledging and understanding the entities and institutions that govern the interactions between variable generation and mass market customers (see Figure ES-1). Retail entities, like load-serving entities (LSE) and aggregators of retail customers (ARC), harness the demand response opportunities of mass market customers through tariffs (and DR programs) that are approved by state regulatory agencies or local governing entities (in the case of public power). The changes in electricity consumption induced by DR as well as the changes in electricity production due to the variable nature of wind and solar generation technologies is jointly managed by bulk power system operators. Bulk power system operators function under tariffs approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and must operate their systems in accordance with rules set by regional reliability councils. These reliability rules are derived from enforceable standards that are set by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) and approved by federal regulators. Thus, the role that DR can play in managing VG integration issues is contingent on what opportunities state and local regulators are willing to approve and how customers' response to the DR opportunities can be integrated into the bulk power system both electrically (due to reliability rules) and financially (due to market rules).

73

Does Transmission of Light through a Window Involve Physics at the Planck Scale? 1 Problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

While it would be generally considered that transmission of light through a glass window does not involve physics at the Planck length scale (sec. 26 of [1]), LP = hG/c3 ? 1.6 10 ?35 m, (1) a recent suggestion by Bekenstein [2, 3] is that it does. 1 The comment is that when a single photon of momentum p and energy E = pc enters a transparent block of mass M and index of refraction n, which block is initially at rest, the momentum of the photon 2 is reduced to p/ngroup ? p/n, and the momentum of the block is temporarily increased to P ? p(1?1/n) forthetimeinterval?t = ngroupL/c ? nL/c, where L is the length of the block, c is the speed of light in vacuum, and ngroup = c/vg = cdk/d? = d(?n)/d? = n + ?dn/d? ? n for glass. During this time interval the center of mass of the block 3 moves along the direction of the photon by a distance ?x = v?t = P ?t/M = (1 ? 1/n)pnL/Mc =(n ? 1)EL/Mc 2. For example, if n ? 1.5, E ? 2eV ? 3.2 10 ?19 J, L =0.01 m and M =0.1 kg,then?x ? 1.6 10 ?36 m ? 0.1LP. This indicates that the Planck scale is in some way relevant to transmission of light through a window. The argument is then that if space is grainy on the Planck scale (as suggested by Wheeler [6]), such a tiny displacement would be impossible, and the single photon would not be transmitted, but would be reflected. Hence, if the transmission coefficient of the window is smaller for a single photon than for a pulse, this could be evidence that space is grainy on the Planck scale. Can this be so? 2

Kirk T. Mcdonald

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Experimental Dynamic Forced Performance of a Centrally Grooved, End Sealed Squeeze Film Damper  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Squeeze film dampers (SFDs) provide viscous damping to attenuate excessive vibrations and enhance system stability in turbomachinery. SFDs are of special importance in aircraft engines which use rolling element support bearings that, by themselves, do not provide enough damping to ensure safe operation. A modular test rig capable of simulating actual operating conditions in aircraft jet engines is used to test two centrally grooved, end sealed, SFDs. Both SFDs have diameter D and nominal radial clearance c and consist of two parallel squeeze film lands separated by a deep circumferential groove of length LG and depth dG. A short length damper with film land lengths L and a long damper with land lengths 2L are tested. Piston rings seal the damper lands. An ISO VG2 lubricant is supplied to the SFD via three radial holes that discharge lubricant into the central groove. The lubricant passes through the damper lands and across the piston ring seals to finally exit the damper at ambient pressure. Circular orbit tests of amplitude ~0.5c and for static eccentricities varying from 0 to ~0.36c are conducted on the two sealed dampers. The instrumental variable filter method (IVFM) serves to identify the SFD dynamic force coefficients. The parameter identification range is 50Hz to 210Hz for the short damper and 110Hz to 250Hz for the long damper. Large amplitude dynamic pressures measured in the central groove demonstrate that the central groove does not divide the damper in two separate film lands, but the lubricant in the groove interacts with the squeeze film lands, hence contributing significantly to the SFD forced response. Dynamic pressures in the film lands and in the central groove reveal that both dampers operate free of air ingestion or cavitation for the tested static eccentricities and amplitudes of motion. Comparisons to test results for the same SFD configurations but with open ends demonstrate the effectiveness of the end seals on increasing the direct damping coefficients. For the sealed ends short length damper, the added mass coefficients are ~2 times larger and the damping coefficients are ~3.8 times larger than the respective coefficients of the open ends long damper. For the sealed ends long damper, the damping coefficients are ~2.8 times, and the added mass coefficients are ~3.1 times larger than coefficients from the open ends configuration. The identified SFD direct stiffness coefficients are nearly zero except at the maximum static eccentricity for the long damper. Predictions from a novel computational model that include the effects of the central groove, the lubricant feed holes and the end seals are in excellent agreement with results from the short length damper. For the long damper, the predicted damping coefficients are in good agreement with the test results, while the added mass coefficients are under predicted by ~25 percent. Experimental results from the two sealed SFD configurations lead to a better understanding of the effects of end seals as well as central feed groves on the SFD forced performance. The results presented in this thesis will help improve the effectiveness of SFDs aircraft jet engines.

Mahecha Mojica, Lady Paola

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

INTERNATIONAL STUDY OF ALUMINUM IMPACTS ON CRYSTALLIZATION IN U.S. HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this task was to develop glass formulations for (Department of Energy) DOE waste streams with high aluminum concentrations to avoid nepheline formation while maintaining or meeting waste loading and/or waste throughput expectations as well as satisfying critical process and product performance related constraints. Liquidus temperatures and crystallization behavior were carefully characterized to support model development for higher waste loading glasses. The experimental work, characterization, and data interpretation necessary to meet these objectives were performed among three partnering laboratories: the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Projected glass compositional regions that bound anticipated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Hanford high level waste (HLW) glass regions of interest were developed and used to generate glass compositions of interest for meeting the objectives of this study. A thorough statistical analysis was employed to allow for a wide range of waste glass compositions to be examined while minimizing the number of glasses that had to be fabricated and characterized in the laboratory. The glass compositions were divided into two sets, with 45 in the test matrix investigated by the U.S. laboratories and 30 in the test matrix investigated by KRI. Fabrication and characterization of the US and KRI-series glasses were generally handled separately. This report focuses mainly on the US-series glasses. Glasses were fabricated and characterized by SRNL and PNNL. Crystalline phases were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the quenched and canister centerline cooled (CCC) glasses and were generally iron oxides and spinels, which are not expected to impact durability of the glass. Nepheline was detected in five of the glasses after the CCC heat treatment. Chemical composition measurements for each of the glasses were conducted following an analytical plan. A review of the individual oxides for each glass revealed that there were no errors in batching significant enough to impact the outcome of the study. A comparison of the measured compositions of the replicates indicated an acceptable degree of repeatability as the percent differences for most of the oxides were less than 5% and percent differences for all of the oxides were less than 10 wt%. Chemical durability was measured using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). All but two of the study glasses had normalized leachate for boron (NL [B]) values that were well below that of the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass. The two highest NL [B] values were for the CCC versions of glasses US-18 and US-27 (10.498 g/L and 15.962 g/L, respectively). Nepheline crystallization was identified by qualitative XRD in five of the US-series glasses. Each of these five glasses (US-18, US-26, US-27, US-37 and US-43) showed a significant increase in NL [B] values after the CCC heat treatment. This reduction in durability can be attributed to the formation of nepheline during the slow cooling cycle and the removal of glass formers from the residual glass network. The liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) of each glass in the study was determined by both optical microscopy and XRD methods. The correlation coefficient of the measured XRD TL data versus the measured optical TL data was very good (R{sup 2} = 0.9469). Aside from a few outliers, the two datasets aligned very well across the entire temperature range (829 C to 1312 C for optical data and 813 C to 1310 C for XRD crystal fraction data). The data also correlated well with the predictions of a PNNL T{sub L} model. The correlation between the measured and calculated data had a higher degree of merit for the XRD crystal fraction data than for the optical data (higher R{sup 2} value of 0.9089 versus 0.8970 for the optical data). The SEM-EDS analysis of select samples revealed the presence of undissolved RuO{sub 2} in all glasses due to the low solubility of RuO{sub 2} in borosilicate glass. These

Fox, K; David Peeler, D; Tommy Edwards, T; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P; James Marra, J

2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z