Sample records for vertical scales differ

  1. Scaling hard vertical surfaces with compliant microspine arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provancher, William

    has been developed that allows a robot to scale concrete, stucco, brick and masonry walls without vertical surfaces such as windows and interior walls. None of these approaches is suitable for porous and typically dusty exterior surfaces such as brick, concrete, stucco or stone. Other robots employ hand

  2. IntroductionIntroduction The use of small scale vertical axis wind turbinesThe use of small scale vertical axis wind turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullis, Stephen

    IntroductionIntroduction The use of small scale vertical axis wind turbinesThe use of small scale vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) is being studied at McMaster University using(VAWT) is being studied at McMaster University using a prototype wind turbine provided bya prototype wind turbine provided

  3. Cloud-Scale Vertical Velocity and Turbulent Dissipation Rate Retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Shupe, Matthew

    Time-height fields of retrieved in-cloud vertical wind velocity and turbulent dissipation rate, both retrieved primarily from vertically-pointing, Ka-band cloud radar measurements. Files are available for manually-selected, stratiform, mixed-phase cloud cases observed at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site during periods covering the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE, late September through early November 2004) and the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC, April-early May 2008). These time periods will be expanded in a future submission.

  4. Scaling of convective velocity in a vertically vibrated granular bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomoya M. Yamada; Hiroaki Katsuragi

    2014-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We experimentally study the velocity scaling of granular convection which is a possible mechanism of the regolith migration on the surface of small asteroids. In order to evaluate the contribution of granular convection to the regolith migration, the velocity of granular convection under the microgravity condition has to be revealed. Although it is hard to control the gravitational acceleration in laboratory experiments, scaling relations involving the gravitational effect can be evaluated by systematic experiments. Therefore, we perform such a systematic experiment of the vibration-induced granular convection. From the experimental data, a scaling form for the granular convective velocity is obtained. The obtained scaling form implies that the granular convective velocity can be decomposed into two characteristic velocity components: vibrational and gravitational velocities. In addition, the system size dependence is also scaled. According to the scaling form, the granular convective velocity $v$ depends on the gravitational acceleration $g$ as $v \\propto g^{0.97}$ when the normalized vibrational acceleration is fixed.

  5. Constructal multi-scale package of vertical channels with natural convection and maximal heat transfer density. CONSTRUCTAL DESIGN: THE GENERATION OF MULTI-SCALE HEAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kihm, IconKenneth David

    transfer density. CONSTRUCTAL DESIGN: THE GENERATION OF MULTI-SCALE HEAT AND FLUID FLOW STRUCTURES-scale structures in natural convection with the objective of maximizing the heat transfer density, or the heat transfer rate per unit of volume§ . The flow volume is filled with vertical equidistant heated blades

  6. Cultural differences on the children's memory scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cash, Deborah Dyer

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ) is an assessment instrument used to identify memory and learning deficits and strengths in children ages five through 16. This study investigated the impact of culture and parent educational level (PEL) on student performance on the Children’s Memory Scale using...

  7. Channeling 5-min photospheric oscillations into the solar outer atmosphere through small-scale vertical magnetic flux tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Khomenko; R. Centeno; M. Collados; J. Trujillo Bueno

    2008-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We report two-dimensional MHD simulations which demonstrate that photospheric 5-min oscillations can leak into the chromosphere inside small-scale vertical magnetic flux tubes. The results of our numerical experiments are compatible with those inferred from simultaneous spectropolarimetric observations of the photosphere and chromosphere obtained with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP) at 10830 A. We conclude that the efficiency of energy exchange by radiation in the solar photosphere can lead to a significant reduction of the cut-off frequency and may allow for the propagation of the 5 minutes waves vertically into the chromosphere.

  8. Comparing maximal mean values on different scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Havenith; Sebastian Scholtes

    2015-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    When computing the average speed of a car over different time periods from given GPS data, it is conventional wisdom that the maximal average speed over all time intervals of fixed length decreases if the interval length increases. However, this intuition is wrong. We investigate this phenomenon and make rigorous in which sense this intuition is still true.

  9. Experimental study on vertical scaling of InAs-on-insulator metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, SangHyeon, E-mail: dadembyora@mosfet.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: sh-kim@kist.re.kr; Yokoyama, Masafumi; Nakane, Ryosho; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Ichikawa, Osamu; Osada, Takenori; Hata, Masahiko [Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd., 6 Kitahara, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-3294 (Japan)

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated effects of the vertical scaling on electrical properties in extremely thin-body InAs-on-insulator (-OI) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). It is found that the body thickness (T{sub body}) scaling provides better short channel effect (SCE) control, whereas the T{sub body} scaling also causes the reduction of the mobility limited by channel thickness fluctuation (?T{sub body}) scattering (?{sub fluctuation}). Also, in order to achieve better SCEs control, the thickness of InAs channel layer (T{sub channel}) scaling is more favorable than the thickness of MOS interface buffer layer (T{sub buffer}) scaling from a viewpoint of a balance between SCEs control and ?{sub fluctuation} reduction. These results indicate necessity of quantum well channel structure in InAs-OI MOSFETs and these should be considered in future transistor design.

  10. Large-scale fabrication of vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Hu, Youfan; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Chen; Zhu, Guang

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A generator includes a substrate, a first electrode layer, a dense plurality of vertically-aligned piezoelectric elongated nanostructures, an insulating layer and a second electrode layer. The substrate has a top surface and the first electrode layer is disposed on the top surface of the substrate. The dense plurality of vertically-aligned piezoelectric elongated nanostructures extends from the first electrode layer. Each of the nanostructures has a top end. The insulating layer is disposed on the top ends of the nanostructures. The second electrode layer is disposed on the non-conductive layer and is spaced apart from the nanostructures.

  11. Scaling law analysis of paraffin thin films on different surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dotto, M. E. R.; Camargo, S. S. Jr. [Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materials, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cx. Postal 68505, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 21945-970 (Brazil)

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of paraffin deposit formation on different surfaces was analyzed based on scaling laws. Carbon-based films were deposited onto silicon (Si) and stainless steel substrates from methane (CH{sub 4}) gas using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The different substrates were characterized with respect to their surface energy by contact angle measurements, surface roughness, and morphology. Paraffin thin films were obtained by the casting technique and were subsequently characterized by an atomic force microscope in noncontact mode. The results indicate that the morphology of paraffin deposits is strongly influenced by substrates used. Scaling laws analysis for coated substrates present two distinct dynamics: a local roughness exponent ({alpha}{sub local}) associated to short-range surface correlations and a global roughness exponent ({alpha}{sub global}) associated to long-range surface correlations. The local dynamics is described by the Wolf-Villain model, and a global dynamics is described by the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang model. A local correlation length (L{sub local}) defines the transition between the local and global dynamics with L{sub local} approximately 700 nm in accordance with the spacing of planes measured from atomic force micrographs. For uncoated substrates, the growth dynamics is related to Edwards-Wilkinson model.

  12. DHS Internship Summary-Crystal Assembly at Different Length Scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishchenko, L

    2009-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    I was part of a project in which in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to monitor growth and dissolution of atomic and colloidal crystals. At both length scales, the chemical environment of the system greatly altered crystal growth and dissolution. Calcium phosphate was used as a model system for atomic crystals. A dissolution-reprecipitation reaction was observed in this first system, involving the conversion of brushite (DCPD) to octacalcium phosphate (OCP). In the second system, polymeric colloidal crystals were dissolved in an ionic solvent, revealing the underlying structure of the crystal. The dissolved crystal was then regrown through an evaporative step method. Recently, we have also found that colloids can be reversibly deposited in situ onto an ITO (indium tin oxide) substrate via an electrochemistry setup. The overall goal of this project was to develop an understanding of the mechanisms that control crystallization and order, so that these might be controlled during material synthesis. Controlled assembly of materials over a range of length scales from molecules to nanoparticles to colloids is critical for designing new materials. In particular, developing materials for sensor applications with tailorable properties and long range order is important. In this work, we examine two of these length scales: small molecule crystallization of calcium phosphate (whose crystal phases include DCPD, OCP, and HAP) and colloidal crystallization of Poly(methyl methacrylate) beads. Atomic Force Microscopy is ideal for this line of work because it allows for the possibility of observing non-conducting samples in fluid during growth with high resolution ({approx} 10 nm). In fact, during atomic crystal growth one can observe changes in atomic steps, and with colloidal crystals, one can monitor the individual building blocks of the crystal. Colloids and atoms crystallize under the influence of different forces acting at different length scales as seen in Table 1. In particular, molecular crystals, which are typically dominated by ionic and covalent bonding, are an order of magnitude more strongly bonded than colloidal crystals. In molecular crystals, ordering is driven by the interaction potentials between molecules. By contrast, colloidal assembly is a competition between the repulsive electrostatic forces that prevent aggregation in solution (due to surface charge), and short-range van der Waals and entropic forces that leads to ordering. Understanding atomic crystallization is fundamentally important for fabrication of tailorable crystalline materials, for example for biological or chemical sensors. The transformation of brushite to OCP not only serves as a model system for atomic crystal growth (applicable to many other crystal growth processes), but is also important in bone cements. Colloidal crystals have unique optical properties which respond to chemical and mechanical stimuli, making them very important for sensing applications. The mechanism of colloidal crystal assembly is thus fundamentally important. Our in situ dissolution and regrowth experiments are one good method of analyzing how these crystals pack under different conditions and how defect sites are formed and filled. In these experiments, a silica additive was used to strengthen the colloidal crystal during initial assembly (ex situ) and to increase domain size and long range order. Reversible electrodeposition of colloids onto a conductive substrate (ITO in our case) is another system which can further our knowledge of colloidal assembly. This experiment holds promise of allowing in situ observation of colloidal crystal growth and the influence of certain additives on crystal order. The ultimate goal would be to achieve long range order in these crystals by changing the surface charge or the growth environment.

  13. LINK BETWEEN COSMIC RAYS AND CLOUDS ON DIFFERENT TIME SCALES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    , Finland Ilya.Usoskin@oulu.fi A possible mechanism of solar variability influence upon the Earth's climate of energy brought by CR into the terrestrial system is negli- gible compared to solar radiation. On daily scales, major For- bush decreases and solar energetic particle events can affect the cyclogenesis

  14. COMPUTATIONAL SIMULATIONS FOR PREDICTING VERTICAL DAYLIGHT LEVELS IN ATRIUM BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiangtao Du; Steve Sharples

    This paper investigates the impact of well geometry and surface reflectance on vertical daylight levels in atria with square forms under a CIE standard overcast sky. By reviewing some previous investigations and comparing with scale model measurements the vertical daylight factor calculated using Radiance are validated. More simulated vertical daylight factors for a very wide range of atrium geometries and reflectances are given. From the results the attenuation and distribution of the vertical daylight levels on the wall of a square atrium with different reflectances are displayed. Also, the comparisons between simulations and two analytical theories have been performed. Finally some conclusions for supporting daylight design in atria are presented.

  15. 396 Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan Vol. 60, No. 1 Cloud Clusters and Large-Scale Vertical Motions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houze Jr., Robert A.

    an important absorber and emitter of radiation. Radiative transfer models applied to tropical cloud shields, its net effect on the large-scale heat budget changes. As the cloud shield develops, the meso- scale, it is concluded that the mesoscale stratiform and radiative processes associated with the cloud shields

  16. Large-Scale Analysis of Individual and Task Differences in Search Result Page Examination Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumais, Susan

    Large-Scale Analysis of Individual and Task Differences in Search Result Page Examination users examine results which are similar to those observed in small-scale studies. Our findings have differences on search result page examination strategies is important in develop- ing improved search engines

  17. Storage-discharge relationships at different catchment scales based on local high-precision gravimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Troch, Peter

    Storage-discharge relationships at different catchment scales based on local high, Institute of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Potsdam, Germany Abstract: In hydrology, the storage of catchment science. To date, there are no direct methods to measure water storage at catchment scales (101

  18. Modeling the large-scale water balance impact of different irrigation systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Jason

    Modeling the large-scale water balance impact of different irrigation systems J. P. Evans1 and B. F precipitation causes the Turkish government to invest in modernizing its own irrigation systems balance impact of different irrigation systems, Water Resour. Res., 44, W08448, doi:10.1029/2007WR006671

  19. Parameter scaling in a novel measure of quantum-classical difference for decohering chaotic systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathan Wiebe; Parin Sripakdeevong; Arnaldo Gammal; Arjendu K. Pattanayak

    2009-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we introduce a diagnostic for measuring the quantum-classical difference for open quantum systems, which is the normalized size of the quantum terms in the Master equation for Wigner function evolution. For a driven Duffing oscillator, this measure shows remarkably precise scaling over long time-scales with the parameter $\\zeta_0=\\hbar^2/D$. We also see that, independent of $\\zeta_0$ the dynamics follows a similar pattern. For small $\\zeta_0$ all of our curves collapses to essentially a single curve when scaled by the maximum value of the quantum-classical difference. In both limits of large and small $\\zeta_0$ we see a saturation effect in the size of the quantum-classical difference; that is, the instantaneous difference between quantum and classical evolutions cannot be either too small or too large.

  20. Pore-scale difference between miscible and immiscible viscous fingering in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, J.D.

    1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When one fluid displaces another in a porous medium, the displacement can be stable or unstable. Viscous fingering is an unstable phenomenon that occurs when a less viscous fluid displaces a more viscous one. During oil recovery viscous fingering results in a poor recovery due to the bypass of the resident oil by the displacing fluid. In an oil reservoir there is randomness of many different length scales, ranging from pore size to reservoir size. Viscous fingering can have many different length scales due to the randomness. It is important to understand how the randomness on different scales affects the development of fingering. In this note the authors report experiments on the displacement stability in two-dimensional network models of porous media. The purpose of this work is to better understand the pore-scale phenomena of displacement. Immiscible viscous fingering in a two-dimensional network model, with negligible effects of the interfacial tension, has been studied. Although qualitative agreement was found between simulations and experiments for the immiscible case, some fundamental difference was found for the miscible case. The cause of difference and other relevant experimental observations are discussed.

  1. The Rotational Propulsion Characteristics of Scaled-up Helical Microswimmers with different heads and magnetic positioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the cut-off frequency. The rotational propulsion characteristics of helical swimmers with a magnetic headThe Rotational Propulsion Characteristics of Scaled-up Helical Microswimmers with different heads and magnetic positioning Tiantian Xu1, Gilgueng Hwang2, Nicolas Andreff3 and St´ephane R´egnier1 Abstract

  2. Finite-difference time-domain simulation of fusion plasmas at radiofrequency time scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smithe, David N. [Tech-X Corporation, 5621 Arapahoe Avenue, Suite A, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulation of dense plasmas in the radiofrequency range are typically performed in the frequency domain, i.e., by solving Laplace-transformed Maxwell's equations. This technique is well-suited for the study of linear heating and quasilinear evolution, but does not generalize well to the study of nonlinear phenomena. Conversely, time-domain simulation in this range is difficult because the time scale is long compared to the electron plasma wave period, and in addition, the various cutoff and resonance behaviors within the plasma insure that any explicit finite-difference scheme would be numerically unstable. To resolve this dilemma, explicit finite-difference Maxwell terms are maintained, but a carefully time-centered locally implicit method is introduced to treat the plasma current, such that all linear plasma dispersion behavior is faithfully reproduced at the available temporal and spatial resolution, despite the fact that the simulation time step may exceed the electron gyro and electron plasma time scales by orders of magnitude. Demonstrations are presented of the method for several classical benchmarks, including mode conversion to ion cyclotron wave, cyclotron resonance, propagation into a plasma-wave cutoff, and tunneling through low-density edge plasma.

  3. Vertical axis wind turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krivcov, Vladimir (Miass, RU); Krivospitski, Vladimir (Miass, RU); Maksimov, Vasili (Miass, RU); Halstead, Richard (Rohnert Park, CA); Grahov, Jurij (Miass, RU)

    2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF MIXED WETTABILITY AT DIFFERENT SCALES AND ITS IMPACT ON OIL RECOVERY EFFICIENCY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukul M. Sharma; George J. Hirasaki

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the this research project were to: (1) Quantify the pore scale mechanisms that determine the wettability state of a reservoir; (2) Study the effect of crude oil, brine and mineral compositions in the establishment of mixed wet states; (3) Clarify the effect of mixed-wettability on oil displacement efficiency in waterfloods; and (4) Develop a new tracer technique to measure wettability, fluid distributions, residual saturations and relative permeabilities.

  5. Scaling fluid content-pressure relations of different fluid systems in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenhard, R.J.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-fluid-phase relations among fluid saturations (S) and pressures (P) have historically been used to predict S-P relations for three-fluid-phase systems consisting of a gas, nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL), and water, because measurements of three-phase S-P relations are complex. Two-phase S-P relations of air-NAPL systems are generally used to predict the behavior between total-liquid saturations of three-phase systems and air-NAPL capillary pressures. Two-phase S-P relations of NAPL-water systems are generally used to predict the behavior between water saturations of three-phase systems and NAPL-water capillary pressures. Because S-P measurements are very time-consuming, investigators have attempted to scale S-P relations so that fewer measurements would be required. A S-P scaling technique is discussed in this paper, and methods to predict the scaling factors are evaluated.

  6. Product symbolic status: development of a scale to assess different product types

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, James Arthur

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The literature on status, product symbolism, product involvement, and reference group influence is reviewed to conceptually define the Product Symbolic Status construct. The research consisted of two studies (N = 524) that examined 17 different...

  7. Radiative transfer based scaling of LAI retrievals from reflectance data of different resolutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myneni, Ranga B.

    is investigated with 1-km Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data aggregated to different coarse into biogeophysical (energy and water exchanges) and biogeochemical (carbon and volatile organic compound exchanges. Vegetation leaf area index governs net radiation and its expenditure (energy balance), net primary production

  8. Because ScanSAR images have a different scale and orientation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    deforestation by synthetic aperture radar Martin Whittle(a), Shaun Quegan(a),Kokok Yulianto(b) and Yumiko Uryu. The difference is an estimate of interim deforestation. The FBD scene used here fully overlaps both databases. Eva, et al. (2002). "Determination of Deforestation Rates of the World's Humid Tropical Forests

  9. Micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Abraham P. (Walnut Creek, CA); Sommargren, Gary E. (Santa Cruz, CA); McConaghy, Charles F. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1999-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A micromachined vertical actuator utilizing a levitational force, such as in electrostatic comb drives, provides vertical actuation that is relatively linear in actuation for control, and can be readily combined with parallel plate capacitive position sensing for position control. The micromachined electrostatic vertical actuator provides accurate movement in the sub-micron to micron ranges which is desirable in the phase modulation instrument, such as optical phase shifting. For example, compact, inexpensive, and position controllable micromirrors utilizing an electrostatic vertical actuator can replace the large, expensive, and difficult-to-maintain piezoelectric actuators. A thirty pound piezoelectric actuator with corner cube reflectors, as utilized in a phase shifting diffraction interferometer can be replaced with a micromirror and a lens. For any very precise and small amplitudes of motion` micromachined electrostatic actuation may be used because it is the most compact in size, with low power consumption and has more straightforward sensing and control options.

  10. Manipulating surface diffusion and elastic interactions to obtain quantum dot multilayer arrangements over different length scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Placidi, E., E-mail: ernesto.placidi@ism.cnr.it; Arciprete, F. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, CNR, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Dipartimento di Fisica, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Latini, V.; Latini, S.; Patella, F. [Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Dipartimento di Fisica, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Magri, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Informatiche e Matematiche (FIM), Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, and Centro S3 CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Via Campi 213/A, 4100 Modena (Italy); Scuderi, M.; Nicotra, G. [CNR-IMM, Strada VIII, 5, 95121 Catania (Italy)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An innovative multilayer growth of InAs quantum dots on GaAs(100) is demonstrated to lead to self-aggregation of correlated quantum dot chains over mesoscopic distances. The fundamental idea is that at critical growth conditions is possible to drive the dot nucleation only at precise locations corresponding to the local minima of the Indium chemical potential. Differently from the known dot multilayers, where nucleation of new dots on top of the buried ones is driven by the surface strain originating from the dots below, here the spatial correlations and nucleation of additional dots are mostly dictated by a self-engineering of the surface occurring during the growth, close to the critical conditions for dot formation under the fixed oblique direction of the incoming As flux, that drives the In surface diffusion.

  11. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The exploration of the vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. The consortium has submitted over 25 different designs for the Fermilab organized MPW run organized for the first time.

  12. ARM - Measurement - Vertical velocity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheat flux ARM Data DiscoverygovMeasurementsVertical

  13. Vertical graphene base transistor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M. Baus, and H. Kurz, “A graphene ?eld-effect device,” IEEERooks, and P. Avouris, “Graphene nano- ribbon electronics,”High-frequency, scaled graphene transistors on diamond- like

  14. Vertical Integration and Market Entry in the Generic Pharmaceutical Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kubo, Kensuke

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Competitive Effects of Vertical Integration . . . . . . .2.2.3 Trend in Vertical Integration . . . . . . . . .for Vertical Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  15. Performance Testing of a Small Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine , S. Tullis2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullis, Stephen

    Performance Testing of a Small Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine R. Bravo1 , S. Tullis2 , S. Ziada3 of electric production [1]. Although most performance testing for small-scale wind turbines is conducted vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWT) in urban settings, full-scale wind tunnel testing of a prototype 3.5 k

  16. Recirculation on a single stage of vertical flow constructed wetland: treatment limits and operation modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Recirculation on a single stage of vertical flow constructed wetland: treatment limits French vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) plant comprises two stages of treatment which the first and treatment performances in different operating conditions. Results showed good performances

  17. Design, Development, Pre-Testing and Preparation for Full Scale Cold Testing of a System for Field Remediation of Vertical Pipe Units at the Hanford Site 618-10 Burial Grounds -12495

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halliwell, Stephen [VJ Technologies Inc. 89 Carlough Road, Bohemia, New York, 11716 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the Hanford site, in the 1950's and 60's, radioactive waste materials, including Transuranic (TRU) wastes from a number of laboratories were stored in vertical pipe units (VPUs) in what are now the 618-10 and 618-11 burial grounds. Although the current physical condition of the VPUs is unknown, initial R and D studies had shown that in-ground size reduction and stabilization of VPU contents was feasible. This paper describes the R and D work and testing activities to validate the concept of in-ground size reduction and stabilization of VPU contents, and the design and pre-testing of major plant items and augering systems on full size simulated VPUs. The paper also describes the full size prototype equipment which will be used in full size cold testing of simulated VPUs off the Hanford site, to prove the equipment, develop operating procedures, and train operators prior to deployment on site. Safe and effective field remediation, removal and disposal of the VPUs in the 600 area are critical to the success of the River Corridor Closure Contract at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Safe and effective field remediation, removal and disposal of the VPUs in the 600 area are critical to the success of the River Corridor Closure Contract at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. (authors)

  18. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  19. Generation of large-scale winds in horizontally anisotropic convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von Hardenberg, J; Provenzale, A; Spiegel, E A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We simulate three-dimensional, horizontally periodic Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection between free-slip horizontal plates, rotating about a horizontal axis. When both the temperature difference between the plates and the rotation rate are sufficiently large, a strong horizontal wind is generated that is perpendicular to both the rotation vector and the gravity vector. The wind is turbulent, large-scale, and vertically sheared. Horizontal anisotropy, engendered here by rotation, appears necessary for such wind generation. Most of the kinetic energy of the flow resides in the wind, and the vertical turbulent heat flux is much lower on average than when there is no wind.

  20. MODELING OF VERTICAL GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR GROUND SOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MODELING OF VERTICAL GROUND LOOP HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS By CENK SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS Thesis Approved: ___________________________________________ Thesis Adviser scale test data. The short-term behavior of ground-coupled heat pump systems is important for the design

  1. Vibration Analysis of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blade , S.Tullis 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullis, Stephen

    Vibration Analysis of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blade K. Mc Laren 1 , S.Tullis 2 and S.Ziada 3 1 vibration source of a small-scale vertical axis wind turbine currently undergoing field-testing. The turbine at a blade-tip speed ratio (the ratio of the blade rotational velocity to the ambient wind velocity) of 1

  2. Blade Offset and Pitch Effects on a High Solidity Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullis, Stephen

    Blade Offset and Pitch Effects on a High Solidity Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Andrzej J. Fiedler ABSTRACT A high solidity, small scale, 2.5m diameter by 3m high Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT in an open-air wind tunnel facility to investigate the effects of preset toe-in and toe-out turbine blade

  3. CFD Simulation of Dynamic Thrust and Radial Forces on a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullis, Stephen

    CFD Simulation of Dynamic Thrust and Radial Forces on a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blade K. Mc vibration source of a small scale vertical axis wind turbine. The dynamic loading on the blades of the turbine, as they rotate about the central shaft and travel through a range of relative angles of attack

  4. Pore-scale flow characterization of low-interfacial tension flow through mixed-wet porous media with different pore geometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yadali Jamaloei, Benyamin [Petroleum Systems Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, The University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada); Petroleum Research Center, The Petroleum University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asghari, Koorosh [Petroleum Systems Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, The University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada); Kharrat, Riyaz [Petroleum Research Center, The Petroleum University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The low-interfacial tension flow through porous media occurs in surfactant-based enhanced oil recovery (EOR), soil clean-up, underground removal of the non-aqueous phase liquid and dense non-aqueous phase liquid, etc. In surfactant-based EOR processes, numerous works have been carried out to characterize - either qualitatively or quantitatively - the micro- and macro-scale flow behavior. What has been lacking is to link the statistics of oil blobs population (e.g., distribution of blob length and diameter) to the pore-scale phenomena and macro-scale quantities. In particular, no work has been reported to elucidate the effect of the ratio of pore body to throat diameter (i.e., aspect ratio) on the pore-scale characterization based on the blobs population statistics. The significance of the aspect ratio lies in that it describes the geometry of a porous medium and is one of the foremost morphological features. The aspect ratio is also one of the fundamental factors governing the pore-level events. This study presents the effect of aspect ratio on the statistical distribution of the blob length and equivalent diameter and links the blobs population statistics to the observed pore-level events. The pore-scale variation of the ratio of viscous-to-capillary forces acted on the oil blobs at the threshold of displacement is utilized to characterize the effect of blob length distribution at different aspect ratios. It also provides some insight into correlating the change in oil recovery efficiency and capillary number, by change in aspect ratio, with the change in blobs population statistics. (author)

  5. Standardized Total Average Toxicity Score: A Scale- and Grade-Independent Measure of Late Radiotherapy Toxicity to Facilitate Pooling of Data From Different Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, Gillian C., E-mail: gillbarnett@doctors.org.uk [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); West, Catharine M.L. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Coles, Charlotte E. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Pharoah, Paul D.P. [Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Talbot, Christopher J. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Elliott, Rebecca M. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Tanteles, George A. [Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Symonds, R. Paul [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Jennifer S. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Dunning, Alison M. [Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Burnet, Neil G. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bentzen, Soren M. [University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Human Oncology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The search for clinical and biologic biomarkers associated with late radiotherapy toxicity is hindered by the use of multiple and different endpoints from a variety of scoring systems, hampering comparisons across studies and pooling of data. We propose a novel metric, the Standardized Total Average Toxicity (STAT) score, to try to overcome these difficulties. Methods and Materials: STAT scores were derived for 1010 patients from the Cambridge breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy trial and 493 women from University Hospitals of Leicester. The sensitivity of the STAT score to detect differences between patient groups, stratified by factors known to influence late toxicity, was compared with that of individual endpoints. Analysis of residuals was used to quantify the effect of these covariates. Results: In the Cambridge cohort, STAT scores detected differences (p < 0.00005) between patients attributable to breast volume, surgical specimen weight, dosimetry, acute toxicity, radiation boost to tumor bed, postoperative infection, and smoking (p < 0.0002), with no loss of sensitivity over individual toxicity endpoints. Diabetes (p = 0.017), poor postoperative surgical cosmesis (p = 0.0036), use of chemotherapy (p = 0.0054), and increasing age (p = 0.041) were also associated with increased STAT score. When the Cambridge and Leicester datasets were combined, STAT was associated with smoking status (p < 0.00005), diabetes (p = 0.041), chemotherapy (p = 0.0008), and radiotherapy boost (p = 0.0001). STAT was independent of the toxicity scale used and was able to deal with missing data. There were correlations between residuals of the STAT score obtained using different toxicity scales (r > 0.86, p < 0.00005 for both datasets). Conclusions: The STAT score may be used to facilitate the analysis of overall late radiation toxicity, from multiple trials or centers, in studies of possible genetic and nongenetic determinants of radiotherapy toxicity.

  6. 3, 57555775, 2003 Vertical distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of affecting cloud formation and radiative properties (e.g. Ramanathan et al., 2001). These effects take place vertical profiles available in the literature.15 1. Introduction Current global radiative balance estimates and absorption of solar radiation, and of an indirect (larger) effect related to the aerosol20 capability

  7. P-type and N-type multi-gate polycrystalline silicon vertical thin film transistors based on low-temperature technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    is obtained. P-type and N-type vertical TFTs have shown symmetric electrical characteristics. DifferentP-type and N-type multi-gate polycrystalline silicon vertical thin film transistors based on low) ABSTRACT P-type and N-type multi-gate vertical thin film transistors (vertical TFTs) have been fabricated

  8. 7, 1275112779, 2007 Vertical distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    . In an urban area there are many buildings, which cause large inhomogeneities in the energy and wind profilesACPD 7, 12751­12779, 2007 Vertical distribution of O3 and VOCs in Mexico City E. Velasco et al of Mexico City E. Velasco1,2 , C. M´arquez3 , E. Bueno3 , R. M. Bernab´e3 , A. S´anchez3 , O. Fentanes 3 , H

  9. Parallel self-mixing imaging system based on an array of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, John R.; Baque, Johnathon L.; Lim, Yah Leng; Zvyagin, Andrei V.; Rakic, Aleksandar D

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we investigate the feasibility of a massively parallel self-mixing imaging system based on an array of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) to measure surface profiles of displacement,distance, velocity, and liquid flow rate. The concept of the system is demonstrated using a prototype to measure the velocity at different radial points on a rotating disk, and the velocity profile of diluted milk in a custom built diverging-converging planar flow channel. It is envisaged that a scaled up version of the parallel self-mixing imaging system will enable real-time surface profiling, vibrometry, and flowmetry.

  10. Vertical Integration and Technology: Theory and Evidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acemoglu, Daron

    We study the determinants of vertical integration. We first derive a number of predictions regarding the relationship between technology intensity and vertical integration from a simple incomplete contracts model. Then, ...

  11. Vertical silicon nanowire arrays for gas sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hangbo

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this research was to fabricate and characterize vertically aligned silicon nanowire gas sensors. Silicon nanowires are very attractive for gas sensing applications and vertically aligned silicon nanowires are ...

  12. On production costs in vertical differentiation models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EA 4272 On production costs in vertical differentiation models Dorothée BRECARD(*) 2009,version1-1Oct2009 #12;1 On production costs in vertical differentiation models Dorothée Brécard production cost beside a fixed cost of quality improvement in a duopoly model of vertical product

  13. 7, 22492274, 2007 Vertical ozone over

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 7, 2249­2274, 2007 Vertical ozone over Eastern Mediterranean and Central Europe P. D a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Vertical ozone measurements (kalabokas pavlos@yahoo.gr) 2249 #12;ACPD 7, 2249­2274, 2007 Vertical ozone over Eastern Mediterranean

  14. Vertically aligned nanostructure scanning probe microscope tips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guillorn, Michael A.; Ilic, Bojan; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2006-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus are described for cantilever structures that include a vertically aligned nanostructure, especially vertically aligned carbon nanofiber scanning probe microscope tips. An apparatus includes a cantilever structure including a substrate including a cantilever body, that optionally includes a doped layer, and a vertically aligned nanostructure coupled to the cantilever body.

  15. New insights into small-scale vertical distributions of phytoplankton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prairie, Jennifer Chan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    evaluation of backscatter and forward- scatter fiber-optic sensors.evaluation of backscatter and forward- scatter fiber-optic sensors.evaluation of backscatter and forward- scatter fiber-optic sensors.

  16. ARM - Evaluation Product - Vertical Air Motion during Large-Scale

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006Datastreamstwrcam40m Documentation DataDatastreamsxsaprhsrhi1-minProductsMicroPulseStratiform Rain

  17. Vertical Distribution of Bacterivorous Nematodes under Different Wenju Liang,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neher, Deborah A.

    position in the soil food web and play significant roles in ecological processes such as nitrogen cycling are better bioindicators of the rate of decomposition of organic matter than the abundance of bacteria be- cause, through their higher position in the food chain, they integrate both biotic and abiotic factors

  18. Vertical Relationships and Competition in Retail Gasoline Markets: An Empirical Evidence from Contract Changes in Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hastings, Justine

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Behavior of Retail Gasoline Prices: Symmetric or Not? ”vertical contracts and retail gasoline prices. The thirdthe differences in retail gasoline prices between markets is

  19. Conventional Energy Forum & Associated Vertical Business Development...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    & Casino The Office of Indian Energy Tribal Leader Energy Forum on "Conventional Energy (Oil, Gas, and Coal) Forum & Associated Vertical Business Development: Best Practices in...

  20. Vertical Contracts and Mandatory Universal Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Vertical Contracts and Mandatory Universal Distribution Larry S. Karp Jeffrey M. Perloff July 2012 vendor. If a monopoly uses a single vendor, the government may impose a mandatory universal distribution consumer welfare. Keywords: vertical restrictions, mandatory universal distribution, new product oligopoly

  1. Downstream Competition, Foreclosure, and Vertical Integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Downstream Competition, Foreclosure, and Vertical Integration Gilles Chemla ¤ July 8, 2002 and Management Strategy 12, 2 (2003) 261-289." #12;Downstream Competition, Forclosure, and Vertical Integration Abstract This paper analyzes the impact of competition among downstream ¯rms on an upstream ¯rm's payo

  2. Vertical Pretreatment Reactor System (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IBRF poster developed for the IBRF showcase. Describes the two-vessel system for primary and secondary pretreatment of biomass solids at different temperatures.

  3. Symmetry of piezoelectric (1–x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O?-xPbTiO? (x=0.31) single crystal at different length scales in the morphotropic phase boundary region

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Kyou-Hyun; Payne, David A.; Zuo, Jian-Min

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use probes of three different length scales to examine symmetry of (1–x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O?-xPbTiO? (PMN-xPT) single crystals in the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) region at composition x = 0.31 (PMN-31% PT). On the macroscopic scale, x-ray diffraction (XRD) shows a mixture of strong and weak diffraction peaks of different widths. The closest match to XRD peak data is made with monoclinic Pm (MC) symmetry. On the local scale of a few nanometers, convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) studies, with a 1.6-nm electron probe, reveal no obvious symmetry. These CBED experimental patterns can be approximately matched with simulations based on monoclinic symmetry, which suggests locally distorted monoclinic structure. A monoclinic Cm (MA or MB)-like symmetry could also be obtained from certain regions of the crystal by using a larger electron probe size of several tens of nanometers in diameter. Thus the monoclinic symmetry of single crystal PMN-31%PT is developed only in parts of the crystal by averaging over locally distorted structure on the scale of few tens of nanometers. The macroscopic symmetry observed by XRD is a result of averaging from the local structure in PMN-31%PT single crystal. The lack of local symmetry at a few nanometers scale suggests that the polarization switching results from a change in local displacements, which are not restricted to specific symmetry planes or directions.

  4. Moist multi-scale models for the hurricane embryo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majda, Andrew J. [New York University; Xing, Yulong [ORNL; Mohammadian, Majid [University of Ottawa, Canada

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Determining the finite-amplitude preconditioned states in the hurricane embryo, which lead to tropical cyclogenesis, is a central issue in contemporary meteorology. In the embryo there is competition between different preconditioning mechanisms involving hydrodynamics and moist thermodynamics, which can lead to cyclogenesis. Here systematic asymptotic methods from applied mathematics are utilized to develop new simplified moist multi-scale models starting from the moist anelastic equations. Three interesting multi-scale models emerge in the analysis. The balanced mesoscale vortex (BMV) dynamics and the microscale balanced hot tower (BHT) dynamics involve simplified balanced equations without gravity waves for vertical vorticity amplification due to moist heat sources and incorporate nonlinear advective fluxes across scales. The BMV model is the central one for tropical cyclogenesis in the embryo. The moist mesoscale wave (MMW) dynamics involves simplified equations for mesoscale moisture fluctuations, as well as linear hydrostatic waves driven by heat sources from moisture and eddy flux divergences. A simplified cloud physics model for deep convection is introduced here and used to study moist axisymmetric plumes in the BHT model. A simple application in periodic geometry involving the effects of mesoscale vertical shear and moist microscale hot towers on vortex amplification is developed here to illustrate features of the coupled multi-scale models. These results illustrate the use of these models in isolating key mechanisms in the embryo in a simplified content.

  5. Nonlinear Saturation of Vertically Propagating Rossby Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giannitsis, Constantine

    The interaction between vertical Rossby wave propagation and wave breaking is studied in the idealized context of a beta-plane channel model. Considering the problem of propagation through a uniform zonal flow in an ...

  6. Vertical Farrning in the Windy City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saniie, Jafar

    vegetable and fish waste into fertilizer and biogas to power a heating, cooling, and 280-kilowatt electricalIIScience News Vertical Farrning in the Windy City In Chicago's meatpacking district, developer

  7. Using vertical aerial photography to estimate mass balance at a point

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasmussen, L.A.

    surface topography of South Cascade Glacier on a 100-meter square grid. The known bed topography is subtracted from the surface topography to get thickness, and the surface topographies are subtracted from to sliding at the bed, the surface velocity is scaled by 0.82 to get the average velocity in the vertical ice

  8. Effective hydraulic parameters for steady state vertical flow in heterogeneous soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Binayak P.

    Effective hydraulic parameters for steady state vertical flow in heterogeneous soils Jianting Zhu August 2003. [1] In hydroclimate and land-atmospheric interaction models, effective hydraulic properties are needed at large grid scales. In this study, the effective soil hydraulic parameters of the areally

  9. Impact of Dynamics and Atmospheric State on Cloud Vertical Overlap CATHERINE M. NAUD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;(United Kingdom) during three winter months, Hogan and Illingworth (2000) found that cloudy sublayers be influenced by large-scale vertical motion, wind shear, or convection. Observations from the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program ground- based radars and lidars in midlatitude

  10. Sandia Energy - Innovative Offshore Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Rotors Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Wind Energy Offshore Wind Innovative Offshore Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Rotors Innovative...

  11. Sandia Energy - Innovative Offshore Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovative Offshore Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Rotors Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Wind Energy Offshore Wind Innovative Offshore Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine...

  12. Hydrodynamic heave damping estimation and scaling for tension leg platforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thiagarajan, K.P.; Troesch, A.W. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Resonant heave excitation of tension leg platform (TLP) tendons is typically of high-frequency and small amplitude. The response of the tendons to this excitation is non-negligible due to a very small drag coefficient of the structure in this mode of oscillation. Small values of the drag force complicate experimental estimation in a laboratory due to the dominating inertial force. Model tests conducted at the University of Michigan investigating the damping experienced by a cylinder of 0.457 m (1.5 ft) diameter and 1.219 m (4.0 ft) draft are described here. The cylinder is vertical and surface-piercing, and oscillates parallel to its axis. The amplitude of the forcing is varied to give a Keulegan-Carpenter (KC) number range of 0.1--1.0. The frequency parameter [beta] is 89236, corresponding to an oscillation frequency of 0.41 Hz. From these experiments, a definite nonlinear trend is observed between the drag force and velocity conflicting with some of the results reported by Huse (1990) and Chakrabarti and Hanna (1991). The heave damping coefficients of individual structural components of a TLP follow different scaling laws. Rules are presented for scaling friction and form drag components from model to full scale. Results from experiments are used to obtain a scaling law for vertical columns of a TLP. Previously published results are used for horizontal pontoons. An example TLP calculation shows that the heave damping ratio of horizontal cylinders is approximately 0.049--0.078 percent, depending upon cylinder shape, and that for vertical cylinders is in the range 0.025--0.171 percent, depending upon KC.

  13. Medium-solidity Vertical Axis Wind Turbines for use in Urban Environments S. Tullis, A. Fiedler, K. McLaren, S. Ziada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullis, Stephen

    high turbine solidities (the ratio of total blade area to turbine swept area), which result in lowMedium-solidity Vertical Axis Wind Turbines for use in Urban Environments S. Tullis, A. Fiedler, K Vertical axis wind turbines are currently experiencing a renewed interest in small- scale applications

  14. Graphene vertical hot-electron terahertz detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryzhii, V., E-mail: v-ryzhii@riec.tohoku.ac.jp [Research Institute for Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Center for Photonics and Infrared Engineering, Bauman Moscow State Technical University and Institute of Ultra High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 111005 (Russian Federation); Satou, A.; Otsuji, T. [Research Institute for Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ryzhii, M. [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu 965-8580 (Japan); Mitin, V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 1460-1920 (United States); Shur, M. S. [Departments of Electrical, Electronics, and Systems Engineering and Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose and analyze the concept of the vertical hot-electron terahertz (THz) graphene-layer detectors (GLDs) based on the double-GL and multiple-GL structures with the barrier layers made of materials with a moderate conduction band off-set (such as tungsten disulfide and related materials). The operation of these detectors is enabled by the thermionic emissions from the GLs enhanced by the electrons heated by incoming THz radiation. Hence, these detectors are the hot-electron bolometric detectors. The electron heating is primarily associated with the intraband absorption (the Drude absorption). In the frame of the developed model, we calculate the responsivity and detectivity as functions of the photon energy, GL doping, and the applied voltage for the GLDs with different number of GLs. The detectors based on the cascade multiple-GL structures can exhibit a substantial photoelectric gain resulting in the elevated responsivity and detectivity. The advantages of the THz detectors under consideration are associated with their high sensitivity to the normal incident radiation and efficient operation at room temperature at the low end of the THz frequency range. Such GLDs with a metal grating, supporting the excitation of plasma oscillations in the GL-structures by the incident THz radiation, can exhibit a strong resonant response at the frequencies of several THz (in the range, where the operation of the conventional detectors based on A{sub 3}B{sub 5} materials, in particular, THz quantum-well detectors, is hindered due to a strong optical phonon radiation absorption in such materials). We also evaluate the characteristics of GLDs in the mid- and far-infrared ranges where the electron heating is due to the interband absorption in GLs.

  15. Self-aligned process for forming microlenses at the tips of vertical silicon nanowires by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan, Yaping, E-mail: yaping.dan@sjtu.edu.cn; Chen, Kaixiang [University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Crozier, Kenneth B. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The microlens is a key enabling technology in optoelectronics, permitting light to be efficiently coupled to and from devices such as image sensors and light-emitting diodes. Their ubiquitous nature motivates the development of new fabrication techniques, since existing methods face challenges as microlenses are scaled to smaller dimensions. Here, the authors demonstrate the formation of microlenses at the tips of vertically oriented silicon nanowires via a rapid atomic layer deposition process. The nature of the process is such that the microlenses are centered on the nanowires, and there is a self-limiting effect on the final sizes of the microlenses arising from the nanowire spacing. Finite difference time domain electromagnetic simulations are performed of microlens focusing properties, including showing their ability to enhance visible-wavelength absorption in silicon nanowires.

  16. A low order model for vertical axis wind turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drela, Mark

    A new computational model for initial sizing and performance prediction of vertical axis wind turbines

  17. The SLAC Vertical Comparator for the Calibration of Digital Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woschitz, Helmut; /Graz U.; Gassner, Georg; Ruland, Robert; /SLAC

    2006-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Digital levels replaced spirit levels in most fields of precise height measurements because of the automation of the height readings. Three manufacturers offer digital levels with a single reading resolution of 10 {micro}m, and for all of them systematic effects are known. In Europe several facilities for system calibration of digital levels using vertical comparators were established within the last decade. However, there still was no system calibration facility in North America. In order to guarantee the accuracy required for the alignment of experiments at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) a calibration facility for the system calibration of digital levels was built. In this paper the setup of the SLAC vertical comparator is described in detail and its standard uncertainty is derived. In order to perform traditional rod calibration of conventional line-scaled rods, a CCD camera was integrated into the SLAC comparator. The CCD camera setup is also briefly described. To demonstrate the capabilities of the comparator, results of system and rod calibration are shown.

  18. SGP and TWP (Manus) Ice Cloud Vertical Velocities

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kalesse, Heike

    Daily netcdf-files of ice-cloud dynamics observed at the ARM sites at SGP (Jan1997-Dec2010) and Manus (Jul1999-Dec2010). The files include variables at different time resolution (10s, 20min, 1hr). Profiles of radar reflectivity factor (dbz), Doppler velocity (vel) as well as retrieved vertical air motion (V_air) and reflectivity-weighted particle terminal fall velocity (V_ter) are given at 10s, 20min and 1hr resolution. Retrieved V_air and V_ter follow radar notation, so positive values indicate downward motion. Lower level clouds are removed, however a multi-layer flag is included.

  19. Vertically aligned biaxially textured molybdenum thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, Rahul [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Riley, Michael [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Lee, Sabrina [US Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center, Benet Labs, Watervliet, New York 12189 (United States); Lu, Toh-Ming [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Vertically aligned, biaxially textured molybdenum nanorods were deposited using dc magnetron sputtering with glancing flux incidence (alpha = 85 degrees with respect to the substrate normal) and a two-step substrate-rotation mode. These nanorods were identified with a body-centered cubic crystal structure. The formation of a vertically aligned biaxial texture with a [110] out-of-plane orientation was combined with a [-110] in-plane orientation. The kinetics of the growth process was found to be highly sensitive to an optimum rest time of 35 seconds for the two-step substrate rotation mode. At all other rest times, the nanorods possessed two separate biaxial textures each tilted toward one flux direction. While the in-plane texture for the vertical nanorods maintains maximum flux capture area, inclined Mo nanorods deposited at alpha = 85 degrees without substrate rotation display a [-1-1-4] in-plane texture that does not comply with the maximum flux capture area argument. Finally, an in situ capping film was deposited with normal flux incidence over the biaxially textured vertical nanorods resulting in a thin film over the porous nanorods. This capping film possessed the same biaxial texture as the nanorods and could serve as an effective substrate for the epitaxial growth of other functional materials.

  20. Loading on a vertical cylinder in multidirectional waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaplin, J.R.; Subbiah, K. [City Univ., London (United Kingdom). Ocean Engineering Research Center; Irani, M. [National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Institute for Marine Dynamics

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents laboratory measurements of local and total loading on an isolated vertical cylinder in irregular unidirectional and multidirectional waves. Maximum Keulegan-Carpenter numbers in individual waves were about 16, and maximum reynolds numbers about 3 {times} 10{sup 4}. It is shown that in these conditions, existing theoretical and numerical models underestimate the reduction in loading on a cylinder due to wave spreading. Besides the changes that are predicted when Morison`s equation is used with constant coefficients, there are hydrodynamic influences that contribute further force reductions. Comparisons with Dena`s (1977) hybrid approach suggest that in the present conditions these reductions are in the region of 3 and 6 percent for a spreading function cos{sup 2s} {theta}, with s = 8 and s = 2, respectively. Larger reductions can be expected at higher Keulegan-Carpenter numbers, though scale effects are likely to become more important in the drag-dominated regime.

  1. Scalable Parallel Algorithms for Massive Scale-free Graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearce, Roger Allan

    2013-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    , distributed, and external memory. This dissertation develops new techniques to parallelize the storage, computation, and communication for scale-free graphs with high-degree vertices. Our work facilitates the processing of large real-world graph datasets...

  2. Scalable Parallel Algorithms for Massive Scale-free Graphs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearce, Roger Allan

    2013-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    , distributed, and external memory. This dissertation develops new techniques to parallelize the storage, computation, and communication for scale-free graphs with high-degree vertices. Our work facilitates the processing of large real-world graph datasets...

  3. The Effects of Anchor Length, Test Difficulty, Population Ability Differences, Mixture of Populations and Sample Size on the Psychometric Properties of Levine Observed Score Linear Equating Method for Different Assumptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvajal, Jorge E.

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    group Q gets form Y and the same group of items A. In other words, A is a test of common items. The group of 2 common items measures differences in group ability (Kolen and Brennan, 2004). Anchor test is another name for this group of common items... or vertical scaling, which involves a comparison of scores from tests for different grade levels; however, because the content from these tests is different, these scores cannot be used interchangeably as in the case of equated scores (Kolen and Brennan...

  4. Mass transfer at vertically oscillating surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomaa, H.G. [Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada); Landau, J. [Univ. of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB (Canada); Tawell, A.M.A. [Technical Univ. of Nova Scotia, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis of mass transfer at vertically oscillating surfaces is presented. It takes into account the interaction between forced and natural convection and can be used under conditions where the fluid velocity outside the boundary layer changes direction. Because of the good agreement with experimental data, the model can explain the multi-fold increase in mass transfer coefficient obtained under oscillatory conditions. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Electrically floating, near vertical incidence, skywave antenna

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Allen A.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Tremblay, Paul A.; Mays, Belva L.

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An Electrically Floating, Near Vertical Incidence, Skywave (NVIS) Antenna comprising an antenna element, a floating ground element, and a grounding element. At least part of said floating ground element is positioned between said antenna element and said grounding element. The antenna is separated from the floating ground element and the grounding element by one or more electrical insulators. The floating ground element is separated from said antenna and said grounding element by one or more electrical insulators.

  6. Building Scale DC Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    resources, a 10 kW vertical axis wind turbine, and Fig. 4AC-grid Fig. 3. Vertical axis wind turbine in the AIT DC µ

  7. Building Scale DC Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    resources, a 10 kW vertical axis wind turbine, and Fig. 4the µgrid Fig. 3. Vertical axis wind turbine in the AIT DC µ

  8. acesso transeptal vertical: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or itemsets is a fundamental and essential problem in many data miningFast Vertical Mining Using Diffsets Mohammed J. Zaki and Karam Gouda Computer Science Dept of vertical...

  9. A Vertical Grid Module for Baroclinic Models of the Atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drake, John B [ORNL

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The vertical grid of an atmospheric model assigns dynamic and thermo- dynamic variables to grid locations. The vertical coordinate is typically not height but one of a class of meteorological variables that vary with atmo- spheric conditions. The grid system is chosen to further numerical approx- imations of the boundary conditions so that the system is terrain following at the surface. Lagrangian vertical coordinates are useful in reducing the numerical errors from advection processes. That the choices will effect the numercial properties and accuracy is explored in this report. A MATLAB class for Lorentz vertical grids is described and applied to the vertical struc- ture equation and baroclinic atmospheric circulation. A generalized meteo- rolgoical coordinate system is developed which can support ?, isentropic ? vertical coordinate, or Lagrangian vertical coordinates. The vertical atmo- spheric column is a MATLAB class that includes the kinematic and ther- modynamic variables along with methods for computing geopoentials and terms relevant to a 3D baroclinc atmospheric model.

  10. Marine vertical cable multiple attenuation beyond up/down separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tran, Andre

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Marine vertical cable acquisition is an emerging technology. It represents an alternative to surface seismic acquisition in areas congested by platforms or other obstacles. The vertical cable acquisition consists of recording pressure at several...

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: vertical-axis wind turbine research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    vertical-axis wind turbine research Sandia Vertical-Axis Wind-Turbine Research Presented at Science of Making Torque from Wind Conference On July 8, 2014, in Computational Modeling...

  12. Functionality Tuning in Vertically Aligned Nanocomposite Thin Films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Aiping

    2013-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) oxide thin films are unique nanostructures with two-phase self-assembled, heteroepitaxially grown on single-crystal substrates. Both phases tend to grow vertically and simultaneously on a given substrate...

  13. Vertical axis wind turbine with continuous blade angle adjustment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiss, Samuel Bruce

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The author presents a concept for a vertical axis wind turbine that utilizes each blade's entire rotational cycle for power generation. Each blade has its own vertical axis of rotation and is constrained to rotate at the ...

  14. Reversible Electrowetting of Vertically Aligned Superhydrophobic Carbon Nanofibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heikenfeld, Jason

    Reversible Electrowetting of Vertically Aligned Superhydrophobic Carbon Nanofibers Manjeet S (electrowetting) of vertically aligned superhydrophobic carbon nanofibers has been investigated. Carbon nanofibers, and hydrophobized with fluoropolymer. This nanostructured scaffold exhibited superhydrophobic behavior for saline

  15. TURBULENCE IN THE OUTER REGIONS OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS. I. WEAK ACCRETION WITH NO VERTICAL MAGNETIC FLUX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon, Jacob B.; Armitage, Philip J.; Beckwith, Kris [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States)] [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States); Bai, Xue-Ning; Stone, James M., E-mail: jbsimon@jila.colorado.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2013-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We use local numerical simulations to investigate the strength and nature of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the outer regions of protoplanetary disks, where ambipolar diffusion is the dominant non-ideal MHD effect. The simulations include vertical stratification and assume zero net vertical magnetic flux. We employ a super time-stepping technique to ameliorate the Courant restriction on the diffusive time step. We find that in idealized stratified simulations, with a spatially constant ambipolar Elsasser number Am, turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) behaves in a similar manner as in prior unstratified calculations. Turbulence dies away for Am {<=} 1, and becomes progressively more vigorous as ambipolar diffusion is decreased. Near-ideal MHD behavior is recovered for Am {>=} 10{sup 3}. In the intermediate regime (10 {<=} Am {<=} 10{sup 3}) ambipolar diffusion leads to substantial increases in both the period of the MRI dynamo cycle and the characteristic scales of magnetic field structures. To quantify the impact of ambipolar physics on disk accretion, we run simulations at 30 AU and 100 AU that include a vertical Am profile based upon far-ultraviolet (FUV) ionized disk models. These models develop a vertically layered structure analogous to the Ohmic dead zone that is present at smaller radii. We find that, although the levels of surface turbulence can be strong (and consistent with constraints on turbulent line widths at these radii), the inferred accretion rates are at least an order of magnitude smaller than those observed in T Tauri stars. This discrepancy is very likely due to the assumption of zero vertical magnetic field in our simulations and suggests that vertical magnetic fields are essential for MRI-driven accretion in the outer regions of protoplanetary disks.

  16. Numerical modeling of vertical cavity semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, W.W.; Hadley, G.R.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) is a diode laser whose optical cavity is formed by growing or depositing DBR mirror stacks that sandwich an active gain region. The resulting short cavity supports lasing into a single longitudinal mode normal to the wafer, making these devices ideal for a multitude of applications, ranging from high-speed communication to high-power sources (from 2D arrays). This report describes the development of a numerical VCSEL model, whose goal is to both further their understanding of these complex devices and provide a tool for accurate design and data analysis.

  17. Lower-Tropospheric Height Tendencies Associated with the Shearwise and Transverse Components of Quasigeostrophic Vertical Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Justin

    of the separate lower-tropospheric height tendencies associated with the shearwise and transverse portions of QG- cluded surface cyclone are driven nearly equally by shearwise and transverse updrafts. 1. Introduction cyclones. He presented evidence that these two components of the QG vertical motion play different roles

  18. Interface instabilities during displacements of two miscible fluids in a vertical pipe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lajeunesse, Eric

    superposed layers of fluids of different viscosities between two horizontal plates. He showed that the flow analysis of steady concentric flow of two fluids in a vertical circular tube. He considered both asymmetric for diffusive effects to be negligible. For certain viscosity ratios and flow rates, the interface between

  19. Control system for a vertical axis windmill

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brulle, Robert V. (St. Louis County, MO)

    1983-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A vertical axis windmill having a rotating structure is provided with a series of articulated vertical blades whose positions are controlled to maintain a constant RPM for the rotating structure, when wind speed is sufficient. A microprocessor controller is used to process information on wind speed, wind direction and RPM of the rotating structure to develop an electrical signal for establishing blade position. The preferred embodiment of the invention, when connected to a utility grid, is designed to generate 40 kilowatts of power when exposed to a 20 mile per hour wind. The control system for the windmill includes electrical blade actuators that modulate the blades of the rotating structure. Blade modulation controls the blade angle of attack, which in turn controls the RPM of the rotor. In the preferred embodiment, the microprocessor controller provides the operation logic and control functions. A wind speed sensor provides inputs to start or stop the windmill, and a wind direction sensor is used to keep the blade flip region at 90.degree. and 270.degree. to the wind. The control system is designed to maintain constant rotor RPM when wind speed is between 10 and 40 miles per hour.

  20. High vertical resolution crosswell seismic imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lazaratos, Spyridon K. (Houston, TX)

    1999-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing high vertical resolution seismic images from crosswell data is disclosed. In accordance with one aspect of the disclosure, a set of vertically spaced, generally horizontally extending continuous layers and associated nodes are defined within a region between two boreholes. The specific number of nodes is selected such that the value of a particular characteristic of the subterranean region at each of the nodes is one which can be determined from the seismic data. Once values are established at the nodes, values of the particular characteristic are assigned to positions between the node points of each layer based on the values at node within that layer and without regard to the values at node points within any other layer. A seismic map is produced using the node values and the assigned values therebetween. In accordance with another aspect of the disclosure, an approximate model of the region is established using direct arrival traveltime data. Thereafter, the approximate model is adjusted using reflected arrival data. In accordance with still another aspect of the disclosure, correction is provided for well deviation. An associated technique which provides improvements in ray tracing is also disclosed.

  1. Analysis of Cloud-resolving Simulations of a Tropical Mesoscale Convective System Observed during TWP-ICE: Vertical Fluxes and Draft Properties in Convective and Stratiform Regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrowiec, Agnieszka A.; Rio, Catherine; Fridlind, Ann; Ackerman, Andrew; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Pauluis, Olivier; Varble, Adam; Fan, Jiwen

    2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze three cloud-resolving model simulations of a strong convective event observed during the TWP-ICE campaign, differing in dynamical core, microphysical scheme or both. Based on simulated and observed radar reflectivity, simulations roughly reproduce observed convective and stratiform precipitating areas. To identify the characteristics of convective and stratiform drafts that are difficult to observe but relevant to climate model parameterization, independent vertical wind speed thresholds are calculated to capture 90% of total convective and stratiform updraft and downdraft mass fluxes. Convective updrafts are fairly consistent across simulations (likely owing to fixed large-scale forcings and surface conditions), except that hydrometeor loadings differ substantially. Convective downdraft and stratiform updraft and downdraft mass fluxes vary notably below the melting level, but share similar vertically uniform draft velocities despite differing hydrometeor loadings. All identified convective and stratiform downdrafts contain precipitation below ~10 km and nearly all updrafts are cloudy above the melting level. Cold pool properties diverge substantially in a manner that is consistent with convective downdraft mass flux differences below the melting level. Despite differences in hydrometeor loadings and cold pool properties, convective updraft and downdraft mass fluxes are linearly correlated with convective area, the ratio of ice in downdrafts to that in updrafts is ~0.5 independent of species, and the ratio of downdraft to updraft mass flux is ~0.5-0.6, which may represent a minimum evaporation efficiency under moist conditions. Hydrometeor loading in stratiform regions is found to be a fraction of hydrometeor loading in convective regions that ranges from ~10% (graupel) to ~90% (cloud ice). These findings may lead to improved convection parameterizations.

  2. Waferscale highthroughput ordered growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    arrays on GaN substrate with different periods and sizes 2 m 3 m Figure S1. LIL-Patterned growth of ZnO NW arrays on GaN substrate with different periods and sizes of opened-holes. (a) and (b) Top-view and 45o side-view SEM images of vertically aligned ZnO NW arrays on GaN substrate with 200 nm opened

  3. Vertical axis wind turbine control strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNerney, G.M.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Early expensive in automatic operation of the Sandia 17-m vertical axis research wind turbine (VAWT) has demonstrated the need for a systematic study of control algorithms. To this end, a computer model has been developed that uses actual wind time series and turbine performance data to calculate the power produced by the Sandia 17-m VAWT operating in automatic control. The model has been used to investigate the influence of starting algorithms on annual energy production. The results indicate that, depending on turbine and local wind characteristics, a bad choice of a control algorithm can significantly reduce overall energy production. The model can be used to select control algorithms and threshold parameters that maximize long-term energy production. An attempt has been made to generalize these results from local site and turbine characteristics to obtain general guidelines for control algorithm design.

  4. aire tubular vertical: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    vertical datum will be less sensitive to geodynamic activity, local crustal uplift and subsidence, and deterioration of benchmarks. Marc Vronneau; Robert Duval; Jianliang...

  5. Continuous Growth of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guzman de Villoria, Roberto

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes are one of the most promising materials due their numerous applications in flexible electronic devices, biosensors and multifunctional aircraft materials, among others. However, the ...

  6. Hedging and Vertical Integration in Electricity Markets Gilles Chemla

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Touzi, Nizar

    /or demand insurance rationale for vertical integration as most important. 1 In the 1970s, for example, oil and vertical integration are two separate mechanisms for demand and spot price risk diversification that both integration restores the symmetry between producers' and retailers' exposure to demand risk while linear

  7. VERTICAL ELECTROPOLISHING NIOBIUM CAVITIES , C. Crawford, H. Padamsee, A. Seaman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geng, Rong-Li

    VERTICAL ELECTROPOLISHING NIOBIUM CAVITIES R.L. Geng ¡ , C. Crawford, H. Padamsee, A. Seaman LEPP Superconductivity, July 10-15, 2005, Ithaca, NY, USA. SRF060419-02 Abstract Vertical electropolishing niobium-gradient superconducting niobium cavities [1]. Many labs now have acquired the ca- pability of EP multi-cell cavities

  8. CSEM WP 117 Vertical Integration in Restructured Electricity Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley. University of

    , the vertical integration of firms in the PJM market re- duces electricity producers' interest in setting high to their retail customers at set rates. My model reflects this degree of vertical integration of PJM firms. Second imperfections during the summer following PJM's restructuring increased procurement costs 51% ($950 million

  9. Engineering design of vertical test stand cryostat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suhane, S.K.; Sharma, N.K.; Raghavendra, S.; Joshi, S.C.; Das, S.; Kush, P.K.; Sahni, V.C.; Gupta, P.D.; /Indore, Ctr. for Advanced Tech.; Sylvester, C.; Rabehl, R.; Ozelis, J.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under Indian Institutions and Fermilab collaboration, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are jointly developing 2K Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostats for testing SCRF cavities at 2K. The VTS cryostat has been designed for a large testing aperture of 86.36 cm for testing of 325 MHz Spoke resonators, 650 MHz and 1.3 GHz multi-cell SCRF cavities for Fermilab's Project-X. Units will be installed at Fermilab and RRCAT and used to test cavities for Project-X. A VTS cryostat comprises of liquid helium (LHe) vessel with internal magnetic shield, top insert plate equipped with cavity support stand and radiation shield, liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) shield and vacuum vessel with external magnetic shield. The engineering design and analysis of VTS cryostat has been carried out using ASME B&PV Code and Finite Element Analysis. Design of internal and external magnetic shields was performed to limit the magnetic field inside LHe vessel at the cavity surface <1 {micro}T. Thermal analysis for LN{sub 2} shield has been performed to check the effectiveness of LN{sub 2} cooling and for compliance with ASME piping code allowable stresses.

  10. Characterization of Vertical Velocity and Drop Size Distribution Parameters in Widespread Precipitation at ARM Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giangrande S. E.; Luke, E. P.; Kollias, P.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extended, high-resolution measurements of vertical air motion and median volume drop diameter D0 in widespread precipitation from three diverse Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) locations [Lamont, Oklahoma, Southern Great Plains site (SGP); Niamey, Niger; and Black Forest, Germany] are presented. The analysis indicates a weak (0-10 cm{sup -1}) downward air motion beneath the melting layer for all three regions, a magnitude that is to within the typical uncertainty of the retrieval methods. On average, the hourly estimated standard deviation of the vertical air motion is 0.25 m s{sup -1} with no pronounced vertical structure. Profiles of D0 vary according to region and rainfall rate. The standard deviation of 1-min-averaged D0 profiles for isolated rainfall rate intervals is 0.3-0.4 mm. Additional insights into the form of the raindrop size distribution are provided using available dual-frequency Doppler velocity observations at SGP. The analysis suggests that gamma functions better explain paired velocity observations and radar retrievals for the Oklahoma dataset. This study will be useful in assessing uncertainties introduced in the measurement of precipitation parameters from ground-based and spaceborne remote sensors that are due to small-scale variability.

  11. Pressure Responses of a Vertically Hydraulic Fractured Well in a Reservoir with Fractal Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Razminia, Kambiz; Torres, Delfim F M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We obtain an analytical solution for the pressure-transient behavior of a vertically hydraulic fractured well in a heterogeneous reservoir. The heterogeneity of the reservoir is modeled by using the concept of fractal geometry. Such reservoirs are called fractal reservoirs. According to the theory of fractional calculus, a temporal fractional derivative is applied to incorporate the memory properties of the fractal reservoir. The effect of different parameters on the computed wellbore pressure is fully investigated by various synthetic examples.

  12. The transfer of heat and mass to a vertical plate under frosting conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poth, Louis Joseph

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE TRAESFPIR OF HEAT . 'ND NASH 10 A VERTICAL PLATE UNDER FROSTING CONDITIONS A Thesis Louis Joseph Poth, Jr. Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Nechanioal College of Texas in partial fulfili ment of the requirements... of the Husselt-Grashof correlation for heat transfer. coefficient of saturation temper ture and concen- tration gradient correlation, for small temper- ature difference. ooefficient of frost specific gravity-thermal oonductivity correlation. coefficient...

  13. Constraining MOND Using the Vertical Motion of Stars in the Solar Neighborhood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Margalit, Ben

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stars with a different vertical motion relative to the galactic disk have a different average acceleration. According to Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) theories they should therefore have a different average orbital velocity while revolving around the Milky Way. We show that this property can be used to constrain MOND theories by studying stars in the local neighborhood. With the Hipparcos dataset we can only place marginal constraints. However, the forthcoming GAIA catalogue with its significantly fainter cutoff should allow placing a stringent constraint. The method cannot be used to prove MOND, since halo stars can contribute a similar signal which would be hard to discern.

  14. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with vertical alternating magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL); Battles, James E. (Oak Forest, IL); Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Rote, Donald M. (Lagrange, IL)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for containing molten metal using a magnet producing vertical alternating magnetic field positioned adjacent the area in which the molten metal is to be confined. This invention can be adapted particularly to the casting of metal between counter-rotating rollers with the vertical alternating magnetic field used to confine the molten metal at the edges of the rollers. Alternately, the vertical alternating magnetic field can be used as a flow regulator in casting molten metal from an opening in a channel.

  15. Offshore application of a novel technology for drilling vertical boreholes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, P.E. [Elf Enterprise Caldeonia Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Aitken, A. [Baker Hughes INTEQ, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new concept for automatically drilling vertical boreholes was recently implemented by Elf Enterprise Caledonia called the vertical drilling system (VDS). The VDS was used to drill the 16-in. hole section of a North Sea exploration well. This was the first time this technology had been used offshore, drilling from a semisubmersible drilling unit. The VDS was shown to have an application in penetrating a drilling target that required a near-vertical wellbore. Technical functioning of the tool and field experience is reported along with performance comparisons to offset wells.

  16. Measured radiation patterns of the scale model dipole tool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Rongrong

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sound field of finite dipole acoustic transducers in a steel tool was investigated and their horizontal by measuring their vertical radiation patterns in water at two different frequencies. Measurements were also made ...

  17. LOCAL STUDY OF ACCRETION DISKS WITH A STRONG VERTICAL MAGNETIC FIELD: MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY AND DISK OUTFLOW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, Xue-Ning; Stone, James M., E-mail: xbai@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform three-dimensional, vertically-stratified, local shearing-box ideal MHD simulations of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) that include a net vertical magnetic flux, which is characterized by midplane plasma {beta}{sub 0} (ratio of gas to magnetic pressure). We have considered {beta}{sub 0} = 10{sup 2}, 10{sup 3}, and 10{sup 4}, and in the first two cases the most unstable linear MRI modes are well resolved in the simulations. We find that the behavior of the MRI turbulence strongly depends on {beta}{sub 0}: the radial transport of angular momentum increases with net vertical flux, achieving {alpha} {approx} 0.08 for {beta} = 10{sup 4} and {alpha} {approx}> 1.0 for {beta}{sub 0} = 100, where {alpha} is the height-integrated and mass-weighted Shakura-Sunyaev parameter. A critical value lies at {beta}{sub 0} {approx} 10{sup 3}: for {beta}{sub 0} {approx}> 10{sup 3}, the disk consists of a gas pressure dominated midplane and a magnetically dominated corona. The turbulent strength increases with net flux, and angular momentum transport is dominated by turbulent fluctuations. The magnetic dynamo that leads to cyclic flips of large-scale fields still exists, but becomes more sporadic as net flux increases. For {beta}{sub 0} {approx}< 10{sup 3}, the entire disk becomes magnetically dominated. The turbulent strength saturates, and the magnetic dynamo is fully quenched. Stronger large-scale fields are generated with increasing net flux, which dominates angular momentum transport. A strong outflow is launched from the disk by the magnetocentrifugal mechanism, and the mass flux increases linearly with net vertical flux and shows sign of saturation at {beta}{sub 0} {approx}< 10{sup 2}. However, the outflow is unlikely to be directly connected to a global wind: for {beta}{sub 0} {approx}> 10{sup 3}, the large-scale field has no permanent bending direction due to dynamo activities, while for {beta}{sub 0} {approx}< 10{sup 3}, the outflows from the top and bottom sides of the disk bend towards opposite directions, inconsistent with a physical disk wind geometry. Global simulations are needed to address the fate of the outflow.

  18. An ecological perceptual aid for precision vertical landings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Cristin Anne

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pilots of vertical landing vehicles face numerous control challenges which often involve the loss of outside visual perceptual cues or the control of flight parameters within tight constraints. These challenges are often ...

  19. Water coning calculations for vertical and horizontal wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Weiping

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    recovery of several wells coning water. Since their type curves are specific for the data they investigated, it can not serve as a general method of coning evaluation. Addington'2 developed a set of gas coning correlations for 3-D coarse grid... for predicting (1) critical coning rate, (2) breakthrough time, and (3) WOR after breakthrough in both vertical and horizontal wells. Two hand calculation methods had been developed in this study. Either of them applies to both vertical and horizontal wells...

  20. Characterization of the Lumsden-Lynch vertical elutriator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimm, Carl Brian

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CHARACTERIZATION OF THE LUMSDEN-LYNCH VERTICAL ELUTRIATOR A Thesis by CARL BRIAN GRIMM Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM Unrversity in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 19gl... Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene CHARACTERIZATION OF THE LUMSDEN-LYNCH VERTICAL ELUTRIATOR A Thesis by CARL BRIAN GRIMM Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of ommittee) ( mber) embe (Member) ead of Department) August, 1981 ABSTRACT...

  1. Three-dimensional Numerical Analysis on Blade Response of Vertical Axis Tidal Current Turbine Under Operational Condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ye; Karri, Naveen K.; Wang, Qi

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Tidal power as a large-scale renewable source of energy has been receiving significant attention recently because of its advantages over the wind and other renewal energy sources. The technology used to harvest energy from tidal current is called a tidal current turbine. Though some of the principles of wind turbine design are applicable to tidal current turbines, the design of latter ones need additional considerations like cavitation damage, corrosion etc. for the long-term reliability of such turbines. Depending up on the orientation of axis, tidal current turbines can be classified as vertical axis turbines or horizontal axis turbines. Existing studies on the vertical axis tidal current turbine focus more on the hydrodynamic aspects of the turbine rather than the structural aspects. This paper summarizes our recent efforts to study the integrated hydrodynamic and structural aspects of the vertical axis tidal current turbines. After reviewing existing methods in modeling tidal current turbines, we developed a hybrid approach that combines discrete vortex method -finite element method that can simulate the integrated hydrodynamic and structural response of a vertical axis turbine. This hybrid method was initially employed to analyze a typical three-blade vertical axis turbine. The power coefficient was used to evaluate the hydrodynamic performance, and critical deflection was considered to evaluate the structural reliability. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted with various turbine height-to-radius ratios. The results indicate that both the power output and failure probability increase with the turbine height, suggesting a necessity for optimal design. An attempt to optimize a 3-blade vertical axis turbine design with hybrid method yielded a ratio of turbine height to radius (H/R) about 3.0 for reliable maximum power output.

  2. Experimental evaluation of vertically versus horizontally split yokes for SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strait, J.; Coulter, K.; Jaffery, T.; Kerby, J.; Koska, W.; Lamm, M.J.

    1990-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The yoke in SSC dipole magnets provides mechanical support to the collared coil as well as serving as a magnetic element. The yoke and skin are used to increase the coil prestress and reduce collar deflections under excitation. Yokes split on the vertical or horizontal mid-plane offer different advantages in meeting these objectives. To evaluate the relative merits of the two configuration a 1.8 m model dipole was assembled and tested first with horizontally split and then with vertically split yoke laminations. The magnet was extensively instrumented to measure azimuthal and axial stresses in the coil and the cold mass skin resulting from cooldown and excitation. Mechanical behavior of this magnet with each configuration is compared with that of other long and short models and with calculations. 13 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Large-scale fabrication of vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L; Das, Suman; Xu, Sheng; Yuan, Dajun; Guo, Rui; Wei, Yaguang; Wu, Wenzhuo

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In a method for growing a nanowire array, a photoresist layer is placed onto a nanowire growth layer configured for growing nanowires therefrom. The photoresist layer is exposed to a coherent light interference pattern that includes periodically alternately spaced dark bands and light bands along a first orientation. The photoresist layer exposed to the coherent light interference pattern along a second orientation, transverse to the first orientation. The photoresist layer developed so as to remove photoresist from areas corresponding to areas of intersection of the dark bands of the interference pattern along the first orientation and the dark bands of the interference pattern along the second orientation, thereby leaving an ordered array of holes passing through the photoresist layer. The photoresist layer and the nanowire growth layer are placed into a nanowire growth environment, thereby growing nanowires from the nanowire growth layer through the array of holes.

  4. ARM - PI Product - Cloud-Scale Vertical Velocity and Turbulent Dissipation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheat fluxChinaNewsRate Retrievals

  5. Nuclear scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  6. The calculation of proppant transport in vertical hydraulic fractures using finite difference techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasor, Robert Winston

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . IST 0F FIGURBS Figure Ideal Fracture Propagation Increase in l&roductivity From Fracturing Concentra l. !on Protile From Analytical l'odels A;"ier BabcockA Concentration Profi1e From Simulation Node'1 5 Bed Contigurat'ion for Analytical Solution... is described oy 0'?r! y's equation and is a funct ioi) of producing inLerval height. Therefor(', 1 low through a propped fracture is also a function of' !)ropi)&&nt !&ank he) qht. . Prc)dieting the + ina! oeometry of the proppant bank is easer tiai...

  7. VERTICAL STRUCTURE OF A SUPERNOVA-DRIVEN TURBULENT, MAGNETIZED INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, Alex S.; Matthew Haffner, L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Ryan Joung, M. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY (United States); Benjamin, Robert A. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater, Whitewater, WI (United States); Klingenberg, Christian [Department of Mathematics, Wuerzburg University, Emil Fischer Strasse 30, Wuerzburg (Germany); Waagan, Knut, E-mail: alex.hill@csiro.au [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Stellar feedback drives the circulation of matter from the disk to the halo of galaxies. We perform three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a vertical column of the interstellar medium with initial conditions typical of the solar circle in which supernovae drive turbulence and determine the vertical stratification of the medium. The simulations were run using a stable, positivity-preserving scheme for ideal MHD implemented in the FLASH code. We find that the majority ( Almost-Equal-To 90%) of the mass is contained in thermally stable temperature regimes of cold molecular and atomic gas at T < 200 K or warm atomic and ionized gas at 5000 K < T < 10{sup 4.2} K, with strong peaks in probability distribution functions of temperature in both the cold and warm regimes. The 200-10{sup 4.2} K gas fills 50%-60% of the volume near the plane, with hotter gas associated with supernova remnants (30%-40%) and cold clouds (<10%) embedded within. At |z| {approx} 1-2 kpc, transition-temperature (10{sup 5} K) gas accounts for most of the mass and volume, while hot gas dominates at |z| > 3 kpc. The magnetic field in our models has no significant impact on the scale heights of gas in each temperature regime; the magnetic tension force is approximately equal to and opposite the magnetic pressure, so the addition of the field does not significantly affect the vertical support of the gas. The addition of a magnetic field does reduce the fraction of gas in the cold (<200 K) regime with a corresponding increase in the fraction of warm ({approx}10{sup 4} K) gas. However, our models lack rotational shear and thus have no large-scale dynamo, which reduces the role of the field in the models compared to reality. The supernovae drive oscillations in the vertical distribution of halo gas, with the period of the oscillations ranging from Almost-Equal-To 30 Myr in the T < 200 K gas to {approx}100 Myr in the 10{sup 6} K gas, in line with predictions by Walters and Cox.

  8. 3. Scaling principles and filtered models 3.1 Incompressibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .4) where and is the speed of sound. For an ideal gas, , so that in the case of . Sound speeds.7) The individual terms, such as , that make up are typically of order , so there must be near perfect cancellation density scale height of a constant- atmosphere) and is of the order of 10 km. As long as vertical

  9. Advanced Si solid phase crystallization for vertical channel in vertical NANDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Sangsoo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Inter-university Semiconductor Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Yong-Hoon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Inter-university Semiconductor Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Semiconductor R and D Center, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Hwasung 445-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Kihyun; Shin, Yoo Gyun [Semiconductor R and D Center, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Hwasung 445-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Euijoon, E-mail: eyoon@snu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Inter-university Semiconductor Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Energy Semiconductor Research Center, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The advanced solid phase crystallization (SPC) method using the SiGe/Si bi-layer structure is proposed to obtain high-mobility poly-Si thin-film transistors in next generation vertical NAND (VNAND) devices. During the SPC process, the top SiGe thin film acts as a selective nucleation layer to induce surface nucleation and equiaxial microstructure. Subsequently, this SiGe thin film microstructure is propagated to the underlying Si thin film by epitaxy-like growth. The initial nucleation at the SiGe surface was clearly observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) when heating up to 600?°C. The equiaxial microstructures of both SiGe nucleation and Si channel layers were shown in the crystallized bi-layer plan-view TEM measurements. Based on these experimental results, the large-grained and less-defective Si microstructure is expected to form near the channel region of each VNAND cell transistor, which may improve the electrical characteristics.

  10. Method of varying a characteristic of an optical vertical cavity structure formed by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hou, Hong Q. (Albuquerque, NM); Coltrin, Michael E. (Albuquerque, NM); Choquette, Kent D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for forming an array of vertical cavity optical resonant structures wherein the structures in the array have different detection or emission wavelengths. The process uses selective area growth (SAG) in conjunction with annular masks of differing dimensions to control the thickness and chemical composition of the materials in the optical cavities in conjunction with a metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) process to build these arrays.

  11. Vertical vibration and shape oscillation of acoustically levitated water drops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Yan, N.; Wei, B., E-mail: bbwei@nwpu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China)

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the vertical harmonic vibration of levitated water drops within ultrasound field. The restoring force to maintain such a vibration mode is provided by the resultant force of acoustic radiation force and drop gravity. Experiments reveal that the vibration frequency increases with the aspect ratio for drops with the same volume, which agrees with the theoretical prediction for those cases of nearly equiaxed drops. During the vertical vibration, the floating drops undergo the second order shape oscillation. The shape oscillation frequency is determined to be twice the vibration frequency.

  12. Scale evolution of double parton correlations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomas Kasemets

    2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the effect of scale evolution on a number of different correlations in double parton scattering (DPS). The strength of the correlations generally decreases with the scale but at a rate which greatly varies between different types. Through studies of the evolution, an understanding of which correlations can be of experimental relevance in different processes and kinematical regions is obtained.

  13. Investigating multi-polarization GPR wave transmission through thin layers: Implications for vertical fracture characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsoflias, Georgios P.; Hoch, Anthony

    2006-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    . Therefore, we constructed the model consisting of layers of air, allowing maximum control of antenna positioning, and polycarbonate, a medium nearly transparent to radar waves (relative permit- tivity er = 3, electrical conductivity s = 1mS/m). The vertical... thin layer was simulated by the space between two 1.22 #1; 2.44 m (4 #1; 8 foot), 12.7 mm (0.5 inch) thick sheets of polycarbonate. The space between the polycarbonate sheets was set to 1.6 mm (1/16 inch) and 4.8 mm (3/16 inch) to simulate different...

  14. SOLVING VERTICAL TRANSPORT AND CHEMISTRY IN AIR POLLUTION MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botchev, Mike

    SOLVING VERTICAL TRANSPORT AND CHEMISTRY IN AIR POLLUTION MODELS P.J.F. BERKVENS #3; , M.A. BOTCHEV; transport-chemistry problems from air pollution modelling, standard ODE solvers are not feasible due causing large errors for such species. In the framework of an operational global air pollution model, we

  15. Cryogenic infrastructure for Fermilab's ILC vertical cavity test facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carcagno, R.; Ginsburg, C.; Huang, Y.; Norris, B.; Ozelis, J.; Peterson, T.; Poloubotko, V.; Rabehl, R.; Sylvester, C.; Wong, M.; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fermilab is building a Vertical Cavity Test Facility (VCTF) to provide for R&D and pre-production testing of bare 9-cell, 1.3-GHz superconducting RF (SRF) cavities for the International Linear Collider (ILC) program. This facility is located in the existing Industrial Building 1 (IB1) where the Magnet Test Facility (MTF) also resides. Helium and nitrogen cryogenics are shared between the VCTF and MTF including the existing 1500-W at 4.5-K helium refrigerator with vacuum pumping for super-fluid operation (125-W capacity at 2-K). The VCTF is being constructed in multiple phases. The first phase is scheduled for completion in mid 2007, and includes modifications to the IB1 cryogenic infrastructure to allow helium cooling to be directed to either the VCTF or MTF as scheduling demands require. At this stage, the VCTF consists of one Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostat for the testing of one cavity in a 2-K helium bath. Planning is underway to provide a total of three Vertical Test Stands at VCTF, each capable of accommodating two cavities. Cryogenic infrastructure improvements necessary to support these additional VCTF test stands include a dedicated ambient temperature vacuum pump, a new helium purification skid, and the addition of helium gas storage. This paper describes the system design and initial cryogenic operation results for the first VCTF phase, and outlines future cryogenic infrastructure upgrade plans for expanding to three Vertical Test Stands.

  16. Cloud vertical distribution from radiosonde, remote sensing, and model simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhanqing

    Cloud vertical distribution from radiosonde, remote sensing, and model simulations Jinqiang Zhang's radiation budget and atmospheric adiabatic heating. Yet it is among the most difficult quantities to observe Great Plains and along with ground- based and space-borne remote sensing products, use it to evaluate

  17. High Gain, High Efficiency Vertical-Cavity Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowers, John

    -cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers (VCSOAs) are interesting devices for applications such as wavelength selective coupling efficiency to optical fiber (yielding a low noise figure), small form factor, and the potential of fabricating high-density 2D arrays on wafer. Furthermore, the vertical-cavity design is compatible with low

  18. Laboratory measurements of the vertical structure of rip currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirby, James T.

    ; Lippmann and Holman, 1990; Short and Brander, 1999]. [3] Rip currents generally are created by longshore with incoming short waves, interacting wave trains, and wave-current interaction models. The structuralLaboratory measurements of the vertical structure of rip currents Kevin A. Haas and Ib A. Svendsen

  19. MODELLING THE ONSET OF DYNAMIC Importance of the Vertical Dimension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Tom Henning

    ­block models of an elastic slider under dry friction. I apply Amontons­Coulomb friction at the block levelMODELLING THE ONSET OF DYNAMIC FRICTION Importance of the Vertical Dimension by JØRGEN TRØMBORG of the onset of dynamic friction. Optical methods give access to the sliding interface before and during

  20. High efficiency excitation of plasmonic waveguides with vertically integrated resonant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Xianfan

    High efficiency excitation of plasmonic waveguides with vertically integrated resonant bowtie approach employs a bowtie aperture to provide both field confinement and high transmission efficiency. More than six times the power incident on the open area of the bowtie aperture can be coupled

  1. Cooling Requirements for the Vertical Shear Instability in Protoplanetary Disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Min-Kai

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is difficult to understand how cold circumstellar disks accrete onto their central stars. A hydrodynamic mechanism, the vertical shear instability (VSI), offers a means to drive angular momentum transport in cold accretion disks such as protoplanetary disks (PPDs). The VSI is driven by a weak vertical gradient in the disk's orbital motion. In order to grow, the VSI must overcome vertical buoyancy, a strongly stabilizing influence in cold disks, where heating is dominated by external irradiation. Rapid cooling, via radiative losses, reduces the effective buoyancy and allows the VSI to operate. In this paper, we quantify the cooling timescale, $t_c$, needed for growth of the VSI. We perform a linear analysis of the VSI with cooling in vertically global and radially local disk models. For irradiated disks, we find that the VSI is most vigorous for rapid cooling with $t_c < \\Omega_\\mathrm{K}^{-1} h |q| / (\\gamma -1)$ in terms of the Keplerian orbital frequency, $\\Omega_\\mathrm{K}$, the disk's aspect ratio, ...

  2. TOWARDS VERTICAL VELOCITY AND HYDROMETEOR CLASSIFICATION FROM ARM WIND PROFILERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The publisher by accepting the manuscriptTOWARDS VERTICAL VELOCITY AND HYDROMETEOR CLASSIFICATION FROM ARM WIND PROFILERS Scott Giangrande Department/Atmospheric Sciences Division Brookhaven National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy Office

  3. Control of biologically active degradation zones by vertical heterogeneity: Applications in fractured media. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colwell, F.S.; Smith, R.W.; McKinley, J.; Fredrickson, J.; Onstott, T.C.; Reysenbach, A.L.

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    'The objective of this research is to determine the relationship between of biologically active contaminant degradation zones in a fractured, subsurface medium and vertical geological heterogeneities. The research is being performed on samples collected from the Test Area North (TAN) site at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) where a dissolved trichloroethylene (TCE) plume is migrating in the basalts and interbed sediments of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer. Research results are leading to an enhanced understanding of the constraints that the geochemical and hydrological environment place on the activities and distribution of TCE-degrading organisms in this fractured subsurface medium. Enhanced understanding allows better decisions to be made regarding the use of remedial technologies such as natural attenuation and in situ bioremediation at geologically complex waste sites. Through this research, investigations conducted by the Subsurface Science Program (SSP) at TAN are being extended in order to develop a mechanistic understanding of the coupled geomicrobial and hydrogeochemical processes that are necessary to predict the field-scale intrinsic degradation rates of TCE. The research objective is being accomplished by characterizing paired cores and water samples from boreholes located in differing geochemical and flow environments within the plume. Analysis of these samples will allow the determination of the spatial correlation and microbial characterization. The results presented in this report consist primarily of TAN-33 data as many of those analyses have been completed. Nearly all of the TAN-37 data has yet to be acquired. It should be noted that most of the cores were collected from zones that consist of relatively competent, massive basalt. This was because the authors were doubtful about the quality of samples obtained from rubble zones due to potential alteration by the drilling fluids. Thus, microbiological results on the core samples likely represent a conservative estimate of the types, activities and numbers of the microorganisms present in the borehole.'

  4. Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Huanlu; Wang, Xuyang; Ho, Daniel; Chen, Lifeng; Zhou, Xiaoqi; Zhu, Jiangbo; Yu, Siyuan; Cai, Xinlun

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Harnessing the Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) of light is an appealing approach to developing photonic technologies for future applications in optical communications and high- dimensional Quantum Key Distributions (QKD). An outstanding challenge to the widespread uptake of the OAM resource is its efficient generation. We design a new device which can directly emit an OAM-carrying light beam. By fabricating micro-scale Spiral Phase Plates (SPPs) within the aperture of a Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSELs), the linearly polarized Gaussian beam emitted by the VCSEL is converted into a beam carrying specific OAM modes and their superposition states with high efficiency and high beam quality. The innovative OAM emitter opens a new horizon in the field of OAM-based optical and quantum communications, especially for short reach data interconnects and Quantum Key Distribution (QKD).

  5. Acoustic emission analysis on tensile failure of steam-side oxide scales formed on T22 alloy superheater tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jun-Lin; Zhou, Ke-Yi, E-mail: boiler@seu.edu.cn; Xu, Jian-Qun [Key Laboratory of Energy Thermal Conversion and Control of Ministry of Education, School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Xin-Meng; Tu, Yi-You [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Failure of steam-side oxide scales on boiler tubes can seriously influence the safety of coal-fired power plants. Uniaxial tensile tests employing acoustic emission (AE) monitoring were performed, in this work, to investigate the failure behavior of steam-side oxide scales on T22 alloy boiler superheater tubes. The characteristic frequency spectra of the captured AE signals were obtained by performing fast Fourier transform. Three distinct peak frequency bands, 100-170, 175-250, and 280-390 kHz, encountered in different testing stages were identified in the frequency spectra, which were confirmed to, respectively, correspond to substrate plastic deformation, oxide vertical cracking, and oxide spalling with the aid of scanning electronic microscopy observations, and can thus be used for distinguishing different oxide failure mechanisms. Finally, the critical cracking strain of the oxide scale and the interfacial shear strength of the oxide/substrate interface were estimated, which are the critical parameters urgently desired for modeling the failure behavior of steam-side oxide scales on boiler tubes of coal-fired power plants.

  6. Mean-field theory for scale-free random networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albert-Laszlo Barabasi; Reka Albert; Hawoong Jeong

    1999-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Random networks with complex topology are common in Nature, describing systems as diverse as the world wide web or social and business networks. Recently, it has been demonstrated that most large networks for which topological information is available display scale-free features. Here we study the scaling properties of the recently introduced scale-free model, that can account for the observed power-law distribution of the connectivities. We develop a mean-field method to predict the growth dynamics of the individual vertices, and use this to calculate analytically the connectivity distribution and the scaling exponents. The mean-field method can be used to address the properties of two variants of the scale-free model, that do not display power-law scaling.

  7. Magnetic shielding for the Fermilab Vertical Cavity Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginsburg, Camille M.; Reid, Clark; Sergatskov, Dmitri A.; /Fermilab

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A superconducting RF cavity has to be shielded from magnetic fields present during cool down below the critical temperature to avoid freezing in the magnetic flux at localized impurities, thereby degrading the cavity intrinsic quality factor Q{sub 0}. The magnetic shielding designed for the Fermilab vertical cavity test facility (VCTF), a facility for CW RF vertical testing of bare ILC 1.3 GHz 9-cell SRF cavities, was recently completed. For the magnetic shielding design, we used two cylindrical layers: a room temperature 'outer' shield of Amumetal (80% Ni alloy), and a 2K 'inner' shield of Cryoperm 10. The magnetic and mechanical design of the magnetic shielding and measurement of the remanent magnetic field inside the shielding are described.

  8. Wave interaction with a fixed vertical flat plate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glover, Lanny Bruce

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Science in Ocean Engineering and graduated with merit in 1979. Commissioned an Ensign in the United States Navy he was selected for the Navy's Nuclear Power Program. After completing formal navy training he served onboard the USS TRUXTUN (CGN-35...) Andrew C. Vastano (Member) December )985 ABSTRACT wave Interaction with a Fixed Vertical Flat Plate. (December 1985) Lenny Bruce Glover, B. S. , United States Naval Academy Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. John B. Herbich The lift and drag...

  9. Vertical convection in neutrino-dominated accretion flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Tong; Kawanaka, Norita; Li, Ang

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the effects of the vertical convection on the structure and luminosity of the neutrino-dominated accretion flow (NDAF) around a stellar-mass black hole in spherical coordinates. We found that the convective energy transfer can suppress the radial advection in the NDAF, and that the density, temperature and opening angle are slightly changed. As a result, the neutrino luminosity and annihilation luminosity are increased, which is conducive to achieve the energy requirement of gamma-ray bursts.

  10. Vertical seismic profiling technique emerges as a valuable drilling tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, R.J.; Platt, J.D.

    1984-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The new downhole measurement technique known as vertical seismic profiling entails lowering a geophone down ahead of the bit to acquire data on the well pressure and to determine (in strata not yet drilled) the depth to formation tops, the compaction curves, and the hardness of the rock. The basic VSP provides data useful in surface seismic interpretation, formation evaluation, and onsite decision making for the drilling program.

  11. Electrically injected visible vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schneider, R.P.; Lott, J.A.

    1994-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Visible laser light output from an electrically injected vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VSCEL) diode is enabled by the addition of phase-matching spacer layers on either side of the active region to form the optical cavity. The spacer layers comprise InAlP which act as charge carrier confinement means. Distributed Bragg reflector layers are formed on either side of the optical cavity to act as mirrors. 5 figs.

  12. Method of fabricating vertically aligned group III-V nanowires

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, George T; Li, Qiming

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A top-down method of fabricating vertically aligned Group III-V micro- and nanowires uses a two-step etch process that adds a selective anisotropic wet etch after an initial plasma etch to remove the dry etch damage while enabling micro/nanowires with straight and smooth faceted sidewalls and controllable diameters independent of pitch. The method enables the fabrication of nanowire lasers, LEDs, and solar cells.

  13. Halanay type inequalities on time scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ad\\ivar, Murat

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper aims to introduce Halanay type inequalities on time scales. By means of these inequalities we derive new global stability conditions for nonlinear dynamic equations on time scales. Giving several examples we show that beside generalization and extension to q-difference case, our results also provide improvements for the existing theory regarding differential and difference inequalites, which are the most important particular cases of dynamic inequalities on time scales.

  14. Low profile, high load vertical rolling positioning stage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shu, Deming (Darien, IL); Barraza, Juan (Aurora, IL)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A stage or support platform assembly for use in a synchrotron accurately positions equipment to be used in the beam line of the synchrotron. The support platform assembly includes an outer housing in which is disposed a lifting mechanism having a lifting platform or stage at its upper extremity on which the equipment is mounted. A worm gear assembly is located in the housing and is adapted to raise and lower a lifting shaft that is fixed to the lifting platform by an anti-binding connection. The lifting platform is moved vertically as the lifting shaft is moved vertically. The anti-binding connection prevents the shaft from rotating with respect to the platform, but does permit slight canting of the shaft with respect to the lifting platform so as to eliminate binding and wear due to possible tolerance mismatches. In order to ensure that the lifting mechanism does not move in a horizontal direction as it is moved vertically, at least three linear roller bearing assemblies are arranged around the outer-periphery of the lifting mechanism. One of the linear roller bearing assemblies can be adjusted so that the roller bearings apply a loading force against the lifting mechanism. Alternatively, a cam mechanism can be used to provide such a loading force.

  15. Large-scale anisotropy in stably stratified rotating flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marino, Dr. Raffaele [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Mininni, Dr. Pablo D. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina; Rosenberg, Duane L [ORNL; Pouquet, Dr. Annick [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results from direct numerical simulations of the Boussinesq equations in the presence of rotation and/or stratification, both in the vertical direction. The runs are forced isotropically and randomly at small scales and have spatial resolutions of up to $1024^3$ grid points and Reynolds numbers of $\\approx 1000$. We first show that solutions with negative energy flux and inverse cascades develop in rotating turbulence, whether or not stratification is present. However, the purely stratified case is characterized instead by an early-time, highly anisotropic transfer to large scales with almost zero net isotropic energy flux. This is consistent with previous studies that observed the development of vertically sheared horizontal winds, although only at substantially later times. However, and unlike previous works, when sufficient scale separation is allowed between the forcing scale and the domain size, the total energy displays a perpendicular (horizontal) spectrum with power law behavior compatible with $\\sim k_\\perp^{-5/3}$, including in the absence of rotation. In this latter purely stratified case, such a spectrum is the result of a direct cascade of the energy contained in the large-scale horizontal wind, as is evidenced by a strong positive flux of energy in the parallel direction at all scales including the largest resolved scales.

  16. Potential impacts of vertical cable seismic: modeling, resolution and multiple attenuation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Ryan Justin

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Vertical cable seismic methods are becoming more relevant as we require high quality and high resolution seismic data in both land and marine environments. Our goal in this thesis is to demonstrate the impacts of vertical cable surveying...

  17. Coherence Optimization of Vertical Cavity Semiconductor Optical Michael Snchez*a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esener, Sadik C.

    Coherence Optimization of Vertical Cavity Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers Michael Sánchez Dept., University of California - San Diego ABSTRACT Vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers (VCSOAs) are attractive devices for use in coherent optical amplification, especially where 2-D amplifier

  18. Vertical Flow Dynamics in Kelp Forests: Implications for Nutrient Uptake, Condition and Survival

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Matthew S.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    change and ENSO impacts on kelp forests. As yet, we areVertical Flow Dynamics in Kelp Forests: Implications forof ocean waves on giant kelp fronds results in the vertical

  19. Electron Backscatter Diffraction of a Ge Growth Tip from a Vertical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a Ge Growth Tip from a Vertical Gradient Freeze Furnace. Electron Backscatter Diffraction of a Ge Growth Tip from a Vertical Gradient Freeze Furnace. Abstract: The growth-tip...

  20. Potential vertical movement of large heat-generating waste packages in salt.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clayton, Daniel James; Martinez, Mario J.; Hardin, Ernest L.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With renewed interest in disposal of heat-generating waste in bedded or domal salt formations, scoping analyses were conducted to estimate rates of waste package vertical movement. Vertical movement is found to result from thermal expansion, from upward creep or heave of the near-field salt, and from downward buoyant forces on the waste package. A two-pronged analysis approach was used, with thermal-mechanical creep modeling, and coupled thermal-viscous flow modeling. The thermal-mechanical approach used well-studied salt constitutive models, while the thermal-viscous approach represented the salt as a highly viscous fluid. The Sierra suite of coupled simulation codes was used for both approaches. The waste package in all simulations was a right-circular cylinder with the density of steel, in horizontal orientation. A time-decaying heat generation function was used to represent commercial spent fuel with typical burnup and 50-year age. Results from the thermal-mechanical base case showed approximately 27 cm initial uplift of the package, followed by gradual relaxation closely following the calculated temperature history. A similar displacement history was obtained with the package density set equal to that of salt. The slight difference in these runs is attributable to buoyant displacement (sinking) and is on the order of 1 mm in 2,000 years. Without heat generation the displacement stabilizes at a fraction of millimeter after a few hundred years. Results from thermal-viscous model were similar, except that the rate of sinking was constant after cooldown, at approximately 0.15 mm per 1,000 yr. In summary, all calculations showed vertical movement on the order of 1 mm or less in 2,000 yr, including calculations using well-established constitutive models for temperature-dependent salt deformation. Based on this finding, displacement of waste packages in a salt repository is not a significant repository performance issue.

  1. Vertical-axis wind turbines -- The current status of an old technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, D.E.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Vertical-axis wind turbine technology is not well understood, even though the earliest wind machines rotated about a vertical axis. The operating environment of a vertical-axis wind turbine is quite complex, but detailed analysis capabilities have been developed and verified over the last 30 years. Although vertical-axis technology has not been widely commercialized, it exhibits both advantages and disadvantages compared to horizontal-axis technology, and in some applications, it appears to offer significant advantages.

  2. Contornos Jurídicos e Matizes Econômicas dos Contratos de Integração Vertical Agroindustriais no Brasil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paiva, Nunziata Stefania Valenza

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dados contratuais coletados, tornou-se possível uma reconstrução sistemática dos contratos de integração vertical com base

  3. Multi-Fidelity Uncertainty Quantification: Application to a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Under an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso, Juan J.

    Multi-Fidelity Uncertainty Quantification: Application to a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Under, USA Designing better vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) requires considering the uncertain wind cost. Low-fidelity tools are used extensively in the modeling of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs)3

  4. A Low Order Model for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines Isaac M. Asher

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peraire, Jaime

    A Low Order Model for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines Isaac M. Asher , Mark Drela and Jaime Peraire and performance prediction of vertical axis wind turbines is presented. The model uses a 2D hybrid dynamic vortex perpendicular. z perpendicular to the plane (spanwise direction). I. Introduction Darrieus-type vertical axis

  5. THE VERTICAL PROFILE OF EMBEDDED TREES MIREILLE BOUSQUET-MLOU AND GUILLAUME CHAPUY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    THE VERTICAL PROFILE OF EMBEDDED TREES MIREILLE BOUSQUET-MÉLOU AND GUILLAUME CHAPUY Abstract, . . . , nr) is called the vertical profile of the tree. The vertical profile of a uniform random tree of size the integrated superbrownian excursion, which motivates our interest in the profile. We prove similar looking

  6. Experimental investigation of the performance of a diffuser-augmented vertical axis wind turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Experimental investigation of the performance of a diffuser- augmented vertical axis wind turbine Experimental investigation of the performance of a diffuser-augmented vertical axis wind turbine by Arash The performance of a vertical axis wind turbine with and without a diffuser was studied using direct force

  7. Lidar Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Boris B.; Sverdlik, Leonid G.; Imashev, Sanjar A.; Solomon, Paul A.; Lantz, Jeffrey; Schauer, James J.; Shafer, Martin M.; Artamonova, Maria S.; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM2.5and PM10mass and chemical composition in both size fractions. Dust transported into the region is common, being detected 33% of the time. The maximum frequency occurred in the spring of 2009. Dust transported to Central Asia comes from regional sources, for example, Taklimakan desert and Aral Sea basin, and from long-range transport, for example, deserts of Arabia, Northeast Africa, Iran, and Pakistan. Regional sources are characterized by pollutionmore »transport with maximum values of coarse particles within the planetary boundary layer, aerosol optical thickness, extinction coefficient, integral coefficient of aerosol backscatter, and minimum values of the Ångström exponent. Pollution associated with air masses transported over long distances has different characteristics during autumn, winter, and spring. During winter, dust emissions were low resulting in high values of the Ångström exponent (about 0.51) and the fine particle mass fraction (64%). Dust storms were more frequent during spring with an increase in coarse dust particles in comparison to winter. The aerosol vertical profiles can be used to lower uncertainty in estimating radiative forcing.« less

  8. Pilot Scale Advanced Fogging Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demmer, Rick L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fox, Don T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Archiblad, Kip E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments in 2006 developed a useful fog solution using three different chemical constituents. Optimization of the fog recipe and use of commercially available equipment were identified as needs that had not been addressed. During 2012 development work it was noted that low concentrations of the components hampered coverage and drying in the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory’s testing much more so than was evident in the 2006 tests. In fiscal year 2014 the Idaho National Laboratory undertook a systematic optimization of the fogging formulation and conducted a non-radioactive, pilot scale demonstration using commercially available fogging equipment. While not as sophisticated as the equipment used in earlier testing, the new approach is much less expensive and readily available for smaller scale operations. Pilot scale testing was important to validate new equipment of an appropriate scale, optimize the chemistry of the fogging solution, and to realize the conceptual approach.

  9. Functionality Tuning in Vertically Aligned Nanocomposite Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Aiping

    2013-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Aligned Nanocolumnar TC Curie Temperature TEM Transmission Electron Microscopy TMI Metal-Insulator Transition Temperature TMR Tunnel Magnetoresistance PLD Pulsed Laser Deposition PLOAD Pulsed Laser Oblique-Angle Deposition VAN Vertically Aligned... structure. ................ 5 FIG. 1.2. (a) Electronic phase diagram of La1-xSrxMnO3 (Reproduced from Ref. 14). (b) TC versus tolerance factor t from equation (1-1) for the system A0.7A?0.3MnO3 (Reproduced from Ref. 15). 14, 15...

  10. VERTICAL RELAXATION OF A MOONLET PROPELLER IN SATURN'S A RING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffmann, H.; Seiss, M.; Spahn, F. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Golm (Germany)

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two images, taken by the Cassini spacecraft near Saturn's equinox in 2009 August, show the Earhart propeller casting a 350 km long shadow, offering the opportunity to watch how the ring height, excited by the propeller moonlet, relaxes to an equilibrium state. From the shape of the shadow cast and a model of the azimuthal propeller height relaxation, we determine the exponential cooling constant of this process to be {lambda} = 0.07 {+-} 0.02 km{sup -1}, and thereby determine the collision frequency of the ring particles in the vertically excited region of the propeller to be {omega}{sub c}/{Omega} = 0.9 {+-} 0.2.

  11. Performance of petroleum reservoirs containing random vertical fractures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huskey, William Lyman

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    'so 1 I I o ios 'I \\ I I I I oo I I \\ I I I DISTRIRIJTION OF POTENTIAL IN A VERTICALLY FRACTURED RESE'RVOIR FRACTURE LENGTH 7% OF MODEL RADIUS. FRACTURE DENSI ( Y I. 6 FIGURE 4 14 '" ELK cP o i o o ~o o o~o x ( 'I oh'' I I I... of absence for the purpose of pursuing additional education. REFERENCES Russell, William L. : Structural Geolo for Petroleum Geolo ists, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. , New York, N. Y. , 1955, p. 163. 2, Elkins, Lincoln F. and Skov, Arlie M. : "Deter...

  12. ARM - Evaluation Product - Cloud and Vertical Velocity Statistics from the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006Datastreamstwrcam40m Documentation DataDatastreamsxsaprhsrhi1-min (NAVBE1M)Doppler Lidar and Vertical

  13. Vertical Velocities in Continental Boundary Layer Stratocumulus Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps1 - USAFof EnergyVendorwinsVenue andVertical

  14. Electromagnetic confinement for vertical casting or containing molten metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method adapted to confine a molten metal to a region by means of an alternating electromagnetic field. As adapted for use in the present invention, the alternating electromagnetic field given by B.sub.y =(2.mu..sub.o .rho.gy).sup.1/2 (where B.sub.y is the vertical component of the magnetic field generated by the magnet at the boundary of the region; y is the distance measured downward form the top of the region, .rho. is the metal density, g is the acceleration of gravity and .mu..sub.o is the permeability of free space) induces eddy currents in the molten metal which interact with the magnetic field to retain the molten metal with a vertical boudnary. As applied to an apparatus for the continuous casting of metal sheets or rods, metal in liquid form can be continuously introduced into the region defined by the magnetic field, solidified and conveyed away from the magnetic field in solid form in a continuous process.

  15. Control system for a vertical-axis windmill

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brulle, R.V.

    1981-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A vertical-axis windmill having a rotating structure is provided with a series of articulated vertical blades whose positions are controlled to maintain a constant RPM for the rotating structure, when wind speed is sufficient. A microprocessor controller is used to process information on wind speed, wind direction and RPM of the rotating structure to develop an electrical signal for establishing blade position. The preferred embodiment of the invention, when connected to a utility grid, is designed to generate 40 kilowatts of power when exposed to a 20 mile per hour wind. The control system for the windmill includes electrical blade actuators that modulate the blades of the rotating structure. Blade modulation controls the blade angle of attack, which in turn controls the RPM of the rotor. In the preferred embodiment, the microprocessor controller provides the operation logic and control functions. A wind speed sensor provides inputs to start or stop the windmill, and a wind direction sensor is used to keep the blade flip region at 90 and 270/sup 0/ to the wind. The control system is designed to maintain constant rotor RPM when wind speed is between 10 and 40 miles per hour.

  16. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  17. Validation of the Electrical Properties of the ITER ICRF Antenna using Reduced-Scale Mock-Ups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dumortier, Pierre; Durodie, Frederic; Grine, Djamel; Kyrytsya, Volodymyr; Louche, Fabrice; Messiaen, Andre; Vervier, Michel; Vrancken, Mark [LPP-ERM/KMS, EURATOM-Belgian State Association, CYCLE, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental measurements on reduced-scale mock-ups allow validating the electrical properties and RF numerical optimization of the ITER ICRF antenna. Frequency response in the different regions of the antenna is described and key parameters for performance improvement are given. Coupling is improved by acting on the front-face geometry (strap width, antenna box depth and vertical septa recess). The 4-port junction acts as a frequency filter and together with the service stub performs pre-matching in the whole frequency band. Influence of the Faraday screen on coupling is limited. The effect of voltage limitation on the maximum total radiated power is given. The importance of a good decoupling network and of grounding is emphasized. Finally the control of the antenna wave spectrum is performed by implementing feedback controlled load-resilient matching and decoupling options and control algorithms are tested.

  18. Vertically aligned crystalline silicon nanowires with controlled diameters for energy conversion applications: Experimental and theoretical insights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Razek, Sara Abdel; Swillam, Mohamed A.; Allam, Nageh K., E-mail: nageh.allam@aucegypt.edu [Department of Physics, School of Sciences and Engineering, The American University in Cairo, New Cairo 11835 (Egypt)

    2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Vertically orientated single crystalline silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays with controlled diameters are fabricated via a metal-assisted chemical etching method. The diameter of the fabricated nanowires is controlled by simply varying the etching time in HF/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} electrolytes. The fabricated SiNWs have diameters ranging from 117 to 650?nm and lengths from 8 to 18??m. The optical measurements showed a significant difference in the reflectance/absorption of the SiNWs with different diameters, where the reflectance increases with increasing the diameter of the SiNWs. The SiNWs showed significant photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra with peaks lying between 380 and 670?nm. The PL intensity increases as the diameter increases and shows red shift for peaks at ?670?nm. The increase or decrease of reflectivity is coincident with PL intensity at wavelength ?660?nm. The x-ray diffraction patterns confirm the high crystallinity of the fabricated SiNWs. In addition, the Raman spectra showed a shift in the first order transverse band toward lower frequencies compared to that usually seen for c-Si. Finite difference time domain simulations have been performed to confirm the effect of change of diameter on the optical properties of the nanowires. The simulation results showed good agreement with the experimental results for the SiNWs of different diameters.

  19. Scaling the Web Scaling Web Sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menascé, Daniel A.

    Scaling the Web Scaling Web Sites Through Caching A large jump in a Web site's traffic may indi, pushing the site's through- put to its maximum point. When a Web site becomes overloaded, cus- tomers grow-generated revenue and may even tarnish the reputation of organizations relying on Web sites to support mission

  20. Parity-violating vertices for spin-3 gauge fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boulanger, Nicolas; Leclercq, Serge; Cnockaert, Sandrine [Universite de Mons-Hainaut, Academie Wallonie-Bruxelles, Mecanique et Gravitation, Avenue du Champ de Mars 6, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, U.L.B. Campus Plaine, C.P. 231, B-1050, Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of constructing consistent parity-violating interactions for spin-3 gauge fields is considered in Minkowski space. Under the assumptions of locality, Poincare invariance, and parity noninvariance, we classify all the nontrivial perturbative deformations of the Abelian gauge algebra. In space-time dimensions n=3 and n=5, deformations of the free theory are obtained which make the gauge algebra non-Abelian and give rise to nontrivial cubic vertices in the Lagrangian, at first order in the deformation parameter g. At second order in g, consistency conditions are obtained which the five-dimensional vertex obeys, but which rule out the n=3 candidate. Moreover, in the five-dimensional first-order deformation case, the gauge transformations are modified by a new term which involves the second de Wit-Freedman connection in a simple and suggestive way.

  1. Semicoke production and quality at Chinese vertical SJ furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.M. Strakhov; I.V. Surovtseva; A.V. D'yachenko; V.M. Men'shenin [Kuznetsk Center, Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In Russia there has been little interest on the thermal processing of non-sintering coal. However it may be used to obtain many special types of coke and semicoke that are necessary for processes other than blast furnace smelting and employing small metallurgical coke fractions that do not meet the relevant quality requirements. China has recently made great progress in developing the thermal processing of coal (mainly energy coal) to obtain a highly effective product, semicoke, primarily used in metallurgy and adsorption process. The article considers the operation of a Chinese semicoking plant equipped with vertical SJ furnaces. The plant is in the Shenmu district of Shanxi province (Inner Mongolia). The enterprise includes two furnaces of total output of about 100,000 t/yr of semicoke.

  2. 3-D laser patterning process utilizing horizontal and vertical patterning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malba, Vincent (Livermore, CA); Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process which vastly improves the 3-D patterning capability of laser pantography (computer controlled laser direct-write patterning). The process uses commercially available electrodeposited photoresist (EDPR) to pattern 3-D surfaces. The EDPR covers the surface of a metal layer conformally, coating the vertical as well as horizontal surfaces. A laser pantograph then patterns the EDPR, which is subsequently developed in a standard, commercially available developer, leaving patterned trench areas in the EDPR. The metal layer thereunder is now exposed in the trench areas and masked in others, and thereafter can be etched to form the desired pattern (subtractive process), or can be plated with metal (additive process), followed by a resist stripping, and removal of the remaining field metal (additive process). This improved laser pantograph process is simpler, faster, move manufacturable, and requires no micro-machining.

  3. Test reports for K Basins vertical fuel handling tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meling, T.A.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The vertical fuel handling tools, for moving N Reactor fuel elements, were tested in the 305 Building Cold Test Facility (CTF) in the 300 Area. After fabrication was complete, the tools were functionally tested in the CTF using simulated N Reactor fuel rods (inner and outer elements). The tools were successful in picking up the simulated N Reactor fuel rods. These tools were also load tested using a 62 pound dummy to test the structural integrity of each assembly. The tools passed each of these tests, based on the performance objectives. Finally, the tools were subjected to an operations acceptance test where K Basins Operations personnel operated the tool to determine its durability and usefulness. Operations personnel were satisfied with the tools. Identified open items included the absence of a float during testing, and documentation required prior to actual use of the tools in the 100 K fuel storage basin.

  4. Non-linear numerical simulations of magneto-acoustic wave propagation in small-scale flux tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Khomenko; M. Collados; T. Felipe

    2008-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results of non-linear, 2D, numerical simulations of magneto-acoustic wave propagation in the photosphere and chromosphere of small-scale flux tubes with internal structure. Waves with realistic periods of three to five minutes are studied, after applying horizontal and vertical oscillatory perturbations to the equilibrium model. Spurious reflections of shock waves from the upper boundary are minimized thanks to a special boundary condition. This has allowed us to increase the duration of the simulations and to make it long enough to perform a statistical analysis of oscillations. The simulations show that deep horizontal motions of the flux tube generate a slow (magnetic) mode and a surface mode. These modes are efficiently transformed into a slow (acoustic) mode in the vA propagates vertically along the field lines, forms shocks and remains always within the flux tube. It might deposit effectively the energy of the driver into the chromosphere. When the driver oscillates with a high frequency, above the cut-off, non-linear wave propagation occurs with the same dominant driver period at all heights. At low frequencies, below the cut-off, the dominant period of oscillations changes with height from that of the driver in the photosphere to its first harmonic (half period) in the chromosphere. Depending on the period and on the type of the driver, different shock patterns are observed.

  5. Integration of photoactive and electroactive components with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryan, R.P.; Esherick, P.; Jewell, J.L.; Lear, K.L.; Olbright, G.R.

    1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolithically integrated optoelectronic device is provided which integrates a vertical cavity surface emitting laser and either a photosensitive or an electrosensitive device either as input or output to the vertical cavity surface emitting laser either in parallel or series connection. Both vertical and side-by-side arrangements are disclosed, and optical and electronic feedback means are provided. Arrays of these devices can be configured to enable optical computing and neural network applications. 9 figs.

  6. Integration of photoactive and electroactive components with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryan, Robert P. (12700 Indian School Rd. NE., Apt. 604, Albuquerque, NM 87112); Esherick, Peter (1105 Sagebrush Trail SE., Albuquerque, NM 87123); Jewell, Jack L. (12 Timberline Dr., Bridgewater, NJ 08807); Lear, Kevin L. (13713 Vic Rd. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112); Olbright, Gregory R. (3875 Orange Ct., Boulder, CO 80304)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolithically integrated optoelectronic device is provided which integrates a vertical cavity surface emitting laser and either a photosensitive or an electrosensitive device either as input or output to the vertical cavity surface emitting laser either in parallel or series connection. Both vertical and side-by-side arrangements are disclosed, and optical and electronic feedback means are provided. Arrays of these devices can be configured to enable optical computing and neural network applications.

  7. ORIGIN OF MACROSPICULE AND JET IN POLAR CORONA BY A SMALL-SCALE KINKED FLUX TUBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kayshap, P.; Srivastava, Abhishek K. [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), Manora Peak, Nainital 263129 (India); Murawski, K. [Group of Astrophysics, UMCS, ul. Radziszewskiego 10, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Tripathi, Durgesh, E-mail: pradeep.kashyap@aries.res.in, E-mail: aks@aries.res.in, E-mail: kmur@kft.umcs.lublin.pl, E-mail: durgesh@iucaa.ernet.in [Inter-University Centre for Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)

    2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We report an observation of a small-scale flux tube that undergoes kinking and triggers the macrospicule and a jet on 2010 November 11 in the north polar corona. The small-scale flux tube emerged well before the triggering of the macrospicule and as time progresses the two opposite halves of this omega-shaped flux tube bent transversely and approach each other. After {approx}2 minutes, the two approaching halves of the kinked flux tube touch each other and an internal reconnection as well as an energy release takes place at the adjoining location and a macrospicule was launched which goes up to a height of 12 Mm. Plasma begins to move horizontally as well as vertically upward along with the onset of the macrospicule and thereafter converts into a large-scale jet in which the core denser plasma reaches up to {approx}40 Mm in the solar atmosphere with a projected speed of {approx}95 km s{sup -1}. The fainter and decelerating plasma chunks of this jet were also seen up to {approx}60 Mm. We perform a two-dimensional numerical simulation by considering the VAL-C initial atmospheric conditions to understand the physical scenario of the observed macrospicule and associated jet. The simulation results show that reconnection-generated velocity pulse in the lower solar atmosphere steepens into slow shock and the cool plasma is driven behind it in the form of macrospicule. The horizontal surface waves also appeared with shock fronts at different heights, which most likely drove and spread the large-scale jet associated with the macrospicule.

  8. anti-rolling active vertical: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gin, and whether the surface evolves in time along Blewitt, Geoffrey 128 Fast Vertical Mining Using Diffsets Mohammed J. Zaki Physics Websites Summary: Introduction Mining...

  9. Aligned vertical fractures, HTI reservoir symmetry, and Thomsen seismic anisotropy parameters for polar media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berryman, James G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    waves in such fractured reservoirs (Hsu and Schoenberg,i.e. , for cracked/fractured reservoirs), the vertical phasemore closely. FRACTURED RESERVOIRS AND CRACK-INFLUENCE

  10. Sandia Energy - Sandia and Partners Complete Phase I of a Vertical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Partners Complete Phase I of a Vertical-Axis Deep-Water Offshore Turbine Study Home Renewable Energy Energy News Wind Energy News & Events Computational Modeling & Simulation...

  11. GFE Signature GFE signature is a multi-scale description of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhandarkar, Suchendra "Suchi" M.

    problem in computer graphics. Widely studied methods for this family of problems include the Gromov for corresponding points. Methodology The proposed method seeks to establish correspondence between surface features-invariant valuation of surface vertices, but this valuation must be generalized to achieve scale and rotation

  12. Impact of photonic crystals on LED light extraction efficiency: approaches and limits to vertical structure designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matioli, Elison; Weisbuch, Claude

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The enhancement of the extraction efficiency in light emitting diodes (LEDs) through the use of photonic crystals (PhCs) requires a structure design that optimizes the interaction of the guided modes with the PhCs. The main optimization parameters are related to the vertical structure of the LED, such as the thickness of layers, depth of the PhCs, position of the quantum wells as well as the PhC period and fill factor. We review the impact of the vertical design of different approaches of PhC LEDs through a theoretical and experimental standpoint, assessing quantitatively the competing mechanisms that act over each guided mode. Three approaches are described to overcome the main limitation of LEDs with surface PhCs, i.e. the insufficient interaction of low order guided modes with the PhCs. The introduction of an AlGaN confining layer in such structure is shown to be effective in extracting a fraction of the optical energy of low order modes; however, this approach is limited by the growth of the lattice mismatched AlGaN layer on GaN. The second approach, based on thin-film LEDs with PhCs, is limited by the presence of an absorbing reflective metal layer close to the guided modes that plays a major role in the competition between PhC extraction and metal dissipation. Finally, we demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically the superior extraction of the guided light in embedded PhC LEDs due to the higher interaction between all optical modes and the PhCs, which resulted in a close to unity extraction efficiency for this device. The use of high-resolution angle-resolved measurements to experimentally determine the PhC extraction parameters was an essential tool for corroborating the theoretical models and quantifying the competing absorption and extraction mechanisms in LEDs.

  13. Magnetic material in mean-field dynamos driven by small scale helical flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giesecke, Andre; Gerbeth, Gunter

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform kinematic simulations of dynamo action driven by a helical small scale flow of a conducting fluid in order to deduce mean-field properties of the combined induction action of small scale eddies. We examine two different flow patterns in the style of the G.O. Roberts flow but with a mean vertical component and with internal fixtures that are modelled by regions with vanishing flow. These fixtures represent either rods that lie in the center of individual eddies, or internal dividing walls that provide a separation of the eddies from each other. The fixtures can be made of magnetic material with a relative permeability larger than one which can alter the dynamo behavior. The investigations are motivated by the widely unknown induction effects of the forced helical flow that is used in the core of liquid sodium cooled fast reactors, and from the key role of soft iron impellers in the von-K\\'arm\\'an-Sodium (VKS) dynamo. For both examined flow configurations the consideration of magnetic material within...

  14. Robot calibration without scaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ives, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methods. Scaling is a common way of improving the condition number for a matrix. Researchers in other fields have developed specific methods of scaling matrices to improve the condition number. However, robotics researchers have not specifically addressed...

  15. Order-of-magnitude enhancement of wind farm power density via counter-rotating vertical-axis wind turbine arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabiri, John O

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern wind farms require significant land resources to separate each wind turbine from the adjacent turbine wakes. These aerodynamic constraints limit the amount of power that can be extracted from a given wind farm footprint. We conducted full-scale field tests of vertical-axis wind turbines in counter-rotating configurations under natural wind conditions. Whereas wind farms consisting of propeller-style turbines produce 2 to 3 watts of power per square meter of land area, these field tests indicate that power densities approaching 100 W m^-2 can be achieved by arranging vertical-axis wind turbines in layouts that enable them to extract energy from adjacent wakes. In addition, we calculated that the global wind resource available to 10-m tall turbines based on the present approach is approximately 225 trillion watts (TW), which significantly exceeds the global wind resource available to 80-m tall, propeller-style wind turbines, approximately 75 TW. This improvement is due to the closer spacing that can be a...

  16. Integrated Lithium-Ion Battery Model Encompassing Multi-Physics in Varied Scales: An Integrated Computer Simulation Tool for Design and Development of EDV Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Lee, K. J.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Pesaran, A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation discusses the physics of lithium-ion battery systems in different length scales, from atomic scale to system scale.

  17. Assessment of CCFL model of RELAP5/MOD3 against simple vertical tubes and rod bundle tests. International Agreement Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, S.; Arne, N. [Korea Electric Power Corp., Taejon (KR). Research Center; Chung, B.D.; Kim, H.J. [Korea Inst. of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (KR)

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The CCFL model used in RELAP5/MOD3 version 5m5 has been assessed against simple vertical tubes and bundle tests performed at a facility of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The effect of changes in tube diameter and nodalization of tube section were investigated. The roles of interfacial drags on the flooding characteristics are discussed. Differences between the calculation and the experiment are also discussed. A comparison between model assessment results and the test data showed that the calculated value lay well on the experimental flooding curve specified by user, but the pressure jump before onset of flooding was not calculated.

  18. Global Well-posedness of the 3D Primitive Equations With Partial Vertical Turbulence Mixing Heat Diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Chongsheng

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The three--dimensional incompressible viscous Boussinesq equations, under the assumption of hydrostatic balance, govern the large scale dynamics of atmospheric and oceanic motion, and are commonly called the primitive equations. To overcome the turbulence mixing a partial vertical diffusion is usually added to the temperature advection (or density stratification) equation. In this paper we prove the global regularity of strong solutions to this model in a three-dimensional infinite horizontal channel, subject to periodic boundary conditions in the horizontal directions, and with no-penetration and stress-free boundary conditions on the solid, top and bottom, boundaries. Specifically, we show that short time strong solutions to the above problem exist globally in time, and that they depend continuously on the initial data.

  19. CLIMATOLOGY OF VERTICAL AIR MOTION DURING RAINFALL IN NIAMEY, NIGER AND BLACK FOREST, GERMANY USING AN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CLIMATOLOGY OF VERTICAL AIR MOTION DURING RAINFALL IN NIAMEY, NIGER AND BLACK FOREST, GERMANY USING in Niamey, Niger and eight months in Germany's Black Forest. The AMF includes a vertically pointing 95 GHz of the orographically influenced precipitation in Germany's mountains. __________ NOTICE: This manuscript has been

  20. Vertical Structure of Tropical Cyclone Rainbands as Seen by the TRMM Precipitation Radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houze Jr., Robert A.

    Vertical Structure of Tropical Cyclone Rainbands as Seen by the TRMM Precipitation Radar DEANNA A Measurement Mission satellite's Precipitation Radar (TRMM PR) show the vertical structure of tropical cyclone separated by the melting layer. The ice layer is a combination of particles imported from the eyewall

  1. Vertical Structure of Tropical Cyclone Rainbands as seen by the TRMM Precipitation Radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houze Jr., Robert A.

    1 Vertical Structure of Tropical Cyclone Rainbands as seen by the TRMM Precipitation Radar Deanna A (TRMM PR) show the vertical structure of tropical cyclone rainbands. Radar-echo2 statistics show that rainbands have a two-layered structure, with distinct modes separated by the3 melting layer. The ice layer

  2. Vertical Structure of Tropical Cyclone Rainbands as seen by the TRMM Precipitation Radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houze Jr., Robert A.

    1 Vertical Structure of Tropical Cyclone Rainbands as seen by the TRMM Precipitation Radar Deanna A's Precipitation Radar (TRMM PR) show the vertical structure of tropical cyclone rainbands. Radar-echo statistics show that rainbands have a two-layered structure, with distinct modes separated by the melting layer

  3. Integration of a waveguide self-electrooptic effect device and a vertically coupled interconnect waveguide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vawter, G. Allen (Corrales, NM)

    2008-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-electrooptic effect device ("SEED") is integrated with waveguide interconnects through the use of vertical directional couplers. Light initially propagating in the interconnect waveguide is vertically coupled to the active waveguide layer of the SEED and, if the SEED is in the transparent state, the light is coupled back to the interconnect waveguide.

  4. "Enhanced Field Emission from Vertically Oriented Graphene by Thin Solid Film Coatings"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Leah B.

    "Enhanced Field Emission from Vertically Oriented Graphene by Thin Solid Film Coatings" MICHAEL films such as nanotubes, nanohorns, and graphene due to their favorable field emission properties, we have developed field emission arrays of vertically oriented graphene (carbon nanosheets) that have

  5. How Does the Eye Warm? Part II: Sensitivity to Vertical Wind Shear and a Trajectory Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    How Does the Eye Warm? Part II: Sensitivity to Vertical Wind Shear and a Trajectory Analysis DANIEL of vertical wind shear on the structure of warming and descent in the eye; results are compared with the no environment, time-averaged eye descent is maximized at 12­13-km height. Warming is not generally maximized

  6. EVALUATION OF MODELS FOR THE VERTICAL EXTRAPOLATION OF WIND SPEED MEASUREMENTS AT OFFSHORE SITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    sites. The first large offshore wind farms are currently being built in several countries in Europe. For the planning of offshore wind farms the vertical wind speed profile is needed for two main reasons: WindEVALUATION OF MODELS FOR THE VERTICAL EXTRAPOLATION OF WIND SPEED MEASUREMENTS AT OFFSHORE SITES

  7. ABUNDANCE AND VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF FISHES IN A COBBLE-BOTTOM KELP FOREST OFF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ABUNDANCE AND VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF FISHES IN A COBBLE-BOTTOM KELP FOREST OFF SAN ONOFRE composition,vertical distribution,and standingstockoffishes ina forest of giant kelp and a nearby kelp substrates, were rare or absent in these low-relief, cobble- bottom habitats. The species present in the kelp

  8. The Accuracy of Radar Estimates of Ice Terminal Fall Speed from Vertically Pointing Doppler Radar Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Protat, Alain

    The Accuracy of Radar Estimates of Ice Terminal Fall Speed from Vertically Pointing Doppler Radar and 2835 MHz) are used to characterize the terminal fall speed of hydrometeors and the vertical air motion air velocity in ice clouds is small on average, as is assumed in terminal fall speed retrieval methods

  9. Proton implanted singlemode holey vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choquette, Kent

    Proton implanted singlemode holey vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers P.O. Leisher, A.J. Danner of proton implant confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. The index confinement and selective loss (both fundamental and non-fundamental) operation [9]. Although proton implantation for current

  10. Characterizing hydraulic properties of filter material of a Vertical Flow1 Constructed Wetland2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Characterizing hydraulic properties of filter material of a Vertical Flow1 Constructed Wetland2 A Characterizing the hydraulic properties of filter material used in a vertical flow11 constructed wetland (VFCW of porous mineral material and13 organic matter that makes hydraulic characterization a difficult task. Here

  11. Bond Graph Model of a Vertical U-Tube Steam Condenser Coupled with a Heat Exchanger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    turbines, distillation industries using water as a solvent, etc. System-level modeling of steam condensersBond Graph Model of a Vertical U-Tube Steam Condenser Coupled with a Heat Exchanger K. Medjaher1+ A A simulation model for a vertical U-tube steam condenser in which the condensate is stored at the bottom well

  12. DIEL MOVEMENT AND VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF JUVENILE ANADROMOUS FISH IN TURBINE INTAKES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DIEL MOVEMENT AND VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF JUVENILE ANADROMOUS FISH IN TURBINE INTAKES BY CLIFFORD, WASH. 98102 ABSTRACT The behavior of fingerling salmonids was measured in turbine intakes of The Dalles in Kaplan turbines. At The Dalles Dam, diel movement and vertical distribution were sampled at both ends

  13. Response of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine to Time Varying Wind Conditions found within the Urban

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullis, Stephen

    Response of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine to Time Varying Wind Conditions found within the Urban, 2010 PP 389­401 389 ABSTRACT Experimental testing of a vertical axis wind turbine within the urban of the turbine. Temporal variation of the wind with respect to the direction and velocity fluctuations

  14. WIND-TUNNEL STUDY ON AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF SMALL VERTICAL-AXIS WIND TURBINES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    1 WIND-TUNNEL STUDY ON AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE OF SMALL VERTICAL-AXIS WIND TURBINES J. J. Miau*1 were carried out to study the aerodynamic performance of three vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs. On the other hand, the characteristics of unsteady flow around the helical wind turbine were studied with a hot

  15. The Role of Subsurface Flows in Solar Surface Convection: Modeling the Spectrum of Supergranular and Larger Scale Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lord, J W; Rast, M P; Rempel, M; Roudier, T

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We model the solar horizontal velocity power spectrum at scales larger than granulation using a two-component approximation to the mass continuity equation. The model takes four times the density scale height as the integral (driving) scale of the vertical motions at each depth. Scales larger than this decay with height from the deeper layers. Those smaller are assumed to follow a Kolomogorov turbulent cascade, with the total power in the vertical convective motions matching that required to transport the solar luminosity in a mixing length formulation. These model components are validated using large scale radiative hydrodynamic simulations. We reach two primary conclusions: 1. The model predicts significantly more power at low wavenumbers than is observed in the solar photospheric horizontal velocity spectrum. 2. Ionization plays a minor role in shaping the observed solar velocity spectrum by reducing convective amplitudes in the regions of partial helium ionization. The excess low wavenumber power is also ...

  16. Visible light emitting vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryan, R.P.; Olbright, G.R.; Lott, J.A.; Schneider, R.P. Jr.

    1995-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A vertical cavity surface emitting laser that emits visible radiation is built upon a substrate, then having mirrors, the first mirror on top of the substrate; both sets of mirrors being a distributed Bragg reflector of either dielectrics or other materials which affect the resistivity or of semiconductors, such that the structure within the mirror comprises a plurality of sets, each having a thickness of {lambda}/2n where n is the index of refraction of each of the sets; each of the mirrors adjacent to spacers which are on either side of an optically active bulk or quantum well layer; and the spacers and the optically active layer are from one of the following material systems: In{sub z}(Al{sub y}Ga{sub 1{minus}y}){sub 1{minus}z}P, InAlGaAs, AlGaAs, InGaAs, or AlGaP/GaP, wherein the optically active region having a length equal to m {lambda}/2n{sub eff} where m is an integer and n{sub eff} is the effective index of refraction of the laser cavity, and the spacer layer and one of the mirrors being transmissive to radiation having a wavelength of {lambda}/n, typically within the green to red portion of the visible spectrum. 10 figs.

  17. Droplet sizes, dynamics and deposition in vertical annular flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopes, J C.B.; Dukler, A E

    1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of droplets in vertical upwards annular flow is investigated, focusing on the droplet size distributions, dynamics, and deposition phenomena. An experimental program was performed based on a new laser optical technique developed in these laboratories and implemented here for annular flow. This permitted the simultaneous measurement of droplet size, axial and radial velocity. The dependence of droplet size distributions on flow conditions is analyzed. The Upper-Log Normal function proves to be a good model for the size distribution. The mechanism controlling the maximum stable drop size was found to result from the interaction of the pressure fluctuations of the turbulent flow of the gas core with the droplet. The average axial droplet velocity showed a weak dependence on gas rates. This can be explained once the droplet size distribution and droplet size-velocity relationship are analyzed simultaneously. The surprising result from the droplet conditional analysis is that larger droplet travel faster than smaller ones. This dependence cannot be explained if the drag curves used do not take into account the high levels of turbulence present in the gas core in annular flow. If these are considered, then interesting new situations of multiplicity and stability of droplet terminal velocities are encountered. Also, the observed size-velocity relationship can be explained. A droplet deposition is formulated based on the particle inertia control. This permitted the calculation of rates of drop deposition directly from the droplet size and velocities data.

  18. Visible light emitting vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryan, Robert P. (Boulder, CO); Olbright, Gregory R. (Boulder, CO); Lott, James A. (Albuquerque, NM); Schneider, Jr., Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vertical cavity surface emitting laser that emits visible radiation is built upon a substrate, then having mirrors, the first mirror on top of the substrate; both sets of mirrors being a distributed Bragg reflector of either dielectrics or other materials which affect the resistivity or of semiconductors, such that the structure within the mirror comprises a plurality of sets, each having a thickness of .lambda./2n where n is the index of refraction of each of the sets; each of the mirrors adjacent to spacers which are on either side of an optically active bulk or quantum well layer; and the spacers and the optically active layer are from one of the following material systems: In.sub.z (Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y).sub.1-z P, InAlGaAs, AlGaAs, InGaAs, or AlGaP/GaP, wherein the optically active region having a length equal to m .lambda./2n.sub.eff where m is an integer and n.sub.eff is the effective index of refraction of the laser cavity, and the spacer layer and one of the mirrors being transmissive to radiation having a wavelength of .lambda./n, typically within the green to red portion of the visible spectrum.

  19. Tunable capillary-induced attraction between vertical cylinders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jennifer M. Rieser; P. E. Arratia; A. G. Yodh; J. P. Gollub; D. J. Durian

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Deformation of a fluid interface caused by the presence of objects at the interface can lead to large lateral forces between the objects. We explore these fluid-mediated attractive force between partially submerged vertical cylinders. Forces are experimentally measured by slowly separating cylinder pairs and cylinder triplets after capillary rise is initially established for cylinders in contact. For cylinder pairs, numerical computations and a theoretical model are found to be in good agreement with measurements. The model provides insight into the relative importance of the contributions to the total force. For small separations, the pressure term dominates, while at large separations, surface tension becomes more important. A cross-over between the two regimes occurs at a separation of around half of a capillary length. The experimentally measured forces between cylinder triplets are also in good agreement with numerical computations, and we show that pair-wise contributions account for nearly all of the attractive force between triplets. For cylinders with equilibrium capillary rise height greater than the height of the cylinder, we find that the attractive force depends on the height of the cylinders above the submersion level, which provides a means to create precisely-controlled tunable cohesive forces between objects deforming a fluid interface.

  20. Silica Scaling Removal Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sidestreams of cooling tower water by providing a substrate for the deposition and adsorption of silica. The removal of the silica prevents scaling deposition on heat transfer...

  1. Pore Scale Micromodels | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of EMSL's Subsurface Flow and Transport Laboratory (SFTL) with a focus on coupled (multiphase) flow, diffusion, and reactions processes at the microscopic scale (m to cm) that...

  2. Thermodynamics and scale relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Carroll

    2011-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown how the fractal paths of scale relativity (following Nottale) can be introduced into a thermodynamical context (following Asadov-Kechkin).

  3. Study of instabilities and quasi-two-dimensional turbulence in volumetrically heated magnetohydrodynamic flows in a vertical rectangular duct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    magnetohydrodynamic flows in a vertical rectangular duct N. Vetcha, S. Smolentsev, M. Abdou, and R. Moreau Citation in a vertical rectangular duct N. Vetcha,1 S. Smolentsev,1,a) M. Abdou,1 and R. Moreau2 1 Mechanical

  4. Application of the Gebhart-Block Model for Predicting Vertical Temperature Distribution in a Large Space Building with Natural Ventilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, C.; Song, Y.; Luo, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the Block model for predicting vertical temperature distribution in a large space, this paper describes an improved Gebhart-Block model for predicting vertical temperature distribution of a large space with natural ventilation...

  5. Gutenberg-Richter Scaling - A New Paradigm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serino, C A; Klein, W

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a new model for an earthquake fault system that is composed of non-interacting simple lattice models with different levels of damage denoted by $q$. The undamaged lattice models ($q=0$) have Gutenberg-Richter scaling with a cumulative exponent $\\beta=1/2$, whereas the damaged models do not have well defined scaling. However, if we consider the "fault system" consisting of all models, damaged and undamaged, we get excellent scaling with the exponent depending on the relative frequency with which faults with a particular amount of damage occur in the fault system. This paradigm combines the idea that Gutenberg-Richter scaling is associated with an underlying critical point with the notion that the structure of a fault system also affects the statistical distribution of earthquakes. In addition, it provides a framework in which the variation, from one tectonic region to another, of the scaling exponent, or $b$-value, can be understood.

  6. Vertical Relationships and Competition in Retail Gasoline Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley. University of

    , if any, of the differences in retail gasoline prices between markets is attributable to differences substantially higher retail gasoline prices than other regions of the country. For example, for the first week of August 1999, the price of reformulated gasoline in California was 39.6 cents higher than the average

  7. Numerical modeling of a 2K J-T heat exchanger used in Fermilab Vertical Test Stand VTS-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Prabhat Kumar [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore (MP), India; Rabehl, Roger [FNAL

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fermilab Vertical Test Stand-1 (VTS-1) is in operation since 2007 for testing the superconducting RF cavities at 2 K. This test stand has single layer coiled finned tubes heat exchanger before J-T valve. A finite difference based thermal model has been developed in Engineering Equation Solver (EES) to study its thermal performance during filling and refilling to maintain the constant liquid level of test stand. The model is also useful to predict its performance under other various operating conditions and will be useful to design the similar kind of heat exchanger for future needs. Present paper discusses the different operational modes of this heat exchanger and its thermal characteristics under these operational modes. Results of this model have also been compared with the experimental data gathered from the VTS-1 heat exchanger and they are in good agreement with the present model.

  8. A Study of Vertical Gas Jets in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Ceccio; Jennifer Curtis

    2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed experimental study of a vertical gas jet impinging a fluidized bed of particles has been conducted with the help of Laser Doppler Velocimetry measurements. Mean and fluctuating velocity profiles of the two phases have been presented and analyzed for different fluidization states of the emulsion. The results of this work would be greatly helpful in understanding the complex two-phase mixing phenomenon that occurs in bubbling beds, such as in coal and biomass gasification, and also in building more fundamental gas-solid Eulerian/Lagrangian models which can be incorporated into existing CFD codes. Relevant simulations to supplement the experimental findings have also been conducted using the Department of Energyâ??s open source code MFIX. The goal of these simulations was two-fold. One was to check the two-dimensional nature of the experimental results. The other was an attempt to improve the existing dense phase Eulerian framework through validation with the experimental results. In particular the sensitivity of existing frictional models in predicting the flow was investigated. The simulation results provide insight on wall-bounded turbulent jets and the effect frictional models have on gas-solid bubbling flows. Additionally, some empirical minimum fluidization correlations were validated for non-spherical particles with the idea of extending the present study to non-spherical particles which are more common in industries.

  9. Vertical-tube aqueous LiBr falling film absorption using advanced surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, W.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Perez-Blanco, H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat and mass transfer test stand was fabricated and used to investigate nonisothermal falling film absorption of water vapor into a solution of aqueous lithium bromide. The absorber was made of borosilicate glass for visual inspection of the failing film. Experiments were conducted on internally cooled tubes of about 0.019 m outside diameter and of 1.53 m length. Testing evaluated a single absorber tube`s performance at varying operating conditions, namely different cooling-water flow rates, solution flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and concentrations. Advanced surfaces were identified that enhanced absorber load and the mass of absorbed vapor. A pin-fin tube with 6.4mm pitch absorbed about 225% more mass than did a smooth tube. A grooved tube was the d best performer with 175% enhancement over the smooth tube. Increasing the cooling water flow rate to 1.893 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} m{sup 3}/s caused about a 300% increase in the mass absorbed for the grooved tube compared with the smooth tube. Results showed that the pin-fin tube with 6.4-mm pitch and the grooved tubes may enhance absorption to levels comparable to chemical enhancement in horizontal smooth tube absorbers. Absorber load, the transport coefficients, and pertinent absorption data are presented as functions of dimensionless numbers. These experimental data will prove useful in formulating analytical tools to predict vertical-tube absorber performance.

  10. Monsoon-driven vertical fluxes of organic pollutants in the western Arabian Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dachs, J.; Bayona, J.M.; Ittekkot, V.; Albaiges, J.

    1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A time series of sinking particles from the western Arabian Sea was analyzed for aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, 4,4{prime}-DDT and 4,4{prime}-DDE, to assess the role of monsoons on their vertical flux in the Indian Ocean. Concurrently, molecular markers such as sterols and linear and branched alkanes were analyzed enabling the characterization of the biogenic sources and biogeochemical processes occurring during the sampling period. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of the data set of concentrations and fluxes of these compounds confirmed a seasonal variability driven by the SW and NE monsoons. Moreover, the influence of different air masses is evidenced by the occurrence of higher concentrations of DDT, PCBs, and pyrolytic PAHs during the NE monsoon and of fossil hydrocarbons during the SW monsoon. Total annual fluxes to the deep Arabian Sea represent an important removal contribution of persistent organic pollutants, thus not being available for the global distillation process (volatilization and atmospheric transport from low or mid latitudes to cold areas). Therefore, monsoons may play a significant role on the global cycle of organic pollutants.

  11. Scaling hydraulic properties of a macroporous soil Binayak P. Mohanty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Binayak P.

    Scaling hydraulic properties of a macroporous soil Binayak P. Mohanty U.S. Salinity Laboratory, Riverside, California Abstract. Macroporous soils exhibit significant differences in their hydraulic properties for different pore domains. Multimodal hydraulic functions may be used to describe

  12. Design and Test of a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine with Pitch Control J. J. Miau1,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    Design and Test of a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine with Pitch Control J. J. Miau1,a , S. Y. Liang2 , R, USA a jjmiau@mail.ncku.edu.tw Keywords: vertical-axis wind turbine, pitch control, wind of a small vertical-axis wind turbine. Benefits gained can be shown by the experimental and numerical results

  13. Application Signal Threshold Adaptation for Vertical Handoff in Heterogeneous Wireless

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Ben

    -technology handoff take place. Intra- technology handoff is the traditional Horizontal Handoff (HHO) process in which between different access technologies. The main distinction between VHO and HHO is symmetry. #12;While HHO

  14. anular vertical no-newtoniano: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 101 Fast Vertical Mining Using Diffsets Mohammed J. Zaki Physics Websites Summary: Introduction Mining...

  15. Past changes in the vertical distribution of ozone – Part 3: Analysis and interpretation of trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, N. R. P.; Hassler, B.; Tummon, F.; Bodeker, G. E.; Hubert, D.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Steinbrecht, W.; Anderson, J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Boone, C. D.; Bourassa, A.; Davis, S. M.; Degenstein, D.; Delcloo, A.; Frith, S. M.; Froidevaux, L.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Jones, N.; Kurylo, M. J.; Kyrölä, E.; Laine, M.; Leblanc, S. T.; Lambert, J.-C.; Liley, B.; Mahieu, E.; Maycock, A.; de Mazière, M.; Parrish, A.; Querel, R.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Roth, C.; Sioris, C.; Staehelin, J.; Stolarski, R. S.; Stübi, R.; Tamminen, J.; Vigouroux, C.; Walker, K.; Wang, H. J.; Wild, J.; Zawodny, J. M.

    2015-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone are reported and compared for a number of new and recently revised datasets. The amount of ozone-depleting compounds in the stratosphere (as measured by Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Chlorine – EESC...

  16. Vertically-tapered optical waveguide and optical spot transformer formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bakke, Thor; Sullivan, Charles T.

    2004-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical waveguide is disclosed in which a section of the waveguide core is vertically tapered during formation by spin coating by controlling the width of an underlying mesa structure. The optical waveguide can be formed from spin-coatable materials such as polymers, sol-gels and spin-on glasses. The vertically-tapered waveguide section can be used to provide a vertical expansion of an optical mode of light within the optical waveguide. A laterally-tapered section can be added adjacent to the vertically-tapered section to provide for a lateral expansion of the optical mode, thereby forming an optical spot-size transformer for efficient coupling of light between the optical waveguide and a single-mode optical fiber. Such a spot-size transformer can also be added to a III-V semiconductor device by post processing.

  17. Author's personal copy Thorium-234 as a tracer of spatial, temporal and vertical variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buesseler, Ken

    Author's personal copy Thorium-234 as a tracer of spatial, temporal and vertical variability 2009 Accepted 6 April 2009 Available online 16 April 2009 Keywords: Thorium-234 Particle flux Sediment

  18. Analytical Modeling of Wood Frame Shear Walls Subjected to Vertical Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyendinh, Hai

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    referred to as Analytical Model of wood frame SHEar walls subjected to Vertical load (AMSHEV) is based on the kinematic behavior of wood frame shear walls and captures significant characteristics observed from experimental testing through appropriate...

  19. Buoyant mixing of miscible fluids of varying viscosities in vertical tubes M. Debacq,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinch, John

    engineering,10 fire propagation in vertical shafts,11 drilling and completion fluids in petroleum engi reported by other authors.10,11 Baird et al.10 studied the mixing of a small vol- ume of heavy salt

  20. Fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FFPI) sensor using vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kyung-Woo

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This research represents the first effort to apply vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) to the monitoring of interferometric fiber optic sensors. Modulation of the drive current causes thermal tuning of the laser light frequency...

  1. Vertical inertial sliding drive for coarse and fine approaches in scanning probe microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gimzewski, James

    vibrational noise. The extension of the technique to a vertical orientation required by many SPM applications stepper motors4 to more elegant approaches such as the "louse,"5 "Besocke," beetle,6 "Inchworm® ,"7

  2. Fracture studies from amplitude versus offset and azimuth and vertical seismic profile data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varela Gutierrez, Isabel

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis I address the problem of determining fracture properties of subsurface rocks from geophysical surface seismic and vertical seismic profile (VSP) data. In the first part of this thesis I perform multi-attribute ...

  3. Vertical Phasing as a Corporate Real Estate Strategy and Development Option

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guma, Anthony

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the potential value of significant vertical phasing – that is, the addition of five or more stories to an existing building – as a valuable real option in real estate ...

  4. Highly Ordered Vertical Silicon Nanowire Array Composite Thin Films for Thermoelectric Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowers, John

    Highly Ordered Vertical Silicon Nanowire Array Composite Thin Films for Thermoelectric Devices for thermoelectric devices are presented. Inter- ference lithography was used to pattern square lattice photoresist device. Key words: Silicon nanowires, thermoelectrics, cross-plane measurements, nanowire composite

  5. A Summary of Convective-Core Vertical Velocity Properties Using ARM UHF Wind Profilers in Oklahoma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    A Summary of Convective-Core Vertical Velocity Properties Using ARM UHF Wind Profilers in Oklahoma Sciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois # University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma @ Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia & Cooperative Institute for Research

  6. The role of vertical buoyancy distributions in simulated low-topped supercells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cantrell, Louis Edward

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . This study examines the role of low-level vertical buoyancy distributions in influencing supercell updraft intensity and persistence, and on mid-level and low-level mesocyclone development. The emphasis is to examine wind, temperature, and moisture profiles...

  7. July 7, 2008 Vertical temperature profile and mesospheric winds retrieval on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ), its abundance vertical profile has been studied in order to understand the recycling of CO into CO2 range (Billebaud et al. 1992, 1998). These observations led to the conclusion that CO has a rel- atively

  8. Highly aligned vertical GaN nanowires using submonolayer metal catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, George T. (Albuquerque, NM); Li, Qiming (Albuquerque, NM); Creighton, J. Randall (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for forming vertically oriented, crystallographically aligned nanowires (nanocolumns) using monolayer or submonolayer quantities of metal atoms to form uniformly sized metal islands that serve as catalysts for MOCVD growth of Group III nitride nanowires.

  9. Simulation and fabrication of GaN-based vertical and lateral normally-off power transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuhao, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is divided in two parts. First, self-consistent electro-thermal simulations have been performed for single finger and multi-finger GaN-based vertical and lateral power transistors and were validated with ...

  10. Transition from film boiling to nucleate boiling in forced convection vertical flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iloeje, Onwuamaeze C.

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanism of collapse of forced cnnvection annular vertical flow film boiling, with liquid core, is investigated using liquid nitrogen at low pressures. The report includes the effect of heat flux from the buss bar. ...

  11. Achieving large stable vertical displacement in surface-micromachined microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deutsch, Erik R. (Erik Robertson), 1974-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes electrostatic actuation techniques and mechanical design features for realizing large planar analog vertical travel in an electrostatically actuated diffractive mid-infrared optical device, which is ...

  12. High Seastate Container Transfer System/Auxillary Crane Ship vertical relative motion analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ottens, Michael James

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) Michael James Ottens, B. S. ; U. S. Military Academy Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Cheung H. Kim The transfer of cargo by crane from ship to lighter outside of sheltered ports can be adversely affected by the sea environment, Wave... of vertical relative motions exceed prescribed safety factors. Additionally, there is a continuing need to develop improved seakeeping designs of ships/lighterage. This paper calculates theoretically the vertical relative motions between a cargo ship...

  13. The vertical structure of ocean heat 89A64BC7DEF72B4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    freeze over [Winton, 2003]. While global ocean heat transport can be deduced from estimates of airThe vertical structure of ocean heat transport 1234567 89A64BC7DEF72B4 5567334EE72224EE1D523E1E;4#72B43%EE7D44 7D446BE27B725CE93$93BE647 #12;The vertical structure of ocean heat transport G

  14. The effect of vertical fractures on the behavior of a stratified reservoir under waterflood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pettitt, Bobby Eugene

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF VERTICAL FRACTURES ON THE BEHAVIOR OF A STRATIFIED RESERVOIR UNDER WATERFLOOD A Thesis Bobby E Pettitt Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial i...'ulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August~ 1963 Major Sub]ect: Petroleum Engineering THE EFFECT GF VERTICAL FRACTURES ON THE BEHAVIOR OF A STRATIFIED RESERVOIR UNDER WATERFLOOD A Thesis by Bobby E. Pettitt Approved as to style...

  15. Vertical extent and dilution of dense jets emanating from a submerged multiport diffuser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLellan, Thomas Neil

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . This thesis investiaates the vertical extent and the dilution of the brine at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve's Bryan Mound diffuser site located off Freeport, Texas. The vertical extent and dilution are measured by acoustic sampling devices and a... for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve project field staff located in Surfside, Texas. TAB LE OF C Q". J Z. "JT S Pace A33 S TRACT . ACKOWLEDGEMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS rIST QF TABLES. LIST QF FIGURES CHAPTER I. INTPODUCTION. CHAPTER II. LITERATURE Rr...

  16. Energy Efficient Aluminum Production - Pilot-Scale Cell Tests - Final Report for Phase I and Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Christini

    1999-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A cermet anode that produces oxygen and a cathode material that is wetted by aluminum can provide a dimensionally stable inter-electrode distance in the Hall-Heroult cell. This can be used to greatly improve the energy and/or productivity efficiencies. The concept, which was developed and tested, uses a system of vertically interleaved anodes and cathodes. The major advantage of this concept is the significant increase in electrochemical surface area compared to a horizontal orientation of anode and cathode that is presently used in the Hall-Heroult process. This creates an additional advantage for energy reduction of 1.3 kWh/lb or a 20% productivity improvement. The voltages obtained in an optimized cell test met the energy objectives of the project for at least two weeks. An acceptable current efficiency was never proven, however, during either pilot scale or bench scale tests with the vertical plate configuration. This must be done before a vertical cell can be considered viab le. Anode corrosion rate must be reduced by at least a factor of three in order to produce commercial purity aluminum. It is recommended that extensive theoretical and bench scale investigations be done to improve anode materials and to demonstrate acceptable current efficiencies in a vertical plate cell before pilot scale work is continued.

  17. Pore-fluid effects on seismic waves in vertically fractured earth with orthotropic symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berryman, J.G.

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For elastically noninteracting vertical-fracture sets at arbitrary orientation angles to each other, a detailed model is presented in which the resulting anisotropic fractured medium generally has orthorhombic symmetry overall. Some of the analysis methods and ideas of Schoenberg are emphasized, together with their connections to other similarly motivated and conceptually related methods by Sayers and Kachanov, among others. Examples show how parallel vertical-fracture sets having HTI (horizontal transversely isotropic) symmetry transform into orthotropic fractured media if some subsets of the vertical fractures are misaligned with the others, and then the fractured system can have VTI (vertical transversely isotropic) symmetry if all of the fractures are aligned randomly or half parallel and half perpendicular to a given vertical plane. An orthotropic example having vertical fractures in an otherwise VTI earth system (studied previously by Schoenberg and Helbig) is compared with the other examples treated and it is finally shown how fluids in the fractures affect the orthotropic poroelastic system response to seismic waves. The key result is that fracture-influence parameters are multiplied by a factor of (1-B), where 0 {le} B < 1 is Skempton's second coefficient for poroelastic media. Skempton's B coefficient is itself a measurable characteristic of fluid-saturated porous rocks, depending on porosity, solid moduli, and the pore-fluid bulk modulus. For heterogeneous porous media, connections between the present work and earlier related results of Brown and Korringa are also established.

  18. Method and apparatus for determining vertical heat flux of geothermal field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poppendiek, Heinz F. (LaJolla, CA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for determining vertical heat flux of a geothermal field, and mapping the entire field, is based upon an elongated heat-flux transducer (10) comprised of a length of tubing (12) of relatively low thermal conductivity with a thermopile (20) inside for measuring the thermal gradient between the ends of the transducer after it has been positioned in a borehole for a period sufficient for the tube to reach thermal equilibrium. The transducer is thermally coupled to the surrounding earth by a fluid annulus, preferably water or mud. A second transducer comprised of a length of tubing of relatively high thermal conductivity is used for a second thermal gradient measurement. The ratio of the first measurement to the second is then used to determine the earth's thermal conductivity, k.sub..infin., from a precalculated graph, and using the value of thermal conductivity thus determined, then determining the vertical earth temperature gradient, b, from predetermined steady state heat balance equations which relate the undisturbed vertical earth temperature distributions at some distance from the borehole and earth thermal conductivity to the temperature gradients in the transducers and their thermal conductivity. The product of the earth's thermal conductivity, k.sub..infin., and the earth's undisturbed vertical temperature gradient, b, then determines the earth's vertical heat flux. The process can be repeated many times for boreholes of a geothermal field to map vertical heat flux.

  19. Final Technical Report for "Radiative Heating Associated with Tropical Convective Cloud Systems: Its Importance at Meso and Global Scales"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, Courtney

    2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating associated with tropical cloud systems drive the global circulation. The overall research objectives of this project were to i) further quantify and understand the importance of heating in tropical convective cloud systems with innovative observational techniques, and ii) use global models to determine the large-scale circulation response to variability in tropical heating profiles, including anvil and cirrus cloud radiative forcing. The innovative observational techniques used a diversity of radar systems to create a climatology of vertical velocities associated with the full tropical convective cloud spectrum along with a dissection of the of the total heating profile of tropical cloud systems into separate components (i.e., the latent, radiative, and eddy sensible heating). These properties were used to validate storm-scale and global climate models (GCMs) and were further used to force two different types of GCMs (one with and one without interactive physics). While radiative heating was shown to account for about 20% of the total heating and did not have a strong direct response on the global circulation, the indirect response was important via its impact on convection, esp. in how radiative heating impacts the tilt of heating associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), a phenomenon that accounts for most tropical intraseasonal variability. This work shows strong promise in determining the sensitivity of climate models and climate processes to heating variations associated with cloud systems.

  20. Large scale disease prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmid, Patrick R. (Patrick Raphael)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this thesis is to present the foundation of an automated large-scale disease prediction system. Unlike previous work that has typically focused on a small self-contained dataset, we explore the possibility ...

  1. The Improbability scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritchie, David J.; /Fermilab

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Improbability Scale (IS) is proposed as a way of communicating to the general public the improbability (and by implication, the probability) of events predicted as the result of scientific research. Through the use of the Improbability Scale, the public will be able to evaluate more easily the relative risks of predicted events and draw proper conclusions when asked to support governmental and public policy decisions arising from that research.

  2. Characterizing the Vertical Distribution of Aerosols Over the ARM SGP Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Ferrare, Connor Flynn, David Turner

    2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This project focused on: 1) evaluating the performance of the DOE ARM SGP Raman lidar system in measuring profiles of water vapor and aerosols, and 2) the use of the Raman lidar measurements of aerosol and water vapor profiles for assessing the vertical distribution of aerosols and water vapor simulated by global transport models and examining diurnal variability of aerosols and water vapor. The highest aerosol extinction was generally observed close to the surface during the nighttime just prior to sunrise. The high values of aerosol extinction are most likely associated with increased scattering by hygroscopic aerosols, since the corresponding average relative humidity values were above 70%. After sunrise, relative humidity and aerosol extinction below 500 m decreased with the growth in the daytime convective boundary layer. The largest aerosol extinction for altitudes above 1 km occurred during the early afternoon most likely as a result of the increase in relative humidity. The water vapor mixing ratio profiles generally showed smaller variations with altitude between day and night. We also compared simultaneous measurements of relative humidity, aerosol extinction, and aerosol optical thickness derived from the ARM SGP Raman lidar and in situ instruments on board a small aircraft flown routinely over the ARM SGP site. In contrast, the differences between the CARL and IAP aerosol extinction measurements are considerably larger. Aerosol extinction derived from the IAP measurements is, on average, about 30-40% less than values derived from the Raman lidar. The reasons for this difference are not clear, but may be related to the corrections for supermicron scattering and relative humidity that were applied to the IAP data. The investigators on this project helped to set up a major field mission (2003 Aerosol IOP) over the DOE ARM SGP site. One of the goals of the mission was to further evaluate the aerosol and water vapor retrievals from this lidar system. Analysis of the aerosol and water vapor data collected by the Raman lidar during the 2003 Aerosol IOP indicated that the sensitivity of the lidar was significantly lower than when the lidar was initially deployed. A detailed analysis after the IOP of the long-term dataset demonstrated that the lidar began degrading in early 2002, and that it lost approximately a factor of 4 in sensitivity between 2002 and 2004. We participated in the development of the remediation plan for the system to restore its initial performance. We conducted this refurbishment and upgrade from May- September 2004. This remediation lead to an increase in the signal-to-noise ratio of 10 and 30 for the Raman lidar's water vapor mixing ratio and aerosol backscatter coefficient data, respectively as compared to the signal strengths when the system was first deployed. The DOE ARM Aerosol Lidar Validation Experiment (ALIVE), which was conducted during September 2005, evaluated the impact of these modifications and upgrades on the SGP Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and optical thickness. The CARL modifications significantly improved the accuracy and temporal resolution of the aerosol measurements. Aerosol extinction profiles measured by the Raman lidar were also used to evaluate aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) simulated by aerosol models as part of the Aerosol module inter-Comparison in global models (AEROCOM) (http://nansen.ipsl.jussieu.fr/AEROCOM/aerocomhome.html) project. There was a wide range in how the models represent the aerosol extinction profiles over the ARM SGP site, even though the average annual AOT represented by the various models and measured by CARL and the Sun photometer were in general agreement, at least within the standard deviations of the averages. There were considerable differences in the average vertical distributions among the models, even among models that had similar average aerosol optical thickness. Deviations between mean aerosol extinction profiles were generally small (~20-30%) for altitudes above 2 km, and grew consider

  3. Predictions From High Scale Mixing Unification Hypothesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Rahul

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Starting with 'High Scale Mixing Unification' hypothesis, we investigate the renormalization group evolution of mixing parameters and masses for both Dirac and Majorana type neutrinos. Following this hypothesis, the PMNS mixing parameters are taken to be identical to the CKM ones at a unifying high scale. Then, they are evolved to a low scale using MSSM renormalization-group equations. For both type of neutrinos, the renormalization group evolution 'naturally' results in a non-zero and small value of leptonic mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$. One of the important predictions of this analysis is that, in both cases, the mixing angle $\\theta_{23}$ turns out to be non-maximal for most of the parameter range. We also elaborate on the important differences between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos within our framework and how to experimentally distinguish between the two scenarios. Furthermore, for both cases, we also derive constraints on the allowed parameter range for the SUSY breaking and unification scales, for which th...

  4. Quality Control Inspector: Different Programs, Different Responsibilit...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    document explains the role of the Quality Control Inspector (QCI) in regards to the Home Energy Professional Certification Exam. Quality Control Inspector: Different Programs,...

  5. SCALED EXPERIMENTS EVALUATING PULSE JET MIXING OF SLURRIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fort, James A.; Wells, Beric E.; Minette, Michael J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Baer, Ellen BK; Eakin, David E.; Elmore, Monte R.; Snyder, Sandra F.

    2009-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid were conducted at three geometric scales to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. The test data will be used to develop mixing models. The models predict the cloud height (the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action) and the critical suspension velocity (the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids have been lifted from the floor. From the cloud height estimate, the concentration of solids near the vessel floor and the minimum velocity predicted to lift solids can be calculated. The test objective was to observe the influence of vertically downward-directed jets on noncohesive solids in a series of scaled tanks with several bottom shapes. The test tanks and bottom shapes included small-and large-scale tanks with elliptical bottoms, a mid-scale tank with a spherical bottom, and a large-scale tank with an F&D bottom. During testing, the downward-directed jets were operated in either a steady flow condition or a pulsed (periodic) flow condition. The mobilization of the solids resulting from the jets was evaluated based on: the motion/agitation of the particulate on the tank floor and the elevation the solids reach within the tank; the height the solids material reaches in the tank is referred to as the cloud height (HC).

  6. Effect of gaps on the performance of the vertically installed wet thermal insulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. I.; Park, C. T.; Choi, S.; Yoon, J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daeduk-daero 989-111, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In SMART, the main flow path of the reactor coolant and the pressurizer partially share common walls in the reactor coolant system. To reduce this heat transfer, the wet thermal insulator (WTI) is installed on the inner wall of the pressurizer. The WTI is constituted of stacked thin stainless steel plates. The water layer width between the plates is chosen to suppress natural convection in each layer. The plates of the WTI require clearance for thermal expansion. When the WTI is installed on a vertical wall, this clearance might cause gaps at the top and bottom at the operating condition. In this study, we focused on the effect of gaps at the both ends on the WTI performance. A numerical simulation was conducted for an 8-layer WTI with gaps at the both ends. To compare with this, a simulation of a WTI without a gap, which is an ideal case, was also conducted. The simulation was conducted in a 2-dimensional manner by a commercial computational fluid dynamics code, FLUENT. The simulations showed that the WTI thermal performance was substantially decreased by a flow that circulated through the top and bottom gaps and water layers at the sides of the WTI. This circulation caused a high temperature difference between the wall and the circulating flow. To find a way to prevent this performance deterioration of the WTI we simulated several cases with the smaller gap heights. However, the flow circulation and the higher heat transfer rate were still observed even at a case with the smallest gap, which seems to be hardly achievable in a real installation. Another way of reducing the flow circulation was suggested and also simulated in this study. (authors)

  7. Beam Profile Monitor With Accurate Horizontal And Vertical Beam Profiles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Havener, Charles C [Knoxville, TN; Al-Rejoub, Riad [Oak Ridge, TN

    2005-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A widely used scanner device that rotates a single helically shaped wire probe in and out of a particle beam at different beamline positions to give a pair of mutually perpendicular beam profiles is modified by the addition of a second wire probe. As a result, a pair of mutually perpendicular beam profiles is obtained at a first beamline position, and a second pair of mutually perpendicular beam profiles is obtained at a second beamline position. The simple modification not only provides more accurate beam profiles, but also provides a measurement of the beam divergence and quality in a single compact device.

  8. Angular Scaling In Jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC

    2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a jet shape observable defined for an ensemble of jets in terms of two-particle angular correlations and a resolution parameter R. This quantity is infrared and collinear safe and can be interpreted as a scaling exponent for the angular distribution of mass inside the jet. For small R it is close to the value 2 as a consequence of the approximately scale invariant QCD dynamics. For large R it is sensitive to non-perturbative effects. We describe the use of this correlation function for tests of QCD, for studying underlying event and pile-up effects, and for tuning Monte Carlo event generators.

  9. Global Scale Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asphaug, Erik; Jutzi, Martin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Global scale impacts modify the physical or thermal state of a substantial fraction of a target asteroid. Specific effects include accretion, family formation, reshaping, mixing and layering, shock and frictional heating, fragmentation, material compaction, dilatation, stripping of mantle and crust, and seismic degradation. Deciphering the complicated record of global scale impacts, in asteroids and meteorites, will lead us to understand the original planet-forming process and its resultant populations, and their evolution in time as collisions became faster and fewer. We provide a brief overview of these ideas, and an introduction to models.

  10. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Eddy current sensing of vertical Bridgman semiconductor crystal growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    permission. Eddy current sensing of vertical Bridgman semiconductor crystal growth Dharmasena, Kumar Pradeepa

  11. Electron-electron interaction, weak localization and spin valve effect in vertical-transport graphene devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Mingsheng; Gong, Youpin; Wei, Xiangfei; Zhu, Chao; Xu, Jianbao; Liu, Ping; Guo, Yufen; Li, Weiwei; Liu, Liwei, E-mail: lwliu2007@sinano.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications-CAS and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Guangtong [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We fabricated a vertical structure device, in which graphene is sandwiched between two asymmetric ferromagnetic electrodes. The measurements of electron and spin transport were performed across the combined channels containing the vertical and horizontal components. The presence of electron-electron interaction (EEI) was found not only at low temperatures but also at moderate temperatures up to ?120?K, and EEI dominates over weak localization (WL) with and without applying magnetic fields perpendicular to the sample plane. Moreover, spin valve effect was observed when magnetic filed is swept at the direction parallel to the sample surface. We attribute the EEI and WL surviving at a relatively high temperature to the effective suppress of phonon scattering in the vertical device structure. The findings open a way for studying quantum correlation at relatively high temperature.

  12. PAIN SCALES (ATTACHMENT A)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    TOTAL SCORE: ADD INDIVIDUAL ASSESSMENT SCORES TO DETERMINE THE TOTAL PAIN SCORE. TOTAL THE 5 CATEGORIES FOR TOTAL PAIN SCORE. MAXIMUM SCORE = 10/10. Reference: Merkel SJ, et al. The FLACC: A Behavioral Pain Scale or groan. Low level speech with a negative or disapproving quality. Repeated troubled calling out. Loud

  13. Mathematics Achievement Scale Score

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianyu

    Croatia 490 New Zealand 486 Spain 482 Romania 482 Poland 481 Turkey 469 Azerbaijan 463 Chile 462 Thailand Romania 505 Spain 505 Poland 505 TIMSS Scale Centerpoint 500 New Zealand 497 Kazakhstan 495 Norway 494 Kazakhstan 487 Sweden 484 Ukraine 479 Norway 475 Armenia 467 Romania 458 United Arab Emirates 456 Turkey 452

  14. Developement of 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deputch, G.; Hoff, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Olsen, J.; Ramberg, E.; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Yarema, R.; /Fermilab; Shochet, M.; Tang, F.; /Chicago U.; Demarteau, M.; /Argonne /INFN, Padova

    2011-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Many next-generation physics experiments will be characterized by the collection of large quantities of data, taken in rapid succession, from which scientists will have to unravel the underlying physical processes. In most cases, large backgrounds will overwhelm the physics signal. Since the quantity of data that can be stored for later analysis is limited, real-time event selection is imperative to retain the interesting events while rejecting the background. Scaling of current technologies is unlikely to satisfy the scientific needs of future projects, so investments in transformational new technologies need to be made. For example, future particle physics experiments looking for rare processes will have to address the demanding challenges of fast pattern recognition in triggering as detector hit density becomes significantly higher due to the high luminosity required to produce the rare processes. In this proposal, we intend to develop hardware-based technology that significantly advances the state-of-the-art for fast pattern recognition within and outside HEP using the 3D vertical integration technology that has emerged recently in industry. The ultimate physics reach of the LHC experiments will crucially depend on the tracking trigger's ability to help discriminate between interesting rare events and the background. Hardware-based pattern recognition for fast triggering on particle tracks has been successfully used in high-energy physics experiments for some time. The CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger (SVT) at the Fermilab Tevatron is an excellent example. The method used there, developed in the 1990's, is based on algorithms that use a massively parallel associative memory architecture to identify patterns efficiently at high speed. However, due to much higher occupancy and event rates at the LHC, and the fact that the LHC detectors have a much larger number of channels in their tracking detectors, there is an enormous challenge in implementing pattern recognition for a track trigger, requiring about three orders of magnitude more associative memory patterns than what was used in the original CDF SVT. Significant improvement in the architecture of associative memory structures is needed to run fast pattern recognition algorithms of this scale. We are proposing the development of 3D integrated circuit technology as a way to implement new associative memory structures for fast pattern recognition applications. Adding a 'third' dimension to the signal processing chain, as compared to the two-dimensional nature of printed circuit boards, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), etc., opens up the possibility for new architectures that could dramatically enhance pattern recognition capability. We are currently performing preliminary design work to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. In this proposal, we seek to develop the design and perform the ASIC engineering necessary to realize a prototype device. While our focus here is on the Energy Frontier (e.g. the LHC), the approach may have applications in experiments in the Intensity Frontier and the Cosmic Frontier as well as other scientific and medical projects. In fact, the technique that we are proposing is very generic and could have wide applications far beyond track trigger, both within and outside HEP.

  15. Scaling Relationships Based on Scaled Tank Mixing and Transfer Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Holmes, Aimee E.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2013-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the statistical analyses performed (by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for Washington River Protection Solutions) on data from 26 tests conducted using two scaled tanks (43 and 120 inches) in the Small Scale Mixing Demonstration platform. The 26 tests varied several test parameters, including mixer-jet nozzle velocity, base simulant, supernatant viscosity, and capture velocity. For each test, samples were taken pre-transfer and during five batch transfers. The samples were analyzed for the concentrations (lbs/gal slurry) of four primary components in the base simulants (gibbsite, stainless steel, sand, and ZrO2). The statistical analyses including modeling the component concentrations as functions of test parameters using stepwise regression with two different model forms. The resulting models were used in an equivalent performance approach to calculate values of scaling exponents (for a simple geometric scaling relationship) as functions of the parameters in the component concentration models. The resulting models and scaling exponents are displayed in tables and graphically. The sensitivities of component concentrations and scaling exponents to the test parameters are presented graphically. These results will serve as inputs to subsequent work by other researchers to develop scaling relationships that are applicable to full-scale tanks.

  16. Scaling Relationships Based on Scaled Tank Mixing and Transfer Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Holmes, Aimee E.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Lee, Kearn P.; Kelly, Steven E.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the statistical analyses performed (by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for Washington River Protection Solutions) on data from 26 tests conducted using two scaled tanks (43 and 120 inches) in the Small Scale Mixing Demonstration platform. The 26 tests varied several test parameters, including mixer-jet nozzle velocity, base simulant, supernatant viscosity, and capture velocity. For each test, samples were taken pre-transfer and during five batch transfers. The samples were analyzed for the concentrations (lbs/gal slurry) of four primary components in the base simulants (gibbsite, stainless steel, sand, and ZrO2). The statistical analyses including modeling the component concentrations as functions of test parameters using stepwise regression with two different model forms. The resulting models were used in an equivalent performance approach to calculate values of scaling exponents (for a simple geometric scaling relationship) as functions of the parameters in the component concentration models. The resulting models and scaling exponents are displayed in tables and graphically. The sensitivities of component concentrations and scaling exponents to the test parameters are presented graphically. These results will serve as inputs to subsequent work by other researchers to develop scaling relationships that are applicable to full-scale tanks.

  17. DNS of vertical plane channel flow with finite-size particles: Voronoi analysis, acceleration statistics and particle-conditioned averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Villalba, Manuel; Uhlmann, Markus

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have performed a direct numerical simulation of dilute turbulent particulate flow in a vertical plane channel, fully resolving the phase interfaces. The flow conditions are the same as those in the main case of "Uhlmann, M., Phys. Fluids, vol. 20, 2008, 053305", with the exception of the computational domain length which has been doubled in the present study. The statistics of flow and particle motion are not significantly altered by the elongation of the domain. The large-scale columnar-like structures which had previously been identified do persist and they are still only marginally decorrelated in the prolonged domain. Voronoi analysis of the spatial particle distribution shows that the state of the dispersed phase can be characterized as slightly more ordered than random tending towards a homogeneous spatial distribution. It is also found that the p.d.f.'s of Lagrangian particle accelerations for wall-normal and spanwise directions follow a lognormal distribution as observed in previous experiments of ...

  18. First Observation Of ELM Pacing With Vertical Jogs In A Spherical Torus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerhardt, S P; Canik, J M; Maingi, R; Bell, R; Gates, d; Goldston, R; Hawryluk, R; Le Blanc, B P; Menard, J; Sontag, A C; Sabbagh, S

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments in a number of conventional aspect ratio tokamaks have been successful in pacing edge localized modes (ELMs) by rapid vertical jogging of the plasma. This paper demonstrates the first pacing of ELMs in a spherical torus plasma. Applied 30 Hz vertical jogs synchronized the ELMs with the upward motion of the plasma. 45 Hz jogs also lead to an increase in the ELM frequency, though the synchronization of the ELMs and jogs was unclear. A reduction in the ELM energy was observed at the higher driven ELM frequencies. __________________________________________________

  19. Empirical Evidence on the Role of Non Linear Wholesale Pricing and Vertical Restraints on Cost Pass-Through

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Celine, Bonnet; Dubois, Pierre; Villas-Boas, Sofia B.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Welfare E?ects of Banning Wholesale Price Discrimination,”non linear contracts when wholesale price discrimination ison the role of non- linear wholesale pricing and vertical

  20. Low threshold vertical cavity surface emitting lasers integrated onto Si-CMOS ICs using novel hybrid assembly techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perkins, James Michael, 1978-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new heterogeneous integration technique has been developed and demonstrated to integrate vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) on silicon CMOS integrated circuits for optical interconnect applications. Individual ...

  1. Scaling of high-wavenumber energy spectra in the unit aspect-ratio rotating Boussinesq system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Susan Kurien

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Phenomenological and numerical studies of the small scale spectra of energy are presented for high Reynolds number rotating Boussinesq flows in unit aspect-ratio domains. We introduce a non-dimensional parameter Gamma such that when the potential vorticity is nearly linear in the dynamical variables, we deduce that for Gamma much less than 1, the potential enstrophy suppresses the transfer of horizontal kinetic energy into wavemodes with large horizontal component k_h while forcing it to become independent of vertical wavevector component k_z, scaling as k_h^{-5}. When Gamma much greater than 1, the potential enstrophy suppresses the transfer of potential energy into the wavemodes with large vertical component k_z while forcing it to become independent of k_h, scaling as k_z^{-5) power. Spectra computed from high-resolution simulations of the Boussinesq equations with isotropic low-wavenumber forcing are used to explore such anisotropic constraints on the energy and provide a posteriori justification for the joint flux ansatz used to obtain the (-5) scaling exponent. In all cases the empirical evidence points to both energy and potential enstrophy being jointly transferred downscale with the spectral scaling of the the former constrained by the latter.

  2. LOW-MASS PLANETS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS WITH NET VERTICAL MAGNETIC FIELDS: THE PLANETARY WAKE AND GAP OPENING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu Zhaohuan; Stone, James M.; Rafikov, Roman R., E-mail: zhzhu@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: jstone@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: rrr@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 08544 (United States)

    2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Some regions in protoplanetary disks are turbulent, while some regions are quiescent (e.g. the dead zone). In order to study how planets open gaps in both inviscid hydrodynamic disk (e.g. the dead zone) and the disk subject to magnetorotational instability (MRI), we carried out both shearing box two-dimensional inviscid hydrodynamical simulations and three-dimensional unstratified magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations (having net vertical magnetic fields) with a planet at the box center. We found that, due to the nonlinear wave steepening, even a low mass planet can open gaps in both cases, in contradiction to the ''thermal criterion'' for gap opening. In order to understand if we can represent the MRI turbulent stress with the viscous {alpha} prescription for studying gap opening, we compare gap properties in MRI-turbulent disks to those in viscous HD disks having the same stress, and found that the same mass planet opens a significantly deeper and wider gap in net vertical flux MHD disks than in viscous HD disks. This difference arises due to the efficient magnetic field transport into the gap region in MRI disks, leading to a larger effective {alpha} within the gap. Thus, across the gap, the Maxwell stress profile is smoother than the gap density profile, and a deeper gap is needed for the Maxwell stress gradient to balance the planetary torque density. Comparison with previous results from net toroidal flux/zero flux MHD simulations indicates that the magnetic field geometry plays an important role in the gap opening process. We also found that long-lived density features (termed zonal flows) produced by the MRI can affect planet migration. Overall, our results suggest that gaps can be commonly produced by low mass planets in realistic protoplanetary disks, and caution the use of a constant {alpha}-viscosity to model gaps in protoplanetary disks.

  3. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steed, Chad A [ORNL] [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL] [ORNL; Pullum, Laura L [ORNL] [ORNL; Ramanathan, Arvind [ORNL] [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL] [ORNL; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Given the scale and complexity of today s data, visual analytics is rapidly becoming a necessity rather than an option for comprehensive exploratory analysis. In this paper, we provide an overview of three applications of visual analytics for addressing the challenges of analyzing climate, text streams, and biosurveilance data. These systems feature varying levels of interaction and high performance computing technology integration to permit exploratory analysis of large and complex data of global significance.

  4. Supergranulation Scale Connection Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. F. Stein; A. Nordlund; D. Georgobiani; D. Benson; W. Schaffenberger

    2008-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of realistic simulations of solar surface convection on the scale of supergranules (96 Mm wide by 20 Mm deep) are presented. The simulations cover only 10% of the geometric depth of the solar convection zone, but half its pressure scale heights. They include the hydrogen, first and most of the second helium ionization zones. The horizontal velocity spectrum is a power law and the horizontal size of the dominant convective cells increases with increasing depth. Convection is driven by buoyancy work which is largest close to the surface, but significant over the entire domain. Close to the surface buoyancy driving is balanced by the divergence of the kinetic energy flux, but deeper down it is balanced by dissipation. The damping length of the turbulent kinetic energy is 4 pressure scale heights. The mass mixing length is 1.8 scale heights. Two thirds of the area is upflowing fluid except very close to the surface. The internal (ionization) energy flux is the largest contributor to the convective flux for temperatures less than 40,000 K and the thermal energy flux is the largest contributor at higher temperatures. This data set is useful for validating local helioseismic inversion methods. Sixteen hours of data are available as four hour averages, with two hour cadence, at steinr.msu.edu/~bob/96averages, as idl save files. The variables stored are the density, temperature, sound speed, and three velocity components. In addition, the three velocity components at 200 km above mean continuum optical depth unity are available at 30 sec. cadence.

  5. Double-Difference Tomography for Sequestration MVA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westman, Erik

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of synthetic data was performed to determine the most cost-effective tomographic monitoring system for a geologic carbon sequestration injection site. Double-difference tomographic inversion was performed on 125 synthetic data sets: five stages of CO2 plume growth, five seismic event regions, and five geophone arrays. Each resulting velocity model was compared quantitatively to its respective synthetic velocity model to determine an accuracy value. The results were examined to determine a relationship between cost and accuracy in monitoring, verification, and accounting applications using double-difference tomography. The geophone arrays with widely-varying geophone locations, both laterally and vertically, performed best. Additionally, double difference seismic tomography was performed using travel time data from a carbon sequestration site at the Aneth oil field in southeast Utah as part of a Department of Energy initiative on monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) of sequestered CO2. A total of 1,211 seismic events were recorded from a borehole array consisting of 22 geophones. Artificial velocity models were created to determine the ease with which different CO2 plume locations and sizes can be detected. Most likely because of the poor geophone arrangement, a low velocity zone in the Desert Creek reservoir can only be detected when regions of test site containing the highest ray path coverage are considered. MVA accuracy and precision may be improved through the use of a receiver array that provides more comprehensive ray path coverage.

  6. The design of an air sampling system using the High-Volume Inertial Sampler: and a comparison of the system to the Vertical Elutriator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arsenault, Joseph Alphonse

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -restricting valve were added to the sampling element. A field test was conducted at a textile mill. A total of 68 air samples were taken--32 with Vertical Elutriators (VE's) and 36 with HVIS's. A comparison of the results showed that the two sampler types... measured similar concen- trations of cotton dust, Statistical analyses of the results revealed that the HVIS has a higher cut-point than the VE but that the geometric standard deviations of the two samplers were not significantly different...

  7. Strain relaxation and enhanced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in BiFeO{sub 3}:CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} vertically aligned nanocomposite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wenrui; Jiao, Liang; Li, Leigang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Jian, Jie; Khatkhatay, Fauzia; Chu, Frank [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Chen, Aiping [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Jia, Quanxi [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Wang, Haiyan, E-mail: wangh@ece.tamu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

    2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-assembled BiFeO{sub 3}:CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (BFO:CFO) vertically aligned nanocomposite thin films have been fabricated on SrTiO{sub 3} (001) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. The strain relaxation mechanism between BFO and CFO with a large lattice mismatch has been studied by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The as-prepared nanocomposite films exhibit enhanced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy as the BFO composition increases. Different anisotropy sources have been investigated, suggesting that spin-flop coupling between antiferromagnetic BFO and ferrimagnetic CFO plays a dominant role in enhancing the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy.

  8. BENCH SCALE SALTSTONE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT MIXING STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cozzi, A.; Hansen, E.

    2011-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop a bench scale test facility, using a mixer, transfer pump, and transfer line to determine the impact of conveying the grout through the transfer lines to the vault on grout properties. Bench scale testing focused on the effect the transfer line has on the rheological property of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Rheological and other physical properties of grout samples were obtained prior to and after pumping through a transfer line. The Bench Scale Mixing Rig (BSMR) consisted of two mixing tanks, grout feed tank, transfer pump and transfer hose. The mixing tanks were used to batch the grout which was then transferred into the grout feed tank. The contents of the feed tank were then pumped through the transfer line (hose) using a progressive cavity pump. The grout flow rate and pump discharge pressure were monitored. Four sampling stations were located along the length of the transfer line at the 5, 105 and 205 feet past the transfer pump and at 305 feet, the discharge of the hose. Scaling between the full scale piping at Saltstone to bench scale testing at SRNL was performed by maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. The results of scaling down resulted in a shorter transfer line, a lower average velocity, the same transfer time and similar pressure drops. The condition of flow in the bench scale transfer line is laminar. The flow in the full scale pipe is in the transition region, but is more laminar than turbulent. The resulting plug in laminar flow in the bench scale results in a region of no-mixing. Hence mixing, or shearing, at the bench scale should be less than that observed in the full scale, where this plug is non existent due to the turbulent flow. The bench scale tests should be considered to be conservative due to the highly laminar condition of flow that exists. Two BSMR runs were performed. In both cases, wall shearing was shown to reduce the rheological properties of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Samples taken at the static feed tank showed that gelling impacted the rheological properties of the grout before it was fed into the pump and transfer line. A comparison of the rheological properties of samples taken at the feed tank and transfer line discharge indicated shearing of the grout was occurring in the transfer line. Bench scale testing of different mixing methods with three different salt solutions showed that method of mixing influences the rheological properties of the grouts. The paddle blade mixing method of the salt solution used for the BMSR testing provided comparable rheological properties of the grout prepared in the BMSR after 14 minutes of processing, B3. The paddle blade mixing method can be used to represent BMSR results and mixing time can be adjusted to represent larger scale mixing.

  9. Role of algal aggregation in vertical carbon export during SOIREE and in other low biomass environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, George

    Role of algal aggregation in vertical carbon export during SOIREE and in other low biomass induced an increase in phytoplankton biomass, but do not necessarily trigger increases in carbon export particles via coagulation. We demonstrate that in low biomass regions, where concentrations do not reach

  10. Page 1 of 21 Vertical integration in a growing industry: security of supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aickelin, Uwe

    Electricity Policy Research Group, Judge Business School University of Cambridge Abstract The global decade. We focus on the top 30 global manufacturers and 10 additional regional/national firms: Bio-ethanol, Biofuel, Ethanol, Governance, Industry evolution, Value Chain, Vertical Integration 1

  11. Vertical Integration in a Growing Industry: Security of Supply and Market Access in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aickelin, Uwe

    of top 30 global + 10 regional ethanol manufacturers Results: Waves of consolidation and vertical biofuels for road transport Bio-diesel : vegetable oil based substitute for diesel Bio-ethanol : alcohol of history (in Brazil) but global rolled out began in early 2000. 1st generation technology is rather mature

  12. Growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanowalls for inverted polymer solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    Growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanowalls for inverted polymer solar cells Zhiqiang Liang a,n a School of Material Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, PR China b May 2013 Keywords: Inverted polymer solar cells Zinc oxide Nanowalls Aqueous solution growth a b s t r

  13. Vertical eddy diffusion and nutrient supply to the surface mixed layer of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) during the Southern Ocean Iron Enrichment Experiment (SOIREE) provided confirmed that the SF6 patch was well constrained by surface mapping, with the decline in total SF6 showing to calculate the mean effective vertical diffusivity Kz from the diapycnal transfer of SF6, with complementary

  14. Compact fluorescent lamp using horizontal and vertical insulating septums and convective venting geometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, M.

    1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel design is described for a compact fluorescent lamp, including a lamp geometry which will increase light output and efficacy of the lamp in a base down operating position by providing horizontal and vertical insulating septums positioned in the ballast compartment of the lamp to provide a cooler coldspot. Selective convective venting provides additional cooling of the ballast compartment. 9 figs.

  15. Friction of partially embedded vertically aligned carbon nanofibers inside Burak Aksak and Metin Sittia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Seth Copen

    Friction of partially embedded vertically aligned carbon nanofibers inside elastomers Burak Aksak partially embedded inside polyurethane eVACNFs are proposed as a robust high friction fibrillar material and selective oxygen plasma etching, fibers are partially released up to 5 m length. Macroscale friction

  16. Vertical Pillar-Superlattice Array and Graphene Hybrid Light Emitting Diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Vertical Pillar-Superlattice Array and Graphene Hybrid Light Emitting Diodes Jung Min Lee, Jae a class of light emitting diode (LED) with interesting mechanical, optical, and electrical characteristics, light-emitting diodes, 3D architectures, transparent electrodes V ertical arrays of one-dimensional (1D

  17. Test plan for the 34 meter vertical axis wind turbine test bed located at Bushland, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephenson, W.A.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A plan is presented for the testing and evaluation of a new 500 kw vertical axis wind turbine test bed. The plan starts with the initial measurements made during construction, proceeds through evaluation of the design, the development of control methods, and finally to the test bed phase where new concepts are evaluated and in-depth studies are performed.

  18. Modeling multifrequency eddy current sensor interactions during vertical Bridgman growth of semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Modeling multifrequency eddy current sensor interactions during vertical Bridgman growth methods have been used to analyze the responses of two ``absolute'' and ``differential'' eddy current conductivity ratio increases. Of the materials studied, GaAs is found best suited for eddy current sensing

  19. Inferring Propagation Direction of Nonlinear Internal Waves in a Vertically Sheared Background Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelley, Dan

    Inferring Propagation Direction of Nonlinear Internal Waves in a Vertically Sheared Background Flow are resistant to heaving. The beamwise method provides accurate predictions of wave propagation angle for cases 2005). Determining the wave propagation di- rection, so that one may in turn identify potential lo

  20. High-Resolution Simulation of Hurricane Bonnie (1998). Part I: The Organization of Eyewall Vertical Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pu, Zhaoxia

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Motion SCOTT A. BRAUN Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Branch, Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA Goddard-induced wavenumber-1 asymmetry, the instantaneous vertical motion is typically associated with deep updraft towers. The updrafts towers are typically associated with eyewall mesovortices rotating cyclonically around the eyewall

  1. Predicting and testing continental vertical motion histories since the Paleozoic Nan Zhang a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Shijie

    topography continental vertical motion thermochronology Dynamic topography at the Earth's surface caused with the surface plate motion history, we compute dynamic topography and its his- tory for the last 400 Ma Dynamic topography is the surface deflection induced by mantle con- vection driven by sub

  2. RATE SENSITIVITY OF PLASTIC FLOW AND IMPLICATIONS FOR YIELD-SURFACE VERTICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RATE SENSITIVITY OF PLASTIC FLOW AND IMPLICATIONS FOR YIELD-SURFACE VERTICES Jwo PAN Stress; in recked form 29 Norember 1982) &tract-When crystalline slip is considered as the micromechanism of plastic sensitivity of plastic flow may be central to understanding the ambiguous conclusions from experimental

  3. Production of vertical arrays of small diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hauge, Robert H; Xu, Ya-Qiong

    2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A hot filament chemical vapor deposition method has been developed to grow at least one vertical single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). In general, various embodiments of the present invention disclose novel processes for growing and/or producing enhanced nanotube carpets with decreased diameters as compared to the prior art.

  4. Numerical study of natural convection in a vertical porous annulus with discrete heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez, John M.

    Numerical study of natural convection in a vertical porous annulus with discrete heating M. Sankar online 20 December 2010 Keywords: Natural convection Annulus Discrete heating Porous medium Radii ratio to discrete heating. The outer wall is maintained iso- thermally at a lower temperature, while the top

  5. 1 Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically 2 confined, horizontal aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neufeld, Jerome A.

    1 Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically 2 confined, horizontal] Injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into saline aquifers is a promising tool for reducing 6 anthropogenic CO2 emissions. At reservoir conditions, the injected CO2 is buoyant relative 7 to the ambient groundwater

  6. Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically confined, horizontal aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huppert, Herbert

    Spreading and convective dissolution of carbon dioxide in vertically confined, horizontal aquifers of carbon dioxide (CO2) into saline aquifers is a promising tool for reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions. At reservoir conditions, the injected CO2 is buoyant relative to the ambient groundwater. The buoyant plume

  7. Neuro-fuzzy control of vertical vibrations in railcars using magnetorheological dampers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atray, Vipul Sunil

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Control of vertical vibrations in a railcar is a critical issue that has been addressed by many researchers in the past. This thesis presents a new approach to solving the problem by using a semi-active viscous damper in tandem with a neuro...

  8. Design and analysis of a 5-MW vertical-fluted-tube condenser for geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Llewellyn, G.H.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and analysis of an industtial-sized vertical-fluted-tube condenser. The condenser is used to condense superheated isobutane vapor discharged from a power turbine in a geothermal test facility operated for the US Department of Energy. The 5-MW condenser has 1150 coolant tubes in a four-pass configuration with a total heat transfer area of 725 m/sup 2/ (7800 ft/sup 2/). The unit is being tested at the Geothermal Components Test Facility in the Imperial Valley of East Mesa, California. The condenser design is based on previous experimental research work done at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on condensing refrigerants on a wide variety of single vertical tubes. Condensing film coefficients obtained on the high-performance vertical fluted tubes in condensing refrigerants are as much as seven times greater than those obtained with vertical smooth tubes that have the same diameter and length. The overall heat transfer performance expected from the fluted tube condenser is four to five times the heat transfer obtained from the identical units employing smooth tubes. Fluted tube condensers also have other direct applications in the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) program in condensing ammonia, in the petroleum industry in condensing light hydrocarbons, and in the air conditioning and refrigeration industry in condensing fluorocarbon vapors.

  9. Use of a Vertical Vorticity Equation in Variational Dual-Doppler Wind Analysis ALAN SHAPIRO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Jidong

    is explored. The analysis winds are obtained by minimizing a cost function accounting for the discrepanciesUse of a Vertical Vorticity Equation in Variational Dual-Doppler Wind Analysis ALAN SHAPIRO School equation in a weak-constraint (least squares error) variational dual-Doppler wind analysis procedure

  10. EVALUATION OF MODELS FOR THE VERTICAL EXTRAPOLATION OF WIND SPEED MEASUREMENTS AT OFFSHORE SITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    will come from offshore sites. The first large offshore wind farms are currently being built in severalEVALUATION OF MODELS FOR THE VERTICAL EXTRAPOLATION OF WIND SPEED MEASUREMENTS AT OFFSHORE SITES important for offshore wind energy utilisation are discussed and tested: Four models for the surface

  11. MODELLING THE VERTICAL WIND SPEED AND TURBULENCE INTENSITY PROFILES AT PROSPECTIVE OFFSHORE WIND FARM SITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    in Europe will come from offshore sites. The first large offshore wind farms are currently being builtMODELLING THE VERTICAL WIND SPEED AND TURBULENCE INTENSITY PROFILES AT PROSPECTIVE OFFSHORE WIND for conditions important for offshore wind energy utilisation are compared and tested: Four models

  12. MODELLING THE VERTICAL WIND SPEED AND TURBULENCE INTENSITY PROFILES AT PROSPECTIVE OFFSHORE WIND FARM SITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    MODELLING THE VERTICAL WIND SPEED AND TURBULENCE INTENSITY PROFILES AT PROSPECTIVE OFFSHORE WIND important for offshore wind energy utilisation are discussed and tested: Four models for the surface tested with data from the offshore field measurement Rødsand by extrapolating the measured 10 m wind

  13. Patterned Growth of Vertically Aligned SWNTs through Liquid-based Catalyst Manipulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    -assembled monolayer (SAM) and then selectively removing the SAM by ultraviolet (UV) light, the catalyst can be dip the fabrication procedure of hydrophilic/hydrophobic patterns using a selective removal of OTS SAM by UV exposure; (b) SEM images of random and vertically aligned SWNT line-shape patterns. *Email address: maruyama

  14. Coupled-resonator vertical-cavity lasers with two active gain regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Arthur J.; Choquette, Kent D.; Chow, Weng W.

    2003-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of coupled-resonator vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers has been developed. These lasers have multiple resonant cavities containing regions of active laser media, resulting in a multi-terminal laser component with a wide range of novel properties.

  15. Case Study: Visualizing Ocean Flow Vertical Motions using LagrangianEulerian Time Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erlebacher, Gordon

    are interested in the long-term effects of these depth changes. When the thermocline moves up or down, upwelling survive [3]. Regions of upwelling (upward vertical motion) often contain an abundance of maritime life. The movement of ocean fronts, eddies, and internal waves effect the thermocline depth and oceanographers

  16. GEOLOGY, July 2008 539 The origin of the vertical motions of East Greenland is a long-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podladchikov, Yuri

    GEOLOGY, July 2008 539 ABSTRACT The origin of the vertical motions of East Greenland is a long uplift in central East Greenland. Because the North Atlantic is rimmed by young glacially carved mountain, Greenland, numerical modeling. INTRODUCTION The coastal landscapes of the fjords of the North Atlantic Ocean

  17. The origin of steep vertical stellar distribution in the Galactic disk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arunima Banerjee; Chanda J. Jog

    2007-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past two decades observations have revealed that the vertical density distribution of stars in galaxies near the mid-plane is substantially steeper than the sech^2 function that is expected from an isothermal approximation. However, the physical origin for this has not been explained so far. Here we show that such steep profiles result naturally even within the isothermal regime, on taking into account the gravitational force due to the gas. Due to its low velocity dispersion the gas is concentrated closer to the galactic mid-plane than the stars, and hence it strongly affects the vertical stellar distribution even though its contribution to the total surface density is small. We apply a three-component galactic disk model consisting of gravitationally coupled stars and the HI and H_2 gas, embedded in the dark matter halo, and calculate the vertical density distribution of stars for the Galaxy. The resulting vertical density distribution of stars is shown to be steeper than the sech^2 function, and lies between the sech and an exponential function, in good agreement with observations of galaxies. We also show that a multi-component stellar disk consisting of coupled dwarfs and two populations of giants does not explain the observed steep stellar profiles.

  18. The vertical voltage termination technique characterizations of single die multiple 600V power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The vertical voltage termination technique ­ characterizations of single die multiple 600V power.grenoble-inp.fr Abstract-- Deep trench terminations are commonly known as a technique to achieve ideal breakdown voltages for high voltage devices. This paper presents the use of deep trench terminations as an original concept

  19. Vertical motions of the Puerto Rico Trench and Puerto Rico and their cause

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ten Brink, Uri S.

    Vertical motions of the Puerto Rico Trench and Puerto Rico and their cause Uri ten Brink U; accepted 15 February 2005; published 22 June 2005. [1] The Puerto Rico trench exhibits great water depth of the Puerto Rico trench, its forearc, and the island of Puerto Rico that took place 3.3 m.y. ago over a time

  20. Vertical Heat Transport by Ocean Circulation and the Role of Mechanical and Haline Forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    England, Matthew

    suggest that heat can be pumped downward by the upper limb of the meridional overturning circulation the earth's climate, with the upper 2.5 m of the ocean able to store as much heat as the entire atmosphereVertical Heat Transport by Ocean Circulation and the Role of Mechanical and Haline Forcing JAN D

  1. Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2013 Green Towers Vertical Aquaponic Microfarm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    to be organized and stored inside of the container via the shelving system. Objectives The objective of the project was to design a grow bed and shelving support structure for the vertical garden as well as conduct to create a list of needs for the grow bed and shelving support structure Researched relevant patents

  2. Vertical design of cubic GaN-based high electron mobility transistors R. Granzner,1,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    As, Donat Josef

    Vertical design of cubic GaN-based high electron mobility transistors R. Granzner,1,a) E. Tschumak 2011; accepted 24 October 2011; published online 1 December 2011) Cubic (zinc blende) AlGaN=GaN heterostructures for application in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors are investigated theoretically

  3. Diameter-Controlled and Nitrogen-Doped Vertically Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Theerapol Thurakitsereea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    controlled and vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes were synthesized from pure and mixed ethanol/acetonitrile feedstock. With increasing acetonitrile concentration in the feedstock, nitrogen incorporation into the sp2], methane [8], acetylene [9], ethylene [10], or other organic chemical sources [11]. Acetonitrile (CH3CN

  4. Near-wall modeling of an isothermal vertical wall using one-dimensional turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DesJardin, Paul E.

    [5]. The challenge in modeling this class of flows is the coupling between the heat transfer approaches are considered for describing the heat transfer from a vertical isothermal wall. In this approach at the wall surface and the generation of turbulence from buoyancy forces, which in turn, affect

  5. A Continuous ` \\Gamma oe Vertical Coordinate for a Baroclinic Model of the Atmospheric Circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drake, John B.

    meteorolgoical coordinate system is developed which can support a continuous isentropic­ oe vertical coordinate and boundary layer approximations were addressed by the introduction of a hybrid (patched) model [15]. By use analysis [14, 8]. The effects of heating on the circulation are most clearly seen with the isentropic

  6. Cirrus cloud simulations using WRF with improved radiation parameterization and increased vertical resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    and aerosolcloudradiation interactions. With the newly implemented radiation scheme, the simulations of cloud cover:10.1029/2010JD014574. 1. Introduction [2] Cirrus clouds cover about 20% of the Earth's surface and showed that the effects of radiative processes and vertical transports are both significant in cirrus

  7. Heat and Mass Transfer in Fires: Scaling Laws and their Application 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torero, Jose L

    Fire is a phenomenon that covers a multiplicity of scales depending on the different processes involved. Length scales range from the nanometres when addressing material flammability to the kilometres when dealing with ...

  8. Design, fabrication and mechanical optimization of multi-scale anisotropic feet for terrestrial locomotion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morin, Jeffrey W. (Jeffrey William)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-scale surface interaction methods have been studied to achieve optimal locomotion over surface features of differing length scales. It has been shown that anisotropy is a convenient way of transferring an undirected ...

  9. FAST Code Verification of Scaling Laws for DeepCwind Floating Wind System Tests: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, A.; Robertson, A. N.; Jonkman, J. M.; Goupee, A. J.; Kimball, R. W.; Swift, A. H. P.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates scaling laws that were adopted for the DeepCwind project for testing three different floating wind systems at 1/50 scale in a wave tank under combined wind and wave loading.

  10. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Salt Marsh Vegetation across Scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Daehyun

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Biogeographic patterns across a landscape are developed by the interplay of environmental processes operating at different spatial and temporal scales. This research investigated dynamics of salt marsh vegetation on the Skallingen salt marsh...

  11. Cryogenic system for the Energy Recovery Linac and vertical test facility at BNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Than, R.; Soria, V.; Lederle, D.; Orfin, P.; Porqueddu, R.; Talty, P.; Zhang, Y.; Tallerico, T.; Masi, L.

    2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A small cryogenic system and warm helium vacuum pumping system provides cooling to either the Energy Recovery Linac's (ERL) cryomodules that consist of a 5-cell cavity and an SRF gun or a large Vertical Test Dewar (VTD) at any given time. The cryogenic system consists of a model 1660S PSI piston plant, a 3800 liter storage dewar, subcooler, a wet expander, a 50 g/s main helium compressor, and a 170 m{sup 3} storage tank. A system description and operating plan of the cryogenic plant and cryomodules is given. The cryogenic system for ERL and the Vertical Test Dewar has a plant that can produce the equivalent of 300W at 4.5K with the addition of a wet expander 350 W at 4.5K. Along with this system, a sub-atmospheric, warm compression system provides pumping to produce 2K at the ERL cryomodules or the Vertical Test Dewar. The cryogenic system for ERL and the Vertical Test Dewar makes use of existing equipment for putting a system together. It can supply either the ERL side or the Vertical Test Dewar side, but not both at the same time. Double valve isolation on the liquid helium supply line allows one side to be warmed to room temperature and worked on while the other side is being held at operating temperature. The cryogenic system maintain the end loads from 4.4K to 2K or colder depending on capacity. Liquid helium storage dewar capacity allows ERL or the VTD to operate above the plant's capacity when required and ERL cryomodules ballast reservoirs and VTD reservoir allows the end loads to operate on full vacuum pump capacity when required.

  12. An alternative scaling solution for high-energy QCD saturation with running coupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beuf, Guillaume

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of approximate scaling compatible with the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation with running coupling is found, which is different from the previously known running coupling geometric scaling. The corresponding asymptotic traveling wave solution is derived. Although featuring different scaling behaviors, the two solutions are complementary approximations of the same universal solution, and they become equivalent in the high energy limit. The new type of scaling is observed in the small-x DIS data.

  13. An alternative scaling solution for high-energy QCD saturation with running coupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillaume Beuf

    2008-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of approximate scaling compatible with the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation with running coupling is found, which is different from the previously known running coupling geometric scaling. The corresponding asymptotic traveling wave solution is derived. Although featuring different scaling behaviors, the two solutions are complementary approximations of the same universal solution, and they become equivalent in the high energy limit. The new type of scaling is observed in the small-x DIS data.

  14. Development of a 1-butanol reference scale dynamic olfactometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sorel, James Edward

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT Development of a 1-butanol Reference Scale Dynamic Olfactometer. (December 1982) James Edward Sorel, B. A. S. U. N. Y. at Buffalo; Chairman of Advisory Committee: Harry J. Suggs A portable 1-butanol reference scale dynamic olfactometer has... Presentation 6, Scale Steps sd, Scale Steps n Grouping* Descending Ascending Random 0. 031 -0. 040 -0. 061 0. 545 285 A 0. 565 285 A B 0. 475 285 B * Means with the same letter are not significantly different. The population means, 6, of observations...

  15. Turbulent magnetic fields in the quiet Sun: implications of Hinode observations and small-scale dynamo simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonathan Pietarila Graham; Sanja Danilovic; Manfred Schuessler

    2009-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Using turbulent MHD simulations (magnetic Reynolds numbers up to 8000) and Hinode observations, we study effects of turbulence on measuring the solar magnetic field outside active regions. Firstly, from synthetic Stokes V profiles for the FeI lines at 630.1 and 630.2 nm, we show that a peaked probability distribution function (PDF) for observationally-derived field estimates is consistent with a monotonic PDF for actual vertical field strengths. Hence, the prevalence of weak fields is greater than would be naively inferred from observations. Secondly, we employ the fractal self-similar geometry of the turbulent solar magnetic field to derive two estimates (numerical and observational) of the true mean vertical unsigned flux density. We also find observational evidence that the scales of magnetic structuring in the photosphere extend at least down to an order of magnitude smaller than 200 km: the self-similar power-law scaling in the signed measure from a Hinode magnetogram ranges (over two decades in length scales and including the granulation scale) down to the 200 km resolution limit. From the self-similar scaling, we determine a lower bound for the true quiet-Sun mean vertical unsigned flux density of ~50 G. This is consistent with our numerically-based estimates that 80% or more of the vertical unsigned flux should be invisible to Stokes-V observations at a resolution of 200 km owing to the cancellation of signal from opposite magnetic polarities. Our estimates significantly reduce the order-of-magnitude discrepancy between Zeeman- and Hanle-based estimates.

  16. Vertical Ozone Profiling at UMBS K. O'Donnell, T. Jobson, M. Erickson, T. Vanreken, W. Wallace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Vertical Ozone Profiling at UMBS K. O'Donnell, T. Jobson, M. Erickson, T. Vanreken, W. Wallace been done to determine vertical ozone profiles, especially in environments such as the northern mixed forest where this field campaign is being run. What past research that has been done has shown that ozone

  17. Cs deposition and vertical migration in soils from Argentina J. Juri Ayub, M. Rizzotto, J. Toso, H. Velasco

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    1 137 Cs deposition and vertical migration in soils from Argentina J. Juri Ayub, M. Rizzotto, J), Universidad Nacional de San Luis. CONICET. Ejército de los Andes 950, 5700 San Luis, Argentina Abstract. Vertical migration of 137 Cs global fallout was studied in soils from Argentina. The sampling area

  18. Functional MR imaging of the awake monkey in a novel vertical large-bore 7 Tesla setup J. Pfeuffer1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jegelka, Stefanie

    Functional MR imaging of the awake monkey in a novel vertical large-bore 7 Tesla setup J. Pfeuffer1 , J. Pauls1 , M. Augath1 , T. Steudel1 , H. Merkle2 , N. K. Logothetis1 1 Max Planck InstituteMRI results in the awake trained monkey (Macaca mulatta) using a novel vertical 7T/60cm MR system are reported

  19. Estimation of light penetration, and horizontal and vertical visibility in oceanic and coastal waters from surface reflectance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babin, Marcel

    Estimation of light penetration, and horizontal and vertical visibility in oceanic and coastal penetration, and horizontal and vertical visibility in oceanic and coastal waters from surface reflectance, J. The algorithms are found to be valid both in coastal and oceanic waters, and largely insensitive to regional

  20. Boiling heat transfer in a vertical microchannel: Local estimation during flow boiling with a non intrusive method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boiling heat transfer in a vertical microchannel: Local estimation during flow boiling with a non the results of experimental and numerical studies concerning boiling heat transfer inside vertical in minichannels for several gravity levels (µg, 1g, 2g). To fully understand the high heat transfer potential

  1. The DC field components of horizontal and vertical electric dipole sources immersed in three-layered stratified media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    for the solution in the case of horizontal electric dipole (HED) radiation source and the single-component HertzThe DC field components of horizontal and vertical electric dipole sources immersed in three- ponents of the static (DC) fields of horizontal electric dipoles ( HEDs) and vertical electric dipoles

  2. The San Jose Scale.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conradi, Albert F.

    1906-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for controlling the scale. The most important spray mixtures in use are lime-sulphur salt, lime-sulphur, whale oil soap, kero? sene, crude petroleum, Kero-water, and kerosene or crude oil emulsions. All these preparations are mainly winter sprays, being applied... applied while cold, however, it clogs the apparatus and causes considerable inconven? ience in getting it on the tree. It is more expensive than the Lime- Sulphur wash. i I o . B I 3 I 2 In some States coal oil or kerosene has been experimented...

  3. The San Jose Scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conradi, Albert F.

    1906-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of which caused a violent cooking. After the lime had been slaked the salt was added ^ and the entire mixture violently boiled for 45 minutes, when it became a dark amber color. It was applied while hot. This ap? plication was made to peach trees... for controlling the scale. The most important spray mixtures in use are lime-sulphur salt, lime-sulphur, whale oil soap, kero? sene, crude petroleum, Kero-water, and kerosene or crude oil emulsions. All these preparations are mainly winter sprays, being applied...

  4. Megawatt Electrolysis Scale Up

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), OctoberMay 18-19, 2004MW Electrolysis Scale Up E

  5. NSF SCALE-UP GRANT ANNUAL REPORT 1998 The goal of the Student Centered Activities for Large Enrollment University Physics (SCALE-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saul, Jeffery M.

    NSF SCALE-UP GRANT ANNUAL REPORT 1998 Summary The goal of the Student Centered Activities for Large Enrollment University Physics (SCALE- UP) is to create and study an introductory calculus-based physics student group. The SCALE-UP curriculum is different from other integrated research-based introductory

  6. Scaling for the Lorentz force: particle orbits Just like we did for the generalized Ohm's law, we can scale the Lorentz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Michael R.

    Scaling for the Lorentz force: particle orbits Just like we did for the generalized Ohm's law, we can scale the Lorentz force law to see what the "natural scaling" of the equations are. A problem it easier to compare different systems (say SSX with ion orbits of cm and the solar wind with ion orbits

  7. Electrochemically synthesized visible light absorbing vertically aligned N-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube array films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antony, Rajini P. [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India)] [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Mathews, Tom, E-mail: dr.tom.mathews@gmail.com [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India)] [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Ajikumar, P.K. [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India)] [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Krishna, D. Nandagopala [Corrosion Science and Technology Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India)] [Corrosion Science and Technology Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Dash, S.; Tyagi, A.K. [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India)] [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Single step electrochemical synthesis of N-doped TiO{sub 2} nanotube array films. ? Effective substitutional N-doping achieved. ? Different N-concentrations were achieved by varying the N-precursor concentration in the electrolyte. ? Visible light absorption observed at high N-doping. -- Abstract: Visible light absorbing vertically aligned N-doped anatase nanotube array thin films were synthesized by anodizing Ti foils in ethylene glycol + NH{sub 4}F + water mixture containing urea as nitrogen source. Different nitrogen concentrations were achieved by varying the urea content in the electrolyte. The structure, morphology, composition and optical band gap of the nanotube arrays were determined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, respectively. The substitution of O{sup 2?} ions by N{sup 3?} ions in the anion sublattice as well as the formulae of the doped samples was confirmed from the results of XPS. The optical band gap of the nanotube arrays was found to decrease with N-concentration. The sample with the highest concentration corresponding to the formula TiO{sub 1.83}N{sub 0.14} showed two regions in the Tauc's plot indicating the presence of interband states.

  8. Scaling of chaos in strongly nonlinear lattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulansky, Mario, E-mail: mulansky@pks.mpg.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Potsdam University, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany) [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Potsdam University, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik komplexer Systeme, Nöthnitzer Str. 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik, TU Dresden, Zellescher Weg 17, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Although it is now understood that chaos in complex classical systems is the foundation of thermodynamic behavior, the detailed relations between the microscopic properties of the chaotic dynamics and the macroscopic thermodynamic observations still remain mostly in the dark. In this work, we numerically analyze the probability of chaos in strongly nonlinear Hamiltonian systems and find different scaling properties depending on the nonlinear structure of the model. We argue that these different scaling laws of chaos have definite consequences for the macroscopic diffusive behavior, as chaos is the microscopic mechanism of diffusion. This is compared with previous results on chaotic diffusion [M. Mulansky and A. Pikovsky, New J. Phys. 15, 053015 (2013)], and a relation between microscopic chaos and macroscopic diffusion is established.

  9. Miniaturized electron-impact-ionization pumps using double-gated isolated vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayanty, Vivi

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a need for microscale vacuum pumps that can be readily integrated with other MEMS and electronic components at the chip-scale level. Miniaturized ion pumps exhibit favorable scaling down because they are surface-limited ...

  10. Forbidden vertices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ... x ? 0} be an unbounded polyhedron such that vert(Q) ? {0, 1}n. In [3], it is shown that given the linear description of Q and a list X ? vert(Q), it is NP-hard to

  11. Report (Vertical)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Technical s o Freiberge s 3 % A PB 2 7 7 2 x> - ^Rep. RushLANS

  12. Report (Vertical)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Technical s o Freiberge s 3 % A PB 2 7 7 2 x> - ^Rep.

  13. Report (Vertical)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Technical s o Freiberge s 3 % A PB 2 7 7 2 x> - ^Rep.LANS

  14. Influence by small dispersive coal dust particles of different fractional consistence on characteristics of iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neklyudov, I M; Fedorova, L I; Poltinin, P Ya

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main purpose of research is to determine the influence by the small dispersive coal dust particles of the different fractional consistence on the technical characteristics of the vertical iodine air filter at nuclear power plant. The research on the transport properties of the small dispersive coal dust particles in the granular filtering medium of absorber in the vertical iodine air filter is completed in the case, when the modeled aerodynamic conditions are similar to the real aerodynamic conditions. It is shown that the appearance of the different fractional consistence of small dispersive coal dust particles with the decreasing dimensions down to the micro and nano sizes at the action of the air dust aerosol stream normally results in a significant change of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles masses in the granular filtering medium of an absorber in the vertical iodine air filter, changing the vertical iodine air filter aerodynamic characteristics. The precise characterization of...

  15. The Filter Difference Spectrometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Difference Spectrometer (FDS) is used for molecular vibrational spectroscopy by inelastic neutron scattering. The instrument is designed for high count rates by use of large...

  16. Temperature scaling in a dense vibro-fluidised granular material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Sunthar; V. Kumaran

    1999-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The leading order "temperature" of a dense two dimensional granular material fluidised by external vibrations is determined. An asymptotic solution is obtained where the particles are considered to be elastic in the leading approximation. The velocity distribution is a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution in the leading approximation. The density profile is determined by solving the momentum balance equation in the vertical direction, where the relation between the pressure and density is provided by the virial equation of state. The predictions of the present analysis show good agreement with simulation results at higher densities where theories for a dilute vibrated granular material, with the pressure-density relation provided by the ideal gas law, are in error. The theory also predicts the scaling relations of the total dissipation in the bed reported by McNamara and Luding (PRE v 58, p 813).

  17. Dye alignment in luminescent solar concentrators: I. Vertical alignment for improved waveguide coupling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulder, Carlijn L.; Reusswig, Phil D.; Velazquez, Amador M.; Kim, Heekyung; Rotschild, Carmel; Baldo, Marc

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) use dye molecules embedded in a flat-plate waveguide to absorb solar radiation. Ideally, the dyes re-emit the absorbed light into waveguide modes that are coupled to solar cells. But some photons are always lost, re-emitted through the face of the LSC and coupled out of the waveguide. In this work, we improve the fundamental efficiency limit of an LSC by controlling the orientation of dye molecules using a liquid crystalline host. First, we present a theoretical model for the waveguide trapping efficiency as a function of dipole orientation. Next, we demonstrate an increase in the trapping efficiency from 66% for LSCs with no dye alignment to 81% for a LSC with vertical dye alignment. Finally, we show that the enhanced trapping efficiency is preserved for geometric gains up to 30, and demonstrate that an external diffuser can alleviate weak absorption in LSCs with vertically-aligned dyes.

  18. THE VERTICAL COMPOSITION OF NEUTRINO-DOMINATED ACCRETION DISKS IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Tong; Xue, Li; Gu, Wei-Min; Lu, Ju-Fu, E-mail: tongliu@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)] [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the vertical structure and element distribution of neutrino-dominated accretion flows around black holes in spherical coordinates using the reasonable nuclear statistical equilibrium. According to our calculations, heavy nuclei tend to be produced in a thin region near the disk surface, whose mass fractions are primarily determined by the accretion rate and vertical distribution of temperature and density. In this thin region, we find that {sup 56}Ni is dominant for the flow with a low accretion rate (e.g., 0.05 M {sub Sun} s{sup -1}), but {sup 56}Fe is dominant for the flow with a high accretion rate (e.g., 1 M {sub Sun} s{sup -1}). The dominant {sup 56}Ni in the aforementioned region may provide a clue to understanding the bumps in the optical light curve of core-collapse supernovae.

  19. Metrology for x-ray telescope mirrors in a vertical configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Haizhang; Li, Xiaodan; Grindel, M.W.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mirrors used in x-ray telescope systems for observations outside of the earth`s atmosphere are usually made of several thin nested shells, each formed by a pair of paraboloidal and hyperboloidal surfaces. The thin shells are very susceptible to self-weight deflection caused by gravity and are nearly impossible to test by conventional interferometric techniques. The metrology requirements for these mirrors are extremely challenging. This paper presents a prototype of a Vertical Scanning Long Trace Profiler (VSLTP) which is optimized to measure the surface figure of x-ray telescope mirrors in a vertical orientation. The optical system of the VSLTP is described. Experimental results from measurements on an x-ray telescope mandrel and tests of the accuracy and repeatability of the prototype VSLTP are presented. The prototype instrument has achieved a height measurement accuracy of about 50 nanometers with a repeatability of better than 20 nanometers, and a slope measurement accuracy of about 1 microradian.

  20. Magnetotransport properties of quasi-one-dimensionally channeled vertically aligned heteroepitaxial nanomazes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Aiping; Zhang, Wenrui; Khatkhatay, Fauzia; Su, Qing; Tsai, Chen-Fong; Chen, Li; Wang, H., E-mail: wangh@ece.tamu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Jia, Q. X. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)] [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A unique quasi-one-dimensionally channeled nanomaze structure has been self-assembled in the (La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}){sub 1?x}:(ZnO){sub x} vertically aligned nanocomposites (VANs). Significantly enhanced magnetotransport properties have been achieved by tuning the ZnO composition x. The heteroepitaxial VAN thin films, free of large angle grain boundaries, exhibit a maximum low-field magnetoresistance (LFMR) of 75% (20?K and 1?T). The enhanced LFMR close to the percolation threshold is attributed to the spin-polarized tunneling through the ferromagnetic/insulating/ferromagnetic vertical sandwiches in the nanomazes. This study suggests that the phase boundary in the nanomaze structure is an alternative approach to produce decoupled ferromagnetic domains and thus to achieve enhanced magnetoresistance.

  1. In situ oil shale retort with a generally T-shaped vertical cross section

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale and has a production level drift in communication with a lower portion of the fragmented mass for withdrawing liquid and gaseous products of retorting during retorting of oil shale in the fragmented mass. The principal portion of the fragmented mass is spaced vertically above a lower production level portion having a generally T-shaped vertical cross section. The lower portion of the fragmented mass has a horizontal cross sectional area smaller than the horizontal cross sectional area of the upper principal portion of the fragmented mass above the production level.

  2. The variable input coupler for the Fermilab Vertical Cavity Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Champion, Mark; Ginsburg, Camille M.; Lunin, Andrei; /Fermilab; Moeller, Wolf-Dietrich; /DESY; Nehring, Roger; Poloubotko, Valeri; /Fermilab

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variable input coupler has been designed for the Fermilab vertical cavity test facility (VCTF), a facility for CW RF vertical testing of bare ILC 1.3 GHz 9-cell SRF cavities at 2K, to provide some flexibility in the test stand RF measurements. The variable coupler allows the cavity to be critically coupled for all RF tests, including all TM010 passband modes, which will simplify or make possible the measurement of those modes with very low end-cell fields, e.g., {pi}/9 mode. The variable coupler assembly mounts to the standard input coupler port on the cavity, and uses a cryogenic motor submerged in superfluid helium to control the antenna position. The RF and mechanical design and RF test results are described.

  3. Pore-scale simulation of microbial growth using a genome-scale metabolic model: Implications for Darcy-scale reactive transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tartakovsky, Guzel D.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Fang, Yilin; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Lovley, Derek R.

    2013-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent advances in microbiology have enabled the quantitative simulation of microbial metabolism and growth based on genome-scale characterization of metabolic pathways and fluxes. We have incorporated a genome-scale metabolic model of the iron-reducing bacteria Geobacter sulfurreducens into a pore-scale simulation of microbial growth based on coupling of iron reduction to oxidation of a soluble electron donor (acetate). In our model, fluid flow and solute transport is governed by a combination of the Navier-Stokes and advection-diffusion-reaction equations. Microbial growth occurs only on the surface of soil grains where solid-phase mineral iron oxides are available. Mass fluxes of chemical species associated with microbial growth are described by the genome-scale microbial model, implemented using a constraint-based metabolic model, and provide the Robin-type boundary condition for the advection-diffusion equation at soil grain surfaces. Conventional models of microbially-mediated subsurface reactions use a lumped reaction model that does not consider individual microbial reaction pathways, and describe reactions rates using empirically-derived rate formulations such as the Monod-type kinetics. We have used our pore-scale model to explore the relationship between genome-scale metabolic models and Monod-type formulations, and to assess the manifestation of pore-scale variability (microenvironments) in terms of apparent Darcy-scale microbial reaction rates. The genome-scale model predicted lower biomass yield, and different stoichiometry for iron consumption, in comparisonto prior Monod formulations based on energetics considerations. We were able to fit an equivalent Monod model, by modifying the reaction stoichiometry and biomass yield coefficient, that could effectively match results of the genome-scale simulation of microbial behaviors under excess nutrient conditions, but predictions of the fitted Monod model deviated from those of the genome-scale model under conditions in which one or more nutrients were limiting. The fitted Monod kinetic model was also applied at the Darcy scale; that is, to simulate average reaction processes at the scale of the entire pore-scale model domain. As we expected, even under excess nutrient conditions for which the Monod and genome-scale models predicted equal reaction rates at the pore scale, the Monod model over-predicted the rates of biomass growth and iron and acetate utilization when applied at the Darcy scale. This discrepancy is caused by an inherent assumption of perfect mixing over the Darcy-scale domain, which is clearly violated in the pore-scale models. These results help to explain the need to modify the flux constraint parameters in order to match observations in previous applications of the genome-scale model at larger scales. These results also motivate further investigation of quantitative multi-scale relationships between fundamental behavior at the pore scale (where genome-scale models are appropriately applied) and observed behavior at larger scales (where predictions of reactive transport phenomena are needed).

  4. Emergence of Small-Scale Magnetic Loops in the Quiet Sun Internetwork

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Centeno; H. Socas-Navarro; B. Lites; M. Kubo; Z. Frank; R. Shine; T. Tarbell; A. Title; K. Ichimoto; S. Tsuneta; Y. Katsukawa; Y. Suematsu; T. Shimizu; S. Nagata

    2007-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the emergence of magnetic flux at very small spatial scales (less than 2 arcsec) in the quiet Sun internetwork. To this aim, a time series of spectropolarimetric maps was taken at disk center using the instrument SP/SOT on board Hinode. The LTE inversion of the full Stokes vector measured in the Fe I 6301 and 6302 A lines allows us to retrieve the magnetic flux and topology in the region of study. In the example presented here, the magnetic flux emerges within a granular structure. The horizontal magnetic field appears prior to any significant amount of vertical field. As time goes on, the traces of the horizontal field disappear while the the vertical dipoles drift -carried by the plasma motions- towards the surrounding intergranular lanes. These events take place within typical granulation timescales.

  5. Analysis of vertical resolution of seismic signals associated with a reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudgens, Eric Scott

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the detectability of the reservoir. 19 CHAPTER II WAVELET DECONVOLUTION INTRODUCTION Dynamite was used as the source in the seismic survey recorded at BCR 39. This type of source gives a seismic pulse whose duration is less than one millisecond (ms...ANALYSIS OF VERTICAL RESOLUTION OF SEISMIC SIGNALS ASSOCIATED WITH A RESERVOIR. A Thesis by ERIC SCOTT HUDGENS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  6. Vertices of Lie Modules Roger M. Bryant, Susanne Danz, Karin Erdmann, and Jrgen Mller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Jürgen

    Vertices of Lie Modules Roger M. Bryant, Susanne Danz, Karin Erdmann, and Jürgen Müller September 9 studied by Erdmann#21;Tan [14], and by Bryant#21;Lim#21;Tan [5]. By [5, Thm. 1.2], one has dim(Lie pr F (n to the principal block of FS n , and Bryant#21;Erdmann [4] have studied indecomposable direct sum decompositions

  7. Estimation of vertical permeability from production data of wells in bottom water drive reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tirek, Ali

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    test data. This method is applicable if the well is producing or infecting fluid at a constant mass rate of flow through one of the perforation intervals. Hirasaki proposed ver tical pulse testing to estimate vertical . 7 permeability. He described... to the perforation intervals. Practical application of the theoretical model proposed by Falade and Brigham was g1ven in a second paper by the same authors with special consideration of the boundary effects. Raghavan and Clark proposed a technique to estimate...

  8. Proposal for the development of 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deptuch, Gregory; Hoff, Jim; Kwan, Simon; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Ted; Ramberg, Erik; Todri, Aida; Yarema, Ray; /Fermilab; Demarteua, Marcel,; Drake, Gary; Weerts, Harry; /Argonne /Chicago U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Future particle physics experiments looking for rare processes will have no choice but to address the demanding challenges of fast pattern recognition in triggering as detector hit density becomes significantly higher due to the high luminosity required to produce the rare process. The authors propose to develop a 3D Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (VIPRAM) chip for HEP applications, to advance the state-of-the-art for pattern recognition and track reconstruction for fast triggering.

  9. Observation of slow light in the noise spectrum of a vertical external cavity surface emitting laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. El Amili; B. -X. Miranda; F. Goldfarb; G. Baili; G. Beaudoin; I. Sagnes; F. Bretenaker; M. Alouini

    2010-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of coherent population oscillations is evidenced in the noise spectrum of an ultra-low noise lasers. This effect is isolated in the intensity noise spectrum of an optimized single-frequency vertical external cavity surface emitting laser. The coherent population oscillations induced by the lasing mode manifest themselves through their associated dispersion that leads to slow light effects probed by the spontaneous emission present in the non-lasing side modes.

  10. Transition from Large-Scale to Small-Scale Dynamo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ponty, Y. [Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, B.P. 4229, Nice cedex 04 (France); Plunian, F. [Institut des Sciences de la Terre, CNRS, Universite Joseph Fourier, B.P. 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 09 (France)

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamo equations are solved numerically with a helical forcing corresponding to the Roberts flow. In the fully turbulent regime the flow behaves as a Roberts flow on long time scales, plus turbulent fluctuations at short time scales. The dynamo onset is controlled by the long time scales of the flow, in agreement with the former Karlsruhe experimental results. The is governed by a generalized {alpha} effect, which includes both the usual {alpha} effect and turbulent diffusion, plus all higher order effects. Beyond the onset we find that this generalized {alpha} effect scales as O(Rm{sup -1}), suggesting the takeover of small-scale dynamo action. This is confirmed by simulations in which dynamo occurs even if the large-scale field is artificially suppressed.

  11. VERTICAL STRUCTURE AND CORONAL POWER OF ACCRETION DISKS POWERED BY MAGNETOROTATIONAL-INSTABILITY TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uzdensky, Dmitri A., E-mail: uzdensky@colorado.edu [Center for Integrated Plasma Studies, Physics Department, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we consider two outstanding intertwined problems in modern high-energy astrophysics: (1) the vertical-thermal structure of an optically thick accretion disk heated by the dissipation of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI), and (2) determining the fraction of the accretion power released in the corona above the disk. For simplicity, we consider a gas-pressure-dominated disk and assume a constant opacity. We argue that the local turbulent dissipation rate due to the disruption of the MRI channel flows by secondary parasitic instabilities should be uniform across most of the disk, almost up to the disk photosphere. We then obtain a self-consistent analytical solution for the vertical thermal structure of the disk, governed by the balance between the heating by MRI turbulence and the cooling by radiative diffusion. Next, we argue that the coronal power fraction is determined by the competition between the Parker instability, viewed as a parasitic instability feeding off of MRI channel flows, and other parasitic instabilities. We show that the Parker instability inevitably becomes important near the disk surface, leading to a certain lower limit on the coronal power. While most of the analysis in this paper focuses on the case of a disk threaded by an externally imposed vertical magnetic field, we also discuss the zero net flux case, in which the magnetic field is produced by the MRI dynamo itself, and show that most of our arguments and conclusions should be valid in this case as well.

  12. Properties of vertically self-gravitating accretion discs with a dissipative corona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fazeleh Khajenabi; Peter Duffy

    2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The steady-state structure of a disc with a corona is analyzed when the vertical component of the gravitational force due to the self-gravity of the disc is considered. For the energy exchange between the disc and the corona, we assume a fraction f of the dissipated energy inside the accretion disc is transported to the corona via the magnetic tubes. Analytical solutions corresponding to a prescription for f (in which this parameter directly depends on the ratio of the gas pressure to the total pressure) or free f are presented and their physical properties are studied in detail. We show that the existence of the corona not only decreases the temperature of the disc, but also increases the surface density.The vertical component of the gravitational force due to the self-gravity of the disc decreases the self-gravitating radius and the mass of the fragments at this radius. However, as more energy is transported from the disc to the corona, the effect of the vertical component of the gravitational force due to the self-gravity of the disc on the self-gravitating radius becomes weaker, though the mass of the fragments is reduced irrespective of the amount of the energy exchange from the disc to the corona.

  13. Strain-induced vertical self-organization of semiconductor quantum dots: A computational study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shtinkov, N., E-mail: nshtinkov@uottawa.ca [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa (Ontario) K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomistic strain simulations based on the valence force field method are employed to study the vertical arrangements of semiconductor quantum dot (QD) multilayers. The effects of the QD shape, dimensions, and materials parameters are systematically investigated, varying independently the following parameters: spacer width H, QD lateral spacing D, base b, and height h, slope of the side facets, elastic properties of the dot and the substrate materials, and lattice mismatch between the dot and the substrate. The transition between vertically aligned and anti-aligned structures is found to be determined mainly by the ratios H/D and b/D, as well as by the strain anisotropy of the substrate and to a lesser extent of the QD. The dependence on the QD height h is significant only for steep side facets and large aspect ratios h/b, and the effects of the lattice mismatch strain and the bulk elastic moduli are found to be negligible. The comparison with experimental data shows an excellent agreement with the results from the simulations, demonstrating that the presented analysis results in precise theoretical predictions for the vertical self-organization regime in a wide range of QD materials systems.

  14. DUSEL Facility Cooling Water Scaling Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daily, W D

    2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Precipitation (crystal growth) in supersaturated solutions is governed by both kenetic and thermodynamic processes. This is an important and evolving field of research, especially for the petroleum industry. There are several types of precipitates including sulfate compounds (ie. barium sulfate) and calcium compounds (ie. calcium carbonate). The chemical makeup of the mine water has relatively large concentrations of sulfate as compared to calcium, so we may expect that sulfate type reactions. The kinetics of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO4 {center_dot} 2H20, gypsum) scale formation on heat exchanger surfaces from aqueous solutions has been studied by a highly reproducible technique. It has been found that gypsum scale formation takes place directly on the surface of the heat exchanger without any bulk or spontaneous precipitation in the reaction cell. The kinetic data also indicate that the rate of scale formation is a function of surface area and the metallurgy of the heat exchanger. As we don't have detailed information about the heat exchanger, we can only infer that this will be an issue for us. Supersaturations of various compounds are affected differently by temperature, pressure and pH. Pressure has only a slight affect on the solubility, whereas temperature is a much more sensitive parameter (Figure 1). The affect of temperature is reversed for calcium carbonate and barium sulfate solubilities. As temperature increases, barium sulfate solubility concentrations increase and scaling decreases. For calcium carbonate, the scaling tendencies increase with increasing temperature. This is all relative, as the temperatures and pressures of the referenced experiments range from 122 to 356 F. Their pressures range from 200 to 4000 psi. Because the cooling water system isn't likely to see pressures above 200 psi, it's unclear if this pressure/scaling relationship will be significant or even apparent. The most common scale minerals found in the oilfield include calcium carbonates (CaCO3, mainly calcite) and alkaline-earth metal sulfates (barite BaSO4, celestite SrSO4, anhydrite CaSO4, hemihydrate CaSO4 1/2H2O, and gypsum CaSO4 2H2O or calcium sulfate). The cause of scaling can be difficult to identify in real oil and gas wells. However, pressure and temperature changes during the flow of fluids are primary reasons for the formation of carbonate scales, because the escape of CO2 and/or H2S gases out of the brine solution, as pressure is lowered, tends to elevate the pH of the brine and result in super-saturation with respect to carbonates. Concerning sulfate scales, the common cause is commingling of different sources of brines either due to breakthrough of injected incompatible waters or mixing of two different brines from different zones of the reservoir formation. A decrease in temperature tends to cause barite to precipitate, opposite of calcite. In addition, pressure drops tend to cause all scale minerals to precipitate due to the pressure dependence of the solubility product. And we can expect that there will be a pressure drop across the heat exchanger. Weather or not this will be offset by the rise in pressure remains to be seen. It's typically left to field testing to prove out. Progress has been made toward the control and treatment of the scale deposits, although most of the reaction mechanisms are still not well understood. Often the most efficient and economic treatment for scale formation is to apply threshold chemical inhibitors. Threshold scale inhibitors are like catalysts and have inhibition efficiency at very low concentrations (commonly less than a few mg/L), far below the stoichiometric concentrations of the crystal lattice ions in solution. There are many chemical classes of inhibitors and even more brands on the market. Based on the water chemistry it is anticipated that there is a high likelihood for sulfate compound precipitation and scaling. This may be dependent on the temperature and pressure, which vary throughout the system. Therefore, various types and amounts of scaling may occur at different

  15. Modeling vertical beta-diversity in tropical butterfly communities Thomas R. Walla, Steinar Engen, Philip J. DeVries and Russell Lande

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Devries, Philip J.

    Modeling vertical beta-diversity in tropical butterfly communities Thomas R. Walla, Steinar Engen vertical beta- diversity in tropical butterfly communities. Á/ Oikos 107: 610Á/618. We present a novel of structure present. Beta-diversity (MacArthur

  16. Resilience of Social Networks Under Different Attack Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latif, Mohammad Ayub; Zaidi, Faraz

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent years have seen the world become a closely connected society with the emergence of different types of social networks. Online social networks have provided a way to bridge long distances and establish numerous communication channels which were not possible earlier. These networks exhibit interesting behavior under intentional attacks and random failures where different structural properties influence the resilience in different ways. In this paper, we perform two sets of experiments and draw conclusions from the results pertaining to the resilience of social networks. The first experiment performs a comparative analysis of four different classes of networks namely small world networks, scale free networks, small world-scale free networks and random networks with four semantically different social networks under different attack strategies. The second experiment compares the resilience of these semantically different social networks under different attack strategies. Empirical analysis reveals interesti...

  17. Modeling basin- and plume-scale processes of CO2 storage for full-scale deployment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Q.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    exhibits varying rock properties in the vertical direction,Spatial Variability of Rock Properties The large number ofthe geologic model, rock properties, and in situ conditions

  18. The Long Scale Properties of Dense Electrolytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mingnan Ding; Yihao Liang; Bing-Sui Lu; Xiangjun Xing

    2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we combine phenomenological, numerical, and analytical approaches to explore the long scale statistical properties of dense electrolytes. In the first part, we present a phenomenological framework. We show that the potential of mean force (PMF) for an ion with charge $q$ inside a {\\em weak} background of mean potential $\\phi$ is nonlinear in $q$, and linear but {\\em nonlocal} in $\\phi$. From this, we derive all the long scale properties of the system, including the linear response theory of mean potential, the effective interaction between two ions, and the large scale structures of electric double layers, as well as the renormalized charge of a neutral particle. We also discuss the connection and difference between our theory and the {\\em Dressed Ion Theory} developed by Kjellander and Mitchell in 1990's. In the second part, we discuss the numerical method that is used to extract various renormalized quantities from Monte Carlo simulation data, as well as some numerical results that demonstrate the internal consistency of our theory. In the third part, we develop a systematic analytic formalism for the PMF of an ion in a weak background potential. We apply this formalism to study the primitive model, and calculate all renormalized parameters up to the second order of ion valences. These analytic results agree, both qualitatively and quantitatively, with our large scale MC simulations.

  19. Inflation from Broken Scale Invariance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Csaba Csaki; Nemanja Kaloper; Javi Serra; John Terning

    2014-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct a model of inflation based on a low-energy effective theory of spontaneously broken global scale invariance. This provides a shift symmetry that protects the inflaton potential from quantum corrections. Since the underlying scale invariance is non-compact, arbitrarily large inflaton field displacements are readily allowed in the low-energy effective theory. A weak breaking of scale invariance by almost marginal operators provides a non-trivial inflaton minimum, which sets and stabilizes the final low-energy value of the Planck scale. The underlying scale invariance ensures that the slow-roll approximation remains valid over large inflaton displacements, and yields a scale invariant spectrum of perturbations as required by the CMB observations.

  20. PILOT-SCALE FIELD VALIDATION OF THE LONG ELECTRODE ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY TOMOGRAPHY METHOD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GLASER DR; RUCKER DF; CROOK N; LOKE MH

    2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Field validation for the long electrode electrical resistivity tomography (LE-ERT) method was attempted in order to demonstrate the performance of the technique in imaging a simple buried target. The experiment was an approximately 1/17 scale mock-up of a region encompassing a buried nuclear waste tank on the Hanford site. The target of focus was constructed by manually forming a simulated plume within the vadose zone using a tank waste simulant. The LE-ERT results were compared to ERT using conventional point electrodes on the surface and buried within the survey domain. Using a pole-pole array, both point and long electrode imaging techniques identified the lateral extents of the pre-formed plume with reasonable fidelity, but the LE-ERT was handicapped in reconstructing the vertical boundaries. The pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays were also tested with the LE-ERT method and were shown to have the least favorable target properties, including the position of the reconstructed plume relative to the known plume and the intensity of false positive targets. The poor performance of the pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays was attributed to an inexhaustive and non-optimal coverage of data at key electrodes, as well as an increased noise for electrode combinations with high geometric factors. However, when comparing the model resolution matrix among the different acquisition strategies, the pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays using long electrodes were shown to have significantly higher average and maximum values than any pole-pole array. The model resolution describes how well the inversion model resolves the subsurface. Given the model resolution performance of the pole-dipole and dipole-dipole arrays, it may be worth investing in tools to understand the optimum subset of randomly distributed electrode pairs to produce maximum performance from the inversion model.

  1. Scaling of structural failure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazant, Z.P. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Chen, Er-Ping [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article attempts to review the progress achieved in the understanding of scaling and size effect in the failure of structures. Particular emphasis is placed on quasibrittle materials for which the size effect is complicated. Attention is focused on three main types of size effects, namely the statistical size effect due to randomness of strength, the energy release size effect, and the possible size effect due to fractality of fracture or microcracks. Definitive conclusions on the applicability of these theories are drawn. Subsequently, the article discusses the application of the known size effect law for the measurement of material fracture properties, and the modeling of the size effect by the cohesive crack model, nonlocal finite element models and discrete element models. Extensions to compression failure and to the rate-dependent material behavior are also outlined. The damage constitutive law needed for describing a microcracked material in the fracture process zone is discussed. Various applications to quasibrittle materials, including concrete, sea ice, fiber composites, rocks and ceramics are presented.

  2. Large scale tracking algorithms.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett; Karelitz, David B.; Pitts, Todd Alan; Zollweg, Joshua David; Anderson, Dylan Z.; Nandy, Prabal; Whitlow, Gary L.; Bender, Daniel A.; Byrne, Raymond Harry

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  3. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136: 11911204, July 2010 Part A Effect of improving representation of horizontal and vertical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Robin

    2010 Part A Effect of improving representation of horizontal and vertical cloud structure on the Earth a new way of representing both horizontal and vertical cloud structure in a radiation scheme representation of horizontal and vertical cloud structure on the Earth's global radiation budget. Part I: Review

  4. A combined isotropic and multiple s-shell anisotropic scaling method for multiple data sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takusagawa, Fusao

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by combining an isotropic scaling function, K(s) = A exp (Bs2), and a multiple s-shell anisotropic scaling function, K(x)s = ([Sigma] [Sigma] cijxij)s. This combined scaling function can greatly reduce the systematic differences in intensities among multiple...

  5. Comparative examination of scale-explicit biological and physical processes: recruitment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Comparative examination of scale-explicit biological and physical processes: recruitment of Pacific that operate at different spatial and temporal scales. Rate diagrams plot and contour ratios of process rates as a function of spatial and temporal scale to summarize the relative importance of demographics, growth

  6. A Scaleless Snake: Tests of the Role of Reptilian Scales in Water Loss and Heat Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bennett, Albert F.

    A Scaleless Snake: Tests of the Role of Reptilian Scales in Water Loss and Heat Transfer Reprinted: Tests of the Role of Reptilian Scales in Water Loss and Heat Transfer A unique specimen of gopher snake of pulmocutaneous water loss and heat transfer, no difference was observed between the scale- less animal

  7. Scale Insects on Ornamental Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muegge, Mark A.; Merchant, Michael E.

    2000-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Scale insects on o rnamental plants B-6097 8-00 Mark A. Muegge and Michael Merchant* M any species of scale insects damage land- scape plants, shrubs and trees. Scale insects insert their mouthparts into plant tissues and suck out the sap. When... period. Most species never move again in their lives. Scale insects feed by inserting their hairlike mouth- parts into plant tissue and siphoning the plant?s sap. While feeding, many species excrete a sweet, sticky liquid referred to as ?honeydew...

  8. Isotopic Scaling in Nuclear Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. B. Tsang; W. A. Friedman; C. K. Gelbke; W. G. Lynch; G. Verde; H. Xu

    2001-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A three parameter scaling relationship between isotopic distributions for elements with Z$\\leq 8$ has been observed that allows a simple description of the dependence of such distributions on the overall isospin of the system. This scaling law (termed iso-scaling) applies for a variety of reaction mechanisms that are dominated by phase space, including evaporation, multifragmentation and deeply inelastic scattering. The origins of this scaling behavior for the various reaction mechanisms are explained. For multifragmentation processes, the systematics is influenced by the density dependence of the asymmetry term of the equation of state.

  9. A Comparison of Platform Options for Deep-water Floating Offshore Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: An Initial Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bull, Diana L; Fowler, Matthew; Goupee, Andrew

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This analysis utilizes a 5 - MW VAWT topside design envelope created by Sandia National Laborator ies to compare floating platform options fo r each turbine in the design space. The platform designs are based on two existing designs, the OC3 Hywind spar - buoy and Principal Power's WindFloat semi - submersible. These designs are scaled using Froude - scaling relationships to determine an appropriately sized spar - buoy and semi - submersible design for each topside. Both the physical size of the required platform as well as mooring configurations are considered. Results are compared with a comparable 5 - MW HAWT in order to identify potential differences in the platform and mooring sizing between the VAWT and HAWT . The study shows that there is potential for cost savings due to reduced platform size requirements for the VAWT.

  10. Scale, scaling and multifractals in geophysics: twenty Shaun Lovejoy1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    Scale, scaling and multifractals in geophysics: twenty years on Shaun Lovejoy1 and Daniel Schertzer number of degrees of freedom approaches to nonlin- ear geophysics: a) the transition from fractal are generally necessary for geophysical applications. We illustrate these ideas with data analyses from both

  11. Thorium-234 as a tracer of spatial, temporal and vertical variability in particle flux in the North Pacific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, David A.

    Thorium-234 as a tracer of spatial, temporal and vertical variability in particle flux in the North Available online 16 April 2009 Keywords: Thorium-234 Particle flux Sediment trap Scavenging North Pacific

  12. Evolution of vertical drafts and cloud-to-ground lightning within the convective region of a mesoscale convective complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saul, Scott Henry

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The evolution of the area-averaged vertical velocity within the objectively defined convective region of the 4 June 1985 PRE-STORM (Preliminary Regional Experiment for Stormscale Operational and Research Meteorology-Central Phase) mesoscale...

  13. Film boiling on the inside of vertical tubes with upward flow of the fluid at low qualities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dougall, R. S.

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flow regimes, local heat transfer coefficients, and temperature distributions along the wall have been studied for film boiling inside a vertical tube with upward flow of a saturated liquid. The area of interest has been ...

  14. Vertical composition gradient effects on original hydrocarbon in place volumes and liquid recovery for volatile oil and gas condensate reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo Arias, Juan Manuel

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Around the world, volatile oil and retrograde gas reservoirs are considered as complex thermodynamic systems and even more when they exhibit vertical composition variations. Those systems must be characterized by an equation of state (EOS...

  15. Industrial Scale Demonstration of Smart Manufacturing Achieving...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Scale Demonstration of Smart Manufacturing Achieving Transformational Energy Productivity Gains Industrial Scale Demonstration of Smart Manufacturing Achieving...

  16. Vertical integration of an InGaAsP/InP heterojunction bipolar transistor and a double heterostructure laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, T.R.; Utaka, K.; Zhuang, Y.H.; Liu, Y.Y.; Yariv, A.

    1987-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A double heterostructure InGaAsP/InP mesa laser and a mass transport laser were integrated vertically with an InGaAsP/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor, resulting in the first realization of laser operation in a vertical integration. Laser thresholds as low as 17 mA and an output laser power of over 30 mW were observed. A new type of bistable laser and electro-optical switching were demonstrated.

  17. Vertical distribution of larval stages of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.), in relation to manure pat temperature gradients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    March, Philip Anderson

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VERTICAL DISTRISUTION OF LARVAL STAGES OF THE HORN FLY, HAEMATOBIA IRRITANS IRRITANS (L. ), IN RELATION TO MANURE PAT TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS A Thesis by PHILIP ANDERSON MARCH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AijM University... in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1981 Major Subject: Entomology VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF LARVAL STAGES OF THE HORN FLY, HAEMATOBIA IRRITANS IRRITANS (L. ), IN RELATION TO MANURE PAT TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS...

  18. Inertia and scaling in deterministic lateral displacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drazer, Timothy J Bowman German

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to separate and analyze chemical species with high resolution, sensitivity, and throughput is central to the development of microfluidics systems. Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) is a continuous separation method based on the transport of species through an array of obstacles. In the case of force-driven DLD (f-DLD), size-based separation can be modelled effectively using a simple particle-obstacle collision model. We use a macroscopic model to study f-DLD and demonstrate, via a simple scaling, that the method is indeed predominantly a size-based phenomenon at low Reynolds numbers. More importantly, we demonstrate that inertia effects provide the additional capability to separate same size particles but of different densities and could enhance separation at high throughput conditions. We also show that a direct conversion of macroscopic results to microfluidic settings is possible with a simple scaling based on the size of the obstacles that results in a universal curve.

  19. Anisotropic small-scale constraints on energy in rotating stratified turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Susan Kurien; Beth Wingate; Mark Taylor

    2007-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Rapidly rotating, stably stratified three-dimensional inviscid flows conserve both energy and potential enstrophy. We show that in such flows, the forward cascade of potential enstrophy imposes anisotropic constraints on the wavenumber distribution of kinetic and potential energy. The horizontal kinetic energy is suppressed in the large, nearly horizontal wave modes, and should decay with the horizontal wavenumber as $k_h^{-3}$. The potential energy is suppressed in the large, nearly vertical wave modes, and should decay with the vertical wavenumber as $k_z^{-3}$. These results augment the only other exact prediction for the scaling of energy spectra due to constraints by potential enstrophy obtained by Charney (J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1087 (1971)), who showed that in the quasi-geostrophic approximation for rotating stratified flows, the energy spectra must scale isotropically with total wavenumber as $k^{-3}$. We test our predicted scaling estimates using resolved numerical simulations of the Boussinesq equations in the relevant parameter regimes, and find reasonable agreement.

  20. Implicit Scaling in Ecological Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    - sion, and abstruse structures, such as communities and ecosystems. The diversity of organisms and eco. It was our supposition that the often unrecognized relation- ship between organism/concept and scale should- ination, we hope to raise ecologists' awareness of scale-dependent rela- tionships among organisms and eco

  1. Mineral dissolution kinetics at the pore scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, L.; Steefel, C.I.; Yang, L.

    2007-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Mineral dissolution rates in the field have been reported to be orders of magnitude slower than those measured in the laboratory, an unresolved discrepancy that severely limits our ability to develop scientifically defensible predictive or even interpretive models for many geochemical processes in the earth and environmental sciences. One suggestion links this discrepancy to the role of physical and chemical heterogeneities typically found in subsurface soils and aquifers in producing scale-dependent rates where concentration gradients develop. In this paper, we examine the possibility that scale-dependent mineral dissolution rates can develop even at the single pore and fracture scale, the smallest and most fundamental building block of porous media. To do so, we develop two models to analyze mineral dissolution kinetics at the single pore scale: (1) a Poiseuille Flow model that applies laboratory-measured dissolution kinetics at the pore or fracture wall and couples this to a rigorous treatment of both advective and diffusive transport, and (2) a Well-Mixed Reactor model that assumes complete mixing within the pore, while maintaining the same reactive surface area, average flow rate, and geometry as the Poiseuille Flow model. For a fracture, a 1D Plug Flow Reactor model is considered in addition to quantify the effects of longitudinal versus transverse mixing. The comparison of averaged dissolution rates under various conditions of flow, pore size, and fracture length from the three models is used as a means to quantify the extent to which concentration gradients at the single pore and fracture scale can develop and render rates scale-dependent. Three important minerals that dissolve at widely different rates, calcite, plagioclase, and iron hydroxide, are considered. The modeling indicates that rate discrepancies arise primarily where concentration gradients develop due to comparable rates of reaction and advective transport, and incomplete mixing via molecular diffusion. The magnitude of the reaction rate is important, since it is found that scaling effects (and thus rate discrepancies) are negligible at the single pore and fracture scale for plagioclase and iron hydroxide because of the slow rate at which they dissolve. In the case of calcite, where dissolution rates are rapid, scaling effects can develop at high flow rates from 0.1 cm/s to 1000 cm/s and for fracture lengths less than 1 cm. At more normal flow rates, however, mixing via molecular diffusion is effective in homogenizing the concentration field, thus eliminating any discrepancies between the Poiseuille Flow and the Well-Mixed Reactor model. This suggests that a scale dependence to mineral dissolution rates is unlikely at the single pore or fracture scale under normal geological/hydrologic conditions, implying that the discrepancy between laboratory and field rates must be attributed to other factors.

  2. GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY OF ROTATING, PRESSURE-CONFINED, POLYTROPIC GAS DISKS WITH VERTICAL STRATIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Kim, Woong-Tae [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Young Min; Hong, Seung Soo, E-mail: jgkim@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: seo3919@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: sshong@astro.snu.ac.kr [FPRD, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the gravitational instability (GI) of rotating, vertically stratified, pressure-confined, polytropic gas disks using a linear stability analysis as well as analytic approximations. The disks are initially in vertical hydrostatic equilibrium and bounded by a constant external pressure. We find that the GI of a pressure-confined disk is in general a mixed mode of the conventional Jeans and distortional instabilities, and is thus an unstable version of acoustic-surface-gravity waves. The Jeans mode dominates in weakly confined disks or disks with rigid boundaries. On the other hand, when the disk has free boundaries and is strongly pressure confined, the mixed GI is dominated by the distortional mode that is surface-gravity waves driven unstable under their own gravity and thus incompressible. We demonstrate that the Jeans mode is gravity-modified acoustic waves rather than inertial waves and that inertial waves are almost unaffected by self-gravity. We derive an analytic expression for the effective sound speed c{sub eff} of acoustic-surface-gravity waves. We also find expressions for the gravity reduction factors relative to a razor-thin counterpart that are appropriate for the Jeans and distortional modes. The usual razor-thin dispersion relation, after correcting for c{sub eff} and the reduction factors, closely matches the numerical results obtained by solving a full set of linearized equations. The effective sound speed generalizes the Toomre stability parameter of the Jeans mode to allow for the mixed GI of vertically stratified, pressure-confined disks.

  3. Influence by small dispersive coal dust particles of different fractional consistence on characteristics of iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. M. Neklyudov; O. P. Ledenyov; L. I. Fedorova; P. Ya. Poltinin

    2013-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The main purpose of research is to determine the influence by the small dispersive coal dust particles of the different fractional consistence on the technical characteristics of the vertical iodine air filter at nuclear power plant. The research on the transport properties of the small dispersive coal dust particles in the granular filtering medium of absorber in the vertical iodine air filter is completed in the case, when the modeled aerodynamic conditions are similar to the real aerodynamic conditions. It is shown that the appearance of the different fractional consistence of small dispersive coal dust particles with the decreasing dimensions down to the micro and nano sizes at the action of the air dust aerosol stream normally results in a significant change of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles masses in the granular filtering medium of an absorber in the vertical iodine air filter, changing the vertical iodine air filter aerodynamic characteristics. The precise characterization of the aerodynamic resistance of a model of the vertical iodine air filter is completed. The comparative analysis of the technical characteristics of the vertical and horizontal iodine air filters is also made.

  4. Scaling of Lyapunov exponents in chaotic delay systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Jüngling; Wolfgang Kinzel

    2012-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The scaling behavior of the maximal Lyapunov exponent in chaotic systems with time-delayed feedback is investigated. For large delay times it has been shown that the delay-dependence of the exponent allows a distinction between strong and weak chaos, which are the analogy to strong and weak instability of periodic orbits in a delay system. We find significant differences between scaling of exponents in periodic or chaotic systems. We show that chaotic scaling is related to fluctuations in the linearized equations of motion. A linear delay system including multiplicative noise shows the same properties as the deterministic chaotic systems.

  5. Random wave forces on a free-to-surge vertical cylinder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sajonia, Charles Blake

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ' the fluid, and D is the diameter of thc pile or cylinder. The total wave induced force acting on the cylinder is considered as the sum of a viscous drag force component and an inertia component. VVhen the structure moves in response to hydrodynamic loads... Morison Equation The principle objective of this research is to gain insight into the applications and limitations ol the relative motion form of the Morison equation for the prediction of hydrodynamic forces on a free-to-surge vertical cylinder...

  6. CFD Validation of Gas Injection in Flowing Mercury over Vertical Smooth and Grooved Wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL; Wendel, Mark W [ORNL; Felde, David K [ORNL; Riemer, Bernie [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).The nuclear spallation reaction occurs when a proton beam hits liquid mercury. This interaction causes thermal expansion of the liquid mercury which produces high pressure waves. When these pressure waves hit the target vessel wall, cavitation can occur and erode the wall. Research and development efforts at SNS include creation of a vertical protective gas layer between the flowing liquid mercury and target vessel wall to mitigate the cavitation damage erosion and extend the life time of the target. Since mercury is opaque, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used as a diagnostic tool to see inside the liquid mercury and guide the experimental efforts. In this study, CFD simulations of three dimensional, unsteady, turbulent, two-phase flow of helium gas injection in flowing liquid mercury over smooth, vertically grooved and horizontally grooved walls are carried out with the commercially available CFD code Fluent-12 from ANSYS. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) model is used to track the helium-mercury interface. V-shaped vertical and horizontal grooves with 0.5 mm pitch and about 0.7 mm depth were machined in the transparent wall of acrylic test sections. Flow visualization data of helium gas coverage through transparent test sections is obtained with a high-speed camera at the ORNL target test facility (TTF). The helium gas mass flow rate is 8 mg/min and introduced through a 0.5 mm diameter port. The local mercury velocity is 0.9 m/s. In this paper, the helium gas flow rate and the local mercury velocity are kept constant for the three cases. Time integration of predicted helium gas volume fraction over time is done to evaluate the gas coverage and calculate the average thickness of the helium gas layer. The predicted time-integrated gas coverage over vertically grooved and horizontally grooved test sections is better than over a smooth wall. The simulations show that the helium gas is trapped inside the grooves. The predicted time-averaged gas coverage is in good qualitative agreement with the measured gas coverage.

  7. Effect of Ionic Stabilization on Vertical Movement in Expansive Subgrade Soils in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hariharan, Narain

    2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    of loss of serviceability (?PSI) using the measured Mr and vertical movement values. The iii analysis indicate a significant reduction in drop of Mr values of the lime and EcSS-3000 treated soils and a marked improvement in cracking and subgrade... rutting characteristics of the pavements. An average reduction in ?PSI of the pavements by 0.2 to 0.3 points was observed on the stabilized soils. This study on expansive subgrades and the associated effects of ionic stabilization have yielded...

  8. Control Mechanisms for the Growth of Isolated Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkulov, Vladimir I [ORNL; Hensley, Dale K [ORNL; Melechko, Anatoli Vasilievich [ORNL; Guillorn, M. A. [Cornell University; Lowndes, Douglas H [ORNL; Simpson, Michael L [ORNL

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isolated vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) have been grown using dc plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and the effects of the growth conditions on VACNF morphology and composition have been determined in substantial detail. The dependence of the growth rate, tip and base diameters, and chemical composition of isolated VACNFs on the growth parameters is described, including the effects of plasma power and gas mixture. Phenomenological models explaining the observed growth behavior are presented. The results indicate the importance of plasma control for the deterministic growth of isolated VACNFs, which are promising elements for the fabrication of practical nanoscale devices.

  9. Method and apparatus for drilling horizontal holes in geological structures from a vertical bore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Summers, David A. (Rolla, MO); Barker, Clark R. (Rolla, MO); Keith, H. Dean (Rolla, MO)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is directed to a method and apparatus for drilling horizontal holes in geological strata from a vertical position. The geological structures intended to be penetrated in this fashion are coal seams, as for in situ gasification or methane drainage, or in oil-bearing strata for increasing the flow rate from a pre-existing well. Other possible uses for this device might be for use in the leaching of uranium ore from underground deposits or for introducing horizontal channels for water and steam injections.

  10. Formation and transportation of sand-heap in an inclined and vertically vibrated container

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guoqing Miao; Kai Huang; Yi Yun; Peng Zhang; Weizhong Chen; Xinlong Wang; Rongjue Wei

    2005-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the experimental findings of formation and motion of heap in granular materials in an inclined and vertically vibrated container. We show experimentally how the transport velocity of heap up container is related to the driving acceleration as well as the driving frequency of exciter. An analogous experiment was performed with a heap-shaped Plexiglas block. We propose that cohesion force resulted from pressure gradient in ambient gas plays a crucial role in enhancing and maintaining a heap, and ratchet effect causes the movement of the heap. An equation which governs the transport velocity of the heap is presented.

  11. -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 vertical component

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 vertical component horizontal component -1 -0.5 0.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 diagonal component horizontal component -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 upper brother horizontal component -1 -0.5 0.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 left brother horizontal component Figure 12: Contour plots of the log

  12. A photoelastic study of rectangular beams in bending with a hole on the vertical center line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, James Fletcher

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . To plot the stress concentration factors in the tested beams so that they may be used in design work. 4. To compare the results of this study with those obtained by Cox (1)~, Morgan (2), and Lindsay (3) . * Numbers in parentheses refer to references... that the maximum stresses occurred at one of four points on each of the beams tested. The four points of stress concentration were at the top or bottom of the beam and of the hole. In a rectangular beam in bending, without a hole on the vertical center line...

  13. Vertical transport and dynamic size distribution of New Bedford Harbor sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Stephanie Carol

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    02? 1000 0 E 0 08 0 0 06- o IO OO. . " 6 Krone 1000 m 530 O. C 2- 120 0~~~1 oOI- Allersma 0 61- 0 I- 06- 06 04 06[ 02 0 0 2 4 8 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 Salinity (ppt) Fig. 8. - Variation of Particle Settling Velocity...VERTICAL ~SPORT AND DYNAMIC SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF NEW BEDFORD HARBOR SEDIMENTS A Thesis STEPHANIE CAROL SANDERS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&:M University in partia! fulfillment of the requuements for the degree...

  14. The effect of distributors on two-phase and three-phase flows in vertical columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ouyang, Chie-Jan Paul

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    been investigated in a 15. 2-centimeter internal diameter vertical column. Pressure drop across the dis- tributor and average phase hold-up were measured for two- phase and three-phase flows over flow ranges of' superficial gas velocity, 0 ? 25. 9... cm. /sec. and superficial liquid velocity, 0 ? 3. 46 cm. /sec. . Gas hold-up / pressure drop ratios were plotted against superficial gas velocity and liquid flow rate. From these plots it was found that the bubble cap was better at gas...

  15. Result of MHI 2-Cell Seamless Dumb-Bell Cavity Vertical Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okihira, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd, Mihara, Hiroshima, 729-0393, Japan; Hara, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd, Mihara, Hiroshima, 729-0393, Japan; Ikeda, N. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd, Mihara, Hiroshima, 729-0393, Japan; Inoue, F. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd, Mihara, Hiroshima, 729-0393, Japan; Sennyu, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd, Mihara, Hiroshima, 729-0393, Japan; Geng, Rongli [JLAB; Rimmer, Robert A. [JLAB; Kako, E. [KEK

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MHI have supplied several 9-cell cavities for STF (R&D of ILC project at KEK) and have been considering production method for stable quality and cost reduction, seamless dumb-bell cavity was one of them. We had fabricated a 2 cell seamless dumb-bell cavity for cost reduction and measured RF performance in collaboration with JLab, KEK and MHI. Surface treatment recipe for ILC was applied for MHI 2-cell cavity and vertical test was performed at JLab. The cavity reached Eacc=32.4MV/m after BCP and EP. Details of the result are reported.

  16. Vertical and horizontal test results of 3.9-GHz accelerating cavities at FNAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khabiboulline, T.; Edwards, H.; Foley, M.; Harms, E.; Hocker, James Andrew; Mitchell, D.; Rowe, A.; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 3rd harmonic 3.9GHz accelerating cavity was proposed to improve the beam performance of the VUV FEL, FLASH. In the frame of a collaborative agreement, Fermilab will provide DESY with a cryomodule containing a string of four cavities. Seven 9-cell Nb cavities were tested and six of them did reach accelerating gradient up to 24 MV/m almost twice more than design value of 14 MV/m. Two of these cavities are with new HOM couplers with improved design. In this paper we present all results of the vertical and horizontal tests.

  17. Method for accurate growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chalmers, S.A.; Killeen, K.P.; Lear, K.L.

    1995-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report a method for accurate growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The method uses a single reflectivity spectrum measurement to determine the structure of the partially completed VCSEL at a critical point of growth. This information, along with the extracted growth rates, allows imprecisions in growth parameters to be compensated for during growth of the remaining structure, which can then be completed with very accurate critical dimensions. Using this method, they can now routinely grow lasing VCSELs with Fabry-Perot cavity resonance wavelengths controlled to within 0.5%. 4 figs.

  18. Vertical Variability of Aerosols and Water Vapor Over the Southern Great Plains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps1 - USAFof EnergyVendorwinsVenue andVertical

  19. On scale and magnitude of pressure build-up induced by large-scale geologic storage of CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The scale and magnitude of pressure perturbation and brine migration induced by geologic carbon sequestration is discussed assuming a full-scale deployment scenario in which enough CO{sub 2} is captured and stored to make relevant contributions to global climate change mitigation. In this scenario, the volumetric rates and cumulative volumes of CO{sub 2} injection would be comparable to or higher than those related to existing deep-subsurface injection and extraction activities, such as oil production. Large-scale pressure build-up in response to the injection may limit the dynamic storage capacity of suitable formations, because over-pressurization may fracture the caprock, may drive CO{sub 2}/brine leakage through localized pathways, and may cause induced seismicity. On the other hand, laterally extensive sedimentary basins may be less affected by such limitations because (i) local pressure effects are moderated by pressure propagation and brine displacement into regions far away from the CO{sub 2} storage domain; and (ii) diffuse and/or localized brine migration into overlying and underlying formations allows for pressure bleed-off in the vertical direction. A quick analytical estimate of the extent of pressure build-up induced by industrial-scale CO{sub 2} storage projects is presented. Also discussed are pressure perturbation and attenuation effects simulated for two representative sedimentary basins in the USA: the laterally extensive Illinois Basin and the partially compartmentalized southern San Joaquin Basin in California. These studies show that the limiting effect of pressure build-up on dynamic storage capacity is not as significant as suggested by Ehlig-Economides and Economides, who considered closed systems without any attenuation effects.

  20. Hydranet: network support for scaling of large scale servic es

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chawla, Hamesh

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the explosive growth of demand for services on the Internet, the networking infrastructure (routers 7 protocols, servers) is under considerable stress. Mechanisms are needed for current and future IP services to scale in a client transparent...

  1. Scale Insects on Ornamental Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muegge, Mark A.; Merchant, Michael E.

    2000-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    of all insect groups. Scale insects are generally small ( 1 /4 inch long or less) and often mimic various plant parts, such as bark and buds. Other species appear as small, white, waxy blotches or small bits of cotton on leaves and stems. The one... crawlers are pre- sent, they will fall onto the paper, where you can eas- ily see them moving about. Using natural enemies to control scales Many natural enemies?small parasitic wasps, lady- bird beetles and some fungi?can significantly reduce scale insect...

  2. Homogeneous isotropic turbulence in dilute polymers: scale by scale budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. De Angelis; C. M. Casciola; R. Benzi; R. Piva

    2002-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The turbulent energy cascade in dilute polymers solution is addressed here by considering a direct numerical simulation of homogeneous isotropic turbulence of a FENE-P fluid in a triply periodic box. On the basis of the DNS data, a scale by scale analysis is provided by using the proper extension to visco-elastic fluids of the Karman-Howarth equation for the velocity. For the microstructure, an equation, analogous to the Yaglom equation for scalars, is proposed for the free-energy density associated to the elastic behavior of the material. Two mechanisms of energy removal from the scale of the forcing are identified, namely the classical non-linear transfer term of the standard Navier-Stokes equations and the coupling between macroscopic velocity and microstructure. The latter, on average, drains kinetic energy to feed the dynamics of the microstructure. The cross-over scale between the two corresponding energy fluxes is identified, with the flux associated with the microstructure dominating at small separations to become sub-leading above the cross-over scale, which is the equivalent of the elastic limit scale defined by De Gennes-Tabor on the basis of phenomenological assumptions.

  3. Vertical Structure of Neutrino Dominated Accretion Disks and Neutrino Transport in the disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhen Pan; Ye-Fei Yuan

    2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the vertical structure of neutrino dominated accretion disks by self-consistently considering the detailed microphysics, such as the neutrino transport, vertical hydrostatic equilibrium, the conservation of lepton number, as well as the balance between neutrino cooling, advection cooling and viscosity heating. After obtaining the emitting spectra of neutrinos and antineutrinos by solving the one dimensional Boltzmann equation of neutrino and antineutrino transport in the disk, we calculate the neutrino/antineutrino luminosity and their annihilation luminosity. We find that the total neutrino and antineutrino luminosity is about $10^{54}$ ergs/s and their annihilation luminosity is about $5\\times10^{51}$ ergs/s with an extreme accretion rate $10 M_{\\rm {sun}}$/s and an alpha viscosity $\\alpha=0.1$. In addition, we find that the annihilation luminosity is sensitive to the accretion rate and will not exceed $10^{50}$ ergs/s which is not sufficient to power the most fireball of GRBs, if the accretion rate is lower than $1 M_{\\rm {sun}}$/s. Therefore, the effects of the spin of black hole or/and the magnetic field in the accretion flow might be introduced to power the central engine of GRBs.

  4. New vertical cryostat for the high field superconducting magnet test station at CERN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vande Craen, A.; Atieh, S.; Bajko, M.; Benda, V.; Rijk, G. de; Favre, G.; Giloux, C.; Minginette, P.; Parma, V.; Perret, P.; Pirotte, O.; Ramos, D.; Viret, P. [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, Meyrin 1211, Geneva 23, CH (Switzerland); Hanzelka, P. [Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR, Kralovopolska 147, 612 64 Brno, CZ (Czech Republic)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In the framework of the R and D program for new superconducting magnets for the Large Hadron Collider accelerator upgrades, CERN is building a new vertical test station to test high field superconducting magnets of unprecedented large size. This facility will allow testing of magnets by vertical insertion in a pressurized liquid helium bath, cooled to a controlled temperature between 4.2 K and 1.9 K. The dimensions of the cryostat will allow testing magnets of up to 2.5 m in length with a maximum diameter of 1.5 m and a mass of 15 tons. To allow for a faster insertion and removal of the magnets and reducing the risk of helium leaks, all cryogenics supply lines are foreseen to remain permanently connected to the cryostat. A specifically designed 100 W heat exchanger is integrated in the cryostat helium vessel for a controlled cooling of the magnet from 4.2 K down to 1.9 K in a 3 m{sup 3} helium bath. This paper describes the cryostat and its main functions, focusing on features specifically developed for this project. The status of the construction and the plans for assembly and installation at CERN are also presented.

  5. A systematic approach to vertically excited states of ethylene using configuration interaction and coupled cluster techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feller, David, E-mail: dfeller@owt.com; Peterson, Kirk A. [Department of Chemistry, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-4630 (United States); Davidson, Ernest R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1700 (United States)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A systematic sequence of configuration interaction and coupled cluster calculations were used to describe selected low-lying singlet and triplet vertically excited states of ethylene with the goal of approaching the all electron, full configuration interaction/complete basis set limit. Included among these is the notoriously difficult, mixed valence/Rydberg {sup 1}B{sub 1u} V state. Techniques included complete active space and iterative natural orbital configuration interaction with large reference spaces which led to variational spaces of 1.8 × 10{sup 9} parameters. Care was taken to avoid unintentionally biasing the results due to the widely recognized sensitivity of the V state to the details of the calculation. The lowest vertical and adiabatic ionization potentials to the {sup 2}B{sub 3u} and {sup 2}B{sub 3} states were also determined. In addition, the heat of formation of twisted ethylene {sup 3}A{sub 1} was obtained from large basis set coupled cluster theory calculations including corrections for core/valence, scalar relativistic and higher order correlation recovery.

  6. Quantum electrodynamics with anisotropic scaling: Heisenberg-Euler action and Schwinger pair production in the bilayer graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. I. Katsnelson; G. E. Volovik

    2012-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss quantum electrodynamics emerging in the vacua with anisotropic scaling. Systems with anisotropic scaling were suggested by Horava in relation to the quantum theory of gravity. In such vacua the space and time are not equivalent, and moreover they obey different scaling laws, called the anisotropic scaling. Such anisotropic scaling takes place for fermions in bilayer graphene, where if one neglects the trigonal warping effects the massless Dirac fermions have quadratic dispersion. This results in the anisotropic quantum electrodynamics, in which electric and magnetic fields obey different scaling laws. Here we discuss the Heisenberg-Euler action and Schwinger pair production in such anisotropic QED

  7. PARTICLES OF DIFFERENCE.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SCHWARTZ,S.E.

    2000-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    It is no longer appropriate, if it ever was, to think of atmospheric aerosols as homogeneous spheres of uniform composition and size. Within the United States, and even more globally, not only the mass loading but also the composition, morphology, and size distribution of atmospheric aerosols are highly variable, as a function of location, and at a given location as a function of time. Particles of a given aerodynamic size may differ from one another, and even within individual particles material may be inhomogeneously distributed, as for example, carbon spherules imbedded in much larger sulfate particles. Some of the particulate matter is primary, that is, introduced into the atmosphere directly as particles, such as carbon particles in diesel exhaust. Some is secondary, that is, formed in the atmosphere by gas-to-particle conversion. Much of the material is inorganic, mainly sulfates and nitrates resulting mainly from energy-related emissions. Some of the material is carbonaceous, in part primary, in part secondary, and of this material some is anthropogenic and some biogenic. While the heterogeneity of atmospheric aerosols complicates the problem of understanding their loading and distribution, it may well be the key to its solution. By detailed examination of the materials comprising aerosols it is possible to infer the sources of these materials. It may be possible as well to identify specific health impairing agents. The heterogeneity of aerosol particles is thus the key to identifying their sources, to understanding the processes that govern their loading and properties, and to devising control strategies that are both effective and efficient. Future research must therefore take cognizance of differences among aerosol particles and use these differences to advantage.

  8. The Nature of Subproton Scale Turbulence in the Solar Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, C H K; Xia, Q; Perez, J C

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nature of subproton scale fluctuations in the solar wind is an open question, partly because two similar types of electromagnetic turbulence can occur: kinetic Alfven turbulence and whistler turbulence. These two possibilities, however, have one key qualitative difference: whistler turbulence, unlike kinetic Alfven turbulence, has negligible power in density fluctuations. In this Letter, we present new observational data, as well as analytical and numerical results, to investigate this difference. The results show, for the first time, that the fluctuations well below the proton scale are predominantly kinetic Alfven turbulence, and, if present at all, the whistler fluctuations make up only a small fraction of the total energy.

  9. Commercial Scale Wind Incentive Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Trust of Oregon’s Commercial Scale Wind offering provides resources and cash incentives to help communities, businesses land owners, and government entities install wind turbine systems up...

  10. Sizing Up Allometric Scaling Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savage, Van M.; Deeds, Eric J.; Fontana, Walter

    2008-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Metabolic rate, heart rate, lifespan, and many other physiological properties vary with body mass in systematic and interrelated ways. Present empirical data suggest that these scaling relationships take the form of power ...

  11. Time scales in nuclear giant resonances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiss, W. D. [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study, and Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Stellenbosch, 7602 Matieland (South Africa); Nazmitdinov, R. G. [Department de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Smit, F. D. [iThemba LABS, Post Office Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a general approach to characterise fluctuations of measured cross sections of nuclear giant resonances. Simulated cross sections are obtained from a particular, yet representative, self-energy that contains all information about fragmentations. Using a wavelet analysis, we demonstrate the extraction of time scales of cascading decays into configurations of different complexity of the resonance. We argue that the spreading widths of collective excitations in nuclei are determined by the number of fragmentations as seen in the power spectrum. An analytic treatment of the wavelet analysis using a Fourier expansion of the cross section confirms this principle. A simple rule for the relative lifetimes of states associated with hierarchies of different complexity is given.

  12. SOLAR WIND MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS TURBULENCE: ANOMALOUS SCALING AND ROLE OF INTERMITTENCY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salem, C.; Bale, S. D. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Mangeney, A. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, F-92195 Meudon (France); Veltri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, Rende (Italy)], E-mail: salem@ssl.berkeley.edu

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we present a study of the scaling properties and intermittency of solar wind MHD turbulence based on the use of wavelet transforms. More specifically, we use the Haar Wavelet transform on simultaneous 3 s resolution particle and magnetic field data from the Wind spacecraft, to investigate anomalous scaling and intermittency effects of both magnetic field and solar wind velocity fluctuations in the inertial range. For this purpose, we calculated spectra, structure functions, and probability distribution functions. We show that this powerful wavelet technique allows for a systematic elimination of intermittency effects on spectra and structure functions and thus for a clear determination of the actual scaling properties in the inertial range. The scaling of the magnetic field and the velocity fluctuations are found to be fundamentally different. Moreover, when the most intermittent structures superposed to the standard fluctuations are removed, simple statistics are recovered. The magnetic field and the velocity fluctuations exhibit a well-defined, although different, monofractal behavior, following a Kolmogorov -5/3 scaling and a Iroshnikov-Kraichnan -3/2 scaling, respectively. The multifractal properties of solar wind turbulence appear to be determined by the presence of those most intermittent structures. Finally, our wavelet technique also allows for a direct and systematic identification of the most active, singular structures responsible for the intermittency in the solar wind.

  13. Scale-dependent seismic velocity in heterogeneous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukerji, T.; Mavko, G.; Mujica, D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)] [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Lucet, N. [IFP, Rueil-Malmaison (France)] [IFP, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The measurable traveltime of seismic events propagating in heterogeneous media depend on the geologic scale, the seismic wavelength, and the propagation distance. In general, the velocity inferred from arrival times is slower when the wavelength is longer than the scale of heterogeneity and faster when the wavelength is shorter. For normal incidence propagation in stratified media, this is the difference between averaging elastic compliance sin the long wavelength limit. In two and three dimensions there is also the path effect. Shorter wavelengths tend to find faster paths, thus biasing the traveltimes to lower values. In the shorter wavelength limit, the slowness inferred from the average traveltime is smaller than the mean slowness of the medium. When the propagation distance is much larger than the scale of the heterogeneity, the path effect causes the velocity increase from long to short wavelengths to be much larger in two dimensions than in one dimension, and even larger in three dimensions. The amount of velocity dispersion can be understood theoretically, but there is some discrepancy between theory and experiment as to what ratio of wavelength to heterogeneity scale separates the long and short wavelength limits. The scale-dependent traveltime implies that a measured velocity depends not just on rock properties, but also on the scale of the measurement relative to he scale of the geology.

  14. Physical meaning of one-machine and multimachine tokamak scalings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dnestrovskij, Yu. N., E-mail: dnyn@nfi.kiae.ru; Danilov, A. V.; Dnestrovskij, A. Yu.; Lysenko, S. E. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Institute of Tokamak Physics (Russian Federation)] [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Institute of Tokamak Physics (Russian Federation); Ongena, J. [Euratom-Belgium State Association, Laboratory for Plasma Physics (Belgium)] [Euratom-Belgium State Association, Laboratory for Plasma Physics (Belgium)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Specific features of energy confinement scalings constructed using different experimental databases for tokamak plasmas are considered. In the multimachine database, some pairs of engineering variables are collinear; e.g., the current I and the input power P both increase with increasing minor radius a. As a result, scalings derived from this database are reliable only for discharges in which such ratios as I/a{sup 2} or P/a{sup 2} are close to their values averaged over the database. The collinearity of variables allows one to exclude the normalized Debye radius d* from the scaling expressed in a nondimensional form. In one-machine databases, the dimensionless variables are functionally dependent, which allow one to cast a scaling without d*. In a database combined from two devices, the collinearity may be absent, so the Debye radius cannot generally be excluded from the scaling. It is shown that the experiments performed in support of the absence of d* in the two-machine scaling are unconvincing. Transformation expressions are given that allow one to compare experiments for the determination of scaling in any set of independent variables.

  15. Nonlinear closures for scale separation in supersonic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grete, Philipp; Schmidt, Wolfram; Schleicher, Dominik R G; Federrath, Christoph

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Turbulence in compressible plasma plays a key role in many areas of astrophysics and engineering. The extreme plasma parameters in these environments, e.g. high Reynolds numbers, supersonic and super-Alfvenic flows, however, make direct numerical simulations computationally intractable even for the simplest treatment -- magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). To overcome this problem one can use subgrid-scale (SGS) closures -- models for the influence of unresolved, subgrid-scales on the resolved ones. In this work we propose and validate a set of constant coefficient closures for the resolved, compressible, ideal MHD equations. The subgrid-scale energies are modeled by Smagorinsky-like equilibrium closures. The turbulent stresses and the electromotive force (EMF) are described by expressions that are nonlinear in terms of large scale velocity and magnetic field gradients. To verify the closures we conduct a priori tests over 137 simulation snapshots from two different codes with varying ratios of thermal to magnetic pre...

  16. Constraints on the quantum gravity scale from kappa - Minkowski spacetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Borowiec; Kumar S. Gupta; S. Meljanac; A. Pachol

    2010-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We compare two versions of deformed dispersion relations (energy vs momenta and momenta vs energy) and the corresponding time delay up to the second order accuracy in the quantum gravity scale (deformation parameter). A general framework describing modified dispersion relations and time delay with respect to different noncommutative kappa -Minkowski spacetime realizations is firstly proposed here and it covers all the cases introduced in the literature. It is shown that some of the realizations provide certain bounds on quadratic corrections, i.e. on quantum gravity scale, but it is not excluded in our framework that quantum gravity scale is the Planck scale. We also show how the coefficients in the dispersion relations can be obtained through a multiparameter fit of the gamma ray burst (GRB) data.

  17. Transverse electron-scale instability in relativistic shear flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alves, E P; Fonseca, R A; Silva, L O

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron-scale surface waves are shown to be unstable in the transverse plane of a shear flow in an initially unmagnetized plasma, unlike in the (magneto)hydrodynamics case. It is found that these unstable modes have a higher growth rate than the closely related electron-scale Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in relativistic shears. Multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations verify the analytic results and further reveal the emergence of mushroom-like electron density structures in the nonlinear phase of the instability, similar to those observed in the Rayleigh Taylor instability despite the great disparity in scales and different underlying physics. Macroscopic ($\\gg c/\\omega_{pe}$) fields are shown to be generated by these microscopic shear instabilities, which are relevant for particle acceleration, radiation emission and to seed MHD processes at long time-scales.

  18. Frequency-doubled vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raymond, Thomas D. (Edgewood, NM); Alford, William J. (Albuquerque, NM); Crawford, Mary H. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A frequency-doubled semiconductor vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) is disclosed for generating light at a wavelength in the range of 300-550 nanometers. The VECSEL includes a semiconductor multi-quantum-well active region that is electrically or optically pumped to generate lasing at a fundamental wavelength in the range of 600-1100 nanometers. An intracavity nonlinear frequency-doubling crystal then converts the fundamental lasing into a second-harmonic output beam. With optical pumping with 330 milliWatts from a semiconductor diode pump laser, about 5 milliWatts or more of blue light can be generated at 490 nm. The device has applications for high-density optical data storage and retrieval, laser printing, optical image projection, chemical-sensing, materials processing and optical metrology.

  19. Cryogenic Etching of Silicon: An Alternative Method for Fabrication of Vertical Microcantilever Master Molds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Darrell Keith [ORNL; Lavrik, Nickolay V [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the use of deep reactive ion etching of silicon with fluorine high-density plasmas at cryogenic temperatures to produce silicon master molds for vertical microcantilever arrays used for controlling substrate stiffness for culturing living cells. The resultant profiles achieved depend on the rate of deposition and etching of an SiO{sub x}F{sub y} polymer, which serves as a passivation layer on the sidewalls of the etched structures in relation to areas that have not been passivated with the polymer. We look at how optimal tuning of two parameters, the O{sub 2} flow rate and the capacitively coupled plasma power, determine the etch profile. All other pertinent parameters are kept constant. We examine the etch profiles produced using electron-beam resist as the main etch mask, with holes having diameters of 750 nm, 1 ??m , and 2 ??m.

  20. Fish schooling as a basis for vertical axis wind turbine farm design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whittlesey, Robert W; Dabiri, John O

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most wind farms consist of horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) due to the high power coefficient (mechanical power output divided by the power of the free-stream air through the turbine cross-sectional area) of an isolated turbine. However when in close proximity to neighbouring turbines, HAWTs suffer from a reduced power coefficient. In contrast, previous research on vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) suggests that closely-spaced VAWTs may experience only small decreases (or even increases) in an individual turbine's power coefficient when placed in close proximity to neighbours, thus yielding much higher power outputs for a given area of land. A potential flow model of inter-VAWT interactions is developed to investigate the effect of changes in VAWT spatial arrangement on the array performance coefficient, which compares the expected average power coefficient of turbines in an array to a spatially-isolated turbine. A geometric arrangement based on the configuration of shed vortices in the wake of schooli...

  1. Customized airfoils and their impact on VAWT (Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine) cost of energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, D.E.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a family of airfoils specifically designed for use in the equatorial portion of a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) blade. An airfoil of that family has been incorporated into the rotor blades of the DOE/Sandia 34-m diameter VAWT Test Bed. The airfoil and rotor design process is reviewed. Comparisons with data recently acquired from flow visualization tests and from the DOE/Sandia 34-m diameter VAWT Test Bed illustrate the success that was achieved in the design. The economic optimization model used in the design is described and used to evaluate the effect of modifications to the current Test Bed blade. 1 tab., 11 figs., 13 refs.

  2. Selective oxidation of buried AlGaAs for fabrication of vertical-cavity lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choquette, K.D.; Geib, K.M.; Chui, H.C.; Hou, H.Q. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photonics Research Dept.; Hull, R. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors discuss the selective conversion of buried layers of AlGaAs to a stable oxide and the implementation of this oxide into high performance vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs). The rate of lateral oxidation is shown to be linear with an Arrhenius temperature dependence. The measured activation energies vary with Al composition, providing a high degree of oxidation selectivity between AlGaAs alloys. Thus buried oxide layers can be selectively fabricated within the VCSEL through small compositional variations in the AlGaAs layers. The oxidation of AlGaAs alloys, as opposed to AlAs, is found to provide robust processing of reliable lasers. The insulating and low refractive index oxide provides enhanced electrical and optical confinement for ultralow threshold currents in oxide-apertured VCSELs.

  3. Investigation of the GaN-on-GaAs interface for vertical power device applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Möreke, Janina, E-mail: janina.moereke@bristol.ac.uk; Uren, Michael J.; Kuball, Martin [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Novikov, Sergei V.; Foxon, C. Thomas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Hosseini Vajargah, Shahrzad; Wallis, David J.; Humphreys, Colin J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Haigh, Sarah J. [Super STEM Laboratory, STFC Daresbury Campus, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Al-Khalidi, Abdullah; Wasige, Edward; Thayne, Iain [School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Rankine Bldg, Oakfield Avenue, Glasgow G12 8LT (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    GaN layers were grown onto (111) GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy. Minimal band offset between the conduction bands for GaN and GaAs materials has been suggested in the literature raising the possibility of using GaN-on-GaAs for vertical power device applications. I-V and C-V measurements of the GaN/GaAs heterostructures however yielded a rectifying junction, even when both sides of the junction were heavily doped with an n-type dopant. Transmission electron microscopy analysis further confirmed the challenge in creating a GaN/GaAs Ohmic interface by showing a large density of dislocations in the GaN layer and suggesting roughening of the GaN/GaAs interface due to etching of the GaAs by the nitrogen plasma, diffusion of nitrogen or melting of Ga into the GaAs substrate.

  4. Vertically aligned gas-insulated transmission line having particle traps at the inner conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Steinar J. (Monroeville, PA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas insulated electrical apparatus having first and second conductors separated by an insulating support within an insulating gas environment, and particle traps disposed along the surface of the high potential conductor for trapping and inactivating foreign particles which may be present within the insulating gas medium. Several embodiments of the invention were developed which are particularly suited for vertically aligned gas insulated transmission lines. The particle traps are grooves or cavities formed into the walls of the tubular inner conductor, without extending into the hollow portion of the conductor. In other embodiments, the traps are appendages or insert flanges extending from the inner conductor, with the insulator supports contacting the appendages instead of the inner conductor.

  5. A study of winter precipitation areas in relation to several indicators of vertical motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuelberg, Henry Ernest

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The wind speed has an approx- imate rms error of 1. 5 m sec at 700 mb, 2. 5 m sec at 500 mb, 15 and 4 m sec *t 300 mb. Direction errors (rms) based on speeds of 10 m sec are, 2 at 700 mb, 3 at 500 mb, and 5 at 300 mb. The rms errors in direction... at 700 mb and 400 Inb 500 mb 100 DI'b 100 IRb 200 mb 100 mb '700 mb t-- 050 Da) 935 b 35 mb 100 mb src 75 mb 75 mb 115 Inb V m Fig. 4. Layers used in the computation of vertical velocity by the kinematic method. 23 400 mb are given...

  6. Selecting the Design Entering Water Temperature for Vertical Geothermal Heat Pumps in Cooling-Dominated Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A [ORNL; Thornton, Jeff W. [Thermal Energy Systems Specialists, Inc.; Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At a military base in the Southeastern United States, an energy services company (ESCO) has proposed to retrofit more than 1,000 family residences with geothermal heat pumps as part of an energy savings performance contract (ESPC). Each residence is to have one heat pump with its own ground heat exchanger consisting of two or more vertical bores. A design firm hired by the ESCO sized the heat pumps to meet peak cooling loads, and sized the borefields to limit the maximum entering water temperature (EWT) to the heat pumps to 95 F (35 C). Because there is some disagreement in the geothermal heat pump industry over the peak temperature to be used for design (some designers and design manuals recommend temperatures as low as 85 F [29 C], while equipment manufacturers and others specify temperatures of 100 F [38 C] or higher) the authors were requested to examine the designs in detail to determine whether the 95 F (35 C) limit was adequate to ensure occupant comfort, efficient operation, and low capital and operating costs. It was found that three of the designer's assumptions made the borefield designs more conservative (i.e., longer) than the 95 F (35 C) limit would indicate. In fact, the analysis indicates that with more realistic assumptions about system operation, the maximum entering water temperature at the modeled residence will be about 89 F (32 C). Given the implications of a borefield that is shorter than required, it is likely that other designers are using similarly conservative assumptions to size vertical borefields for geothermal heat pumps. This implies that unless all of the design assumptions are examined, blanket recommendations to limit the entering water temperature to a specific value (such as 90 F [32 C]) may result in borefields that are significantly oversized.

  7. Selecting the Design Entering Water Temperature for Vertical Geothermal Heat Pumps in Cooling-Dominated Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, J.A.

    2001-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    At a military base in the Southeastern US, an energy services company (ESCO) has proposed to retrofit more than 1,000 family residences with geothermal heat pumps as part of an energy savings performance contract (ESPC). Each residence is to have one heat pump with its own ground heat exchanger consisting of two or more vertical bores. A design firm hired by the ESCO sized the heat pumps to meet peak cooling loads, and sized the borefields to limit the maximum entering water temperature (EWT) to the heat pumps to 95 F (35 C). Because there is some disagreement in the geothermal heat pump industry over the peak temperature to be used for design (some designers and design manuals recommend temperatures as low as 85 F [29 C], while equipment manufacturers and others specify temperatures of 100 F [38 C] or higher) the authors were requested to examine the designs in detail to determine whether the 95 F (35 C) limit was adequate to ensure occupant comfort, efficient operation, and low capital and operating costs. It was found that three of the designer's assumptions made the borefield designs more conservative (i.e., longer) than the 95 F (35 C) limit would indicate. In fact, the analysis indicates that with more realistic assumptions about system operation, the maximum entering water temperature at the modeled residence will be about 89 F (32 C). Given the implications of a borefield that is shorter than required, it is likely that other designers are using similarly conservative assumptions to size vertical borefields for geothermal heat pumps. This implies that unless all of the design assumptions are examined, blanket recommendations to limit the entering water temperature to a specific value (such as 90 F [32 C]) may result in borefields that are significantly oversized.

  8. GLOBAL AND ADAPTIVE SCALING IN A SEPARABLE ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    programs confirm that Adaptive Global Scaling subsumes former scaling ...... Then, the compact convex set B of symmetric matrices eigeinvalues of which.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: characterizing Scaled Wind Farm...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    characterizing Scaled Wind Farm Technology facility inflow Characterizing Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility Inflow On April 1, 2014, in Energy, News, News & Events, Partnership,...

  10. Two-stage epitaxial growth of vertically-aligned SnO2 nano-rods on(001) ceria

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Solovyov, Vyacheslav F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wu, Li-jun [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rupich, Martin W. [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Li, Xiaoping [American Superconductor, Devens, MA (United States); Li, Qiang [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Growth of high-aspect ratio oriented tin oxide, SnO2, nano-rods is complicated by a limited choice of matching substrates. We show that a (001) cerium oxide, CeO2, surface uniquely enables epitaxial growth of tin-oxide nano-rods via a two-stage process. First, (100) oriented nano-wires coat the ceria surface by lateral growth, forming a uniaxially-textured SnO2 deposit. Second, vertical SnO2nano-rods nucleate on the deposit by homoepitaxy. We demonstrate growth of vertically oriented 1-2 ?m long nano-rods with an average diameter of ?20 nm.

  11. A photoelastic study of simply supported rectangular beams with holes on the vertical center lines and subjected to concentrated loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Ping Hua

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Page 1 Stress Concentration Factors for Various Points for the Beams of this Study . 33 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Dimensions of the Models Model in the Loading Frame Fringe Pattern of Beam 1. Isoclinics for Beam L-1 Isoclinics for Beam S-1 10... Calibration of Model for Beam 1 Sketch of a Beam Showing: (a) Locations of sections under consideration (b) dX, b Y, he, S, S, and the sign convention for r xy Horizontal and Vertical Stresses for Beam 1 13 22 Horizontal and Vertical Stresses for Beam...

  12. Using computerized tomography to determine ionospheric structures. Part 2, A method using curved paths to increase vertical resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vittitoe, C.N.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is presented to unfold the two-dimensional vertical structure in electron density by using data on the total electron content for a series of paths through the ionosphere. The method uses a set of orthonormal basis functions to represent the vertical structure and takes advantage of curved paths and the eikonical equation to reduce the number of iterations required for a solution. Curved paths allow a more thorough probing of the ionosphere with a given set of transmitter and receiver positions. The approach can be directly extended to more complex geometries.

  13. Scaling studies and conceptual experiment designs for NGNP CFD assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. M. McEligot; G. E. McCreery

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to document scaling studies and conceptual designs for flow and heat transfer experiments intended to assess CFD codes and their turbulence models proposed for application to prismatic NGNP concepts. The general approach of the project is to develop new benchmark experiments for assessment in parallel with CFD and coupled CFD/systems code calculations for the same geometry. Two aspects of the complex flow in an NGNP are being addressed: (1) flow and thermal mixing in the lower plenum ("hot streaking" issue) and (2) turbulence and resulting temperature distributions in reactor cooling channels ("hot channel" issue). Current prismatic NGNP concepts are being examined to identify their proposed flow conditions and geometries over the range from normal operation to decay heat removal in a pressurized cooldown. Approximate analyses have been applied to determine key non-dimensional parameters and their magnitudes over this operating range. For normal operation, the flow in the coolant channels can be considered to be dominant turbulent forced convection with slight transverse property variation. In a pressurized cooldown (LOFA) simulation, the flow quickly becomes laminar with some possible buoyancy influences. The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered to be a situation of multiple hot jets into a confined crossflow -- with obstructions. Flow is expected to be turbulent with momentumdominated turbulent jets entering; buoyancy influences are estimated to be negligible in normal full power operation. Experiments are needed for the combined features of the lower plenum flows. Missing from the typical jet experiments available are interactions with nearby circular posts and with vertical posts in the vicinity of vertical walls - with near stagnant surroundings at one extreme and significant crossflow at the other. Two types of heat transfer experiments are being considered. One addresses the "hot channel" problem, if necessary. The second type will treat heated jets entering a model plenum. Unheated MIR (Matched-Index-of-Refraction) experiments are first steps when the geometry is complicated. One does not want to use a computational technique which will not even handle constant properties properly. The purpose of the fluid dynamics experiments is to develop benchmark databases for the assessment of CFD solutions of the momentum equations, scalar mixing and turbulence models for typical NGNP plenum geometries in the limiting case of negligible buoyancy and constant fluid properties. As indicated by the scaling studies, in normal full power operation of a typical NGNP conceptual design, buoyancy influences should be negligible in the lower plenum. The MIR experiment will simulate flow features of the paths of jets as they mix in flowing through the array of posts in a lower plenum en route to the single exit duct. Conceptual designs for such experiments are described.

  14. Cross-Scale Responses of Biodiversity to Hurricane and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willig, Michael

    Cross-Scale Responses of Biodiversity to Hurricane and Anthropogenic Disturbance in a Tropical and Georges, as well as by patterns of historic land use. Hurricane-induced changes in spatial organization changed after the hurricanes and were significantly different between Hurricanes Hugo and Georges. Alpha

  15. Scaling of Nonperturbative Renormalization of Composite Operators with Overlap Fermions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. B. Zhang; D. B. Leinweber; A. G. Williams

    2005-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute non-perturbatively the renormalization constants of composite operators for overlap fermions by using the regularization independent scheme. The scaling behavior of the renormalization constants is investigated using the data from three lattices with similar physical volumes and different lattice spacings. The approach of the renormalization constants to the continuum limit is explored.

  16. ARE DEICING SALTS NECESSARY TO PROMOTE SCALING IN CONCRETE?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Keywords: Concrete, cryosuction, durability, frost, poromechanics, porous media, thermo- dynamics, spallingARE DEICING SALTS NECESSARY TO PROMOTE SCALING IN CONCRETE? A. Fabbri1,2 , O. Coussy1 , T. Fen of the different phases that form the porous material. It eventually predicts that a less perme- able sample

  17. Scaling Properties of Universal Tetramers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadizadeh, M. R.; Yamashita, M. T. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 01140-070, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tomio, Lauro [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 01140-070, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-346, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Delfino, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-346, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Frederico, T. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, 12228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We evidence the existence of a universal correlation between the binding energies of successive four-boson bound states (tetramers), for large two-body scattering lengths (a), related to an additional scale not constrained by three-body Efimov physics. Relevant to ultracold atom experiments, the atom-trimer relaxation peaks for |a|{yields}{infinity} when the ratio between the tetramer and trimer energies is {approx_equal}4.6 and a new tetramer is formed. The new scale is also revealed for a<0 by the prediction of a correlation between the positions of two successive peaks in the four-atom recombination process.

  18. Scaling the Web Composing Web

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menascé, Daniel A.

    Scaling the Web Composing Web Services:A QoS View A n Internet application can invoke several ser- vices -- a stock-trading Web service, for example, could invoke a payment service, which could then invoke an authentication service. Such a scenario is called a composite Web service, and it can

  19. Scaling of pressurized fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guralnik, S.; Glicksman, L.R.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project has two primary objectives. The first is to verify a set of hydrodynamic scaling relationships for commercial pressurized fluidized bed combustors (PFBC). The second objective is to investigate solids mixing in pressurized bubbling fluidized beds. American Electric Power`s (AEP) Tidd combined-cycle demonstration plant will provide time-varying pressure drop data to serve as the basis for the scaling verification. The verification will involve demonstrating that a properly scaled cold model and the Tidd PFBC exhibit hydrodynamically similar behavior. An important issue in PFBC design is the spacing of fuel feed ports. The feed spacing is dictated by the fuel distribution and the mixing characteristics within the bed. After completing the scaling verification, the cold model will be used to study the characteristics of PFBCs. A thermal tracer technique will be utilized to study mixing both near the fuel feed region and in the far field. The results allow the coal feed and distributor to be designed for optimal heating.

  20. Visualization of Large-Scale Distributed Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Andrew

    that are now considered the "lenses" for examining large-scale data. THE LARGE-SCALE DATA VISUALIZATIONVisualization of Large-Scale Distributed Data Jason Leigh1 , Andrew Johnson1 , Luc Renambot1 representation of data and the interactive manipulation and querying of the visualization. Large-scale data

  1. Offset voltage of Schottky-collector silicon-on-glass vertical PNP's G. Lorito, L. K. Nanver and N. Nenadovi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Technische Universiteit Delft

    Offset voltage of Schottky-collector silicon-on-glass vertical PNP's G. Lorito, L. K. Nanver and N and investigated with respect to the influence of the collector design on the offset voltage. With Schottky collector contacts the offset voltage can be made both very low (

  2. Physical-chemical characterization of sludge and granular materials from a vertical flow constructed wetland for municipal wastewater treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Physical-chemical characterization of sludge and granular materials from a vertical flow considered for phosphorus removal as well. In this article, sludge and granular materials sampled from analyses showed that phosphorus was predominantly captured in the sludge layer accumulated at the surface

  3. Optics, Acoustics and Stress in Situ (OASIS): Effects of Aggregation, Vertical Structure, and Relation to Physical Forcing.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boss, Emmanuel S.

    Optics, Acoustics and Stress in Situ (OASIS): Effects of Aggregation, Vertical Structure. Arlington, VA 22203-1995 TITLE: Optics, Acoustics and Stress in Situ (OASIS): Effects of Aggregation of Research and Sponsored Programs #12;Abstract Nearbed optical and acoustical properties in coastal waters

  4. Vertices of Lie Modules Roger M. Bryant, Susanne Danz, Karin Erdmann, and J#rgen M#ller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Jürgen

    Vertices of Lie Modules Roger M. Bryant, Susanne Danz(LieprF(n))= dim(LieF(n)) has re* *cently been studied by Erdmann~Tan [14], and by Bryant~Lim~Tan [5]. By [5, Thm LiepfF(n) of LieF(n) always belongs to the principal block of F Sn, and Bryant~* *Erdmann [4] have

  5. Mean vertical wind in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere region (80120 km) deduced from the WINDII observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    thermosphere. It is a remote-sensing instrument providing the hori- zontal wind components. In this study at the equator and tropics. Zonal Coriolis acceleration and adiabatic heating and cooling rate associated subsidence heating and adiabatic cool- ing. Thus the knowledge of meridional and vertical winds provides

  6. Edge-emission electroluminescence study of as-grown vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Sandip

    Edge-emission electroluminescence study of as-grown vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser 22 April 2000 We report polarized edge- and front-emission electroluminescence studies on red on pieces of as-grown wafers using indium­tin­oxide-coated glass electrodes. The front-emission spectra

  7. Abstract--High speed, oxide-confined, polyimide-planarized 850 nm vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) exhibit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lear, Kevin L.

    10760 1 Abstract--High speed, oxide-confined, polyimide-planarized 850 nm vertical cavity surface using a reproducible, simple process incorporating polyimide with good adhesion that does not require based on a simplified, robust process incorporating photosensitive polyimide with good metal adhesion

  8. 1856 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 57, NO. 8, AUGUST 2010 Harvesting and Transferring Vertical Pillar Arrays of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Islam, M. Saif

    1856 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 57, NO. 8, AUGUST 2010 Harvesting and Transferring Vertical Pillar Arrays of Single-Crystal Semiconductor Devices to Arbitrary Substrates Logeeswaran VJ, Aaron M. Katzenmeyer, and M. Saif Islam Abstract--Development of devices that can be fabricated

  9. Seeding of a titanium sapphire osctllator by a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser in the nanosecond range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Seeding of a titanium sapphire osctllator by a vertical-cavity surface- emitting laser-emitting laser was used to seed a titanium-sapphire laser oscillator. Both lasers were pumped synchronously. The transmission of the plane output coupler M2 is 40%. The energy of the pump pulses is a few mJ, their temporal

  10. Prediction of Vertical Motions for Landing Operations of UAVs Xilin Yang, Hemanshu Pota, Matt Garratt and Valery Ugrinovskii

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Prediction of Vertical Motions for Landing Operations of UAVs Xilin Yang, Hemanshu Pota, Matt Garratt and Valery Ugrinovskii Abstract-- This paper outlines a novel and feasible procedure to predict demonstrate that the proposed prediction approach substantially reduces the model complexity and exhibits

  11. Wavelength dependence of the threshold in an InGaP-InAlGaP vertical cavity surface emitting laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, W.W.; Schneider, R.P. Jr.; Lott, J.A.; Choquette, K.D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0350 (United States))

    1994-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The wavelength dependence of the threshold in an InGaP-InAlGaP vertical cavity surface emitting laser is investigated using a microscopic theory of the semiconductor gain medium. Good agreement is found between experiment and theory for the minimum threshold lasing wavelength for a range of laser structures.

  12. Satellite detection of severe convective storms by their retrieved vertical profiles of cloud particle effective radius and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    and intense gust fronts. Wind shear provides additional energy for sustaining the dynamics of tornadic. The respective roles of convective potential available energy (CAPE) and the 0­6 km vertical wind shear have been Kelman,1 and Daniel T. Lindsey3 Received 1 March 2007; revised 7 October 2007; accepted 16 November 2007

  13. Modeling the coupling between free and forced convection in a vertical permeable slot: implications for the heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Modeling the coupling between free and forced convection in a vertical permeable slot numerical study of the coupling between forced and free convective flows has been performed by considering: implications for the heat production of an Enhanced Geothermal System Arnaud Batailléa , Pierre Genthona

  14. Potential order-of-magnitude enhancement of wind farm power density via counter-rotating vertical-axis wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabiri, John O.

    Potential order-of-magnitude enhancement of wind farm power density via counter-rotating vertical an alternative approach to wind farming that has the potential to concurrently reduce the cost, size-axis wind turbine arrays John O. Dabiria) Graduate Aeronautical Laboratories and Bioengineering, California

  15. Thermal decomposition of ethanol and growth of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes by alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Thermal decomposition of ethanol and growth of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes. In this study, we have investigated the thermal decomposition of ethanol at various temperatures, as well National Meeting, San Francisco, CA, September 10-14, 2006 1/1 PRES 29 - Thermal decomposition of ethanol

  16. Brane World Models Need Low String Scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Calmet, Xavier

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Models with large extra dimensions offer the possibility of the Planck scale being of order the electroweak scale, thus alleviating the gauge hierarchy problem. We show that these models suffer from a breakdown of unitarity at around three quarters of the low effective Planck scale. An obvious candidate to fix the unitarity problem is string theory. We therefore argue that it is necessary for the string scale to appear below the effective Planck scale and that the first signature of such models would be string resonances. We further translate experimental bounds on the string scale into bounds on the effective Planck scale.

  17. Final Report: Property Improvement in CZT via Modeling and Processing Innovations – Te-particles in vertical gradient freeze CZT: Size and Spatial Distributions and Constitutional Supercooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henager, Charles H.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Bliss, Mary; Riley, Brian J.; Stave, Jean A.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A section of a vertical gradient freeze CZT boule approximately 2100-mm3 with a planar area of 300-mm2 was prepared and examined using transmitted IR microscopy at various magnifications to determine the three-dimensional spatial and size distributions of Te-particles over large longitudinal and radial length scales. The boule section was approximately 50-mm wide by 60-mm in length by 7-mm thick and was doubly polished for TIR work. Te-particles were imaged through the thickness using extended focal imaging to locate the particles in thickness planes spaced 15-µm apart and then in plane of the image using xy-coordinates of the particle center of mass so that a true three dimensional particle map was assembled for a 1-mm by 45-mm longitudinal strip and for a 1-mm by 50-mm radial strip. Te-particle density distributions were determined as a function of longitudinal and radial positions in these strips, and treating the particles as vertices of a network created a 3D image of the particle spatial distribution. Te-particles exhibited a multi-modal log-normal size density distribution that indicated a slight preference for increasing size with longitudinal growth time, while showing a pronounced cellular network structure throughout the boule that can be correlated to dislocation network sizes in CZT. Higher magnification images revealed a typical Rayleigh-instability pearl string morphology with large and small satellite droplets. This study includes solidification experiments in small crucibles of 30:70 mixtures of Cd:Te to reduce the melting point below 1273 K (1000?C). These solidification experiments were performed over a wide range of cooling rates and clearly demonstrated a growth instability with Te-particle capture that is suggested to be responsible for one of the peaks in the size distribution using size discrimination visualization. The results are discussed with regard to a manifold Te-particle genesis history as 1) Te-particle direct capture from melt-solid growth instabilities, 2) Te-particle formation from dislocation core diffusion and the formation and breakup of Te-tubes, and 3) Te-particle formation due to classical nucleation and growth as precipitates.

  18. Anomalous scalings in differential models of turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon Thalabard; Sergey Nazarenko; Sebastien Galtier; Medvedev Sergey

    2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Differential models for hydrodynamic, passive-scalar and wave turbulence given by nonlinear first- and second-order evolution equations for the energy spectrum in the $k$-space were analysed. Both types of models predict formation an anomalous transient power-law spectra. The second-order models were analysed in terms of self-similar solutions of the second kind, and a phenomenological formula for the anomalous spectrum exponent was constructed using numerics for a broad range of parameters covering all known physical examples. The first-order models were examined analytically, including finding an analytical prediction for the anomalous exponent of the transient spectrum and description of formation of the Kolmogorov-type spectrum as a reflection wave from the dissipative scale back into the inertial range. The latter behaviour was linked to pre-shock/shock singularities similar to the ones arising in the Burgers equation. Existence of the transient anomalous scaling and the reflection-wave scenario are argued to be a robust feature common to the finite-capacity turbulence systems. The anomalous exponent is independent of the initial conditions but varies for for different models of the same physical system.

  19. Investigation of scaling and inhibition mechanisms and the influencing factors in static and dynamic inhibition tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, M.D.; Jamieson, E.; Hammonds, P. [Baker Petrolite, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents results of some recent laboratory study on barium sulfate scale inhibition in oilfield brines and investigation of several factors potentially effecting scale inhibition efficiency. In addition to well known mechanisms of scale nucleation inhibition and crystal growth retardation, dispersion/anti-conglomeration appears to be a significant inhibition mechanism associated with some scale inhibitors, which may play an important role in a dynamic flowing system. The contamination of a brine by an organic chelating agent such as EDTA or citric acid did not, in this study, show any significant effect on the barium sulfate inhibition efficiency of any of the three generically different scale inhibitors included. Experiments show that, in a properly enclosed system, the pH of an oilfield brine even with hydrogen bicarbonate presence can be sufficiently buffered with acetic acid. These new results are believed to be useful in evaluating/selecting scale inhibitors and improving barium sulfate scale inhibition test methods.

  20. Hierarchy problem, gauge coupling unification at the Planck scale, and vacuum stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamaguchi, Yuya

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To solve the hierarchy problem of the Higgs mass, it may be suggested that there are no an intermediate scale up to the Planck scale except for the TeV scale. For this motivation, we investigate possibilities of gauge coupling unification (GCU) at the Planck scale ($M_{Pl} = 2.4 \\times 10^{18}\\,{\\rm GeV}$) by adding extra particles with the TeV scale mass into the standard model. We find that the GCU at the Planck scale can be realized by extra particles including some relevant scalars, while it cannot be realized only by extra fermions with the same masses. On the other hand, when extra fermions have different masses, the GCU can be realized around $\\sqrt{8 \\pi} M_{Pl}$. By this extension, the vacuum can become stable up to the Planck scale.

  1. Product symbolic status: development of a scale to assess different product types 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, James Arthur

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The literature on status, product symbolism, product involvement, and reference group influence is reviewed to conceptually define the Product Symbolic Status construct. The research consisted of two studies (N = 524) that ...

  2. Comparison of complex effluent treatability in different bench scale microbial electrolysis cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .9 V Cube Mini Industrial Wastewater Domestic Wastewater Fermentation Effluent Acetate Medium MEC­92% of COD removed for all samples. Current generation was consistent between the reactor types for acetate (AC) and fermentation effluent (FE) samples, but less consistent with industrial (IW) and domestic

  3. Cognitive Components of Speech at Different Time Scales Ling Feng (lf@imm.dtu.dk)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    representation. Our hypothesis is now basi- cally ecological: We hypothesize that features that are essen- tially of the ecology, the process of natural selection, and learning. Robust statistical regularities will be exploited producing processes. The optimized representations for low level perception are indeed based on independence

  4. Morphological scaling of body form in four shark species differing in ecology and life history

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . These measurements included dimensions of the dorsal, pectoral, and caudal fins, as well as several dimensions (tiger and bull sharks) also showed significant negative allometry for elements of the caudal fin. We) and the overall height of the caudal fin (caudal fin 2) in tiger and bull sharks, with slopes ranging from about 0

  5. Carbon Sequestration in Dryland and Irrigated Agroecosystems: Quantification at Different Scales for Improved Prediction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, Shashi B; Cassman, Kenneth G; Arkebauer, Timothy J; Hubbard, Kenneth G; Knops, Johannes M; Suyker, Andrew E

    2012-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this research is to improve our basic understanding of the biophysical processes that govern C sequestration in major rainfed and irrigated agroecosystems in the north-central USA.

  6. Genetic relationships of American alligator populations distributed across different ecological and geographic scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryberg, Wade Alan

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    differentiation indicated by F[st] values. Each population contained unique alleles for at least one locus. Additionally, assignment tests based on the distribution of genotypes placed 76% of individuals to their source population. These genetic data reveal...

  7. Vertically Loaded Anchor: Drag Coefficient, Fall Velocity, and Penetration Depth using Laboratory Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cenac, William

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    /15 scale model was attached to a tow carriage and towed through a water-filled tank to measure the drag forces and evaluate the drag coefficient. The anchor terminal velocity was measured using underwater cameras to track the free fall of the model anchor...

  8. Scaling of the dynamics of flexible Lennard-Jones chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arno A. Veldhorst; Jeppe C. Dyre; Thomas B. Schrøder

    2014-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The isomorph theory provides an explanation for the so-called power law density scaling which has been observed in many molecular and polymeric glass formers, both experimentally and in simulations. Power law density scaling (relaxation times and transport coefficients being functions of $\\rho^{\\gamma_S}/T$, where $\\rho$ is density, $T$ is temperature, and $\\gamma_S$ is a material specific scaling exponent) is an approximation to a more general scaling predicted by the isomorph theory. Furthermore, the isomorph theory provides an explanation for Rosenfeld scaling (relaxation times and transport coefficients being functions of excess entropy) which has been observed in simulations of both molecular and polymeric systems. Doing molecular dynamics simulations of flexible Lennard-Jones chains (LJC) with rigid bonds, we here provide the first detailed test of the isomorph theory applied to flexible chain molecules. We confirm the existence of isomorphs, which are curves in the phase diagram along which the dynamics is invariant in the appropriate reduced units. This holds not only for the relaxation times but also for the full time dependence of the dynamics, including chain specific dynamics such as the end-to-end vector autocorrelation function and the relaxation of the Rouse modes. As predicted by the isomorph theory, jumps between different state points on the same isomorph happen instantaneously without any slow relaxation. Since the LJC is a simple coarse-grained model for alkanes and polymers, our results provide a possible explanation for why power-law density scaling is observed experimentally in alkanes and many polymeric systems. The theory provides an independent method of determining the scaling exponent, which is usually treated as a empirical scaling parameter.

  9. Hierarchy of Scales in Language Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blythe, Richard A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and insights from statistical physics are finding an increasing variety of applications where one seeks to understand the emergent properties of a complex interacting system. One such area concerns the dynamics of language at a variety of levels of description, from the behaviour of individual agents learning simple artificial languages from each other, up to changes in the structure of languages shared by large groups of speakers over historical timescales. In this Colloquium, we survey a hierarchy of scales at which language and linguistic behaviour can be described, along with the main progress in understanding that has been made at each of them---much of which has come from the statistical physics community. We argue that future developments may arise by linking the different levels of the hierarchy together in a more coherent fashion, in particular where this allows more effective use of rich empirical data sets.

  10. Scaling of the magnetic reconnection rate with symmetric shear flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassak, P. A. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Otto, A. [Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska-Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska 99775 (United States)

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The scaling of the reconnection rate during (fast) Hall magnetic reconnection in the presence of an oppositely directed bulk shear flow parallel to the reconnecting magnetic field is studied using two-dimensional numerical simulations of Hall reconnection with two different codes. Previous studies noted that the reconnection rate falls with increasing flow speed and shuts off entirely for super-Alfvenic flow, but no quantitative expression for the reconnection rate in sub-Alfvenic shear flows is known. An expression for the scaling of the reconnection rate is presented.

  11. Time Scales in Probabilistic Models of Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anatoly Manita

    2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a stochastic model of clock synchronization in a wireless network consisting of N sensors interacting with one dedicated accurate time server. For large N we find an estimate of the final time sychronization error for global and relative synchronization. Main results concern a behavior of the network on different time scales $t=t_N \\to \\infty$, $N \\to \\infty$. We discuss existence of phase transitions and find exact time scales on which an effective clock synchronization of the system takes place.

  12. VERTIGO (VERtical Transport In the Global Ocean): A study of particle sources and flux attenuation in the North Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buesseler, K.O.; Trull, T.W.; Steinberg, D.K.; Silver, M.W.; Siegel, D.A.; Saitoh, S.-I.; Lamborg, C.H.; Lam, P.J.; Karl, D.M.; Jiao, N.Z.; Honda, M.C.; Elskens, M.; Dehairs, F.; Brown, S.L.; Boyd, P.W.; Bishop, J.K.B.; Bidigare, R.R.

    2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The VERtical Transport In the Global Ocean (VERTIGO) study examined particle sources and fluxes through the ocean's 'twilight zone' (defined here as depths below the euphotic zone to 1000 m). Interdisciplinary process studies were conducted at contrasting sites off Hawaii (ALOHA) and in the NW Pacific (K2) during 3 week occupations in 2004 and 2005, respectively. We examine in this overview paper the contrasting physical, chemical and biological settings and how these conditions impact the source characteristics of the sinking material and the transport efficiency through the twilight zone. A major finding in VERTIGO is the considerably lower transfer efficiency (T{sub eff}) of particulate organic carbon (POC), POC flux 500/150 m, at ALOHA (20%) vs. K2 (50%). This efficiency is higher in the diatom-dominated setting at K2 where silica-rich particles dominate the flux at the end of a diatom bloom, and where zooplankton and their pellets are larger. At K2, the drawdown of macronutrients is used to assess export and suggests that shallow remineralization above our 150 m trap is significant, especially for N relative to Si. We explore here also surface export ratios (POC flux/primary production) and possible reasons why this ratio is higher at K2, especially during the first trap deployment. When we compare the 500 m fluxes to deep moored traps, both sites lose about half of the sinking POC by >4000 m, but this comparison is limited in that fluxes at depth may have both a local and distant component. Certainly, the greatest difference in particle flux attenuation is in the mesopelagic, and we highlight other VERTIGO papers that provide a more detailed examination of the particle sources, flux and processes that attenuate the flux of sinking particles. Ultimately, we contend that at least three types of processes need to be considered: heterotrophic degradation of sinking particles, zooplankton migration and surface feeding, and lateral sources of suspended and sinking materials. We have evidence that all of these processes impacted the net attenuation of particle flux vs. depth measured in VERTIGO and would therefore need to be considered and quantified in order to understand the magnitude and efficiency of the ocean's biological pump.

  13. Interpreting Temperature Strain Data from Meso-Scale Clathrate Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leeman, John R [ORNL; Rawn, Claudia J [ORNL; Ulrich, Shannon M [ORNL; Elwood Madden, Megan [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas hydrates are important in global climate change, carbon sequestra- tion, and seafloor stability. Currently, formation and dissociation pathways are poorly defined. We present a new approach for processing large amounts of data from meso-scale experiments, such as the LUNA distributed sensing system (DSS) in the seafloor process simulator (SPS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The DSS provides a proxy for temperature measurement with a high spatial resolution allowing the heat of reaction during gas hydrate formation/dissociation to aid in locating clathrates in the vessel. The DSS fibers are placed in the sediment following an Archimedean spiral design and then the position of each sensor is solved by iterating over the arc length formula with Newtons method. The data is then gridded with 1 a natural neighbor interpolation algorithm to allow contouring of the data. The solution of the sensor locations is verified with hot and cold stimulus in known locations. An experiment was preformed with a vertically split column of sand and silt. The DSS system clearly showed hydrate forming in the sand first, then slowly creeping into the silt. Similar systems and data processing techniques could be used for monitoring of hydrates in natural environments or in any situation where a hybrid temperature/strain index is useful. Further ad- vances in fiber technology allow the fiber to be applied in any configuration and the position of each sensor to be precisely determined making practical applications easier.

  14. Vertical profiles of O3, aerosols, CO and NMHCs in the Northeast Pacific during the TRACE-P and ACE-ASIA experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKendry, Ian

    Vertical profiles of O3, aerosols, CO and NMHCs in the Northeast Pacific during the TRACE-P and ACE April 2001. This event contained substantial CO, NMHC, and aerosol loadings and was identifiedKendry, and T. L. Anderson, Vertical profiles of O3, aerosols, CO and NMHCs in the Northeast Pacific during

  15. Test plan for non-radioactive testing of vertical calciner for development of direct denitration conversion of Pu-bearing liquors to stable, storage solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, F.D.

    1995-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Plutonium-bearing liquors, including ANL scrap liquors, will be used for development and demonstration of a vertical calciner direct denitration process for conversion of those liquors to stable, storable PuO{sub 2}-rich solids. This test plan is to test with non-radioactive stand-in materials to demonstrate adequate performance of the vertical calciner and ancillary equipment.

  16. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136: 12051215, July 2010 Part A Effect of improving representation of horizontal and vertical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Robin

    and vertical cloud structure on the Earth's global radiation budget. Part II: The global effects. Q. J. R 2010 Part A Effect of improving representation of horizontal and vertical cloud structure on the Earth's global radiation budget. Part II: The global effects Jonathan K. P. Shonk*and Robin J. Hogan Department

  17. Field-Scale Effective Matrix Diffusion Coefficient for FracturedRock: Results From Literature Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Quanlin; Liu, Hui Hai; Molz, Fred J.; Zhang, Yingqi; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2005-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Matrix diffusion is an important mechanism for solutetransport in fractured rock. We recently conducted a literature survey onthe effective matrix diffusion coefficient, Dem, a key parameter fordescribing matrix diffusion processes at the field scale. Forty fieldtracer tests at 15 fractured geologic sites were surveyed and selectedfor study, based on data availability and quality. Field-scale Dem valueswere calculated, either directly using data reported in the literature orby reanalyzing the corresponding field tracer tests. Surveyed dataindicate that the effective-matrix-diffusion-coefficient factor FD(defined as the ratio of Dem to the lab-scale matrix diffusioncoefficient [Dem]of the same tracer) is generally larger than one,indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient in the fieldis comparatively larger than the matrix diffusion coefficient at therock-core scale. This larger value could be attributed to the manymass-transfer processes at different scales in naturally heterogeneous,fractured rock systems. Furthermore, we observed a moderate trend towardsystematic increase in the emDFmDDF value with observation scale,indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient is likely tobe statistically scale dependent. The FD value ranges from 1 to 10,000for observation scales from 5 to 2,000 m. At a given scale, the FD valuevaries by two orders of magnitude, reflecting the influence of differingdegrees of fractured rock heterogeneity at different sites. In addition,the surveyed data indicate that field-scale longitudinal dispersivitygenerally increases with observation scale, which is consistent withprevious studies. The scale-dependent field-scale matrix diffusioncoefficient (and dispersivity) may have significant implications forassessing long-term, large-scale radionuclide and contaminant transportevents in fractured rock, both for nuclear waste disposal and contaminantremediation.

  18. A Conceptual Approach to Two-Scale Constitutive Modelling For Hydro-Mechanical Coupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giang D. Nguyen; Abbas El-Zein; Terry Bennett

    2014-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Large scale modelling of fluid flow coupled with solid failure in geothermal reservoirs or hydrocarbon extraction from reservoir rocks usually involves behaviours at two scales: lower scale of the inelastic localization zone, and larger scale of the bulk continuum where elastic behaviour can be reasonably assumed. The hydraulic conductivities corresponding to the mechanical properties at these two scales are different. In the bulk elastic host rock, the hydraulic conductivity does not vary much with the deformation, while it significantly changes in the lower scale of the localization zone due to inelastic deformation. Increase of permeability due to fracture and/or dilation, or reduction of permeability due to material compaction can take place inside this zone. The challenge is to predict the evolution of hydraulic conductivities coupled with the mechanical behaviour of the material in all stages of the deformation process. In the early stage of diffuse deformation, the permeability of the material can be reasonably assumed to be homogenous over the whole Representative Volume Element (RVE) However, localized failure results in distinctly different conductivities in different parts of the RVE. This paper establishes a general framework and corresponding field equations to describe the hydro-mechanical coupling in both diffuse and localized stages of deformation in rocks. In particular, embedding the lower scale hydro-mechanical behaviour of the localization zone inside an elastic bulk, together with their corresponding effective sizes, helps effectively deal with scaling issues in large-scale modelling. Preliminary results are presented which demonstrate the promising features of this new approach.

  19. Wave propagation and shock formation in different magnetic structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebecca Centeno; Manuel Collados; Javier Trujillo Bueno

    2008-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Velocity oscillations "measured" simultaneously at the photosphere and the chromosphere -from time series of spectropolarimetric data in the 10830 A region- of different solar magnetic features allow us to study the properties of wave propagation as a function of the magnetic flux of the structure (i.e. two different-sized sunspots, a tiny pore and a facular region). While photospheric oscillations have similar characteristics everywhere, oscillations measured at chromospheric heights show different amplitudes, frequencies and stages of shock development depending on the observed magnetic feature. The analysis of the power and the phase spectra, together with simple theoretical modeling, lead to a series of results concerning wave propagation within the range of heights of this study. We find that, while the atmospheric cut-off frequency and the propagation properties of the different oscillating modes depend on the magnetic feature, in all the cases the power that reaches the high chromosphere above the atmospheric cut-off comes directly from the photosphere by means of linear vertical wave propagation rather than from non-linear interaction of modes.

  20. Precision vertical mixer processes 30,000 pound batch of solid rocket propellants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The world's largest solid rocket propellant mixer has been singled out for Honors in the mixers and blenders category of the 1986 Chemical Processing Vaaler Awards competition. The mixer, which is four times larger than any heretofore used, was specially designed and built for one of the nations' foremost manufacturers of rocket propellants. Developments in the fields of metallurgy, material handling, computerization and electronics permitted the giant step of manufacturing propellants in batch sizes up to 30,000 pounds. Until this time, 7000 pounds was considered the maximum size batch within the scope of hazards analysis. The vertical design of the mixer lends itself to an effective fire protection system. Infra-red detectors are used to sense a sudden heat rise. Should an emergency situation arise once the bowl is in the mix position and under vacuum, the protection system will activate within twelve seconds, deluge the product zone with water, rapidly drop the bowl and simultaneously disconnect the electric power. The design encompasses remote operation and emphasizes safety and reliability. The mixer permits propellant manufacturers to safely produce more uniform, even burning products. Its large batch size simplifies the problems with multiple batches within a simple engine. By reducing labor costs and affording other manufacturing economies, it increases productivity while cutting costs.