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Sample records for ventilation lighting water

  1. Ventilation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Adequate ventilation is critical for health and home comfort. Check out Energy Saver advice on ways to maintain air flow and control moisture.

  2. Water spray ventilator system for continuous mining machines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Page, Steven J.; Mal, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    The invention relates to a water spray ventilator system mounted on a continuous mining machine to streamline airflow and provide effective face ventilation of both respirable dust and methane in underground coal mines. This system has two side spray nozzles mounted one on each side of the mining machine and six spray nozzles disposed on a manifold mounted to the underside of the machine boom. The six spray nozzles are angularly and laterally oriented on the manifold so as to provide non-overlapping spray patterns along the length of the cutter drum.

  3. Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Nuclear Reactor Technologies Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) ...

  4. Light water reactor program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franks, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Light Water Reactor Program is outlined. The scope of the program consists of: design certification of evolutionary plants; design, development, and design certification of simplified passive plants; first-of-a-kind engineering to achieve commercial standardization; plant lifetime improvement; and advanced reactor severe accident program. These program activities of the Office of Nuclear Energy are discussed.

  5. Light water detritiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorchenko, O.A.; Aleksee, I.A.; Bondarenko, S.D.; Vasyanina, T.V.

    2015-03-15

    Hundreds of thousands of tons of tritiated light water have been accumulating from the enterprises of nuclear fuel cycles around the world. The Dual-Temperature Water-Hydrogen (DTWH) process looks like the only practical alternative to Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange (CECE). In DTWH power-consuming lower reflux device (electrolytic cell) is replaced by a so-called 'hot tower' (LPCE column operating at conditions which ensure relatively small value of elementary separation factor α(hot)). In the upper, cold tower, the tritium transfers from hydrogen to water while in the lower, hot tower - in the opposite direction - from water to hydrogen. The DTWH process is much more complicated compared to CECE; it must be thoroughly computed and strictly controlled by an automatic control system. The use of a simulation code for DTWH is absolutely important. The simulation code EVIO-5 deals with 3 flows inside a column (hydrogen gas, water vapour and liquid water) and 2 simultaneous isotope exchange sub-processes (counter-current phase exchange and co-current catalytic exchange). EVIO-5 takes into account the strong dependence of process performance on given conditions (temperature and pressure). It calculates steady-state isotope concentration profiles considering a full set of reversible exchange reactions between different isotope modifications of water and hydrogen (12 molecular species). So the code can be used for simulation of LPCE column operation for detritiation of hydrogen and water feed, which contains H and D not only at low concentrations but above 10 at.% also. EVIO-5 code is used to model a Tritium Removal Facility with a throughput capacity of about 400 m{sup 3}/day. Simulation results show that a huge amount of wet-proofed catalyst is required (about 6000 m{sup 3}), mainly (90%) in the first stage. One reason for these large expenses (apart from a big scale of the problem itself) is the relatively high tritium separation factor in the hot tower

  6. Columbia Water & Light- Solar Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Water & Light electric customers are eligible for a $400 rebate for the purchase of a new solar water heater. To apply for this rebate, a customer submits a pre-approval application to...

  7. Cedarburg Light & Water Comm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cedarburg Light & Water Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name: Cedarburg Light & Water Comm Place: Wisconsin Phone Number: (262) 375-7650 Website: www.cedarburglightandwater.com...

  8. Paragould Light & Water Comm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Paragould Light & Water Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name: Paragould Light & Water Comm Place: Arkansas Phone Number: (870) 239-7700 Website: www.paragould.com Facebook:...

  9. Clarksville Light & Water Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clarksville Light & Water Co Jump to: navigation, search Name: Clarksville Light & Water Co Place: Arkansas Phone Number: 479-754-3148 Website: www.clarksvillelightwater.com...

  10. Two Rivers Water & Light | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water & Light Jump to: navigation, search Name: Two Rivers Water & Light Place: Wisconsin Phone Number: (920) 793-5550 Website: trwaterandlight.com Facebook: https:...

  11. Parkland Light & Water Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Parkland Light & Water Company Jump to: navigation, search Name: Parkland Light & Water Company Place: Washington Phone Number: (253) 531-5666 Website: www.plw.coop Outage...

  12. Lockwood Water & Light Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lockwood Water & Light Company Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lockwood Water & Light Company Place: Missouri Phone Number: 417-232-4221 Outage Hotline: 417-232-4221 References:...

  13. Brodhead Water & Lighting Comm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Brodhead Water & Lighting Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name: Brodhead Water & Lighting Comm Place: Wisconsin Phone Number: 608-897-2505 Website: www.cityofbrodheadwi.usdepart...

  14. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Nondestructive Evaluation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Light Water Reactor Sustainability ... A multitude of concrete-based structures are typically part of a light water reactor (LWR) ...

  15. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program - Integrated Program...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Program - Integrated Program Plan Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program - Integrated Program Plan The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is a research and ...

  16. Columbia Water & Light- HVAC and Lighting Efficiency Rebates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Columbia Water & Light (CWL) offers rebates to its commercial and industrial customers for the purchase of high efficiency HVAC installations and efficient lighting. Incentives for certain...

  17. LIGHT WATER MODERATED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christy, R.F.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1957-09-17

    A uranium fuel reactor designed to utilize light water as a moderator is described. The reactor core is in a tank at the bottom of a substantially cylindrical cross-section pit, the core being supported by an apertured grid member and comprised of hexagonal tubes each containing a pluralily of fuel rods held in a geometrical arrangement between end caps of the tubes. The end caps are apertured to permit passage of the coolant water through the tubes and the fuel elements are aluminum clad to prevent corrosion. The tubes are hexagonally arranged in the center of the tank providing an amulus between the core and tank wall which is filled with water to serve as a reflector. In use, the entire pit and tank are filled with water in which is circulated during operation by coming in at the bottom of the tank, passing upwardly through the grid member and fuel tubes and carried off near the top of the pit, thereby picking up the heat generated by the fuel elements during the fission thereof. With this particular design the light water coolant can also be used as the moderator when the uranium is enriched by fissionable isotope to an abundance of U/sup 235/ between 0.78% and 2%.

  18. Newberry Water & Light Board | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water & Light Board Jump to: navigation, search Name: Newberry Water & Light Board Place: Michigan Phone Number: (906) 293-5681 Outage Hotline: (906) 293-5681 References: EIA Form...

  19. Lake Mills Light & Water | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Light & Water Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lake Mills Light & Water Place: Wisconsin Phone Number: (920) 648-4026 Website: www.lakemillslw.com Outage Hotline: (920) 648-4026...

  20. Waterloo Light & Water Comm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name: Waterloo Light & Water Comm Place: Wisconsin Phone Number: (920) 478-2260 Website: waterlooutilities.com Facebook: https:...

  1. Columbia Water & Light- Solar Energy Loans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Water & Light (CWL) offers electric residential and commercial customers low-interest loans for photovoltaic (PV) systems and solar water heaters.

  2. Light-Water Breeder Reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beaudoin, B. R.; Cohen, J. D.; Jones, D. H.; Marier, Jr, L. J.; Raab, H. F.

    1972-06-20

    Described is a light-water-moderated and -cooled nuclear breeder reactor of the seed-blanket type characterized by core modules comprising loosely packed blanket zones enriched with fissile fuel and axial zoning in the seed and blanket regions within each core module. Reactivity control over lifetime is achieved by axial displacement of movable seed zones without the use of poison rods in the embodiment illustrated. The seed is further characterized by a hydrogen-to-uranium-233 atom ratio in the range 10 to 200 and a uranium-233-to-thorium-232 atom ratio ranging from 0.012 to 0.200. The seed occupies from 10 to 35 percent of the core volume in the form of one or more individual islands or annuli. (NSA 26: 55130)

  3. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Technical Documents | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Light Water Reactors: Life After 60 Nuclear reactors present a very harsh environment for components service. Components within a reactor core must tolerate high...

  4. Columbia Water & Light- Residential HVAC Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Water & Light (CWL) provides residential customers with rebates on energy efficient HVAC equipment. Customers should submit the mechanical permit from a Protective Inspection, a copy...

  5. Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Initiative Science...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    disposed instead of untreated used fuel. April 29, 2010 Constituents of Used Light Water Reactor Nuclear Fuel (by mass) April 29, 2010 Descriptions from NE R&D Roadmap to...

  6. Advanced Nuclear Technology: Advanced Light Water Reactors Utility...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nuclear Technology: Advanced Light Water Reactors Utility Requirements Document Small Modular Reactors Inclusion Summary Advanced Nuclear Technology: Advanced Light Water Reactors ...

  7. Sun Prairie Water & Light Comm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water & Light Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sun Prairie Water & Light Comm Place: Wisconsin Phone Number: 608.837.5500 Website: www.sunprairieutilities.com Twitter:...

  8. Oconto Falls Water & Light Comm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oconto Falls Water & Light Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name: Oconto Falls Water & Light Comm Place: Wisconsin Phone Number: (920) 846-4507 Website: ofmu.orgaboutus Outage...

  9. Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program - R&D Roadmap...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Damage in Piping Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program - R&D Roadmap for Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of Fatigue Damage in Piping Light water reactor sustainability ...

  10. Light Water Detritiation using the CECE Process | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Light Water Detritiation using the CECE Process Light Water Detritiation using the CECE Process Presentation from the 35th Tritium Focus Group Meeting held in Princeton, New Jersey ...

  11. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program - Non-Destructive...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program - Non-Destructive Evaluation R&D Roadmap for ... important information to the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program ...

  12. Development of Light Water Reactor Fuels with Enhanced Accident...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Development of Light Water Reactor Fuels with Enhanced Accident Tolerance - Report to Congress Development of Light Water Reactor Fuels with Enhanced Accident Tolerance - Report to ...

  13. Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light - Farm Equipment Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Pumps: 5cow Motors: 30HP Variable Frequency Drives: 30HP Lighting: 3 - 20fixture Ventilation Systems: 10 Livestock Waterers: 40unit Low Pressure Irrigation Systems:...

  14. Light-water reactor accident classification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washburn, B.W.

    1980-02-01

    The evolution of existing classifications and definitions of light-water reactor accidents is considered. Licensing practice and licensing trends are examined with respect to terms of art such as Class 8 and Class 9 accidents. Interim definitions, consistent with current licensing practice and the regulations, are proposed for these terms of art.

  15. Review of light water reactor safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, H.S.

    1980-12-01

    A review of the present status of light water reactor (LWR) safety is presented. The review starts with a brief discussion of the outstanding accident scenarios concerning LWRs. Where possible the areas of present technological uncertainties are stressed. To provide a better perspective of reactor safety, it then reviews the probabilistic assessment of the outstanding LWR accidents considered in the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) and discusses the potential impact of the present technological uncertainties on WASH-1400.

  16. Superior Water, Light and Power Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Superior Water, Light and Power Co Jump to: navigation, search Name: Superior Water, Light and Power Co Place: Wisconsin Phone Number: 715-394-2200 Website: www.swlp.com Outage...

  17. North Branch Water & Light Comm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    North Branch Water & Light Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name: North Branch Water & Light Comm Place: Minnesota Phone Number: 651-674-7100 or 651-674-8113 Website:...

  18. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Materials Aging and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Program: Materials Aging and Degradation Technical Program Plan Light Water Reactor ... Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) is one key form of degradation in extended ...

  19. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program - Integrated Program Plan |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program - Integrated Program Plan Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program - Integrated Program Plan The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), performed in close collaboration and cooperation with related industry R&D programs. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program - Integrated Program Plan - Revision 3 (2.66 MB)

  20. American National Standard: design requirements for light water reactor spent fuel storage facilities at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-10-07

    This standard presents necessary design requirements for facilities at nuclear power plants for the storage and preparation for shipment of spent fuel from light-water moderated and cooled nuclear power stations. It contains requirements for the design of fuel storage pool; fuel storage racks; pool makeup, instrumentation and cleanup systems; pool structure and integrity; radiation shielding; residual heat removal; ventilation, filtration and radiation monitoring systems; shipping cask handling and decontamination; building structure and integrity; and fire protection and communication.

  1. Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McHood, M D

    2000-10-12

    A geotechnical investigation program has been completed for the Commercial Light Water Reactor - Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program consisted of reviewing previous geotechnical and geologic data and reports, performing subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing, and geologic and engineering analyses. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the subsurface conditions for the CLWR-TEF in terms of subsurface stratigraphy and engineering properties for design and to perform selected engineering analyses. The objectives of the evaluation were to establish site-specific geologic conditions, obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface and potential fill materials, evaluate the lateral and vertical extent of any soft zones encountered, and perform engineering analyses for slope stability, bearing capacity and settlement, and liquefaction potential. In addition, provide general recommendations for construction and earthwork.

  2. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Technical Documents | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Nuclear Reactor Technologies » Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program » Light Water Reactor Sustainability Technical Documents Light Water Reactor Sustainability Technical Documents April 30, 2015 LWRS Program and EPRI Long-Term Operations Program - Joint R&D Plan To address the challenges associated with pursuing commercial nuclear power plant operations beyond 60 years, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) and the Electric Power Research

  3. McMinnville Water & Light- Conservation Service Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    McMinnville Water & Light offers financing to residential and commercial customers to make energy efficient improvements to eligible facilities and homes. Financing is available for pre...

  4. Moose Lake Water & Light Comm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Website: www.mooselakepower.com Facebook: https:www.facebook.compagesMoose-Lake-Water-Light-Commission445326012175319?frefts Outage Hotline: (218) 485-4100 References:...

  5. Lansing Board of Water & Light- Hometown Energy Savers Commercial Rebates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Franklin Energy Services and the Lansing Board of Water & Light (LBWL) partner together to offer the Hometown Energy Savers Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program. Eligible...

  6. ORNL). Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) was established by the US Department of Energy in 2010 to advance modeling and simulation capabilities for nuclear reactors. CASL's...

  7. Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    J.C., CASL: Consortium for the Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors - A DOE Energy Innovation Hub, ANS MC2015 Joint Internation Conference on Mathematics and Computation...

  8. Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Virtual Environment for Scientific Collaboration Posted: April 30, 2013 The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors, the Department of Energy's first...

  9. Columbia Water & Light- Home Performance with ENERGY STAR Loan

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Columbia Water & Light (CWL) Home Performance with ENERGY STAR program allows Columbia residents to finance energy efficiency improvements to homes with affordable, low-interest loans with...

  10. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, Kathryn A.

    2015-02-01

    Welcome to the 2014 Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program Accomplishments Report, covering research and development highlights from 2014. The LWRS Program is a U.S. Department of Energy research and development program to inform and support the long-term operation of our nation’s commercial nuclear power plants. The research uses the unique facilities and capabilities at the Department of Energy national laboratories in collaboration with industry, academia, and international partners. Extending the operating lifetimes of current plants is essential to supporting our nation’s base load energy infrastructure, as well as reaching the Administration’s goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by the year 2050. The purpose of the LWRS Program is to provide technical results for plant owners to make informed decisions on long-term operation and subsequent license renewal, reducing the uncertainty, and therefore the risk, associated with those decisions. In January 2013, 104 nuclear power plants operated in 31 states. However, since then, five plants have been shut down (several due to economic reasons), with additional shutdowns under consideration. The LWRS Program aims to minimize the number of plants that are shut down, with R&D that supports long-term operation both directly (via data that is needed for subsequent license renewal), as well indirectly (with models and technology that provide economic benefits). The LWRS Program continues to work closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to ensure that the body of information needed to support SLR decisions and actions is available in a timely manner. This report covers selected highlights from the three research pathways in the LWRS Program: Materials Aging and Degradation, Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization, and Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies, as well as a look-ahead at planned activities for 2015. If you

  11. 2014-02-07 Issuance: Certification of Commercial Heating, Ventilation, and Air-conditioning, Water Heating, and Refrigeration Equipment; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding certification of commercial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning, water-heating, and refrigeration equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on February 7, 2014.

  12. Columbia Water & Light- Home Performance with ENERGY STAR Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Water and Light, a municipal utility, offers rebates to its residential customers who make certain energy efficient improvements to the home. Under the Home Performance with Energy Star...

  13. McMinnville Water & Light- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    McMinnville Water and Light Company offers a variety of rebates for commercial and industrial customers to make energy efficient improvements to eligible facilities. MW&L offers rebates in...

  14. Cedarburg Light & Water Utility- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Cedarburg Light & Water (CL&W) offers rebates to residential customers for a variety of energy-efficient equipment and upgrades.  Through Wisconsin Focus on Energy, CL&W provides...

  15. Chemical and light-stable isotope characteristics of waters from...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    light-stable isotope characteristics of waters from the raft river geothermal area and environs, Cassia County, Idaho, Box Elder county, Utah Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  16. Columbia Water & Light- New Home ENERGY STAR Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Water and Light offers a $1,000 rebate to customers for the construction of new homes that achieve certification as Energy Star homes. The Energy Star designation is given to homes that...

  17. City Water Light and Power- Solar Rewards Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    City Water, Light and Power  (CWLP) is offering residential and commercial customers a $500 per kilowatt (kW) rebate for installing solar photovoltaic (PV) systems with a maximum rebate of up to $2...

  18. Improving Light Water Reactor Fuel Reliability Via Flow-Induced...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improving Light Water Reactor Fuel Reliability Via Flow-Indu... Failures of the fuel rod elements used to power U.S. nuclear ... and a recognized bottleneck to optimal fuel utilization. ...

  19. Ventilation Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. Chipman

    2002-10-05

    The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their post-closure analyses. The Ventilation Model report was initially developed to analyze the effects of preclosure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts, and to provide heat removal data to support EBS design. Revision 00 of the Ventilation Model included documentation of the modeling results from the ANSYS-based heat transfer model. The purposes of Revision 01 of the Ventilation Model are: (1) To validate the conceptual model for preclosure ventilation of emplacement drifts and verify its numerical application in accordance with new procedural requirements as outlined in AP-SIII-10Q, Models (Section 7.0). (2) To satisfy technical issues posed in KTI agreement RDTME 3.14 (Reamer and Williams 2001a). Specifically to demonstrate, with respect to the ANSYS ventilation model, the adequacy of the discretization (Section 6.2.3.1), and the downstream applicability of the model results (i.e. wall heat fractions) to initialize post

  20. Advanced dry head-end reprocessing of light water reactor spent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    reprocessing of light water reactor spent nuclear fuel Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Advanced dry head-end reprocessing of light water reactor spent nuclear fuel ...

  1. EIS-0288-S1: Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in a Commercial Light Water Reactor Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0288-S1: Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor Supplemental Environmental ...

  2. Smart Ventilation - RIVEC

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Secondary Ventilation Activity Inputs Control Ventilation to Ensure Acceptable Indoor Air Quality Outputs ... * ASHRAE Standard 62.2 service to ensure smart ventilation ...

  3. Ventilation | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Spot ventilation can improve the effectiveness of natural and whole-house ventilation by removing indoor air pollution andor moisture at its source. Spot ventilation includes the ...

  4. COLLOQUIUM: CASL: Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reactors, a DOE Energy Innovation Hub | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab May 29, 2013, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: CASL: Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors, a DOE Energy Innovation Hub Dr. Douglas Kothe Oak Ridge National Laboratory The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) is the first U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Innovation Hub, established in July 2010 for the modeling and simulation (M&S) of nuclear

  5. Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Light Water Reactors (CASL) - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  6. Assessment of light water reactor accident management programs and experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammersley, R.J.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this report is to provide an assessment of the current light water reactor experience regarding accident management programs and associated technology developments. This assessment for light water reactor (LWR) designs is provided as a resource and reference for the development of accident management capabilities for the production reactors at the Savannah River Site. The specific objectives of this assessment are as follows: 1. Perform a review of the NRC, utility, and industry (NUMARC, EPRI) accident management programs and implementation experience. 2. Provide an assessment of the problems and opportunities in developing an accident management program in conjunction or following the Individual Plant Examination process. 3. Review current NRC, utility, and industry technological developments in the areas of computational tools, severe accident predictive tools, diagnostic aids, and severe accident training and simulation.

  7. Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Webinars Introduction to CASL Youtube snapshot Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors Youtube snapshot CASL Dedication Youtube snapshot Energy Secretary Chu visits ORNL Youtube snapshot CASL's VERA: What is Possible? Youtube snapshot Andrew Godfrey - Nuclear Energy Technical Webcasts - VERA Methods Youtube snapshot Subchannel methods for the Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of Nuclear Power Systems Youtube snapshot Surrogate Models for Uncertainty Quantification presented by Dr.

  8. Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science and Technology Archive Energy Department Announces Five Year Renewal of Funding for First Energy Innovation Hub Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors to Receive up to $121.5 Million Over Five Years. Posted: January 29, 2015 VERA-CS Coupled Multi-physics Capability demonstrated in a Full Core Simulation In December, CASL reported on the latest results from its Watts Bar reactor progression problem modeling. Posted: August 14, 2014 Westinghouse Completes its AP1000®

  9. Use of Thorium in Light Water Reactors (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Use of Thorium in Light Water Reactors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Use of Thorium in Light Water Reactors Thorium-based fuels can be used to reduce concerns related ...

  10. Advanced dry head-end reprocessing of light water reactor spent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Advanced dry head-end reprocessing of light water reactor spent nuclear fuel Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Advanced dry head-end reprocessing of light water ...

  11. SEIS for the Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    SEIS for the Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor The NNSA, a ... the Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR EIS; DOEEIS-0288). ...

  12. DOE-NE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program and EPRI Long...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    DOE-NE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program and EPRI Long-Term Operations Program - Joint Research and Development Plan DOE-NE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program and ...

  13. Advanced Nuclear Technology: Advanced Light Water Reactors Utility Requirements Document Small Modular Reactors Inclusion Summary

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Advanced Nuclear Technology: Advanced Light Water Reactors Utility Requirements Document Small Modular Reactors Inclusion Summary November 2014

  14. Ventilation | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    can improve the effectiveness of natural and whole-house ventilation by removing indoor air pollution andor moisture at its source. Spot ventilation includes the use of...

  15. Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Media Kit CASL Acknowledgement This research was supported by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (http://www.casl.gov), an Energy Innovation Hub (http://www.energy.gov/hubs) for Modeling and Simulation of Nuclear Reactors under U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725. CASL Logo Files CASL Extended - CASL_word.jpg and CASL_word.png CASL without words - CASL.jpg and CASL.png CASL with words - CASL_word.jpg and CASL_word.png CASL Partners - partners.jpg

  16. Fuel Summary Report: Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor - Rev. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, Gail Lynn; Mc Cardell, Richard Keith; Illum, Douglas Brent

    2002-09-01

    The Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was developed by Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory to demonstrate the potential of a water-cooled, thorium oxide fuel cycle breeder reactor. The LWBR core operated from 1977-82 without major incident. The fuel and fuel components suffered minimal damage during operation, and the reactor testing was deemed successful. Extensive destructive and nondestructive postirradiation examinations confirmed that the fuel was in good condition with minimal amounts of cladding deformities and fuel pellet cracks. Fuel was placed in wet storage upon arrival at the Expended Core Facility, then dried and sent to the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center for underground dry storage. It is likely that the fuel remains in good condition at its current underground dry storage location at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Reports show no indication of damage to the core associated with shipping, loading, or storage.

  17. Method of burning lightly loaded coal-water slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krishna, C.R.

    1984-07-27

    In a preferred arrangement of the method of the invention, a lightly loaded coal-water slurry, containing in the range of approximately 40% to 52% + 2% by weight coal, is atomized to strip water from coal particles in the mixture. Primary combustor air is forced around the atomized spray in a combustion chamber of a combustor to swirl the air in a helical path through the combustion chamber. A flame is established within the combustion chamber to ignite the stripped coal particles, and flame temperature regulating means are provided for maintaining the flame temperature within a desired predetermined range of temperatures that is effective to produce dry, essentially slag-free ash from the combustion process.

  18. Accident Performance of Light Water Reactor Cladding Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Andrew T.

    2012-07-24

    During a loss of coolant accident as experienced at Fukushima, inadequate cooling of the reactor core forces component temperatures ever higher where they must withstand aggressive chemical environments. Conventional zirconium cladding alloys will readily oxidize in the presence of water vapor at elevated temperatures, rapidly degrading and likely failing. A cladding breach removes the critical barrier between actinides and fission products and the coolant, greatly increasing the probability of the release of radioactivity in the event of a containment failure. These factors have driven renewed international interest in both study and improvement of the materials used in commercial light water reactors. Characterization of a candidate cladding alloy or oxidation mitigation technique requires understanding of both the oxidation kinetics and hydrogen production as a function of temperature and atmosphere conditions. Researchers in the MST division supported by the DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development program are working to evaluate and quantify these parameters across a wide range of proposed cladding materials. The primary instrument employed is a simultaneous thermal analyzer (STA) equipped with a specialized water vapor furnace capable of maintaining temperatures above 1200 C in a range of atmospheres and water vapor contents. The STA utilizes thermogravimetric analysis and a coupled mass spectrometer to measure in situ oxidation and hydrogen production of candidate materials. This capability is unprecedented in study of materials under consideration for reactor cladding use, and is currently being expanded to investigate proposed coating techniques as well as the effect of coating defects on corrosion resistance.

  19. Multi-Applications Small Light Water Reactor - NERI Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Michale Modro; James E. Fisher; Kevan D. Weaver; Jose N. Reyes, Jr.; John T. Groome; Pierre Babka; Thomas M. Carlson

    2003-12-01

    The Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR) project was conducted under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The primary project objectives were to develop the conceptual design for a safe and economic small, natural circulation light water reactor, to address the economic and safety attributes of the concept, and to demonstrate the technical feasibility by testing in an integral test facility. This report presents the results of the project. After an initial exploratory and evolutionary process, as documented in the October 2000 report, the project focused on developing a modular reactor design that consists of a self-contained assembly with a reactor vessel, steam generators, and containment. These modular units would be manufactured at a single centralized facility, transported by rail, road, and/or ship, and installed as a series of self-contained units. This approach also allows for staged construction of an NPP and ''pull and replace'' refueling and maintenance during each five-year refueling cycle.

  20. Mechanical design of a light water breeder reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fauth, Jr., William L.; Jones, Daniel S.; Kolsun, George J.; Erbes, John G.; Brennan, John J.; Weissburg, James A.; Sharbaugh, John E.

    1976-01-01

    In a light water reactor system using the thorium-232 -- uranium-233 fuel system in a seed-blanket modular core configuration having the modules arranged in a symmetrical array surrounded by a reflector blanket region, the seed regions are disposed for a longitudinal movement between the fixed or stationary blanket region which surrounds each seed region. Control of the reactor is obtained by moving the inner seed region thus changing the geometry of the reactor, and thereby changing the leakage of neutrons from the relatively small seed region into the blanket region. The mechanical design of the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core includes means for axially positioning of movable fuel assemblies to achieve the neutron economy required of a breeder reactor, a structure necessary to adequately support the fuel modules without imposing penalties on the breeding capability, a structure necessary to support fuel rods in a closely packed array and a structure necessary to direct and control the flow of coolant to regions in the core in accordance with the heat transfer requirements.

  1. The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronaldo Szilard; Hongbin Zhang; Doug Kothe; Paul Turinsky

    2011-10-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) is a DOE Energy Innovation Hub for modeling and simulation of nuclear reactors. It brings together an exceptionally capable team from national labs, industry and academia that will apply existing modeling and simulation capabilities and develop advanced capabilities to create a usable environment for predictive simulation of light water reactors (LWRs). This environment, designated as the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA), will incorporate science-based models, state-of-the-art numerical methods, modern computational science and engineering practices, and uncertainty quantification (UQ) and validation against data from operating pressurized water reactors (PWRs). It will couple state-of-the-art fuel performance, neutronics, thermal-hydraulics (T-H), and structural models with existing tools for systems and safety analysis and will be designed for implementation on both today's leadership-class computers and the advanced architecture platforms now under development by the DOE. CASL focuses on a set of challenge problems such as CRUD induced power shift and localized corrosion, grid-to-rod fretting fuel failures, pellet clad interaction, fuel assembly distortion, etc. that encompass the key phenomena limiting the performance of PWRs. It is expected that much of the capability developed will be applicable to other types of reactors. CASL's mission is to develop and apply modeling and simulation capabilities to address three critical areas of performance for nuclear power plants: (1) reduce capital and operating costs per unit energy by enabling power uprates and plant lifetime extension, (2) reduce nuclear waste volume generated by enabling higher fuel burnup, and (3) enhance nuclear safety by enabling high-fidelity predictive capability for component performance.

  2. Fuel Summary Report: Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Illum, D.B.; Olson, G.L.; McCardell, R.K.

    1999-01-01

    The Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was a small water cooled, U-233/Th-232 cycle breeder reactor developed by the Pittsburgh Naval Reactors to improve utilization of the nation's nuclear fuel resources in light water reactors. The LWBR was operated at Shippingport Atomic Power Station (APS), which was a Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly Atomic Energy Commission)-owned reactor plant. Shippingport APS was the first large-scale, central-station nuclear power plant in the United States and the first plant of such size in the world operated solely to produce electric power. The Shippingport LWBR was operated successfully from 1977 to 1982 at the APS. During the five years of operation, the LWBR generated more than 29,000 effective full power hours (EFPH) of energy. After final shutdown, the 39 core modules of the LWBR were shipped to the Expended Core Facility (ECF) at Naval Reactors Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). At ECF, 12 of the 39 modules were dismantled and about 1000 of more than 17,000 rods were removed from the modules of proof-of-breeding and fuel performance testing. Some of the removed rods were kept at ECF, some were sent to Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) in Idaho and some to ANL-East in Chicago for a variety of physical, chemical and radiological examinations. All rods and rod sections remaining after the experiments were shipped back to ECF, where modules and loose rods were repackaged in liners for dry storage. In a series of shipments, the liners were transported from ECF to Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC), formerly the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The 47 liners containing the fully-rodded and partially-derodded core modules, the loose rods, and the rod scraps, are now stored in underground dry wells at CPP-749.

  3. A Review of Stress Corrosion Cracking/Fatigue Modeling for Light Water Reactor Cooling System Components

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the United States currently there are approximately 104 operating light water reactors. Of these, 69 are pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and 35 are boiling water reactors (BWRs). In 2007, the...

  4. Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility Geotechnical Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, M.R.

    2000-01-11

    A geotechnical investigation program has been completed for the Circulating Light Water Reactor - Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program consisted of reviewing previous geotechnical and geologic data and reports, performing subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing and geologic and engineering analyses. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the subsurface conditions for the CLWR-TEF in terms of subsurface stratigraphy and engineering properties for design and to perform selected engineering analyses. The objectives of the evaluation were to establish site-specific geologic conditions, obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface and potential fill materials, evaluate the lateral and vertical extent of any soft zones encountered, and perform engineering analyses for slope stability, bearing capacity and settlement, and liquefaction potential. In addition, provide general recommendations for construction and earthwork.

  5. Light-water breeder reactor (LWBR Development Program)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beaudoin, B.R.; Cohen, J.D.; Jones, D.H.; Marier, L.J. Jr.; Raab, H.F.

    1972-06-20

    Described is a light-water-moderated and -cooled nuclear breeder reactor of the seed-blanket type characterized by core modules comprising loosely packed blanket zones enriched with fissile fuel and axial zoning in the seed and blanket regions within each core module. Reactivity control over lifetime is achieved by axial displacement of movable seed zones without the use of poison rods in the embodiment illustrated. The seed is further characterized by a hydrogen-to-uranium-233 atom ratio in the range 10 to 200 and a uranium-233-to-thorium-232 atom ratio ranging from 0.012 to 0.200. The seed occupies from 10 to 35 percent of the core volume in the form of one or more individual islands or annuli. (NSA 26: 55130)

  6. Materials Inventory Database for the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazi Ahmed; Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton

    2013-08-01

    Scientific research involves the purchasing, processing, characterization, and fabrication of many sample materials. The history of such materials can become complicated over their lifetime – materials might be cut into pieces or moved to various storage locations, for example. A database with built-in functions to track these kinds of processes facilitates well-organized research. The Material Inventory Database Accounting System (MIDAS) is an easy-to-use tracking and reference system for such items. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRS), which seeks to advance the long-term reliability and productivity of existing nuclear reactors in the United States through multiple research pathways, proposed MIDAS as an efficient way to organize and track all items used in its research. The database software ensures traceability of all items used in research using built-in functions which can emulate actions on tracked items – fabrication, processing, splitting, and more – by performing operations on the data. MIDAS can recover and display the complete history of any item as a simple report. To ensure the database functions suitably for the organization of research, it was developed alongside a specific experiment to test accident tolerant nuclear fuel cladding under the LWRS Advanced Light Water Reactor Nuclear Fuels Pathway. MIDAS kept track of materials used in this experiment from receipt at the laboratory through all processes, test conduct and, ultimately, post-test analysis. By the end of this process, the database proved to be right tool for this program. The database software will help LWRS more efficiently conduct research experiments, from simple characterization tests to in-reactor experiments. Furthermore, MIDAS is a universal tool that any other research team could use to organize their material inventory.

  7. EIS-0288-S1: Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EIS-0288-S1: Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR) Tritium ... February 24, 2016 EIS-0288-S1: Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement August ...

  8. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Constellation Pilot Project FY13 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Johansen

    2013-09-01

    Summary report for Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) activities related to the R. E. Ginna and Nine Mile Point Unit 1 for FY13.

  9. North Branch Municipal Water & Light- Commercial & Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    North Branch Municipal Water & Light provides incentives for its commercial and industrial customers to improve the energy efficiency of facilities. Rebates are available for a variety of...

  10. McMinnville Water and Light- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    McMinnville Water and Light (MWL) offers rebates on energy efficient homes, appliances and equipment to residential customers. Rebates are valid on: 

  11. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Constellation Pilot Project FY12 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Johansen

    2012-09-01

    Summary report for Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) activities related to the R. E. Ginna and Nine Mile Point Unit 1 for FY12.

  12. Demonstration of μCHP in Light Commercial Hot Water Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstration of CHP in Light Commercial Hot Water Applications 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Kris L. Jorgensen, kjorgensen@aosmith.com A. O. Smith Corporation 2 ...

  13. VENTILATION MODEL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. Chipman

    2002-10-31

    The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their postclosure analyses.

  14. Technologies for Upgrading Light Water Reactor Outlet Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel S. Wendt; Piyush Sabharwall; Vivek Utgikar

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear energy could potentially be utilized in hybrid energy systems to produce synthetic fuels and feedstocks from indigenous carbon sources such as coal and biomass. First generation nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) technology will most likely be based on conventional light water reactors (LWRs). However, these LWRs provide thermal energy at temperatures of approximately 300°C, while the desired temperatures for many chemical processes are much higher. In order to realize the benefits of nuclear hybrid energy systems with the current LWR reactor fleets, selection and development of a complimentary temperature upgrading technology is necessary. This paper provides an initial assessment of technologies that may be well suited toward LWR outlet temperature upgrading for powering elevated temperature industrial and chemical processes during periods of off-peak power demand. Chemical heat transformers (CHTs) are a technology with the potential to meet LWR temperature upgrading requirements for NHESs. CHTs utilize chemical heat of reaction to change the temperature at which selected heat sources supply or consume thermal energy. CHTs could directly utilize LWR heat output without intermediate mechanical or electrical power conversion operations and the associated thermodynamic losses. CHT thermal characteristics are determined by selection of the chemical working pair and operating conditions. This paper discusses the chemical working pairs applicable to LWR outlet temperature upgrading and the CHT operating conditions required for providing process heat in NHES applications.

  15. Sustainability Considerations in Spent Light-water Nuclear Fuel Retrievability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Thomas W.; Rothwell, Geoffrey

    2012-01-10

    This paper examines long-term cost differences between two competing Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuels: Uranium Oxide (UOX) and Mixed Uranium Oxide-Plutonium Oxide (MOX). Since these costs are calculated on a life-cycle basis, expected savings from lower future MOX fuel prices can be used to value the option of substituting MOX for UOX, including the value of maintaining access to the used UOX fuel that could be reprocessed to make MOX. The two most influential cost drivers are the price of natural uranium and the cost of reprocessing. Significant and sustained reductions in reprocessing costs and/or sustained increases in uranium prices are required to give positive value to the retrievability of Spent Nuclear Fuel. While this option has positive economic value, it might not be exercised for 50 to 200 years. Therefore, there are many years for a program during which reprocessing technology can be researched, developed, demonstrated, and deployed. Further research is required to determine whether the cost of such a program would yield positive net present value and/or increases the sustainability of LWR energy systems.

  16. READ THIS: Before You Ventilate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-12-08

    This document reviews ventilation strategies for different climate zones and includes schematic drawings and photographs of various ventilation installations.

  17. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Integrated Program Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, Kathryn A.; Busby, Jeremy; Hallbert, Bruce; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Smith, Curtis; Barnard, Cathy

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear power has safely, reliably, and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to experience a 31% growth from 2009 to 2035. At the same time, most of the currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their initial 20-year extension to their original 40-year operating license for a total of 60 years of operation. Figure E-1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development Roadmap (Nuclear Energy Roadmap) organizes its activities around four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The four objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Program’s plans.

  18. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Integrated Program Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kathryn McCarthy; Jeremy Busby; Bruce Hallbert; Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Curtis Smith; Cathy Barnard

    2013-04-01

    Nuclear power has safely, reliably, and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to experience a 31% growth from 2009 to 2035. At the same time, most of the currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their initial 20-year extension to their original 40-year operating license for a total of 60 years of operation. Figure E-1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development Roadmap (Nuclear Energy Roadmap) organizes its activities around four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The four objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Program’s plans.

  19. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Integrated Program Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Griffith; Robert Youngblood; Jeremy Busby; Bruce Hallbert; Cathy Barnard; Kathryn McCarthy

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power has safely, reliably, and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to experience a 31% growth from 2009 to 2035. At the same time, most of the currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their initial 20-year extension to their original 40-year operating license for a total of 60 years of operation. Figure E-1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline - even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Research and Development Roadmap (Nuclear Energy Roadmap) organizes its activities around four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The four objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration's energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Program's plans.

  20. Revised accident source terms for light-water reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soffer, L.

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents revised accident source terms for light-water reactors incorporating the severe accident research insights gained in this area over the last 15 years. Current LWR reactor accident source terms used for licensing date from 1962 and are contained in Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4. These specify that 100% of the core inventory of noble gases and 25% of the iodine fission products are assumed to be instantaneously available for release from the containment. The chemical form of the iodine fission products is also assumed to be predominantly elemental iodine. These assumptions have strongly affected present nuclear air cleaning requirements by emphasizing rapid actuation of spray systems and filtration systems optimized to retain elemental iodine. A proposed revision of reactor accident source terms and some im implications for nuclear air cleaning requirements was presented at the 22nd DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference. A draft report was issued by the NRC for comment in July 1992. Extensive comments were received, with the most significant comments involving (a) release fractions for both volatile and non-volatile species in the early in-vessel release phase, (b) gap release fractions of the noble gases, iodine and cesium, and (c) the timing and duration for the release phases. The final source term report is expected to be issued in late 1994. Although the revised source terms are intended primarily for future plants, current nuclear power plants may request use of revised accident source term insights as well in licensing. This paper emphasizes additional information obtained since the 22nd Conference, including studies on fission product removal mechanisms, results obtained from improved severe accident code calculations and resolution of major comments, and their impact upon the revised accident source terms. Revised accident source terms for both BWRS and PWRS are presented.

  1. Technology Implementation Plan. Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel for Commercial Light Water Reactor Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snead, Lance Lewis; Terrani, Kurt A.; Powers, Jeffrey J.; Worrall, Andrew; Robb, Kevin R.; Snead, Mary A.

    2015-04-01

    This report is an overview of the implementation plan for ORNL's fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) light water reactor fuel. The fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel consists of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particles embedded inside a fully dense SiC matrix and is intended for utilization in commercial light water reactor application.

  2. DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION AND CLASSROOM VENTILATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Mendell, Mark J.; Davies, Molly; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Faulkner, David; Hong, Tienzen; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2014-01-06

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling. Major findings included: ? The single-location carbon dioxide sensors widely used for demand controlled ventilation frequently have large errors and will fail to effectively control ventilation rates (VRs).? Multi-location carbon dioxide measurement systems with more expensive sensors connected to multi-location sampling systems may measure carbon dioxide more accurately.? Currently-available optical people counting systems work well much of the time but have large counting errors in some situations. ? In meeting rooms, measurements of carbon dioxide at return-air grilles appear to be a better choice than wall-mounted sensors.? In California, demand controlled ventilation in general office spaces is projected to save significant energy and be cost effective only if typical VRs without demand controlled ventilation are very high relative to VRs in codes. Based on the research, several recommendations were developed for demand controlled ventilation specifications in the California Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards.The research on classroom ventilation collected data over two years on California elementary school classrooms to investigate associations between VRs and student illness absence (IA). Major findings included: ? Median classroom VRs in all studied climate zones were below the California guideline, and 40percent lower in portable than permanent buildings.? Overall, one additional L/s per person of VR was associated with 1.6percent less IA. ? Increasing average VRs in California K-12 classrooms from the current average to the required level is estimated to decrease IA by 3.4percent, increasing State attendance-based funding to school districts by $33M, with $6.2 M in increased energy costs. Further VR increases would provide additional benefits

  3. Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Modro, S.M.; Fisher, J.E.; Weaver, K.D.; Reyes, J.N.; Groome, J.T.; Babka, P.; Carlson, T.M.

    2003-12-01

    The Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR) project was conducted under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The primary project objectives were to develop the conceptual design for a safe and economic small, natural circulation light water reactor, to address the economic and safety attributes of the concept, and to demonstrate the technical feasibility by testing in an integral test facility. This report presents the results of the project. After an initial exploratory and evolutionary process, as documented in the October 2000 report, the project focused on developing a modular reactor design that consists of a self-contained assembly with a reactor vessel, steam generators, and containment. These modular units would be manufactured at a single centralized facility, transported by rail, road, and/or ship, and installed as a series of self-contained units. This approach also allows for staged construction of an NPP and ''pull and replace'' refueling and maintenance during each five-year refueling cycle. Development of the baseline design concept has been sufficiently completed to determine that it complies with the safety requirements and criteria, and satisfies the major goals already noted. The more significant features of the baseline single-unit design concept include: (1) Thermal Power--150 MWt; (2) Net Electrical Output--35 MWe; (3) Steam Generator Type--Vertical, helical tubes; (4) Fuel UO{sub 2}, 8% enriched; (5) Refueling Intervals--5 years; (6) Life-Cycle--60 years. The economic performance was assessed by designing a power plant with an electric generation capacity in the range of current and advanced evolutionary systems. This approach allows for direct comparison of economic performance and forms a basis for further evaluation, economic and technical, of the proposed design and for the design evolution towards a more cost competitive concept. Applications such as

  4. Sustained Recycle in Light Water and Sodium-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Michael A. Pope; Gilles J. Youinou

    2010-11-01

    From a physics standpoint, it is feasible to sustain recycle of used fuel in either thermal or fast reactors. This paper examines multi-recycle potential performance by considering three recycling approaches and calculating several fuel cycle parameters, including heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; radiotoxicity of waste; and uranium utilization. The first recycle approach is homogeneous mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies in a light water reactor (LWR). The transuranic portion of the MOX was varied among Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. (All-TRU means all isotopes through Cf-252.) The Pu case was allowed to go to 10% Pu in fresh fuel, but when the minor actinides were included, the transuranic enrichment was kept below 8% to satisfy the expected void reactivity constraint. The uranium portion of the MOX was enriched uranium. That enrichment was increased (to as much as 6.5%) to keep the fuel critical for a typical LWR irradiation. The second approach uses heterogeneous inert matrix fuel (IMF) assemblies in an LWR - a mix of IMF and traditional UOX pins. The uranium-free IMF fuel pins were Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. The UOX pins were limited to 4.95% U-235 enrichment. The number of IMF pins was set so that the amount of TRU in discharged fuel from recycle N (from both IMF and UOX pins) was made into the new IMF pins for recycle N+1. Up to 60 of the 264 pins in a fuel assembly were IMF. The assembly-average TRU content was 1-6%. The third approach uses fast reactor oxide fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor with transuranic conversion ratio of 0.50 and 1.00. The transuranic conversion ratio is the production of transuranics divided by destruction of transuranics. The FR at CR=0.50 is similar to the CR for the MOX case. The fast reactor cases had a transuranic content of 33-38%, higher than IMF or MOX.

  5. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. Digital Architecture Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Kenneth; Oxstrand, Johanna

    2015-03-01

    The Digital Architecture effort is a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Light-Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The LWRS program is performed in close collaboration with industry research and development (R&D) programs that provides the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants (NPPs). One of the primary missions of the LWRS program is to help the U.S. nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. Therefore, a major objective of the LWRS program is the development of a seamless digital environment for plant operations and support by integrating information from plant systems with plant processes for nuclear workers through an array of interconnected technologies. In order to get the most benefits of the advanced technology suggested by the different research activities in the LWRS program, the nuclear utilities need a digital architecture in place to support the technology. A digital architecture can be defined as a collection of information technology (IT) capabilities needed to support and integrate a wide-spectrum of real-time digital capabilities for nuclear power plant performance improvements. It is not hard to imagine that many processes within the plant can be largely improved from both a system and human performance perspective by utilizing a plant wide (or near plant wide) wireless network. For example, a plant wide wireless network allows for real time plant status information to easily be accessed in the control room, field workers’ computer-based procedures can be updated based on the real time plant status, and status on ongoing procedures can be incorporated into smart schedules in the outage command center to allow for more accurate planning of critical tasks. The goal

  6. Ventilation Model Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. Chipman; J. Case

    2002-12-20

    The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their post-closure analyses. The Ventilation Model report was initially developed to analyze the effects of preclosure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts, and to provide heat removal data to support EBS design. Revision 00 of the Ventilation Model included documentation of the modeling results from the ANSYS-based heat transfer model. Revision 01 ICN 01 included the results of the unqualified software code MULTIFLUX to assess the influence of moisture on the ventilation efficiency. The purposes of Revision 02 of the Ventilation Model are: (1) To validate the conceptual model for preclosure ventilation of emplacement drifts and verify its numerical application in accordance with new procedural requirements as outlined in AP-SIII-10Q, Models (Section 7.0). (2) To satisfy technical issues posed in KTI agreement RDTME 3.14 (Reamer and Williams 2001a). Specifically to demonstrate, with respect to the ANSYS ventilation model, the adequacy of

  7. Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, ... leveraging previous taxpayer investments in M&S tools that run on the world's ...

  8. Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light-Water Reactors To...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, ... leveraging previous taxpayer investments in modelingsimulation tools that run ...

  9. Materials Degradation in Light Water Reactors: Life After 60

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nuclear reactors present a very harsh environment for components service. Components within a reactor core must tolerate high temperature water, stress, vibration, and an intense neutron field....

  10. City Water Light and Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Clothes Washers Water Heaters Heat Pumps Building Insulation Maximum Rebate Building Insulation: 500 Program Info Sector Name Utility Administrator Energy Services Office Website...

  11. Duquesne Light Company - Residential Solar Water Heating Program...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    rebates to its residential customers for purchasing and installing qualifying solar water heating systems. Eligible systems may receive a flat rebate of 286 per qualifying...

  12. Building Science- Ventilation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 25, 2012, and addressed the question "What are the best ventilation techniques"

  13. Ventilation | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    uniformly. Natural ventilation depends on a home's airtightness, outdoor temperatures, wind, and other factors. During mild weather, some homes may lack sufficient natural...

  14. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R.

    1993-11-01

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ``Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.`` The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ``generic`` insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency ({approximately}1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations.

  15. Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the simplest ways to save energy and money is to switch to energy-efficient lights. Learn about your lighting choices that can save you money.

  16. Implementation Plan and Initial Development of Nuclear Concrete Materials Database for Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The FY10 activities for development of a nuclear concrete materials database to support the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program are summarized. The database will be designed and constructed...

  17. Development of Light Water Reactor Fuels with Enhanced Accident Tolerance – Report to Congress

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report provides DOE’s plan to develop light water reactor (LWR) fuels with enhanced accident tolerance in response to 2012 Congressional direction and funding authorization. The result of the...

  18. EIS-0288: Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Environmental Impact Statement for the Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR EIS) evaluates the environmental impacts associated with producing tritium at one or more...

  19. Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Assessment of High Value Surveillance Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in a light-water reactor (LWR) represents the first line of defense against a release of radiation in case of an accident. Thus, regulations that govern the...

  20. Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    FRONT COVER Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration DOE/EIS-0288-S1 August 2014 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS CFR Code of Federal Regulations CLWR commercial light water reactor CO2e carbon dioxide equivalent DOE U.S. Department of Energy EIS environmental impact statement EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency °F degrees Fahrenheit FR Federal Register

  1. Guide to Home Ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    A fact sheet from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Ventilation refers to the exchange of indoor and outdoor air. Without proper ventilation, an otherwise insulated and airtight house will seal in harmful pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, and moisture that can damage a house.

  2. Multifamily Ventilation Retrofit Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.; Bergey, D.

    2012-12-01

    In multifamily buildings, central ventilation systems often have poor performance, overventilating some portions of the building (causing excess energy use), while simultaneously underventilating other portions (causing diminished indoor air quality). BSC and Innova Services Corporation performed a series of field tests at a mid-rise test building undergoing a major energy audit and retrofit, which included ventilation system upgrades.

  3. Promising Technology: Demand Control Ventilation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Demand control ventilation (DCV) measures carbon dioxide concentrations in return air or other strategies to measure occupancy, and accurately matches the ventilation requirement. This system reduces ventilation when spaces are vacant or at lower than peak occupancy. When ventilation is reduced, energy savings are accrued because it is not necessary to heat, cool, or dehumidify as much outside air.

  4. Impact of Pilot Light Modeling on the Predicted Annual Performance of Residential Gas Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.

    2013-08-01

    Modeling residential water heaters with dynamic simulation models can provide accurate estimates of their annual energy consumption, if the units? characteristics and use conditions are known. Most gas storage water heaters (GSWHs) include a standing pilot light. It is generally assumed that the pilot light energy will help make up standby losses and have no impact on the predicted annual energy consumption. However, that is not always the case. The gas input rate and conversion efficiency of a pilot light for a GSWH were determined from laboratory data. The data were used in simulations of a typical GSWH with and without a pilot light, for two cases: 1) the GSWH is used alone; and 2) the GSWH is the second tank in a solar water heating (SWH) system. The sensitivity of wasted pilot light energy to annual hot water use, climate, and installation location was examined. The GSWH used alone in unconditioned space in a hot climate had a slight increase in energy consumption. The GSWH with a pilot light used as a backup to an SWH used up to 80% more auxiliary energy than one without in hot, sunny locations, from increased tank losses.

  5. Why We Ventilate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logue, Jennifer M.; Sherman, Max H.; Price, Phil N.; Singer, Brett C.

    2011-09-01

    It is widely accepted that ventilation is critical for providing good indoor air quality (IAQ) in homes. However, the definition of"good" IAQ, and the most effective, energy efficient methods for delivering it are still matters of research and debate. This paper presents the results of work done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab to identify the air pollutants that drive the need for ventilation as part of a larger effort to develop a health-based ventilation standard. First, we present results of a hazard analysis that identified the pollutants that most commonly reach concentrations in homes that exceed health-based standards or guidelines for chronic or acute exposures. Second, we present results of an impact assessment that identified the air pollutants that cause the most harm to the U.S. population from chronic inhalation in residences. Lastly, we describe the implications of our findings for developing effective ventilation standards.

  6. Advanced Nuclear Technology: Advanced Light Water Reactors Utility Requirements Document Small Modular Reactors Inclusion Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loflin, Leonard; McRimmon, Beth

    2014-12-18

    This report summarizes a project by EPRI to include requirements for small modular light water reactors (smLWR) into the EPRI Utility Requirements Document (URD) for Advanced Light Water Reactors. The project was jointly funded by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The report covers the scope and content of the URD, the process used to revise the URD to include smLWR requirements, a summary of the major changes to the URD to include smLWR, and how to use the URD as revised to achieve value on new plant projects.

  7. Practical combinations of light-water reactors and fast reactors for future actinide transmutation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, Emory D.; Renier, John-Paul

    2007-07-01

    Multicycle partitioning-transmutation (P-T) studies continue to show that use of existing light-water reactors (LWRs) and new advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs) can effectively transmute transuranic (TRU) actinides, enabling initiation of full actinide recycle much earlier than waiting for the development and deployment of sufficient fast reactor (FR) capacity. The combination of initial P-T cycles using LWRs/ALWRs in parallel with economic improvements to FR usage for electricity production, and a follow-on transition period in which FRs are deployed, is a practical approach to near-term closure of the nuclear fuel cycle with full actinide recycle. (authors)

  8. Los Alamos boosts light-water reactor research with advanced modeling and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulation technology Los Alamos boosts light-water reactor research Los Alamos boosts light-water reactor research with advanced modeling and simulation technology As part of the consortium CASL will now be deployed to industry and academia under a new inter-institutional agreement for intellectual property. March 2, 2015 A simulation demonstrates the volume fraction of a bubble phase in the region downstream of a 3×3 rod bundle after a short burst of bubbles has been introduced into the

  9. Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Workshop Location: Washington Gas Light Appliance Training Facility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Workshop Location: Washington Gas Light Appliance Training Facility 6801 Industrial Road Springfield, VA Date: October 9, 2014 Time: 10:00 am - 12:30 pm EDT Purpose: To convene representatives from stakeholder organizations in order to enhance their understanding of the characteristics of condensing natural gas heating and water heating equipment that contribute to the unique installation requirements and challenges of this equipment compared to

  10. Advanced Fuel Performance: Modeling and Simulation Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    63 No. 8 * JOM 49 www.tms.org/jom.html Advanced Fuel Performance: Modeling and Simulation Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance: Current Status, Challenges, and Future High Fidelity Modeling K. Edsinger, C.R. Stanek, and B.D. Wirth How would you... ...describe the overall signifcance of this paper? This paper provides a concise description of the nuclear fuel used in pressurized water nuclear reactors and the most commonly observed fuel failure mechanisms. ...describe this work to a materials

  11. Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light-Water Reactors To Receive Up To

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    $121.5M Over Five Years Light-Water Reactors To Receive Up To $121.5M Over Five Years - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery

  12. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Constellation Pilot Project FY11 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Johansen

    2011-09-01

    Summary report for Fiscal Year 2011 activities associated with the Constellation Pilot Project. The project is a joint effor between Constellation Nuclear Energy Group (CENG), EPRI, and the DOE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The project utilizes two CENG reactor stations: R.E. Ginna and Nine Point Unit 1. Included in the report are activities associate with reactor internals and concrete containments.

  13. A light water excess heat reaction suggests that cold fusion may be alkali-hydrogen fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, R.T. )

    1992-09-01

    This paper reports that Mills and Kneizys presented data in support of a light water excess heat reaction obtained with an electrolytic cell highly reminiscent of the Fleischmann-Pons cold fusion cell. The claim of Mills and Kneizys that their excess heat reaction can be explained on the basis of a novel chemistry, which supposedly also explains cold fusion, is rejected in favor of their reaction being, instead, a light water cold fusion reaction. It is the first known light water cold fusion reaction to exhibit excess heat, it may serve as a prototype to expand our understanding of cold fusion. From this new reactions are deduced, including those common to past cold fusion studies. This broader pattern of nuclear reactions is typically seen to involve a fusion of the nuclides of the alkali atoms with the simplest of the alkali-type nuclides, namely, protons, deuterons, and tritons. Thus, the term alkali-hydrogen fusion seems appropriate for this new type of reaction with three subclasses: alkali-hydrogen fusion, alkali-deuterium fusion, and alkali-tritium fusion. A new three-dimensional transmission resonance model (TRM) is sketched. Finally, preliminary experimental evidence in support of the hypothesis of a light water nuclear reaction and alkali-hydrogen fusion is reported. Evidence is presented that appears to strongly implicate the transmission resonance phenomenon of the new TRM.

  14. Ventilation technologies scoping study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-09-30

    This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the needs of California, determining residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and level of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  15. Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2011-04-01

    Existing ventilation standards, including American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specify continuous operation of a defined mechanical ventilation system to provide minimum ventilation, with time-based intermittent operation as an option. This requirement ignores several factors and concerns including: other equipment such as household exhaust fans that might incidentally provide ventilation, negative impacts of ventilation when outdoor pollutant levels are high, the importance of minimizing energy use particularly during times of peak electricity demand, and how the energy used to condition air as part of ventilation system operation changes with outdoor conditions. Dynamic control of ventilation systems can provide ventilation equivalent to or better than what is required by standards while minimizing energy costs and can also add value by shifting load during peak times and reducing intake of outdoor air contaminants. This article describes the logic that enables dynamic control of whole-house ventilation systems to meet the intent of ventilation standards and demonstrates the dynamic ventilation system control concept through simulations and field tests of the Residential Integrated Ventilation-Energy Controller (RIVEC).

  16. Building America Webinar: Multifamily Ventilation Strategies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Joe Lstiburek Building America Webinar: Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and ... of Energy Building America webinar, Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and ...

  17. Building America Webinar: Multifamily Ventilation Strategies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sean Maxwell Building America Webinar: Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and ... of Energy Buildng America webinar, Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and ...

  18. Building America Webinar: Retrofit Ventilation Strategies in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Retrofit Ventilation Strategies in Multifamily Buildings Webinar Building America Webinar: Retrofit Ventilation Strategies in Multifamily Buildings Webinar This webinar, presented ...

  19. The WIPP Underground Ventilation System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    , 2014 The WIPP Underground Ventilation System Since February, there has been considerable coverage about the WIPP Underground Ventilation System. On February 14, the ventilation system worked as designed, protecting human health and the environment. In normal exhaust mode, the ventilation system provides a continuous flow of fresh air to the underground tunnels and rooms that make up the disposal facility at WIPP. Air is supplied to the underground facility, located 2,150 feet below the

  20. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  1. Meeting Summary Advanced Light Water Reactor Fuels Industry Meeting Washington DC October 27 - 28, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Listed

    2011-11-01

    The Advanced LWR Fuel Working Group first met in November of 2010 with the objective of looking 20 years ahead to the role that advanced fuels could play in improving light water reactor technology, such as waste reduction and economics. When the group met again in March 2011, the Fukushima incident was still unfolding. After the March meeting, the focus of the program changed to determining what we could do in the near term to improve fuel accident tolerance. Any discussion of fuels with enhanced accident tolerance will likely need to consider an advanced light water reactor with enhanced accident tolerance, along with the fuel. The Advanced LWR Fuel Working Group met in Washington D.C. on October 72-18, 2011 to continue discussions on this important topic.

  2. RELAP5-3D Code for Supercritical-Pressure Light-Water-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riemke, Richard Allan; Davis, Cliff Bybee; Schultz, Richard Raphael

    2003-04-01

    The RELAP5-3D computer program has been improved for analysis of supercritical-pressure, light-water-cooled reactors. Several code modifications were implemented to correct code execution failures. Changes were made to the steam table generation, steam table interpolation, metastable states, interfacial heat transfer coefficients, and transport properties (viscosity and thermal conductivity). The code modifications now allow the code to run slow transients above the critical pressure as well as blowdown transients (modified Edwards pipe and modified existing pressurized water reactor model) that pass near the critical point.

  3. DOE/NNSA perspective safeguard by design: GEN III/III+ light water reactors and beyond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Paul Y

    2010-12-10

    An overview of key issues relevant to safeguards by design (SBD) for GEN III/IV nuclear reactors is provided. Lessons learned from construction of typical GEN III+ water reactors with respect to SBD are highlighted. Details of SBD for safeguards guidance development for GEN III/III+ light water reactors are developed and reported. This paper also identifies technical challenges to extend SBD including proliferation resistance methodologies to other GEN III/III+ reactors (except HWRs) and GEN IV reactors because of their immaturity in designs.

  4. Defect-engineered GaN:Mg nanowire arrays for overall water splitting under violet light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kibria, M. G.; Chowdhury, F. A.; Zhao, S.; Mi, Z.; Trudeau, M. L.; Guo, H.

    2015-03-16

    We report that by engineering the intra-gap defect related energy states in GaN nanowire arrays using Mg dopants, efficient and stable overall neutral water splitting can be achieved under violet light. Overall neutral water splitting on Rh/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} co-catalyst decorated Mg doped GaN nanowires is demonstrated with intra-gap excitation up to 450?nm. Through optimized Mg doping, the absorbed photon conversion efficiency of GaN nanowires reaches ?43% at 375450?nm, providing a viable approach to extend the solar absorption of oxide and non-oxide photocatalysts.

  5. Fuel assembly for the production of tritium in light water reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cawley, William E.; Trapp, Turner J.

    1985-01-01

    A nuclear fuel assembly is described for producing tritium in a light water moderated reactor. The assembly consists of two intermeshing arrays of subassemblies. The first subassemblies comprise concentric annular elements of an outer containment tube, an annular target element, an annular fuel element, and an inner neutron spectrums shifting rod. The second subassemblies comprise an outer containment tube and an inner rod of either fuel, target, or neutron spectrum shifting neutral.

  6. Generic component failure data base for light water and liquid sodium reactor PRAs (probabilistic risk assessments)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eide, S.A.; Chmielewski, S.V.; Swantz, T.D.

    1990-02-01

    A comprehensive generic component failure data base has been developed for light water and liquid sodium reactor probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). The Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) and the Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) data bases were used to generate component failure rates. Using this approach, most of the failure rates are based on actual plant data rather than existing estimates. 21 refs., 9 tabs.

  7. Establishment of a Hub for the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Online Monitoring Community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nancy J. Lybeck; Magdy S. Tawfik; Binh T. Pham

    2011-08-01

    Implementation of online monitoring and prognostics in existing U.S. nuclear power plants will involve coordinating the efforts of national laboratories, utilities, universities, and private companies. Internet-based collaborative work environments provide necessary communication tools to facilitate interaction between geographically diverse participants. Available technologies were considered, and a collaborative workspace was established at INL as a hub for the light water reactor sustainability online monitoring community.

  8. CONSORTIUM FOR ADVANCED SIMULATION OF LIGHT WATER REACTORS (CASL) Meeting Notes … September 9, 2010

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Meetings January 11, 2011 - Oak Ridge, TN February 8, 2011 - Charlotte, NC Minutes The second meeting of the Industry Council (IC) for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) was held in two parts on January 11, 2011 at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN; and on February 8, 2011, at the facilities of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in Charlotte, NC. Both meetings were chaired by John Gaertner of EPRI. Two meetings were necessary

  9. CONSORTIUM FOR ADVANCED SIMULATION OF LIGHT WATER REACTORS (CASL) Meeting Notes … September 9, 2010

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    August 23 - 24, 2011 - Oak Ridge, TN Minutes The third meeting of the Industry Council (IC) for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) was held on August 23 until noon on August 24, 2011, at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The meeting was chaired by John Gaertner of EPRI. The agenda, meeting attendees, and IC member organizations are included in Attachment 1 to these minutes. Attendance was by invitation only. Fifteen representatives

  10. CONSORTIUM FOR ADVANCED SIMULATION OF LIGHT WATER REACTORS (CASL) Meeting Notes … September 9, 2010

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Meeting September 9, 2010 Minutes The first meeting of the Industry Council (IC) for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) was held on September 9, 2010, at the facilities of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in Charlotte, NC. The meeting was chaired by John Gaertner of EPRI. The meeting attendees and their affiliations are listed on Attachment 1 to these minutes. Attendance was by invitation only. Representatives from 16 organizations were invited. All

  11. Fuel assembly for the production of tritium in light water reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cawley, W.E.; Trapp, T.J.

    1983-06-10

    A nuclear fuel assembly is described for producing tritium in a light water moderated reactor. The assembly consists of two intermeshing arrays of subassemblies. The first subassemblies comprise concentric annular elements of an outer containment tube, an annular target element, an annular fuel element, and an inner neutron spectrums shifting rod. The second subassemblies comprise an outer containment tube and an inner rod of either fuel, target, or neutron spectrum shifting neutral.

  12. Overview of the US Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. A. McCarthy; D. L. Williams; R. Reister

    2012-05-01

    The US Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is focused on the long-term operation of US commercial power plants. It encompasses two facets of long-term operation: (1) manage the aging of plant systems, structures, and components so that nuclear power plant lifetimes can be extended and the plants can continue to operate safely, efficiently, and economically; and (2) provide science-based solutions to the nuclear industry that support implementation of performance improvement technologies. An important aspect of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is partnering with industry and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to support and conduct the long-term research needed to inform major component refurbishment and replacement strategies, performance enhancements, plant license extensions, and age-related regulatory oversight decisions. The Department of Energy research, development, and demonstration role focuses on aging phenomena and issues that require long-term research and/or unique Department of Energy laboratory expertise and facilities and are applicable to all operating reactors. This paper gives an overview of the Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, including vision, goals, and major deliverables.

  13. Installation of the Light-Water Breeder Reactor at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station (LWBR Development Program)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massimino, R.J.; Williams, D.A.

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes the refueling operations performed to install a Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core into the existing pressurized water reactor vessel at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. Detailed descriptions of the major installation operations (e.g., primary system preconditioning, fuel installation, pressure boundary seal welding) are included as appendices to this report; these operations are of technical interest to any reactor servicing operation, whether the reactor is a breeder or a conventional light water non-breeder core.

  14. Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program www.buildingamerica.gov Buildings Technologies Program Date: November 1, 2011 Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings Welcome to the Webinar! We will start at 2:00 PM Eastern Time Be sure that you are also dialed into the telephone conference call: Dial-in number: 888-324-9601; Pass code: 5551971 Download the presentation at: www.buildingamerica.gov/meetings.html Building Technologies Program eere.energy.gov Building America: Introduction November 1, 2011 Cheryn Engebrecht

  15. Variable Flow Exhaust Ventilation Cap for Local Exhaust Ventilation Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Energy Innovation Portal Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Variable Flow Exhaust Ventilation Cap for Local Exhaust Ventilation Systems Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (212 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Local Exhaust Ventilations (LEV) are vital engineering control systems used to prevent exposure to harmful airborne contaminants in the workplace.

  16. Neutron collar calibration for assay of LWR (light-water reactor) fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menlove, H.O.; Pieper, J.E.

    1987-03-01

    The neutron-coincidence collar is used for the verification of the uranium content in light-water reactor fuel assemblies. An AmLi neutron source is used to give an active interrogation of the fuel assembly to measure the /sup 235/U content, and the /sup 238/U content is verified from a passive neutron-coincidence measurement. This report gives the collar calibration data of pressurized-water reactor and boiling-water reactor fuel assemblies. Calibration curves and correction factors are presented for neutron absorbers (burnable poisons) and different fuel assembly sizes. The data were collected at Exxon Nuclear, Franco-Belge de Fabrication de Combustibles, ASEA-Atom, and other nuclear fuel fabrication facilities.

  17. Building America Webinar: Retrofit Ventilation Strategies in Multifamily

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buildings Webinar | Department of Energy Retrofit Ventilation Strategies in Multifamily Buildings Webinar Building America Webinar: Retrofit Ventilation Strategies in Multifamily Buildings Webinar This webinar, presented by research team Building Science Corporation, discussed insulating foundations and controlling water leakage as a critical measure for reducing heating load in homes in cold climates. webinar_hybrid_insulation_20111130.wmv (19.21 MB) More Documents & Publications

  18. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Status of Silicon Carbide Joining Technology Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton

    2013-09-01

    Advanced, accident tolerant nuclear fuel systems are currently being investigated for potential application in currently operating light water reactors (LWR) or in reactors that have attained design certification. Evaluation of potential options for accident tolerant nuclear fuel systems point to the potential benefits of silicon carbide (SiC) relative to Zr-based alloys, including increased corrosion resistance, reduced oxidation and heat of oxidation, and reduced hydrogen generation under steam attack (off-normal conditions). If demonstrated to be applicable in the intended LWR environment, SiC could be used in nuclear fuel cladding or other in-core structural components. Achieving a SiC-SiC joint that resists corrosion with hot, flowing water, is stable under irradiation and retains hermeticity is a significant challenge. This report summarizes the current status of SiC-SiC joint development work supported by the Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. Significant progress has been made toward SiC-SiC joint development for nuclear service, but additional development and testing work (including irradiation testing) is still required to present a candidate joint for use in nuclear fuel cladding.

  19. Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Initial Assessment of Thermal Annealing Needs and Challenges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The most life-limiting structural component in light-water reactors (LWR) is the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) because replacement of the RPV is not considered a viable option at this time. LWR...

  20. Roadmap for Nondestructive Evaluation of Reactor Pressure Vessel Research and Development by the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is a five year effort that works to develop the fundamental scientific basis to understand, predict, and measure...

  1. Guidance for Developing Principal Design Criteria for Advanced (Non-Light Water) Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holbrook, Mark; Kinsey, Jim

    2015-03-01

    In July 2013, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established a joint initiative to address a key portion of the licensing framework essential to advanced (non-light water) reactor technologies. The initiative addressed the “General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants,” Appendix A to10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 50, which were developed primarily for light water reactors (LWRs), specific to the needs of advanced reactor design and licensing. The need for General Design Criteria (GDC) clarifications in non-LWR applications has been consistently identified as a concern by the industry and varied stakeholders and was acknowledged by the NRC staff in their 2012 Report to Congress1 as an area for enhancement. The initiative to adapt GDC requirements for non-light water advanced reactor applications is being accomplished in two phases. Phase 1, managed by DOE, consisted of reviews, analyses and evaluations resulting in recommendations and deliverables to NRC as input for NRC staff development of regulatory guidance. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed this technical report using technical and reactor technology stakeholder inputs coupled with analysis and evaluations provided by a team of knowledgeable DOE national laboratory personnel with input from individual industry licensing consultants. The DOE national laboratory team reviewed six different classes of emerging commercial reactor technologies against 10 CFR 50 Appendix A GDC requirements and proposed guidance for their adapted use in non-LWR applications. The results of the Phase 1 analysis are contained in this report. A set of draft Advanced Reactor Design Criteria (ARDC) has been proposed for consideration by the NRC in the establishment of guidance for use by non-LWR designers and NRC staff. The proposed criteria were developed to preserve the underlying safety bases expressed by the original GDC, and recognizing that advanced reactors may take

  2. CONSORTIUM FOR ADVANCED SIMULATION OF LIGHT WATER REACTORS (CASL) Meeting Notes … September 9, 2010

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    September 11 - 12, 2012 - Oak Ridge, TN Minutes The fifth meeting of the Industry Council (IC) for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) was held on September 11 and 12, 2012; at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, TN. The first day was a joint meeting of the CASL Science Council and the Industry Council and was co-facilitated by Paul Turinsky of NCSU and John Gaertner of EPRI. The Industry Council met separately on the second day which was chaired by John

  3. Cold fusion by electrolysis in a light water-potassium carbonate solution with a nickel electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Notoya, Reiko )

    1993-09-01

    The evolution of a large amount of heat, unexplainable by ordinary chemical reactions, was observed in an electrolytic cell with a nickel cathode and a platinum anode in a potassium carbonate-light water solution. The nickel cathode had a specially designed porous structure, based on fundamental knowledge concerning the active hydrogen electrode in alkaline solutions. An increase in the concentration of calcium ions was observed in the electrolyte, which seems to be the result of potassium-hydrogen cold fusion. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor, Summary

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor Summary U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration DOE/EIS-0288-S1 August 2014 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS CFR Code of Federal Regulations CLWR commercial light water reactor DOE U.S. Department of Energy EIS environmental impact statement EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register NEPA National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 NNSA National

  5. Shippingport operations with the Light Water Breeder Reactor core. (LWBR Development Program)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budd, W.A.

    1986-03-01

    This report describes the operation of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station during the LWBR (Light Water Breeder Reactor) Core lifetime. It also summarizes the plant-oriented operations during the period preceding LWBR startup, which include the defueling of The Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 (PWR-2) and the installation of the LWBR Core, and the operations associated with the defueling of LWBR. The intent of this report is to examine LWBR experience in retrospect and present pertinent and significant aspects of LWBR operations that relate primarily to the nuclear portion of the Station. The nonnuclear portion of the Station is discussed only as it relates to overall plant operation or to unusual problems which result from the use of conventional equipment in radioactive environments. 30 refs., 69 figs., 27 tabs.

  6. Nanostructure of Metallic Particles in Light Water Reactor Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buck, Edgar C.; Mausolf, Edward J.; Mcnamara, Bruce K.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2015-03-11

    The extraordinary nano-structure of metallic particles in light water reactor fuels points to possible high reactivity through increased surface area and a high concentration of high energy defect sites. We have analyzed the metallic epsilon particles from a high burn-up fuel from a boiling water reactor using transmission electron microscopy and have observed a much finer nanostructure in these particles than has been reported previously. The individual round particles that varying in size between ~20 and ~50 nm appear to consist of individual crystallites on the order of 2-3 nm in diameter. It is likely that in-reactor irradiation induce displacement cascades results in the formation of the nano-structure. The composition of these metallic phases is variable yet the structure of the material is consistent with the hexagonal close packed structure of epsilon-ruthenium. These findings suggest that unusual catalytic behavior of these materials might be expected, particularly under accident conditions.

  7. Ventilation System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ventilation System Basics Ventilation System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:33pm Addthis Ventilation is the process of moving air into and out of an interior space by natural or mechanical means. Ventilation is necessary for the health and comfort of occupants of all buildings. Ventilation supplies air for occupants to breathe and removes moisture, odors, and indoor pollutants like carbon dioxide. Too little ventilation may result in poor indoor air quality, while too much may cause unnecessarily

  8. Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings This webinar, hosted by Building America,was conducted on November 1, 2011, and describes ways to save energy in buildings through effective ventilation techniques. carb_ventilation_webinar.pdf (3.71 MB) More Documents & Publications Multifamily Ventilation - Best Practice? Critical Question #2: What are the Best Practices for Ventilation Specific to Multifamily Buildings? Building America Webinar: Multifamily

  9. Sensitivity of the threshold voltage of organic thin-film transistors to light and water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Cong; Marinov, Ognian; Deen, M. Jamal; Selvaganapathy, Ponnambalam Ravi; Wu, Yiliang

    2015-05-14

    Analyses of extensive experiments with organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) indicate that the threshold voltage V{sub T} of an OTFT has a temporal differential sensitivity. In particular, V{sub T} changes initially by changing the light illumination intensity or making/removing a contact of water with the organic semiconductor. Keeping the conditions stationary, then the initial shift of V{sub T} diminishes, since the time dependence of V{sub T} gradually recovers the OTFT to the state before applying the change in the environmental conditions. While still causing a differential and time-variant shift of V{sub T}, the deionized water does not have a dramatic impact on OTFTs that use the polymer DKPP-?T (diketopyrrolopyrrole ?-unsubstituted quaterthiophene) as the active semiconductor material. Observations for the impact of water are made from experiments with an OTFT that has a microfluidic channel on the top the electrical channel, with the water in the microfluidic channel in direct contact with the electrical channel of the OTFT. This arrangement of electrical and microfluidic channels is a novel structure of the microfluidic OTFT, suitable for sensing applications of liquid analytes by means of organic electronics.

  10. Depolarized light scattering and dielectric response of a peptide dissolved in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Daniel R.; Fioretto, Daniele; Matyushov, Dmitry V.

    2014-01-21

    The density and orientational relaxation of bulk water can be separately studied by depolarized light scattering (DLS) and dielectric spectroscopy (DS), respectively. Here, we ask the question of what are the leading collective modes responsible for polarization anisotropy relaxation (DLS) and dipole moment relaxation (DS) of solutions involving mostly hydrophobic solute-water interfaces. We study, by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, the dynamics and structure of hydration water interfacing N-Acetyl-leucine-methylamide dipeptide. The DLS response of the solution is consistent with three relaxation processes: bulk water, rotations of single solutes, and collective dipole-induced-dipole polarizability of the solutes, with the time-scale of 130200 ps. No separate DLS response of the hydration shell has been identified by our simulations. Density fluctuations of the hydration layer, which largely contribute to the response, do not produce a dynamical process distinct from bulk water. We find that the structural perturbation of the orientational distribution of hydration waters by the dipeptide solute is quite significant and propagates ?3?5 hydration layers into the bulk. This perturbation is still below that produced by hydrated globular proteins. Despite this structural perturbation, there is little change in the orientational dynamics of the hydration layers, compared to the bulk, as probed by both single-particle orientational dynamics and collective dynamics of the dipole moment of the shells. There is a clear distinction between the perturbation of the interfacial structure by the solute-solvent interaction potential and the perturbation of the interfacial dynamics by the corresponding forces.

  11. Whole-House Ventilation | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    systems provide a controlled way of ventilating a home while minimizing energy loss. They reduce the costs of heating ventilated air in the winter by transferring heat...

  12. Infiltration in ASHRAE's Residential Ventilation Standards (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ventilation Standards The purpose of ventilation is to dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant could be exposed to. It can be provided by mechanical or natural...

  13. Building America Webinar: Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings Building America Webinar: Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings This webinar was presented by research team Consortium for Advanced Residential ...

  14. Retrofit Ventilation Strategies in Multifamily Buildings Webinar...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Retrofit Ventilation Strategies in Multifamily Buildings Webinar Retrofit Ventilation Strategies in Multifamily Buildings Webinar Slides from the Building America webinar on ...

  15. Ventilation by stratification and displacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skaaret, E.

    1983-03-01

    Ventilation effectiveness is not one single index which can be used for classifying ventilating systems. It is shown that a system has different effectivenesses depending on the characteristics of the pollution sources. A transient ventilation effectiveness can be used to generally characterize the system behavior during transient conditions. This index is, for a given system, dependent only on the thermal conditions. Using the different concepts of ventilation effectiveness and knowledge of the nature of the diffusion process it is concluded that the mixing principle in ventilation is not the best one. The displacement principle working vertical-up (air supply directly to the zone of occupation) is generally working much better. Density stratification improves the efficiency. Conditions for stable thermal stratification is dealt with. Room heating systems are concluded to be based on the radiant heating principle. A no recirculating displacement solution using a heat exchanger is claimed to be energy efficient. Research work which substantiated the different conclusions is referenced.

  16. Residential Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  17. A validated model to predict microalgae growth in outdoor pond cultures subjected to fluctuating light intensities and water temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Crowe, Braden J.; Waller, Peter; Chavis, Aaron R.; Hobbs, Samuel J.; Edmundson, Scott J.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2015-12-11

    Here, a microalgae biomass growth model was developed for screening novel strains for their potential to exhibit high biomass productivities under nutrient-replete conditions in outdoor ponds subjected to fluctuating light intensities and water temperatures. Growth is modeled by first estimating the light attenuation by biomass according to a scatter-corrected Beer-Lambert Law, and then calculating the specific growth rate in discretized culture volume slices that receive declining light intensities due to attenuation. The model requires the following experimentally determined strain-specific input parameters: specific growth rate as a function of light intensity and temperature, biomass loss rate in the dark as a function of temperature and average light intensity during the preceding light period, and the scatter-corrected biomass light absorption coefficient. The model was successful in predicting the growth performance and biomass productivity of three different microalgae species (Chlorella sorokiniana, Nannochloropsis salina, and Picochlorum sp.) in raceway pond cultures (batch and semi-continuous) subjected to diurnal sunlight intensity and water temperature variations. Model predictions were moderately sensitive to minor deviations in input parameters. To increase the predictive power of this and other microalgae biomass growth models, a better understanding of the effects of mixing-induced rapid light dark cycles on photo-inhibition and short-term biomass losses due to dark respiration in the aphotic zone of the pond is needed.

  18. A validated model to predict microalgae growth in outdoor pond cultures subjected to fluctuating light intensities and water temperatures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Crowe, Braden J.; Waller, Peter; Chavis, Aaron R.; Hobbs, Samuel J.; Edmundson, Scott J.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2015-12-11

    Here, a microalgae biomass growth model was developed for screening novel strains for their potential to exhibit high biomass productivities under nutrient-replete conditions in outdoor ponds subjected to fluctuating light intensities and water temperatures. Growth is modeled by first estimating the light attenuation by biomass according to a scatter-corrected Beer-Lambert Law, and then calculating the specific growth rate in discretized culture volume slices that receive declining light intensities due to attenuation. The model requires the following experimentally determined strain-specific input parameters: specific growth rate as a function of light intensity and temperature, biomass loss rate in the dark as amore » function of temperature and average light intensity during the preceding light period, and the scatter-corrected biomass light absorption coefficient. The model was successful in predicting the growth performance and biomass productivity of three different microalgae species (Chlorella sorokiniana, Nannochloropsis salina, and Picochlorum sp.) in raceway pond cultures (batch and semi-continuous) subjected to diurnal sunlight intensity and water temperature variations. Model predictions were moderately sensitive to minor deviations in input parameters. To increase the predictive power of this and other microalgae biomass growth models, a better understanding of the effects of mixing-induced rapid light dark cycles on photo-inhibition and short-term biomass losses due to dark respiration in the aphotic zone of the pond is needed.« less

  19. Report from the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on On-Line Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Baldwin; Magdy Tawfik; Leonard Bond

    2010-06-01

    In support of expanding the use of nuclear power, interest is growing in methods of determining the feasibility of longer term operation for the U.S. fleet of nuclear power plants, particularly operation beyond 60 years. To help establish the scientific and technical basis for such longer term operation, the DOE-NE has established a research and development (R&D) objective. This objective seeks to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, which addresses the needs of this objective, is being developed in collaboration with industry R&D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of nuclear power plants. The LWRS Program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy and environmental security. In moving to identify priorities and plan activities, the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on On-Line Monitoring (OLM) Technologies was held June 10–12, 2010, in Seattle, Washington. The workshop was run to enable industry stakeholders and researchers to identify the nuclear industry needs in the areas of future OLM technologies and corresponding technology gaps and research capabilities. It also sought to identify approaches for collaboration that would be able to bridge or fill the technology gaps. This report is the meeting proceedings, documenting the presentations and discussions of the workshop and is intended to serve as a basis for a plan which is under development that will enable the I&C research pathway to achieve its goals. Benefits to the nuclear industry accruing from On Line Monitoring Technology cannot be ignored. Information gathered thus far has contributed significantly to the Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. DOE has

  20. Advantages of liquid fluoride thorium reactor in comparison with light water reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahri, Che Nor Aniza Che Zainul Majid, Amran Ab.; Al-Areqi, Wadeeah M.

    2015-04-29

    Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR) is an innovative design for the thermal breeder reactor that has important potential benefits over the traditional reactor design. LFTR is fluoride based liquid fuel, that use the thorium dissolved in salt mixture of lithium fluoride and beryllium fluoride. Therefore, LFTR technology is fundamentally different from the solid fuel technology currently in use. Although the traditional nuclear reactor technology has been proven, it has perceptual problems with safety and nuclear waste products. The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential advantages of LFTR in three aspects such as safety, fuel efficiency and nuclear waste as an alternative energy generator in the future. Comparisons between LFTR and Light Water Reactor (LWR), on general principles of fuel cycle, resource availability, radiotoxicity and nuclear weapon proliferation shall be elaborated.

  1. Accuracy Based Generation of Thermodynamic Properties for Light Water in RELAP5-3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cliff B. Davis

    2010-09-01

    RELAP5-3D interpolates to obtain thermodynamic properties for use in its internal calculations. The accuracy of the interpolation was determined for the original steam tables currently used by the code. This accuracy evaluation showed that the original steam tables are generally detailed enough to allow reasonably accurate interpolations in most areas needed for typical analyses of nuclear reactors cooled by light water. However, there were some regions in which the original steam tables were judged to not provide acceptable accurate results. Revised steam tables were created that used a finer thermodynamic mesh between 4 and 21 MPa and 530 and 640 K. The revised steam tables solved most of the problems observed with the original steam tables. The accuracies of the original and revised steam tables were compared throughout the thermodynamic grid.

  2. Advanced dry head-end reprocessing of light water reactor spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, Emory D; Delcul, Guillermo D; Hunt, Rodney D; Johnson, Jared A; Spencer, Barry B

    2013-11-05

    A method for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from a light water reactor includes the step of reacting spent nuclear fuel in a voloxidation vessel with an oxidizing gas having nitrogen dioxide and oxygen for a period sufficient to generate a solid oxidation product of the spent nuclear fuel. The reacting step includes the step of reacting, in a first zone of the voloxidation vessel, spent nuclear fuel with the oxidizing gas at a temperature ranging from 200-450.degree. C. to form an oxidized reaction product, and regenerating nitrogen dioxide, in a second zone of the voloxidation vessel, by reacting oxidizing gas comprising nitrogen monoxide and oxygen at a temperature ranging from 0-80.degree. C. The first zone and the second zone can be separate. A voloxidation system is also disclosed.

  3. Advanced dry head-end reprocessing of light water reactor spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, Emory D.; Delcul, Guillermo D.; Hunt, Rodney D.; Johnson, Jared A.; Spencer, Barry B.

    2014-06-10

    A method for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from a light water reactor includes the step of reacting spent nuclear fuel in a voloxidation vessel with an oxidizing gas having nitrogen dioxide and oxygen for a period sufficient to generate a solid oxidation product of the spent nuclear fuel. The reacting step includes the step of reacting, in a first zone of the voloxidation vessel, spent nuclear fuel with the oxidizing gas at a temperature ranging from 200-450.degree. C. to form an oxidized reaction product, and regenerating nitrogen dioxide, in a second zone of the voloxidation vessel, by reacting oxidizing gas comprising nitrogen monoxide and oxygen at a temperature ranging from 0-80.degree. C. The first zone and the second zone can be separate. A voloxidation system is also disclosed.

  4. Vibrational spectra of light and heavy water with application to neutron cross section calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damian, J. I. Marquez; Granada, J. R.; Malaspina, D. C.

    2013-07-14

    The design of nuclear reactors and neutron moderators require a good representation of the interaction of low energy (E < 1 eV) neutrons with hydrogen and deuterium containing materials. These models are based on the dynamics of the material, represented by its vibrational spectrum. In this paper, we show calculations of the frequency spectrum for light and heavy water at room temperature using two flexible point charge potentials: SPC-MPG and TIP4P/2005f. The results are compared with experimental measurements, with emphasis on inelastic neutron scattering data. Finally, the resulting spectra are applied to calculation of neutron scattering cross sections for these materials, which were found to be a significant improvement over library data.

  5. Design and optimization of a back-flow limiter for the high performance light water reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Kai; Laurien, Eckart; Claas, Andreas G.; Schulenberg, Thomas

    2007-07-01

    Design and Analysis of a back-flow limiter are presented, which is implemented as a safety device in the four inlet lines of the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) of the High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR). As a passive component, the back-flow limiter has no moving parts and belongs to the group of fluid diodes. It has low flow resistance for regular operation condition and a high flow resistance when the flow direction is reversed which is the case if a break of the feedwater line occurs. The increased flow resistance is due to a substantially increased swirl for reverse flow condition. The design is optimized employing 1D flow analyses in combination with 3D CFD analyses with respect to geometrical modifications, like the nozzle shape and swirler angles. (authors)

  6. Final report for the Light Water Breeder Reactor proof-of-breeding analytical support project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graczyk, D.G.; Hoh, J.C.; Martino, F.J.; Nelson, R.E.; Osudar, J.; Levitz, N.M.

    1987-05-01

    The technology of breeding /sup 233/U from /sup 232/Th in a light water reactor is being developed and evaluated by the Westinghouse Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (BAPL) through operation and examination of the Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR). Bettis is determining the end-of-life (EOL) inventory of fissile uranium in the LWBR core by nondestructive assay of a statistical sample comprising approximately 500 EOL fuel rods. This determination is being made with an irradiated-fuel assay gauge based on neutron interrogation and detection of delayed neutrons from each rod. The EOL fissile inventory will be compared with the beginning-of-life fissile loading of the LWBR to determine the extent of breeding. In support of the BAPL proof-of-breeding (POB) effort, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) carried out destructive physical, chemical, and radiometric analyses on 17 EOL LWBR fuel rods that were previously assayed with the nondestructive gauge. The ANL work included measurements on the intact rods; shearing of the rods into pre-designated contiguous segments; separate dissolution of each of the more than 150 segments; and analysis of the dissolver solutions to determine each segment's uranium content, uranium isotopic composition, and loading of selected fission products. This report describes the facilities in which this work was carried out, details operations involved in processing each rod, and presents a comprehensive discussion of uncertainties associated with each result of the ANL measurements. Most operations were carried out remotely in shielded cells. Automated equipment and procedures, controlled by a computer system, provided error-free data acquisition and processing, as well as full replication of operations with each rod. Despite difficulties that arose during processing of a few rod segments, the ANL destructive-assay results satisfied the demanding needs of the parent LWBR-POB program.

  7. Whole-House Ventilation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ventilation » Whole-House Ventilation Whole-House Ventilation A whole-house ventilation system with dedicated ducting in a new energy-efficient home. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/brebca. A whole-house ventilation system with dedicated ducting in a new energy-efficient home. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/brebca. Energy-efficient homes -- both new and existing -- require mechanical ventilation to maintain indoor air quality. There are four basic mechanical whole-house ventilation

  8. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors - annual report, January-December 2001.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, O. K.; Chung, H. M.; Clark, R. W.; Gruber, E. E; Hiller, R. W.; Shack, W. J.; Soppet, W. K.; Strain, R. V.; Energy Technology

    2003-06-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRs) from January to December 2001. Topics that have been investigated include (a) environmental effects on fatigue S-N behavior of austenitic stainless steels (SSs), (b) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of austenitic SSs, and (c) EAC of Alloy 600. The effects of key material and loading variables, such as strain amplitude, strain rate, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO) level in water, and material heat treatment, on the fatigue lives of wrought and cast austenitic SSs in air and LWR environments have been evaluated. The mechanism of fatigue crack initiation in austenitic SSs in LWR environments has also been examined. The results indicate that the presence of a surface oxide film or difference in the characteristics of the oxide film has no effect on fatigue crack initiation in austenitic SSs in LWR environments. Slow-strain-rate tensile tests and post-test fractographic analyses were conducted on several model SS alloys irradiated to {approx}2 x 10{sup 21} n {center_dot} cm{sup -2} (E > 1 MeV) ({approx}3 dpa) in He at 289 C in the Halden reactor. The results were used to determine the influence of alloying and impurity elements on the susceptibility of these steels to IASCC. Corrosion fatigue tests were conducted on nonirradiated austenitic SSs in high-purity water at 289 C to establish the test procedure and conditions that will be used for the tests on irradiated materials. A comprehensive irradiation experiment was initiated to obtain many tensile and disk specimens irradiated under simulated pressurized water reactor conditions at {approx}325 C to 5, 10, 20, and 40 dpa. Crack growth tests were completed on 30% cold-worked Alloy 600 in high-purity water under various environmental and loading conditions. The results are compared with data obtained earlier on several heats of Alloy 600

  9. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  10. Multifamily Ventilation - Best Practice? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multifamily Ventilation - Best Practice? Multifamily Ventilation - Best Practice? This presentation was delivered at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Technical Update meeting on April 29-30, 2013, in Denver, Colorado. cq2_multifamily_ventilation_griffiths.pdf (2.78 MB) More Documents & Publications Critical Question #2: What are the Best Practices for Ventilation Specific to Multifamily Buildings? Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings Building America Technology Solutions for

  11. Evolution of isotopic composition of reprocessed uranium during the multiple recycling in light water reactors with natural uranium feed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smirnov, A. Yu. Sulaberidze, G. A.; Alekseev, P. N.; Dudnikov, A. A.; Nevinitsa, V. A. Proselkov, V. N.; Chibinyaev, A. V.

    2012-12-15

    A complex approach based on the consistent modeling of neutron-physics processes and processes of cascade separation of isotopes is applied for analyzing physical problems of the multiple usage of reprocessed uranium in the fuel cycle of light water reactors. A number of scenarios of multiple recycling of reprocessed uranium in light water reactors are considered. In the process, an excess absorption of neutrons by the {sup 236}U isotope is compensated by re-enrichment in the {sup 235}U isotope. Specific consumptions of natural uranium for re-enrichment of the reprocessed uranium depending on the content of the {sup 232}U isotope are obtained.

  12. Removal of pollutant compounds from water supplies using ozone, ultraviolet light, and a counter, current packed column. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    Many water pollutants are determined to be carcinogenic and often appear in very low concentrations and still pose a health risk. Conventional water treatment processes cannot remove these contaminants and there is a great demand for the development of alternative removal technologies. The use of ozone and ultraviolet light in a counter current packed column could prove to be an effective treatment process to remove these contaminants.

  13. Ferritic Alloys as Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding Material for Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebak, Raul B.

    2014-12-30

    The objective of the GE project is to demonstrate that advanced steels such as iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys could be used as accident tolerant fuel cladding material in commercial light water reactors. The GE project does not include fuel development. Current findings support the concept that a FeCrAl alloy could be used for the cladding of commercial nuclear fuel. The use of this alloy will benefit the public since it is going to make the power generating light water reactors safer. In the Phase 1A of this cost shared project, GE (GRC + GNF) teamed with the University of Michigan, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study the environmental and mechanical behavior of more than eight candidate cladding materials both under normal operation conditions of commercial nuclear reactors and under accident conditions in superheated steam (loss of coolant condition). The main findings are as follows: (1) Under normal operation conditions the candidate alloys (e.g. APMT, Alloy 33) showed excellent resistance to general corrosion, shadow corrosion and to environmentally assisted cracking. APMT also showed resistance to proton irradiation up to 5 dpa. (2) Under accident conditions the selected candidate materials showed several orders of magnitude improvement in the reaction with superheated steam as compared with the current zirconium based alloys. (3) Tube fabrication feasibility studies of FeCrAl alloys are underway. The aim is to obtain a wall thickness that is below 400 µm. (4) A strategy is outlined for the regulatory path approval and for the insertion of a lead fuel assembly in a commercial reactor by 2022. (5) The GE team worked closely with INL to have four rodlets tested in the ATR. GE provided the raw stock for the alloys, the fuel for the rodlets and the cost for fabrication/welding of the rodlets. INL fabricated the rodlets and the caps and welded them to

  14. EIS-0071: Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuels Gas Demonstration Plant, Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this EIS to assesses the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of a 3,155-ton-per-day capacity facility, which will demonstrate the technical operability, economic viability, and environmental acceptability of the Memphis Division of Light, Gas and Water coal gasification plant at Memphis, Tennessee.

  15. EIS-0288-S1: Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR) Tritium Readiness Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Supplemental EIS updates the environmental analyses in DOE’s 1999 EIS for the Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR EIS). The CLWR EIS addressed the production of tritium in Tennessee Valley Authority reactors in Tennessee using tritium-producing burnable absorber rods.

  16. EIS-0288-S1: Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Supplemental EIS updates the environmental analyses in DOE’s 1999 EIS for the Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR EIS). The CLWR EIS addressed the production of tritium in Tennessee Valley Authority reactors in Tennessee using tritium-producing burnable absorber rods.

  17. Survey of Worldwide Light Water Reactor Experience with Mixed Uranium-Plutonium Oxide Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowell, B.S.; Fisher, S.E.

    1999-02-01

    The US and the Former Soviet Union (FSU) have recently declared quantities of weapons materials, including weapons-grade (WG) plutonium, excess to strategic requirements. One of the leading candidates for the disposition of excess WG plutonium is irradiation in light water reactors (LWRs) as mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel. A description of the MOX fuel fabrication techniques in worldwide use is presented. A comprehensive examination of the domestic MOX experience in US reactors obtained during the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s is also presented. This experience is described by manufacturer and is also categorized by the reactor facility that irradiated the MOX fuel. A limited summary of the international experience with MOX fuels is also presented. A review of MOX fuel and its performance is conducted in view of the special considerations associated with the disposition of WG plutonium. Based on the available information, it appears that adoption of foreign commercial MOX technology from one of the successful MOX fuel vendors will minimize the technical risks to the overall mission. The conclusion is made that the existing MOX fuel experience base suggests that disposition of excess weapons plutonium through irradiation in LWRs is a technically attractive option.

  18. Apex nuclear fuel cycle for production of light water reactor fuel and elimination of radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Hiroshi, T.; Powell, J.R.

    1982-09-01

    The development of a nuclear fission fuel cycle is proposed that eliminates all the radioactive fission product (FP) waste effluent and the need for geological age high-level waste storage and provides a longterm supply of fissile fuel for a light water reactor (LWR) economy. The fuel cycle consists of reprocessing LWR spent fuel (1 to 2 yr old) to remove the stable nonradioactive FPs (NRFPs) e.g., lanthanides, etc.) and short-lived FPs (SLFP) (e.g., half-lives of less than or equal to 1 to 2 yr) and returning, in dilute form, the long-lived FPs (LLFPs) (e.g., 30-yr half-life cesium and strontium, 10-yr krypton, and 16 X 10/sup 6/-yr iodine) and the transuranics (TUs) (e.g., plutonium, americium, curium, and neptunium) to be refabricated into fresh fuel elements. Makeup fertile and fissile fuel (FF) are to be supplied through the use of the spallator (linear accelerator spallation-target fuel producer). The reprocessing of LWR fuel elements is to be performed by means of the chelox process, which consists of chopping and leaching with an organic chelating reagent (..beta..-diketonate) and distillation of the organometallic compounds formed for purposes of separating and partitioning the FPs. The stable NRFPs and SLFPs are allowed to decay to background in 10 to 20 yr for final disposal to the environment.

  19. Qualification Requirements of Guided Ultrasonic Waves for Inspection of Piping in Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Doctor, Steven R.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2013-08-01

    Guided ultrasonic waves (GUW) are being increasingly used for both NDT and monitoring of piping. GUW offers advantages over many conventional NDE technologies due to the ability to inspect large volumes of piping components without significant removal of thermal insulation or protective layers. In addition, regions rendered inaccessible to more conventional NDE technologies may be more accessible using GUW techniques. For these reasons, utilities are increasingly considering the use of GUWs for performing the inspection of piping components in nuclear power plants. GUW is a rapidly evolving technology and its usage for inspection of nuclear power plant components requires refinement and qualification to ensure it is able to achieve consistent and acceptable levels of performance. This paper will discuss potential requirements for qualification of GUW techniques for the inspection of piping components in light water reactors (LWRs). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has adopted ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code requirements in Sections V, III, and XI for nondestructive examination methods, fabrication inspections, and pre-service and in-service inspections. A Section V working group has been formed to place the methodology of GUW into the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code but no requirements for technique, equipment, or personnel exist in the Code at this time.

  20. Advanced Fuels Campaign Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuel Performance Metrics Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton

    2014-02-01

    Research and development (R&D) activities on advanced, higher performance Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuels have been ongoing for the last few years. Following the unfortunate March 2011 events at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the R&D shifted toward enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs. Qualitative attributes for fuels with enhanced accident tolerance, such as improved reaction kinetics with steam resulting in slower hydrogen generation rate, provide guidance for the design and development of fuels and cladding with enhanced accident tolerance. A common set of technical metrics should be established to aid in the optimization and down selection of candidate designs on a more quantitative basis. “Metrics” describe a set of technical bases by which multiple concepts can be fairly evaluated against a common baseline and against one another. This report describes a proposed technical evaluation methodology that can be applied to evaluate the ability of each concept to meet performance and safety goals relative to the current UO2 – zirconium alloy system and relative to one another. The resultant ranked evaluation can then inform concept down-selection, such that the most promising accident tolerant fuel design option(s) can continue to be developed toward qualification.

  1. Modeling of the performance of weapons MOX fuel in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvis, J.; Bellanger, P.; Medvedev, P.G.; Peddicord, K.L.; Gellene, G.I.

    1999-05-01

    Both the Russian Federation and the US are pursing mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel in light water reactors (LWRs) for the disposition of excess plutonium from disassembled nuclear warheads. Fuel performance models are used which describe the behavior of MOX fuel during irradiation under typical power reactor conditions. The objective of this project is to perform the analysis of the thermal, mechanical, and chemical behavior of weapons MOX fuel pins under LWR conditions. If fuel performance analysis indicates potential questions, it then becomes imperative to assess the fuel pin design and the proposed operating strategies to reduce the probability of clad failure and the associated release of radioactive fission products into the primary coolant system. Applying the updated code to anticipated fuel and reactor designs, which would be used for weapons MOX fuel in the US, and analyzing the performance of the WWER-100 fuel for Russian weapons plutonium disposition are addressed in this report. The COMETHE code was found to do an excellent job in predicting fuel central temperatures. Also, despite minor predicted differences in thermo-mechanical behavior of MOX and UO{sub 2} fuels, the preliminary estimate indicated that, during normal reactor operations, these deviations remained within limits foreseen by fuel pin design.

  2. Accident source terms for Light-Water Nuclear Power Plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soffer, L.; Burson, S.B.; Ferrell, C.M.; Lee, R.Y.; Ridgely, J.N.

    1995-02-01

    In 1962 tile US Atomic Energy Commission published TID-14844, ``Calculation of Distance Factors for Power and Test Reactors`` which specified a release of fission products from the core to the reactor containment for a postulated accident involving ``substantial meltdown of the core``. This ``source term``, tile basis for tile NRC`s Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4, has been used to determine compliance with tile NRC`s reactor site criteria, 10 CFR Part 100, and to evaluate other important plant performance requirements. During the past 30 years substantial additional information on fission product releases has been developed based on significant severe accident research. This document utilizes this research by providing more realistic estimates of the ``source term`` release into containment, in terms of timing, nuclide types, quantities and chemical form, given a severe core-melt accident. This revised ``source term`` is to be applied to the design of future light water reactors (LWRs). Current LWR licensees may voluntarily propose applications based upon it.

  3. Evaluation of fission gas release in high-burnup light water reactor fuel rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barner, J.O.; Cunningham, M.E.; Freshley, M.D.; Lanning, D.D. )

    1993-05-01

    Research to define the behavior of Zircaloy-clad light water reactor (LWR) UO[sub 2] fuel irradiated to high burnup levels was conducted as part of the High Burnup Effects Program (HBEP). The HBEP was a 12-yr program that ultimately acquired, characterized, irradiated, and examined after irradiation 82 LWR fuel rods ranging in rod-average fuel burnup from 22 to 69 MWd/kgM with a peak pellet burnup of 83 MWd/kg M. A principal emphasis of the HBEP was to evaluate the effect of high burnup on fission gas release. It was confirmed that fission gas release remained as dependent on design and irradiation history parameters at high burnup levels as at low to moderate burnup levels. One observed high-burnup effect was the development of a burnup-dependent microstructure at the fuel pellet surface when pellet-edge burnup exceeded 65 MWd/kgM. This low-temperature rim region' was characterized by a loss of optically definable grain structure, a high volume of porosity, and diffusion of fission gas from the UO[sub 2] matrix to the porosity. Although the rim region has the potential for enhanced fission gas release, it is concluded that no significant enhancement of rod-average fission gas release at high burnup levels was observed for the examined fuel rods.

  4. Insights for aging management of light water reactor components: Metal containments. Volume 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, V.N.; Sinha, U.P.; Smith, S.K.

    1994-03-01

    This report evaluates the available technical information and field experience related to management of aging damage to light water reactor metal containments. A generic aging management approach is suggested for the effective and comprehensive aging management of metal containments to ensure their safe operation. The major concern is corrosion of the embedded portion of the containment vessel and detection of this damage. The electromagnetic acoustic transducer and half-cell potential measurement are potential techniques to detect corrosion damage in the embedded portion of the containment vessel. Other corrosion-related concerns include inspection of corrosion damage on the inaccessible side of BWR Mark I and Mark II containment vessels and corrosion of the BWR Mark I torus and emergency core cooling system piping that penetrates the torus, and transgranular stress corrosion cracking of the penetration bellows. Fatigue-related concerns include reduction in the fatigue life (a) of a vessel caused by roughness of the corroded vessel surface and (b) of bellows because of any physical damage. Maintenance of surface coatings and sealant at the metal-concrete interface is the best protection against corrosion of the vessel.

  5. Swelling in light water reactor internal components: Insights from computational modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoller, Roger E.; Barashev, Alexander V.; Golubov, Stanislav I.

    2015-08-01

    A modern cluster dynamics model has been used to investigate the materials and irradiation parameters that control microstructural evolution under the relatively low-temperature exposure conditions that are representative of the operating environment for in-core light water reactor components. The focus is on components fabricated from austenitic stainless steel. The model accounts for the synergistic interaction between radiation-produced vacancies and the helium that is produced by nuclear transmutation reactions. Cavity nucleation rates are shown to be relatively high in this temperature regime (275 to 325°C), but are sensitive to assumptions about the fine scale microstructure produced under low-temperature irradiation. The cavity nucleation rates observed run counter to the expectation that void swelling would not occur under these conditions. This expectation was based on previous research on void swelling in austenitic steels in fast reactors. This misleading impression arose primarily from an absence of relevant data. The results of the computational modeling are generally consistent with recent data obtained by examining ex-service components. However, it has been shown that the sensitivity of the model s predictions of low-temperature swelling behavior to assumptions about the primary damage source term and specification of the mean-field sink strengths is somewhat greater that that observed at higher temperatures. Further assessment of the mathematical model is underway to meet the long-term objective of this research, which is to provide a predictive model of void swelling at relevant lifetime exposures to support extended reactor operations.

  6. Residential ventilation standards scoping study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  7. Ventilation Systems for Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool » Home Cooling Systems » Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of <a href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/jdhancock/3802136698/">JD Hancock</a>. Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Ventilation is the least expensive and most energy-efficient way to cool buildings. Ventilation works best when combined with methods to

  8. Grating light reflection spectroelectrochemistry for detection of trace amounts of aromatic hydrocarbons in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KELLY,MICHAEL J.; SWEATT,WILLIAM C.; KEMME,SHANALYN A.; KASUNIC,K.J.; BLAIR,DIANNA S.; ZAIDI,S.H.; MCNEIL,J.R.; BURGESS,L.W.; BRODSKY,A.M.; SMITH,S.A.

    2000-04-01

    Grating light reflection spectroscopy (GLRS) is an emerging technique for spectroscopic analysis and sensing. A transmission diffraction grating is placed in contact with the sample to be analyzed, and an incident light beam is directed onto the grating. At certain angles of incidence, some of the diffracted orders are transformed from traveling waves to evanescent waves. This occurs at a specific wavelength that is a function of the grating period and the complex index of refraction of the sample. The intensities of diffracted orders are also dependent on the sample's complex index of refraction. The authors describe the use of GLRS, in combination with electrochemical modulation of the grating, for the detection of trace amounts of aromatic hydrocarbons. The diffraction grating consisted of chromium lines on a fused silica substrate. The depth of the grating lines was 1 {micro}m, the grating period was 1 {micro}m, and the duty cycle was 50%. Since chromium was not suitable for electrochemical modulation of the analyte concentration, a 200 nm gold layer was deposited over the entire grating. This gold layer slightly degraded the transmission of the grating, but provided satisfactory optical transparency for the spectroelectrochemical experiments. The grating was configured as the working electrode in an electrochemical cell containing water plus trace amounts of the aromatic hydrocarbon analytes. The grating was then electrochemically modulated via cyclic voltammetry waveforms, and the normalized intensity of the zero order reflection was simultaneously measured. The authors discuss the lower limits of detection (LLD) for two analytes, 7-dimethylamino-1,2-benzophenoxazine (Meldola's Blue dye) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), probed with an incident HeNe laser beam ({lambda} = 543.5 nm) at an incident angle of 52.5{degree}. The LLD for 7-dimethylamino-1,2-benzophenoxazine is approximately 50 parts per billion (ppb), while the LLD for TNT is approximately 50 parts

  9. Whole-House Ventilation | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    - 2:37pm Addthis A whole-house ventilation system with dedicated ducting in a new energy-efficient home. | Photo courtesy of iStockphotobrebca. A whole-house ventilation...

  10. Nuclear Systems Enhanced Performance Program, Maintenance Cycle Extension in Advanced Light Water Reactor Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Professor Neill Todreas

    2001-10-01

    A renewed interest in new nuclear power generation in the US has spurred interest in developing advanced reactors with features which will address the public's concerns regarding nuclear generation. However, it is economic performance which will dictate whether any new orders for these plants will materialize. Economic performance is, to a great extent, improved by maximizing the time that the plant is on-line generating electricity relative to the time spent off-line conducting maintenance and refueling. Indeed, the strategy for the advanced light water reactor plant IRIS (International Reactor, Innovative and Secure) is to utilize an eight year operating cycle. This report describes a formalized strategy to address, during the design phase, the maintenance-related barriers to an extended operating cycle. The top-level objective of this investigation was to develop a methodology for injecting component and system maintainability issues into the reactor plant design process to overcome these barriers. A primary goal was to demonstrate the applicability and utility of the methodology in the context of the IRIS design. The first step in meeting the top-level objective was to determine the types of operating cycle length barriers that the IRIS design team is likely to face. Evaluation of previously identified regulatory and investment protection surveillance program barriers preventing a candidate operating PWR from achieving an extended (48 month) cycle was conducted in the context of the IRIS design. From this analysis, 54 known IRIS operating cycle length barriers were identified. The resolution methodology was applied to each of these barriers to generate design solution alternatives for consideration in the IRIS design. The methodology developed has been demonstrated to narrow the design space to feasible design solutions which enable a desired operating cycle length, yet is general enough to have broad applicability. Feedback from the IRIS design team indicates

  11. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 4. Plutonium dispositioning in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterbentz, J.W.; Olsen, C.S.; Sinha, U.P.

    1993-06-01

    This study is in response to a request by the Reactor Panel Subcommittee of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) to evaluate the feasibility of using plutonium fuels (without uranium) for disposal in existing conventional or advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs and in low temperature/pressure LWR designs that might be developed for plutonium disposal. Three plutonium-based fuel forms (oxides, aluminum metallics, and carbides) are evaluated for neutronic performance, fabrication technology, and material and compatibility issues. For the carbides, only the fabrication technologies are addressed. Viable plutonium oxide fuels for conventional or advanced LWRs include plutonium-zirconium-calcium oxide (PuO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}-CaO) with the addition of thorium oxide (ThO{sub 2}) or a burnable poison such as erbium oxide (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}) or europium oxide (Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}) to achieve acceptable neutronic performance. Thorium will breed fissile uranium that may be unacceptable from a proliferation standpoint. Fabrication of uranium and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuels is well established; however, fabrication of plutonium-based oxide fuels will require further development. Viable aluminum-plutonium metallic fuels for a low temperature/pressure LWR include plutonium aluminide in an aluminum matrix (PuAl{sub 4}-Al) with the addition of a burnable poison such as erbium (Er) or europium (Eu). Fabrication of low-enriched plutonium in aluminum-plutonium metallic fuel rods was initially established 30 years ago and will require development to recapture and adapt the technology to meet current environmental and safety regulations. Fabrication of high-enriched uranium plate fuel by the picture-frame process is a well established process, but the use of plutonium would require the process to be upgraded in the United States to conform with current regulations and minimize the waste streams.

  12. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program A Reference Plan for Control Room Modernization: Planning and Analysis Phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacques Hugo; Ronald Boring; Lew Hanes; Kenneth Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is collaborating with a U.S. nuclear utility to bring about a systematic fleet-wide control room modernization. To facilitate this upgrade, a new distributed control system (DCS) is being introduced into the control rooms of these plants. The DCS will upgrade the legacy plant process computer and emergency response facility information system. In addition, the DCS will replace an existing analog turbine control system with a display-based system. With technology upgrades comes the opportunity to improve the overall human-system interaction between the operators and the control room. To optimize operator performance, the LWRS Control Room Modernization research team followed a human-centered approach published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-0711, Rev. 3, Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (O’Hara et al., 2012), prescribes four phases for human factors engineering. This report provides examples of the first phase, Planning and Analysis. The three elements of Planning and Analysis in NUREG-0711 that are most crucial to initiating control room upgrades are: • Operating Experience Review: Identifies opportunities for improvement in the existing system and provides lessons learned from implemented systems. • Function Analysis and Allocation: Identifies which functions at the plant may be optimally handled by the DCS vs. the operators. • Task Analysis: Identifies how tasks might be optimized for the operators. Each of these elements is covered in a separate chapter. Examples are drawn from workshops with reactor operators that were conducted at the LWRS Human System Simulation Laboratory HSSL and at the respective plants. The findings in this report represent generalized accounts of more detailed proprietary reports produced for the utility for each plant. The goal of this LWRS report is to disseminate the technique and provide examples sufficient to

  13. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems, prepared to support the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) systems analysis, provides a technology-oriented baseline system cost comparison between the open fuel cycle and closed fuel cycle systems. The intent is to understand their overall cost trends, cost sensitivities, and trade-offs. This analysis also improves the AFCI Program’s understanding of the cost drivers that will determine nuclear power’s cost competitiveness vis-a-vis other baseload generation systems. The common reactor-related costs consist of capital, operating, and decontamination and decommissioning costs. Fuel cycle costs include front-end (pre-irradiation) and back-end (post-iradiation) costs, as well as costs specifically associated with fuel recycling. This analysis reveals that there are large cost uncertainties associated with all the fuel cycle strategies, and that overall systems (reactor plus fuel cycle) using a closed fuel cycle are about 10% more expensive in terms of electricity generation cost than open cycle systems. The study concludes that further U.S. and joint international-based design studies are needed to reduce the cost uncertainties with respect to fast reactor, fuel separation and fabrication, and waste disposition. The results of this work can help provide insight to the cost-related factors and conditions needed to keep nuclear energy (including closed fuel cycles) economically competitive in the U.S. and worldwide. These results may be updated over time based on new cost information, revised assumptions, and feedback received from additional reviews.

  14. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Research and Development Program Plan -- Fiscal Year 2009–2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Idaho National Laboratory

    2009-12-01

    Nuclear power has reliably and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. By the year 2030, domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to grow to levels of 16 to 36% higher than 2007 levels. At the same time, most currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their 60-year operating licenses. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary this year. U.S. regulators have begun considering extended operations of nuclear power plants and the research needed to support long-term operations. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Research and Development (R&D) Program, developed and sponsored by the Department of Energy, is performed in close collaboration with industry R&D programs. The purpose of the LWRS R&D Program is to provide technical foundations for licensing and managing long-term, safe and economical operation of the current operating nuclear power plants. The LWRS R&D Program vision is captured in the following statements: Existing operating nuclear power plants will continue to safely provide clean and economic electricity well beyond their first license- extension period, significantly contributing to reduction of United States and global carbon emissions, enhancement of national energy security, and protection of the environment. There is a comprehensive technical basis for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, economical operation of nuclear power plants. Sustaining the existing operating U.S. fleet also will improve its international engagement

  15. Advanced Fuels Campaign Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuel Performance Metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brad Merrill; Melissa Teague; Robert Youngblood; Larry Ott; Kevin Robb; Michael Todosow; Chris Stanek; Mitchell Farmer; Michael Billone; Robert Montgomery; Nicholas Brown; Shannon Bragg-Sitton

    2014-02-01

    The safe, reliable and economic operation of the nation’s nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a top priority for the United States’ nuclear industry. As a result, continual improvement of technology, including advanced materials and nuclear fuels, remains central to industry’s success. Decades of research combined with continual operation have produced steady advancements in technology and yielded an extensive base of data, experience, and knowledge on light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance under both normal and accident conditions. In 2011, following the Great East Japan Earthquake, resulting tsunami, and subsequent damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex, enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs became a topic of serious discussion. As a result of direction from the U.S. Congress, the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) initiated an Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) Development program. The complex multiphysics behavior of LWR nuclear fuel makes defining specific material or design improvements difficult; as such, establishing qualitative attributes is critical to guide the design and development of fuels and cladding with enhanced accident tolerance. This report summarizes a common set of technical evaluation metrics to aid in the optimization and down selection of candidate designs. As used herein, “metrics” describe a set of technical bases by which multiple concepts can be fairly evaluated against a common baseline and against one another. Furthermore, this report describes a proposed technical evaluation methodology that can be applied to assess the ability of each concept to meet performance and safety goals relative to the current UO2 – zirconium alloy system and relative to one another. The resultant ranked evaluation can then inform concept down-selection, such that the most promising accident tolerant fuel design option(s) can continue to be developed for lead test rod or lead test assembly

  16. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors. Semiannual report, July 1998-December 1998.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, O. K.; Chung, H. M.; Gruber, E. E.; Kassner, T. F.; Ruther, W. E.; Shack, W. J.; Smith, J. L.; Soppet, W. K.; Strain; R. V.

    1999-10-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors from July 1998 to December 1998. Topics that have been investigated include (a) environmental effects on fatigue S-N behavior of primary pressure boundary materials, (b) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels (SSs), and (c) EAC of Alloys 600 and 690. Fatigue tests have been conducted to determine the crack initiation and crack growth characteristics of austenitic SSs in LWR environments. Procedures are presented for incorporating the effects of reactor coolant environments on the fatigue life of pressure vessel and piping steels. Slow-strain-rate tensile tests and posttest fractographic analyses were conducted on several model SS alloys irradiated to {approx}0.3 and 0.9 x 10{sup 21} n {center_dot} cm{sup -2} (E > 1 MeV) in helium at 289 C in the Halden reactor. The results have been used to determine the influence of alloying and impurity elements on the susceptibility of these steels to irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking. Fracture toughness J-R curve tests were also conducted on two heats of Type 304 SS that were irradiated to {approx}0.3 x 10{sup 21} n {center_dot} cm{sup -2} in the Halden reactor. Crack-growth-rate tests have been conducted on compact-tension specimens of Alloys 600 and 690 under constant load to evaluate the resistance of these alloys to stress corrosion cracking in LWR environments.

  17. MWCNT/WO{sub 3} nanocomposite photoanode for visible light induced water splitting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yousefzadeh, Samira; Reyhani, Ali; Naseri, Naimeh; Moshfegh, Alireza Z.

    2013-08-15

    The Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/WO{sub 3} nanocomposite thin films with different MWCNTs weight percentages were prepared by solgel method as visible light induced photoanode in water splitting reaction. Weight percentage of MWCNT in the all nanocomposite thin films was confirmed by TGA/DSC analysis. According to XPS analysis, oxygenated groups at the surface of the MWCNT and stoichiometric formation of WO{sub 3} thin films were determined, while the crystalline structure of the nanocomposite samples was studied by XRD indicating (0 0 2) peak of MWCNT in the monoclinic phase of WO{sub 3}. The influence of different weight percentage (wt%) of MWCNT on WO{sub 3} photoactivity showed that the electron conductivity, charge transfer and electron life time had improved as compared with the pure WO{sub 3}. Based on linear sweep voltammetry and chronoamperometry measurements, the (1 wt%) MWCNT/WO{sub 3} nanocomposite thin films photoanode has a maximum photocurrent density of ?4.5 A/m{sup 2} and electron life time of about 57 s. - Graphical abstract: Photocurrent density versus time at constant potential (0.7 V) for the WO{sub 3} films containing different MWCNT weight percentages annealed at 400 C under 1000 Wm{sup ?2} visible photo-illumination. Display Omitted - Highlights: MWCNT/ WO{sub 3} nanocomposite thin films were synthesized using solgel derived method. TGA/DSC confirmed the weight percentage of MWCNT in the all nanocomposite thin films. XPS analysis revealed that WO{sub 3} was attached on the oxygenated group of MWCNT surface. The Highest Photoelectrochemical activity is achieved for (1 wt%)MWCNT/WO{sub 3} thin film.

  18. Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation covers common pitfalls that lead to wasted energy in industrial heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.

  19. Building America Webinar: Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compartmentalization Requirements - Joe Lstiburek | Department of Energy Joe Lstiburek Building America Webinar: Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and Compartmentalization Requirements - Joe Lstiburek This presentation will be delivered at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America webinar, Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and Compartmentalization Requirements, on September 24, 2014. Joe Lstiburek, Building Science Corporation, will present various balanced ventilation options that

  20. Building America Webinar: Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compartmentalization Requirements | Department of Energy Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and Compartmentalization Requirements Building America Webinar: Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and Compartmentalization Requirements This Building America webinar, held on Sept. 24, 2014, focused on key challenges in multifamily ventilation and strategies to address these challenges. Sean Maxwell, Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, discussed make-up air strategies in new construction

  1. Promising Technology: Energy Recovery Ventilation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy recovery ventilation (ERV) systems exchange heat between outgoing exhaust air and the incoming outdoor air. Using exhaust air to pre-condition supply air can reduce the capacity of the heating and cooling system and save heating and cooling energy consumption.

  2. Mechanical design of core components for a high performance light water reactor with a three pass core

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Kai; Schneider, Tobias; Redon, Thomas; Schulenberg, Thomas; Starflinger, Joerg

    2007-07-01

    Nuclear reactors using supercritical water as coolant can achieve more than 500 deg. C core outlet temperature, if the coolant is heated up in three steps with intermediate mixing to avoid hot streaks. This method reduces the peak cladding temperatures significantly compared with a single heat up. The paper presents an innovative mechanical design which has been developed recently for such a High Performance Light Water Reactor. The core is built with square assemblies of 40 fuel pins each, using wire wraps as grid spacers. Nine of these assemblies are combined to a cluster having a common head piece and a common foot piece. A downward flow of additional moderator water, separated from the coolant, is provided in gaps between the assemblies and in a water box inside each assembly. The cluster head and foot pieces and mixing chambers, which are key components for this design, are explained in detail. (authors)

  3. LIGHT WATER REACTOR SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAM ADVANCED INSTRUMENTATION, INFORMATION, AND CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES TECHNICAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallbert, Bruce; Thomas, Ken

    2014-07-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  4. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan for 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallbert, Bruce; Thomas, Ken

    2014-09-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  5. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors : semiannual report, July 2000 - December 2000.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, O. K.; Chung, H. M.; Gruber, E. E.; Shack, W. J.; Soppet, W. K.; Strain, R. V.; Energy Technology

    2002-04-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRs) from July 2000 to December 2000. Topics that have been investigated include (a) environmental effects on fatigue S-N behavior of primary pressure boundary materials, (b) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of austenitic stainless steels (SSs), and (c) EAC of Alloys 600 and 690. The fatigue strain-vs.-life data are summarized for the effects of various material, loading, and environmental parameters on the fatigue lives of carbon and low-alloy steels and austenitic SSs. Effects of the reactor coolant environment on the mechanism of fatigue crack initiation are discussed. Two methods for incorporating the effects of LWR coolant environments into the ASME Code fatigue evaluations are presented. Slow-strain-rate tensile tests and posttest fractographic analyses were conducted on several model SS alloys irradiated to {approx}0.9 x 10{sup 21} n {center_dot} cm{sup -2} (E > 1 MeV) in He at 289 C in the Halden reactor. The results were used to determine the influence of alloying and impurity elements on the susceptibility of these steels to IASCC. A fracture toughness J-R curve test was conducted on a commercial heat of Type 304 SS that was irradiated to {approx}2.0 x 10{sup 21} n {center_dot} cm{sup -2} in the Halden reactor. The results were compared with the data obtained earlier on steels irradiated to 0.3 and 0.9 x 10{sup 21} n {center_dot} cm{sup -2} (E > 1 MeV) (0.45 and 1.35 dpa). Neutron irradiation at 288 C was found to decrease the fracture toughness of austenitic SSs. Tests were conducted on compact-tension specimens of Alloy 600 under cyclic loading to evaluate the enhancement of crack growth rates in LWR environments. Then, the existing fatigue crack growth data on Alloys 600 and 690 were analyzed to establish the effects of temperature, load ratio, frequency, and stress intensity range

  6. 3D Simulation of Missing Pellet Surface Defects in Light Water Reactor Fuel Rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.W. Spencer; J.D. Hales; S.R. Novascone; R.L. Williamson

    2012-09-01

    The cladding on light water reactor (LWR) fuel rods provides a stable enclosure for fuel pellets and serves as a first barrier against fission product release. Consequently, it is important to design fuel to prevent cladding failure due to mechanical interactions with fuel pellets. Cladding stresses can be effectively limited by controlling power increase rates. However, it has been shown that local geometric irregularities caused by manufacturing defects known as missing pellet surfaces (MPS) in fuel pellets can lead to elevated cladding stresses that are sufficiently high to cause cladding failure. Accurate modeling of these defects can help prevent these types of failures. Nuclear fuel performance codes commonly use a 1.5D (axisymmetric, axially-stacked, one-dimensional radial) or 2D axisymmetric representation of the fuel rod. To study the effects of MPS defects, results from 1.5D or 2D fuel performance analyses are typically mapped to thermo-mechanical models that consist of a 2D plane-strain slice or a full 3D representation of the geometry of the pellet and clad in the region of the defect. The BISON fuel performance code developed at Idaho National Laboratory employs either a 2D axisymmetric or 3D representation of the full fuel rod. This allows for a computational model of the full fuel rod to include local defects. A 3D thermo-mechanical model is used to simulate the global fuel rod behavior, and includes effects on the thermal and mechanical behavior of the fuel due to accumulation of fission products, fission gas production and release, and the effects of fission gas accumulation on thermal conductivity across the fuel-clad gap. Local defects can be modeled simply by including them in the 3D fuel rod model, without the need for mapping between two separate models. This allows for the complete set of physics used in a fuel performance analysis to be included naturally in the computational representation of the local defect, and for the effects of the

  7. Development of Advanced Accident Tolerant Fuels for Commercial Light Water Reactors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.

    2014-03-01

    The safe, reliable and economic operation of the nations nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a top priority for the United States nuclear industry. Continual improvement of technology, including advanced materials and nuclear fuels remains central to industrys success. Decades of research combined with continual operation have produced steady advancements in technology and yielded an extensive base of data, experience, and knowledge on light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance under both normal and accident conditions. Thanks to efforts by both the U.S. government and private companies, nuclear technologies have advanced over time to optimize economic operations in nuclear utilitiesmorewhile ensuring safety. One of the missions of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) is to develop nuclear fuels and claddings with enhanced accident tolerance. In 2011, following the Great East Japan Earthquake, resulting tsunami, and subsequent damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex, enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs became a topic of serious discussion. As a result of direction from the U.S. Congress, DOE-NE initiated Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) development as a primary component of the Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC). Prior to the unfortunate events at Fukushima, the emphasis for advanced LWR fuel development was on improving nuclear fuel performance in terms of increased burnup for waste minimization, increased power density for power upgrades, and increased fuel reliability. Fukushima highlighted some undesirable performance characteristics of the standard fuel system during severe accidents, including accelerated hydrogen production under certain circumstances. Thus, fuel system behavior under design basis accident and severe accident conditions became the primary focus for advanced fuels while still striving for improved performance under normal operating conditions to

  8. Development of Advanced Accident Tolerant Fuels for Commercial Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.

    2014-03-01

    The safe, reliable and economic operation of the nations nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a top priority for the United States nuclear industry. Continual improvement of technology, including advanced materials and nuclear fuels remains central to industrys success. Decades of research combined with continual operation have produced steady advancements in technology and yielded an extensive base of data, experience, and knowledge on light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance under both normal and accident conditions. Thanks to efforts by both the U.S. government and private companies, nuclear technologies have advanced over time to optimize economic operations in nuclear utilities while ensuring safety. One of the missions of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) is to develop nuclear fuels and claddings with enhanced accident tolerance. In 2011, following the Great East Japan Earthquake, resulting tsunami, and subsequent damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex, enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs became a topic of serious discussion. As a result of direction from the U.S. Congress, DOE-NE initiated Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) development as a primary component of the Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC). Prior to the unfortunate events at Fukushima, the emphasis for advanced LWR fuel development was on improving nuclear fuel performance in terms of increased burnup for waste minimization, increased power density for power upgrades, and increased fuel reliability. Fukushima highlighted some undesirable performance characteristics of the standard fuel system during severe accidents, including accelerated hydrogen production under certain circumstances. Thus, fuel system behavior under design basis accident and severe accident conditions became the primary focus for advanced fuels while still striving for improved performance under normal operating conditions to ensure

  9. Summary of human responses to ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seppanen, Olli A.; Fisk, William J.

    2004-06-01

    The effects of ventilation on indoor air quality and health is a complex issue. It is known that ventilation is necessary to remove indoor generated pollutants from indoor air or dilute their concentration to acceptable levels. But, as the limit values of all pollutants are not known, the exact determination of required ventilation rates based on pollutant concentrations and associated risks is seldom possible. The selection of ventilation rates has to be based also on epidemiological research (e.g. Seppanen et al., 1999), laboratory and field experiments (e.g. CEN 1996, Wargocki et al., 2002a) and experience (e.g. ECA 2003). Ventilation may also have harmful effects on indoor air quality and climate if not properly designed, installed, maintained and operated as summarized by Seppdnen (2003). Ventilation may bring indoors harmful substances that deteriorate the indoor environment. Ventilation also affects air and moisture flow through the building envelope and may lead to moisture problems that deteriorate the structures of the building. Ventilation changes the pressure differences over the structures of building and may cause or prevent the infiltration of pollutants from structures or adjacent spaces. Ventilation is also in many cases used to control the thermal environment or humidity in buildings. Ventilation can be implemented with various methods which may also affect health (e.g. Seppdnen and Fisk, 2002, Wargocki et al., 2002a). In non residential buildings and hot climates, ventilation is often integrated with air-conditioning which makes the operation of ventilation system more complex. As ventilation is used for many purposes its health effects are also various and complex. This paper summarizes the current knowledge on positive and negative effects of ventilation on health and other human responses. The focus of the paper is on office-type working environment and residential buildings. In the industrial premises the problems of air quality are usually

  10. Models for prediction of temperature difference and ventilation effectiveness with displacement ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, X.; Chen, Q.; Glicksman, L.R.

    1999-07-01

    Displacement ventilation may provide better indoor air quality than mixing ventilation. Proper design of displacement ventilation requires information concerning the air temperature difference between the head and foot level of a sedentary person and the ventilation effectiveness at the breathing level. This paper presents models to predict the air temperature difference and the ventilation effectiveness, based on a database of 56 cases with displacement ventilation. The database was generated by using a validated CFD program and covers four different types of US buildings: small offices, large offices with partitions, classrooms, and industrial workshops under different thermal and flow boundary conditions. Both the maximum cooling load that can be removed by displacement ventilation and the ventilation effectiveness are shown to depend on the heat source type and ventilation rate in a room.

  11. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staff Scientist; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max; Dickerhoff, Darryl

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20percent, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.

  12. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Grizzly Year-End Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin Spencer; Yongfeng Zhang; Pritam Chakraborty; S. Bulent Biner; Marie Backman; Brian Wirth; Stephen Novascone; Jason Hales

    2013-09-01

    The Grizzly software application is being developed under the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program to address aging and material degradation issues that could potentially become an obstacle to life extension of nuclear power plants beyond 60 years of operation. Grizzly is based on INL’s MOOSE multiphysics simulation environment, and can simultaneously solve a variety of tightly coupled physics equations, and is thus a very powerful and flexible tool with a wide range of potential applications. Grizzly, the development of which was begun during fiscal year (FY) 2012, is intended to address degradation in a variety of critical structures. The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) was chosen for an initial application of this software. Because it fulfills the critical roles of housing the reactor core and providing a barrier to the release of coolant, the RPV is clearly one of the most safety-critical components of a nuclear power plant. In addition, because of its cost, size and location in the plant, replacement of this component would be prohibitively expensive, so failure of the RPV to meet acceptance criteria would likely result in the shutting down of a nuclear power plant. The current practice used to perform engineering evaluations of the susceptibility of RPVs to fracture is to use the ASME Master Fracture Toughness Curve (ASME Code Case N-631 Section III). This is used in conjunction with empirically based models that describe the evolution of this curve due to embrittlement in terms of a transition temperature shift. These models are based on an extensive database of surveillance coupons that have been irradiated in operating nuclear power plants, but this data is limited to the lifetime of the current reactor fleet. This is an important limitation when considering life extension beyond 60 years. The currently available data cannot be extrapolated with confidence further out in time because there is a potential for additional damage mechanisms (i

  13. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Reactor Safety Technologies Pathway Technical Program Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corradini, M. L.

    2015-06-01

    “end user” of the results from this DOE-sponsored work. The response to the Fukushima accident has been global, and there is a continuing multinational interest in collaborations to better quantify accident consequences and to incorporate lessons learned from the accident. DOE will continue to seek opportunities to facilitate collaborations that are of value to the U.S. industry, particularly where the collaboration provides access to vital data from the accident or otherwise supports or leverages other important R&D work. The purpose of the Reactor Safety Technology R&D is to improve understanding of beyond design basis events and reduce uncertainty in severe accident progression, phenomenology, and outcomes using existing analytical codes and information gleaned from severe accidents, in particular the Fukushima Daiichi events. This information will be used to aid in developing mitigating strategies and improving severe accident management guidelines for the current light water reactor fleet.

  14. Radioactive waste tank ventilation system incorporating tritium control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, P.D.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes the development of a ventilation system for radioactive waste tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The unique design of the system is aimed at cost-effective control of tritiated water vapor. The system includes recirculation ventilation and cooling for each tank in the facility and a central exhaust air clean-up train that includes a low-temperature vapor condenser and high-efficiency mist eliminator (HEME). A one-seventh scale pilot plant was built and tested to verify predicted performance of the low-temperature tritium removal system. Tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness of the removal of condensable vapor and soluble and insoluble aerosols and to estimate the operating life of the mist eliminator. Definitive design of the ventilation system relied heavily on the test data. The unique design features of the ventilation system will result in far less release of tritium to the atmosphere than from conventional high-volume dilution systems and will greatly reduce operating costs. NESHAPs and TAPs NOC applications have been approved, and field construction is nearly complete. Start-up is scheduled for late 1996. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on

  16. Experimental study on the floor-supply displacement ventilation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akimoto, Takashi; Nobe, Tatsuo; Takebayashi, Yoshihisa

    1995-12-31

    These results are presented from a research project to investigate the effects of a floor-supply displacement ventilation system with practical indoor heat loads. The experiments were performed in an experimental chamber (35.2 m{sup 2}) located in a controlled environment chamber. Temperature distributions were measured at seven heights throughout the experimental chamber for each test condition. Data were analyzed to observe thermal stratification as affected by lighting, occupants, and heat loads (personal computers), and its disruption caused by walking and change of air volume. In addition, airflow characteristics and ventilation efficiencies were investigated using a smoke machine, tobacco smoke, dust for industrial testing, and a tracer gas (CO{sub 2}) step-up procedure.

  17. Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Milestone Report on Materials and Machining of Specimens for the ATR-2 Experiment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in a light-water reactor (LWR) represents the first line of defense against a release of radiation in case of an accident. Thus, regulations, which govern the...

  18. Light-water-reactor safety research program. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massey, W.E.; Kyger, J.A.

    1980-08-01

    This progress report summarizes the Argonne National Laboratory work performed during January, February, and March 1980 on water-reactor-safety problems. The research and development area covered is Transient Fuel Response and Fission-Product Release.

  19. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip MacDonald; Jacopo Buongiorno; James Sterbentz; Cliff Davis; Robert Witt; Gary Was; J. McKinley; S. Teysseyre; Luca Oriani; Vefa Kucukboyaci; Lawrence Conway; N. Jonsson: Bin Liu

    2005-02-13

    The supercritical water reactor (SCWR) has been the object of interest throughout the nuclear Generation IV community because of its high potential: a simple, direct cycle, compact configuration; elimination of many traditional LWR components, operation at coolant temperatures much higher than traditional LWRs and thus high thermal efficiency. It could be said that the SWR was viewed as the water counterpart to the high temperature gas reactor.

  20. Bright, Coherent, Ultrafast Soft X-Ray Harmonics Spanning the Water Window from a Tabletop Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, M.-C.; Arpin, P.; Popmintchev, T.; Gerrity, M.; Zhang, B.; Seaberg, M.; Popmintchev, D.; Murnane, M. M.; Kapteyn, H. C.

    2010-10-22

    We demonstrate fully phase-matched high harmonic emission spanning the water window spectral region important for nano- and bioimaging and a breadth of materials and molecular dynamics studies. We also generate the broadest bright coherent bandwidth ({approx_equal}300 eV) to date from any light source, small or large, that is consistent with a single subfemtosecond burst. The harmonic photon flux at 0.5 keV is 10{sup 3} higher than demonstrated previously. This work extends bright, spatially coherent, attosecond pulses into the soft x-ray region for the first time.

  1. Improving proliferation resistance of high breeding gain generation 4 reactors using blankets composed of light water reactor waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hellesen, C.; Grape, S.; Haakanson, A.; Jacobson Svaerd, S.; Jansson, P.

    2013-07-01

    Fertile blankets can be used in fast reactors to enhance the breeding gain as well as the passive safety characteristics. However, such blankets typically result in the production of weapons grade plutonium. For this reason they are often excluded from Generation IV reactor designs. In this paper we demonstrate that using blankets manufactured directly from spent light water (LWR) reactor fuel it is possible to produce a plutonium product with non-proliferation characteristics on a par with spent LWR fuel of 30-50 MWd/kg burnup. The beneficial breeding and safety characteristics are retained. (authors)

  2. Building America Webinar: Multifamily Ventilation Strategies...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2013 ventilation requirements in multifamily buildings that are also constructed to LEED compartmentalization requirements of the currently proposed ASHRAE ...

  3. Ventilation Systems for Cooling | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    it usually needs to be supplemented with spot ventilation, ceiling fans, and window fans. ... Also install window shades or other window treatments and close the shades. Shades will ...

  4. Infiltration in ASHRAE's Residential Ventilation Standards (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    critically important to correctly evaluate the contribution infiltration makes to both energy consumption and equivalent ventilation. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 specifies how much...

  5. Building America Technology Solutions Case Study: Ventilation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building Science Corporation tested the effectiveness of various ventilation systems at two unoccupied, single-family lab homes at the University of Texas at Tyler. The only ...

  6. Building America Technologies Solutions Case Study: Ventilation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    America team Building Science Corporation tested the effectiveness of various ventilation systems at two unoccupied, single-family lab homes at the University of Texas at Tyler. ...

  7. DOE/EIS-0288-S1 Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor, Summary

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor Summary U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration DOE/EIS-0288-S1 February 2016 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS CFR Code of Federal Regulations CLWR commercial light water reactor CRD Comment Response Document DOE U.S. Department of Energy EIS environmental impact statement EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register NEPA National Environmental

  8. Study of Pu consumption in Advanced Light Water Reactors. Evaluation of GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-13

    Timely disposal of the weapons plutonium is of paramount importance to permanently safeguarding this material. GE`s 1300 MWe Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) has been designed to utilize fill] core loading of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel. Because of its large core size, a single ABWR reactor is capable of disposing 100 metric tons of plutonium within 15 years of project inception in the spiking mode. The same amount of material could be disposed of in 25 years after the start of the project as spent fuel, again using a single reactor, while operating at 75 percent capacity factor. In either case, the design permits reuse of the stored spent fuel assemblies for electrical energy generation for the remaining life of the plant for another 40 years. Up to 40 percent of the initial plutonium can also be completely destroyed using ABWRS, without reprocessing, either by utilizing six ABWRs over 25 years or by expanding the disposition time to 60 years, the design life of the plants and using two ABWRS. More complete destruction would require the development and testing of a plutonium-base fuel with a non-fertile matrix for an ABWR or use of an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR). The ABWR, in addition, is fully capable of meeting the tritium target production goals with already developed target technology.

  9. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Station Blackout caused by external flooding using the RISMC toolkit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandelli, Diego; Smith, Curtis; Prescott, Steven; Alfonsi, Andrea; Rabiti, Cristian; Cogliati, Joshua; Kinoshita, Robert

    2014-08-01

    The existing fleet of nuclear power plants is in the process of extending its lifetime and increasing the power generated from these plants via power uprates. In order to evaluate the impacts of these two factors on the safety of the plant, the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization project aims to provide insights to decision makers through a series of simulations of the plant dynamics for different initial conditions (e.g., probabilistic analysis and uncertainty quantification). This paper focuses on the impacts of power uprate on the safety margin of a boiling water reactor for a flooding induced station black-out event. Analysis is performed by using a combination of thermal-hydraulic codes and a stochastic analysis tool currently under development at the Idaho National Laboratory, i.e. RAVEN. We employed both classical statistical tools, i.e. Monte-Carlo, and more advanced machine learning based algorithms to perform uncertainty quantification in order to quantify changes in system performance and limitations as a consequence of power uprate. Results obtained give a detailed investigation of the issues associated with a plant power uprate including the effects of station black-out accident scenarios. We were able to quantify how the timing of specific events was impacted by a higher nominal reactor core power. Such safety insights can provide useful information to the decision makers to perform risk informed margins management.

  10. Text-Alternative Version of Building America Webinar: Ventilation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategies for High Performance Homes, Part I: Application-Specific Ventilation Guidelines | Department of Energy Ventilation Strategies for High Performance Homes, Part I: Application-Specific Ventilation Guidelines Text-Alternative Version of Building America Webinar: Ventilation Strategies for High Performance Homes, Part I: Application-Specific Ventilation Guidelines August 26, 2015 Building America - Ventilation Strategies for High Performance Homes, Part I: Application-Specific

  11. Building America Webinar: Ventilation Strategies for High Performance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Homes, Part I: Application-Specific Ventilation Guidelines | Department of Energy Ventilation Strategies for High Performance Homes, Part I: Application-Specific Ventilation Guidelines Building America Webinar: Ventilation Strategies for High Performance Homes, Part I: Application-Specific Ventilation Guidelines This webinar, held on Aug. 26, 2015, covered what makes high-performance homes different from a ventilation perspective and how they might need to be treated differently than

  12. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Primary Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space filtered venting of tanks AY101, AY102, AZ101, AZ102. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  13. Commissioning Ventilated Containment Systems in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-08-01

    This Best Practices Guide focuses on the specialized approaches required for ventilated containment systems, understood to be all components that drive and control ventilated enclosures and local exhaust systems within the laboratory. Geared toward architects, engineers, and facility managers, this guide provides information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

  14. FEASIBILITY OF RECYCLING PLUTONIUM AND MINOR ACTINIDES IN LIGHT WATER REACTORS USING HYDRIDE FUEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenspan, Ehud; Todreas, Neil; Taiwo, Temitope

    2009-03-10

    The objective of this DOE NERI program sponsored project was to assess the feasibility of improving the plutonium (Pu) and minor actinide (MA) recycling capabilities of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) by using hydride instead of oxide fuels. There are four general parts to this assessment: 1) Identifying promising hydride fuel assembly designs for recycling Pu and MAs in PWRs 2) Performing a comprehensive systems analysis that compares the fuel cycle characteristics of Pu and MA recycling in PWRs using the promising hydride fuel assembly designs identified in Part 1 versus using oxide fuel assembly designs 3) Conducting a safety analysis to assess the likelihood of licensing hydride fuel assembly designs 4) Assessing the compatibility of hydride fuel with cladding materials and water under typical PWR operating conditions Hydride fuel was found to offer promising transmutation characteristics and is recommended for further examination as a possible preferred option for recycling plutonium in PWRs.

  15. DOE ZERH Webinar: Ventilation and Filtration Strategies with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ventilation and Filtration Strategies with Indoor airPLUS DOE ZERH Webinar: Ventilation and Filtration Strategies with Indoor airPLUS Watch the video or view the presentation ...

  16. Summer Infiltration/Ventilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Summer InfiltrationVentilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory Summer InfiltrationVentilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory This presentation was delivered at the ...

  17. Building America Case Study: Selecting Ventilation Systems for...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes Selecting the Best System When determining the most practical ventilation system for an existing home, planning is crucial. Keep ...

  18. Ventilation System to Improve Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ventilation System to Improve Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste Operations Ventilation System to Improve Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste Operations August 28, 2014 - 12:00pm ...

  19. Effect Of Ventilation On Chronic Health Risks In Schools And...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Effect Of Ventilation On Chronic Health Risks In Schools And Offices Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect Of Ventilation On Chronic Health Risks In ...

  20. Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective? (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Make Residential Ventilation More Effective? Ventilation dilutes or removes indoor contaminants to reduce occupant exposure. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there...

  1. Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels You are...

  2. Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Authors:...

  3. Houses are Dumb without Smart Ventilation (Technical Report)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Houses are Dumb without Smart Ventilation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Houses are Dumb without Smart Ventilation You are accessing a document ...

  4. Promising Technology: Variable-Air-Volume Ventilation System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Variable-air-volume (VAV) ventilation saves energy compared to a constant-air-volume (CAV) ventilation system, mainly by reducing energy consumption associated with fans.

  5. Workers Remove Glove Boxes from Ventilation at Hanford's Plutonium...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    processing area have been cleaned, allowing for their removal from ventilation used to control contamination. Addthis Related Articles Employees cut a ventilation duct attached...

  6. Advanced light water reactor plants System 80+{trademark} design certification program. Annual progress report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to provide a status of the progress that was made towards Design Certification of System 80+{trademark} during the US government`s 1996 fiscal year. The System 80+ Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) is a 3931 MW (1350 MWe) Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The design covers an essentially complete plant. It is based on EPRI ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD) improvements to the Standardized System 80 Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) in operation at Palo Verde Units 1, 2 and 3. The NSSS is a traditional two-loop arrangement with two steam generators, two hot legs and four cold legs, each with a reactor coolant pump. The System 80+ standard design houses the NSSS in a spherical steel containment vessel which is enclosed in a concrete shield building, thus providing the safety advantages of a dual barrier to radioactivity release. Other major features include an all-digital, human-factors-engineered control room, an alternate electrical AC power source, an In-Containment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST), and plant arrangements providing complete separation of redundant trains in safety systems.

  7. Advanced light water reactor plants System 80+{trademark} design certification program. Annual progress report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the status of the progress that was made towards Design Certification of System 80+{trademark} during the US government`s 1995 fiscal year. The System 80+ Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) is a 3931 MW (1350 MWe) Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The design covers an essentially complete plant. It is based on EPRI ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD) improvements to the Standardized System 80 Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) in operation at Palo Verde Units 1, 2, and 3. The NSSS is a traditional two-loop arrangement with two steam generators, two hot legs and four cold legs, each with a reactor coolant pump. The System 80+ standard design houses the NSSS in a spherical steel containment vessel which is enclosed in a concrete shield building, thus providing the safety advantages of a dual barrier to radioactivity release. Other major features include an all-digital, human-factors-engineered control room, an alternate electrical AC power source, an In-Containment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST), and plant arrangements providing complete separation of redundant trains in safety systems.

  8. Advanced Computational Thermal Fluid Physics (CTFP) and Its Assessment for Light Water Reactors and Supercritical Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.M. McEligot; K. G. Condie; G. E. McCreery; H. M. McIlroy; R. J. Pink; L.E. Hochreiter; J.D. Jackson; R.H. Pletcher; B.L. Smith; P. Vukoslavcevic; J.M. Wallace; J.Y. Yoo; J.S. Lee; S.T. Ro; S.O. Park

    2005-10-01

    Background: The ultimate goal of the study is the improvement of predictive methods for safety analyses and design of Generation IV reactor systems such as supercritical water reactors (SCWR) for higher efficiency, improved performance and operation, design simplification, enhanced safety and reduced waste and cost. The objective of this Korean / US / laboratory / university collaboration of coupled fundamental computational and experimental studies is to develop the supporting knowledge needed for improved predictive techniques for use in the technology development of Generation IV reactor concepts and their passive safety systems. The present study emphasizes SCWR concepts in the Generation IV program.

  9. Fundamental Understanding of Crack Growth in Structural Components of Generation IV Supercritical Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iouri I. Balachov; Takao Kobayashi; Francis Tanzella; Indira Jayaweera; Palitha Jayaweera; Petri Kinnunen; Martin Bojinov; Timo Saario

    2004-11-17

    This work contributes to the design of safe and economical Generation-IV Super-Critical Water Reactors (SCWRs) by providing a basis for selecting structural materials to ensure the functionality of in-vessel components during the entire service life. During the second year of the project, we completed electrochemical characterization of the oxide film properties and investigation of crack initiation and propagation for candidate structural materials steels under supercritical conditions. We ranked candidate alloys against their susceptibility to environmentally assisted degradation based on the in situ data measure with an SRI-designed controlled distance electrochemistry (CDE) arrangement. A correlation between measurable oxide film properties and susceptibility of austenitic steels to environmentally assisted degradation was observed experimentally. One of the major practical results of the present work is the experimentally proven ability of the economical CDE technique to supply in situ data for ranking candidate structural materials for Generation-IV SCRs. A potential use of the CDE arrangement developed ar SRI for building in situ sensors monitoring water chemistry in the heat transport circuit of Generation-IV SCWRs was evaluated and proved to be feasible.

  10. Dose rate estimates from irradiated light-water-reactor fuel assemblies in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lloyd, W.R.; Sheaffer, M.K.; Sutcliffe, W.G.

    1994-01-31

    It is generally considered that irradiated spent fuel is so radioactive (self-protecting) that it can only be moved and processed with specialized equipment and facilities. However, a small, possibly subnational, group acting in secret with no concern for the environment (other than the reduction of signatures) and willing to incur substantial but not lethal radiation doses, could obtain plutonium by stealing and processing irradiated spent fuel that has cooled for several years. In this paper, we estimate the dose rate at various distances and directions from typical pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and boiling-water reactor (BWR) spent-fuel assemblies as a function of cooling time. Our results show that the dose rate is reduced rapidly for the first ten years after exposure in the reactor, and that it is reduced by a factor of {approx}10 (from the one year dose rate) after 15 years. Even for fuel that has cooled for 15 years, a lethal dose (LD50) of 450 rem would be received at 1 m from the center of the fuel assembly after several minutes. However, moving from 1 to 5 m reduces the dose rate by over a factor of 10, and moving from 1 to 10 m reduces the dose rate by about a factor of 50. The dose rates 1 m from the top or bottom of the assembly are considerably less (about 10 and 22%, respectively) than 1 m from the center of the assembly, which is the direction of the maximum dose rate.

  11. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Acceptance Criteria for Light Water Reactor Spent Fuel Storage System [OCRWM PER REV2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-12-20

    As part of the decommissioning of the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cells there is a need to remove commercial Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) presently stored in these hot cells. To enable fuel removal from the hot cells, the commercial LWR SNF will be packaged and shipped to the 200 Area Interim Storage Area (ISA) in a manner that satisfies site requirements for SNF interim storage. This document identifies the criteria that the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cell Clean-out Project must satisfy for acceptance of the LWR SNF by the SNF Project at the 200 Area ISA. In addition to the acceptance criteria identified herein, acceptance is contingent on adherence to applicable Project Hanford Management Contract requirements and procedures in place at the time of work execution.

  12. The Application of Structural Materials Data From the BN-350 Fast Reactor to Life Extension of Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanenko, O.G.; Kislitsin, S.B.; Maksimkin, O.P.; Shiganakov, Sh.B.; Chumakov, Ye.V.; Dumchev, I.V.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the results of investigations of 08Cr16Ni11Mo3 (AISI 316 steel analogue) austenitic stainless steel irradiated in BN-350 breeder reactor at irradiation conditions close to that for Light Water Reactor (LWR) Internals. The pores were found in 08Cr16Ni11Mo3 steel irradiated at temperature 280 deg. C up to rather low damage 1.3 dpa and with dose rate 3.9 x 10{sup -9} dpa/s. There were obtained dose rate dependencies of yield strength, ultimate strength and ductility for 08Cr16Ni11Mo3 steel irradiated up to 7-13 dpa at 302-311 deg. C. These dependencies show a decrease in both yield strength and ultimate strength when dose rate decreases. There was observed an apparent decrease in total elongation when dose rate decreases, which was presumably connected with the pores formation in the steel at low dose rates. (authors)

  13. Protective structures on the surface of zirconium components of light water reactor cores: Formation, testing, and prototype equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begrambekov, L. B.; Gordeev, A. A.; Evsin, A. E. Ivanova, S. V.; Kaplevsky, A. S.; Sadovskiy, Ya. A.

    2015-12-15

    The results of tests of plasma treatment of zirconium and deposition of protective yttrium coatings used as the methods of protection of zirconium components of light water reactor cores against hydrogenation are detailed. The amount of hydrogen in the treated sample exposed to superheated steam for 2500 h at temperature T = 400°C and pressure p = 1 atm was five times lower than the corresponding value for the untreated one. The amount of hydrogen in the sample coated with yttrium remained almost unchanged in 4000 h of exposure. A plasma method for rapid testing for hydrogen resistance is proposed. The hydrogenation rate provided by this method is 700 times higher than that in tests with superheated steam. The results of preliminary experiments confirm the possibility of constructing a unit for batch processing of the surfaces of fuel rod claddings.

  14. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Risk-Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) PathwayTechnical Program Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis Smith; Cristian Rabiti; Richard Martineau

    2012-11-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). As the current Light Water Reactor (LWR) NPPs age beyond 60 years, there are possibilities for increased frequency of Systems, Structures, and Components (SSCs) degradations or failures that initiate safety-significant events, reduce existing accident mitigation capabilities, or create new failure modes. Plant designers commonly over-design portions of NPPs and provide robustness in the form of redundant and diverse engineered safety features to ensure that, even in the case of well-beyond design basis scenarios, public health and safety will be protected with a very high degree of assurance. This form of defense-in-depth is a reasoned response to uncertainties and is often referred to generically as safety margin. Historically, specific safety margin provisions have been formulated, primarily based on engineering judgment.

  15. Evaluation of integral continuing experimental capability (CEC) concepts for light water reactor research: PWR scaling concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Condie, K G; Larson, T K; Davis, C B; McCreery, G E

    1987-02-01

    In this report reactor transients and thermal-hydraulic phenomena of importance (based on probabilistic risk assessment and the International Code Assessment Program) to reactor safety were examined and identified. Established scaling methodologies were used to develop potential concepts for integral thermal-hydraulic testing facilities. Advantages and disadvantages of each concept are evaluated. Analysis is conducted to examine the scaling of various phenomena in each of the selected concepts. Results generally suggest that a facility capable of operating at typical reactor operating conditions will scale most phenomena reasonably well. Although many phenomena in facilities using Freon or water at nontypical pressure will scale reasonably well, those phenomena that are heavily dependent on quality (heat transfer or critical flow for example) can be distorted. Furthermore, relation of data produced in facilities operating with nontypical fluids or at nontypical pressures to large plants will be a difficult and time consuming process.

  16. A critical review of displacement ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, X.; Chen, Q.; Glicksman, L.R.

    1998-10-01

    This paper reviews several aspects of the performance of displacement ventilation: temperature distribution, flow distribution, contaminant distribution, comfort, energy and cost analysis, and design guidelines. Ventilation rate, cooling load, heat source, wall characteristics, space height, and diffuser type have major impacts on the performance of displacement ventilation. Some of the impacts can be estimated by simple equations, but many are still unknown. Based on current findings, displacement ventilation systems without cooled ceiling panels can be used for space with a cooling load up to 13 Btu/(h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}) (40 W/m{sup 2}). Energy consumed by HVAC systems depends on control strategies. The first costs of the displacement ventilation system are similar to those of a mixing ventilation system. The displacement system with cooled ceiling panels can remove a higher cooling load, but the first costs are higher as well. The design guidelines of displacement ventilation developed in Scandinavian countries need to be clarified and extended so that they can be used for US buildings. This paper outlines the research needed to develop design guidelines for US buildings.

  17. SCDAP/RELAP5 Modeling of Fluid Heat Transfer and Flow Losses Through Porous Debris in a Light Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvego, Edwin Allan; Siefken, Larry James

    2000-04-01

    The SCDAP/RELAP5 code is being developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory under the primary sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide best-estimate transient simulations of light water reactor coolant systems during severe accidents. This paper describes the modeling approach used in the SCDAP/RELAP5 code to calculate fluid heat transfer and flow losses through porous debris that has accumulated in the vessel lower head and core regions during the latter stages of a severe accident. The implementation of heat transfer and flow loss correlations into the code is discussed, and calculations performed to assess the validity of the modeling approach are described. The different modes of heat transfer in porous debris include: (1) forced convection to liquid, (2) forced convection to gas, (3) nucleate boiling, (4) transition boiling, (5) film boiling, and (6) transition from film boiling to convection to vapor. The correlations for flow losses in porous debris include frictional and form losses. The correlations for flow losses were integrated into the momentum equations in the RELAP5 part of the code. Since RELAP5 is a very general non-homogeneous non-equilibrium thermal-hydraulics code, the resulting modeling methodology is applicable to a wide range of debris thermal-hydraulic conditions. Assessment of the SCDAP/RELAP5 debris bed thermal-hydraulic models included comparisons with experimental measurements and other models available in the open literature. The assessment calculations, described in the paper, showed that SCDAP/RELAP5 is capable of calculating the heat transfer and flow losses occurring in porous debris regions that may develop in a light water reactor during a severe accident.

  18. SCDAP/RELAP5 modeling of fluid heat transfer and flow losses through porous debris in a light water reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. A. Harvego; L. J. Siefken

    2000-04-02

    The SCDAP/RELAP5 code is being developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory under the primary sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide best-estimate transient simulations of light water reactor coolant systems during severe accidents. This paper describes the modeling approach used in the SCDAP/RELAP5 code to calculate fluid heat transfer and flow losses through porous debris that has accumulated in the vessel lower head and core regions during the latter stages of a severe accident. The implementation of heat transfer and flow loss correlations into the code is discussed, and calculations performed to assess the validity of the modeling approach are described. The different modes of heat transfer in porous debris include: (1) forced convection to liquid, (2) forced convection to gas, (3) nucleate boiling, (4) transition boiling, (5) film boiling, and (6) transition from film boiling to convection to vapor. The correlations for flow losses in porous debris include frictional and form losses. The correlations for flow losses were integrated into the momentum equations in the RELAP5 part of the code. Since RELAP5 is a very general non-homogeneous non-equilibrium thermal-hydraulics code, the resulting modeling methodology is applicable to a wide range of debris thermal-hydraulic conditions. Assessment of the SCDAP/RELAP5 debris bed thermal-hydraulic models included comparisons with experimental measurements and other models available in the open literature. The assessment calculations, described in the paper, showed that SCDAP/RELAP5 is capable of calculating the heat transfer and flow losses occurring in porous debris regions that may develop in a light water reactor during a severe accident.

  19. Interim Ventilation System Tie-in Completed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    , 2016 Interim Ventilation System Tie-in Completed Early this week sub-contractors at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) completed the "tie in" of the new interim ventilation system (IVS) to the ductwork for the existing underground ventilation system. Following a series of operational tests, the IVS is expected to increase airflow in the WIPP underground by approximately 54,000 cubic feet per minute. The tie-in operation consisted of removal of sections of the existing ductwork

  20. Building America Webinar: Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and Compartmentalization Requirements

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The webinar will focus on key challenges in multifamily ventilation and strategies to address these challenges.

  1. Building America Webinar: Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings Building America Webinar: Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings This webinar was presented by research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), and discussed ventilation strategies for multifamily buildings, including how to successfully implement those strategies through smart design, specification, and construction techniques. webinar_ventilation_multifamily_20111101.wmv (22.17 MB) More Documents & Publications Building

  2. Ceilings and Attics: Install Insulation and Provide Ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-02-01

    This document provides guidelines for installing insulation and managing ventilation through your attic.

  3. An economic analysis of a light and heavy water moderated reactor synergy: burning americium using recycled uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojtaszek, D.; Edwards, G.

    2013-07-01

    An economic analysis is presented for a proposed synergistic system between 2 nuclear utilities, one operating light water reactors (LWR) and another running a fleet of heavy water moderated reactors (HWR). Americium is partitioned from LWR spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to be transmuted in HWRs, with a consequent averted disposal cost to the LWR operator. In return, reprocessed uranium (RU) is supplied to the HWRs in sufficient quantities to support their operation both as power generators and americium burners. Two simplifying assumptions have been made. First, the economic value of RU is a linear function of the cost of fresh natural uranium (NU), and secondly, plutonium recycling for a third utility running a mixed oxide (MOX) fuelled reactor fleet has been already taking place, so that the extra cost of americium recycling is manageable. We conclude that, in order for this scenario to be economically attractive to the LWR operator, the averted disposal cost due to partitioning americium from LWR spent fuel must exceed 214 dollars per kg, comparable to estimates of the permanent disposal cost of the high level waste (HLW) from reprocessing spent LWR fuel. (authors)

  4. Mechanism of Irradiation Assisted Cracking of Core Components in Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary S. Was; Michael Atzmon; Lumin Wang

    2003-04-28

    The overall goal of the project is to determine the mechanism of irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). IASCC has been linked to hardening, microstructural and microchemical changes during irradiation. Unfortunately, all of these changes occur simultaneously and at similar rates during irradiation, making attribution of IASCC to any one of these features nearly impossible to determine. The strategy set forth in this project is to develop means to separate microstructural from microchemical changes to evaluate each separately for their effect on IASCC. In the first part, post irradiation annealing (PIA) treatments are used to anneal the irradiated microstructure, leaving only radiation induced segregation (RIS) for evaluation for its contribution to IASCC. The second part of the strategy is to use low temperature irradiation to produce a radiation damage dislocation loop microstructure without radiation induced segregation in order to evaluate the effect of the dislocation microstructure alone. A radiation annealing model was developed based on the elimination of dislocation loops by vacancy absorption. Results showed that there were indeed, time-temperature annealing combinations that leave the radiation induced segregation profile largely unaltered while the dislocation microstructure is significantly reduced. Proton irradiation of 304 stainless steel irradiated with 3.2 MeV protons to 1.0 or 2.5 dpa resulted in grain boundary depletion of chromium and enrichment of nickel and a radiation damaged microstructure. Post irradiation annealing at temperatures of 500 ? 600C for times of up to 45 min. removed the dislocation microstructure to a greater degree with increasing temperatures, or times at temperature, while leaving the radiation induced segregation profile relatively unaltered. Constant extension rate tensile (CERT) experiments in 288C water containing 2 ppm O2 and with a conductivity of 0.2 mS/cm and at a strain rate of 3 x 10-7 s-1 showed

  5. Using a Ventilation Controller to Optimize Residential Passive Ventilation For Energy and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, William; Walker, Iain

    2014-08-01

    One way to reduce the energy impact of providing residential ventilation is to use passive and hybrid systems. However, these passive and hybrid (sometimes called mixed-mode) systems must still meet chronic and acute health standards for ventilation. This study uses a computer simulation approach to examine the energy and indoor air quality (IAQ) implications of passive and hybrid ventilation systems, in 16 California climate zones. Both uncontrolled and flow controlled passive stacks are assessed. A new hybrid ventilation system is outlined that uses an intelligent ventilation controller to minimise energy use, while ensuring chronic and acute IAQ standards are met. ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2010 – the United States standard for residential ventilation - is used as the chronic standard, and exposure limits for PM2.5, formaldehyde and NO2 are used as the acute standards.The results show that controlled passive ventilation and hybrid ventilation can be used in homes to provide equivalent IAQ to continuous mechanical ventilation, for less use of energy.

  6. Ventilation System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Natural ventilation is created by the differences in the distribution of air pressures around a building. Air moves from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure, with ...

  7. Sensor-based demand controlled ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Almeida, A.T.; Fisk, W.J.

    1997-07-01

    In most buildings, occupancy and indoor pollutant emission rates vary with time. With sensor-based demand-controlled ventilation (SBDCV), the rate of ventilation (i.e., rate of outside air supply) also varies with time to compensate for the changes in pollutant generation. In other words, SBDCV involves the application of sensing, feedback and control to modulate ventilation. Compared to ventilation without feedback, SBDCV offers two potential advantages: (1) better control of indoor pollutant concentrations; and (2) lower energy use and peak energy demand. SBDCV has the potential to improve indoor air quality by increasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are high and occupants are present. SBDCV can also save energy by decreasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are low or occupants are absent. After providing background information on indoor air quality and ventilation, this report provides a relatively comprehensive discussion of SBDCV. Topics covered in the report include basic principles of SBDCV, sensor technologies, technologies for controlling air flow rates, case studies of SBDCV, application of SBDCV to laboratory buildings, and research needs. SBDCV appears to be an increasingly attractive technology option. Based on the review of literature and theoretical considerations, the application of SBDCV has the potential to be cost-effective in applications with the following characteristics: (a) a single or small number of dominant pollutants, so that ventilation sufficient to control the concentration of the dominant pollutants provides effective control of all other pollutants; (b) large buildings or rooms with unpredictable temporally variable occupancy or pollutant emission; and (c) climates with high heating or cooling loads or locations with expensive energy.

  8. Retrofit Ventilation Strategies in Multifamily Buildings Webinar |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Retrofit Ventilation Strategies in Multifamily Buildings Webinar Retrofit Ventilation Strategies in Multifamily Buildings Webinar Slides from the Building America webinar on November 30, 2011. webinar_hybrid_insulation_20111130.pdf (3.78 MB) More Documents & Publications Building America Expert Meeting: Foundations Research Results Building America Expert Meeting: Interior Insulation Retrofit of Mass Masonry Wall Assemblies Building America Technology Solutions for

  9. Evaluating Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldrich, Robb; Arena, Lois

    2013-02-01

    In an effort to improve housing options near Las Vegas, Nevada, the Clark County Community Resources Division (CCCRD) performs substantial renovations to foreclosed homes. After dramatic energy, aesthetic, and health and safety improvements are made, homes are rented or sold to qualified residents. This report describes the evaluation and selection of ventilation systems for these homes, including key considerations when selecting an ideal system. The report then describes CCCRD’s decision process with respect to ventilation.

  10. Thermal neutron steady-state spectra in light water reactor fuel assemblies poisoned with various non-1/v absorbers of different concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swaminathan, K.; Chandra, S.; Jha, R.C.; Tewari, S.P. )

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports on the thermal neutron scattering kernel that explicitly incorporates the presence of chemical binding energy and the collective oscillations in the dynamics of water, the steady-state thermal neutron spectra in light water reactor fuel assemblies poisoned with non-1/v absorbers, such as cadmium, samarium, erbium, and gadolinium, in various concentrations have been computed at 298 K. The calculated spectra are in reasonable agreement with the corresponding experimental spectra for realistic source terms.

  11. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Computer-based procedure for field activities: results from three evaluations at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oxstrand, Johanna; Bly, Aaron; LeBlanc, Katya

    2014-09-01

    Nearly all activities that involve human interaction with the systems of a nuclear power plant are guided by procedures. The paper-based procedures (PBPs) currently used by industry have a demonstrated history of ensuring safety; however, improving procedure use could yield tremendous savings in increased efficiency and safety. One potential way to improve procedure-based activities is through the use of computer-based procedures (CBPs). Computer-based procedures provide the opportunity to incorporate context driven job aids, such as drawings, photos, just-in-time training, etc into CBP system. One obvious advantage of this capability is reducing the time spent tracking down the applicable documentation. Additionally, human performance tools can be integrated in the CBP system in such way that helps the worker focus on the task rather than the tools. Some tools can be completely incorporated into the CBP system, such as pre-job briefs, placekeeping, correct component verification, and peer checks. Other tools can be partly integrated in a fashion that reduces the time and labor required, such as concurrent and independent verification. Another benefit of CBPs compared to PBPs is dynamic procedure presentation. PBPs are static documents which limits the degree to which the information presented can be tailored to the task and conditions when the procedure is executed. The CBP system could be configured to display only the relevant steps based on operating mode, plant status, and the task at hand. A dynamic presentation of the procedure (also known as context-sensitive procedures) will guide the user down the path of relevant steps based on the current conditions. This feature will reduce the user’s workload and inherently reduce the risk of incorrectly marking a step as not applicable and the risk of incorrectly performing a step that should be marked as not applicable. As part of the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactors Sustainability Program

  12. Human-In-The-Loop Simulation in Support of Long-Term Sustainability of Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallbert, Bruce P

    2015-01-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration. The NPP owners and operators realize that this analog technology represents a significant challenge to sustaining the operation of the current fleet of NPPs. Beyond control systems, new technologies are needed to monitor and characterize the effects of aging and degradation in critical areas of key structures, systems, and components. The objective of the efforts sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy is to develop, demonstrate, and deploy new digital technologies for II&C architectures and provide monitoring capabilities to ensure the continued safe, reliable, and economic operation of the nations NPPs.

  13. A global approach of the representativity concept: Application on a high-conversion light water reactor MOX lattice case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santos, N. D.; Blaise, P.; Santamarina, A.

    2013-07-01

    The development of new types of reactor and the increase in the safety specifications and requirements induce an enhancement in both nuclear data knowledge and a better understanding of the neutronic properties of the new systems. This enhancement is made possible using ad hoc critical mock-up experiments. The main difficulty is to design these experiments in order to obtain the most valuable information. Its quantification is usually made by using representativity and transposition concepts. These theories enable to extract some information about a quantity of interest (an integral parameter) on a configuration, but generally a posteriori. This paper presents a more global approach of this theory, with the idea of optimizing the representativity of a new experiment, and its transposition a priori, based on a multiparametric approach. Using a quadratic sum, we show the possibility to define a global representativity which permits to take into account several quantities of interest at the same time. The maximization of this factor gives information about all quantities of interest. An optimization method of this value in relation to technological parameters (over-clad diameter, atom concentration) is illustrated on a high-conversion light water reactor MOX lattice case. This example tackles the problematic of plutonium experiment for the plutonium aging and a solution through the optimization of both the over-clad and the plutonium content. (authors)

  14. Human-In-The-Loop Simulation in Support of Long-Term Sustainability of Light Water Reactors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hallbert, Bruce P

    2015-01-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration. The NPP owners and operators realize that this analog technology represents a significant challenge to sustaining the operation of the current fleet of NPPs. Beyond control systems, new technologies are neededmore » to monitor and characterize the effects of aging and degradation in critical areas of key structures, systems, and components. The objective of the efforts sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy is to develop, demonstrate, and deploy new digital technologies for II&C architectures and provide monitoring capabilities to ensure the continued safe, reliable, and economic operation of the nation’s NPPs.« less

  15. Development and property evaluation of nuclear grade wrought FeCrAl fuel cladding for light water reactors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yamamoto, Yukinori; Pint, Bruce A.; Terrani, Kurt A.; Field, Kevin G.; Yang, Ying; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-10-19

    Development of nuclear grade, iron-based wrought FeCrAl alloys has been initiated for light water reactor (LWR) fuel cladding to serve as a substitute for zirconium-based alloys with enhanced accident tolerance. Ferritic alloys with sufficient chromium and aluminum additions can exhibit significantly improved oxidation kinetics in high-temperature steam environments when compared to zirconium-based alloys. In the first phase, a set of model FeCrAl alloys containing 10–20Cr, 3–5Al, and 0–0.12Y in weight percent, were prepared by conventional arc-melting and hot-working processes to explore the effect of composition on the properties of FeCrAlY alloys. It was found that the tensile properties were insensitivemore » to the alloy compositions studied; however, the steam oxidation resistance strongly depended on both the chromium and the aluminum contents. The second phase development focused on strengthening Fe-13Cr-5Al with minor alloying additions of molybdenum, niobium, and silicon. Combined with an optimized thermo-mechanical treatment, a thermally stable microstructure was produced with improved tensile properties at temperatures up to 741°C.« less

  16. Development and property evaluation of nuclear grade wrought FeCrAl fuel cladding for light water reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Yukinori; Pint, Bruce A.; Terrani, Kurt A.; Field, Kevin G.; Yang, Ying; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-10-19

    Development of nuclear grade, iron-based wrought FeCrAl alloys has been initiated for light water reactor (LWR) fuel cladding to serve as a substitute for zirconium-based alloys with enhanced accident tolerance. Ferritic alloys with sufficient chromium and aluminum additions can exhibit significantly improved oxidation kinetics in high-temperature steam environments when compared to zirconium-based alloys. In the first phase, a set of model FeCrAl alloys containing 10–20Cr, 3–5Al, and 0–0.12Y in weight percent, were prepared by conventional arc-melting and hot-working processes to explore the effect of composition on the properties of FeCrAlY alloys. It was found that the tensile properties were insensitive to the alloy compositions studied; however, the steam oxidation resistance strongly depended on both the chromium and the aluminum contents. The second phase development focused on strengthening Fe-13Cr-5Al with minor alloying additions of molybdenum, niobium, and silicon. Combined with an optimized thermo-mechanical treatment, a thermally stable microstructure was produced with improved tensile properties at temperatures up to 741°C.

  17. Human-In-The-Loop Simulation in Support of Long-Term Sustainability of Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallbert, Bruce P

    2015-01-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration. The NPP owners and operators realize that this analog technology represents a significant challenge to sustaining the operation of the current fleet of NPPs. Beyond control systems, new technologies are needed to monitor and characterize the effects of aging and degradation in critical areas of key structures, systems, and components. The objective of the efforts sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy is to develop, demonstrate, and deploy new digital technologies for II&C architectures and provide monitoring capabilities to ensure the continued safe, reliable, and economic operation of the nation’s NPPs.

  18. Roadmap for Nondestructive Evaluation of Reactor Pressure Vessel Research and Development by the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Cyrus M; Nanstad, Randy K; Clayton, Dwight A; Matlack, Katie; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Light, Glenn

    2012-09-01

    The Department of Energy s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is a five year effort which works to develop the fundamental scientific basis to understand, predict, and measure changes in materials and systems, structure, and components as they age in environments associated with continued long-term operations of existing commercial nuclear power reactors. This year, the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) Pathway of this program has placed emphasis on emerging Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) methods which support these objectives. DOE funded Research and Development (R&D) on emerging NDE techniques to support commercial nuclear reactor sustainability is expected to begin next year. This summer, the MAaD Pathway invited subject matter experts to participate in a series of workshops which developed the basis for the research plan of these DOE R&D NDE activities. This document presents the results of one of these workshops which are the DOE LWRS NDE R&D Roadmap for Reactor Pressure Vessels (RPV). These workshops made a substantial effort to coordinate the DOE NDE R&D with that already underway or planned by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) through their representation at these workshops.

  19. Separation and Recovery of Uranium Metal from Spent Light Water Reactor Fuel via Electrolytic Reduction and Electrorefining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. D. Herrmann; S. X. Li

    2010-09-01

    A series of bench-scale experiments was performed in a hot cell at Idaho National Laboratory to demonstrate the separation and recovery of uranium metal from spent light water reactor (LWR) oxide fuel. The experiments involved crushing spent LWR fuel to particulate and separating it from its cladding. Oxide fuel particulate was then converted to metal in a series of six electrolytic reduction runs that were performed in succession with a single salt loading of molten LiCl 1 wt% Li2O at 650 C. Analysis of salt samples following the series of electrolytic reduction runs identified the diffusion of select fission products from the spent fuel to the molten salt electrolyte. The extents of metal oxide conversion in the post-test fuel were also quantified, including a nominal 99.7% conversion of uranium oxide to metal. Uranium metal was then separated from the reduced LWR fuel in a series of six electrorefining runs that were performed in succession with a single salt loading of molten LiCl-KCl-UCl3 at 500 C. Analysis of salt samples following the series of electrorefining runs identified additional partitioning of fission products into the molten salt electrolyte. Analyses of the separated uranium metal were performed, and its decontamination factors were determined.

  20. POTENTIAL DIMETHYLMERCURY CONCENTRATION IN WATER & ORGANIC CONDENSATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEACHAM, J.E.

    2004-12-28

    This document bounds potential dimethylmercury concentration in water or organic condensate that might form in ventilation systems or cooler tank regions. Dimethylmercury concentrations were extremely low and would be below drinking water standards in the water condensate.

  1. Ventilation efficiencies of a desk-edge-mounted task ventilation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faulkner, David; Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Lee, Seung Min

    2002-03-01

    In chamber experiments, we investigated the effectiveness of a task ventilation system with an air supply nozzle located underneath the front edge of a desk and directing air toward a heated mannequin seated at the desk. The task ventilation system provided outside air, while another ventilation system provided additional space cooling but no outside air. Test variables included the vertical angle of air supply (-15{sup o} to 45{sup o} from horizontal), and the supply flow rate of (3.5 to 6.5 L s{sup -1}). Using the tracer gas step-up and step-down procedures, the measured air change effectiveness (i.e., exhaust air age divided by age of air at the mannequin's face) ranged from 1.4 to 2.7, which is higher than typically reported for commercially available task ventilation or displacement ventilation systems.

  2. British architectural concepts of natural ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, J.

    1997-12-31

    Recent large buildings in Britain are reviewed for their demonstration of programmatic determinates and architectural concepts of natural ventilation, systems that reduce electric use because they use natural convection. In size they range from the 5,000 square feet of Darwin College at Cambridge to the Inland Revenue Center at Nottingham with 400,000 square feet. The mix of passive and conventional mechanical systems of Ionica Office Building, Cambridge suggests the newest strategy of deliberate redundancy in what might better be called assisted natural ventilation. Daylighting, a distinctly different technique is typically coincident. Among the programmatic concepts are unsealed buildings, displacement ventilation, and user preference for immediate environmental control and strong contact with the outdoor environment. Architectural concepts include atriums, exhaust towers, and exposed structural concrete ceilings. These applications reinforce green policies and involve leadership from prominent architects and clients.

  3. Estimated costs of ventilation systems complying with the HUD ventilation standard for manufactured homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.D.; Conner, C.C.

    1993-11-01

    At the request of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory estimated the material, labor, and operating costs for ventilation equipment needed for compliance with HUD`s proposed revision to the ventilation standard for manufactured housing. This was intended to bound the financial impacts of the ventilation standard revision. Researchers evaluated five possible prototype ventilation systems that met the proposed ventilation requirements. Of those five, two systems were determined to be the most likely used by housing manufacturers: System 1 combines a fresh air duct with the existing central forced-air system to supply and circulate fresh air to conditioned spaces. System 2 uses a separate exhaust fan to remove air from the manufactured home. The estimated material and labor costs for these two systems range from $200 to $300 per home. Annual operating costs for the two ventilation systems were estimated for 20 US cities. The estimated operating costs for System 1 ranged from $55/year in Las Vegas, Nevada, to $83/year in Bismarck, North Dakota. Operating costs for System 2 ranged from a low of $35/year in Las Vegas to $63/year in Bismarck. Thus, HUD`s proposed increase in ventilation requirements will add less than $100/year to the energy cost of a manufactured home.

  4. Assessment of Possible Cycle Lengths for Fully-Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel-Based Light Water Reactor Concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Sonat Sen; Michael A. Pope; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu

    2012-04-01

    The tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel developed for High Temperature reactors is known for its extraordinary fission product retention capabilities [1]. Recently, the possibility of extending the use of TRISO particle fuel to Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology, and perhaps other reactor concepts, has received significant attention [2]. The Deep Burn project [3] currently focuses on once-through burning of transuranic fissile and fissionable isotopes (TRU) in LWRs. The fuel form for this purpose is called Fully-Ceramic Micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel, a concept that borrows the TRISO fuel particle design from high temperature reactor technology, but uses SiC as a matrix material rather than graphite. In addition, FCM fuel may also use a cladding made of a variety of possible material, again including SiC as an admissible choice. The FCM fuel used in the Deep Burn (DB) project showed promising results in terms of fission product retention at high burnup values and during high-temperature transients. In the case of DB applications, the fuel loading within a TRISO particle is constituted entirely of fissile or fissionable isotopes. Consequently, the fuel was shown to be capable of achieving reasonable burnup levels and cycle lengths, especially in the case of mixed cores (with coexisting DB and regular LWR UO2 fuels). In contrast, as shown below, the use of UO2-only FCM fuel in a LWR results in considerably shorter cycle length when compared to current-generation ordinary LWR designs. Indeed, the constraint of limited space availability for heavy metal loading within the TRISO particles of FCM fuel and the constraint of low (i.e., below 20 w/0) 235U enrichment combine to result in shorter cycle lengths compared to ordinary LWRs if typical LWR power densities are also assumed and if typical TRISO particle dimensions and UO2 kernels are specified. The primary focus of this summary is on using TRISO particles with up to 20 w/0 enriched uranium kernels loaded in Pressurized Water

  5. DOE-NE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program and EPRI Long-Term Operations Program. Joint Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Don

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear power has contributed almost 20% of the total amount of electricity generated in the United States over the past two decades. High capacity factors and low operating costs make nuclear power plants (NPPs) some of the most economical power generators available. Further, nuclear power remains the single largest contributor (nearly 70%) of non-greenhouse gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Even when major refurbishments are performed to extend operating life, these plants continue to represent cost-effective, low-carbon assets to the nation’s electrical generation capability. By the end of 2014, about one-third of the existing domestic fleet will have passed their 40th anniversary of power operations, and about one-half of the fleet will reach the same 40-year mark within this decade. Recognizing the challenges associated with pursuing extended service life of commercial nuclear power plants, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have established separate but complementary research and development programs (DOE-NE’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability [LWRS] Program and EPRI’s Long-Term Operations [LTO] Program) to address these challenges. To ensure that a proper linkage is maintained between the programs, DOE-NE and EPRI executed a memorandum of understanding in late 2010 to “establish guiding principles under which research activities (between LWRS and LTO) could be coordinated to the benefit of both parties.” This document represents the third annual revision to the initial version (March 2011) of the plan as called for in the memorandum of understanding.

  6. Development of a computer code to predict a ventilation requirement for an underground radioactive waste storage tank

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Y.J.; Dalpiaz, E.L.

    1997-08-01

    Computer code, WTVFE (Waste Tank Ventilation Flow Evaluation), has been developed to evaluate the ventilation requirement for an underground storage tank for radioactive waste. Heat generated by the radioactive waste and mixing pumps in the tank is removed mainly through the ventilation system. The heat removal process by the ventilation system includes the evaporation of water from the waste and the heat transfer by natural convection from the waste surface. Also, a portion of the heat will be removed through the soil and the air circulating through the gap between the primary and secondary tanks. The heat loss caused by evaporation is modeled based on recent evaporation test results by the Westinghouse Hanford Company using a simulated small scale waste tank. Other heat transfer phenomena are evaluated based on well established conduction and convection heat transfer relationships. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Summer Infiltration/Ventilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Summer Infiltration/Ventilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory Summer Infiltration/Ventilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory This presentation was delivered at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Technical Update meeting on April 29-30, 2013, in Denver, Colorado. cq7_ventilation_hothumid_parker.pdf (7.06 MB) More Documents & Publications Critical Question #7: What are the Best Practices for Single-Family Ventilation in All Climate Regions?

  8. Whole House Mechanical Ventilation: A South Chicago Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-09-03

    This case study describes a neighborhood of efficient, healthy, sustainable, affordable homes in South Chicago, IL, that feature structural insulated panels (SIPs), condensing furnaces, sealed combustion water heaters, and efficient lights and appliances.

  9. Effect of repository underground ventilation on emplacement drift temperature control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, H.; Sun, Y.; McKenzie, D.G.; Bhattacharyya, K.K.

    1996-02-01

    The repository advanced conceptual design (ACD) is being conducted by the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System, Management & Operating Contractor. Underground ventilation analyses during ACD have resulted in preliminary ventilation concepts and design methodologies. This paper discusses one of the recent evaluations -- effects of ventilation on emplacement drift temperature management.

  10. Research Update: Photoelectrochemical water splitting and photocatalytic hydrogen production using ferrites (MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) under visible light irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillert, Ralf; Taffa, Dereje H.; Wark, Michael; Bredow, Thomas; Bahnemann, Detlef W.

    2015-10-01

    The utilization of solar light for the photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic production of molecular hydrogen from water is a scientific and technical challenge. Semiconductors with suitable properties to promote solar-driven water splitting are a desideratum. A hitherto rarely investigated group of semiconductors are ferrites with the empirical formula MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and related compounds. This contribution summarizes the published results of the experimental investigations on the photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic properties of these compounds. It will be shown that the potential of this group of compounds in regard to the production of solar hydrogen has not been fully explored yet.

  11. Modeling particle loss in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-04-01

    Empirical equations were developed and applied to predict losses of 0.01-100 {micro}m airborne particles making a single pass through 120 different ventilation duct runs typical of those found in mid-sized office buildings. For all duct runs, losses were negligible for submicron particles and nearly complete for particles larger than 50 {micro}m. The 50th percentile cut-point diameters were 15 {micro}m in supply runs and 25 {micro}m in return runs. Losses in supply duct runs were higher than in return duct runs, mostly because internal insulation was present in portions of supply duct runs, but absent from return duct runs. Single-pass equations for particle loss in duct runs were combined with models for predicting ventilation system filtration efficiency and particle deposition to indoor surfaces to evaluate the fates of particles of indoor and outdoor origin in an archetypal mechanically ventilated building. Results suggest that duct losses are a minor influence for determining indoor concentrations for most particle sizes. Losses in ducts were of a comparable magnitude to indoor surface losses for most particle sizes. For outdoor air drawn into an unfiltered ventilation system, most particles smaller than 1 {micro}m are exhausted from the building. Large particles deposit within the building, mostly in supply ducts or on indoor surfaces. When filters are present, most particles are either filtered or exhausted. The fates of particles generated indoors follow similar trends as outdoor particles drawn into the building.

  12. Ventilation efficiencies and thermal comfort results of a desk-edge-mounted task ventilation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faulkner, D.; Fisk, W.J.; Sullivan, D.P.; Lee, S.M.

    2003-09-01

    In chamber experiments, we investigated the ventilation effectiveness and thermal comfort of a task ventilation system with an air supply nozzle located underneath the front edge of a desk and directing air toward a heated mannequin or a human volunteer seated at the desk. The task ventilation system provided outside air, while another ventilation system provided additional space cooling but no outside air. Test variables included the vertical angle of air supply (-15{sup o} to 45{sup o} from horizontal), and the supply flow rate of (3.5 to 6.5 L s{sup -1}). Using the tracer gas step-up and step-down procedures, the measured air change effectiveness (i.e., exhaust air age divided by age of air in the breathing zone) in experiments with the mannequin ranged from 1.4 to 2.7 (median, 1.8), whereas with human subjects the air change effectiveness ranged from 1.3 to 2.3 (median, 1.6). The majority of the air change effectiveness values with the human subjects were less than values with the mannequin at comparable tests. Similarly, the tests run with supply air temperature equal to the room air temperature had lower air change effectiveness values than comparable tests with the supply air temperature lower ({approx}5 C) than the room air temperature. The air change effectiveness values are higher than typically reported for commercially available task ventilation or displacement ventilation systems. Based on surveys completed by the subjects, operation of the task ventilation system did not cause thermal discomfort.

  13. Performance Assessment of Photovoltaic Attic Ventilator Fans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A case study of photovoltaic attic ventilator fans was conducted on an occupied single family home in Central Florida. Two fans were installed at mid-summer in an instrumented home where attic air temperature, meteorological conditions and space cooling electric power were measured. The home already had an attic radiant barrier, but still experienced attic air temperatures in excess of 130oF.

  14. Microsoft Word - Ventilation System Sampling Results 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ventilation System Sampling Results Air sampling results before and after the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters at WIPP are available here. Station A samples air before the filters and Station B samples air after passing through the filters. These samples were analyzed following the detection of airborne radioactivity on February 14, 2014. They are not environmental samples, and are not representative of the public or worker breathing zone air samples. They do provide assurance that

  15. Advanced Controls for Residential Whole-House Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, William; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2014-08-01

    Whole-house ventilation systems are becoming commonplace in new construction, remodeling/renovation, and weatherization projects, driven by combinations of specific requirements for indoor air quality (IAQ), health and compliance with standards, such as ASHRAE 62.2. Ventilation systems incur an energy penalty on the home via fan power used to drive the airflow, and the additional space-conditioning load associated with heating or cooling the ventilation air. Finding a balance between IAQ and energy use is important if homes are to be adequately ventilated while not increasing the energy burden. This study used computer simulations to examine RIVEC the Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller - a prototype ventilation controller that aims to deliver whole-house ventilation rates that comply with ventilation standards, for the minimum use of energy. Four different whole-house ventilation systems were simulated, both with and without RIVEC, so that the energy and IAQ results could be compared. Simulations were conducted for 13 US climate zones, three house designs, and three envelope leakage values. The results showed that the RIVEC controller could typically return ventilation energy savings greater than 40percent without compromising long-term chronic or short-term acute exposures to relevant indoor contaminants. Critical and average peak power loads were also reduced as a consequence of using RIVEC.

  16. CASL: The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors A DOE Energy Innovation Hub for Modeling and Simulation of Nuclear Reactors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AMA.NRC.P5.01 CASL NRC Commissioner Technical Seminar Jess Gehin Oak Ridge National Laboratory December 22, 2012 CASL-U-2014-0076-000-a CASL-U-2012-0076-000-a 1 CASL: The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors A DOE Energy Innovation Hub for Modeling and Simulation of Nuclear Reactors NRC Commissioner Technical Seminar November 30, 2012 Doug Kothe (ORNL) CASL Director Doug Burns (INL) CASL Deputy Director Paul Turinsky (NCSU) CASL Chief Scientist Jess Gehin (ORNL) CASL AMA FA

  17. Performance evaluation and design guidelines for displacement ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, X.; Chen, Q.; Glicksman, L.R.

    1999-07-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of traditional displacement ventilation systems for small offices, large offices with partitions, classrooms, and industrial workshops under US thermal and flow boundary conditions, such as a high cooling load. With proper design, displacement ventilation can maintain a thermally comfortable environment that has a low air velocity, a small temperature difference between the head and foot level, and a low percentage of dissatisfied people. Compared with conventional mixing ventilation, displacement ventilation may provide better indoor air quality in the occupied zone when the contaminant sources are associated with the heat sources. The mean age of air is younger, and the ventilation effectiveness is higher. Based on results from Scandinavian countries and the authors' investigation of US buildings, this paper presents guidelines for designing displacement ventilation in the US.

  18. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production, Progress Report for Work Through September 2003, 2nd Annual/8th Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip E. MacDonald

    2003-09-01

    The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the six reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation-IV program. SCWRs are promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency (i.e., about 45% vs. about 33% efficiency for current Light Water Reactors, LWRs) and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs are basically LWRs operating at higher pressure and temperatures with a direct once-through cycle. Operation above the critical pressure eliminates coolant boiling, so the coolant remains single-phase throughout the system. Thus the need for recirculation and jet pumps, a pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators and dryers is eliminated. The main mission of the SCWR is generation of low-cost electricity. It is built upon two proven technologies, LWRs, which are the most commonly deployed power generating reactors in the world, and supercritical fossil-fired boilers, a large number of which is also in use around the world.

  19. Recommended Ventilation Strategies for Energy-Efficient Production Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberson, J.; Brown, R.; Koomey, J.; Warner, J.; Greenberg, S.

    1998-12-01

    This report evaluates residential ventilation systems for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} Homes program and recommends mechanical ventilation strategies for new, low-infiltration, energy-efficient, single-family, ENERGY STAR production (site-built tract) homes in four climates: cold, mixed (cold and hot), hot humid, and hot arid. Our group in the Energy Analysis Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab compared residential ventilation strategies in four climates according to three criteria: total annualized costs (the sum of annualized capital cost and annual operating cost), predominant indoor pressure induced by the ventilation system, and distribution of ventilation air within the home. The mechanical ventilation systems modeled deliver 0.35 air changes per hour continuously, regardless of actual infiltration or occupant window-opening behavior. Based on the assumptions and analysis described in this report, we recommend independently ducted multi-port supply ventilation in all climates except cold because this strategy provides the safety and health benefits of positive indoor pressure as well as the ability to dehumidify and filter ventilation air. In cold climates, we recommend that multi-port supply ventilation be balanced by a single-port exhaust ventilation fan, and that builders offer balanced heat-recovery ventilation to buyers as an optional upgrade. For builders who continue to install forced-air integrated supply ventilation, we recommend ensuring ducts are airtight or in conditioned space, installing a control that automatically operates the forced-air fan 15-20 minutes during each hour that the fan does not operate for heating or cooling, and offering ICM forced-air fans to home buyers as an upgrade.

  20. Research Shows Ventilated Auto Seats Improve Fuel Economy, Comfort - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL Research Shows Ventilated Auto Seats Improve Fuel Economy, Comfort March 2, 2006 Golden, Colo. - The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has demonstrated that ventilated automotive seats not only can improve passenger comfort but also a vehicle's fuel economy. That's because ventilated seats keep drivers and passengers cooler, so they need less air conditioning to be comfortable. NREL's Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction team has been

  1. Single-shell tank ventilation upgrades needs analysis report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriskovich, J.R., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-03

    This report was written to comply with the objectives of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-43-03 Provide to the Washington State Department of Ecology and Department of Health the Results of the Single-Shell Tank Ventilation Upgrades Needs Analysis. The needs analysis consists of identifying the current type and status of each single-shell tank ventilation system, identifying current and projected authorization basis requirements, and identifying ventilation system compliance deficiencies.

  2. Case Study - The Challenge: Improving Ventilation System Energy Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in a Textile Plant | Department of Energy Ventilation System Energy Efficiency in a Textile Plant Case Study - The Challenge: Improving Ventilation System Energy Efficiency in a Textile Plant This case study examines how Nisshinbo California, Inc. (NCI) worked with ADI Control Techniques Drives (ADI-CT) of Hayward, California, to improve ventilation system performance in its Fresno, California, textile plant. The company retrofitted 15 of the system's fan motors with variable frequency

  3. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production, Progress Report for Work Through September 2002, 4th Quarterly Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

    2002-09-01

    The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed. If no additional moderator is added to the fuel rod lattice, it is possible to attain fast neutron energy spectrum conditions in a supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR). This type of core can make use of either fertile or fertile-free fuel and retain a hard spectrum to effectively burn plutonium and minor actinides from LWR spent fuel while efficiently generating electricity. One can also add moderation and design a thermal spectrum SCWR. The Generation IV Roadmap effort has identified the thermal spectrum SCWR (followed by the fast spectrum SCWR) as one of the advanced concepts that should be developed for future use. Therefore, the work in this NERI project is addressing both types of SCWRs.

  4. Microsoft Word - Determination of Class to Update Ventilation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Original Signatures on File Determination of Class Modification Update Ventilation Language for Consistency Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Carlsbad, New Mexico Permit...

  5. Ventilation Industrielle de Bretagne VIB | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Geothermal energy, Solar Product: Ploudalmezeau-based company producing and marketing energy efficient and ventilation products including air source heat pumps,...

  6. Natural Ventilation in California Offices: Estimated Health Effects...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effects and Economic Consequences Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Natural Ventilation in California Offices: Estimated Health Effects and Economic Consequences ...

  7. Should Title 24 Ventilation Requirements Be Amended to include...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    include an Indoor Air Quality Procedure? Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Should Title 24 Ventilation Requirements Be Amended to include an Indoor Air Quality Procedure? ...

  8. Optical People Counting for Demand Controlled Ventilation: A...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Counter Performance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optical People Counting for Demand Controlled Ventilation: A Pilot Study of Counter Performance This pilot ...

  9. Radionuclide Releases During Normal Operations for Ventilated Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blunt, B.

    2001-09-24

    This calculation estimates the design emissions of radionuclides from Ventilated Tanks used by various facilities. The calculation includes emissions due to processing and storage of radionuclide material.

  10. Building America Case Study: Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategies in New Construction Multifamily Buildings New York, New York PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies in New Construction Multifamily ...

  11. Analysis of Buoyancy-Driven Ventilation of Hydrogen from Buildings...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Buoyancy-Driven Ventilation of Hydrogen from Buildings C. Dennis Barley, Keith Gawlik, Jim Ohi, Russell Hewett National Renewable Laboratory U.S. DOE Hydrogen Safety, Codes & ...

  12. Case Study - The Challenge: Improving Ventilation System Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    examines how Nisshinbo California, Inc. (NCI) worked with ADI Control Techniques Drives (ADI-CT) of Hayward, California, to improve ventilation system performance in its Fresno, ...

  13. Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing - Building America...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing (845.94 KB) More Documents & Publications Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Green Coast Enterprises, New Orleans, ...

  14. Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation in Residential Deep Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The results indicate that DERs can provide adequate ventilation and IAQ, and that DERs should prioritize source control, particle filtration and well-designed local exhaust systems...

  15. Smart Ventilation (RIVEC) - 2014 BTO Peer Review | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-performance homes built with tight envelopes will benefit most from this technology. Their mechanical ventilation systems dominate for energy use; as the foundation, wall, and ...

  16. Energy and IAQ Implications of Residential Ventilation Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, William; Walker, Iain

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluates the energy, humidity and indoor air quality (IAQ) implications of residential ventilation cooling in all U.S. IECC climate zones. A computer modeling approach was adopted, using an advanced residential building simulation tool with airflow, energy and humidity models. An economizer (large supply fan) was simulated to provide ventilation cooling while outdoor air temperatures were lower than indoor air temperatures (typically at night). The simulations were performed for a full year using one-minute time steps to allow for scheduling of ventilation systems and to account for interactions between ventilation and heating/cooling systems.

  17. Study of Pu consumption in advanced light water reactors: Evaluation of GE advanced boiling water reactor plants - compilation of Phase 1B task reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-09-15

    This report contains an extensive evaluation of GE advanced boiling water reactor plants prepared for United State Department of Energy. The general areas covered in this report are: core and system performance; fuel cycle; infrastructure and deployment; and safety and environmental approval.

  18. Guide to Closing and Conditioning Ventilated Crawlspaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickson, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    This how-to guide explains the issues and concerns with conventional ventilated crawlspaces and provides prescriptive measures for improvements that will create healthier and more durable spaces. The methods described in this guide are not the only acceptable ways to treat a crawlspace but represent a proven strategy that works in many areas of the United States. The designs discussed in this guide may or may not meet the local building codes and as such will need to be researched before beginning the project.

  19. C-106 tank process ventilation test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-07-20

    Project W-320 Acceptance Test Report for tank 241-C-106, 296-C-006 Ventilation System Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) HNF-SD-W320-012, C-106 Tank Process Ventilation Test, was an in depth test of the 296-C-006 ventilation system and ventilation support systems required to perform the sluicing of tank C-106. Systems involved included electrical, instrumentation, chiller and HVAC. Tests began at component level, moved to loop level, up to system level and finally to an integrated systems level test. One criteria was to perform the test with the least amount of risk from a radioactive contamination potential stand point. To accomplish this a temporary configuration was designed that would simulate operation of the systems, without being connected directly to the waste tank air space. This was done by blanking off ducting to the tank and connecting temporary ducting and an inlet air filter and housing to the recirculation system. This configuration would eventually become the possible cause of exceptions. During the performance of the test, there were points where the equipment did not function per the directions listed in the ATP. These events fell into several different categories. The first and easiest problems were field configurations that did not match the design documentation. This was corrected by modifying the field configuration to meet design documentation and reperforming the applicable sections of the ATP. A second type of problem encountered was associated with equipment which did not operate correctly, at which point an exception was written against the ATP, to be resolved later. A third type of problem was with equipment that actually operated correctly but the directions in the ATP were in error. These were corrected by generating an Engineering Change Notice (ECN) against the ATP. The ATP with corrected directions was then re-performed. A fourth type of problem was where the directions in the ATP were as the equipment should operate, but the design of

  20. Waste tank ventilation rates measured with a tracer gas method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Evans, J.C.; Sklarew, D.S.; Mitroshkov, A.V.

    1998-08-01

    Passive ventilation with the atmosphere is used to prevent accumulation of waste gases and vapors in the headspaces of 132 of the 177 high-level radioactive waste Tanks at the Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington State. Measurements of the passive ventilation rates are needed for the resolution of two key safety issues associated with the rates of flammable gas production and accumulation and the rates at which organic salt-nitrate salt mixtures dry out. Direct measurement of passive ventilation rates using mass flow meters is not feasible because ventilation occurs va multiple pathways to the atmosphere (i.e., via the filtered breather riser and unsealed tank risers and pits), as well as via underground connections to other tanks, junction boxes, and inactive ventilation systems. The tracer gas method discussed in this report provides a direct measurement of the rate at which gases are removed by ventilation and an indirect measurement of the ventilation rate. The tracer gas behaves as a surrogate of the waste-generated gases, but it is only diminished via ventilation, whereas the waste gases are continuously released by the waste and may be subject to depletion mechanisms other than ventilation. The fiscal year 1998 tracer studies provide new evidence that significant exchange of air occurs between tanks via the underground cascade pipes. Most of the single-shell waste tanks are connected via 7.6-cm diameter cascade pipes to one or two adjacent tanks. Tracer gas studies of the Tank U-102/U-103 system indicated that the ventilation occurring via the cascade line could be a significant fraction of the total ventilation. In this two-tank cascade, air evidently flowed from Tank U-103 to Tank U-102 for a time and then was observed to flow from Tank U-102 to Tank U-103.

  1. Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Mechanical Ventilation | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Mechanical Ventilation Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Mechanical Ventilation Mechanical Ventilation - Complete (22.2 MB) Lesson Plan: Mechanical Ventilation (222.33 KB) PowerPoint: Mechanical Ventilation (22.61 MB) More Documents & Publications Weatherization Installer/Technician Fundamentals 2.0 - Mechanical Ventilation Rough-In Guidelines Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Blower Door Basics Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Mobile Home

  2. Hybrid Ventilation Optimization and Control Research and Development |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Hybrid Ventilation Optimization and Control Research and Development Hybrid Ventilation Optimization and Control Research and Development Credit: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Credit: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lead Performer: Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Cambridge, MA Partners: -- Chongqing University - Chongqing, China -- Tongji University - Shanghai, China -- Tianjin University - Tianjin, China -- Chongqing Fu Tai Construction Group

  3. Buoyancy-Driven Ventilation of Hydrogen from Buildings: Laboratory Test and Model Validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barley, C. D.; Gawlik, K.

    2009-05-01

    Passive, buoyancy-driven ventilation is one approach to limiting hydrogen concentration. We explored the relationship between leak rate, ventilation design, and hydrogen concentrations.

  4. Measure Guideline: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldrich, R.

    2014-02-01

    This document addresses adding -or improving - mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including some discussion of relevant codes and standards. Advantages, disadvantages, and approximate costs of various system types are presented along with general guidelines for implementing the systems in homes. CARB intends for this document to be useful to decision makers and contractors implementing ventilation systems in homes. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors. It is the intent of this document to assist contractors in making more informed decisions when selecting systems. Ventilation is an integral part of a high-performance home. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability.

  5. An integrated approach for the verification of fresh mixed oxide fuel (MOX) assemblies at light water reactor MOX recycle reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menlove, Howard O; Lee, Sang - Yoon

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated approach for the verification of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies prior to their being loaded into the reactor. There is a coupling of the verification approach that starts at the fuel fabrication plant and stops with the transfer of the assemblies into the thermal reactor. The key measurement points are at the output of the fuel fabrication plant, the receipt at the reactor site, and the storage in the water pool as fresh fuel. The IAEA currently has the capability to measure the MOX fuel assemblies at the output of the fuel fabrication plants using a passive neutron coincidence counting systems of the passive neutron collar (PNCL) type. Also. at the MOX reactor pool, the underwater coincidence counter (UWCC) has been developed to measure the MOX assemblies in the water. The UWCC measurement requires that the fuel assembly be lifted about two meters up in the storage rack to avoid interference from the fuel that is stored in the rack. This paper presents a new method to verify the MOX fuel assemblies that are in the storage rack without the necessity of moving the fuel. The detector system is called the Underwater MOX Verification System (UMVS). The integration and relationship of the three measurements systems is described.

  6. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, Armin; Bergey, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    In this project, Building America research team Building Science Corporation tested the effectiveness of ventilation systems at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. This was because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four system factor categories: balance, distribution, outside air source, and recirculation filtration. Recommended system factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  7. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Bergey, D.

    2014-02-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  8. Comparative assessment of nuclear fuel cycles. Light-water reactor once-through, classical fast breeder reactor, and symbiotic fast breeder reactor cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardie, R.W.; Barrett, R.J.; Freiwald, J.G.

    1980-06-01

    The object of the Alternative Nuclear Fuel Cycle Study is to perform comparative assessments of nuclear power systems. There are two important features of this study. First, this evaluation attempts to encompass the complete, integrated fuel cycle from mining of uranium ore to disposal of waste rather than isolated components. Second, it compares several aspects of each cycle - energy use, economics, technological status, proliferation, public safety, and commercial potential - instead of concentrating on one or two assessment areas. This report presents assessment results for three fuel cycles. These are the light-water reactor once-through cycle, the fast breeder reactor on the classical plutonium cycle, and the fast breeder reactor on a symbiotic cycle using plutonium and /sup 233/U as fissile fuels. The report also contains a description of the methodology used in this assessment. Subsequent reports will present results for additional fuel cycles.

  9. Tritium generation and large excess heat evolution by electrolysis in light and heavy water-potassium carbonate solutions with nickel electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Notoya, Reiko; Noya, Yohichi; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki

    1994-09-01

    The generation of tritium was quantitatively measured in an electrolytic cell with a nickel cathode and a platinum anode in potassium carbonate-light and heavy water solutions. Simultaneously, the evolution of a large amount of excess heat (70 to 170{degrees} for the input power) was observed during electrolysis of these solutions. The tritium generation by electrolysis provides some of the most conclusive evidence for so-called cold fusion, along with the calcium generation described in a previous paper. On the basis of the current experiments and the knowledge of the knetics of a hydrogen evolution reaction in an alkaline solution, the nuclear reactions taking place are worth mentioning. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapters 2-13, project number 669

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume I, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  11. FEASIBILITY OF RECYCLING PLUTONIUM AND MINOR ACTINIDES IN LIGHT...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    IN LIGHT WATER REACTORS USING HYDRIDE FUEL Citation Details In-Document Search Title: FEASIBILITY OF RECYCLING PLUTONIUM AND MINOR ACTINIDES IN LIGHT WATER REACTORS USING ...

  12. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Support and Modeling for the Boiling Water Reactor Station Black Out Case Study Using RELAP and RAVEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diego Mandelli; Curtis Smith; Thomas Riley; John Schroeder; Cristian Rabiti; Aldrea Alfonsi; Joe Nielsen; Dan Maljovec; Bie Wang; Valerio Pascucci

    2013-09-01

    The existing fleet of nuclear power plants is in the process of extending its lifetime and increasing the power generated. In order to evaluate the impact of these two factors on the safety of the plant, the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) project aims to provide insight to decision makers through a series of simulations of the plant dynamics for different initial conditions (e.g., probabilistic analysis and uncertainty quantification). This report focuses, in particular, on the impact of power uprate on the safety of a boiled water reactor system. The case study considered is a loss of off-site power followed by the loss of diesel generators, i.e., a station black out (SBO) event. Analysis is performed by using a thermo-hydraulic code, i.e. RELAP-5, and a stochastic analysis tool currently under development at INL, i.e. RAVEN. Starting from the event tree models contained in SAPHIRE, we built the input file for RELAP-5 that models in great detail system dynamics under SBO conditions. We also interfaced RAVEN with RELAP-5 so that it would be possible to run multiple RELAP-5 simulation runs by changing specific keywords of the input file. We both employed classical statistical tools, i.e. Monte-Carlo, and more advanced machine learning based algorithms to perform uncertainty quantification in order to quantify changes in system performance and limitations as a consequence of power uprate. We also employed advanced data analysis and visualization tools that helped us to correlate simulation outcome such as maximum core temperature with a set of input uncertain parameters. Results obtained gave a detailed overview of the issues associated to power uprate for a SBO accident scenario. We were able to quantify how timing of safety related events were impacted by a higher reactor core power. Such insights can provide useful material to the decision makers to perform risk-infomed safety margins management.

  13. Potential problems associated with ion-exchange resins used in the decontamination of light-water reactor systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soo, P.; Adams, J.W.; Kempf, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    During a typical decontamination event, ion-exchange resin beds are used to remove corrosion products (radioactive and nonradioactive) and excess decontamination reagents from waste streams. The spent resins may be solidified in a binder, such as cement, or sealed in a high-integrity container (HIC) in order to meet waste stability requirements specified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Lack of stability of low-level waste in a shallow land burial trench may lead to trench subsidence, enhanced water infiltration and waste leaching, which would result in accelerated transport of radionuclides and the complexing agents used for decontamination. The current program is directed at investigating safety problems associated with the handling, solidification and containerization of decontamination resin wastes. The three tasks currently underway include freeze-thaw cycling of cementitious and vinyl ester-styrene forms to determine if mechanical integrity is compromised, a study of the corrosion of container materials by spent decontamination waste resins, and investigations of resin degradation mechanisms.

  14. Optimization of Occupancy Based Demand Controlled Ventilation in Residences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mortensen, Dorthe K.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2011-05-01

    Although it has been used for many years in commercial buildings, the application of demand controlled ventilation in residences is limited. In this study we used occupant exposure to pollutants integrated over time (referred to as 'dose') as the metric to evaluate the effectiveness and air quality implications of demand controlled ventilation in residences. We looked at air quality for two situations. The first is that typically used in ventilation standards: the exposure over a long term. The second is to look at peak exposures that are associated with time variations in ventilation rates and pollutant generation. The pollutant generation had two components: a background rate associated with the building materials and furnishings and a second component related to occupants. The demand controlled ventilation system operated at a low airflow rate when the residence was unoccupied and at a high airflow rate when occupied. We used analytical solutions to the continuity equation to determine the ventilation effectiveness and the long-term chronic dose and peak acute exposure for a representative range of occupancy periods, pollutant generation rates and airflow rates. The results of the study showed that we can optimize the demand controlled airflow rates to reduce the quantity of air used for ventilation without introducing problematic acute conditions.

  15. Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective? (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Service, Springfield, VA at www.ntis.gov. Ventilation dilutes or removes indoor contaminants to reduce occupant exposure. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there...

  16. Analysis of Buoyancy-Driven Ventilation of Hydrogen from Buildings...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of Buoyancy-Driven Ventilation of Hydrogen from Buildings Preprint C.D. Barley, K. Gawlik, J. Ohi, and R. Hewett National Renewable Energy Laboratory To be presented at ...

  17. Advanced Controls for Residential Whole-House Ventilation Systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    incur an energy penalty on the home via fan power used to drive the airflow, and the additional space-conditioning load associated with heating or cooling the ventilation air. ...

  18. Hybrid Ventilation Optimization and Control Research and Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    that come with it. The long-term goal is to reach the 1.6 billion market that includes design and architecture firms, hybrid ventilation equipment companies, and building...

  19. Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dur- ing cooler weather when the air conditioner is not running, lower air exchange levels can ... Test- ing suggested that "smart" ventilation control systems may be able to provide ...

  20. Measure Guideline: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldrich, R.

    2014-02-01

    This report, developed by Building America research team CARB, addresses adding or improving mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The goal of this report is to assist decision makers and contractors in making informed decisions when selecting ventilation systems for homes. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including examination of relevant codes and standards. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors.

  1. Commercial Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial lighting accounts for more than 20 percent of total commercial building energy use. The Energy Department works to reduce lighting energy use through research and deployment.

  2. Air exchange effectiveness of conventional and task ventilation for offices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Prill, R.J.

    1991-12-01

    Air quality and comfort complaints within large buildings are often attributed to air distribution problems. We define three air exchange effectiveness parameters related to air distribution. The first two indicate the indoor air flow pattern (i.e., the extent of short circuiting, mixing, or displacement flow) for an entire building or region. The third parameter is most useful for assessments of the spatial variability of ventilation. We also define the air diffusion effectiveness which indicates the air flow pattern within specific rooms or sections of buildings. The results of measurements of these parameters in US office buildings by the authors and other researchers are reviewed. Almost all measurements indicate very limited short circuiting or displacement flow between locations of air supply and removal. However, a moderate degree of short circuiting is evident from a few measurements in rooms with heated supply air. The results of laboratory-based measurements by the authors are consistent with the field data. Our measurements in office buildings do indicate that ventilation rates can vary substantially between indoor locations, probably due to variation in air supply rates between locations rather than variation in the indoor air flow patterns. One possible method of improving air distribution is to employ task ventilation with air supplied closer to the occupant`s breathing zone. We have evaluated two task ventilation systems in a laboratory setting. During most operating conditions, these systems did not provide a region of substantially increased ventilation where occupants breath. However, both systems are capable of providing substantially enhanced ventilation at the breathing zone under some operating conditions. Therefore, task ventilation is a potential option for using ventilation air more effectively.

  3. Air exchange effectiveness of conventional and task ventilation for offices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Prill, R.J.

    1991-12-01

    Air quality and comfort complaints within large buildings are often attributed to air distribution problems. We define three air exchange effectiveness parameters related to air distribution. The first two indicate the indoor air flow pattern (i.e., the extent of short circuiting, mixing, or displacement flow) for an entire building or region. The third parameter is most useful for assessments of the spatial variability of ventilation. We also define the air diffusion effectiveness which indicates the air flow pattern within specific rooms or sections of buildings. The results of measurements of these parameters in US office buildings by the authors and other researchers are reviewed. Almost all measurements indicate very limited short circuiting or displacement flow between locations of air supply and removal. However, a moderate degree of short circuiting is evident from a few measurements in rooms with heated supply air. The results of laboratory-based measurements by the authors are consistent with the field data. Our measurements in office buildings do indicate that ventilation rates can vary substantially between indoor locations, probably due to variation in air supply rates between locations rather than variation in the indoor air flow patterns. One possible method of improving air distribution is to employ task ventilation with air supplied closer to the occupant's breathing zone. We have evaluated two task ventilation systems in a laboratory setting. During most operating conditions, these systems did not provide a region of substantially increased ventilation where occupants breath. However, both systems are capable of providing substantially enhanced ventilation at the breathing zone under some operating conditions. Therefore, task ventilation is a potential option for using ventilation air more effectively.

  4. WIPP Begins Preliminary Work on New Permanent Ventilation System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    July 28, 2016 WIPP Begins Preliminary Work on New Permanent Ventilation System The geotechnical investigation necessary for construction of a new Permanent Ventilation System (PVS), including a new filter building and a new exhaust shaft, is underway at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Investigation activities include drilling multiple bore holes and the collection of core samples at various depths. Analysis of the core samples will provide information for the building design team on

  5. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Projects Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Projects AS-IHP System Concept Sketch. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partner: Lennox Building-Integrated Heat & Moisture Exchange (SBIR Phase 2B) Lead Performer: Architectural Applications - Portland, Oregon Partner: Oregon State University - Corvallis, Oregon Left: Environmental chamber to

  6. Capture and Use of Coal Mine Ventilation Air Methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deborah Kosmack

    2008-10-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., in conjunction with MEGTEC Systems, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, designed, built, and operated a commercial-size thermal flow reversal reactor (TFRR) to evaluate its suitability to oxidize coal mine ventilation air methane (VAM). Coal mining, and particularly coal mine ventilation air, is a major source of anthropogenic methane emissions, a greenhouse gas. Ventilation air volumes are large and the concentration of methane in the ventilation air is low; thus making it difficult to use or abate these emissions. This test program was conducted with simulated coal mine VAM in advance of deploying the technology on active coal mine ventilation fans. The demonstration project team installed and operated a 30,000 cfm MEGTEC VOCSIDIZER oxidation system on an inactive coal mine in West Liberty, WV. The performance of the unit was monitored and evaluated during months of unmanned operation at mostly constant conditions. The operating and maintenance history and how it impacts the implementation of the technology on mine fans were investigated. Emission tests showed very low levels of all criteria pollutants at the stack. Parametric studies showed that the equipment can successfully operate at the design specification limits. The results verified the ability of the TFRR to oxidize {ge}95% of the low and variable concentration of methane in the ventilation air. This technology provides new opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by the reduction of methane emissions from coal mine ventilation air. A large commercial-size installation (180,000 cfm) on a single typical mine ventilation bleeder fan would reduce methane emissions by 11,000 to 22,100 short tons per year (the equivalent of 183,000 to 366,000 metric tonnes carbon dioxide).

  7. Moisture and Ventilation Solutions in Hot, Humid Climates: Florida

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufactured Housing - Building America Top Innovation | Department of Energy Moisture and Ventilation Solutions in Hot, Humid Climates: Florida Manufactured Housing - Building America Top Innovation Moisture and Ventilation Solutions in Hot, Humid Climates: Florida Manufactured Housing - Building America Top Innovation Photo of workers on the roof of a home. This Top Innovation profile describes research by Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction team to diagnose

  8. Hybrid ventilation optimization and control research and development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hybrid ventilation optimization and control research and development 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Alonso Dominguez, alonso@mit.edu Leon Glicksman, glicks@mit.edu Project Summary Timeline: Start date: August 2011 Planned end date: September 2015 Key Milestones 1. Enhanced CoolVent to simulate joint natural ventilation and air conditioning: illustrated energy savings for different US climates, building types (ASHRAE Winter Meeting 2014) 2. Obtained monitoring results for several

  9. Issue #9: What are the Best Ventilation Techniques? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: What are the Best Ventilation Techniques? Issue #9: What are the Best Ventilation Techniques? How do we address ventilation in all climates? What is the best compromise between occupant health and safety and energy efficiency? issue9_recommend_ashrae.pdf (3.05 MB) issue9_ashrae622_vent.pdf (2.32 MB) More Documents & Publications Building Science - Ventilation Building America Webinar: Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and Compartmentalization Requirements - Joe Lstiburek ZERH Webinar:

  10. Report from the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems and Human-System Interface Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce P. Hallbert; J. J. Persensky; Carol Smidts; Tunc Aldemir; Joseph Naser

    2009-08-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The program is operated in close collaboration with industry R&D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of Nuclear Power Plants that are currently in operation. The LWRS Program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy and environmental security. Advanced instruments and control (I&C) technologies are needed to support the safe and reliable production of power from nuclear energy systems during sustained periods of operation up to and beyond their expected licensed lifetime. This requires that new capabilities to achieve process control be developed and eventually implemented in existing nuclear assets. It also requires that approaches be developed and proven to achieve sustainability of I&C systems throughout the period of extended operation. The strategic objective of the LWRS Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technology R&D pathway is to establish a technical basis for new technologies needed to achieve safety and reliability of operating nuclear assets and to implement new technologies in nuclear energy systems. This will be achieved by carrying out a program of R&D to develop scientific knowledge in the areas of: • Sensors, diagnostics, and prognostics to support characterization and prediction of the effects of aging and degradation phenomena effects on critical systems, structures, and components (SSCs) • Online monitoring of SSCs and active components, generation of information, and methods to analyze and employ online monitoring information • New methods for visualization, integration, and information use to enhance state awareness and leverage expertise to achieve safer, more readily available electricity generation

  11. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2010-10-27

    Approximately ten percent of the energy consumed in U.S. commercial buildings is used by HVAC systems to condition outdoor ventilation air. Reducing ventilation rates would be a simple and broadly-applicable energy retrofit option, if practical counter measures were available that maintained acceptable concentrations of indoor-generated air pollutants. The two general categories of countermeasures are: 1) indoor pollutant source control, and 2) air cleaning. Although pollutant source control should be used to the degree possible, source control is complicated by the large number and changing nature of indoor pollutant sources. Particle air cleaning is already routinely applied in commercial buildings. Previous calculations indicate that particle filtration consumes only 10percent to 25percent of the energy that would otherwise be required to achieve an equivalent amount of particle removal with ventilation. If cost-effective air cleaning technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also available, outdoor air ventilation rates could be reduced substantially and broadly in the commercial building stock to save energy. The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel VOC air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. The minimum required VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50percent reduction in ventilation rate for air cleaning systems installed in the HVAC supply airstream is modest (generally 20percent or less).

  12. Advanced Proliferation Resistant, Lower Cost, Uranium-Thorium Dioxide Fuels for Light Water Reactors (Progress report for work through June 2002, 12th quarterly report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

    2002-09-01

    The overall objective of this NERI project is to evaluate the potential advantages and disadvantages of an optimized thorium-uranium dioxide (ThO2/UO2) fuel design for light water reactors (LWRs). The project is led by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), with the collaboration of three universities, the University of Florida, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and Purdue University; Argonne National Laboratory; and all of the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel vendors in the United States (Framatome, Siemens, and Westinghouse). In addition, a number of researchers at the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute and Professor Kwangheon Park at Kyunghee University are active collaborators with Korean Ministry of Science and Technology funding. The project has been organized into five tasks: · Task 1 consists of fuel cycle neutronics and economics analysis to determine the economic viability of various ThO2/UO2 fuel designs in PWRs, · Task 2 will determine whether or not ThO2/UO2 fuel can be manufactured economically, · Task 3 will evaluate the behavior of ThO2/UO2 fuel during normal, off-normal, and accident conditions and compare the results with the results of previous UO2 fuel evaluations and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing standards, · Task 4 will determine the long-term stability of ThO2/UO2 high-level waste, and · Task 5 consists of the Korean work on core design, fuel performance analysis, and xenon diffusivity measurements.

  13. A SCOPING STUDY: Development of Probabilistic Risk Assessment Models for Reactivity Insertion Accidents During Shutdown In U.S. Commercial Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Khericha

    2011-06-01

    This report documents the scoping study of developing generic simplified fuel damage risk models for quantitative analysis from inadvertent reactivity insertion events during shutdown (SD) in light water pressurized and boiling water reactors. In the past, nuclear fuel reactivity accidents have been analyzed both mainly deterministically and probabilistically for at-power and SD operations of nuclear power plants (NPPs). Since then, many NPPs had power up-rates and longer refueling intervals, which resulted in fuel configurations that may potentially respond differently (in an undesirable way) to reactivity accidents. Also, as shown in a recent event, several inadvertent operator actions caused potential nuclear fuel reactivity insertion accident during SD operations. The set inadvertent operator actions are likely to be plant- and operation-state specific and could lead to accident sequences. This study is an outcome of the concern which arose after the inadvertent withdrawal of control rods at Dresden Unit 3 in 2008 due to operator actions in the plant inadvertently three control rods were withdrawn from the reactor without knowledge of the main control room operator. The purpose of this Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) Model development project is to develop simplified SPAR Models that can be used by staff analysts to perform risk analyses of operating events and/or conditions occurring during SD operation. These types of accident scenarios are dominated by the operator actions, (e.g., misalignment of valves, failure to follow procedures and errors of commissions). Human error probabilities specific to this model were assessed using the methodology developed for SPAR model human error evaluations. The event trees, fault trees, basic event data and data sources for the model are provided in the report. The end state is defined as the reactor becomes critical. The scoping study includes a brief literature search/review of historical events, developments of

  14. SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD 3.1 code manual: MATPRO, A library of materials properties for Light-Water-Reactor accident analysis. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagrman, D.T.; Allison, C.M.; Berna, G.A.

    1995-06-01

    The SCDAP/RELAP5 code has been developed for best estimate transient simulation of light -- water-reactor coolant systems during a severe accident. The code models the coupled behavior of the reactor coolant system, the core, fission products released during a severe accident transient as well as large and small break loss of coolant accidents, operational transients such as anticipated transient without SCRAM, loss of offsite power, loss of feedwater, and loss of flow. A generic modeling approach is used that permits as much of a particular system to be modeled as necessary. Control system and secondary system components are included to permit modeling of plant controls, turbines, condensers, and secondary feedwater conditioning systems. This volume, Volume IV, describes the material properties correlations and computer subroutines (MATPRO) used by SCDAP/RELAP5. formulation of the materials properties are generally semi-empirical in nature. The materials property subroutines contained in this document are for uranium, uranium dioxide, mixed uranium-plutonium dioxide fuel, zircaloy cladding, zirconium dioxide, stainless steel, stainless steel oxide, silver-indium-cadmium alloy, cadmium, boron carbide, Inconel 718, zirconium-uranium-oxygen melts, fill gas mixtures, carbon steel, and tungsten. This document also contains descriptions of the reaction and solution rate models needed to analyze a reactor accident.

  15. Implementation and testing of the on-the-fly thermal scattering Monte Carlo sampling method for graphite and light water in MCNP6

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pavlou, Andrew T.; Ji, Wei; Brown, Forrest B.

    2016-01-23

    Here, a proper treatment of thermal neutron scattering requires accounting for chemical binding through a scattering law S(α,β,T). Monte Carlo codes sample the secondary neutron energy and angle after a thermal scattering event from probability tables generated from S(α,β,T) tables at discrete temperatures, requiring a large amount of data for multiscale and multiphysics problems with detailed temperature gradients. We have previously developed a method to handle this temperature dependence on-the-fly during the Monte Carlo random walk using polynomial expansions in 1/T to directly sample the secondary energy and angle. In this paper, the on-the-fly method is implemented into MCNP6 andmore » tested in both graphite-moderated and light water-moderated systems. The on-the-fly method is compared with the thermal ACE libraries that come standard with MCNP6, yielding good agreement with integral reactor quantities like k-eigenvalue and differential quantities like single-scatter secondary energy and angle distributions. The simulation runtimes are comparable between the two methods (on the order of 5–15% difference for the problems tested) and the on-the-fly fit coefficients only require 5–15 MB of total data storage.« less

  16. Fukushima Light Water Detritiation System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation from the 34th Tritium Focus Group Meeting held in Idaho Falls, Idaho on September 23-25, 2014.

  17. Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation in Residential Deep Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Less, Brennan; Walker, Iain

    2014-06-01

    Because airtightening is a significant part of Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs), concerns about ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) have emerged. To investigate this, ventilation and IAQ were assessed in 17 non-smoking California Deep Energy Retrofit homes. Inspections and surveys were used to assess household activities and ventilation systems. Pollutant sampling performed in 12 homes included six-day passive samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and air exchange rate (AER); time-resolved data loggers were used to measure particle counts. Half of the homes provided continuous mechanical ventilation. Despite these homes being twice as airtight (3.0 and 7.6 ACH50, respectively), their median AER was indistinguishable from naturally vented homes (0.36 versus 0.37 hr--1). Numerous problems were found with ventilation systems; however, pollutant levels did not reach levels of concern in most homes. Ambient NO2 standards were exceeded in some gas cooking homes that used legacy ranges with standing pilots, and in Passive House-style homes without range hoods exhausted to outside. Cooking exhaust systems were installed and used inconsistently. The majority of homes reported using low-emitting materials, and formaldehyde levels were approximately half those in conventional new CA homes (19.7 versus 36 ?g/m3), with emissions rates nearly 40percent less (12.3 versus 20.6 ?g/m2/hr.). Presence of air filtration systems led to lower indoor particle number concentrations (PN>0.5: 8.80E+06 PN/m3 versus 2.99E+06; PN>2.5: 5.46E+0.5 PN/m3 versus 2.59E+05). The results indicate that DERs can provide adequate ventilation and IAQ, and that DERs should prioritize source control, particle filtration and well-designed local exhaust systems, while still providing adequate continuous ventilation.

  18. Retrofit Ventilation Strategies in Multifamily Buildings Webinar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... air impermeable material Vapor permeability: 0.8 perms at 2" thickness Water ... Hybrid Foundation Retrofits 25 Air Gap Membrane Variant Spray foam sufficiently ...

  19. NREL: Transportation Research - Light-Duty Vehicle Thermal Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Light-Duty Vehicle Thermal Management Image of a semi-transparent car with parts of the engine highlighted in green. NREL evaluates technologies and methods such as advanced window glazing, cooling heat-pipe systems, parked car ventilation, and direct energy recovery. Illustration by Josh Bauer, NREL National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers are focused on improving the thermal efficiency of light-duty vehicles (LDVs) while maintaining the thermal comfort that drivers expect.

  20. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  1. Electric Storage Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  2. Ventilation Behavior and Household Characteristics in NewCalifornia Houses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Phillip N.; Sherman, Max H.

    2006-02-01

    A survey was conducted to determine occupant use of windows and mechanical ventilation devices; barriers that inhibit their use; satisfaction with indoor air quality (IAQ); and the relationship between these factors. A questionnaire was mailed to a stratified random sample of 4,972 single-family detached homes built in 2003, and 1,448 responses were received. A convenience sample of 230 houses known to have mechanical ventilation systems resulted in another 67 completed interviews. Some results are: (1) Many houses are under-ventilated: depending on season, only 10-50% of houses meet the standard recommendation of 0.35 air changes per hour. (2) Local exhaust fans are under-utilized. For instance, about 30% of households rarely or never use their bathroom fan. (3) More than 95% of households report that indoor air quality is ''very'' or ''somewhat'' acceptable, although about 1/3 of households also report dustiness, dry air, or stagnant or humid air. (4) Except households where people cook several hours per week, there is no evidence that households with significant indoor pollutant sources get more ventilation. (5) Except households containing asthmatics, there is no evidence that health issues motivate ventilation behavior. (6) Security and energy saving are the two main reasons people close windows or keep them closed.

  3. A study of a zone approach to IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) safeguards: The low-enriched-uranium zone of a light-water-reactor fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishbone, L.G.; Higinbotham, W.A.

    1986-06-01

    At present the IAEA designs its safeguards approach with regard to each type of nuclear facility so that the safeguards activities and effort are essentially the same for a given type and size of nuclear facility wherever it may be located. Conclusions regarding a state are derived by combining the conclusions regarding the effectiveness of safeguards for the individual facilities within a state. In this study it was convenient to define three zones in a state with a closed light-water-reactor nuclear fuel cycle. Each zone contains those facilities or parts thereof which use or process nuclear materials of the same safeguards significance: low-enriched uranium, radioactive spent fuel, or recovered plutonium. The possibility that each zone might be treated as an extended material balance area for safeguards purposes is under investigation. The approach includes defining the relevant features of the facilities in the three zones and listing the safeguards activities which are now practiced. This study has focussed on the fresh-fuel zone, the several facilities of which use or process low-enriched uranium. At one extreme, flows and inventories would be verified at each material balance area. At the other extreme, the flows into and out of the zone and the inventory of the whole zone would be verified. There are a number of possible safeguards approaches which fall between the two extremes. The intention is to develop a rational approach which will make it possible to compare the technical effectiveness and the inspection effort for the facility-oriented approach, for the approach involving the zone as a material balance area, and for some reasonable intermediate safeguards approaches.

  4. Ventilation Systems for Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... flames, running a dishwasher, and using hot devices such as curling irons or hair dryers. ... for Cooling Whole-House Fans Home Heating Systems Heat Pump Systems Water Heating

  5. Ventilation and occupant behavior in two apartment buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diamond, R.C.; Modera, M.P.; Feustel, H.E.

    1986-10-01

    In this paper we approach the subject of ventilation and occupant behavior in multifamily buildings by asking three questions: (1) why and how do occupants interact with ventilation in an apartment building, (2) how does the physical environment (i.e., building characteristics and climate) affect the ventilation in an apartment, and (3) what methods can be used to answer the first two questions. To investigate these and related questions, two apartment buildings in Chicago were monitored during the 1985-1986 heating season. In addition to collecting data on energy consumption, outdoor temperature, wind speed, and indoor apartment temperatures, we conducted diagnostic measurements and occupant surveys in both buildings. The diagnostic tests measured leakage areas of the individual apartments, both through the exterior envelope and to other apartments. The measured leakage areas are used in conjunction with a multizone air flow model to simulate infiltration and internal air flows under different weather conditions. The occupants were questioned about their attitudes and behavior regarding the comfort, air quality, ventilation, and energy use of their apartments. This paper describes each of the research methods utilized, the results of these efforts, and conclusions that can be drawn about ventilation-occupant interactions in these apartment buildings. We found that there was minimal window opening during the winter, widespread use of auxiliary heating to control thermal comfort, and that the simulations show little outside air entry in the top-floor apartments during periods of low wind speeds. The major conclusion of this work is that a multi-disciplinary approach is required to understand or predict occupant-ventilation interactions. Such an approach must take into account the physical characteristics of the building and the climate, as well as the preferences and available options of the occupants.

  6. Building America Webinar: Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and Compartmentalization Requirements- Sean Maxwell

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation is included in the Building America webinar, Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and Compartmentalization Requirements, on September 24, 2014.

  7. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Outside Air Ventilation Controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    venThis Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America research showing how automated night ventilation can reduce cooling energy costs up to 40% and peak demand up to 50% in California’s hot-dry central valley climates and can eliminate the need for air conditioning altogether in the coastal marine climate.

  8. Multifamily Individual Heating and Ventilation Systems, Lawrence, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    The conversion of an older Massachusetts building into condominiums illustrates a safe, durable, and cost-effective solution for heating and ventilation systems that can potentially benefit millions of multifamily buildings. Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) partnered with U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Building Science Corporation (BSC) to provide high performance affordable housing for 10 families in the retrofit of an existing mass masonry building (a former convent). The original ventilation design for the project was provided by a local engineer and consisted of a single large heat recovery ventilator (HRV) located in a mechanical room in the basement with a centralized duct system providing supply air to the main living space and exhausting stale air from the single bathroom in each apartment. This design was deemed to be far too costly to install and operate for several reasons: the large central HRV was oversized and the specified flows to each apartment were much higher than the ASHRAE 62.2 rate; an extensive system of ductwork, smoke and fire dampers, and duct chases were specified; ductwork required a significant area of dropped ceilings; and the system lacked individual ventilation control in the apartments

  9. Outside Air Ventilation Controller- Building America Top Innovation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Building America Innovations profile describes Building America research showing automated night ventilation can reduce cooling energy costs up to 40% and peak demand up to 50% in California’s hot-dry central valley climates and can eliminate the need for air conditioning altogether in the coastal marine climate.

  10. Technology Solutions Case Study: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-12-01

    In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the "fresh" air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent, and the normal leakage paths through the building envelope disappear. Researchers from the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) found that the majority of high performance, new construction, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four general strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. Insufficient information is available to designers on how these various systems are best applied. In this project, the CARB team evaluated the four different strategies for providing make-up air to multifamily residential buildings and developed guidelines to help contractors and building owners choose the best ventilation systems.

  11. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. Most US homes have central HVAC systems, which tend to mix the air thus the indoor conditions between zones. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of exposure depending on the effectiveness of their air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper will report on field measurements using a unique multi-tracer measurement system that has the capacity to measure not only the flow of outdoor air to each zone, but zone-to-zone transport. The paper will derive seven different metrics for the evaluation of air distribution. Measured data from two homes with different levels of natural infiltration will be used to evaluate these metrics for three different ASHRAE Standard 62.2 compliant ventilation systems. Such information can be used to determine the effectiveness of different systems so that appropriate adjustments can be made in residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

  12. Study on the applicability of the desk displacement ventilation concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loomans, M.G.L.C.

    1999-07-01

    This paper summarizes an experimental and numerical study into a ventilation concept that combines displacement ventilation with task conditioning, the so-called desk displacement ventilation (DDV) concept. The study uses steady-state and transient results to discuss the applicability of the DDV concept for standard office room configurations. The evaluation of the concept focuses on the micro/macroclimate and thermal comfort. Results show that the separation between micro- and macroclimate, a characteristic of task conditioning, is less pronounced. Furthermore, the thermal comfort conditions at the desk limit the cooling capacity of a DDV system. Finally, the transient characteristics of the concept do not conform to stated requirements for task conditioning systems. The main conclusion, therefore, is that there is no particular advantage in sitting close to a displacement ventilation unit. An improvement of the DDV system is proposed by incorporating a parallel system that provides the fresh air near head level. The improvement of the combined system has been investigated using computational fluid dynamics.

  13. Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies in New Construction Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, S.; Berger, D.; Zuluaga, M.

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the "fresh" air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent. CARB researchers have found that most new high performance, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. Insufficient information is available to designers on how these various systems are best applied. Product performance data are based on laboratory tests, but there is no guarantee that those conditions will exist consistently in the finished building. In this research project, CARB evaluated the four ventilation strategies in the field to validate system performance.

  14. Light Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a Light Source Data and Analysis Framework at NERSC Jack Deslippe, Shane Canon, Eli Dart, Abdelilah Essiari, Alexander Hexemer, Dula Parkinson, Simon Patton, Craig Tull + Many More The ALS Data Needs September 21, 2010 - NIST (MD) Light source data volumes are growing many times faster than Moore's law. ● Light source luminosity ● Detector resolution & rep-rates ● Sample automation BES user facilities serve 10,000 scientists and engineers every year. Mostly composed of many small

  15. Lighting Renovations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When undertaking a lighting renovation in a Federal building, daylighting is the primary renewable energy opportunity. Photovoltaics (PV) also present an excellent opportunity. While this guide...

  16. Cerenkov Light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slifer, Karl

    2013-06-13

    The bright blue glow from nuclear reactors is Cerenkov light. Karl Slifer describes how nuclear physicists can use this phenomenon to study the nucleus of the atom.

  17. Cerenkov Light

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Slifer, Karl

    2014-05-22

    The bright blue glow from nuclear reactors is Cerenkov light. Karl Slifer describes how nuclear physicists can use this phenomenon to study the nucleus of the atom.

  18. Florida Power and Light- Business Energy Efficiency Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Florida Power and Light (FPL) offers incentives for its business customers to upgrade the HVAC system, building envelope, water heating, refrigeration and lighting systems. The individual rebates...

  19. Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light (Electric) - Business...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water Heaters Lighting Lighting ControlsSensors Chillers Heat Pumps Air conditioners Programmable Thermostats CaulkingWeather-stripping DuctAir sealing Building Insulation...

  20. Pulmonary Ventilation Imaging Based on 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography: Comparison With Pulmonary Function Tests and SPECT Ventilation Images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Tokihiro; Kabus, Sven; Lorenz, Cristian; Mittra, Erik; Hong, Julian C.; Chung, Melody; Eclov, Neville; To, Jacqueline; Diehn, Maximilian; Loo, Billy W.; Keall, Paul J.

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: 4-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT)-based pulmonary ventilation imaging is an emerging functional imaging modality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological significance of 4D-CT ventilation imaging by comparison with pulmonary function test (PFT) measurements and single-photon emission CT (SPECT) ventilation images, which are the clinical references for global and regional lung function, respectively. Methods and Materials: In an institutional review board–approved prospective clinical trial, 4D-CT imaging and PFT and/or SPECT ventilation imaging were performed in thoracic cancer patients. Regional ventilation (V{sub 4DCT}) was calculated by deformable image registration of 4D-CT images and quantitative analysis for regional volume change. V{sub 4DCT} defect parameters were compared with the PFT measurements (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV{sub 1}; % predicted) and FEV{sub 1}/forced vital capacity (FVC; %). V{sub 4DCT} was also compared with SPECT ventilation (V{sub SPECT}) to (1) test whether V{sub 4DCT} in V{sub SPECT} defect regions is significantly lower than in nondefect regions by using the 2-tailed t test; (2) to quantify the spatial overlap between V{sub 4DCT} and V{sub SPECT} defect regions with Dice similarity coefficient (DSC); and (3) to test ventral-to-dorsal gradients by using the 2-tailed t test. Results: Of 21 patients enrolled in the study, 18 patients for whom 4D-CT and either PFT or SPECT were acquired were included in the analysis. V{sub 4DCT} defect parameters were found to have significant, moderate correlations with PFT measurements. For example, V{sub 4DCT}{sup HU} defect volume increased significantly with decreasing FEV{sub 1}/FVC (R=−0.65, P<.01). V{sub 4DCT} in V{sub SPECT} defect regions was significantly lower than in nondefect regions (mean V{sub 4DCT}{sup HU} 0.049 vs 0.076, P<.01). The average DSCs for the spatial overlap with SPECT ventilation defect regions were only moderate (V

  1. American National Standard: design criteria for an independent spent-fuel-storage installation (water pool type)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This standard provides design criteria for systems and equipment of a facility for the receipt and storage of spent fuel from light water reactors. It contains requirements for the design of major buildings and structures including the shipping cask unloading and spent fuel storage pools, cask decontamination, unloading and loading areas, and the surrounding buildings which contain radwaste treatment, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, and other auxiliary systems. It contains requirements and recommendations for spent fuel storage racks, special equipment and area layout configurations, the pool structure and its integrity, pool water cleanup, ventilation, residual heat removal, radiation monitoring, fuel handling equipment, cask handling equipment, prevention of criticality, radwaste control and monitoring systems, quality assurance requirements, materials accountability, and physical security. Such an installation may be independent of both a nuclear power station and a reprocessing facility or located adjacent to any of these facilities in order to share selected support systems. Support systems shall not include a direct means of transferring fuel assemblies from the nuclear facility to the installation.

  2. Are Ventilation Filters Degrading Indoor Air Quality in California Classrooms?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Destaillats, H.; Apte, M.G.; Destaillats,, Hugo; Fisk, Michael G. Apte and William J.

    2008-10-01

    Heating, ventilating, and cooling classrooms in California consume substantial electrical energy. Indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms affects studenthealth and performance. In addition to airborne pollutants that are emitted directly by indoor sources and those generated outdoors, secondary pollutants can be formed indoors by chemical reaction of ozone with other chemicals and materials. Filters are used in nearly all classroom heating, ventilation and air?conditioning (HVAC) systems to maintain energy-efficient HVAC performance and improve indoor air quality; however, recent evidence indicates that ozone reactions with filters may, in fact, be a source of secondary pollutants. This project quantitatively evaluated ozone deposition in HVAC filters and byproduct formation, and provided a preliminary assessment of the extent towhich filter systems are degrading indoor air quality. The preliminary information obtained will contribute to the design of subsequent research efforts and the identification of energy efficient solutions that improve indoor air quality in classrooms and the health and performance of students.

  3. VARIABLE FLOW EXHAUST VENTILATION CAP FOR LEV SYSTEMS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    VARIABLE FLOW EXHAUST VENTILATION CAP FOR LEV SYSTEMS Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2016-7687 M Patent Pending Technology Readiness Level: 7/8 Actual technology completed and qualified through test and demonstration TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION Local Exhaust

  4. Wakefield Municipal Gas & Light Department - Residential Conservation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Programmable Thermostats: 25 Water Heater: 100 Summary The Wakefield Municipal Gas & Light Department (WMGLD), in cooperation with the Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric...

  5. Clinical Validation of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Ventilation With Pulmonary Function Test Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brennan, Douglas; Schubert, Leah; Diot, Quentin; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas; Martel, Mary K.; Linderman, Derek; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Miften, Moyed; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: A new form of functional imaging has been proposed in the form of 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation. Because 4DCTs are acquired as part of routine care for lung cancer patients, calculating ventilation maps from 4DCTs provides spatial lung function information without added dosimetric or monetary cost to the patient. Before 4DCT-ventilation is implemented it needs to be clinically validated. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) provide a clinically established way of evaluating lung function. The purpose of our work was to perform a clinical validation by comparing 4DCT-ventilation metrics with PFT data. Methods and Materials: Ninety-eight lung cancer patients with pretreatment 4DCT and PFT data were included in the study. Pulmonary function test metrics used to diagnose obstructive lung disease were recorded: forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity. Four-dimensional CT data sets and spatial registration were used to compute 4DCT-ventilation images using a density change–based and a Jacobian-based model. The ventilation maps were reduced to single metrics intended to reflect the degree of ventilation obstruction. Specifically, we computed the coefficient of variation (SD/mean), ventilation V20 (volume of lung ≤20% ventilation), and correlated the ventilation metrics with PFT data. Regression analysis was used to determine whether 4DCT ventilation data could predict for normal versus abnormal lung function using PFT thresholds. Results: Correlation coefficients comparing 4DCT-ventilation with PFT data ranged from 0.63 to 0.72, with the best agreement between FEV1 and coefficient of variation. Four-dimensional CT ventilation metrics were able to significantly delineate between clinically normal versus abnormal PFT results. Conclusions: Validation of 4DCT ventilation with clinically relevant metrics is essential. We demonstrate good global agreement between PFTs and 4DCT-ventilation, indicating that 4DCT-ventilation

  6. Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies in New Construction Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, S.; Berger, D.; Zuluaga, M.

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the 'fresh' air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent, and the 'normal leakage paths through the building envelope' disappear. CARB researchers have found that the majority of high performance, new construction, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four general strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. Insufficient information is available to designers on how these various systems are best applied. Product performance data are based on laboratory tests, and the assumption is that products will perform similarly in the field. Proper application involves matching expected performance at expected building pressures, but there is no guarantee that those conditions will exist consistently in the finished building. This research effort, which included several weeks of building pressure monitoring, sought to provide field validation of system performance. The performance of four substantially different strategies for providing make-up air to apartments was evaluated.

  7. Classroom HVAC: Improving ventilation and saving energy -- field study plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apte, Michael G.; Faulkner, David; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2004-10-14

    The primary goals of this research effort are to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate a very practical HVAC system for classrooms that consistently provides classrooms (CRs) with the quantity of ventilation in current minimum standards, while saving energy, and reducing HVAC-related noise levels. This research is motivated by the public benefits of energy efficiency, evidence that many CRs are under-ventilated, and public concerns about indoor environmental quality in CRs. This document provides a summary of the detailed plans developed for the field study that will take place in 2005 to evaluate the energy and IAQ performance of a new classroom HVAC technology. The field study will include measurements of HVAC energy use, ventilation rates, and IEQ conditions in 10 classrooms with the new HVAC technology and in six control classrooms with a standard HVAC system. Energy use and many IEQ parameters will be monitored continuously, while other IEQ measurements will be will be performed seasonally. Continuously monitored data will be remotely accessed via a LonWorks network. Instrument calibration plans that vary with the type of instrumentation used are established. Statistical tests will be employed to compare energy use and IEQ conditions with the new and standard HVAC systems. Strengths of this study plan include the collection of real time data for a full school year, the use of high quality instrumentation, the incorporation of many quality control measures, and the extensive collaborations with industry that limit costs to the sponsors.

  8. Commercial Lighting and LED Lighting Incentives | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Schools Institutional Savings Category Lighting Lighting ControlsSensors Other EE LED Lighting Maximum Rebate Up to 100% of cost; incentives that exceed 5,000 should be...

  9. Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion - Energy Frontier Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Reactor Technologies » Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is developing the scientific basis to extend existing nuclear power plant operating life beyond the current 60-year licensing period and ensure long-term reliability, productivity, safety, and security. The program is conducted in collaboration with national

  10. Light's Darkness

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Padgett, Miles [University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland

    2010-01-08

    Optical vortices and orbital angular momentum are currently topical subjects in the optics literature. Although seemingly esoteric, they are, in fact, the generic state of light and arise whenever three or more plane waves interfere. To be observed by eye the light must be monochromatic. Laser speckle is one such example, where the optical energy circulates around each black spot, giving a local orbital angular momentum. This talk with report three on-going studies. First, when considering a volume of interfering waves, the laser specs map out threads of complete darkness embedded in the light. Do these threads form loops? Links? Or even knots? Second, when looking through a rapidly spinning window, the image of the world on the other side is rotated: true or false? Finally, the entanglement of orbital angular momentum states means measuring how the angular position of one photons sets the angular momentum of another: is this an angular version of the EPR (Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen) paradox?

  11. Technology Solutions Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Rudd and D. Bergey

    2015-08-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs.

  12. Ventilation for an enclosure of a gas turbine and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroeder, Troy Joseph; Leach, David; O'Toole, Michael Anthony

    2002-01-01

    A ventilation scheme for a rotary machine supported on pedestals within an enclosure having a roof, end walls and side walls with the machine arranged parallel to the side walls, includes ventilation air inlets located in a first end wall of the enclosure; a barrier wall located within the enclosure, proximate the first end wall to thereby create a plenum chamber. The barrier wall is constructed to provide a substantially annular gap between the barrier wall and a casing of the turbine to thereby direct ventilation air axially along the turbine; one or more ventilation air outlets located proximate a second, opposite end wall on the roof of the enclosure. In addition, one or more fans are provided for pulling ventilating air into said plenum chamber via the ventilation air inlets.

  13. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix A-3: Basis for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste light water reactor projections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, A.; Tuite, P.; Tuite, K.; Woodberry, S.

    1994-09-01

    This study characterizes low-level radioactive waste types that may exceed Class C limits at light water reactors, estimates the amounts of waste generated, and estimates radionuclide content and distribution within the waste. Waste types that may exceed Class C limits include metal components that become activated during operations, process wastes such as cartridge filters and decontamination resins, and activated metals from decommissioning activities. Operating parameters and current management practices at operating plants are reviewed and used to estimate the amounts of low-level waste exceeding Class C limits that is generated per fuel cycle, including amounts of routinely generated activated metal components and process waste. Radionuclide content is calculated for specific activated metals components. Empirical data from actual low-level radioactive waste are used to estimate radionuclide content for process wastes. Volumes and activities are also estimated for decommissioning activated metals that exceed Class C limits. To estimate activation levels of decommissioning waste, six typical light water reactors are modeled and analyzed. This study does not consider concentration averaging.

  14. Chaudagaz condensation water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nocturne, P.

    1982-01-01

    The Chaudagaz water heater offers (1) a high heating capacity (40 kW) through the use of a ventilator-equipped burner, (2) quick warmup (less than 20 min), and (3) high heating efficiency (85% upper calorific value) obtained by a unique heat-recovery system. The combustion products rise through a central cylinder, then flow downward along stainless-steel spiral tubing, warming the water and exiting from the bottom of the tank. This natural flow allows easy discharge of condensates and prevents cold air from sweeping through the stack when the burner is off.

  15. Energy and air quality implications of passive stack ventilation in residential buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max

    2011-01-01

    Ventilation requires energy to transport and condition the incoming air. The energy consumption for ventilation in residential buildings depends on the ventilation rate required to maintain an acceptable indoor air quality. Historically, U.S. residential buildings relied on natural infiltration to provide sufficient ventilation, but as homes get tighter, designed ventilation systems are more frequently required particularly for new energy efficient homes and retrofitted homes. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 is used to specify the minimum ventilation rate required in residential buildings and compliance is normally achieved with fully mechanical whole-house systems; however, alternative methods may be used to provide the required ventilation when their air quality equivalency has been proven. One appealing method is the use of passive stack ventilation systems. They have been used for centuries to ventilate buildings and are often used in ventilation regulations in other countries. Passive stacks are appealing because they require no fans or electrical supply (which could lead to lower cost) and do not require maintenance (thus being more robust and reliable). The downside to passive stacks is that there is little control of ventilation air flow rates because they rely on stack and wind effects that depend on local time-varying weather. In this study we looked at how passive stacks might be used in different California climates and investigated control methods that can be used to optimize indoor air quality and energy use. The results showed that passive stacks can be used to provide acceptable indoor air quality per ASHRAE 62.2 with the potential to save energy provided that they are sized appropriately and flow controllers are used to limit over-ventilation.

  16. Critical Question #2: What are the Best Practices for Ventilation Specific

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Multifamily Buildings? | Department of Energy 2: What are the Best Practices for Ventilation Specific to Multifamily Buildings? Critical Question #2: What are the Best Practices for Ventilation Specific to Multifamily Buildings? What is the best practice to address ASHRAE 62.2 Addendum J (multifamily)? Why is exhaust only (with supply in hallway) the current standard practice? Are there options to avoid air exchange with neighbors? How do stack and wind pressures affect ventilation

  17. Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boggs, David Lee; Baraszu, Daniel James; Foulkes, David Mark; Gomes, Enio Goyannes

    1998-01-01

    An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine's crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages.

  18. Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boggs, D.L.; Baraszu, D.J.; Foulkes, D.M.; Gomes, E.G.

    1998-12-29

    An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine`s crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages. 4 figs.

  19. Building America Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts, Tyler, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-08-01

    ?Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy.

  20. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America research on simple whole-house ventilation systems that cost less than $350 to install and meet code requirements.

  1. Ventilation Effectiveness Research at UT-Typer Lab Houses | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Ventilation Effectiveness Research at UT-Typer Lab Houses Ventilation Effectiveness Research at UT-Typer Lab Houses This presentation was delivered at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Technical Update meeting on April 29-30, 2013, in Denver, Colorado. cq7_ventilation_lab_houses_rudd.pdf (1.46 MB) More Documents & Publications Critical Question #7: What are the Best Practices for Single-Family Ventilation in All Climate Regions? Building America Technology Solutions

  2. Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing- Building America Top Innovation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Building America Innovations profile describes Building America research on simple whole-house ventilation systems that cost less than $350 to install and meet code requirements.

  3. CO2 MONITORING FOR DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Faulkner, David; Eliseeva, Ekaterina

    2010-03-17

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sensors are often deployed in commercial buildings to obtain CO{sub 2} data that are used, in a process called demand-controlled ventilation, to automatically modulate rates of outdoor air ventilation. The objective is to keep ventilation rates at or above design specifications and code requirements and also to save energy by avoiding excessive ventilation rates. Demand controlled ventilation is most often used in spaces with highly variable and sometime dense occupancy. Reasonably accurate CO{sub 2} measurements are needed for successful demand controlled ventilation; however, prior research has suggested substantial measurement errors. Accordingly, this study evaluated: (a) the accuracy of 208 CO{sub 2} single-location sensors located in 34 commercial buildings, (b) the accuracy of four multi-location CO{sub 2} measurement systems that utilize tubing, valves, and pumps to measure at multiple locations with single CO{sub 2} sensors, and (c) the spatial variability of CO{sub 2} concentrations within meeting rooms. The field studies of the accuracy of single-location CO{sub 2} sensors included multi-concentration calibration checks of 90 sensors in which sensor accuracy was checked at multiple CO{sub 2} concentrations using primary standard calibration gases. From these evaluations, average errors were small, -26 ppm and -9 ppm at 760 and 1010 ppm, respectively; however, the averages of the absolute values of error were 118 ppm (16%) and 138 ppm (14%), at concentrations of 760 and 1010 ppm, respectively. The calibration data are generally well fit by a straight line as indicated by high values of R{sup 2}. The Title 24 standard specifies that sensor error must be certified as no greater than 75 ppm for a period of five years after sensor installation. At 1010 ppm, 40% of sensors had errors greater than {+-}75 ppm and 31% of sensors has errors greater than {+-}100 ppm. At 760 ppm, 47% of sensors had errors greater than {+-}75 ppm and 37% of

  4. National Lighting Energy Consumption

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lighting Energy National Lighting Energy Consumption Consumption 390 Billion kWh used for lighting in all 390 Billion kWh used for lighting in all commercial buildings in commercial buildings in 2001 2001 LED (<.1% ) Incandescent 40% HID 22% Fluorescent 38% Lighting Energy Consumption by Lighting Energy Consumption by Breakdown of Lighting Energy Breakdown of Lighting Energy Major Sector and Light Source Type Major Sector and Light Source Type Source: Navigant Consulting, Inc., U.S. Lighting

  5. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 143: Availability of chilled water system and room cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, V.T.

    1993-12-01

    This report presents the regulatory analysis for Generic Issue (GI-143), {open_quotes}Availability of Chilled Water System and Room Cooling.{close_quotes} The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and related auxiliaries are required to provide control of environmental conditions in areas in light water reactor (LWR) plants that contain safety-related equipment. In some plants, the HVAC and chilled water systems serve to maintain a suitable environment for both safety and non-safety-related areas. Although some plants have an independent chilled water system for the safety-related areas, the heat removal capability often depends on the operability of other supporting systems such as the service water system or the component cooling water system. The operability of safety-related components depends upon operation of the HVAC and chilled water systems to remove heat from areas containing the equipment. If cooling to dissipate the heat generated is unavailable, the ability of the safety-related equipment to operate as intended cannot be assured. Typical components or areas in the nuclear power plant that could be affected by the failure of cooling from HVAC or chilled water systems include the (1) emergency switchgear and battery rooms, (2) emergency diesel generator room, (3) pump rooms for residual heat removal, reactor core isolation cooling, high-pressure core spray, and low-pressure core spray, and (4) control room. The unavailability of such safety-related equipment or areas could cause the core damage frequency (CDF) to increase significantly.

  6. Light Show

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Lightning - Nature's Light Show Lightning provides one of nature's most spectacular displays of energy. Though fascinating to observe, lightning can be dangerous and deadly. Protecting ARM instruments from lightning damage is vital. Putting equipment worth millions of dollars into open fields (Photo: NOAA) ARM Facilities Newsletter is published by Argonne National Laboratory, a multiprogram laboratory operated by The University of Chicago under contract W-31-109-Eng-38 with the U.S. Department

  7. The impact of demand-controlled and economizer ventilation strategies on energy use in buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandemuehl, M.J.; Braun, J.E.

    1999-07-01

    The overall objective of this work was to evaluate typical energy requirements associated with alternative ventilation control strategies for constant-air-volume (CAV) systems in commercial buildings. The strategies included different combinations of economizer and demand-controlled ventilation, and energy analyses were performed for four typical building types, eight alternative ventilation systems, and twenty US climates. Only single-zone buildings were considered so that simultaneous heating and cooling did not exist. The energy savings associated with economizer and demand-controlled ventilation strategies were found to be very significant for both heating and cooling. In general, the greatest savings in electrical usage for cooling with the addition of demand-controlled ventilation occur in situations where the opportunities for economizer cooling are less. This is true for warm and humid climates and for buildings that have relatively low internal gains (i.e., low occupant densities). As much as 20% savings in electrical energy for cooling were possible with demand-controlled ventilation. The savings in heating energy associated with demand-controlled ventilation were generally much larger but were strongly dependent upon the building type and occupancy schedule. Significantly greater savings were found for buildings with highly variable occupancy schedules and large internal gains (i.e., restaurants) as compared with office buildings. In some cases, the primary heating energy was virtually eliminated by demand-controlled ventilation as compared with fixed ventilation rates. For both heating and cooling, the savings associated with demand-controlled ventilation are dependent on the fixed minimum ventilation rate of the base case at design conditions.

  8. (Lighting and) Solid-State Lighting: Science, Technology, Economic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Perspectives Lighting and) Solid-State Lighting: Science, Technology, Economic Perspectives - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization

  9. DESCRIPTION OF THE TRITIUM-PRODUCING BURNABLE ABSORBER ROD FOR THE COMMERCIAL LIGHT WATER REACTOR TTQP-1-015 Rev 19

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, Kimberly A.; Love, Edward F.; Thornhill, Cheryl K.

    2012-02-01

    Tritium-producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) used in the U.S. Department of Energy’s Tritium Readiness Program are designed to produce tritium when placed in a Westinghouse or Framatome 17x17 fuel assembly and irradiated in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). This document provides an unclassified description of the current design baseline for the TPBARs. This design baseline is currently valid only for Watts Bar reactor production cores. A description of the Lead Use TPBARs will not be covered in the text of the document, but the applicable drawings, specifications and test plan will be included in the appropriate appendices.

  10. Lower-Temperature Subsurface Layout and Ventilation Concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christine L. Linden; Edward G. Thomas

    2001-06-20

    This analysis combines work scope identified as subsurface facility (SSF) low temperature (LT) Facilities System and SSF LT Ventilation System in the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M&O 2001b, pp. 6 and 7, and pp. 13 and 14). In accordance with this technical work plan (TWP), this analysis is performed using AP-3.10Q, Analyses and Models. It also incorporates the procedure AP-SI.1Q, Software Management. The purpose of this analysis is to develop an overall subsurface layout system and the overall ventilation system concepts that address a lower-temperature operating mode for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The objective of this analysis is to provide a technical design product that supports the lower-temperature operating mode concept for the revision of the system description documents and to provide a basis for the system description document design descriptions. The overall subsurface layout analysis develops and describes the overall subsurface layout, including performance confirmation facilities (also referred to as Test and Evaluation Facilities) for the Site Recommendation design. This analysis also incorporates current program directives for thermal management.

  11. Ventilation assessment of an infectious disease ward housing TB patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, M.S.; Hughes, R.T.

    1996-05-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) assisted the National Center for Infectious Diseases and the National Center for Prevention Services, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), in their investigation of nosocomial transmission of tuberculosis (TB) at a Veterans Administration Medical Center. NIOSH was asked to determine whether ventilation requirements expected of TB patient isolation facilities were being met. In the Infectious Disease ward (513), 24 staff were given a tuberculin skin test (TST) in the summer of 1991. Eleven (46%) were positive then, and 13 were negative. Ten of the 13 testing negative in 1991 were retested within a year, and 5 (50%) converted to a positive TST. NIOSH investigators made ventilation measurements on Ward 5B, an infectious diseases ward housing patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), two of them with infectious TB, to determine the status of the systems serving the area. Airflow measurements showed that in all the single-patient rooms, exhaust airflow was essentially zero. The average supply airflow varied above and below the designed value. These rooms were all positively pressurized, which would be recommended for the isolation of infectious patients. Based on the measurements made during this evaluation, it was recommended that a separate isolation facility be constructed in the hospital to house infectious patients. Interim corrective measures for the systems in place were also recommended.

  12. Operating experience review - Ventilation systems at Department of Energy Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The Office of Special Projects (DP-35), formerly Office of Self-Assessment (DP-9), analyzed occurrences caused by problems with equipment and material and recommended the following systems for an in-depth study: (1) Selective Alpha Air Monitor (SAAM), (2) Emergency Diesel Generator, (3) Ventilation System, (4) Fire Alarm System. Further, DP-35 conducted an in-depth review of the problems associated with SAAM and with diesel generators, and made several recommendations. This study focusses on ventilation system. The intent was to determine the causes for the events related to these system that were reported in the Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), to identify components that failed, and to provide technical information from the commercial and nuclear industries on the design, operation, maintenance, and surveillance related to the system and its components. From these data, sites can develop a comprehensive program of maintenance management, including surveillance, to avoid similar occurrences, and to be in compliance with the following DOE orders.

  13. Night-time naturally ventilated offices: Statistical simulations of window-use patterns from field monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Geun Young; Steemers, Koen

    2010-07-15

    This paper investigates occupant behaviour of window-use in night-time naturally ventilated offices on the basis of a pilot field study, conducted during the summers of 2006 and 2007 in Cambridge, UK, and then demonstrates the effects of employing night-time ventilation on indoor thermal conditions using predictive models of occupant window-use. A longitudinal field study shows that occupants make good use of night-time natural ventilation strategies when provided with openings that allow secure ventilation, and that there is a noticeable time of day effect in window-use patterns (i.e. increased probability of action on arrival and departure). We develop logistic models of window-use for night-time naturally ventilated offices, which are subsequently applied to a behaviour algorithm, including Markov chains and Monte Carlo methods. The simulations using the behaviour algorithm demonstrate a good agreement with the observational data of window-use, and reveal how building design and occupant behaviour collectively affect the thermal performance of offices. They illustrate that the provision of secure ventilation leads to more frequent use of the window, and thus contributes significantly to the achievement of a comfortable indoor environment during the daytime occupied period. For example, the maximum temperature for a night-time ventilated office is found to be 3 C below the predicted value for a daytime-only ventilated office. (author)

  14. Comparison of freezing control strategies for residential air-to-air heat recovery ventilators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, E.G.; Bradley, L.C. ); Chant, R.E. ); Fisher, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    A comparison of the energy performance of defrost and frost control strategies for residential air-to-air heat recovery ventilators (HRV) has been carried out by using computer simulations for various climatic conditions. This paper discusses the results and conclusions from the comparisons and their implications for the heat recovery ventilator manufacturers and system designers.

  15. Infiltration Effects on Residential Pollutant Concentrations for Continuous and Intermittent Mechanical Ventilation Approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max; Logue, Jennifer; Singer, Brett

    2010-06-01

    The prevailing residential ventilation standard in North America, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specifies volumetric airflow requirements as a function of the overall size of the home and the number of bedrooms, assumes a fixed, minimal amount of infiltration, and requires mechanical ventilation to achieve the remainder. The standard allows for infiltration credits and intermittent ventilation patterns that can be shown to provide comparable performance. Whole-house ventilation methods have a substantial effect on time-varying indoor pollutant concentrations. If alternatives specified by Standard 62.2, such as intermittent ventilation, are used, short-term pollutant concentrations could exceed acute health standards even if chronic health standards are met.The authors present a methodology for comparing ASHRAE- and non-ASHRAE-specified ventilation scenarios on relative indoor pollutant concentrations. We use numerical modeling to compare the maximum time-averaged concentrations for acute exposure relevant (1-hour, 8-hour, 24-hour ) and chronic exposure relevant (1-year) time periods for four different ventilation scenarios in six climates with a range of normalized leakage values. The results suggest that long-term concentrations are the most important metric for assessing the effectiveness of whole-house ventilation systems in meeting exposure standards and that, if chronic health exposure standards are met, acute standards will also be met.

  16. Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-08

    The transpired solar collector was installed on NREL's Waste handling Facility (WHF) in 1990 to preheat ventilation air. The electrically heated WHF was an ideal candidate for the this technology - requiring a ventilation rate of 3,000 cubic feet per meter to maintain safe indoor conditions.

  17. The impact of demand-controlled ventilation on energy use in buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braun, J.E.; Brandemuehl, M.J.

    1999-07-01

    The overall objective of this work was to evaluate typical energy requirements associated with alternative ventilation control strategies. The strategies included different combinations of economizer and demand-controlled ventilation controls and energy analyses were performed for a range of typical buildings, systems, and climates. Only single zone buildings were considered, so that simultaneous heating and cooling did not exist. The energy savings associated with economizer and demand-controlled ventilation strategies were found to be very significant for both heating and cooling. In general, the greatest savings in electrical usage for cooling with the addition of demand-controlled ventilation occur in situations where the opportunities for economizer cooling are less. This is true for warm and humid climates, and for buildings that have low relative internal gains (i.e., low occupant densities). As much as 10% savings in electrical energy for cooling were possible with demand-controlled ventilation. The savings in heating energy associated with demand-controlled ventilation were generally much larger, but were strongly dependent upon the occupancy schedule. Significantly greater savings were found for buildings with highly variable occupancy schedules (e.g., stores and restaurants) as compared with office buildings. In some cases, the primary heating energy was reduced by a factor of 10 with demand-controlled ventilation as compared with fixed ventilation rates.

  18. Sealed Crawl Spaces with Integrated Whole-House Ventilation in a Cold Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zoeller, William; Williamson, James; Puttafunta, Srikanth

    2015-07-30

    One method of code-compliance for crawlspaces is to seal and insulate the crawlspace, rather than venting to the outdoors. However, codes require mechanical ventilation; either via conditioned supply air from the HVAC system, or a continuous exhaust ventilation strategy. As the CARB's building partner, Ithaca Neighborhood Housing Services, intended to use the unvented crawlspace in a recent

  19. Comparison of energy consumption between displacement and mixing ventilation systems for different U.S. buildings and climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, S.; Chen, Q.; Glicksman, L.R.

    1999-07-01

    A detailed computer simulation method was used to compare the energy consumption of a displacement ventilation system with that of a mixing ventilation system for three types of US buildings: a small office, a classroom, and an industrial workshop. The study examined five typical climatic regions as well as different building zones. It was found that a displacement ventilation system may use more fan energy and less chiller and boiler energy than a mixing ventilation system. The total energy consumption is slightly less using a displacement ventilation system. Both systems can use a similarly sized boiler. However, a displacement ventilation system requires a larger air-handling unit and a smaller chiller than the mixing ventilation system. The overall first costs are lower for the displacement ventilation if the system is applied for the core region of a building.

  20. Building America Technology Solutions Case Study: Sealed Crawled Spaces with Integrated Whole-House Ventilation in a Cold Climate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) investigated a hybrid ventilation method that included the exhaust air from the crawl space as part of an ASHRAE 62.2-compliant whole-house ventilation strategy.

  1. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Idaho National Laboratory Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor Rods and Pellets Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shott, Gregory

    2014-08-31

    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) Rods and Pellets waste stream (INEL103597TR2, Revision 2) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The INL Unirradiated LWBR Rods and Pellets waste stream consists of 24 containers with unirradiated fabricated rods and pellets composed of uranium oxide (UO2) and thorium oxide (ThO2) fuel in zirconium cladding. The INL Unirradiated LWBR Rods and Pellets waste stream requires an SA because the 229Th, 230Th, 232U, 233U, and 234U activity concentrations exceed the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  2. Significant issues and changes for ANSI/ASME OM-1 1981, part 1, ASME OMc code-1994, and ASME OM Code-1995, Appendix I, inservice testing of pressure relief devices in light water reactor power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seniuk, P.J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper identifies significant changes to the ANSI/ASME OM-1 1981, Part 1, and ASME Omc Code-1994 and ASME OM Code-1995, Appendix I, {open_quotes}Inservice Testing of Pressure Relief Devices in Light-Water Reactor Power Plants{close_quotes}. The paper describes changes to different Code editions and presents insights into the direction of the code committee and selected topics to be considered by the ASME O&M Working Group on pressure relief devices. These topics include scope issues, thermal relief valve issues, as-found and as-left set-pressure determinations, exclusions from testing, and cold setpoint bench testing. The purpose of this paper is to describe some significant issues being addressed by the O&M Working Group on Pressure Relief Devices (OM-1). The writer is currently the chair of OM-1 and the statements expressed herein represents his personal opinion.

  3. Photocatalytic splitting of water under visible-light irradiation over the NiOx-loaded Sm{sub 2}InTaO{sub 7} with 4f-d{sup 10}-d{sup 0} configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang Xinde; Ye Hongqi; Liu Hui; Ma Chenxia; Zhao Zhi

    2010-01-15

    A new visible-light-response photocatalyst Sm{sub 2}InTaO{sub 7} with 4f-d{sup 10}-d{sup 0} configuration crystallized in a cubic system with the space group Fd3m was synthesized by a solid-state reaction method. NiOx-loaded Sm{sub 2}InTaO{sub 7} showed high photocatalytic activities for H{sub 2} evolution from pure water under visible light irradiation (lambda>400 nm). Changes in the photocatalytic activity with the calcination temperature of Sm{sub 2}InTaO{sub 7} and the amount of NiOx loaded indicated that the combination of highly crystallized Sm{sub 2}InTaO{sub 7} and a high dispersion of NiOx particles led to high photocatalytic activity. The high photocatalytic performance of NiOx-loaded Sm{sub 2}InTaO{sub 7} supported the existing view that the photocatalytic activity correlated with the lattice distortion. Density functional theory calculation indicated that strong dispersion from the hybridized In 5s 5p orbitals at the bottom of the conduction band was responsible for the high activity of photocatalyst Sm{sub 2}InTaO{sub 7}. - Graphical abstract: A new visible-light-response photocatalyst Sm{sub 2}InTaO{sub 7} with 4f-d{sup 10}-d{sup 0} configuration was developed. DFT calculation indicated that strong dispersion from the hybridized In 5s 5p orbitals was responsible for the high photocatalytic activity.

  4. Impact of Residential Mechanical Ventilation on Energy Cost and Humidity Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing whole house mechanical ventilation as part of the Building Ameerica program's systems engineered approach to constructing housing has been an important subject of the program's research. Ventilation in residential buildings is one component of an effective, comprehensive strategy for creation and maintenance of a comfortable and healthy indoor air environment. The study described in this report is based on building energy modeling with an important focus on the indoor humidity impacts of ventilation. The modeling tools used were EnergyPlus version 7.1 (E+) and EnergyGauge USA (EGUSA). Twelve U.S. cities and five climate zones were represented. A total of 864 simulations (2*2*3*3*12= 864) were run using two building archetypes, two building leakage rates, two building orientations, three ventilation systems, three ventilation rates, and twelve climates.

  5. Building America Case Study: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-12-01

    This document addresses adding -or improving - mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including some discussion of relevant codes and standards. Advantages, disadvantages, and approximate costs of various system types are presented along with general guidelines for implementing the systems in homes. CARB intends for this document to be useful to decision makers and contractors implementing ventilation systems in homes. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors. It is the intent of this document to assist contractors in making more informed decisions when selecting systems. Ventilation is an integral part of a high-performance home. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability.

  6. Impact of Residential Mechanical Ventilation on Energy Cost and Humidity Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, E.

    2014-01-01

    The DOE Building America program has been conducting research leading to cost effective high performance homes since the early 1990's. Optimizing whole house mechanical ventilation as part of the program's systems engineered approach to constructing housing has been an important subject of the program's research. Ventilation in residential buildings is one component of an effective, comprehensive strategy for creation and maintenance of a comfortable and healthy indoor air environment. The study described in this white paper is based on building energy modeling with an important focus on the indoor humidity impacts of ventilation. The modeling tools used were EnergyPlus version 7.1 (E+) and EnergyGauge USA (EGUSA). Twelve U.S. cities and five climate zones were represented. A total of 864 simulations (2*2*3*3*12= 864) were run using two building archetypes, two building leakage rates, two building orientations, three ventilation systems, three ventilation rates, and twelve climates.

  7. Sealed Crawl Spaces with Integrated Whole-House Ventilation in a Cold Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zoeller, William; Williamson, James; Puttagunta, Srikanth

    2015-07-01

    One method of code-compliance for crawlspaces is to seal and insulate the crawlspace, rather than venting to the outdoors. However, codes require mechanical ventilation; either via conditioned supply air from the HVAC system, or a continuous exhaust ventilation strategy. As the CARB's building partner, Ithaca Neighborhood Housing Services, intended to use the unvented crawlspace in a recent development, CARB was interested in investigating a hybrid ventilation method that includes the exhaust air from the crawlspace as a portion of an ASHRAE 62.2 compliant whole-house ventilation strategy. This hybrid ventilation method was evaluated through a series of long-term monitoring tests that observed temperature, humidity, and pressure conditions through the home and crawlspace.

  8. Hydrogen Production: Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting, hydrogen is produced from water using sunlight and specialized semiconductors called photoelectrochemical materials, which use light energy to directly dissociate water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen.

  9. Steam turbine: Alternative emergency drive for the secure removal of residual heat from the core of light water reactors in ultimate emergency situation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souza Dos Santos, R.

    2012-07-01

    In 2011 the nuclear power generation has suffered an extreme probation. That could be the meaning of what happened in Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants. In those plants, an earthquake of 8.9 on the Richter scale was recorded. The quake intensity was above the trip point of shutting down the plants. Since heat still continued to be generated, the procedure to cooling the reactor was started. One hour after the earthquake, a tsunami rocked the Fukushima shore, degrading all cooling system of plants. Since the earthquake time, the plant had lost external electricity, impacting the pumping working, drive by electric engine. When operable, the BWR plants responded the management of steam. However, the lack of electricity had degraded the plant maneuvers. In this paper we have presented a scheme to use the steam as an alternative drive to maintain operable the cooling system of nuclear power plant. This scheme adds more reliability and robustness to the cooling systems. Additionally, we purposed a solution to the cooling in case of lacking water for the condenser system. In our approach, steam driven turbines substitute electric engines in the ultimate emergency cooling system. (authors)

  10. Materials for light-induced water splitting: In situ controlled surface preparation of GaPN epilayers grown lattice-matched on Si(100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Supplie, Oliver; May, Matthias M.; Stange, Helena; Hhn, Christian; Lewerenz, Hans-Joachim; Hannappel, Thomas

    2014-03-21

    Energy storage is a key challenge in solar-driven renewable energy conversion. We promote a photochemical diode based on dilute nitride GaPN grown lattice-matched on Si(100), which could reach both high photovoltaic efficiencies and evolve hydrogen directly without external bias. Homoepitaxial GaP(100) surface preparation was shown to have a significant impact on the semiconductor-water interface formation. Here, we grow a thin, pseudomorphic GaP nucleation buffer on almost single-domain Si(100) prior to GaPN growth and compare the GaP{sub 0.98}N{sub 0.02}/Si(100) surface preparation to established P- and Ga-rich surfaces of GaP/Si(100). We apply reflection anisotropy spectroscopy to study the surface preparation of GaP{sub 0.98}N{sub 0.02} in situ in vapor phase epitaxy ambient and benchmark the signals to low energy electron diffraction, photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. While the preparation of the Ga-rich surface is hardly influenced by the presence of the nitrogen precursor 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), we find that stabilization with UDMH after growth hinders well-defined formation of the V-rich GaP{sub 0.98}N{sub 0.02}/Si(100) surface. Additional features in the reflection anisotropy spectra are suggested to be related to nitrogen incorporation in the GaP bulk.

  11. Reading Municipal Light Department - Business Lighting Rebate...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with Electronic Ballasts: 100fixture De-lamping: 4 - 9lamp Lighting Sensors: 20sensor LED Exit Signs: 20fixture Summary Reading Municipal Light Department (RMLD) offers...

  12. White Light Creation Architectures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Frontier Research Centers: Solid-State Lighting Science Center for Frontiers of ... White Light Creation Architectures HomeEnergy ResearchEFRCsSolid-State Lighting Science ...

  13. Light Creation Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Frontier Research Centers: Solid-State Lighting Science Center for Frontiers of ... Light Creation Materials HomeEnergy ResearchEFRCsSolid-State Lighting Science EFRC...

  14. light-emitting diode

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Cost The high-brightness, rapidly pulsed, multicolor light-emitting diode (LED) driver delivers lighting performance that exceeds that of conventional (laserarc-light) sources ...

  15. Measurements and computations of room airflow with displacement ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, X.; Chen, Q.; Glicksman, L.R.; Hu, Y.; Yang, X.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents a set of detailed experimental data of room airflow with displacement ventilation. These data were obtained from a new environmental test facility. The measurements were conducted for three typical room configurations: a small office, a large office with partitions, and a classroom. The distributions of air velocity, air velocity fluctuation, and air temperature were measured by omnidirectional hot-sphere anemometers, and contaminant concentrations were measured by tracer gas at 54 points in the rooms. Smoke was used to observe airflow. The data also include the wall surface temperature distribution, air supply parameters, and the age of air at several locations in the rooms. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program with the Re-Normalization Group (RNG) {kappa}-{epsilon} model was also used to predict the indoor airflow. The agreement between the computed results and measured data of air temperature and velocity is good. However, some discrepancies exist in the computed and measured concentrations and velocity fluctuation.

  16. Energy Impact of Residential Ventilation Norms in the UnitedStates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2007-02-01

    The first and only national norm for residential ventilation in the United States is Standard 62.2-2004 published by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). This standard does not by itself have the force of regulation, but is being considered for adoption by various jurisdictions within the U.S. as well as by various voluntary programs. The adoption of 62.2 would require mechanical ventilation systems to be installed in virtually all new homes, but allows for a wide variety of design solutions. These solutions, however, may have a different energy costs and non-energy benefits. This report uses a detailed simulation model to evaluate the energy impacts of currently popular and proposed mechanical ventilation approaches that are 62.2 compliant for a variety of climates. These results separate the energy needed to ventilate from the energy needed to condition the ventilation air, from the energy needed to distribute and/or temper the ventilation air. The results show that exhaust systems are generally the most energy efficient method of meeting the proposed requirements. Balanced and supply systems have more ventilation resulting in greater energy and their associated distribution energy use can be significant.

  17. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS IN TANK FARMS OPERATING SPECIFICATIONS DOCUMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BERGLIN, E J

    2003-06-23

    This report provides the technical basis for high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) for Hanford tank farm ventilation systems (sometimes known as heating, ventilation and air conditioning [HVAC]) to support limits defined in Process Engineering Operating Specification Documents (OSDs). This technical basis included a review of older technical basis and provides clarifications, as necessary, to technical basis limit revisions or justification. This document provides an updated technical basis for tank farm ventilation systems related to Operation Specification Documents (OSDs) for double-shell tanks (DSTs), single-shell tanks (SSTs), double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTs), catch tanks, and various other miscellaneous facilities.

  18. Nanostructured Water Oxidation Catalysts - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Nanostructured Water Oxidation Catalysts Lawrence ... Berkeley Lab have developed a visible light driven catalytic system for oxidizing water. ...

  19. ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a 50% reduction in building energy consumption. ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Low-Rise Residential Buildings (890.97 KB) More Documents & ...

  20. Workers Remove Glove Boxes from Ventilation at Hanford’s Plutonium Finishing Plant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An employee at Hanford’s Plutonium Finishing Plant uses a portable band saw to cut the last ventilation duct attached to glove boxes inside the facility’s former processing area.

  1. Building America Technologies Solutions Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this study, the Building America team Building Science Corporation tested the effectiveness of various ventilation systems at two unoccupied, single-family lab homes at the University of Texas at Tyler.

  2. Economizer system cost effectiveness: Accounting for the influence of ventilation rate on sick leave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Seppanen, Olli; Faulkner, David; Huang, Joe

    2003-06-01

    This study estimated the health, energy, and economic benefits of an economizer ventilation control system that increases outside air supply during mild weather to save energy. A model of the influence of ventilation rate on airborne transmission of respiratory illnesses was used to extend the limited data relating ventilation rate with illness and sick leave. An energy simulation model calculated ventilation rates and energy use versus time for an office building in Washington, DC with fixed minimum outdoor air supply rates, with and without an economizer. Sick leave rates were estimated with the disease transmission model. In the modeled 72-person office building, our analyses indicate that the economizer reduces energy costs by approximately $2000 and, in addition, reduces sick leave. The financial benefit of the decrease in sick leave is estimated to be between $6,000 and $16,000. This modelling suggests that economizers are much more cost effective than currently recognized.

  3. Mechanical ventilation in HUD-code manufactured housing in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lubliner, M.; Stevens, D.T.; Davis, B.

    1997-12-31

    Electric utilities in the Pacific Northwest have spent more than $100 million to support energy-efficiency improvements in the Housing and Urban Development (HUD) code manufactured housing industry in the Pacific Northwest over the past several years. More than 65,000 manufactured housing units have been built since 1991 that exceed the new HUD standards for both thermal performance and mechanical ventilation that became effective in October 1994. All of these units included mechanical ventilation systems that were designed to meet or exceed the requirements of ASHRAE Standard 62-1989. This paper addresses the ventilation solutions that were developed and compares the comfort and energy considerations of the various strategies that have evolved in the Pacific Northwest and nationally. The use and location of a variety of outside air inlets will be addressed, as will the acceptance by the occupants of the ventilation strategy.

  4. DOE ZERH Webinar: Ventilation and Filtration Strategies with Indoor airPLUS (Text Version)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Below is the text version of the webinar, DOE Zero Energy Ready Home: Ventilation and Filtration Strategies with Indoor airPLUS, presented in August 2014. Watch the presentation.

  5. Alternatives generation and analysis for double-shell tank primary ventilation systems emissions control and monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SEDERBURG, J.P.

    1999-09-30

    This AGA addresses the question: ''What equipment upgrades, operational changes, and/or other actions are required relative to the DST tanks farms' ventilation systems to support retrieval, staging (including feed sampling), and delivery of tank waste to the Phase I private contractor?'' Issues and options for the various components within the ventilation subsystem affect each other. Recommended design requirements are presented and the preferred alternatives are detailed.

  6. Analysis of Buoyancy-Driven Ventilation of Hydrogen from Buildings (Presentation)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Buoyancy-Driven Ventilation of Hydrogen from Buildings C. Dennis Barley, Keith Gawlik, Jim Ohi, Russell Hewett National Renewable Laboratory U.S. DOE Hydrogen Safety, Codes & Standards Program Presented at 2 nd ICHS, San Sebastián, Spain September 11, 2007 NREL/PR-550-42289 Scope of Work * Safe building design * Vehicle leak in residential garage * Continual slow leak * Passive, buoyancy-driven ventilation (vs. mechanical) * Steady-state concentration of H 2 vs. vent size Prior Work *

  7. Safety evaluation report related to the Department of Energy`s proposal for the irradiation of lead test assemblies containing tritium-producing burnable absorber rods in commercial light-water reactors. Project Number 697

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The NRC staff has reviewed a report, submitted by DOE to determine whether the use of a commercial light-water reactor (CLWR) to irradiate a limited number of tritium-producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) in lead test assemblies (LTAs) raises generic issues involving an unreviewed safety question. The staff has prepared this safety evaluation to address the acceptability of these LTAs in accordance with the provision of 10 CFR 50.59 without NRC licensing action. As summarized in Section 10 of this safety evaluation, the staff has identified issues that require NRC review. The staff has also identified a number of areas in which an individual licensee undertaking irradiation of TPBAR LTAs will have to supplement the information in the DOE report before the staff can determine whether the proposed irradiation is acceptable at a particular facility. The staff concludes that a licensee undertaking irradiation of TPBAR LTAs in a CLWR will have to submit an application for amendment to its facility operating license before inserting the LTAs into the reactor.

  8. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

  9. Description of the Canadian particulate-fill waste-package (WP) system for spent-nuclear fuel (SNF) and its applicability to light-water reactor SNF WPs with depleted uranium-dioxide fill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1997-10-20

    The US is beginning work on an advanced, light-water reactor (LWR), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), waste package (WP) that uses depleted uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) fill. The Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program has completed a 15-year development program of its repository concept for CANadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactor SNF. As one option, Canada has developed a WP that uses a glass-bead or silica-sand fill. The Canadian development work on fill materials inside WPs can provide a guide for the development of LWR SNF WPs using depleted uranium (DU) fill materials. This report summarizes the Canadian work, identifies similarities and differences between the Canadian design and the design being investigated in the US to use DU fill, and identifies what information is applicable to the development of a DU fill for LWR SNF WPs. In both concepts, empty WPs are loaded with SNF, the void space between the fuel pins and the outer void space between SNF assemblies and the inner WP wall would be filled with small particles, the WPs are then sealed, and the WPs are placed into the repository.

  10. Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation: Simulation and Comparison of Normalized Exposures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petithuguenin, T.D.P.; Sherman, M.H.

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of ventilation is to dilute indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. Even when providing the same nominal rate of outdoor air, different ventilation systems may distribute air in different ways, affecting occupants' exposure to household contaminants. Exposure ultimately depends on the home being considered, on source disposition and strength, on occupants' behavior, on the ventilation strategy, and on operation of forced air heating and cooling systems. In any multi-zone environment dilution rates and source strengths may be different in every zone and change in time, resulting in exposure being tied to occupancy patterns.This paper will report on simulations that compare ventilation systems by assessing their impact on exposure by examining common house geometries, contaminant generation profiles, and occupancy scenarios. These simulations take into account the unsteady, occupancy-tied aspect of ventilation such as bathroom and kitchen exhaust fans. As most US homes have central HVAC systems, the simulation results will be used to make appropriate recommendations and adjustments for distribution and mixing to residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.This paper will report on work being done to model multizone airflow systems that are unsteady and elaborate the concept of distribution matrix. It will examine several metrics for evaluating the effect of air distribution on exposure to pollutants, based on previous work by Sherman et al. (2006).

  11. An air flow sensor for neonatal mechanical ventilation applications based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battista, L.; Sciuto, S. A.; Scorza, A.

    2013-03-15

    In this work, a simple and low-cost air flow sensor, based on a novel fiber-optic sensing technique has been developed for monitoring air flows rates supplied by a neonatal ventilator to support infants in intensive care units. The device is based on a fiber optic sensing technique allowing (a) the immunity to light intensity variations independent by measurand and (b) the reduction of typical shortcomings affecting all biomedical fields (electromagnetic interference and patient electrical safety). The sensing principle is based on the measurement of transversal displacement of an emitting fiber-optic cantilever due to action of air flow acting on it; the fiber tip displacement is measured by means of a photodiode linear array, placed in front of the entrance face of the emitting optical fiber in order to detect its light intensity profile. As the measurement system is based on a detection of the illumination pattern, and not on an intensity modulation technique, it results less sensitive to light intensity fluctuation independent by measurand than intensity-based sensors. The considered technique is here adopted in order to develop two different configurations for an air flow sensor suitable for the measurement of air flow rates typically occurring during mechanical ventilation of newborns: a mono-directional and a bi-directional transducer have been proposed. A mathematical model for the air flow sensor is here proposed and a static calibration of two different arrangements has been performed: a measurement range up to 3.00 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} m{sup 3}/s (18.0 l/min) for the mono-directional sensor and a measurement range of {+-}3.00 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} m{sup 3}/s ({+-}18.0 l/min) for the bi-directional sensor are experimentally evaluated, according to the air flow rates normally encountered during tidal breathing of infants with a mass lower than 10 kg. Experimental data of static calibration result in accordance with the proposed

  12. Columbia Water & Light- Commercial Energy Efficiency Loans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The process involves several steps. First, the customer should have an ASHRAE Level II energy assessment conducted and complete a commercial loan application. Upon approval, the customer may proc...

  13. Fukushima Light Water Detritiation System Presentation

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    | Department of Energy Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Capstone Turbine Corporation, in collaboration with the University of California-Irvine, Packer Engineering, and Argonne National Laboratory, will develop and demonstrate a prototype microturbine combined heat and power system fueled by synthesis gas and integrated with a biomass gasifier, enabling reduced fossil fuel

  14. North Branch Municipal Water & Light - Commercial & Industrial...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with recycling of working unit Dishwasher: 25 - 40 Clothes Washer: 50 - 100 Clothes Dryer: 25 - 50 Replacement Motors: 15 - 2,700, varies by HP and efficiency Variable...

  15. Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Initiative Science...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... committee Meeting was held in Paris, France to further refine the specific work ... Integrated University Program 5,000 0 5,000 5,000 RE-ENERGYSE 0 5,000 0 0 Nuclear Power 2010 ...

  16. Mobile lighting apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

    2013-05-14

    A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

  17. Synchrotrons Explore Water's Molecular Mysteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory's Advanced Light Source, scientists observed a surprisingly dense form of water that remained liquid well beyond its typical freezing point. Researchers applied a...

  18. Carbon Power & Light - Residential and Commercial Energy Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    EE Maximum Rebate Water Heater: 75 Program Info Sector Name Utility Administrator Carbon Power & Light, Inc. Website http:www.carbonpower.comrebates.html State Wyoming...

  19. Seattle City Light- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Seattle City Light provides rebates to its customers for energy audits and purchasing and installing energy saving clothes washers, refrigerators, heat pump water heaters, ductless heat pumps,...

  20. Chicopee Electric Light Department- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Chicopee Electric Light Department (CELD) offers a variety of energy efficiency rebates for its residential customers. CELD provides rebates for heat pump water heaters, refrigerators, freezers,...

  1. Prospects for LED lighting.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Gee, James Martin; Simmons, Jerry Alvon

    2003-08-01

    Solid-state lighting using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has the potential to reduce energy consumption for lighting by 50% while revolutionizing the way we illuminate our homes, work places, and public spaces. Nevertheless, substantial technical challenges remain in order for solid-state lighting to significantly displace the well-developed conventional lighting technologies. We review the potential of LED solid-state lighting to meet the long-term cost goals.

  2. LED Street Lighting

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1, 2016 LED Street Lighting The American Medical Association's (AMA) recently adopted community guidance on street lighting adds another influential voice to issues that have been ...

  3. Lighting Developments to 2030

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Frontier Research Centers: Solid-State Lighting Science Center for Frontiers of ... Twitter Google + Vimeo Newsletter Signup SlideShare Lighting Developments to 2030 Home...

  4. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    more comprehensive understanding of commercial lighting and the potential for lighting energy savings. Steps to build on this analysis can be taken in many directions. One...

  5. Lighting Developments to 2030

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lighting Choices to Save You Money Lighting Choices to Save You Money This Energy 101 video explores the different lighting options available to consumers. Light your home using the same amount of light for less money. An average household dedicates about 5% of its energy budget to lighting. Switching to energy-efficient lighting is one of the fastest ways to cut your energy bills. By replacing your home's five most frequently used light fixtures or bulbs with models that have earned the ENERGY

  6. residential-lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency Progress Report Evaluation Utility Toolkit Residential Lighting Market Research The Residential Lighting Market Research Project will estimate market savings from...

  7. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    are also under consideration. Outside the DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency's Green Lights program promotes energy-efficient lighting as a means to reducing...

  8. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Motivation and Computation of Lighting Measures Floorspace by Lighting Equipment Configuration As described in Appendix A, for each building b, the CBECS data set has the total...

  9. Exciting White Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Windows that emit light and are more energy efficient? Universal Display’s PHOLED technology enables windows that have transparent light-emitting diodes in them.

  10. Leavenworth Tree Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Join HERO for our annual Leavenworth Tree Lighting Ceremony & Shopping SATURDAY DECEMBER 12, 2015 Leavenworth Christmas Lighting Festival Visitors return year after year for some...

  11. Tips: Shopping for Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When shopping for lighting, you can now use the Lighting Facts label and lumens to compare bulbs and purchase a bulb with the amount of brightness you want.

  12. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    light by passing electricity through mercury vapor, which causes the fluorescent coating to glow or fluoresce. High-Efficiency Ballast (HEB): A lighting conservation feature...

  13. Optimization of Ventilation Energy Demands and Indoor Air Quality in High-Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hun, Diana E; Jackson, Mark C; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    High-performance homes require that ventilation energy demands and indoor air quality (IAQ) be simultaneously optimized. We attempted to bridge these two areas by conducting tests in a research house located in Oak Ridge, TN, that was 20 months old, energy-efficient (i.e., expected to consume 50% less energy than a house built per the 2006 IRC), tightly-built (i.e., natural ventilation rate ~0.02 h-1), unoccupied, and unfurnished. We identified air pollutants of concern in the test home that could generally serve as indicators of IAQ, and conduced field experiments and computer simulations to determine the effectiveness and energy required by various techniques that lessened the concentration of these contaminants. Formaldehyde was selected as the main pollutant of concern among the contaminants that were sampled in the initial survey because it was the only compound that showed concentrations that were greater than the recommended exposure levels. Field data indicate that concentrations were higher during the summer primarily because emissions from sources rise with increases in temperature. Furthermore, supply ventilation and gas-phase filtration were effective means to reduce formaldehyde concentrations; however, exhaust ventilation had minimal influence on this pollutant. Results from simulations suggest that formaldehyde concentrations obtained while ventilating per ASHRAE 62.2-2010 could be decreased by about 20% from May through September through three strategies: 1) increasing ASHRAE supply ventilation by a factor of two, 2) reducing the thermostat setpoint from 76 to 74 F, or 3) running a gas-phase filtration system while decreasing supply ventilation per ASHRAE by half. In the mixed-humid climate of Oak Ridge, these strategies caused increases in electricity cost of ~$5 to ~$15/month depending on outdoor conditions.

  14. Technology Solutions Case Study: Sealed Crawl Space with Integrated Whole-House Ventilation in a Cold Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Zoeller, J. Williamson, and S. Puttagunta

    2015-09-01

    The Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) investigated a hybrid ventilation method that included the exhaust air from the crawl space as part of an ASHRAE 62.2-compliant whole-house ventilation strategy. The CARB team evaluated this hybrid ventilation method through long-term field monitoring of temperature, humidity, and pressure conditions within the crawl spaces of two homes (one occupied and one unoccupied) in New York state.

  15. Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and ...

  16. Solid-State Lighting-Lighting Facts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lighting Facts Solid-State Lighting-Lighting Facts Presenter: Marc Ledbetter, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory The LED Lighting Facts program provides credible, verified ...

  17. Cree LED Lighting Solutions Formerly LED Lighting Fixtures LLF...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LED Lighting Solutions Formerly LED Lighting Fixtures LLF Jump to: navigation, search Name: Cree LED Lighting Solutions (Formerly LED Lighting Fixtures (LLF)) Place: Morrisville,...

  18. Robustness of RISMC Insights under Alternative Aleatory/Epistemic Uncertainty Classifications: Draft Report under the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway of the DOE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Johnson, Kenneth I.

    2012-09-20

    The Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) pathway is a set of activities defined under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The overarching objective of RISMC is to support plant life-extension decision-making by providing a state-of-knowledge characterization of safety margins in key systems, structures, and components (SSCs). A technical challenge at the core of this effort is to establish the conceptual and technical feasibility of analyzing safety margin in a risk-informed way, which, unlike conventionally defined deterministic margin analysis, would be founded on probabilistic characterizations of uncertainty in SSC performance. In the context of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) technology, there has arisen a general consensus about the distinctive roles of two types of uncertainty: aleatory and epistemic, where the former represents irreducible, random variability inherent in a system, whereas the latter represents a state of knowledge uncertainty on the part of the analyst about the system which is, in principle, reducible through further research. While there is often some ambiguity about how any one contributing uncertainty in an analysis should be classified, there has nevertheless emerged a broad consensus on the meanings of these uncertainty types in the PRA setting. However, while RISMC methodology shares some features with conventional PRA, it will nevertheless be a distinctive methodology set. Therefore, the paradigms for classification of uncertainty in the PRA setting may not fully port to the RISMC environment. Yet the notion of risk-informed margin is based on the characterization of uncertainty, and it is therefore critical to establish a common understanding of uncertainty in the RISMC setting.

  19. PFP Emergency Lighting Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BUSCH, M.S.

    2000-02-02

    NFPA 101, section 5-9 mandates that, where required by building classification, all designated emergency egress routes be provided with adequate emergency lighting in the event of a normal lighting outage. Emergency lighting is to be arranged so that egress routes are illuminated to an average of 1.0 footcandle with a minimum at any point of 0.1 footcandle, as measured at floor level. These levels are permitted to drop to 60% of their original value over the required 90 minute emergency lighting duration after a power outage. The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) has two designations for battery powered egress lights ''Emergency Lights'' are those battery powered lights required by NFPA 101 to provide lighting along officially designated egress routes in those buildings meeting the correct occupancy requirements. Emergency Lights are maintained on a monthly basis by procedure ZSR-12N-001. ''Backup Lights'' are battery powered lights not required by NFPA, but installed in areas where additional light may be needed. The Backup Light locations were identified by PFP Safety and Engineering based on several factors. (1) General occupancy and type of work in the area. Areas occupied briefly during a shiftly surveillance do not require backup lighting while a room occupied fairly frequently or for significant lengths of time will need one or two Backup lights to provide general illumination of the egress points. (2) Complexity of the egress routes. Office spaces with a standard hallway/room configuration will not require Backup Lights while a large room with several subdivisions or irregularly placed rooms, doors, and equipment will require Backup Lights to make egress safer. (3) Reasonable balance between the safety benefits of additional lighting and the man-hours/exposure required for periodic light maintenance. In some plant areas such as building 236-Z, the additional maintenance time and risk of contamination do not warrant having Backup Lights installed in all rooms

  20. Current longwall ventilation problems and implications for thick seam longwalls. Final technical report. [133 references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to identify, analyze and suggest solutions to ventilation problems of the following mining systems proposed for use in western thick seams; multiple lift longwall; single pass longwall with face height in the range of 12 to 19 feet; longwall sublevel caving. To reach this objective, background information on the regulations and ventilation practices relevant to the three methods was reviewed. This was followed by an identification of ventilation problems including the sources and quantities of methane emissions, respirable coal dust, self ignition and self heating. The problems were then analyzed to determine the probability of occurrence, the cause of the problem, and its consequences. Having analyzed these problems, solutions were described to the problems. The major finding of this effort was that, while certain ventilation difficulties can be isolated peculiar to these three moethods, in general, seam specific conditions have a larger role in determining the success of ventilation than does the method used. The major difficulties to be faced by these novel methods are the same as those to be faced by conventional longwalls. Research efforts should proceed on that basis.