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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Maintenance Guide for Greenhouse Ventilation, Evaporative Cooling Heating Systems1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

when the need is discovered, but a good preventive maintenance program will reduce the number. This fact sheet will emphasize corrective and preventive maintenance procedures for ventilation, evaporativeAE26 Maintenance Guide for Greenhouse Ventilation, Evaporative Cooling Heating Systems1 D. E

Watson, Craig A.

2

Ventilative cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis evaluates the performance of daytime and nighttime passive ventilation cooling strategies for Beijing, Shanghai and Tokyo. A new simulation method for cross-ventilated wind driven airflow is presented . This ...

Graça, Guilherme Carrilho da, 1972-

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOLAR ROOF COOLING BY EVAPORATION Fanjet Evaporative Roof Cooling Windsor Lake Landing #1 Windsor Point Road Columbia, S.C. 29206 G. V. Patterson National Sales Manager Evaporation is nature's way of cooling. By the The American Society... penetration through will include current engineering techniques, sys out the course of the day. tem designs and documented cases of 20% to 30% reduction in air-conditioning run time. Dr. John Yellott of the Yellott Solar Energy Labo ratories in Phoenix...

Patterson, G. V.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Evaporative Cooling for Energy Conservation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The evaporative cooling principle applies to all equipment that exchanges sensible heat for latent heat. Equipment of this type falls into two general categories: (1) equipment for heat rejection, such as cooling towers and (2) equipment for air...

Meyer, J. R.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is generally recognized that as much as 60% of the air conditioning load in a building is generated by solar heat from the roof. This paper on SOLAR ROOF COOLING BY EVAPORATION is presented in slide form, tracing the history of 'nature's way...

Patterson, G. V.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Dew-Point Evaporative Comfort Cooling (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Presentation on innovative indirect evaporative cooling technology developed by Coolerado Corporation given at the Rocky Mountain Chapter ASHRAE conference in April 2012.

Dean, J.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Conductive Thermal Interaction in Evaporative Cooling Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be considered. Usually the dry-bulb depression performed by an evaporative cooler depends solely on the ambient wet-bulb temperature. The cool underground water in an evaporative cooler can cause not only adiabatic evaporation but also sensible heat transfer...

Kim, B. S.; Degelman, L. O.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream.

Carr, Peter (Cary, NC)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream. 3 figures.

Carr, P.

1991-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

11

Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers Theresa Pistochini May 23rd, 2012 ResearchAirCapacity,tons Gallons of Water Continuous Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F Cyclic Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F #12 AverageWaterHardness(ppm) Cooling Degree Days (60°F Reference) 20% Population 70% Population 10

California at Davis, University of

12

Evaporative Roof Cooling- A Simple Solution to Cut Cooling Costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Since the “Energy Crisis” Evaporative Roof Cooling Systems have gained increased acceptance as a cost effective method to reduce the high cost of air conditioning. Documented case histories in retro-fit installations show direct energy savings...

Abernethy, D.

13

Evaporative Roof Cooling - A Simple Solution to Cut Cooling Costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Since the "Energy Crisis" Evaporative Roof Cooling Systems have gained increased acceptance as a cost effective method to reduce the high cost of air conditioning. Documented case histories in retrofit installations show direct energy savings...

Abernethy, D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Ventilation Systems for Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehiclesTankless or Demand-Type WaterTravelVentilation Systems for Cooling

15

EVAPORATIVE COOLING - CONCEPTUAL DESIGN FOR ATLAS SCT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The conceptual design of an evaporative two-phase flow cooling system for the ATLAS SCT detector is described, using perfluorinated propane (C3F8) as a coolant. Comparison with perfluorinated butane (C4F10) is made, although the detailed design is presented only for C3F8. The two-phase pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient are calculated in order to determine the dimensions of the cooling pipes and module contacts for the Barrel SCT. The region in which the flow is homogeneous is determined. The cooling cycle, pipework, compressor, heat exchangers and other main elements of the system are calculated in order to be able to discuss the system control, safety and reliability. Evaporative cooling appears to be substantially better than the binary ice system from the point of view of safety, reliability, detector thickness, heat transfer coefficient, cost and simplicity.

Niinikoski, T O

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Rain on the Roof-Evaporative Spray Roof Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper describes evaporative spray roof cooling systems, their components, performance and applications in various climates and building types. The evolution of this indirect evaporative cooling technique is discussed. Psychrometric and sol...

Bachman, L. R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehiclesTanklessDOJExamination Laboratory -Evaporative Cooling Basics

18

TOP DOWN VENTILATION AND COOLING Stephen A. Gage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the problems inherent in passively ventilating and cooling low and medium rise urban buildings. We focus Gage entered a competition to design a passively ventilated and cooled building in Athens on overcoming numerous key issues, such as those of pollutant ingress associated with locating low-level intake

Linden, Paul F.

19

Computer Simulation of Cooling Effect of Wind Tower on Passively Ventilated Building  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computer Simulation of Cooling Effect of Wind Tower on Passively Ventilated Building John Seryak Kelly Kissock Project Engineer Associate Professor Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering... University of Dayton Dayton, Ohio ABSTRACT Traditional buildings are cooled and ventilated by mechanically induced drafts. Natural ventilation aspires to cool and ventilate a building by natural means, such as cross ventilation or wind towers...

Seryak, J.; Kissock, J. K.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Simulation of radiant cooling performance with evaporative cooling sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy sources of cooling supply water and an aggressiveas the primary source of cooling supply water. The analysisthermal mass to the cooling supply water source, nighttime

Moore, Timothy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Potential of Evaporative Cooling Systems for Buildings in India  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evaporative cooling potential for building in various climatic zones in India is investigated. Maintainable indoor conditions are obtained from the load - capacity analysis for the prevailing ambient conditions. For the assumed activity level...

Maiya, M. P.; Vijay, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Development of fluorocarbon evaporative cooling recirculators and controls for the ATLAS pixel and semiconductor tracking detectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Development of fluorocarbon evaporative cooling recirculators and controls for the ATLAS pixel and semiconductor tracking detectors

Bayer, C; Bonneau, P; Bosteels, Michel; Burckhart, H J; Cragg, D; English, R; Hallewell, G D; Hallgren, Björn I; Kersten, S; Kind, P; Langedrag, K; Lindsay, S; Merkel, M; Stapnes, Steinar; Thadome, J; Vacek, V

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Simulation of radiant cooling performance with evaporative cooling sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Systems for Low-Energy Buildings, Proved in Practice”with optimized building envelopes, low-energy cooling waterbuilding perspective, thermal performance for the low-energy

Moore, Timothy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Mathematical modeling of evaporative cooling of moisture bearing epoxy composite plates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Composite Materials. 2 EVAPORATIVE COOLING Evaporative cooling is deemed to be an appropriate alternative mechanism for the cooling of stealth aircraft due to its simplicity, as well as its success as a cooling mechanism in other applications... Element Assembly 34 Boundary Conditions 36 viii CHAPTER Page Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients 46 Convective Mass Transfer Coefficients 50 Material Properties 52 Time Step Approximations 54...

Payette, Gregory Steven

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

25

LETTER doi:10.1038/nature11718 Evaporative cooling of the dipolar hydroxyl radical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

direct cooling and cold-association techniques, evaporative cooling has not been achieved so far-temperature sensi- tivity of our spectroscopic thermometry technique. With evapora- tive cooling and a sufficientlyLETTER doi:10.1038/nature11718 Evaporative cooling of the dipolar hydroxyl radical Benjamin K

26

Experimental Study of the Circulation Air Volume of Recirculation Evaporative Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper introduces the technology of re-circulation evaporative cooling (REC), which uses a portion of supply air as secondary air to make cool water used to indirectly cool outside air through a heat exchanger. The circulation volume...

Xiong, J.; Liu, Z.; Wang, C.; Chen, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Axially Tapered And Bilayer Microchannels For Evaporative Cooling Devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention consists of an evaporative cooling device comprising one or more microchannels whose cross section is axially reduced to control the maximum capillary pressure differential between liquid and vapor phases. In one embodiment, the evaporation channels have a rectangular cross section that is reduced in width along a flow path. In another embodiment, channels of fixed width are patterned with an array of microfabricated post-like features such that the feature size and spacing are gradually reduced along the flow path. Other embodiments incorporate bilayer channels consisting of an upper cover plate having a pattern of slots or holes of axially decreasing size and a lower fluid flow layer having channel widths substantially greater than the characteristic microscale dimensions of the patterned cover plate. The small dimensions of the cover plate holes afford large capillary pressure differentials while the larger dimensions of the lower region reduce viscous flow resistance.

Nilson, Robert (Cardiff, CA); Griffiths, Stewart (Livermore, CA)

2005-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

28

Development of an Integrated Residential Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification System for Residences  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Need and the Opportunity Codes such as ASHRAE 90.2 and IECC, and programs such as Energy Star and Builders Challenge, are causing new homes to be built to higher performance standards. As a result sensible cooling loads in new homes are going down, but indoor air quality prerogatives are causing ventilation rates and moisture loads to increase in humid climates. Conventional air conditioners are unable to provide the low sensible heat ratios that are needed to efficiently cool and dehumidify homes since dehumidification potential is strongly correlated with cooling system operating hours. The project team saw an opportunity to develop a system that is at least as effective as a conventional air conditioner plus dehumidifier, removes moisture without increasing the sensible load, reduces equipment cost by integrating components, and simplifies installation. Project Overview Prime contractor Davis Energy Group led a team in developing an Integrated Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification (I-HVCD) system under the DOE SBIR program. Phase I and II SBIR project activities ran from July 2003 through December 2007. Tasks included: (1) Mechanical Design and Prototyping; (2) Controls Development; (3) Laboratory and Field Testing; and (4) Commercialization Activities Technology Description. Key components of the prototype I-HVCD system include an evaporator coil assembly, return and outdoor air damper, and controls. These are used in conjunction with conventional components that include a variable speed air handler or furnace, and a two-stage condensing unit. I-HVCD controls enable the system to operate in three distinct cooling modes to respond to indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels. When sensible cooling loads are high, the system operates similar to a conventional system but varies supply airflow in response to indoor RH. In the second mode airflow is further reduced, and the reheat coil adds heat to the supply air. In the third mode, the reheat coil adds additional heat to maintain the supply air temperature close to the return air temperature (100% latent cooling). Project Outcomes Key Phase II objectives were to develop a pre-production version of the system and to demonstrate its performance in an actual house. The system was first tested in the laboratory and subsequently underwent field-testing at a new house in Gainesville, Florida. Field testing began in 2006 with monitoring of a 'conventional best practices' system that included a two stage air conditioner and Energy Star dehumidifier. In September 2007, the I-HVCD components were installed for testing. Both systems maintained uniform indoor temperatures, but indoor RH control was considerably better with the I-HVCD system. The daily variation from average indoor humidity conditions was less than 2% for the I-HVCD vs. 5-7% for the base case system. Data showed that the energy use of the two systems was comparable. Preliminary installed cost estimates suggest that production costs for the current I-HVCD integrated design would likely be lower than for competing systems that include a high efficiency air conditioner, dehumidifier, and fresh air ventilation system. Project Benefits This project verified that the I-HVCD refrigeration compacts are compact (for easy installation and retrofit) and can be installed with air conditioning equipment from a variety of manufacturers. Project results confirmed that the system can provide precise indoor temperature and RH control under a variety of climate conditions. The I-HVCD integrated approach offers numerous benefits including integrated control, easier installation, and reduced equipment maintenance needs. Work completed under this project represents a significant step towards product commercialization. Improved indoor RH control and fresh air ventilation are system attributes that will become increasingly important in the years ahead as building envelopes improve and sensible cooling loads continue to fall. Technologies like I-HVCD will be instrumental in meeting goals set by Building America

Hoeschele, M.A.; D.A. Springer

2008-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

29

Ultracold molecules for the masses: evaporative cooling and magneto-optical trapping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cooling, until now none of these techniques have been applicable to molecules. In this thesis, two majorUltracold molecules for the masses: evaporative cooling and magneto-optical trapping by B. K. Stuhl for the masses: evaporative cooling and magneto-optical trapping written by B. K. Stuhl has been approved

Jin, Deborah

30

Experimental Study of the Floor Radiant Cooling System Combined with Displacement Ventilation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency, Vol. IV-11-4 Experimental Study of the Floor Radiant Cooling System Combined with Displacement Ventilation Yanli Ren1, Deying Li2, Yufeng Zhang1 1...

Ren, Y.; Li, D.; Zhang, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Flywheel Cooling: A Cooling Solution for Non Air-Conditioned Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"Flywheel Cooling" utillzes the natural cooling processes of evaporation, ventilation and air circulation. These systems are providing low-cost cooling for distribution centers, warehouses, and other non air-conditioned industrial assembly plants...

Abernethy, D.

32

Kinetics for evaporative cooling of a trapped gas Kirstine BergSrensen \\Lambda  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the kinetic theory for evaporative cooling of a dilute collisional gas in a trap. The analysis in 0. J. Luiten and increase the phase­space density of an atomic, bosonic gas towards a Bose­Einstein condensate (BECKinetics for evaporative cooling of a trapped gas Kirstine Berg­Sørensen \\Lambda The Rowland

Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine

33

Use of DOE-2 to Evaluate Evaporative Cooling in Texas Correctional Facilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, W.K., "Fundamental Concepts Integrating Evaporative Techniques in HVAC Systems," ASHRAE TRANSACTIONS, V. 96, Pt. 1, 1990. 3. McDonald, G.W., M.H. Turietta and R.E. Foster, "Modeling Evaporative Cooling Systems with DOE- 2. ID," ASHRAE...USE OF DOE-2 TO EVALUATE EVAPORATIVE COOLING IN TEXAS CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES Namir Saman, Ph.D., P.E. Tarek Bou-Saada Tia Heneghan Visiting Assistant Professor Research Associate Energy Manager Energy Systems Laboratory Energy Systems...

Saman, N.; Heneghan, T.; Bou-Saada, T. E.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

A feasibility study of internal evaporative cooling for proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of using the technique of ultrasonic nebulization of water into the anode gas stream for evaporative cooling of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The basic concept of this form...

Snyder, Loren E

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

35

Energy Savings in Direct Evaporative Cooling: real application in the Madrid metro and simulated application for offices in Sydney  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water evaporates spontaneously in contact with the air, absorbing around 680 W/(kg/h of evaporated water) from the air (1,053 BTU/lb.). Direct Evaporative Cooling (DEC) exploits this simple physical phenomenon to achieve high cooling capacities...

Simonetti, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Projected Benefits of New Residential Evaporative Cooling Systems: Progress Report #2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of conventional evaporative cooling has rapidly declined in the United States despite the fact that it has high potential for energy savings in dry climates. Evaporative systems are very competitive in terms of first cost and provide significant reductions in operating energy use, as well as peak-load reduction benefits. Significant market barriers still remain and can be addressed through improved systems integration. This report investigates the first of these approaches, exploring innovative components. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America research teams are investigating the use of two promising new pieces of residential cooling equipment that employ evaporative cooling as a part of their system design. The OASys unit, which is a combination of direct and indirect evaporative cooling stages developed by Davis Energy Group (DEG) and manufactured by Speakman CRS, is used to ultimately provide outside air to the living space. The outdoor air provided is indirectly and directly evaporatively cooled in two stages to a condition that can be below the wet-bulb (wb) temperature of the outside air, thus outperforming a conventional single-stage direct evaporative cooler.

Kutscher, C.; Eastment, M.; Hancock, E.; Reeves, P.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Dew Point Evaporative Comfort Cooling: Report and Summary Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project objective was to demonstrate the capabilities of the high-performance multi-staged IEC technology and its ability to enhance energy efficiency and interior comfort in dry climates, while substantially reducing electric-peak demand. The project was designed to test 24 cooling units in five commercial building types at Fort Carson Army Base in Colorado Springs, Colorado.

Dean, J.; Herrmann, L.; Kozubal, E.; Geiger, J.; Eastment, M.; Slayzak, S.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

The energy saving potential of precooling incoming outdoor air by indirect evaporative cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper investigates the energy saving potentials of using indirect evaporative coolers to precool incoming outdoor air as the first stage of a standard cooling system. For dry and moderately humid locations, either exhaust room air or outdoor air can be used as the secondary air to the indirect evaporative precooler with similar energy savings. Under these conditions, the use of outdoor air is recommended due to the simplicity in installing the duct system. For humid locations, the use of exhaust room air is recommended because the precooling capacity and energy savings will be greatly increased. For locations with short cooling seasons, the use of indirect evaporative coolers for precooling may not be worthwhile. The paper also gives some simplified indices for easily predicting the precooling capacity, energy savings and water consumption of an indirect evaporative precooler. These indices can be used for cooling systems with continuous operation, but further work is needed to determine whether the same indices are also suitable for cooling systems with intermittent operations.

Chen, P.; Qin, H.; Huang, Y.J.; Wu, H.; Blumstein, C.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Estimating the Evaporative Cooling Bias of an Airborne Reverse Flow Thermometer YONGGANG WANG AND BART GEERTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimating the Evaporative Cooling Bias of an Airborne Reverse Flow Thermometer YONGGANG WANG form 24 June 2008) ABSTRACT Airborne reverse flow immersion thermometers were designed to prevent in cloud is surmised because air decelerates into the thermometer housing, and thus is heated and becomes

Geerts, Bart

40

Three-wire magnetic trap for direct forced evaporative cooling Shengwang Du1,* and Eun Oh2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Three-wire magnetic trap for direct forced evaporative cooling Shengwang Du1,* and Eun Oh2 1 Kong, China 2 U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division, Washington, D.C. 20375, USA potential for direct forced evaporative cooling of neutral atoms without using induced spin

Du, Shengwang

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Evaluation of energy savings related to building envelope retrofit techniques and ventilation strategies for low energy cooling in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evaluation of energy savings related to building envelope retrofit techniques and ventilation strategies for low energy cooling in offices and commercial sector Laurent Grignon-Massé, Dominique Marchio-use Efficiency Research Group Abstract The energy savings achievable in the end-use space cooling depend

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

42

Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Cooling Season Energy and Moisture Levels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

Parker, D.; Kono, J.; Vieira, R.; Fairey, P.; Sherwin, J.; Withers, C.; Hoak, D.; Beal, D.

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Fluorocarbon evaporative cooling developments for the ATLAS pixel and semiconductor tracking detectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat transfer coefficients 2-5.103 Wm-2K-1 have been measured in a 3.6 mm I.D. heated tube dissipating 100 Watts - close to the full equivalent power (~110 W) of a barrel SCT detector "stave" - over a range of power dissipations and mass flows in the above fluids. Aspects of full-scale evaporative cooling circulator design for the ATLAS experiment are discussed, together with plans for future development.

Anderssen, E; Berry, S; Bonneau, P; Bosteels, Michel; Bouvier, P; Cragg, D; English, R; Godlewski, J; Górski, B; Grohmann, S; Hallewell, G D; Hayler, T; Ilie, S; Jones, T; Kadlec, J; Lindsay, S; Miller, W; Niinikoski, T O; Olcese, M; Olszowska, J; Payne, B; Pilling, A; Perrin, E; Sandaker, H; Seytre, J F; Thadome, J; Vacek, V

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

The design and evaluation of a water delivery system for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An investigation was performed to demonstrate system design for the delivery of water required for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The water delivery system uses spray nozzles capable of injecting water directly...

Al-Asad, Dawood Khaled Abdullah

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

45

Temperature and humidity control during cooling and dehumidifying by compressor and evaporator fan speed variation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The accurate control of temperature and relative humidity during cooling and dehumidifying air-conditioning processes may be achieved by compressor and evaporator fan speed variation. Proportional-integral-differential (PID) control methods are shown to be suitable for attaining compressor and evaporator fan speeds such that the sensible and latent components of the refrigeration system capacity equal the sensible and latent components of the system load. The feasibility of the control method has been verified experimentally. A numerical model of an environmental control system, including refrigeration, space, and PID control subsystems, has been developed. The model is suitable for determining system response to variations of PID coefficient values and to variations of system loads.

Krakow, K.I.; Lin, S.; Zeng, Z.S. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 053417 (2013) Efficient direct evaporative cooling in an atom-chip magnetic trap  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

technique for achieving the low temperatures and high densities needed to produce Bose-Einstein condensates that slows down rethermalization and can reduce cooling efficiency to the point that condensation cannotPHYSICAL REVIEW A 87, 053417 (2013) Efficient direct evaporative cooling in an atom-chip magnetic

Du, Shengwang

47

Evaporative CO2 cooling using microchannels etched in silicon for the future LHCb vertex detector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The extreme radiation dose received by vertex detectors at the Large Hadron Collider dictates stringent requirements on their cooling systems. To be robust against radiation damage, sensors should be maintained below -20 degree C and at the same time, the considerable heat load generated in the readout chips and the sensors must be removed. Evaporative CO2 cooling using microchannels etched in a silicon plane in thermal contact with the readout chips is an attractive option. In this paper, we present the first results of microchannel prototypes with circulating, two-phase CO2 and compare them to simulations. We also discuss a practical design of upgraded VELO detector for the LHCb experiment employing this approach.

A. Nomerotski; J. Buytart; P. Collins; R. Dumps; E. Greening; M. John; A. Mapelli; A. Leflat; Y. Li; G. Romagnoli; B. Verlaat

2013-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

48

Evaporative CO$_2$ microchannel cooling for the LHCb VELO pixel upgrade  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The LHCb Vertex Detector (VELO) will be upgraded in 2018 to a lightweight pixel detector capable of 40 MHz readout and operation in very close proximity to the LHC beams. The thermal management of the system will be provided by evaporative CO$_2$ circulating in microchannels embedded within thin silicon plates. This solution has been selected due to the excellent thermal efficiency, the absence of thermal expansion mismatch with silicon ASICs and sensors, the radiation hardness of CO$_2$, and very low contribution to the material budget. Although microchannel cooling is gaining considerable attention for applications related to microelectronics, it is still a novel technology for particle physics experiments, in particular when combined with evaporative CO$_2$ cooling. The R&D effort for LHCb is focused on the design and layout of the channels together with a fluidic connector and its attachment which must withstand pressures up to 170 bar. Even distribution of the coolant is ensured by means of the use o...

de Aguiar Francisco, Oscar A; Collins, Paula; Dumps, Raphael; John, Malcolm; Mapelli, Alessandro; Romagnoli, Giulia

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Development of fluorocarbon evaporative cooling recirculators and controls for the ATLAS inner silicon tracker  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on the development of evaporative fluorocarbon cooling recirculators and their control systems for the ATLAS inner silicon tracker. We have developed a prototype circulator using a dry, hermetic compressor with C/sub 3/F/sup 8/ refrigerant, and have prototyped the remote-control analog pneumatic links for the regulation of coolant mass flows and operating temperatures that will be necessary in the magnetic field and radiation environment around ATLAS. pressure and flow measurement and control use 150+ channels of standard ATLAS LMB ("Local Monitor Board") DAQ and DACs on a multi-drop CAN network administered through a BridgeVIEW user interface. A hardwired thermal interlock system has been developed to cut power to individual silicon modules should their temperatures exceed safe values. Highly satisfactory performance of the circulator under steady state, partial-load and transient conditions was seen, with proportional fluid flow tuned to varying circuit power. Future developments, including a 6 kW...

Bayer, C; Bonneau, P; Bosteels, Michel; Burckhart, H J; Cragg, D; English, R; Hallewell, G D; Hallgren, Björn I; Ilie, S; Kersten, S; Kind, P; Langedrag, K; Lindsay, S; Merkel, M; Stapnes, Steinar; Thadome, J; Vacek, V

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

A Novel Absorption Cycle for Combined Water Heating, Dehumidification, and Evaporative Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, development of a novel system for combined water heating, dehumidification, and space evaporative cooling is discussed. Ambient water vapor is used as a working fluid in an open system. First, water vapor is absorbed from an air stream into an absorbent solution. The latent heat of absorption is transferred into the process water that cools the absorber. The solution is then regenerated in the desorber, where it is heated by a heating fluid. The water vapor generated in the desorber is condensed and its heat of phase change is transferred to the process water in the condenser. The condensed water can then be used in an evaporative cooling process to cool the dehumidified air exiting the absorber, or it can be drained if primarily dehumidification is desired. Essentially, this open absorption cycle collects space heat and transfers it to process water. This technology is enabled by a membrane-based absorption/desorption process in which the absorbent is constrained by hydrophobic vapor-permeable membranes. Constraining the absorbent film has enabled fabrication of the absorber and desorber in a plate-and-frame configuration. An air stream can flow against the membrane at high speed without entraining the absorbent, which is a challenge in conventional dehumidifiers. Furthermore, the absorption and desorption rates of an absorbent constrained by a membrane are greatly enhanced. Isfahani and Moghaddam (Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 2013) demonstrated absorption rates of up to 0.008 kg/m2s in a membrane-based absorber and Isfahani et al. (Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 2013) have reported a desorption rate of 0.01 kg/m2s in a membrane-based desorber. The membrane-based architecture also enables economical small-scale systems, novel cycle configurations, and high efficiencies. The absorber, solution heat exchanger, and desorber are fabricated on a single metal sheet. In addition to the open arrangement and membrane-based architecture, another novel feature of the cycle is recovery of the solution heat energy exiting the desorber by process water (a process-solution heat exchanger ) rather than the absorber exiting solution (the conventional solution heat exchanger ). This approach has enabled heating the process water from an inlet temperature of 15 C to 57 C (conforming to the DOE water heater test standard) and interfacing the process water with absorbent on the opposite side of a single metal sheet encompassing the absorber, process-solution heat exchanger, and desorber. The system under development has a 3.2 kW water heating capacity and a target thermal coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.6.

CHUGH, Devesh [University of Florida, Gainesville; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Moghaddam, Saeed [University of Florida, Gainesville

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Ventilation Air Preconditioning Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

capacity. Optional Morning Warm-up If connected to a liquid condenser bundle, the icemaking chiller can serve as a heat recovery heat pump. The chiller can freeze ice in the early morning to provide heat for morning warm-up, and use the ice... the cooling coil or drain pan re-evaporates and is delivered to occupied space during compressor off-cycles. Although heat recovery between the exhaust air and ventilation air can reduce the impact on the HVAC system, many buildings do not have central...

Khattar, M.; Brandemuehl, M. J.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rudd. 2007. Review of residential ventilation technologies.2009. EISG Final Report: Residential Integrated VentilationDesign and Operation of Residential Cooling Systems. Proc.

Sherman, Max H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Evaluation of models for predicting evaporative water loss in cooling impoundments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cooling impoundments can offer a number of advantages over cooling towers for condenser water cooling at steam electric power plants. However, a major disadvantage of cooling ponds is a lack of confidence in the ability ...

Helfrich, Karl Richard

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Investigation of a radiantly heated and cooled office with an integrated desiccant ventilation unit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiant heating and cooling has a reputation of increasing the comfort level and reducing the energy consumption of buildings. The main advantages of radiant heating and cooling are low operational noise and reduced fan power cost. Radiant heating...

Gong, Xiangyang

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

55

Modeling Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings John Markley, University of California, Davis -Western Cooling Efficiency Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

buildings have fallen between commercial and residential jurisdictions and, as a result, they have beenModeling Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings John Markley, University of California, Davis component of multifamily building design due to its effects on occupant health and comfort. Though

California at Davis, University of

56

Simulation of wind driven ventilative cooling systems for an apartment building in Beijing and Shanghai  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

produce energy for buildings and industry. In order to reduce pollution and greenhouse gas emissions ventilation, CFD, Energy analysis 1. Introduction Throughout the entire world, buildings are major consumers of energy and major sources of greenhouse gas emissions. In China, buildings consume 17% of the total energy

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

57

CFD Simulation and Analysis of the Combined Evaporative Cooling and Radiant Ceiling Air-conditioning System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and the ceiling cooling system deals with the other part of sensible loads in the air-conditioned zone, so that the condensation on radiant panels and the insufficiency of cooling capacity can be avoided. The cooling water at 18? used in the cooling coils...

Xiang, H.; Yinming, L.; Junmei, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Use of Air2Air Technology to Recover Fresh-Water from the Normal Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program was undertaken to build and operate the first Air2Air{trademark} Water Conservation Cooling Tower at a power plant, giving a validated basis and capability for water conservation by this method. Air2Air{trademark} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10%-25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate).

Ken Mortensen

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

59

Evaporative Cooling of Antiprotons to Cryogenic Temperatures G. B. Andresen,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of cooling efficiency in future experiments. The technique opens up new possibilities for cooling of trapped samples of neutral particles [1], and remains the only route to achieve Bose-Einstein condensation is driven by elastic collisions that scatter high energy particles out of the confining potential, thus

Wurtele, Jonathan

60

Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

Ken Mortensen

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Experimental evaluation and modeling of a turbine blade with potassium evaporative cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new method of turbine blade cooling, the Return Flow Cascade, has been developed in which vaporization of a liquid metal such as potassium is used to maintain the blade surface at a nearly uniform temperature. Turbine ...

Townsend, Jessica Lee

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION AND CLASSROOM VENTILATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling. Major findings included: ? The single-location carbon dioxide sensors widely used for demand controlled ventilation frequently have large errors and will fail to effectively control ventilation rates (VRs).? Multi-location carbon dioxide measurement systems with more expensive sensors connected to multi-location sampling systems may measure carbon dioxide more accurately.? Currently-available optical people counting systems work well much of the time but have large counting errors in some situations. ? In meeting rooms, measurements of carbon dioxide at return-air grilles appear to be a better choice than wall-mounted sensors.? In California, demand controlled ventilation in general office spaces is projected to save significant energy and be cost effective only if typical VRs without demand controlled ventilation are very high relative to VRs in codes. Based on the research, several recommendations were developed for demand controlled ventilation specifications in the California Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards.The research on classroom ventilation collected data over two years on California elementary school classrooms to investigate associations between VRs and student illness absence (IA). Major findings included: ? Median classroom VRs in all studied climate zones were below the California guideline, and 40percent lower in portable than permanent buildings.? Overall, one additional L/s per person of VR was associated with 1.6percent less IA. ? Increasing average VRs in California K-12 classrooms from the current average to the required level is estimated to decrease IA by 3.4percent, increasing State attendance-based funding to school districts by $33M, with $6.2 M in increased energy costs. Further VR increases would provide additional benefits.? Confirming these findings in intervention studies is recommended. ? Energy costs of heating/cooling unoccupied classrooms statewide are modest, but a large portion occurs in relatively few classrooms.

Fisk, William J.; Mendell, Mark J.; Davies, Molly; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Faulkner, David; Hong, Tienzen; Sullivan, Douglas P.

2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

63

Annual Simulation Results for an Air-Cooled Binary Power Cycle Employing Flash Cooling Enhancement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Objective is to perform detailed simulation of air cooled cycle with flash supplied cooling water using two types of evaporative enhancement, spray nozzels and evaporative media.

Buys, A.; Gladden, C.; Kutscher, C.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

A computer simulation appraisal of non-residential low energy cooling systems in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An appraisal of the potential performance of different Low Energy Cooling (LEC) systems in nonresidential buildings in California is being conducted using computer simulation. The paper presents results from the first phase of the study, which addressed the systems that can be modeled, with the DOE-2.1E simulation program. The following LEC technologies were simulated as variants of a conventional variable-air-volume system with vapor compression cooling and mixing ventilation in the occupied spaces: Air-side indirect and indirect/direct evaporative pre-cooling. Cool beams. Displacement ventilation. Results are presented for four populous climates, represented by Oakland, Sacramento, Pasadena and San Diego. The greatest energy savings are obtained from a combination of displacement ventilation and air-side indirect/direct evaporative pre-cooling. Cool beam systems have the lowest peak demand but do not reduce energy consumption significantly because the reduction in fan energy is offse t by a reduction in air-side free cooling. Overall, the results indicate significant opportunities for LEC technologies to reduce energy consumption and demand in nonresidential new construction and retrofit.

Bourassa, Norman; Haves, Philip; Huang, Joe

2002-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

65

Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this measure guideline on evaporative condensers is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for energy and demand savings in homes with cooling loads. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices. This document has been prepared to provide a process for properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs.

German, A.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

A scale model study of displacement ventilation with chilled ceilings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Displacement ventilation is a form of air-conditioning which provides good air quality and some energy savings. The air quality is better than for a conventional mixed ventilation system. The maximum amount of cooling that ...

Holden, Katherine J. A. (Katherine Joan Adrienne)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Natural ventilation : design for suburban houses in Thailand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Natural Ventilation is the most effective passive cooling design strategy for architecture in hot and humid climates. In Thailand, natural ventilation has been the most essential element in the vernacular architecture such ...

Tantasavasdi, Chalermwat, 1971-

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Modeling buoyancy-driven airflow in ventilation shafts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Naturally ventilated buildings can significantly reduce the required energy for cooling and ventilating buildings by drawing in outdoor air using non-mechanical forces. Buoyancy-driven systems are common in naturally ...

Ray, Stephen D. (Stephen Douglas)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Literature Review of Displacement Ventilation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is dependent on the flow rate from the diffuser, the temperature difference, and the diffuser type. #0;? The thermal plumes and supply air from diffusers play an important role in the displacement ventilation. #0;? It is necessary to carefully control... systems, although there are differences depending on the control strategies and the type of HVAC systems. In the energy calculation by Niu (1994), it is shown that the annual energy consumption of displacement ventilation with a water- cooled ceiling...

Cho, S.; Im, P.; Haberl, J. S.

70

Methodology for the evaluation of natural ventilation in buildings using a reduced-scale air model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Commercial office buildings predominantly are designed to be ventilated and cooled using mechanical systems. In temperate climates, passive ventilation and cooling techniques can be utilized to reduce energy consumption ...

Walker, Christine E. (Christine Elaine)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Solar Roof Cooling by Evaporation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Roof air conditioning load is reduced by 85% to 90%. The cooler roof also protects and extends roof life. My presentation today will cover an old, square foot, and generally speaking, it will old technique -- one that has been gaining in show a...

Patterson, G. V.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision has beenFfe2fb55-352f-473b-a2dd-50ae8b27f0a6 NoSan Leandro,Law andEnergy Information

73

Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address:011-DNA Jump37. It isInformationexplains a4 ClimateEtrionPowerColorado:WI)Coolers

74

Performance Assessment of Photovoltaic Attic Ventilator Fans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

has long been identified as a method to abate such heat gains. We present test results from using the photovoltaic (PV) attic ventilator fans in a test home to assess impact on attic and cooling energy performance....

Parker, D. S.; Sherwin, J. R.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Outside Air Ventilation Controller - Building America Top Innovation...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

to harness the natural day-night temperature swings in the U.S. Southwest to cut cooling energy peak demand with no compromise in comfort. This automated night-cooling ventilation...

76

Natural Ventilation Design for Houses in Thailand Chalermwat Tantasavasdia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper explores the potential of using natural ventilation as a passive cooling system for new house windows in suburban houses can be opened. Passive cooling design elements are mostly ignored in modern1 Natural Ventilation Design for Houses in Thailand Chalermwat Tantasavasdia , Jelena Srebricb

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

77

Shading and Cooling: Impacts of Solar Control and Windows on Indoor Airflow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

summer wind driven natural ventilation potential for indoor estimates the cooling potential of wind?driven ventilation and monsoon ? have  potential for wind?driven occupant 

Hildebrand, Penapa Wankaeo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Expansion and user study of CoolVent : inclusion of thermal comfort models in an early-design natural ventilation tool  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CoolVent, a software design tool for architects, has been improved. The work of Maria- Alejandra Menchaca-B. and colleagues has been improved to include a more robust and intuitive building and window dimensioning scheme, ...

Rich, Rebecca E. (Rebecca Eileen)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Towards Occupancy-Driven Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Towards Occupancy-Driven Heating and Cooling Kamin Whitehouse, Juhi Ranjan, Jiakang Lu, Tamim Burke Parabola Architects Galen Staengl Staengl Engineering h HEATING, VENTILATION, AND cooling (HVAC required for heating, ventilation, and cooling (HVAC) by 20%­30% by tailoring the conditioning of buildings

Whitehouse, Kamin

80

Analytical determination of PID coefficients for temperature and humidity control during cooling and dehumidifying by compressor and evaporator fan speed variation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A linearized analysis of temperature and relative humidity control using proportional-integral-differential (PID) controls to vary compressor motor speed and evaporator fan speed enables analytical determination of suitable PID coefficients. The PID coefficients are related to refrigeration system performance parameters and the volume of the conditioned space. Analytical determination of coefficients may eliminate or supplement trial-and-error methods. System response characteristics--damping ratios and periods--are related to PID coefficients, sampling intervals, performance parameters of a refrigeration system, and the volume of a conditioned space. Two control strategies are possible in order to control space temperature and relative humidity simultaneously. One strategy controls temperature by varying compressor speed and controls relative humidity by varying evaporator fan speed. The other strategy controls temperature by varying evaporator fan speed and controls relative humidity by varying compressor fan speed The first strategy was successfully implemented experimentally as well as by simulation. The second strategy was not successfully implemented due to an adverse interaction between the two control systems.

Krakow, K.I.; Lin, S.; Zeng, Z.S. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Computer Room Fresh Air Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper discusses the concept of a computer room fresh air cooling system with evaporative humidification. The system offers significantly lower energy consumption than conventional cooling units, with 24% reduction for Dallas and 56% reduction...

Wenger, J. D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Study of airflow and thermal stratification in naturally ventilated rooms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Natural ventilation (NV) can considerably contribute to reducing the cooling energy consumption of a building and increase occupant productivity, if correctly implemented. Such energy savings depend on the number of hours ...

Menchaca Brandan, María Alejandra

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Natural ventilation in buildings : modeling, control and optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Natural ventilation in buildings has the potential to reduce the energy consumption usually associated with mechanical cooling while maintaining thermal comfort and air quality. It is important to know how building parameters, ...

Ip Kiun Chong, Karine

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Carbon-dioxide-controlled ventilation study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The In-House Energy Management (IHEM) Program has been established by the U.S. Department of Energy to provide funds to federal laboratories to conduct research on energy-efficient technology. The Energy Sciences Department of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was tasked by IHEM to research the energy savings potential associated with reducing outdoor-air ventilation of buildings. By monitoring carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels in a building, outdoor air provided by the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system can be reduced to the percentage required to maintain satisfactory CO{sub 2} levels rather than ventilating with a higher outdoor-air percentage based on an arbitrary minimum outdoor-air setting. During summer months, warm outdoor air brought into a building for ventilation must be cooled to meet the appropriate cooling supply-air temperature, and during winter months, cold outdoor air must be heated. By minimizing the amount of hot or cold outdoor air brought into the HVAC system, the supply air requires less cooling or heating, saving energy and money. Additionally, the CO{sub 2} levels in a building can be monitored to ensure that adequate outdoor air is supplied to a building to maintain air quality levels. The two main considerations prior to implementing CO{sub 2}-based ventilation control are its impact on energy consumption and the adequacy of indoor air quality (IAQ) and occupant comfort. To address these considerations, six portable CO{sub 2} monitors were placed in several Hanford Site buildings to estimate the adequacy of office/workspace ventilation. The monitors assessed the potential for reducing the flow of outdoor-air to the buildings. A candidate building was also identified to monitor various ventilation control strategies for use in developing a plan for implementing and assessing energy savings.

McMordie, K.L.; Carroll, D.M.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

A Microcomputer Model of Crossflow Cooling Tower Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The energy use characteristics of evaporative cooling towers are of interest because, although such towers are widely used in industry, they do require a substantial amount of energy. Evaporative cooling towers are basically large heat exchangers...

Reichelt, G. E; Jones, J. W.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Passive containment cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Robinson Township, Allegheny County, PA); Stewart, William A. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Apparatus and method for evaporator defrosting  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for warm-liquid defrosting of the evaporator of a refrigeration system. The apparatus includes a first refrigerant expansion device that selectively expands refrigerant for cooling the evaporator, a second refrigerant expansion device that selectively expands the refrigerant after the refrigerant has passed through the evaporator, and a defrosting control for the first refrigerant expansion device and second refrigerant expansion device to selectively defrost the evaporator by causing warm refrigerant to flow through the evaporator. The apparatus is alternately embodied with a first refrigerant bypass and/or a second refrigerant bypass for selectively directing refrigerant to respectively bypass the first refrigerant expansion device and the second refrigerant expansion device, and with the defrosting control connected to the first refrigerant bypass and/or the second refrigerant bypass to selectively activate and deactivate the bypasses depending upon the current cycle of the refrigeration system. The apparatus alternately includes an accumulator for accumulating liquid and/or gaseous refrigerant that is then pumped either to a refrigerant receiver or the first refrigerant expansion device for enhanced evaporator defrosting capability. The inventive method of defrosting an evaporator in a refrigeration system includes the steps of compressing refrigerant in a compressor and cooling the refrigerant in the condenser such that the refrigerant is substantially in liquid form, passing the refrigerant substantially in liquid form through the evaporator, and expanding the refrigerant with a refrigerant expansion device after the refrigerant substantially passes through the evaporator.

Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN); Domitrovic, Ronald E. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Simulated performance of CIEE's 'Alternatives to Compressive Cooling' prototype house under design conditions in various California climates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To support the design development of a compressorless house that does not rely on mechanical air-conditioning, the author carried out detailed computer analysis of a prototypical house design to determine the indoor thermal conditions during peak cooling periods for over 170 California locations. The peak cooling periods are five-day sequences at 2{percent} frequency determined through statistical analysis of long-term historical weather data. The DOE-2 program was used to simulate the indoor temperatures of the house under four operating options: windows closed, with mechanical ventilation, evaporatively-cooled mechanical ventilation, or a conventional 1 1/2-ton air conditioner. The study found that with a 1500 CFM mechanical ventilation system, the house design would maintain comfort under peak conditions in the San Francisco Bay Area out to Walnut Creek, but not beyond. In southern California, the same system and house design would maintain adequate comfort only along the coast. With the evaporatively-cooled ventilation system, the applicability of the house design can be extended to Fairfield and Livermore in northern California, but in southern California a larger 3000 CFM system would be needed to maintain comfort conditions over half of the greater Los Angeles area, the southern half of the Inland Empire, and most of San Diego county. With the 1 1/2-ton air conditioner, the proposed house design would perform satisfactorily through most of the state, except in the upper areas of the Central Valley and the hot desert areas in southern California. In terms of energy savings, the simulations showed that the prototypical house design would save from 0.20 to 0.43 in northern California, 0.20 to 0.53 in southern California, and 0.16 to 0.35 in the Central Valley, the energy used by the same house design built to Title-24 requirements.

Huang, Yu Joe

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Position paper -- Tank ventilation system design air flow rates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to document a project position on required ventilation system design air flow rates for the waste storage tanks currently being designed by project W-236A, the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF). The Title 1 design primary tank heat removal system consists of two systems: a primary tank vapor space ventilation system; and an annulus ventilation system. At the conclusion of Title 1 design, air flow rates for the primary and annulus ventilation systems were 960 scfm and 4,400 scfm, respectively, per tank. These design flow rates were capable of removing 1,250,000 Btu/hr from each tank. However, recently completed and ongoing studies have resulted in a design change to reduce the extreme case heat load to 700,000 Btu/hr. This revision of the extreme case heat load, coupled with results of scale model evaporative testing performed by WHC Thermal Hydraulics, allow for a reduction of the design air flow rates for both primary and annulus ventilation systems. Based on the preceding discussion, ICF Kaiser Hanford Co. concludes that the design should incorporate the following design air flow rates: Primary ventilation system--500 scfm maximum and Annulus ventilation system--1,100 scfm maximum. In addition, the minimum air flow rates in the primary and annulus ventilation systems will be investigated during Title 2 design. The results of the Title 2 investigation will determine the range of available temperature control using variable air flows to both ventilation systems.

Goolsby, G.K.

1995-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

90

Advanced Controls for Residential Whole-House Ventilation Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Whole-house ventilation systems are becoming commonplace in new construction, remodeling/renovation, and weatherization projects, driven by combinations of specific requirements for indoor air quality (IAQ), health and compliance with standards, such as ASHRAE 62.2. Ventilation systems incur an energy penalty on the home via fan power used to drive the airflow, and the additional space-conditioning load associated with heating or cooling the ventilation air. Finding a balance between IAQ and energy use is important if homes are to be adequately ventilated while not increasing the energy burden. This study used computer simulations to examine RIVEC the Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller - a prototype ventilation controller that aims to deliver whole-house ventilation rates that comply with ventilation standards, for the minimum use of energy. Four different whole-house ventilation systems were simulated, both with and without RIVEC, so that the energy and IAQ results could be compared. Simulations were conducted for 13 US climate zones, three house designs, and three envelope leakage values. The results showed that the RIVEC controller could typically return ventilation energy savings greater than 40percent without compromising long-term chronic or short-term acute exposures to relevant indoor contaminants. Critical and average peak power loads were also reduced as a consequence of using RIVEC.

Turner, William; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Sensor-based demand controlled ventilation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In most buildings, occupancy and indoor pollutant emission rates vary with time. With sensor-based demand-controlled ventilation (SBDCV), the rate of ventilation (i.e., rate of outside air supply) also varies with time to compensate for the changes in pollutant generation. In other words, SBDCV involves the application of sensing, feedback and control to modulate ventilation. Compared to ventilation without feedback, SBDCV offers two potential advantages: (1) better control of indoor pollutant concentrations; and (2) lower energy use and peak energy demand. SBDCV has the potential to improve indoor air quality by increasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are high and occupants are present. SBDCV can also save energy by decreasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are low or occupants are absent. After providing background information on indoor air quality and ventilation, this report provides a relatively comprehensive discussion of SBDCV. Topics covered in the report include basic principles of SBDCV, sensor technologies, technologies for controlling air flow rates, case studies of SBDCV, application of SBDCV to laboratory buildings, and research needs. SBDCV appears to be an increasingly attractive technology option. Based on the review of literature and theoretical considerations, the application of SBDCV has the potential to be cost-effective in applications with the following characteristics: (a) a single or small number of dominant pollutants, so that ventilation sufficient to control the concentration of the dominant pollutants provides effective control of all other pollutants; (b) large buildings or rooms with unpredictable temporally variable occupancy or pollutant emission; and (c) climates with high heating or cooling loads or locations with expensive energy.

De Almeida, A.T. [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dep. Eng. Electrotecnica; Fisk, W.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Cooling airflow design tool for displacement ventilation.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Overhead Air Distribution (Mixed)  Design  Temperature  Tto “Design Temperature,” the “Overhead Air Distribution”T d   Design Control  Strategy  Zone Air  Distribution 

Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Passive-solar-cooling system concepts for small office buildings. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the efforts of a small group of building design professionals and energy analysis experts to develop passive solar cooling concepts including first cost estimates for small office buildings. Two design teams were brought together at each of two workshops held in the fall of 1982. Each team included an architect, mechanical engineer, structural engineer, and energy analysis expert. This report presents the passive cooling system concepts resulting from the workshops. It summarizes the design problems, solutions and first-cost estimates relating to each technology considered, and documents the research needs identified by the participants in attempting to implement the various technologies in an actual building design. Each design problem presented at the workshops was based on the reference (base case) small office building analyzed as part of LBL's Cooling Assessment. Chapter II summarizes the thermal performance, physical specifications and estimated first-costs of the base case design developed for this work. Chapters III - VI describe the passive cooling system concepts developed for each technology: beam daylighting; mass with night ventilation; evaporative cooling; and integrated passive cooling systems. The final Chapters, VII and VIII present the preliminary implications for economics of passive cooling technologies (based on review of the design concepts) and recommendations of workshop participants for future research in passive cooling for commercial buildings. Appendices provide backup information on each chapter as indicated.

Whiddon, W.I.; Hart, G.K.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Building Science- Ventilation  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 25, 2012, and addressed the question "What are the best ventilation techniques"

95

Experimental Simulation of Evaporation-Driven Silica Sinter Formation and Microbial Silicification in Hot Spring Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in geothermal waters after they have reached the surface. Water evaporation is, along with cooling, one Evaporation of silica-rich geothermal waters is one of the main abiotic drivers of the formation of silica

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

96

Direct Evaporative Precooling Model and Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Evaporative condenser pre-cooling expands the availability of energy saving, cost-effective technology options (market engagement) and serves to expedite the range of options in upcoming codes and equipment standards (impacting regulation). Commercially available evaporative pre-coolers provide a low cost retrofit for existing packaged rooftop units, commercial unitary split systems, and air cooled chillers. We map the impact of energy savings and peak energy reduction in the 3 building types (medium office, secondary school, and supermarket) in 16 locations for three building types with four pad effectivenesses and show the effect for HVAC systems using either refrigerants R22 or R410A

Shen, Bo [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Craddick, William G [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Multifamily Ventilation Retrofit Strategies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In multifamily buildings, central ventilation systems often have poor performance, overventilating some portions of the building (causing excess energy use), while simultaneously underventilating other portions (causing diminished indoor air quality). BSC and Innova Services Corporation performed a series of field tests at a mid-rise test building undergoing a major energy audit and retrofit, which included ventilation system upgrades.

Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.; Bergey, D.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

STATE OF CALIFORNIA EVAPORATIVELY COOLED CONDENSING UNITS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

installations, and the duct sealing must be verified by a HERS rater. Proper refrigerant charge or a Charge trip for the compressor is set (per manufacturer's documents) at or below 300 psig for R22 Refrigerant and at or below the saturation pressure corresponding to a temperature of 1310 F for all other refrigerants. 5

99

Hybrid Wet/Dry Cooling for Power Plants (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation includes an overview of cooling options, an analysis of evaporative enhancement of air-cooled geothermal power plants, field measurements at a geothermal plant, a preliminary analysis of trough plant, and improvements to air-cooled condensers.

Kutscher, C.; Buys, A.; Gladden, C.

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Performance Assessment of Photovoltaic Attic Ventilator Fans  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A case study of photovoltaic attic ventilator fans was conducted on an occupied single family home in Central Florida. Two fans were installed at mid-summer in an instrumented home where attic air temperature, meteorological conditions and space cooling electric power were measured. The home already had an attic radiant barrier, but still experienced attic air temperatures in excess of 130oF.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Chemical Treatment Fosters Zero Discharge by Making Cooling Water Reusable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dramatically. Once-through cooling has been largely replaced by open recirculating cooling water methods. This approach reduces water consumption by increasing the use of recycled water. Simplistically, the circulating cooling water flows through heat... exchanger equipment and is cooled by passing through a cooling tower. The recycled water is cooled by evaporation of some of the circulating water as it passes through the tower. As a result of the evaporation process, the dissolved solids in the water...

Boffardi, B. P.

102

Steam-Electric Power-Plant-Cooling Handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Steam-Electric Power Plant Cooling Handbook provides summary data on steam-electric power plant capacity, generation and number of plants for each cooling means, by Electric Regions, Water Resource Regions and National Electric Reliability Council Areas. Water consumption by once-through cooling, cooling ponds and wet evaporative towers is discussed and a methodology for computation of water consumption is provided for a typical steam-electric plant which uses a wet evaporative tower or cooling pond for cooling.

Sonnichsen, J.C.; Carlson, H.A.; Charles, P.D.; Jacobson, L.D.; Tadlock, L.A.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

ANNUAL REPORT WESTERN COOLING EFFICIENCY CENTER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sinks for Unitary Air Conditioners 10 Graywater Reuse for Evaporative Cooling 14 In-Home Energy Display COOLING EFFICIENCY CENTER WESTERN COOLING EFFICIENCY CENTER EXPLORING MANY OPTIONS FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY and leadership in the field of energy efficiency. This document, the second Annual Report on Cooling in the West

California at Davis, University of

104

Simulation of radiant cooling performance with evaporative cooling sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

efficient or even net-zero energy buildings and improveddevelopment of net-zero-energy buildings, or something

Moore, Timothy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Simulation of radiant cooling performance with evaporative cooling sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of 65%, and pump motor electric efficiency of 78%, totalof 65%, and pump motor electric efficiency of 78%. Forof 65%, and pump motor electric efficiency of 78%. For both

Moore, Timothy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Simulation of radiant cooling performance with evaporative cooling sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HVAC airside network as a single constant-volume 60% efficient fan and path to the outside with total static pressure

Moore, Timothy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Simulation of radiant cooling performance with evaporative cooling sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Eindhoven, Netherlands, August 11-14, 2003 PAGE 66 SEindhoven, Netherlands, August 11-14, 2003. PAGE 67 S

Moore, Timothy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Why We Ventilate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is widely accepted that ventilation is critical for providing good indoor air quality (IAQ) in homes. However, the definition of"good" IAQ, and the most effective, energy efficient methods for delivering it are still matters of research and debate. This paper presents the results of work done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab to identify the air pollutants that drive the need for ventilation as part of a larger effort to develop a health-based ventilation standard. First, we present results of a hazard analysis that identified the pollutants that most commonly reach concentrations in homes that exceed health-based standards or guidelines for chronic or acute exposures. Second, we present results of an impact assessment that identified the air pollutants that cause the most harm to the U.S. population from chronic inhalation in residences. Lastly, we describe the implications of our findings for developing effective ventilation standards.

Logue, Jennifer M.; Sherman, Max H.; Price, Phil N.; Singer, Brett C.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

VOLUME 74, NUMBER 26 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 26 JUNE 1995 Evaporative Cooling of Sodium Atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

which allow the cooling of atoms to temperatures below the recoil limit. Optical techniques and trap loss due to ex- cited state collisions [5]. The technique of forced evapora- tive cooling relies of different cooling and trapping techniques involving lasers and mag- netic fields we were able to obtain

110

A New Empirical Model for Predicting Single-Sided, Wind-Driven Natural Ventilation in Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the United States, with a significant part of this energy being used to cool buildings [1]. As green buildings are becoming a trend in building design, natural ventilation has been drawing much attention

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

111

The Potential for Wind Induced Ventilation to Meet Occupant Comfort Conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper describes a simple graphic tool that enables a building designer to evaluate the potential for wind induced ventilation cooling in several climate zones. Long term weather data were analyzed to determine the conditions for which available...

Byrne, S. J.; Huang, Y. J.; Ritschard, R. L.; Foley, D. M.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Coolerado Cooler Helps to Save Cooling Energy and Dollars: New Cooling Technology Targets Peak Load Reduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is about a new evaporative cooling technology that can deliver cooler supply air temperatures than either direct or indirect evaporative cooling systems, without increasing humidity. The Coolerado Cooler technology can help Federal agencies reach the energy-use reduction goals of EPAct 2005, particularly in the western United States.

Robichaud, R.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Ventilation technologies scoping study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the needs of California, determining residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and level of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

114

Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Existing ventilation standards, including American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specify continuous operation of a defined mechanical ventilation system to provide minimum ventilation, with time-based intermittent operation as an option. This requirement ignores several factors and concerns including: other equipment such as household exhaust fans that might incidentally provide ventilation, negative impacts of ventilation when outdoor pollutant levels are high, the importance of minimizing energy use particularly during times of peak electricity demand, and how the energy used to condition air as part of ventilation system operation changes with outdoor conditions. Dynamic control of ventilation systems can provide ventilation equivalent to or better than what is required by standards while minimizing energy costs and can also add value by shifting load during peak times and reducing intake of outdoor air contaminants. This article describes the logic that enables dynamic control of whole-house ventilation systems to meet the intent of ventilation standards and demonstrates the dynamic ventilation system control concept through simulations and field tests of the Residential Integrated Ventilation-Energy Controller (RIVEC).

Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Natural ventilation generates building form  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Natural ventilation is an efficient design strategy for thermal comfort in hot and humid climates. The building forms can generate different pressures and temperatures to induce natural ventilation. This thesis develops a ...

Chen, Shaw-Bing

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Comparative evaluation of cooling tower drift eliminator performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The performance of standard industrial evaporative cooling tower drift eliminators is analyzed using experiments and numerical simulations. The experiments measure the

Chan, Joseph Kwok-Kwong

117

Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by its trade name, trademark quality (IAQ), ventilation is a critical element for improving the energy efficiency of buildings. IAQ

118

The Thermodynamic and Cost Benefits of Floating Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The application of a floating cooling concept to evaporative heat rejection systems can have significant impact on improving plant performance. The floating cooling concept refers to the optimization of yearly plant output and energy consumption by taking...

Svoboda, K. J.; Klooster, H. J.; Johnnie, D. H., Jr.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

ASHRAE and residential ventilation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the logical place to provide leadership. This leadership has been demonstrated most recently by the publication of the first nationally recognized standard on ventilation in homes, ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2003, which builds on work that has been part of ASHRAE for many years and will presumably continue. Homeowners and occupants, which includes virtually all of us, will benefit from the application of Standard 62.2 and use of the top ten list. This activity is exactly the kind of benefit to society that the founders of ASHRAE envisioned and is consistent with ASHRAE's mission and vision. ASHRAE members should be proud of their Society for taking leadership in residential ventilation.

Sherman, Max H.

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Ventilation | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehiclesTankless or Demand-Type WaterTravelVentilation Systems for

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Cool Links  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cool Links Explore Science Explore Explore these Topics Activities Videos Cool Links Favorite Q&A invisible utility element Cool Links Los Alamos National Laboratory links Los...

122

Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

123

Results from evaporation tests to support the MWTF heat removal system design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental tests program was conducted to measure the evaporative heat removal from the surface of a tank of simulated waste. The results contained in this report constitute definition design data for the latest heat removal function of the MWTF primary ventilation system.

Crea, B.A.

1994-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

124

Evaporation of extrasolar planets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This article presents a review on the observations and theoretical modeling of the evaporation of extrasolar planets. The observations and the resulting constraints on the upper atmosphere (thermosphere and exosphere) of the "hot-Jupiters". are described. The early observations of the first discovered transiting extrasolar planet, HD209458b, allowed the discovery that this planet has an extended atmosphere of escaping hydrogen. Subsequent observations showed the presence of oxygen and carbon at very high altitude. These observations give unique constraints on the escape rate and mechanism in the atmosphere of hot-Jupiters. The most recent Lyman-alpha HST observations of HD189733b and MgII observations of Wasp-12b allow for the first time comparison of the evaporation from different planets in different environments. Models to quantify the escape rate from the measured occultation depths, and an energy diagram to describe the evaporation state of hot-Jupiters are presented. Using this diagram, it is shown that...

Etangs, A Lecavelier des

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Hot air drum evaporator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

Black, Roger L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

RECOMMENDED VENTILATION STRATEGIES FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT PRODUCTION HOMES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-port exhaust ventilation fan, and that builders offer balanced heat- recovery ventilation to buyers

127

Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies Photo of a dark brown perforated metal wall is pictured on the side of an...

128

RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION AND ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to provide this ventilation service, either directly for moving the air or indirectly for conditioning continue, the fraction of energy consumed by the conditioning of air may increase. Air-tightening programs Berkeley, California The role of ventilation in the housing stock is to provide fresh air and to dilute

129

Reverse ventilation--perfusion mismatch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Patients having lobar airway obstruction or consolidation usually have decreases of both ventilation and perfusion on lung scans. We report three patients in whom hypoxic vasoconstriction was apparently incomplete, resulting in a ''reversed'' ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Perfusion of the hypoxic lobe on the radionuclide scan was associated with metabolic alkalosis, pulmonary venous and pulmonary arterial hypertension in these patients.

Palmaz, J.C.; Barnett, C.A.; Reich, S.B.; Krumpe, P.E.; Farrer, P.A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

STOCHASTIC COOLING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Stochastic Cooling i n ICE, IEEE Transaction's in Nucl. SICE studies firmly establishing the stochastic cooling

Bisognano, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Cardiac gated ventilation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are several theoretic advantages to synchronizing positive pressure breaths with the cardiac cycle, including the potential for improving distribution of pulmonary and myocardial blood flow and enhancing cardiac output. The authors evaluated the effects of synchronizing respiration to the cardiac cycle using a programmable ventilator and electron beam CT (EBCT) scanning. The hearts of anesthetized dogs were imaged during cardiac gated respiration with a 50 msec scan aperture. Multi slice, short axis, dynamic image data sets spanning the apex to base of the left ventricle were evaluated to determine the volume of the left ventricular chamber at end-diastole and end-systole during apnea, systolic and diastolic cardiac gating. The authors observed an increase in cardiac output of up to 30% with inspiration gated to the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle in a non-failing model of the heart.

Hanson, C.W. III [Hospital of the Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. Anesthesia; Hoffman, E.A. [Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States). Div. of Physiologic Imaging

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

132

Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Impact of Reflective Roofing on Cooling Electrical Use and Peak Demand in a Florida Retail Mall  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, Washington D.C., Vol. 9, p. 1, August, 1992. Akbari, H., Bretz, S., Kurn, D.M. and Hanford, J., ?Peak Power and Cooling Energy Savings of High Albedo Roofs,? Energy... positive pressure dehumidified air ventilation in hot humid climates, quiet exhaust fan ventilation in cool climates, solar water heaters, heat pump water heaters, high efficiency right sized heating/cooling equipment, and gas fired combo space...

Parker, D. S.; Sonne, J. K.; Sherwin, J. R.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

CO$_2$ cooling experience (LHCb)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The thermal control system of the LHCb VErtex LOcator (VELO) is a two-phase C0$_2$ cooling system based on the 2-Phase Accumulator Controlled Loop (2PACL) method. Liquid carbon dioxide is mechanically pumped in a closed loop, chilled by a water-cooled freon chiller and evaporated in the VELO detector. The main goal of the system is the permanent cooling of the VELO silicon sensors and of the heat producing front-end electronics inside a vacuum environment. This paper describes the design and the performance of the system. First results obtained during commissioning are also presented.

Van Lysebetten, Ann; Verlaat, Bart

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

STOCHASTIC COOLING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the stochastic cooling technique. This work directly led tol . . Physics and Techniques o f Stochastic Cooling, PhysicsCooling o f Momentum Spread by F i l t e r Techniques, CERN-

Bisognano, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Ventilation Model and Analysis Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This model and analysis report develops, validates, and implements a conceptual model for heat transfer in and around a ventilated emplacement drift. This conceptual model includes thermal radiation between the waste package and the drift wall, convection from the waste package and drift wall surfaces into the flowing air, and conduction in the surrounding host rock. These heat transfer processes are coupled and vary both temporally and spatially, so numerical and analytical methods are used to implement the mathematical equations which describe the conceptual model. These numerical and analytical methods predict the transient response of the system, at the drift scale, in terms of spatially varying temperatures and ventilation efficiencies. The ventilation efficiency describes the effectiveness of the ventilation process in removing radionuclide decay heat from the drift environment. An alternative conceptual model is also developed which evaluates the influence of water and water vapor mass transport on the ventilation efficiency. These effects are described using analytical methods which bound the contribution of latent heat to the system, quantify the effects of varying degrees of host rock saturation (and hence host rock thermal conductivity) on the ventilation efficiency, and evaluate the effects of vapor and enhanced vapor diffusion on the host rock thermal conductivity.

V. Chipman

2003-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

137

Classroom HVAC: Improving ventilation and saving energy -- field study plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in this study. Classroom HVAC: Improving Ventilation andV8doc.sas.com/sashtml. Classroom HVAC: Improving VentilationBerkeley, CA 94720. Classroom HVAC: Improving Ventilation

Apte, Michael G.; Faulkner, David; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

Kozubal, E.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Hottest spot temperatures in ventilated dry type transformers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hottest spot temperature allowance to be used for the different insulation system temperature classes is a major unknown facing IEEE Working Groups developing standards and loading guides for ventilated dry type transformers. In 1944, the hottest spot temperature allowance for ventilated dry type transformers was established as 30 C for 80 C average winding temperature rise. Since 1944, insulation temperature classes have increased to 220 C but IEEE standards continue to use a constant 30 C hottest spot temperature allowance. IEC standards use a variable hottest spot temperature allowance from 5 to 30 C. Six full size test windings were manufactured with imbedded thermocouples and 133 test runs performed to obtain temperature rise data. The test data indicated that the hottest spot temperature allowance used in IEEE standards for ventilated dry type transformers above 500 kVA is too low. This is due to the large thermal gradient from the bottom to the top of the windings caused by natural convection air flow through the cooling ducts. A constant ratio of hottest spot winding temperature rise to average winding temperature rise should be used in product standards for all insulation temperature classes. A ratio of 1.5 is suggested for ventilated dry type transformers above 500 kVA. This would increase the hottest spot temperature allowance from 30 C to 60 C and decrease the permissible average winding temperature rise from 150 C to 120 C for the 220 C insulation temperature class.

Pierce, L.W. (General Electric Co., Rome, GA (United States))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (2006), 132, pp. 865883 doi: 10.1256/qj.04.187 Observations of the depth of ice particle evaporation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) suggested that evaporative cooling from falling ice particles can have a more significant dynamical impact of ice particle evaporation beneath frontal cloud to improve NWP modelling By RICHARD M. FORBES1 21 November 2005) SUMMARY The evaporation (sublimation) of ice particles beneath frontal ice cloud

Reading, University of

142

NISTIR 5873 INTRACYCLE EVAPORATIVE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at the cooling mode operating condition typical for a water-to-water residential heat pump. The capacity was evaluated by asemi-theoretical simulation model and experimentally in an instrumented laboratory heat pump of Performance, heat pump, refrigeration, zeotropic mixtures iii #12;Acknowledgments This study was sponsored

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

143

Evaporation/ Solution Droplet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Nano-Catalysts · Fine Powders · Spray Drying MoO3 As prepared initially. After thermal annealing at 350oC. Hollow Spheres and Crystals 1st Hollow Crystals! Cooling bath Titanium Horn Collar & O-Rings Gas Production of Nano-Materials microporous shell internal macropores Hierarchically Porous Carbons Brandon Ito

Suslick, Kenneth S.

144

Residential ventilation standards scoping study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Are Ventilation Filters Degrading Indoor Air Quality in California Classrooms?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heating, ventilating, and cooling classrooms in California consume substantial electrical energy. Indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms affects studenthealth and performance. In addition to airborne pollutants that are emitted directly by indoor sources and those generated outdoors, secondary pollutants can be formed indoors by chemical reaction of ozone with other chemicals and materials. Filters are used in nearly all classroom heating, ventilation and air?conditioning (HVAC) systems to maintain energy-efficient HVAC performance and improve indoor air quality; however, recent evidence indicates that ozone reactions with filters may, in fact, be a source of secondary pollutants. This project quantitatively evaluated ozone deposition in HVAC filters and byproduct formation, and provided a preliminary assessment of the extent towhich filter systems are degrading indoor air quality. The preliminary information obtained will contribute to the design of subsequent research efforts and the identification of energy efficient solutions that improve indoor air quality in classrooms and the health and performance of students.

Fisk, William J.; Destaillats, H.; Apte, M.G.; Destaillats,, Hugo; Fisk, Michael G. Apte and William J.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

STATE OF CALIFORNIA INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND MECHANICAL VENTILATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for selection of the whole-building ventilation fan and for the duct design for the whole-building ventilation

147

Advanced Controls and Sustainable Systems for Residential Ventilation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

..........................................................................................9 Passive and Hybrid Ventilation ....................................................................................................................................19 4. WHOLE-HOUSE VENTILATION STRATEGIES..........................................................................................................21 Strategy 1: Whole-House Exhaust

148

The Histoty of Ventilation and Air Conditioning is CERN Up to Date with the latest Technological Developments?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The invention of ventilation cannot be ascribed to a certain date. It started with simple aeration when man brought fire into his abode and continued through different stages including air cooling using ice to finally arrive at the time when ventilation and air conditioning has become an essential part of our life and plays an important role in human evolution. This paper presents the history of ventilation and air conditioning, explains the key constraints over the centuries, and shows its influence on everyday life. Some examples of previous air-conditioning plants are described and different approaches to the way of calculation of ventilation systems discussed. It gives an overview of the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) installations at CERN and points out their particularities. It also compares them with the latest technological developments in the field as well as showing the new trends that are being applied at CERN.

Kühnl-Kinel, J

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Passive Cooling System for a Vehicle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive cooling system for a vehicle (114) transfers heat from an overheated internal component, for example, an instrument panel (100), to an external portion (116) of the vehicle (114), for example, a side body panel (126). The passive cooling system includes one or more heat pipes (112) having an evaporator section (118) embedded in the overheated internal component and a condenser section (120) at the external portion (116) of the vehicle (114). The evaporator (118) and condenser (120) sections are in fluid communication. The passive cooling system may also include a thermally conductive film (140) for thermally connecting the evaporator sections (118) of the heat pipes (112) to each other and to the instrument panel (100).

Hendricks, T. J.; Thoensen, T.

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

150

Passive cooling system for a vehicle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive cooling system for a vehicle (114) transfers heat from an overheated internal component, for example, an instrument panel (100), to an external portion (116) of the vehicle (114), for example, a side body panel (126). The passive cooling system includes one or more heat pipes (112) having an evaporator section (118) embedded in the overheated internal component and a condenser section (120) at the external portion (116) of the vehicle (114). The evaporator (118) and condenser (120) sections are in fluid communication. The passive cooling system may also include a thermally conductive film (140) for thermally connecting the evaporator sections (118) of the heat pipes (112) to each other and to the instrument panel (100).

Hendricks, Terry Joseph; Thoensen, Thomas

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

151

Building America Webinar: Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Residential Buildings (CARB), and discussed ventilation strategies for multifamily buildings, including how to successfully implement those strategies through smart design,...

152

Preconditioning Outside Air: Cooling Loads from Building Ventilation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the standard. To mitigate or nullify these additional weather loads, outdoor air preconditioning technologies are being promoted in combination with conventional HVAC operations downstream as a means to deliver the required fresh air and control humidity...

Kosar, D.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Particle transport in low-energy ventilation systems. Part 1: theory of steady states  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the global population. According to the Energy Information Administration (http://www.eia.doe.gov/) the US of this energy is spent on ventilation of buildings with summer time cooling account for almost 10% of the US total energy budget. To reduce energy consumption various low-energy systems such as displacement

Bolster, Diogo

154

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF VENTILATION TEMPERATURES REGULATION BY ENERGY STORAGE IN PHASE CHANGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF VENTILATION TEMPERATURES REGULATION BY ENERGY STORAGE IN PHASE CHANGE, the use of thermal energy storage (TES) systems receives increasing interest. To allow high or low temperature thermal energy to be stored for later use, a heat or cool storage with PCM could be designed; Zhu

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

155

Advanced Cooling Technology, Inc. final technical progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tasks performed to develop an improved version of Advanced Cooling Technology`s Evaporative Subcooling System are described. Work on pump stability, improved drainage mechanism, and the American Refrigeration Institute engineering performance tests is presented.

Myers, H.S.

1993-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

156

Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.

1997-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

157

System and method for cooling a combustion gas charge  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a system and method for cooling a combustion gas charge prior. The combustion gas charge may include compressed intake air, exhaust gas, or a mixture thereof. An evaporator is provided that may then receive a relatively high temperature combustion gas charge and discharge at a relatively lower temperature. The evaporator may be configured to operate with refrigeration cycle components and/or to receive a fluid below atmospheric pressure as the phase-change cooling medium.

Massey, Mary Cecelia; Boberg, Thomas Earl

2010-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

158

Heat Recovery and Indirect Evaporative Cooling for Energy Conservation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SUP STD VELOC [TV fFPM) 495. EXH STD VELOCITY WPM) 495. SUP RECOVERV FACTOR I DRY) .09 IoHNTER OESION CONDITIONS SUP TEMP ENTCFI 14.0 SUP TEMP LEAVCF) ::sO. 3 IEXH TE!"!P ENT CF) 7~.0 EXH TENP LEAV (F) 313.3 FROST THR~SHOLO T~MP SUP REC FACTOR... as an essentially isothermal device (i.e. the same temperature throughout), re gardless of surrounding air temperature. 76 ESL-IE-84-04-14 Proceedings from the Sixth Annual Industrial Energy Technology Conference Volume I, Houston, TX, April 15-18, 1984 HEAT PIP...

Buckley, C. C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Evaluation of a Direct Evaporative Roof-Spray Cooling System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

involved several steps. PVC tubing, with special spray orifices, was mounted on wooden blodts. Solenoid valves were connected to the PVC tubing and then to the controller which activated them. The controller was also connected to a 95 degree F thermo.... The remainder of the thermocouples were used with thermal flux meters to measure the heat flux through the roof. Four thermal flux meters were built by placing a piece of plexiglass (k = 0.1125 Btulh ft F) with a thermo-. couple on each side between two...

Carrasco, A.; Pittard, R.; Kondepudi, S. N.; Somasundaram, S.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation: Simulation and Comparison of Normalized Exposures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of ventilation is to dilute indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. Even when providing the same nominal rate of outdoor air, different ventilation systems may distribute air in different ways, affecting occupants' exposure to household contaminants. Exposure ultimately depends on the home being considered, on source disposition and strength, on occupants' behavior, on the ventilation strategy, and on operation of forced air heating and cooling systems. In any multi-zone environment dilution rates and source strengths may be different in every zone and change in time, resulting in exposure being tied to occupancy patterns.This paper will report on simulations that compare ventilation systems by assessing their impact on exposure by examining common house geometries, contaminant generation profiles, and occupancy scenarios. These simulations take into account the unsteady, occupancy-tied aspect of ventilation such as bathroom and kitchen exhaust fans. As most US homes have central HVAC systems, the simulation results will be used to make appropriate recommendations and adjustments for distribution and mixing to residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.This paper will report on work being done to model multizone airflow systems that are unsteady and elaborate the concept of distribution matrix. It will examine several metrics for evaluating the effect of air distribution on exposure to pollutants, based on previous work by Sherman et al. (2006).

Petithuguenin, T.D.P.; Sherman, M.H.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Predicting hottest spot temperatures in ventilated dry type transformer windings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Test data indicates that hottest spot allowances used in IEEE standards for ventilated dry type transformers above 500 kVA are too low. A mathematical model to predict hottest spot temperature rises in ventilated dry type transformers was developed. Data from six layer type test windings and a 2500 kva prototype was used to refine the model. A correlation for the local heat transfer coefficient in the cooling ducts was developed. The model was used to study the effect of various parameters on the ratio of hottest spot to average winding temperature rise. The number of conductor layers, insulation thickness, and conductor strand size were found to have only a minor effect on the ratio. Winding height was found to be the main parameter influencing the ratio of hottest spot to average winding temperature rise. The study based on the mathematical model confirmed previous conclusions based on test data that the hottest spot allowances used in IEEE standards for ventilated dry type transformers above 500 kVA should be revised.

Pierce, L.W. (General Electric Co., Rome, GA (United States))

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved evaporator section for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes.

Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rawlinson, K. Scott (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved evaporator section is described for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes. 1 figure.

Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

164

Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20percent, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.

Staff Scientist; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max; Dickerhoff, Darryl

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

DWPF Recycle Evaporator Simulant Tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Testing was performed to determine the feasibility and processing characteristics of an evaporation process to reduce the volume of the recycle stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The concentrated recycle would be returned to DWPF while the overhead condensate would be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Plant. Various blends of evaporator feed were tested using simulants developed from characterization of actual recycle streams from DWPF and input from DWPF-Engineering. The simulated feed was evaporated in laboratory scale apparatus to target a 30X volume reduction. Condensate and concentrate samples from each run were analyzed and the process characteristics (foaming, scaling, etc) were visually monitored during each run. The following conclusions were made from the testing: Concentration of the ''typical'' recycle stream in DWPF by 30X was feasible. The addition of DWTT recycle streams to the typical recycle stream raises the solids content of the evaporator feed considerably and lowers the amount of concentration that can be achieved. Foaming was noted during all evaporation tests and must be addressed prior to operation of the full-scale evaporator. Tests were conducted that identified Dow Corning 2210 as an antifoam candidate that warrants further evaluation. The condensate has the potential to exceed the ETP WAC for mercury, silicon, and TOC. Controlling the amount of equipment decontamination recycle in the evaporator blend would help meet the TOC limits. The evaporator condensate will be saturated with mercury and elemental mercury will collect in the evaporator condensate collection vessel. No scaling on heating surfaces was noted during the tests, but splatter onto the walls of the evaporation vessels led to a buildup of solids. These solids were difficult to remove with 2M nitric acid. Precipitation of solids was not noted during the testing. Some of the aluminum present in the recycle streams was converted from gibbsite to aluminum oxide during the evaporation process. The following recommendations were made: Recycle from the DWTT should be metered in slowly to the ''typical'' recycle streams to avoid spikes in solids content to allow consistent processing and avoid process upsets. Additional studies should be conducted to determine acceptable volume ratios for the HEME dissolution and decontamination solutions in the evaporator feed. Dow Corning 2210 antifoam should be evaluated for use to control foaming. Additional tests are required to determine the concentration of antifoam required to prevent foaming during startup, the frequency of antifoam additions required to control foaming during steady state processing, and the ability of the antifoam to control foam over a range of potential feed compositions. This evaluation should also include evaluation of the degradation of the antifoam and impact on the silicon and TOC content of the condensate. The caustic HEME dissolution recycle stream should be neutralized to at least pH of 7 prior to blending with the acidic recycle streams. Dow Corning 2210 should be used during the evaporation testing using the radioactive recycle samples received from DWPF. Evaluation of additional antifoam candidates should be conducted as a backup for Dow Corning 2210. A camera and/or foam detection instrument should be included in the evaporator design to allow monitoring of the foaming behavior during operation. The potential for foam formation and high solids content should be considered during the design of the evaporator vessel.

Stone, M

2005-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

166

Heat pump system with selective space cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

Pendergrass, J.C.

1997-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

167

Heat pump system with selective space cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve.

Pendergrass, Joseph C. (Gainesville, GA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Particle deposition in ventilation ducts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the experimental measurements was applied to evaluate particle losses in supply and return duct runs. Model results suggest that duct losses are negligible for particle sizes less than 1 {micro}m and complete for particle sizes greater than 50 {micro}m. Deposition to insulated ducts, horizontal duct floors and bends are predicted to control losses in duct systems. When combined with models for HVAC filtration and deposition to indoor surfaces to predict the ultimate fates of particles within buildings, these results suggest that ventilation ducts play only a small role in determining indoor particle concentrations, especially when HVAC filtration is present. However, the measured and modeled particle deposition rates are expected to be important for ventilation system contamination.

Sippola, Mark R.

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning Energy and Moisture Levels in the Hot-Humid Climate, Cocoa, Florida (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season. ?

Not Available

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Cooling devices and methods for use with electric submersible pumps  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Cooling devices for use with electric submersible pump motors include a refrigerator attached to the end of the electric submersible pump motor with the evaporator heat exchanger accepting all or a portion of the heat load from the motor. The cooling device can be a self-contained bolt-on unit, so that minimal design changes to existing motors are required.

Jankowski, Todd A; Hill, Dallas D

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

171

Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This page provides a brief overview of solar ventilation preheating (SVP) technologies supplemented by specific information to apply SVP within the Federal sector.

172

Electron CoolingElectron Cooling Sergei Nagaitsev  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electron CoolingElectron Cooling Sergei Nagaitsev FNAL - AD April 28, 2005 #12;Electron Cooling methods must "get around the theorem" e.g. by pushing phase-space around. #12;Electron Cooling - Nagaitsev 3 TodayToday''s Menus Menu What is cooling? Types of beam cooling Electron cooling Conclusions #12

Fermilab

173

SIMULATION OF A SOLAR ABSORPTION COOLING SYSTEM J.P. Praene*, D. Morau, F. Lucas, F. Garde, H. Boyer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the extensive use of heating ventilation air conditioning (HVAC) systems, which increase the peak electric load cooling. As no CFC are used, absorption systems are friendlier to the environment. At present the market

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

174

Cooled railplug  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers.

Weldon, William F. (Austin, TX)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and in new "energy-efficient design" hospitals. Developmentenergy-efficient ventilation standards and ventilation designs

Cairns, Elton J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Summer Infiltration/Ventilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Summer InfiltrationVentilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory Summer InfiltrationVentilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory This presentation was delivered at the...

177

Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in the Emergency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of ventilatory assis- tance to the respiratory system without an invasive artificial airway. Nonin- vasive of the tank ventilator or the ``iron lung'' was the most common form of mechanical ventilation outside showed that he could improve the survival of patients who had respiratory paralysis by using invasive

178

Ventilation Based on ASHRAE 62.2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

July 2010 CEC-400-2010-006 Minimum Best Practices Guide #12;CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION Craig in this report. #12;1 2008 Building Energy Efficiency Standards Residential Indoor Air Quality and Mechanical Ventilation (ASHRAE 62.2) Minimum Best Practices Guide - Exhaust-Only Ventilation Introduction: The California

179

Hydronic radiant cooling: Overview and preliminary performance assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A significant amount of electrical energy used to cool non-residential buildings is drawn by the fans used to transport the cool air through the thermal distribution system. Hydronic systems reduce the amount of air transported through the building by separating ventilation and thermal conditioning. Due to the physical properties of water, hydronic distribution systems can transport a given amount of thermal energy using less than 5% of the otherwise necessary fan energy. This savings alone significantly reduces the energy consumption and especially the peak power requirement This survey clearly shows advantages for radiant cooling in combination with hydronic thermal distribution systems in comparison with the All-Air Systems commonly used in California. The report describes a literature survey on the system's development, thermal comfort issues, and cooling performance. The cooling power potential and the cooling power requirement are investigated for several California climates. Peak-power requirement is compared for hydronic radiant cooling and conventional All-Air-Systems.

Feustel, H.E.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Thermodynamical approaches to efficient sympathetic cooling in ultracold Fermi-Bose atomic mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mainly due to fundamental obstacles in adapting cooling techniques successfully used for bosonic species degeneracy. This issue has been circumvented by developing two cooling techniques, namely mutual evaporativeThermodynamical approaches to efficient sympathetic cooling in ultracold Fermi-Bose atomic mixtures

Presilla, Carlo

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Cooling and Dehumidification HVAC Technology for 1990s  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Desiccant Cooling and Dehumidification HVAC Technology for 1990s HVAC: Heating, Ventilation Research Trusts SERI #12;Challenges Facing HVAC Industry in 1990's * Reduction of CFCs * Indoor air quality to solve the problems of the HVAC industry faced in1990's for space conditioning. SERI #12;l- = m mN a- mg

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

182

Effect of a Radiant Panel Cooling System on Indoor Air Quality of a Conditioned Space  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper discusses the effect of a radiant cooling panel system on an indoor air quality (IAQ) of a conditioned space. In this study, ceiling radiant cooling panel, mechanical ventilation with fan coil unit (FCU) and 100% fresh air are used...

Mohamed, E.; Abdalla, K. N.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Dry cooling: Perspectives on future needs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The factors that can be expected to determine the future role of dry cooling in the United States electric power generation industry are identified and characterized. Focus is primarily on the issues of water availability for the electric power industry and the environmental impacts of evaporative cooling systems. The question of future water availability is addressed in terms of both limitations and opportunities facing the industry. A brief review of the status of dry cooling applications is provided. Included is a summary of an extensive survey of electric utility industry perspectives on the future requirements and role for dry cooling. Some regional assessments of the expected future requirements for this technology are also provided. Conclusions are a qualitative characterization of the expected future role of dry cooling in the electric power industry. 72 refs., 7 figs., 13 tabs.

Guyer, E.C. (Yankee Scientific, Inc., Ashland, MA (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Trends in Heating and Cooling Degree Days: Implications for Energy Demand Issues (released in AEO2008)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Weather-related energy use, in the form of heating, cooling, and ventilation, accounted for more than 40% of all delivered energy use in residential and commercial buildings in 2006. Given the relatively large amount of energy affected by ambient temperature in the buildings sector, the Energy Information Administration has reevaluated what it considers normal weather for purposes of projecting future energy use for heating, cooling, and ventilation. The Annual Energy Outlook 2008, estimates of normal heating and cooling degree-days are based on the population-weighted average for the 10-year period from 1997 through 2006.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

The Effect of Reduced Evaporator Air Flow on the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper discusses the measured degradation in performance of a residential air conditioning system operating under reduced evaporator air flow. Experiments were conducted using a R-22 three-ton split-type cooling system with a short-tube orifice...

Palani, M.; O'Neal, D.; Haberl, J.

186

Optical Properties and Radiation-Enhanced Evaporation of Nanofluid Fuels Containing Carbon-Based Nanostructures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and thermal systems as an advanced heat-transfer fluid, e.g., advanced cooling of electronics systemsOptical Properties and Radiation-Enhanced Evaporation of Nanofluid Fuels Containing Carbon characteristics of nanofluid fuels with stable suspension of carbon-based nanostructures under radiation

Qiao, Li

187

Cooled railplug  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers. 10 figs.

Weldon, W.F.

1996-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

188

Thermodynamics of an Evaporating Schwarzschild Black Hole in Noncommutative Space  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the effects of space noncommutativity and the generalized uncertainty principle on the thermodynamics of a radiating Schwarzschild black hole. We show that evaporation process is in such a way that black hole reaches to a maximum temperature before its final stage of evolution and then cools down to a nonsingular remnant with zero temperature and entropy. We compare our results with more reliable results of string theory. This comparison Shows that GUP and space noncommutativity are similar concepts at least from view point of black hole thermodynamics.

Kourosh Nozari; Behnaz Fazlpour

2007-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

189

Dynamics of evaporative colloidal patterning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Drying suspensions often leave behind complex patterns of particulates, as might be seen in the coffee stains on a table. Here we consider the dynamics of periodic band or uniform solid film formation on a vertical plate suspended partially in a drying colloidal solution. Direct observations allow us to visualize the dynamics of the band and film deposition, and the transition in between when the colloidal concentration is varied. A minimal theory of the liquid meniscus motion along the plate reveals the dynamics of the banding and its transition to the filming as a function of the ratio of deposition and evaporation rates. We also provide a complementary multiphase model of colloids dissolved in the liquid, which couples the inhomogeneous evaporation at the evolving meniscus to the fluid and particulate flows and the transition from a dilute suspension to a porous plug. This allows us to determine the concentration dependence of the bandwidth and the deposition rate. Together, our findings allow for the control of drying-induced patterning as a function of the colloidal concentration and evaporation rate.

C. Nadir Kaplan; Ning Wu; Shreyas Mandre; Joanna Aizenberg; L. Mahadevan

2014-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

190

Analysis of the e-beam evaporation of titanium and Ti-6Al-4V  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental and finite element analysis was performed for the electron-beam evaporation of Ti and Ti-6Al-4V from a bottom-feed system. The bulk evaporation rate was measured by feed consumption, and the pool elevation was held constant by adjusting the feed rate in a closed-loop control system. The instantaneous titanium and aluminum evaporation rates were determined by laser absorption in the vapor plume. Water temperature rises in cooling water circuits provided heat flows, and post-run cross sections revealed the location of the solidification zone. The MELT finite element code was applied to model the steady-state two-dimensional fluid flow and energy transport in the rod. There was good agreement between model and measured values of the heat flows and solidification boundaries for Ti. Measured bulk evaporation rates were similar for Ti and Ti-6-4 with greater variation observed for the Ti values. The model evaporation rates were higher than the measured values, but a similar linear dependence on e-beam power was observed in all cases. In a Ti-6-4 evaporation experiment with steady process conditions, laser absorption measurements showed much larger fluctuations in the evaporation rate for Al than Ti.

Westerberg, K.W.; Merier, T.C.; McClelland, M.A.; Braun, D.G.; Berzins, L.V.; Anklam, T.M.; Storer, J.

1998-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

191

May 1999 LBNL -42975 ASHRAE'S RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

May 1999 LBNL - 42975 ASHRAE'S RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION STANDARD: EXEGESIS OF PROPOSED STANDARD 62 standard. 1 Max Sherman is a Senior Scientist at LBNL and the group leader of its Energy Performance

192

Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Ventilation Center. Emmerich, S.J, Dols, W.S. , “LoopDA:8 Int. IPBSA Conf. (2003) Emmerich S.J. Nabinger, S. J. “53484. Wallace, L. A. , Emmerich, S. J. , and Howard-Reed,

Walker, Iain

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Midlevel Ventilation's Constraint on Tropical Cyclone Intensity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Midlevel ventilation, or the flux of low-entropy air into the inner core of a tropical cyclone (TC), is a hypothesized mechanism by which environmental vertical wind shear can constrain a tropical cyclone’s intensity. An ...

Tang, Brian Hong-An

194

Scale model studies of displacement ventilation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Displacement ventilation is an air conditioning method that provides conditioned air to indoor environments with the goal to improve air quality while reducing energy consumption. This study investigates the performance ...

Okutan, Galip Mehmet

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Floor-supply displacement ventilation system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Research on indoor environments has received more attention recently because reports of symptoms and other health complaints related to indoor environments have been increasing. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning ...

Kobayashi, Nobukazu, 1967-

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Midlevel ventilation's constraint on tropical cyclone intensity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Midlevel ventilation, or the flux of low-entropy air into the inner core of a tropical cyclone (TC), is a hypothesized mechanism by which environmental vertical wind shear can constrain a TC's intensity. An idealized ...

Tang, Brian Hong-An

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Software Verification & Validation Report for the 244-AR Vault Interim Stabilization Ventilation System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document reports on the analysis, testing and conclusions of the software verification and validation for the 244-AR Vault Interim Stabilization ventilation system. Automation control system will use the Allen-Bradley software tools for programming and programmable logic controller (PLC) configuration. The 244-AR Interim Stabilization Ventilation System will be used to control the release of radioactive particles to the environment in the containment tent, located inside the canyon of the 244-AR facility, and to assist the waste stabilization efforts. The HVAC equipment, ducts, instruments, PLC hardware, the ladder logic executable software (documented code), and message display terminal are considered part of the temporary ventilation system. The system consists of a supply air skid, temporary ductwork (to distribute airflow), and two skid-mounted, 500-cfm exhausters connected to the east filter building and the vessel vent system. The Interim Stabilization Ventilation System is a temporary, portable ventilation system consisting of supply side and exhaust side. Air is supplied to the containment tent from an air supply skid. This skid contains a constant speed fan, a pre-filter, an electric heating coil, a cooling coil, and a constant flow device (CFD). The CFD uses a passive component that allows a constant flow of air to pass through the device. Air is drawn out of the containment tent, cells, and tanks by two 500-cfm exhauster skids running in parallel. These skids are equipped with fans, filters, stack, stack monitoring instrumentation, and a PLC for control. The 500CFM exhaust skids were fabricated and tested previously for saltwell pumping activities. The objective of the temporary ventilation system is to maintain a higher pressure to the containment tent, relative to the canyon and cell areas, to prevent contaminants from reaching the containment tent.

YEH, T.

2002-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

198

System and method for pre-cooling of buildings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for nighttime pre-cooling of a building comprising inputting one or more user settings, lowering the indoor temperature reading of the building during nighttime by operating an outside air ventilation system followed, if necessary, by a vapor compression cooling system. The method provides for nighttime pre-cooling of a building that maintains indoor temperatures within a comfort range based on the user input settings, calculated operational settings, and predictions of indoor and outdoor temperature trends for a future period of time such as the next day.

Springer, David A.; Rainer, Leo I.

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

199

Techniques for evaluation of E-beam evaporative processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High dynamic range video imaging of the molten pool surface has provided insight regarding process responses at the melt pool liquid-vapor interface. A water-cooled video camera provides continuous high resolution imaging of the pool surface from a low angle position within 20 cm of the liquid-vapor interface. From the vantage point, the e-beam footprint is clearly defined and melt pool free surface shape can be observed. Effects of changes in a beam footprint, power distribution, and sweep frequency on pool surface shape and stability of vaporization are immediately shown. Other events observed and recorded include: formation of the pool and dissipation of ``rafts`` on the pool surface during startup, behavior of feed material as it enters the pool, effects of feed configuration changes on mixing of feed entering the pool volume and behaviors of co-evaporated materials of different vapor pressures at the feed/pool boundary. When used in conjunction with laser vapor monitoring, correlation between pool surface phenomena and vaporizer performance has been identified. This video capability was used in verifying the titanium evaporation model results presented at this conference by confirming the calculated melt pool surface deformations caused by vapor pressure of the departing evaporant at the liquid-vapor interface.

Meier, T.C.; Nelson, C.M.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Evaporative oxidation treatability test report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facilities Compliance Act that requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to treat and dispose of its mixed waste in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal restrictions (LDRs). In response to the need for mixed-waste treatment capacity where available off-site commercial treatment facilities do not exist or cannot be used, the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE-AL) organized a Treatment Selection Team to match mixed wastes with treatment options and develop a strategy for treatment of its mixed wastes. DOE-AL manages operations at nine sites with mixed-waste inventories. The Treatment Selection Team determined a need to develop mobile treatment capacity to treat wastes at the sites where the wastes are generated. Treatment processes used for mixed waste not only must address the hazardous component (i.e., meet LDRs) but also must contain the radioactive component in a form that allows final disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. On the basis of recommendations of the Treatment Selection Team, DOE-AL assigned projects to the sites to bring mixed-waste treatment capacity on-line. The three technologies assigned to the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) are evaporative oxidation, thermal desorption, and treated wastewater evaporation. Rust Geotech, the DOE-GJPO prime contractor, was assigned to design and fabricate mobile treatment units (MTUs) for these three technologies and to deliver the MTUs to selected DOE-AL sites. To conduct treatability tests at the GJPO, Rust leased a pilot-scale evaporative oxidation unit from the Clemson Technical Center (CTC), Anderson, South Carolina. The purpose of this report is to document the findings and results of tests performed using this equipment.

NONE

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Lightweight ventilated facade prototype: acoustic performance evaluation when the ventilation surface of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lightweight ventilated facade prototype: acoustic performance evaluation when the ventilation del Vall`es, 08173 Barcelona, Spain arquiniampira@yahoo.com Proceedings of the Acoustics 2012 Nantes potentially improve buildings protection against noise pollution from outside. However, in this system the air

Boyer, Edmond

202

Multiphase flow and multicomponent reactive transport model of the ventilation experiment in Opalinus clay  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the construction and operational phases of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository constructed in a clay formation, ventilation of underground drifts will cause desaturation and oxidation of the rock. The Ventilation Experiment (VE) was performed in a 1.3 m diameter unlined horizontal microtunnel on Opalinus clay at Mont Terri underground research laboratory in Switzerland to evaluate the impact of desaturation on rock properties. A multiphase flow and reactive transport model of VE is presented here. The model accounts for liquid, vapor and air flow, evaporation/condensation and multicomponent reactive solute transport with kinetic dissolution of pyrite and siderite and local-equilibrium dissolution/precipitation of calcite, ferrihydrite, dolomite, gypsum and quartz. Model results reproduce measured vapor flow, liquid pressure and hydrochemical data and capture the trends of measured relative humidities, although such data are slightly overestimated near the rock interface due to uncertainties in the turbulence factor. Rock desaturation allows oxygen to diffuse into the rock and triggers pyrite oxidation, dissolution of calcite and siderite, precipitation of ferrihydrite, dolomite and gypsum and cation exchange. pH in the unsaturated rock varies from 7.8 to 8 and is buffered by calcite. Computed changes in the porosity and the permeability of Opalinus clay in the unsaturated zone caused by oxidation and mineral dissolution/precipitation are smaller than 5%. Therefore, rock properties are not expected to be affected significantly by ventilation of underground drifts during construction and operational phases of a HLW repository in clay.

Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.; Major, J.C.

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

203

Techniques for evaluation of e-beam evaporative processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efforts to evaluate and characterize electron beam evaporative processes at LLNL have produced a number of techniques and capabilities which have proven useful in advancing the process understanding. One of these diagnostic tools, high dynamic range video imaging of the molten pool surface, has provided insight regarding process responses at the melt pool liquid-vapor interface. A water cooled video camera provides continuous high resolution imaging of the pool surface from a low angle position within 20 cm of the liquid-vapor interface. From this vantage point, the e-beam footprint is clearly defined and melt pool free surface shape can be observed. Effects of changes in e-beam footprint, power distribution and sweep frequency on pool surface shape and stability of vaporization are immediately shown. Other electron beam melting and vaporization events have been observed and recorded. These include: formation of the pool and dissipation of {open_quotes}rafts{close_quotes} on the pool surface during startup, behavior of feed material as it enters the pool, effects of feed configuration changes on the mixing of feed entering the pool volume and behaviors of co-evaporated materials of different vapor pressures at the feed/pool boundary. When used in conjunction with laser vapor monitoring capabilities (presented at the 1994 Electron Beam Melting and Refining Conference, Reno, NV), correlation between pool surface phenomena and vaporizer performance has been identified. This video capability was used in verifying the titanium evaporation model results presented at this conference by confirming the calculated melt pool surface deformations caused by vapor pressure of the departing evaporant at the liquid-vapor interface.

Meier, T.C.; Nelson, C.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

204

Portable brine evaporator unit, process, and system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention discloses a comprehensive, efficient, and cost effective portable evaporator unit, method, and system for the treatment of brine. The evaporator unit, method, and system require a pretreatment process that removes heavy metals, crude oil, and other contaminates in preparation for the evaporator unit. The pretreatment and the evaporator unit, method, and system process metals and brine at the site where they are generated (the well site). Thus, saving significant money to producers who can avoid present and future increases in transportation costs.

Hart, Paul John (Indiana, PA); Miller, Bruce G. (State College, PA); Wincek, Ronald T. (State College, PA); Decker, Glenn E. (Bellefonte, PA); Johnson, David K. (Port Matilda, PA)

2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

205

Cool Links  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to User GroupInformationE-Gov ContactsContractOffice ofConversionCool

206

MODELING VENTILATION SYSTEM RESPONSE TO FIRE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fires in facilities containing nuclear material have the potential to transport radioactive contamination throughout buildings and may lead to widespread downwind dispersal threatening both worker and public safety. Development and implementation of control strategies capable of providing adequate protection from fire requires realistic characterization of ventilation system response which, in turn, depends on an understanding of fire development timing and suppression system response. This paper discusses work in which published HEPA filter data was combined with CFAST fire modeling predictions to evaluate protective control strategies for a hypothetical DOE non-reactor nuclear facility. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate when safety significant active ventilation coupled with safety class passive ventilation might be a viable control strategy.

Coutts, D

2007-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

207

Estimated costs of ventilation systems complying with the HUD ventilation standard for manufactured homes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the request of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory estimated the material, labor, and operating costs for ventilation equipment needed for compliance with HUD`s proposed revision to the ventilation standard for manufactured housing. This was intended to bound the financial impacts of the ventilation standard revision. Researchers evaluated five possible prototype ventilation systems that met the proposed ventilation requirements. Of those five, two systems were determined to be the most likely used by housing manufacturers: System 1 combines a fresh air duct with the existing central forced-air system to supply and circulate fresh air to conditioned spaces. System 2 uses a separate exhaust fan to remove air from the manufactured home. The estimated material and labor costs for these two systems range from $200 to $300 per home. Annual operating costs for the two ventilation systems were estimated for 20 US cities. The estimated operating costs for System 1 ranged from $55/year in Las Vegas, Nevada, to $83/year in Bismarck, North Dakota. Operating costs for System 2 ranged from a low of $35/year in Las Vegas to $63/year in Bismarck. Thus, HUD`s proposed increase in ventilation requirements will add less than $100/year to the energy cost of a manufactured home.

Miller, J.D.; Conner, C.C.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Study of natural ventilation in buildings with large eddy simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With the discovery of many economic, environmental, and health problems in sealed and mechanically ventilated buildings, the concept of natural ventilation has been revived. "Buildings that breathe" have become more and ...

Jiang, Yi, 1972-

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Application Study on Combined Ventilation System of Improving IAQ  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A type of combined ventilating system is put forward in this paper. Through CFD simulation and testing of contaminant concentrations in a prototype residential room, the results demonstrate that the new ventilating system is advantageous...

Hu, S.; Li, G.; Zhang, C.; Ye, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Design of a Natural Ventilation System in the Dunhuang Museum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fresh air and good air quality can be obtained by a natural ventilation system, to fulfill the requirement of near natural conditions for the psychological health of mankind. A natural ventilation system is an ecological, energy saving system...

Zhang, Y.; Guan, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

HOW THE LEED VENTILATION CREDIT IMPACTS ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF GSHP SYSTEMS A CASE STUDY FOR PRIMARY SCHOOLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a study on the impacts of increased outdoor air (OA) ventilation on the performance of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems that heat and cool typical primary schools. Four locations Phoenix, Miami, Seattle, and Chicago are selected in this study to represent different climate zones in the United States. eQUEST, an integrated building and HVAC system energy analysis program, is used to simulate a typical primary school and the GSHP system at the four locations with minimum and 30% more than minimum OA ventilation. The simulation results show that, without an energy recovery ventilator, the 30% more OA ventilation results in an 8.0 13.3% increase in total GSHP system energy consumption at the four locations. The peak heating and cooling loads increase by 20.2 30% and 14.9 18.4%, respectively, at the four locations. The load imbalance of the ground heat exchanger is increased in hot climates but reduced in mild and cold climates.

Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Advanced evaporator technology progress report FY 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work that was completed in FY 1992 on the program {open_quotes}Technology Development for Concentrating Process Streams.{close_quotes} The purpose of this program is to evaluate and develop evaporator technology for concentrating radioactive waste and product streams such as those generated by the TRUEX process. Concentrating these streams and minimizing the volume of waste generated can significantly reduce disposal costs; however, equipment to concentrate the streams and recycle the decontaminated condensates must be installed. LICON, Inc., is developing an evaporator that shows a great deal of potential for this application. In this report, concepts that need to be incorporated into the design of an evaporator operated in a radioactive environment are discussed. These concepts include criticality safety, remote operation and maintenance, and materials of construction. Both solubility and vapor-liquid equilibrium data are needed to design an effective process for concentrating process streams. Therefore, literature surveys were completed and are summarized in this report. A model that is being developed to predict vapor phase compositions is described. A laboratory-scale evaporator was purchased and installed to study the evaporation process and to collect additional data. This unit is described in detail. Two new LICON evaporators are being designed for installation at Argonne-East in FY 1993 to process low-level radioactive waste generated throughout the laboratory. They will also provide operating data from a full-sized evaporator processing radioactive solutions. Details on these evaporators are included in this report.

Chamberlain, D.; Hutter, J.C.; Leonard, R.A. [and others

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Water Evaporation: A Transition Path Sampling Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use transition path sampling to study evaporation in the SPC/E model of liquid water. Based on thousands of evaporation trajectories, we characterize the members of the transition state ensemble (TSE), which exhibit a liquid-vapor interface with predominantly negative mean curvature at the site of evaporation. We also find that after evaporation is complete, the distributions of translational and angular momenta of the evaporated water are Maxwellian with a temperature equal to that of the liquid. To characterize the evaporation trajectories in their entirety, we find that it suffices to project them onto just two coordinates: the distance of the evaporating molecule to the instantaneous liquid-vapor interface, and the velocity of the water along the average interface normal. In this projected space, we find that the TSE is well-captured by a simple model of ballistic escape from a deep potential well, with no additional barrier to evaporation beyond the cohesive strength of the liquid. Equivalently, they are consistent with a near-unity probability for a water molecule impinging upon a liquid droplet to condense. These results agree with previous simulations and with some, but not all, recent experiments.

Patrick Varilly; David Chandler

2012-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

214

CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION FOR THERMALLY UNEQUILIBRATED PHASES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION FOR THERMALLY UNEQUILIBRATED PHASES R. A. Marcus1 , A. V. Fedkin2-K) equation for the rate of condensation of a gas or evaporation of a solid or liquid is used for systems, Tg, differs from that of the condensed phase, Ts . Here, we modify the H-K equation for this case

Grossman, Lawrence

215

Effect of repository underground ventilation on emplacement drift temperature control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The repository advanced conceptual design (ACD) is being conducted by the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System, Management & Operating Contractor. Underground ventilation analyses during ACD have resulted in preliminary ventilation concepts and design methodologies. This paper discusses one of the recent evaluations -- effects of ventilation on emplacement drift temperature management.

Yang, H.; Sun, Y.; McKenzie, D.G.; Bhattacharyya, K.K. [Morrison Knudson Corporation, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Energy Impact of Residential Ventilation Norms in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL 62341 Energy Impact of Residential Ventilation Norms in the United States Max H. Sherman of Residential Ventilation Norms in the United States Max Sherman and Iain Walker SUMMARY The first and only national norm for residential ventilation in the United States is Standard 62.2-2004 published

217

Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

house using the heating/cooling supply ducts. The outdoorfor continuous supply in CZ3 in cooling season R elative Ecooling climate zone 13. The economizer will be modeled as a large supply

Walker, Iain

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Modelling and simulation of a heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modelling and simulation of a heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling Paul Byrne1 *, Jacques-012-0089-0 #12;1. ABSTRACT The heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling (HPS) carries out space heating to a standard reversible heat pump (HP). The air evaporator is defrosted by a two-phase thermosiphon without

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

219

Experimental simulation of wind driven cross-ventilation in a naturally ventilated building  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A device was designed and constructed to simulate cross-ventilation through a building due to natural wind. The wind driver device was designed for use with a one tenth scale model of an open floor plan office building in ...

Hult, Erin L. (Erin Luelle), 1982-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Air Distribution Effectiveness for Different Mechanical Ventilation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-62700 Air Distribution Effectiveness for Different Mechanical Ventilation Systems Max H Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is an equal opportunity employer. #12;1 Air Distribution depending on the effectiveness of their air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Hysteresis effects in hybrid building ventilation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of substandard quality · Poor IAQ is often due to external pollution e.g. industrial/automotive exhaust · However chloride, etc. Developing world: By-products of cooking or heating fires Ghiaus & Allard (2005) · Exposure of poor IAQ · In contrast to traditional HVAC systems, natural ventilation relies on freely

Flynn, Morris R.

222

Humidity Implications for Meeting Residential Ventilation Requirements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by its trade name, trademark for ventilation system design. These standards are increasingly used by reference in building energy and IAQ codes

223

Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ventilation dilutes or removes indoor contaminants to reduce occupant exposure. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. The total ventilation rate is the most important factor in determining the exposure of occupants to given sources, but the zone- specific distribution of exhaust and supply air, and the mixing of ventilation air can have significant roles. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of mixing depending on several factors such as air leakage through the building envelope, air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper reports recent results of investigations to determine the impact that air mixing has on exposures of residential occupants to prototypical contaminants of concern. Evaluations of existing field measurements and simulations reported in the literature are combined with new analyses to provide an integrated overview of the topic. The results show that for extreme cases additional mixing can be a significant factor but for typical homes looking at average exposures mixing is not helpful and can even make exposures worse.

Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain

2010-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

224

A Bench Study of Intensive Care Unit Ventilators: New versus Old and Turbine-Based versus Compressed Gas-Based Ventilators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Material: Four turbine- based ventilators and nine conventional servo-valve compressed-gas ventilators were1 A Bench Study of Intensive Care Unit Ventilators: New versus Old and Turbine-Based versus patient's effort. On average, turbine-based ventilators performed better than conventional ventilators

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

225

Fundamental study of evaporation model in micron pore  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of evaporation has not been established. The purpose of this study is to establish a method to apply the evaporation model based on the statistical rate theory for engineering application including vapor-liquid-structure intermolecular effect. The evaporation...

Oinuma, Ryoji

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

226

Water Evaporation Studies in Texas.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

69 59 3,893 Records JUL 8.83 8.33 9.64 10.99 1.65 .94 73 73 4,679 3,068 9.76 8.97 11.54 1.32 96 71 2,559 9.78 2.08 1.86 97 71 54 4,262 7.19 2.54 2.77 96 72 78 2,402 9.93 2.54 91 62 51 3,618 7.89 2.17 95 72....15 1.10 55 31 71 4,403 2.31 3.82 3.68 63 43 85 3,374 .45 48 19 3,948 1.92 2.34 58 35 75 4,870 1.64 1.54 1.73 58 33 67 3,138 Table 1 . Mean Monthly and Annual Meteorological Data for Stations from which Evaporation Records...

Patterson, R. E. (Raleigh Elwood); Bloodgood, Dean W.; Smith, R. L.

1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Catastrophic Evaporation of Rocky Planets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Short-period exoplanets can have dayside surface temperatures surpassing 2000 K, hot enough to vaporize rock and drive a thermal wind. Small enough planets evaporate completely. We construct a radiative-hydrodynamic model of atmospheric escape from strongly irradiated, low-mass rocky planets, accounting for dust-gas energy exchange in the wind. Rocky planets with masses 2000 K are found to disintegrate entirely in 0.1 M_Earth/Gyr --- our model yields a present-day planet mass of < 0.02 M_Earth or less than about twice the mass of the Moon. Mass loss rates depend so strongly on planet mass that bodies can reside on close-in orbits for Gyrs with initial masses comparable to or less than that of Mercury, before entering a final short-lived phase of catastrophic mass loss (which KIC 12557548b has entered). Because this catastrophic stage lasts only up to a few percent of the planet's life, we estimate that for every object like KIC 12557548b, there should be 10--100 close-in quiescent progenitors with sub-da...

Perez-Becker, Daniel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

242-A evaporator safety analysis report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a revised safety analysis for the upgraded 242-A Evaporator (the Evaporator). This safety analysis report (SAR) supports the operation of the Evaporator following life extension upgrades and other facility and operations upgrades (e.g., Project B-534) that were undertaken to enhance the capabilities of the Evaporator. The Evaporator has been classified as a moderate-hazard facility (Johnson 1990). The information contained in this SAR is based on information provided by 242-A Evaporator Operations, Westinghouse Hanford Company, site maintenance and operations contractor from June 1987 to October 1996, and the existing operating contractor, Waste Management Hanford (WMH) policies. Where appropriate, a discussion address the US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders applicable to a topic is provided. Operation of the facility will be compared to the operating contractor procedures using appropriate audits and appraisals. The following subsections provide introductory and background information, including a general description of the Evaporator facility and process, a description of the scope of this SAR revision,a nd a description of the basic changes made to the original SAR.

CAMPBELL, T.A.

1999-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

229

Thermosiphon Cooling of a Large Office /Laboratory Complex  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will be 716 ESL-IE-81-04-122 Proceedings from the Third Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 26-29, 1981 produced with cold cooling tower water. Refrigerant vapor (R-12) is condensed with cooling tower water between 35 and 50?F... the Third Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 26-29, 1981 ,.---Condenser Cooling Water Chilled Water --------------- -- 48/4S"F R-12 Refrigerant Compressor ----- 40/42'F Chilled Water Evaporator " FIGURE NO.6 - THERMOSIPHON...

White, T. L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Black Hole Evaporation as a Nonequilibrium Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When a black hole evaporates, there arises a net energy flow from the black hole into its outside environment due to the Hawking radiation and the energy accretion onto black hole. Exactly speaking, due to the net energy flow, the black hole evaporation is a nonequilibrium process. To study details of evaporation process, nonequilibrium effects of the net energy flow should be taken into account. In this article we simplify the situation so that the Hawking radiation consists of non-self-interacting massless matter fields and also the energy accretion onto the black hole consists of the same fields. Then we find that the nonequilibrium nature of black hole evaporation is described by a nonequilibrium state of that field, and we formulate nonequilibrium thermodynamics of non-self-interacting massless fields. By applying it to black hole evaporation, followings are shown: (1) Nonequilibrium effects of the energy flow tends to accelerate the black hole evaporation, and, consequently, a specific nonequilibrium phenomenon of semi-classical black hole evaporation is suggested. Furthermore a suggestion about the end state of quantum size black hole evaporation is proposed in the context of information loss paradox. (2) Negative heat capacity of black hole is the physical essence of the generalized second law of black hole thermodynamics, and self-entropy production inside the matter around black hole is not necessary to ensure the generalized second law. Furthermore a lower bound for total entropy at the end of black hole evaporation is given. A relation of the lower bound with the so-called covariant entropy bound conjecture is interesting but left as an open issue.

Hiromi Saida

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

231

Vapor canister heater for evaporative emissions systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Automotive evaporative emissions systems use a charcoal canister to store evaporative hydrocarobn emissions. These stored vapors are later purged and burned during engine operation. Under certain conditions the engine cannot completely purge the canister of the stored fuel vapors, which results in a decreased vapor storage capacity in the canister. A self-regulating PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) heater has been developed to warm the purge air as it enters the canister, in order to provide thermal energy for increased release of the vapors from charcoal sites. This paper describes the construction and operation of the vapor canister heater as it relates to improved evaporative emission system performance.

Bishop, R.P.; Berg, P.G.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Free-cooling: A total HVAC design concept  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses a total ''free cooling'' HVAC design concept in which mechanical refrigeration is practically obviated via the refined application of existing technological strategies and a new diffuser terminal. The principles being applied are as follows; Thermal Swing: This is the active contribution of programmed heat storage to overall HVAC system performance. Reverse Diffuser: This is a new air terminal design that facilitates manifesting the thermal storage gains. Developing the thermal storage equation system into a generalized simulation model, optimizing the thermal storage and operating strategies with a computer program and developing related algorithms are subsequently illustrated. Luminair Aspiration: This feature provides for exhausting all luminair heat totally out of the building envelope, via an exhaust duct system and insulated boots. Two/Three-Stage Evaporative Cooling: This concept comprises a system of air conditioning that entails a combination of closed and open loop evaporative cooling with standby refrigeration only.

Janeke, C.E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Cooling Dry Cows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This publication discusses the effects of heat stress on dairy cows, methods of cooling cows, and research on the effects of cooling cows in the dry period....

Stokes, Sandra R.

2000-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

234

A Rinsing Effluent Evaporator for Dismantling Operations - 13271  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Between 1958 and 1997, the UP1 plant at Marcoule - located in the south of France - reprocessed and recycled nearly 20,000 MT of used fuel from special defense applications reactors, as well as fuel from the first generation of electricity generating reactors in France (natural uranium fuel, CO{sub 2}-cooled, graphite-moderated). Decommissioning and Dismantling of the UP1 plant and its associated units started in 1998. Since 2005, the UP1 facility has been operated by AREVA as the Marcoule Management and Operation contractor for French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). An important part of this decommissioning program deals with the vitrification facility of Marcoule. This facility includes 20 tanks devoted to interim storage of highly active solutions, prior to vitrification. In 2006, a rinsing program was defined as part of the tank cleanup strategy. The main objective of the rinsing phases was to decrease activity in order to limit the volume of 'long-life active' waste produced during the decommissioning operations, so the tanks can be dismantled without the need of remote operations. To enable this rinsing program, and anticipating large volumes of generated effluent, the construction of an evaporation unit proved to be essential. The main objective of this unit was to concentrate the effluent produced during tank rinsing operations by a factor of approximately 10, prior to it being treated by vitrification. The evaporator design phase was launched in September 2006. The main challenge for the Project team was the installation of this new unit within a nuclear facility still in operation and in existing compartments not initially designed for this purpose. Cold operating tests were completed in 2008, and in May 2009, the final connections to the process were activated to start the hot test phase. During the first hot test operations performed on the first batches of clean-up effluent, the evaporator had a major operating problem. Extremely large quantities of foam were produced, affecting the evaporator operation, and creating the risk of a reduction in its capacity and throughput performance. A task force of AREVA process, operations, and safety experts from Marcoule and the La Hague reprocessing complex was assembled. New operating parameters were defined and tested to improve the process. Since then, the evaporator has performed very satisfactorily. The foam buildup phenomenon has been brought under complete control. All the different types of effluents produced during cleanup operations have been concentrated, and the results obtained in terms of quality and throughput, have ensured a consistent supply to the vitrification unit. The evaporator was operated until the end of April 2012, and enabled the production of 500 cubic meters of very high activity effluent, concentrating the fission products rinsed from the storage tanks. The evaporator will now be deactivated and decommissioned, with the first rinsing and cleanup operations scheduled to begin in 2014. (authors)

Rives, Rachel [AREVA BE/NV, Marcoule (France)] [AREVA BE/NV, Marcoule (France); Asou-Pothet, Marielle [CEA DEN/DPAD, Marcoule (France)] [CEA DEN/DPAD, Marcoule (France); Chambon, Frederic [AREVA FEDERAL SERVICES, Columbia, MD (United States)] [AREVA FEDERAL SERVICES, Columbia, MD (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

241-A evaporator flowsheet users manual  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This supporting document presents a description of the 242-A Evaporator flowsheet. Material balances are calculated for feed, slurry, and effluent streams based on input data for the feed stream.

Larrick, A.P.

1994-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

236

TEST PLAN FOR MONITORING COOLING COILS IN A LABORATORY SETTING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research project is to understand and quantify the moisture removal performance of cooling coils at part-load conditions. The project will include a comprehensive literature review, detailed measurement of cooling coil performance in a laboratory facility, monitoring cooling systems at several field test sites, and development/validation of engineering models that can be used in energy calculations and building simulations. This document contains the detailed test plan for monitoring cooling coil performance in a laboratory setting. Detailed measurements will be taken on up to 10 direct expansion (DX) and chilled water cooling coils in various configurations to understand the impact of coil geometry and operating conditions on transient moisture condensation and evaporation.

Don B. Shirey, III

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Recommended Changes to Specifications for Demand Controlled Ventilation in California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In demand-controlled ventilation (DCV), rates of outdoor air ventilation are automatically modulated as occupant density varies. The objective is to keep ventilation rates at or above design specifications and code requirements and also to save energy by avoiding excessive ventilation rates. DCV is most often used in spaces with highly variable and sometime dense occupancy. In almost all cases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sensors installed in buildings provide the signal to the ventilation rate control system. People produce and exhale CO{sub 2} as a consequence of their normal metabolic processes; thus, the concentrations of CO{sub 2} inside occupied buildings are higher than the concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the outdoor air. The magnitude of the indoor-outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration difference decreases as the building's ventilation rate per person increases. The difference between the indoor and outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration is also a proxy for the indoor concentrations of other occupant-generated bioeffluents, such as body odors. Reviews of the research literature on DCV indicate a significant potential for energy savings, particularly in buildings or spaces with a high and variable occupancy. Based on modeling, cooling energy savings from applications of DCV are as high as 20%. With support from the California Energy Commission and the U.S. Department of Energy, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has performed research on the performance of CO{sub 2} sensing technologies and optical people counters for DCV. In addition, modeling was performed to evaluate the potential energy savings and cost effectiveness of using DCV in general office spaces within the range of California climates. The above-described research has implications for the specifications pertaining to DCV in section 121 of the California Title 24 Standard. Consequently, this document suggests possible changes in these specifications based on the research findings. The suggested changes in specifications were developed in consultation with staff from the Iowa Energy Center who evaluated the accuracy of new CO{sub 2} sensors in laboratory-based research. In addition, staff of the California Energy Commission, and their consultants in the area of DCV, provided input for the suggested changes in specifications.

Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Faulkner, David

2010-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

238

Phase-change wallboard and mechanical night ventilation in commercial buildings: Potential for HVAC system downsizing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As thermal storage media, phase-change materials (PCMs) such as paraffin, eutectic salts, etc. offer an order-of-magnitude increase in thermal storage capacity, and their discharge is almost isothermal. By embedding PCMs in dypsum board, plaster, or other wall-covering materials, the building structure acquires latent storage properties. Structural elements containing PCMs can store large amounts of energy while maintaining the indoor temperature within a relatively narrow range. As heat storage takes place inside the building where the loads occur, rather than at a central exterior location, the internal loads are removed without the need for additional transport energy. Distributed latent storage can thus be used to reduce the peak power demand of a building, downsize the cooling system, and/or switch to low-energy cooling sources. The authors used RADCOOL, a thermal building simulation program based on the finite difference approach, to numerically evaluate the thermal performance of PCM wallboard coupled with mechanical night ventilation in office buildings offers the opportunity for system downsizing in climates where the outside air temperature drops below 18 C at night. In climates where the outside air temperature remains above 19 C at night, the use of PCM wallboard should be coupled with discharge mechanisms other than mechanical night ventilation with outside air.

Stetiu, C.; Feustel, H.E.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Evaluation of Hybrid Air-Cooled Flash/Binary Power Cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geothermal binary power plants reject a significant portion of the heat removed from the geothermal fluid. Because of the relatively low temperature of the heat source (geothermal fluid), the performance of these plants is quite sensitive to the sink temperature to which heat is rejected. This is particularly true of air-cooled binary plants. Recent efforts by the geothermal industry have examined the potential to evaporatively cool the air entering the air-cooled condensers during the hotter portions of a summer day. While the work has shown the benefit of this concept, air-cooled binary plants are typically located in regions that lack an adequate supply of clean water for use in this evaporative cooling. In the work presented, this water issue is addressed by pre-flashing the geothermal fluid to produce a clean condensate that can be utilized during the hotter portions of the year to evaporatively cool the air. This study examines both the impact of this pre-flash on the performance of the binary plant, and the increase in power output due to the ability to incorporate an evaporative component to the heat rejection process.

Greg Mines

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Performance Assessment of a Desiccant Cooling System in a CHP Application with an IC Engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Performance of a desiccant cooling system was evaluated in the context of combined heat and power (CHP). The baseline system incorporated a desiccant dehumidifier, a heat exchanger, an indirect evaporative cooler, and a direct evaporative cooler. The desiccant unit was regenerated through heat recovery from a gas-fired reciprocating internal combustion engine. The system offered sufficient sensible and latent cooling capacities for a wide range of climatic conditions, while allowing influx of outside air in excess of what is typically required for commercial buildings. Energy and water efficiencies of the desiccant cooling system were also evaluated and compared with those of a conventional system. The results of parametric assessments revealed the importance of using a heat exchanger for concurrent desiccant post cooling and regeneration air preheating. These functions resulted in enhancement of both the cooling performance and the thermal efficiency, which are essential for fuel utilization improvement. Two approaches for mixing of the return air and outside air were examined, and their impact on the system cooling performance and thermal efficiency was demonstrated. The scope of the parametric analyses also encompassed the impact of improving the indirect evaporative cooling effectiveness on the overall cooling system performance.

Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.; Slayzak, S.; Judkoff, R.; Schaffhauser, T.; DeBlasio, R.

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Radionuclide Releases During Normal Operations for Ventilated Tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This calculation estimates the design emissions of radionuclides from Ventilated Tanks used by various facilities. The calculation includes emissions due to processing and storage of radionuclide material.

Blunt, B.

2001-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

242

Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In Review J. Indoor Air) 2007 LBNL-63193 Tarantola, Albert,Gas Measurement to Determine Air Movements in a House,Measurement Techniques”, Air Infiltration and Ventilation

Sherman, Max H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

2014-02-07 Issuance: Certification of Commercial Heating, Ventilation...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Certification of Commercial Heating, Ventilation, and Air-conditioning, Water Heating, and Refrigeration Equipment; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-02-07 Issuance: Certification...

244

Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Hot-humid PERFORMANCE DATA Costs for reducing infiltration and incorporating mechanical ventilation in buildings will vary greatly depending on the condition and...

245

Ventilation System to Improve Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

A process vessel ventilation system is being installed in a facility that houses two tanks that will process decontaminated salt solution at the Saltstone Production Facility. A...

246

Kitchen Ventilation Should be High Performance (Not Optional...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Simplified PROBLEM: * Cooking burners & cooking produce odors, moisture and pollutants SOLUTION: * Install and use extra exhaust ventilation in kitchen OPTIMAL SOLUTION: *...

247

Ball feeder for replenishing evaporator feed  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Vapor source material such as uranium, which is to be dropped into a melt in an evaporator, is made into many balls of identical diameters and placed inside a container. An elongated sloping pipe is connected to the container and leads to the evaporator such that these balls can travel sequentially therealong by gravity. A metering valve in this pipe for passing these balls one at a time is opened in response to a signal when it is ascertained by a detector that there is a ball ready to be passed. A gate in the pipe near the evaporator momentarily stops the motion of the traveling ball and is then opened to allow the ball drop into the melt at a reduced speed.

Felde, David K. (Oak Ridge, TN); McKoon, Robert H. (San Ramon, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Ball feeder for replenishing evaporator feed  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Vapor source material such as uranium, which is to be dropped into a melt in an evaporator, is made into many balls of identical diameters and placed inside a container. An elongated sloping pipe is connected to the container and leads to the evaporator such that these balls can travel sequentially therealong by gravity. A metering valve in this pipe for passing these balls one at a time is opened in response to a signal when it is ascertained by a detector that there is a ball ready to be passed. A gate in the pipe near the evaporator momentarily stops the motion of the traveling ball and is then opened to allow the ball drop into the melt at a reduced speed.

Felde, D.K.; McKoon, R.H.

1993-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

249

DWPF RECYCLE EVAPORATOR FLOWSHEET EVALUATION (U)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) converts the high level waste slurries stored at the Savannah River Site into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. The vitrification process results in the generation of approximately five gallons of dilute recycle streams for each gallon of waste slurry vitrified. This dilute recycle stream is currently transferred to the H-area Tank Farm and amounts to approximately 1,400,000 gallons of effluent per year. Process changes to incorporate salt waste could increase the amount of effluent to approximately 2,900,000 gallons per year. The recycle consists of two major streams and four smaller streams. The first major recycle stream is condensate from the Chemical Process Cell (CPC), and is collected in the Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT). The second major recycle stream is the melter offgas which is collected in the Off Gas Condensate Tank (OGCT). The four smaller streams are the sample flushes, sump flushes, decon solution, and High Efficiency Mist Eliminator (HEME) dissolution solution. These streams are collected in the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank (DWTT) or the Recycle Collection Tank (RCT). All recycle streams are currently combined in the RCT and treated with sodium nitrite and sodium hydroxide prior to transfer to the tank farm. Tank Farm space limitations and previous outages in the 2H Evaporator system due to deposition of sodium alumino-silicates have led to evaluation of alternative methods of dealing with the DWPF recycle. One option identified for processing the recycle was a dedicated evaporator to concentrate the recycle stream to allow the solids to be recycled to the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the condensate from this evaporation process to be sent and treated in the Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP). In order to meet process objectives, the recycle stream must be concentrated to 1/30th of the feed volume during the evaporation process. The concentrated stream must be pumpable to the DWPF SRAT vessel and should not precipitate solids to avoid fouling the evaporator vessel and heat transfer coils. The evaporation process must not generate excessive foam and must have a high Decontamination Factor (DF) for many species in the evaporator feed to allow the condensate to be transferred to the ETP. An initial scoping study was completed in 2001 to evaluate the feasibility of the evaporator which concluded that the concentration objectives could be met. This initial study was based on initial estimates of recycle concentration and was based solely on OLI modeling of the evaporation process. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has completed additional studies using simulated recycle streams and OLI{reg_sign} simulations. Based on this work, the proposed flowsheet for the recycle evaporator was evaluated for feasibility, evaporator design considerations, and impact on the DWPF process. This work was in accordance with guidance from DWPF-E and was performed in accordance with the Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan.

Stone, M

2005-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

250

Hydronic radiant cooling: Overview and preliminary performance assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A significant amount of electrical energy used to cool non-residential buildings is drawn by the fans used to transport the cool air through the thermal distribution system. Hydronic systems reduce the amount of air transported through the building by separating ventilation and thermal conditioning. Due to the physical properties of water, hydronic distribution systems can transport a given amount of thermal energy using less than 5% of the otherwise necessary fan energy. This savings alone significantly reduces the energy consumption and especially the peak power requirement This survey clearly shows advantages for radiant cooling in combination with hydronic thermal distribution systems in comparison with the All-Air Systems commonly used in California. The report describes a literature survey on the system`s development, thermal comfort issues, and cooling performance. The cooling power potential and the cooling power requirement are investigated for several California climates. Peak-power requirement is compared for hydronic radiant cooling and conventional All-Air-Systems.

Feustel, H.E.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Sensitivity of Tropical Cyclone Intensity to Ventilation in an Axisymmetric Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The sensitivity of tropical cyclone intensity to ventilation of cooler, drier air into the inner core is examined using an axisymmetric tropical cyclone model with parameterized ventilation. Sufficiently strong ventilation ...

Tang, Brian

252

Results of the Evaluation Study DeAL Decentralized Facade Integrated Ventilation Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Most office buildings in Germany have either no mechanical ventilation system or a centralized ventilation system with fresh and exhaust air supply. Within the last 10 years some projects using decentralized ventilation systems (DVS) came up. Common...

Mahler, B.; Himmler, R.

253

Hot air drum evaporator. [Patent application  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

Black, R.L.

1980-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

254

Guide to Closing and Conditioning Ventilated Crawlspaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This how-to guide explains the issues and concerns with conventional ventilated crawlspaces and provides prescriptive measures for improvements that will create healthier and more durable spaces. The methods described in this guide are not the only acceptable ways to treat a crawlspace but represent a proven strategy that works in many areas of the United States. The designs discussed in this guide may or may not meet the local building codes and as such will need to be researched before beginning the project.

Dickson, B.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

C-106 tank process ventilation test  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project W-320 Acceptance Test Report for tank 241-C-106, 296-C-006 Ventilation System Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) HNF-SD-W320-012, C-106 Tank Process Ventilation Test, was an in depth test of the 296-C-006 ventilation system and ventilation support systems required to perform the sluicing of tank C-106. Systems involved included electrical, instrumentation, chiller and HVAC. Tests began at component level, moved to loop level, up to system level and finally to an integrated systems level test. One criteria was to perform the test with the least amount of risk from a radioactive contamination potential stand point. To accomplish this a temporary configuration was designed that would simulate operation of the systems, without being connected directly to the waste tank air space. This was done by blanking off ducting to the tank and connecting temporary ducting and an inlet air filter and housing to the recirculation system. This configuration would eventually become the possible cause of exceptions. During the performance of the test, there were points where the equipment did not function per the directions listed in the ATP. These events fell into several different categories. The first and easiest problems were field configurations that did not match the design documentation. This was corrected by modifying the field configuration to meet design documentation and reperforming the applicable sections of the ATP. A second type of problem encountered was associated with equipment which did not operate correctly, at which point an exception was written against the ATP, to be resolved later. A third type of problem was with equipment that actually operated correctly but the directions in the ATP were in error. These were corrected by generating an Engineering Change Notice (ECN) against the ATP. The ATP with corrected directions was then re-performed. A fourth type of problem was where the directions in the ATP were as the equipment should operate, but the design of the equipment was not correct for that type of operation. To correct this problem an ECN was generated against the design documents, the equipment modified accordingly, and the ATP re-performed. The last type of problem was where the equipment operated per the direct ions in the ATP, agreed with the design documents, yet violated requirements of the Basis of Interim Operation (BIO). In this instance a Non Conformance Report (NCR) was generated. To correct problems documented on an NCR, an ECN was generated to modify the design and field work performed, followed by retesting to verify modifications corrected noted deficiencies. To expedite the completion of testing and maintain project schedules, testing was performed concurrent with construct on, calibrations and the performance of other ATP`s.

Bailey, J.W.

1998-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

256

Whole-House Ventilation | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehiclesTankless or Demand-TypeWelcome to Energy.gov/DataEnergyVentilation

257

Industrial Ventilation Statistics Confirm Energy Savings Opportunity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is based on installed on-demand ventilation systems, where sensors and PLC are installed with each system, so data is easily collected. Another critical factor for effective dust collecting is proper air velocities in duct system. Having measured air... of the cutting tool is active or not. Information from the sensor is transmitted to the Omron PLC. The Omron PLC saves data in binary form every 5 minutes (24/7) to the CompactFlash card (a similar card is used in digital cameras) along with the time...

Litomisky, A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Multifamily Ventilation - Best Practice? | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office0-72.pdfGeorgeDoesn't32Department ofMoving Away fromMultifamily Ventilation - Best

259

Cooling Water System Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

During summer months, many manufacturing plants have to cut back in rates because the cooling water system is not providing sufficient cooling to support higher production rates. There are many low/no-cost techniques available to improve tower...

Aegerter, R.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Desiccant cooling using unglazed transpired solar collectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of unglazed solar collectors for desiccant regeneration in a solid desiccant cooling cycle was investigated because these collectors are lower in cost than conventional glazed flat-plate collectors. Using computer models, the performance of a desiccant cooling ventilation cycle integrated with either unglazed transpired collectors or conventional glazed flat-plate collectors was obtained. We found that the thermal performance of the unglazed system was lower than the thermal performance of the glazed system because the unglazed system could not take advantage of the heat of adsorption released during the dehumidification process. For a 3-ton cooling system, although the area required for the unglazed collector was 69% more than that required for the glazed collector, the cost of the unglazed collector array was 44% less than the cost of the glazed collector array. The simple payback period of the unglazed system was half of the payback period of the glazed collector when compared to an equivalent gas-fired system. Although the use of unglazed transpired collectors makes economic sense, some practical considerations may limit their use in desiccant regeneration. 8 refs.

Pesaran, A.A. (National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)); Wipke, K. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

E-Print Network 3.0 - air ventilation rate Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of ventilation rates and CO2-concentrations... : ventilation rates, carbon dioxide, health effects, SBS-symptoms, air exchange rate, relative risks. 12;LBNL... not indicate...

262

Buoyancy-Driven Ventilation of Hydrogen from Buildings: Laboratory Test and Model Validation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Passive, buoyancy-driven ventilation is one approach to limiting hydrogen concentration. We explored the relationship between leak rate, ventilation design, and hydrogen concentrations.

Barley, C. D.; Gawlik, K.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

E-Print Network 3.0 - ards mechanical ventilation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

mechanical ventilation Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: ards mechanical ventilation Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Round table March...

264

ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Standard 62.2. Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Low-Rise Residential Buildings More Documents & Publications Low-Cost Ventilation in Production Housing -...

265

E-Print Network 3.0 - adaptive support ventilation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: of the material on ventilation system design and maintenance is adapted from A Guide to Energy Efficient... Energy-Efficient Ventilation for Apartment Buildings 12......

266

Developing evidence-based prescriptive ventilation rate standards for commercial buildings in California: a proposed framework  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

control with ventilation, given current ventilation and filtration system practices, are the indoor-sourced gaseous pollutants with low octanal-air

Mendell, Mark J.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

E-Print Network 3.0 - airway pressure ventilation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Intensive Care Unit Ventilators: New versus Old and Turbine-Based versus Compressed Gas-Based Ventilators Summary: and airway occlusion pressure during assist-mode mechanical...

268

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

points for maximum cooling liquid supply temperatures thatLiquid cooling guidelines may include: Supply temperatureliquid supply temperature for liquid cooling guidelines. Due

Coles, Henry

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

CONFIDENTIAL: DO NOT QUOTE 1 Equivalence in Ventilation and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process specific commercial product, process, or service by its trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American

270

Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Laboratory Study in aModular Classroom Test Bed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary goals of this research effort were to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate a practical HVAC system for classrooms that consistently provides classrooms with the quantity of ventilation in current minimum standards, while saving energy, and reducing HVAC-related noise levels. This research was motivated by several factors, including the public benefits of energy efficiency, evidence that many classrooms are under-ventilated, and public concerns about indoor environmental quality in classrooms. This project involved the installation and verification of the performance of an Improved Heat Pump Air Conditioning (IHPAC) system, and its comparison, a standard HVAC system having an efficiency of 10 SEER. The project included the verification of the physical characteristics suitable for direct replacement of existing 10 SEER systems, quantitative demonstration of improved energy efficiency, reduced acoustic noise levels, quantitative demonstration of improved ventilation control, and verification that the system would meet temperature control demands necessary for the thermal comfort of the occupants. Results showed that the IHPAC met these goals. The IHPAC was found to be a direct bolt-on replacement for the 10 SEER system. Calculated energy efficiency improvements based on many days of classroom cooling or heating showed that the IHPAC system is about 44% more efficient during cooling and 38% more efficient during heating than the 10 SEER system. Noise reduction was dramatic, with measured A-weighed sound level for fan only operation conditions of 34.3 dB(A), a reduction of 19 dB(A) compared to the 10 SEER system. Similarly, the IHPAC stage-1 and stage-2 compressor plus fan sound levels were 40.8 dB(A) and 42.7 dB(A), reductions of 14 and 13 dB(A), respectively. Thus, the IHPAC is 20 to 35 times quieter than the 10 SEER systems depending upon the operation mode. The IHPAC system met the ventilation requirements and was able to provide consistent outside air supply throughout the study. Indoor CO2 levels with simulated occupancy were maintained below 1000 ppm. Finally temperature settings were met and controlled accurately. The goals of the laboratory testing phase were met and this system is ready for further study in a field test of occupied classrooms.

Apte, Michael G.; Buchanan, Ian S.; Faulkner, David; Fisk,William J.; Lai, Chi-Ming; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Evaluating the income and employment impacts of gas cooling technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to estimate the potential employment and income benefits of the emerging market for gas cooling products. The emphasis here is on exports because that is the major opportunity for the U.S. heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry. But domestic markets are also important and considered here because without a significant domestic market, it is unlikely that the plant investments, jobs, and income associated with gas cooling exports would be retained within the United States. The prospects for significant gas cooling exports appear promising for a variety of reasons. There is an expanding need for cooling in the developing world, natural gas is widely available, electric infrastructures are over-stressed in many areas, and the cost of building new gas infrastructure is modest compared to the cost of new electric infrastructure. Global gas cooling competition is currently limited, with Japanese and U.S. companies, and their foreign business partners, the only product sources. U.S. manufacturers of HVAC products are well positioned to compete globally, and are already one of the faster growing goods-exporting sectors of the U.S. economy. Net HVAC exports grew by over 800 percent from 1987 to 1992 and currently exceed $2.6 billion annually (ARI 1994). Net gas cooling job and income creation are estimated using an economic input-output model to compare a reference case to a gas cooling scenario. The reference case reflects current policies, practices, and trends with respect to conventional electric cooling technologies. The gas cooling scenario examines the impact of accelerated use of natural gas cooling technologies here and abroad.

Hughes, P.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Laitner, S.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Cooling load estimation methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described. Correlations are described that permit auxiliary cooling estimates from monthly average insolation and weather data. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy required of a given building.

McFarland, R.D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Performance evaluation of passive cooling in office buildings based on uncertainty and sensitivity analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Natural night ventilation is an interesting passive cooling method in moderate climates. Driven by wind and stack generated pressures, it cools down the exposed building structure at night, in which the heat of the previous day is accumulated. The performance of natural night ventilation highly depends on the external weather conditions and especially on the outdoor temperature. An increase of this outdoor temperature is noticed over the last century and the IPCC predicts an additional rise to the end of this century. A methodology is needed to evaluate the reliable operation of the indoor climate of buildings in case of warmer and uncertain summer conditions. The uncertainty on the climate and on other design data can be very important in the decision process of a building project. The aim of this research is to develop a methodology to predict the performance of natural night ventilation using building energy simulation taking into account the uncertainties in the input. The performance evaluation of natural night ventilation is based on uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. The results of the uncertainty analysis showed that thermal comfort in a single office cooled with single-sided night ventilation had the largest uncertainty. The uncertainties on thermal comfort in case of passive stack and cross ventilation were substantially smaller. However, since wind, as the main driving force for cross ventilation, is highly variable, the cross ventilation strategy required larger louvre areas than the stack ventilation strategy to achieve a similar performance. The differences in uncertainty between the orientations were small. Sensitivity analysis was used to determine the most dominant set of input parameters causing the uncertainty on thermal comfort. The internal heat gains, solar heat gain coefficient of the sunblinds, internal convective heat transfer coefficient, thermophysical properties related to thermal mass, set-point temperatures controlling the natural night ventilation, the discharge coefficient C{sub d} of the night ventilation opening and the wind pressure coefficients C{sub p} were identified to have the largest impact on the uncertainty of thermal comfort. The impact of the warming climate on the uncertainty of thermal comfort was determined. The uncertainty on thermal comfort appeared to increase significantly when a weather data set with recurrence time of 10 years (warm weather) was applied in the transient simulations in stead of a standard weather data set. Natural night ventilation, designed for normal weather conditions, was clearly not able to ensure a high probability of good thermal comfort in warm weather. To ensure a high probability of good thermal comfort and to reduce the performance uncertainty in a warming climate, natural night ventilation has to be combined with additional measures. Different measures were analysed, based on the results of the sensitivity analysis. All the measures were shown to significantly decrease the uncertainty of thermal comfort in warm weather. The study showed the importance to carry out simulations with a warm weather data set together with the analysis under typical conditions. This approach allows to gain a better understanding of the performance of a natural night ventilation design, and to optimize the design to a robust solution. (author)

Breesch, H. [Building Physics, Construction and Services, Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Ghent University, J. Plateaustraat 22, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Sustainable Building Research Group, Department of Construction, Catholic University College Ghent, Gebroeders Desmetstraat 1, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Janssens, A. [Building Physics, Construction and Services, Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Ghent University, J. Plateaustraat 22, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

274

Measure Guideline: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document addresses adding -or improving - mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including some discussion of relevant codes and standards. Advantages, disadvantages, and approximate costs of various system types are presented along with general guidelines for implementing the systems in homes. CARB intends for this document to be useful to decision makers and contractors implementing ventilation systems in homes. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors. It is the intent of this document to assist contractors in making more informed decisions when selecting systems. Ventilation is an integral part of a high-performance home. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability.

Aldrich, R.

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Ventilation Systems Operating Experience Review for Fusion Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a collection and review of system operation and failure experiences for air ventilation systems in nuclear facilities. These experiences are applicable for magnetic and inertial fusion facilities since air ventilation systems are support systems that can be considered generic to nuclear facilities. The report contains descriptions of ventilation system components, operating experiences with these systems, component failure rates, and component repair times. Since ventilation systems have a role in mitigating accident releases in nuclear facilities, these data are useful in safety analysis and risk assessment of public safety. An effort has also been given to identifying any safety issues with personnel operating or maintaining ventilation systems. Finally, the recommended failure data were compared to an independent data set to determine the accuracy of individual values. This comparison is useful for the International Energy Agency task on fusion component failure rate data collection.

Cadwallader, Lee Charles

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Control of pyrophoricity in deposits produced by electron beam evaporation of uranium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A description is given of an apparatus for reducing the pyrophoricity of deposits of a material evaporated within a chamber comprising: a sealed chamber defined by an enclosure; means for providing within said chamber an atmosphere of generally non-reactive nature; a reservoir of a material to ve evaporated; means for directing a vapor of said material from said reservoir into said chamber; at least one surface within said chamber in the path of the directed vapor and on which at least portions of the vaporized material deposits; means for cooling said enclosure to a temperature at which said vapor deposits at a relatively low pyrophoric density; and means for maintaining a temperature for said collection surfaces higher than the enclosure temperature to promote deposition of said material at a relatively higher density.

Clifford, J.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Tank 26F-2F Evaporator Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tank 26F supernate sample was sent by Savannah River Remediation to Savannah River National Laboratory for evaporation test to help understand the underlying cause of the recent gravity drain line (GDL) pluggage during operation of the 2F Evaporator system. The supernate sample was characterized prior to the evaporation test. The evaporation test involved boiling the supernate in an open beaker until the density of the concentrate (evaporation product) was between 1.4 to 1.5 g/mL. It was followed by filtering and washing of the precipitated solids with deionized water. The concentrate supernate (or concentrate filtrate), the damp unwashed precipitated solids, and the wash filtrates were characterized. All the precipitated solids dissolved during water washing. A semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis on the unwashed precipitated solids revealed their composition. All the compounds with the exception of silica (silicon oxide) are known to be readily soluble in water. Hence, their dissolution during water washing is not unexpected. Even though silica is a sparingly water-soluble compound, its dissolution is also not surprising. This stems from its small fraction in the solids as a whole and also its relative freshness. Assuming similar supernate characteristics, flushing the GDL with water (preferably warm) should facilitate dissolution and removal of future pluggage events as long as build up/aging of the sparingly soluble constituent (silica) is limited. On the other hand, since the amount of silica formed is relatively small, it is quite possible dissolution of the more soluble larger fraction will cause disintegration or fragmentation of the sparingly soluble smaller fraction (that may be embedded in the larger soluble solid mass) and allow its removal via suspension in the flushing water.

Adu-Wusu, K.

2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

278

Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

Rudd, A.; Bergey, D.

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Cooling water distribution system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

VOLUME 84, NUMBER 3 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 17 JANUARY 2000 Beyond Optical Molasses: 3D Raman Sideband Cooling of Atomic Cesium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The technique is based on 3D degenerate Raman sideband cooling in optical lattices and remains efficient even [1]. Although other techniques, such as evaporative cooling [2], velocity-selective coherent Molasses: 3D Raman Sideband Cooling of Atomic Cesium to High Phase-Space Density Andrew J. Kerman, Vladan

Vuletic, Vladan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Chemical Potential Jump during Evaporation of a Quantum Bose Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The dependence of the chemical potential jump coefficient on the evaporation coefficient is analyzed for the case in which the evaporating component is a Bose gas. The concentration of the evaporating component is assumed to be much lower than the concentration of the carrier gas. The expression for the chemical potential jump is derived from the analytic solution of the problem for the case in which the collision frequency of molecules of the evaporating component is constant.

E. A. Bedrikova; A. V. Latyshev

2013-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

282

I. IONIZATION COOLING A. Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ionization cooling techniques to reduce the 6­dimensional phase space emittance. B. Cooling TheoryI. IONIZATION COOLING A. Introduction The muon beam at the end of the decay channel is very intense for beam cooling. Cooling by synchrotron radiation, conventional stochastic cooling and conventional

McDonald, Kirk

283

Optimization of Occupancy Based Demand Controlled Ventilation in Residences  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although it has been used for many years in commercial buildings, the application of demand controlled ventilation in residences is limited. In this study we used occupant exposure to pollutants integrated over time (referred to as 'dose') as the metric to evaluate the effectiveness and air quality implications of demand controlled ventilation in residences. We looked at air quality for two situations. The first is that typically used in ventilation standards: the exposure over a long term. The second is to look at peak exposures that are associated with time variations in ventilation rates and pollutant generation. The pollutant generation had two components: a background rate associated with the building materials and furnishings and a second component related to occupants. The demand controlled ventilation system operated at a low airflow rate when the residence was unoccupied and at a high airflow rate when occupied. We used analytical solutions to the continuity equation to determine the ventilation effectiveness and the long-term chronic dose and peak acute exposure for a representative range of occupancy periods, pollutant generation rates and airflow rates. The results of the study showed that we can optimize the demand controlled airflow rates to reduce the quantity of air used for ventilation without introducing problematic acute conditions.

Mortensen, Dorthe K.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Nuclear evaporation process with simultaneous multiparticle emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The nuclear evaporation process is reformulated by taking into account simultaneous multiparticle emission from a hot compound nucleus appearing as an intermediate state in many nuclear reaction mechanisms. The simultaneous emission of many particles is particularly relevant for high excitation energy of the compound nucleus.These channels are effectively open in competition with the single particle emissions and fission in this energy regime. Indeed, the inclusion of these channels along the decay evaporating chain shows that the yield of charged particles and occurrence of fission are affected by these multiparticle emission processes of the compounded nucleus, when compared to the single sequential emission results. The effect also shows a qualitative change in the neutron multiplicity of different heavy compound nucleus considered. This should be an important aspect for the study of spallation reaction in Acceleration Driven System (ADS) reactors. The majority of neutrons generated in these reactions come from the evaporation stage of the reaction, the source of neutron for the system. A Monte Carlo simulation is employed to determine the effect of these channels on the particle yield and fission process. The relevance of the simultaneous particle emission with the increasing of excitation energy of the compound nucleus is explicitly shown.

Leonardo P. G. De Assis; Sergio B. Duarte; Bianca M. Santos

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

285

Evaporated Lithium Surface Coatings in NSTX  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two lithium evaporators were used to evaporate more than 100 g of lithium on to the NSTX lower divertor region. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators were withdrawn behind shutters, where they also remained during the subsequent HeGDC applied for periods up to 9.5 min. After the HeGDC, the shutters were opened and the LITERs were reinserted to deposit lithium on the lower divertor target for 10 min, at rates of 10-70 mg/min, prior to the next discharge. The major improvements in plasma performance from these lithium depositions include: 1) plasma density reduction as a result of lithium deposition; 2) suppression of ELMs; 3) improvement of energy confinement in a low-triangularity shape; 4) improvement in plasma performance for standard, high-triangularity discharges; 5) reduction of the required HeGDC time between discharges; 6) increased pedestal electron and ion temperature; 7) reduced SOL plasma density; and 8) reduced edge neutral density.

Kugel, H. W.; Mansfield, D.; Maingi, R.; Bel, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Allain, J. P.; Gates, D.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.; Majeski, R.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.

2009-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

286

Text-Alternative Version of Building America Webinar: Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and Compartmentalization Requirements  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Transcript of Building America webinar, "Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and Compartmentalization Requirements," held on Sept. 24, 2014.

287

Experimental and numerical VOC concentration field analysis from flooring material in a ventilated room  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in "7th International Conference, Healthy Buildings 2003, Singapore : Singapore (2003)" #12;Ventilation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

288

Ventilating Existing Homes in the US Air Infiltration Review. 2010;31(2)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mechanical ventilation fan leads to reductions in other measures, such as adding insulation. This has led

289

Experiments to Evaluate and Implement Passive Tracer Gas Methods to Measure Ventilation Rates in Homes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pollutant Control Index: A New Method of Characterizing Ventilation in Commercial Buildings." Proceedings of Indoor Air'

Lunden, Melissa

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Gas turbine cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

Bancalari, Eduardo E. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Passive Two-Phase Cooling of Automotive Power Electronics: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a passive two-phase cooling strategy as a means of cooling automotive power electronics. The proposed cooling approach utilizes an indirect cooling configuration to alleviate some reliability concerns and to allow the use of conventional power modules. An inverter-scale proof-of-concept cooling system was fabricated, and tests were conducted using the refrigerants hydrofluoroolefin HFO-1234yf and hydrofluorocarbon HFC-245fa. Results demonstrated that the system can dissipate at least 3.5 kW of heat with 250 cm3 of HFC-245fa. An advanced evaporator design that incorporates features to improve performance and reduce size was conceived. Simulation results indicate its thermal resistance can be 37% to 48% lower than automotive dual side cooled power modules. Tests were also conducted to measure the thermal performance of two air-cooled condensers--plain and rifled finned tube designs. The results combined with some analysis were then used to estimate the required condenser size per operating conditions and maximum allowable system (i.e., vapor and liquid) temperatures.

Moreno, G.; Jeffers, J. R.; Narumanchi, S.; Bennion, K.

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Power electronics cooling apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

Sanger, Philip Albert (Monroeville, PA); Lindberg, Frank A. (Baltimore, MD); Garcen, Walter (Glen Burnie, MD)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Energy 101: Cool Roofs  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

This edition of Energy 101 takes a look at how switching to a cool roof can save you money and benefit the environment.

None

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

294

Power electronics cooling apparatus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

Sanger, P.A.; Lindberg, F.A.; Garcen, W.

2000-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

295

Indoor Humidity Analysis of an Integrated Radiant Cooling and Desiccant Ventilation System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the diameter and depth of the wheel, face flow velocity, rotational speed and other operating conditions. Bulk et al. [11] proposed NTU correlations for design calculation of latent and total effectiveness of enthalpy wheels coated with silica gel..., Wr Te1,We1 Space Fig.2. Passive desiccant system Enthalpy wheels normally use an aluminum substrate coated with a molecular sieve material or silica gel. The effectiveness of an enthalpy wheel depends on the load of desiccant materials...

Gong, X.; Claridge, D. E.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyAuthorization for(EV) Road UserNatural12 Building478 Typical

297

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyAuthorization for(EV) Road UserNatural12 Building478 Typical0

298

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyAuthorization for(EV) Road UserNatural12 Building478 Typical01

299

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyAuthorization for(EV) Road UserNatural12 Building478 Typical012

300

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyAuthorization for(EV) Road UserNatural12 Building478

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyAuthorization for(EV) Road UserNatural12 Building4784

302

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyAuthorization for(EV) Road UserNatural12 Building47845

303

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyAuthorization for(EV) Road UserNatural12 Building478456

304

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyAuthorization for(EV) Road UserNatural12 Building4784562

305

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyAuthorization for(EV) Road UserNatural12 Building47845623

306

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyAuthorization for(EV) Road UserNatural12 Building478456234

307

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyAuthorization for(EV) Road UserNatural12 Building4784562345

308

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyAuthorization for(EV) Road UserNatural12 Building47845623456

309

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyAuthorization for(EV) Road UserNatural12 Building478456234567

310

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyAuthorization for(EV) Road UserNatural12 Building4784562345678

311

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyAuthorization for(EV) Road UserNatural12 Building47845623456789

312

E-Print Network 3.0 - arc evaporated tia1n Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Mathematics 11 Prediction of sessile drop evaporation considering surface wettability Hyunsoo Song a Summary: Prediction of sessile drop evaporation...

313

Comparison of Two Ventilation Systems in a Chinese Commercial Kitchen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A numerical simulation of an indoor thermal environment in a Chinese commercial kitchen has been carried out using indoor zero-equation turbulence model. Two different ventilation systems in a Chinese commercial kitchen have been simulated...

Wan, X.; Yu, L.; Hou, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Key Factors in Displacement Ventilation Systems for Better IAQ  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper sets up a mathematical model of three-dimensional steady turbulence heat transfer in an air-conditioned room of multi-polluting heat sources. Numerical simulation helps identify key factors in displacement ventilation systems that affect...

Wang, X.; Chen, J.; Li, Y.; Wang, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

SURFACE CIRCULATION AND VENTILATION Lynne D. Talley(1)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of autonomous subsurface profiling to include oxygen and turbulence profiling, and implementation of local of subsurface circulation in the wind-driven gyres (section 2), and (2) ventilation/upwelling processes

Talley, Lynne D.

316

Commissioning Trial for Mechanical Ventilation System Installed in Houses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, commissioning process should be introduced more often. REFERENCES (1) Roger Anneling, The P-mark system for prefabricated houses in Sweden, 1998, CADDET (2) Hirai et al, Comparison between results from ventilation network model calculation...

Ohta, I.; Fukushima, A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Natural ventilation possibilities for buildings in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the United States, many of the commercial buildings built in the last few decades are completely mechanically air conditioned, without the capability to use natural ventilation. This habit has occurred in building designs ...

Dean, Brian N. (Brian Nathan), 1974-

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Delivering Tons to the Register: Energy Efficient Design and Operation of Residential Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, was used to determine the effect of several parameters on energy consumption, peak electrical demand cooling performance and lower energy consumption than houses with ducts in conventional attics. However consumption, and power demand. The effects of refrigerant charge, evaporator air flow), oversizing (relative

319

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Fanning, Alan W. (San Jose, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Design Alternative Evaluation No. 3: Post-Closure Ventilation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to provide input to the Enhanced Design Alternatives (EDA) for License Application Design Selection (LADS). Its purpose is to develop and evaluate conceptual designs for post-closure ventilation alternatives that enhance repository performance. Post-closure ventilation is expected to enhance repository performance by limiting the amount of water contacting the waste packages. Limiting the amount of water contacting the waste packages will reduce corrosion.

Logan, R.C.

1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Air exchange effectiveness of conventional and task ventilation for offices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air quality and comfort complaints within large buildings are often attributed to air distribution problems. We define three air exchange effectiveness parameters related to air distribution. The first two indicate the indoor air flow pattern (i.e., the extent of short circuiting, mixing, or displacement flow) for an entire building or region. The third parameter is most useful for assessments of the spatial variability of ventilation. We also define the air diffusion effectiveness which indicates the air flow pattern within specific rooms or sections of buildings. The results of measurements of these parameters in US office buildings by the authors and other researchers are reviewed. Almost all measurements indicate very limited short circuiting or displacement flow between locations of air supply and removal. However, a moderate degree of short circuiting is evident from a few measurements in rooms with heated supply air. The results of laboratory-based measurements by the authors are consistent with the field data. Our measurements in office buildings do indicate that ventilation rates can vary substantially between indoor locations, probably due to variation in air supply rates between locations rather than variation in the indoor air flow patterns. One possible method of improving air distribution is to employ task ventilation with air supplied closer to the occupant`s breathing zone. We have evaluated two task ventilation systems in a laboratory setting. During most operating conditions, these systems did not provide a region of substantially increased ventilation where occupants breath. However, both systems are capable of providing substantially enhanced ventilation at the breathing zone under some operating conditions. Therefore, task ventilation is a potential option for using ventilation air more effectively.

Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Prill, R.J.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Air exchange effectiveness of conventional and task ventilation for offices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air quality and comfort complaints within large buildings are often attributed to air distribution problems. We define three air exchange effectiveness parameters related to air distribution. The first two indicate the indoor air flow pattern (i.e., the extent of short circuiting, mixing, or displacement flow) for an entire building or region. The third parameter is most useful for assessments of the spatial variability of ventilation. We also define the air diffusion effectiveness which indicates the air flow pattern within specific rooms or sections of buildings. The results of measurements of these parameters in US office buildings by the authors and other researchers are reviewed. Almost all measurements indicate very limited short circuiting or displacement flow between locations of air supply and removal. However, a moderate degree of short circuiting is evident from a few measurements in rooms with heated supply air. The results of laboratory-based measurements by the authors are consistent with the field data. Our measurements in office buildings do indicate that ventilation rates can vary substantially between indoor locations, probably due to variation in air supply rates between locations rather than variation in the indoor air flow patterns. One possible method of improving air distribution is to employ task ventilation with air supplied closer to the occupant's breathing zone. We have evaluated two task ventilation systems in a laboratory setting. During most operating conditions, these systems did not provide a region of substantially increased ventilation where occupants breath. However, both systems are capable of providing substantially enhanced ventilation at the breathing zone under some operating conditions. Therefore, task ventilation is a potential option for using ventilation air more effectively.

Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Prill, R.J.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Capture and Use of Coal Mine Ventilation Air Methane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CONSOL Energy Inc., in conjunction with MEGTEC Systems, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, designed, built, and operated a commercial-size thermal flow reversal reactor (TFRR) to evaluate its suitability to oxidize coal mine ventilation air methane (VAM). Coal mining, and particularly coal mine ventilation air, is a major source of anthropogenic methane emissions, a greenhouse gas. Ventilation air volumes are large and the concentration of methane in the ventilation air is low; thus making it difficult to use or abate these emissions. This test program was conducted with simulated coal mine VAM in advance of deploying the technology on active coal mine ventilation fans. The demonstration project team installed and operated a 30,000 cfm MEGTEC VOCSIDIZER oxidation system on an inactive coal mine in West Liberty, WV. The performance of the unit was monitored and evaluated during months of unmanned operation at mostly constant conditions. The operating and maintenance history and how it impacts the implementation of the technology on mine fans were investigated. Emission tests showed very low levels of all criteria pollutants at the stack. Parametric studies showed that the equipment can successfully operate at the design specification limits. The results verified the ability of the TFRR to oxidize {ge}95% of the low and variable concentration of methane in the ventilation air. This technology provides new opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by the reduction of methane emissions from coal mine ventilation air. A large commercial-size installation (180,000 cfm) on a single typical mine ventilation bleeder fan would reduce methane emissions by 11,000 to 22,100 short tons per year (the equivalent of 183,000 to 366,000 metric tonnes carbon dioxide).

Deborah Kosmack

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

324

Evaluation of pulmonary ventilation in horses during methoxyflurane anesthesia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EVALUATION OF PULMONARY VENTILATION IN HORSES DURING METHOXYFLURANE ANESTHESIA A Thesis by DON REED McDONALD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Veterinary Medicine and Surgery EVALUATION OF PULMONARY VENTILATION IN HORSES DURING METHOXYFLURANE ANESTHESIA A Thesis by DON REED McDONALD Approved as to style and content by; Chairman o Committee Head...

McDonald, Don Reed

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Approximately ten percent of the energy consumed in U.S. commercial buildings is used by HVAC systems to condition outdoor ventilation air. Reducing ventilation rates would be a simple and broadly-applicable energy retrofit option, if practical counter measures were available that maintained acceptable concentrations of indoor-generated air pollutants. The two general categories of countermeasures are: 1) indoor pollutant source control, and 2) air cleaning. Although pollutant source control should be used to the degree possible, source control is complicated by the large number and changing nature of indoor pollutant sources. Particle air cleaning is already routinely applied in commercial buildings. Previous calculations indicate that particle filtration consumes only 10percent to 25percent of the energy that would otherwise be required to achieve an equivalent amount of particle removal with ventilation. If cost-effective air cleaning technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also available, outdoor air ventilation rates could be reduced substantially and broadly in the commercial building stock to save energy. The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel VOC air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. The minimum required VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50percent reduction in ventilation rate for air cleaning systems installed in the HVAC supply airstream is modest (generally 20percent or less).

Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

2010-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

326

Cool Earth Solar  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

2013-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

327

Secondary condenser Cooling water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Receiver Secondary condenser LC LC Reboiler TC PC Cooling water PC FCPC Condenser LC XC Throttling valve ¨ mx my l© ª y s § y m «¬ ly my wx l n® ® x np © ¯ Condenser Column Compressor Receiver Super-heater Decanter Secondary condenser Reboiler Throttling valve Expansion valve Cooling water

Skogestad, Sigurd

328

Cool Earth Solar  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

2014-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

329

Why Cool Roofs?  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

By installing a cool roof at DOE, the federal government and Secretary Chu are helping to educate families and businesses about the important energy and cost savings that can come with this simple, low-cost technology. Cool roofs have the potential to quickly and dramatically reduce global carbon emissions while saving money every month on consumers' electrical bills.

Chu, Steven

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

330

Very Cool Close Binaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present new observations of cool <6000K and low mass <1Msun binary systems that have been discovered by searching several modern stellar photometric databases. The search has led to a factor of 10 increase in the number of known cool close eclipsing binary systems.

J. Scott Shaw; Mercedes Lopez-Morales

2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

331

Turbine blade cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

Staub, Fred Wolf (Schenectady, NY); Willett, Fred Thomas (Niskayuna, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Turbine blade cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

Staub, Fred Wolf (Schenectady, NY); Willett, Fred Thomas (Niskayuna, NY)

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

333

Turbine blade cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number. 13 figs.

Staub, F.W.; Willett, F.T.

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

334

Water cooled steam jet  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Development of a High Latent Effectiveness Energy Recovery Ventilator with Integration into Rooftop Package Equipment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Final Report covers the Cooperative Program carried out to design and optimize an enhanced flat-plate energy recovery ventilator and integrate it into a packaged unitary (rooftop) air conditioning unit. The project objective was to optimize the design of a flat plate energy recovery ventilator (ERV) core that compares favorably to flat plate air-to-air heat exchanger cores on the market and to cost wise to small enthalpy wheel devices. The benefits of an integrated unit incorporating an enhanced ERV core and a downsized heating/cooling unit were characterized and the design of an integrated unit considering performance and cost was optimized. Phase I was to develop and optimize the design of a membrane based heat exchanger core. Phase II was the creation and observation of a system integrated demonstrator unit consisting of the Enhanced Energy Recovery Ventilator (EERV) developed in Phase I coupled to a standard Carrier 50HJ rooftop packaged unitary air conditioning unit. Phase III was the optimization of the system prior to commercialization based on the knowledge gained in Phase II. To assure that the designs chosen have the possibility of meeting cost objectives, a preliminary manufacturability and production cost study was performed by the Center for Automation Technologies at RPI. Phase I also included a preliminary design for the integrated unit to be further developed in Phase II. This was to assure that the physical design of the heat exchanger designed in Phase I would be acceptable for use in Phase II. An extensive modeling program was performed by the Center for Building Performance & Diagnostics of CMU. Using EnergyPlus as the software, a typical office building with multiple system configurations in multiple climatic zones in the US was simulated. The performance of energy recovery technologies in packaged rooftop HVAC equipment was evaluated. The experimental program carried out in Phases II and III consisted of fabricating and testing a demonstrator unit using Carrier Comfort Network (CCN) based controls. Augmenting the control signals, CCN was also used to monitor and record additional performance data that supported modeling and conceptual understanding. The result of the testing showed that the EERV core developed in Phase I recovered energy in the demonstrator unit at the expected levels based on projections. In fact, at near-ARI conditions the core recovered about one ton of cooling enthalpy when operating with a three-ton rooftop packaged unit.

Gregory M. Dobbs; Norberto O. Lemcoff; Frederick J. Cogswell; Jeffrey T. Benolt

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Treatment of evaporator condensates by pervaporation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pervaporation process for separating organic contaminants from evaporator condensate streams is disclosed. The process employs a permselective membrane that is selectively permeable to an organic component of the condensate. The process involves contacting the feed side of the membrane with a liquid condensate stream, and withdrawing from the permeate side a vapor enriched in the organic component. The driving force for the process is the in vapor pressure across the membrane. This difference may be provided for instance by maintaining a vacuum on the permeate side, or by condensing the permeate. The process offers a simple, economic alternative to other separation techniques.

Blume, Ingo (Hengelq, NL); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Improved plant performance through evaporative steam condensing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combining an open cooling tower and a steam condenser into one common unit is a proven technology with many advantages in power generation application, including reduced first cost of equipment, reduced parasitic energy consumption, simplified design, reduced maintenance, and simplified water treatment, Performance of the steam turbine benefits from the direct approach to wet bulb temperature, and operating flexibility and reliability improve compared to a system with a cooling tower and surface condenser. System comparisons and case histories will be presented to substantiate improved systems economies.

Hutton, D.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Evaporative Cooling in the NW WCEC Affiliates Meeting May 7, 2013 Energy Center, UC Davis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

design for higher airflow rates · Lack of recognition in codes and HVAC efficiency ratings · Lack% (3.5 kW) Savings Summary Equipment RTU IDEC Electric Energy (kWh) 6,475 2,849 Electric Demand (kW) 5.5 2.2 #12;Water Usage Topic1 #12;· Water pump downsized 580w 380w · Single speed motor to 3-speed

California at Davis, University of

339

INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-06 Evaporatively Cooled Condensing Units (Page 1 of 2)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be verified by a HERS rater. Proper refrigerant charge or a Charge Indicator Light (certified by the Energy for the compressor is set (per manufacturer's documents) at or below 300 psig for R22 Refrigerant and at or below the saturation pressure corresponding to a temperature of 1310 F for all other refrigerants. 5 When the water

340

Radiant cooling research scoping study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

61–65° F (16–18°C) cooling supply air temperatures requiredprovide appropriate cooling with supply water no cooler thancirculation of the cooling/heating supply water through the

Moore, Timothy; Bauman, Fred; Huizenga, Charlie

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Radiant cooling research scoping study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ventilation air, fan-coil units, and added lightweightventilation air, fan-coil units, induction units, chilled-conditioned using a fan-coil unit or other non-radiant

Moore, Timothy; Bauman, Fred; Huizenga, Charlie

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation in Residential Deep Energy Retrofits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because airtightening is a significant part of Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs), concerns about ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) have emerged. To investigate this, ventilation and IAQ were assessed in 17 non-smoking California Deep Energy Retrofit homes. Inspections and surveys were used to assess household activities and ventilation systems. Pollutant sampling performed in 12 homes included six-day passive samples of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and air exchange rate (AER); time-resolved data loggers were used to measure particle counts. Half of the homes provided continuous mechanical ventilation. Despite these homes being twice as airtight (3.0 and 7.6 ACH50, respectively), their median AER was indistinguishable from naturally vented homes (0.36 versus 0.37 hr--1). Numerous problems were found with ventilation systems; however, pollutant levels did not reach levels of concern in most homes. Ambient NO2 standards were exceeded in some gas cooking homes that used legacy ranges with standing pilots, and in Passive House-style homes without range hoods exhausted to outside. Cooking exhaust systems were installed and used inconsistently. The majority of homes reported using low-emitting materials, and formaldehyde levels were approximately half those in conventional new CA homes (19.7 versus 36 ?g/m3), with emissions rates nearly 40percent less (12.3 versus 20.6 ?g/m2/hr.). Presence of air filtration systems led to lower indoor particle number concentrations (PN>0.5: 8.80E+06 PN/m3 versus 2.99E+06; PN>2.5: 5.46E+0.5 PN/m3 versus 2.59E+05). The results indicate that DERs can provide adequate ventilation and IAQ, and that DERs should prioritize source control, particle filtration and well-designed local exhaust systems, while still providing adequate continuous ventilation.

Less, Brennan; Walker, Iain

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Cooling System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Homes & Buildings Space Heating & Cooling Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Cooling technologies used in homes and buildings...

344

Multiphase cooling flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I discuss the multiphase nature of the intracluster medium whose neglect can lead to overestimates of the baryon fraction of clusters by up to a factor of two. The multiphase form of the cooling flow equations are derived and reduced to a simple form for a wide class of self-similar density distributions. It is shown that steady-state cooling flows are \\emph{not} consistent with all possible emissivity profiles which can therefore be used as a test of the theory. In combination, they provide strong constraints on the mass distribution within the cooling radius.

Peter A. Thomas

1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

345

Natural Cooling Retrofit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the most important design considerations for any method of Natural Cool ing is the chil led water temperature range selected for use during Natural Cool ing. Figure VI shows that for a hypo thetical Chicago plant, the hours of operation for a Natural..." system on the Natural Cool ing cycle. As the pressures and flow rates of the condenser and chil led water systems are seldom the same, the designer must pay careful attention to the cross over system design to ensure harmonious operations on both...

Fenster, L. C.; Grantier, A. J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Personal, closed-cycle cooling and protective apparatus and thermal battery therefor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A closed-cycle apparatus for cooling a living body includes a heat pickup body or garment which permits evaporation of an evaporating fluid, transmission of the vapor to a condenser, and return of the condensate to the heat pickup body. A thermal battery cooling source is provided for removing heat from the condenser. The apparatus requires no external power and provides a cooling system for soldiers, race car drivers, police officers, firefighters, bomb squad technicians, and other personnel who may utilize protective clothing to work in hostile environments. An additional shield layer may simultaneously provide protection from discomfort, illness or injury due to harmful atmospheres, projectiles, edged weapons, impacts, explosions, heat, poisons, microbes, corrosive agents, or radiation, while simultaneously removing body heat from the wearer.

Klett, James W.; Klett, Lynn B.

2004-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

347

Decommissioning of Active Ventilation Systems in a Nuclear R and D Facility to Prepare for Building Demolition (Whiteshell Laboratories Decommissioning Project, Canada) - 13073  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Whiteshell Laboratories (WL) is a nuclear research establishment owned by the Canadian government and operated by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) since the early 1960's. WL is currently under a decommissioning license and the mandate is to remediate the nuclear legacy liabilities in a safe and cost effective manner. The WL Project is the first major nuclear decommissioning project in Canada. A major initiative underway is to decommission and demolish the main R and D Laboratory complex. The Building 300 R and D complex was constructed to accommodate laboratories and offices which were mainly used for research and development associated with organic-cooled reactors, nuclear fuel waste management, reactor safety, advanced fuel cycles and other applications of nuclear energy. Building 300 is a three storey structure of approximately 16,000 m{sup 2}. In order to proceed with building demolition, the contaminated systems inside the building have to be characterized, removed, and the waste managed. There is a significant focus on volume reduction of radioactive waste for the WL project. The active ventilation system is one of the significant contaminated systems in Building 300 that requires decommissioning and removal. The active ventilation system was designed to manage hazardous fumes and radioactivity from ventilation devices (e.g., fume hoods, snorkels and glove boxes) and to prevent the escape of airborne hazardous material outside of the laboratory boundary in the event of an upset condition. The system includes over 200 ventilation devices and 32 active exhaust fan units and high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The strategy to remove the ventilation system was to work from the laboratory end back to the fan/filter system. Each ventilation duct was radiologically characterized. Fogging was used to minimize loose contamination. Sections of the duct were removed by various cutting methods and bagged for temporary storage prior to disposition. Maintenance of building heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) balancing was critical to ensure proper airflow and worker safety. Approximately 103 m{sup 3} of equipment and materials were recovered or generated by the project. Low level waste accounted for approximately 37.4 m{sup 3}. Where possible, ducting was free released for metal recycling. Contaminated ducts were compacted into B-1000 containers and stored in a Shielded Modular Above-Ground Storage Facility (SMAGS) on the WL site awaiting final disposition. The project is divided into three significant phases, with Phases 1 and 2 completed. Lessons learned during the execution of Phases 1 and 2 have been incorporated into the current ventilation removal. (authors)

Wilcox, Brian; May, Doug; Howlett, Don; Bilinsky, Dennis [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ara Mooradian Way, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)] [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ara Mooradian Way, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Evaporation of Water from Particles in the Aerodynamic Lens Inlet...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Water from Particles in the Aerodynamic Lens Inlet: An Experimental Study. Evaporation of Water from Particles in the Aerodynamic Lens Inlet: An Experimental Study. Abstract:...

349

Studies on the Ecological Impact of Evaporation Retardation Monolayers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TR-6 1966 Studies on the Ecological Impact of Evaporation Retardation Monolayers B.G. Wixson Texas Water Resources Institute Texas A&M University ...

Wixson, B.G.

350

Sisyphus Cooling of Lithium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Laser cooling to sub-Doppler temperatures by optical molasses is thought to be inhibited in atoms with unresolved, near-degenerate hyperfine structure in the excited state. We demonstrate that such cooling is possible in one to three dimensions, not only near the standard D2 line for laser cooling, but over a range extending to the D1 line. Via a combination of Sisyphus cooling followed by adiabatic expansion, we reach temperatures as low as 40 \\mu K, which corresponds to atomic velocities a factor of 2.6 above the limit imposed by a single photon recoil. Our method requires modest laser power at a frequency within reach of standard frequency locking methods. It is largely insensitive to laser power, polarization and detuning, magnetic fields, and initial hyperfine populations. Our results suggest that optical molasses should be possible with all alkali species.

Paul Hamilton; Geena Kim; Trinity Joshi; Biswaroop Mukherjee; Daniel Tiarks; Holger Müller

2014-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

351

Optimization of Cooling Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A cooling water system can be optimized by operation at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces. The way to optimize will be shown, with a number of examples of new systems....

Matson, J.

352

Global Cool Cities Alliance  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently supporting the Global Cool Cities Alliance (GCCA), a non-profit organization that works with cities, regions, and national governments to speed the...

353

Ventilation Behavior and Household Characteristics in NewCalifornia Houses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A survey was conducted to determine occupant use of windows and mechanical ventilation devices; barriers that inhibit their use; satisfaction with indoor air quality (IAQ); and the relationship between these factors. A questionnaire was mailed to a stratified random sample of 4,972 single-family detached homes built in 2003, and 1,448 responses were received. A convenience sample of 230 houses known to have mechanical ventilation systems resulted in another 67 completed interviews. Some results are: (1) Many houses are under-ventilated: depending on season, only 10-50% of houses meet the standard recommendation of 0.35 air changes per hour. (2) Local exhaust fans are under-utilized. For instance, about 30% of households rarely or never use their bathroom fan. (3) More than 95% of households report that indoor air quality is ''very'' or ''somewhat'' acceptable, although about 1/3 of households also report dustiness, dry air, or stagnant or humid air. (4) Except households where people cook several hours per week, there is no evidence that households with significant indoor pollutant sources get more ventilation. (5) Except households containing asthmatics, there is no evidence that health issues motivate ventilation behavior. (6) Security and energy saving are the two main reasons people close windows or keep them closed.

Price, Phillip N.; Sherman, Max H.

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Laser cooling of solids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Economic evaluation of four types of dry/wet cooling applied to the 5-MWe Raft River geothermal power plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cost study is described which compared the economics of four dry/wet cooling systems to use at the existing Raft River Geothermal Plant. The results apply only at this site and should not be generalized without due consideration of the complete geothermal cycle. These systems are: the Binary Cooling Tower, evaporative condenser, Combin-aire, and a metal fin-tube dry cooling tower with deluge augmentation. The systems were evaluated using cooled, treated geothermal fluid instead of ground or surface water in the cooling loops. All comparisons were performed on the basis of a common plant site - the Raft River 5 MWe geothermal plant in Idaho. The Binary Cooling Tower and the Combin-aire cooling system were designed assuming the use of the isobutane/water surface condenser currently installed at the Raft River Plant. The other two systems had the isobutane ducted to the evaporative condensers. Capital credit was not given to the system employing the direct condensing process. The cost of the systems were estimated from designs provided by the vendors. The levelized energy cost range for each cooling system is listed below. The levelized energy cost reflects the incremental cost of the cooling system for the life of the plant. The estimates are presented in 1981 dollars.

Bamberger, J.A.; Allemann, R.T.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Physical features of small disperse coal dust fraction transportation and structurization processes in iodine air filters of absorption type in ventilation systems at nuclear power plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The research on the physical features of transportation and structurization processes by the air-dust aerosol in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal adsorbent granules in an air filter of the adsorption type in the heating ventilation and cooling (HVAC) system at the nuclear power plant is completed. The physical origins of the coal dust masses distribution along the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules during the air-dust aerosol intake process in the near the surface layer of absorber are researched. The quantitative technical characteristics of air filtering elements, which have to be considered during the optimization of air filters designs for the application in the ventilation systems at the nuclear power plants, are obtained.

Ledenyov, Oleg P; Poltinin, P Ya; Fedorova, L I

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Numerical Simulation of Transpiration Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

University, Templergraben 55, 52056 Aachen SUMMARY Transpiration cooling using ceramic matrix composite (CMC

358

Laser Cooling of Matter INTRODUCTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- velopment of techniques that have allowed the ion motion to be cooled into the ground state of the confiningLaser Cooling of Matter INTRODUCTION Laser cooling of neutral atoms in the past decades has been a breakthrough in the understanding of their dy- namics and led to the seminal proposals of laser cooling

Kaiser, Robin

359

Evaporative Hydrochloric Acid Recovery: Something Old, Something New...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. If zinc is present from the pickling of galvanizing racks or stripping of parts, the zinc concentration will range from as low as zinc chloride solution remains. In the evaporative process of the Hydrochloric Acid Recovery System, the waste acid is pumped through a pre-filter into the evaporator section oftI1e recovery system. This solution is heated by means...

Cullivan, B.

360

Forward-backward emission of target evaporated evaporated fragments at high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The multiplicity distribution, multiplicity moment, scaled variance, entropy and reduced entropy of target evaporated fragment emitted in forward and backward hemispheres in 12 A GeV $^{4}$He, 3.7 A GeV $^{16}$O, 60 A GeV $^{16}$O, 1.7 A GeV $^{84}$Kr and 10.7 A GeV $^{197}$Au induced emulsion heavy targets (AgBr) interactions are investigated. It is found that the multiplicity distribution of target evaporated fragments emitted in forward and backward hemispheres can be fitted by a Gaussian distribution. The multiplicity moments of target evaporated particles emitted in forward and backward hemispheres increase with the order of the moment {\\em q}, and second-order multiplicity moment is energy independent over the entire energy for all the interactions in the forward and backward hemisphere respectively. The scaled variance, a direct measure of multiplicity fluctuations, is close to one for all the interactions which may be said that there is a feeble correlation among the produced particles. The entropy of...

Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Dong-Hai

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

ASHRAE's Residential Ventilation Standard: Exegesis of Proposed Standard 62.2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In February 2000, ASHRAE's Standard Project Committee on "Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Low-Rise Residential Buildings", SPC 62.2P7 recommended ASHRAE's first complete standard on residential ventilation for public review...

Sherman, M.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Beyond blue and red arrows : optimizing natural ventilation in large buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Our growing understanding of technology and environment has expanded the complexities of producing large naturally ventilated buildings. While it may be argued that designing for natural ventilation is a straightforward, ...

Meguro, Wendy (Wendy Kei)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

CO 2 - Based Demand-Controlled Ventilation Control Strategies for Multi-Zone HVAC Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CO 2-based demand-controlled ventilation DCV strategy offers a great opportunity to reduce energy consumption in HVAC systems while providing the required ventilation. However, implementing CO 2-based DCV under ASHRAE 62.1.2004 through 2010...

Nassif, N.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Design and prototyping of a low-cost portable mechanical ventilator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper describes the design and prototyping of a low-cost portable mechanical ventilator for use in mass casualty cases and resource-poor environments. The ventilator delivers breaths by compressing a conventional ...

Powelson, Stephen K. (Stephen Kirby)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Evaluating the performance of natural ventilation in buildings through simulation and on-site monitoring  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Natural ventilation in buildings is capable of reducing energy consumption while maintaining a comfortable indoor at the same time. It is important that natural ventilation is taken into consideration in the early design ...

Cheng, Haofan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

A sweating model for the internal ventilation of a motorcycle Claudio Canutoa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A sweating model for the internal ventilation of a motorcycle helmet Claudio Canutoa , Flavio and optimization of the internal ventilation of a motorcycle hel- met, with the purpose of enhancing the comfort

Ceragioli, Francesca

367

Water spray ventilator system for continuous mining machines  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a water spray ventilator system mounted on a continuous mining machine to streamline airflow and provide effective face ventilation of both respirable dust and methane in underground coal mines. This system has two side spray nozzles mounted one on each side of the mining machine and six spray nozzles disposed on a manifold mounted to the underside of the machine boom. The six spray nozzles are angularly and laterally oriented on the manifold so as to provide non-overlapping spray patterns along the length of the cutter drum.

Page, Steven J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Mal, Thomas (Pittsburgh, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Building America Webinar: Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and Compartmentalization Requirements- Sean Maxwell  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation is included in the Building America webinar, Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and Compartmentalization Requirements, on September 24, 2014.

369

An assessment of desiccant cooling and dehumidification technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Desiccant systems are heat-actuated cooling and dehumidification technology. With the recent advances in this technology, desiccant systems can now achieve a primary energy coefficient of performance (COP) between 1.3 and 1.5, with potential to go to 1.7 and higher. It is becoming one of the most promising alternatives to conventional cooling systems. Two important and well-known advantages of desiccant cooling systems are that they are CFC free and they can reduce the electricity peak load. Another important but lesser-known advantage of desiccant technology is its potential for energy conservation. The energy impact study in this report indicated that a possible 13% energy saving in residential cooling and 8% in commercial cooling is possible. Great energy saving potential also exists in the industrial sector if industrial waste heat can be used for desiccant regeneration. The latest study on desiccant-integrated building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems indicated that the initial cost for the conventional cooling equipment was greatly reduced by using desiccant technology because of downsized compressors, fans, and ductworks. This cost reduction was more than enough to offset the cost of desiccant equipment. Besides, the system operation cost was also reduced. All these indicate that desiccant systems are also cost effective. This study provides an updated state-of-the-art assessment forsiccant technology in the field of desiccant materials, systems, computer models, and theoretical analyses. From this information the technology options were derived and the future research and development needs were identified. Because desiccant technology has already been applied in the commercial building sector with very encouraging results, it is expected that future market breakthroughs will probably start in this sector. A market analysis for the commercial building application is therefore included.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Lavan, Z. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States)); Collier, R.K. Jr. (Collier Engineering Services, Merritt Island, FL (United States)); Meckler, G. (Gershon Meckler Associates, P.C., Herndon, VA (United States))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Passive containment cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

Billig, Paul F. (San Jose, CA); Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA); Fitch, James R. (San Jose, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Passive containment cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

1994-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

372

Air flow and particle control with different ventilation systems in a classroom  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air flow and particle control with different ventilation systems in a classroom Sture Holmberg, Ph. For displacement ventilation systems, designers normally assume that all pollutants follow the buoyant air flow of the ventilation air flow are shown to play an important role in the control of air quality. Computer simulation

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

373

Natural Ventilation in Buildings: Measurement in a Wind Tunnel and Numerical Simulation with Large Eddy Simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

save energy compared to mechanical ventilation systems. In building design the prediction save energy consumed by the heating, ventilating, and air- conditioning systems in a building. In a naturally ventilated building, air is driven in and out due to pressure differences produced by wind

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

374

Ventilation Behavior and Household Characteristics in New California Houses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

across the year as home heating and cooling needs change.air conditioning and all homes have heating, it’s not clearair in the home without any heating or cooling going on? (

Price, Phillip N.; Sherman, Max H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Quantum thermodynamic cooling cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of a 3-level molecular cooling cycle are derived. An inadequacy of earlier models is rectified in accounting for the spontaneous emission and absorption associated with the coupling to the coherent driving field via an environmental reservoir. This additional coupling need not be dissipative, and can provide a thermal driving force - the quantum analog of classical absorption chillers. The dependence of the maximum attainable cooling rate on temperature, at ultra-low temperatures, is determined and shown to respect the recently-established fundamental bound based on the second and third laws of thermodynamics.

Palao, J P; Gordon, J M; Palao, Jose P.; Kosloff, Ronnie; Gordon, Jeffrey M.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Combustor liner cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A combustor liner is disclosed. The combustor liner includes an upstream portion, a downstream end portion extending from the upstream portion along a generally longitudinal axis, and a cover layer associated with an inner surface of the downstream end portion. The downstream end portion includes the inner surface and an outer surface, the inner surface defining a plurality of microchannels. The downstream end portion further defines a plurality of passages extending between the inner surface and the outer surface. The plurality of microchannels are fluidly connected to the plurality of passages, and are configured to flow a cooling medium therethrough, cooling the combustor liner.

Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Berkman, Mert Enis

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

377

Quantum thermodynamic cooling cycle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of a 3-level molecular cooling cycle are derived. An inadequacy of earlier models is rectified in accounting for the spontaneous emission and absorption associated with the coupling to the coherent driving field via an environmental reservoir. This additional coupling need not be dissipative, and can provide a thermal driving force - the quantum analog of classical absorption chillers. The dependence of the maximum attainable cooling rate on temperature, at ultra-low temperatures, is determined and shown to respect the recently-established fundamental bound based on the second and third laws of thermodynamics.

Jose P. Palao; Ronnie Kosloff; Jeffrey M. Gordon

2001-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

378

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to User GroupInformationE-Gov ContactsContractOffice ofConversionCoolCool

379

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New SubstationCleanCommunity2Workshops01ControllingControls onPolymersCookingCoolCool

380

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New SubstationCleanCommunity2Workshops01ControllingControlsCool MagneticCool Magnetic

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

LBNL REPORT NUMBER 53776; OCTOBER 2003 ASHRAE &Residential Ventilation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL REPORT NUMBER 53776; OCTOBER 2003 ASHRAE &Residential Ventilation Max Sherman Energy and Community Programs under U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC03- 76SF00098. #12;LBNL 53776 Table......................................................................................................12 2 #12;LBNL 53776 Introduction As HVAC&R professionals, our major concern is the engineering

382

Study on Influencing Factors of Night Ventilation in Office Rooms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

& Environmental Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin P.R.China, 150090 wzjw02@yahoo.com.cn Abstract: A mathematical and physical model on night ventilation is set up. The fields of indoor air temperature, air velocity and thermal comfort...

Wang, Z.; Sun, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 1 Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process specific commercial product, process, or service by its trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise airflows? Homes need ventilation to maintain acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). In older homes

384

Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. Most US homes have central HVAC systems, which tend to mix the air thus the indoor conditions between zones. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of exposure depending on the effectiveness of their air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper will report on field measurements using a unique multi-tracer measurement system that has the capacity to measure not only the flow of outdoor air to each zone, but zone-to-zone transport. The paper will derive seven different metrics for the evaluation of air distribution. Measured data from two homes with different levels of natural infiltration will be used to evaluate these metrics for three different ASHRAE Standard 62.2 compliant ventilation systems. Such information can be used to determine the effectiveness of different systems so that appropriate adjustments can be made in residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Utilizing Passive Ventilation to Complement HVAC Systems in Enclosed Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Utilizing Passive Ventilation to Complement HVAC Systems in Enclosed Buildings Tom Rogg REU Student to assist HVAC has the potential to significantly reduce life cycle cost and energy consumption and electrical system that will tie thermostats to controlled valves in the actual HVAC system. Based on results

Mountziaris, T. J.

386

Optimal decision making in ventilation control Andrew Kusiak*, Mingyang Li  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

based on the maximum occupancy of a facility. To provide air quality guidelines, ASHRAE Standard 90.1 [2] specifies the minimum ventilation rate of 2.5 l/s per person, while ASHRAE Standard 62-2004 [3] has been

Kusiak, Andrew

387

Multifamily Individual Heating and Ventilation Systems, Lawrence, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conversion of an older Massachusetts building into condominiums illustrates a safe, durable, and cost-effective solution for heating and ventilation systems that can potentially benefit millions of multifamily buildings. Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) partnered with U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Building Science Corporation (BSC) to provide high performance affordable housing for 10 families in the retrofit of an existing mass masonry building (a former convent). The original ventilation design for the project was provided by a local engineer and consisted of a single large heat recovery ventilator (HRV) located in a mechanical room in the basement with a centralized duct system providing supply air to the main living space and exhausting stale air from the single bathroom in each apartment. This design was deemed to be far too costly to install and operate for several reasons: the large central HRV was oversized and the specified flows to each apartment were much higher than the ASHRAE 62.2 rate; an extensive system of ductwork, smoke and fire dampers, and duct chases were specified; ductwork required a significant area of dropped ceilings; and the system lacked individual ventilation control in the apartments

Not Available

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

AIR FLOW MODELING IN DEEP WELLS: APPLICATION TO MINING VENTILATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

consumption and increase of electricity prices in a context of worldwide competition also mo- tivate system control and energy consumption op- timization. Two different levels of complexity are pro- posed]. This short historical overview also illustrates the parallel evolution of magnetic ventilation modeling

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

389

Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn.

Hultgren, Kent Goran (Winter Park, FL); McLaurin, Leroy Dixon (Winter Springs, FL); Bertsch, Oran Leroy (Titusville, FL); Lowe, Perry Eugene (Oviedo, FL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Turbomachine rotor with improved cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas turbine rotor has an essentially closed loop cooling air scheme in which cooling air drawn from the compressor discharge air that is supplied to the combustion chamber is further compressed, cooled, and then directed to the aft end of the turbine rotor. Downstream seal rings attached to the downstream face of each rotor disc direct the cooling air over the downstream disc face, thereby cooling it, and then to cooling air passages formed in the rotating blades. Upstream seal rings attached to the upstream face of each disc direct the heated cooling air away from the blade root while keeping the disc thermally isolated from the heated cooling air. From each upstream seal ring, the heated cooling air flows through passages in the upstream discs and is then combined and returned to the combustion chamber from which it was drawn. 5 figs.

Hultgren, K.G.; McLaurin, L.D.; Bertsch, O.L.; Lowe, P.E.

1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

391

TETRA MUON COOLING RING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We give a brief overview of recent simulation activities on the design of neutrino factories. Simulation work is ongoing on many aspects of a potential facility, including proton drivers, pion collection and decay channels, phase rotation, ionization cooling, and muon accelerators.

KAHN,S.A.FERNOW,R.C.BALBEKOV,V.RAJA,R.USUBOV,Z.

2003-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

392

Cooling Towers, The Debottleneckers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Power generating plants and petro-chemical works are always expanding. An on-going problem is to identify and de-bottle neck restricting conditions of growth. The cooling tower is a highly visible piece of equipment. Most industrial crossflow units...

Burger, R.

393

Gas Cooling Through Galaxy Formations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract-- Gas cooling was studied in two different boxes of sizes and by simulation at same redshifts. The gas cooling is shown in four different redshifts (z=1.15, 0.5, 0.1 and 0). In the simulation the positions of the clumps of cooled gas were studied with slices of the two volumes and also the density of cooled gas of the two volumes shown in the simulation. From the process of gas cooling it is clear that this process gives different results in the two cases. Index Term- Gas Cooling, Simulation, galaxy Formation. I.

Mariwan A. Rasheed; Mohamad A. Brza

394

Indirect evaporative cooler using membrane-contained, liquid desiccant for dehumidification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An indirect evaporative cooler for cooling inlet supply air from a first temperature to a second, lower temperature using a stream of liquid coolant and a stream of exhaust or purge air. The cooler includes a first flow channel for inlet supply air and a second flow channel adjacent the first for exhaust air. The first and second flow channels are defined in part by sheets of a membrane permeable to water vapor such that mass is transferred as a vapor through the membrane from the inlet supply air to a contained liquid desiccant for dehumidification and also to the exhaust air as heat is transferred from the inlet supply air to the liquid coolant. A separation wall divides the liquid desiccant and the coolant but allows heat to be transferred from the supply air to the coolant which releases water vapor to the counter or cross flowing exhaust air.

Kozubal, Eric Joseph; Slayzak, Steven Joseph

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

395

Cooling Towers- Energy Conservation Strategies Understanding Cooling Towers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cooling towers are energy conservation devices that Management, more often than not, historically overlooks in the survey of strategies for plant operating efficiencies. The utilization of the colder water off the cooling tower is the money maker!...

Smith, M.

396

Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process simulation model has been developed using Aspen Plus(R) with the OLI (OLI System, Inc.) water chemistry model to predict water quality in the recirculating cooling loop utilizing secondary- and tertiary-treated municipal wastewater as the source of makeup water. Simulation results were compared with pilot-scale experimental data on makeup water alkalinity, loop pH, and ammonia evaporation. The effects of various parameters including makeup water quality, salt formation, NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} evaporation mass transfer coefficients, heat load, and operating temperatures were investigated. The results indicate that, although the simulation model can capture the general trends in the loop pH, experimental data on the rates of salt precipitation in the system are needed for more accurate prediction of the loop pH. It was also found that stripping of ammonia and carbon dioxide in the cooling tower can influence the cooling loop pH significantly. The effects of the NH{sub 3} mass transfer coefficient on cooling loop pH appear to be more significant at lower values (e.g., k{sub NH3}< 4×10{sup -3} m/s) when the makeup water alkalinity is low (e.g., <90 mg/L as CaCO{sub 3}). The effect of the CO{sub 2} mass transfer coefficient was found to be significant only at lower alkalinity values (e.g., k{sub CO2}<4×10{{sup -6} m/s).

Safari, Iman; Walker, Michael E.; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Dzombak, David A.; Liu, Wenshi; Vidic, Radisav D.; Miller, David C.; Abbasian, Javad

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Performance Method Overview Page 7-1 7 Performance Method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

charge in air conditioners · Heating and cooling equipment efficiency · High EER air conditioners storage air conditioners · Air conditioners with evaporatively-cooled condensers · Evaporative coolers ventilation · Zonal control · Water heater efficiency and distribution system type Credit for many

398

Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated box located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Intensive Care Med . Author manuscript A bench study of intensive-care-unit ventilators: new versus old and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: new versus old and turbine-based versus compressed gas-based ventilators Arnaud W. Thille 1 2 turbine-based ventilators and nine conventional servo-valve compressed-gas ventilators were tested using a two-compartment lung model. Results Three levels of effort were simulated. Each ventilator

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

400

Comparison of Software Models for Energy Savings from Cool Roofs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the United States Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs modern web technologies, usability design, and national average defaults as an interface to annual simulations of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim in order to provide estimated annual energy and cost savings. In addition to cool reflective roofs, RSC simulates multiple roof and attic configurations including different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance roof surfaces, duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple substrate types, and insulation levels. A base case and energy-efficient alternative can be compared side-by-side to estimate monthly energy. RSC was benchmarked against field data from demonstration homes in Ft. Irwin, California; while cooling savings were similar, heating penalty varied significantly across different simulation engines. RSC results reduce cool roofing cost-effectiveness thus mitigating expected economic incentives for this countermeasure to the urban heat island effect. This paper consolidates comparison of RSC s projected energy savings to other simulation engines including DOE-2.1E, AtticSim, Micropas, and EnergyPlus, and presents preliminary analyses. RSC s algorithms for capturing radiant heat transfer and duct interaction in the attic assembly are considered major contributing factors to increased cooling savings and heating penalties. Comparison to previous simulation-based studies, analysis on the force multiplier of RSC cooling savings and heating penalties, the role of radiative heat exchange in an attic assembly, and changes made for increased accuracy of the duct model are included.

New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL; Huang, Yu (Joe) [White Box Technologies; Levinson, Ronnen [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Energy Code Enforcement Training Manual : Covering the Washington State Energy Code and the Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This manual is designed to provide building department personnel with specific inspection and plan review skills and information on provisions of the 1991 edition of the Washington State Energy Code (WSEC). It also provides information on provisions of the new stand-alone Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (VIAQ) Code.The intent of the WSEC is to reduce the amount of energy used by requiring energy-efficient construction. Such conservation reduces energy requirements, and, as a result, reduces the use of finite resources, such as gas or oil. Lowering energy demand helps everyone by keeping electricity costs down. (It is less expensive to use existing electrical capacity efficiently than it is to develop new and additional capacity needed to heat or cool inefficient buildings.) The new VIAQ Code (effective July, 1991) is a natural companion to the energy code. Whether energy-efficient or not, an homes have potential indoor air quality problems. Studies have shown that indoor air is often more polluted than outdoor air. The VIAQ Code provides a means of exchanging stale air for fresh, without compromising energy savings, by setting standards for a controlled ventilation system. It also offers requirements meant to prevent indoor air pollution from building products or radon.

Washington State Energy Code Program

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

STOCHASTIC COOLING FOR BUNCHED BEAMS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Problems associated with bunched beam stochastic cooling are reviewed. A longitudinal stochastic cooling system for RHIC is under construction and has been partially commissioned. The state of the system and future plans are discussed.

BLASKIEWICZ, M.

2005-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

403

Self-excited hydrothermal waves in evaporating sessile drops   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pattern formation driven by the spontaneous evaporation of sessile drops of methanol, ethanol, and FC-72 using infrared thermography is observed and, in certain cases, interpreted in terms of hydrothermal waves. Both methanol and ethanol drops...

Sefiane K.; Moffat J.R.; Matar O.K.; Craster R.V.

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

On Reducing Evaporator Superheat Nonlinearity with Control Architecture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and refrigeration VCC vapor compression cycle TEV thermostatic expansion valve EEV electronic expansion valve HEV hybrid expansion valve PID proportional-integral-derivative P, Pevap evaporator pressure Q(s) transfer function from PSET to evaporator superheat (inner... by a number of different valve types, which vary in expense and design KFM product of KF times KM(v) KU gain from HEV position to mechanical pressure setpoint U HEV position MEMS micro-electrical-mechanical systemsregulating device also known...

Elliot, M.S.; Rasmussen, B.P.

405

An evaluation of atmospheric evaporation for treating wood preserving wastes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

i. hat a constant rate of total organi carbon and chemical oxygen demand removal occurred as the wastewai. r was evaporated. A procedure for designing atmospheric evaporation ponds was developed and applied to a hypothetical wood preserving plant.... From this example design estimates of equivalent hydrocarbon concentrations in the air downwind of the pond are made. Various other design con- siderations such as the input data, modifications to the design pro- cedure, solids accumulation...

Shack, Pete A

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Thermodynamics and evaporation of the noncommutative black hole  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the thermodynamics of the noncommutative black hole whose static picture is similar to that of the nonsingular black hole known as the de Sitter-Schwarzschild black hole. It turns out that the final remnant of extremal black hole is a thermodynamically stable object. We describe the evaporation process of this black hole by using the noncommutativity-corrected Vaidya metric. It is found that there exists a close relationship between thermodynamic approach and evaporation process.

Yun Soo Myung; Yong-Wan Kim; Young-Jai Park

2007-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

407

Superhydrophobic coated apparatus for liquid purification by evaporative condensation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a first vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The first vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus simplifying maintenance of the apparatus.

Simpson, John T; McNeany, Steve R; Dinsmore, Thomas V; Hunter, Scott R; Ivanov, Ilia N

2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

408

Evaporation of alpha particles from $^31$P nucleus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The energy spectra of alpha particles have been measured in coincidence with the evaporation residues for the decay of the compound nucleus $^31$P produced in the reaction $^19$F (96 MeV) + $^12$C. The data have been compared with the predictions of the statistical model code CASCADE. It has been observed that significant deformation effect in the compound nucleus need to be considered in order to explain the shape of the evaporated alpha particle energy spectra.

D. Bandyopadhyay; S. K. Basu; C. Bhattacharya; S. Bhattacharya; K. Krishan; A. Chatterjee; S. Kailas; A. Navin; A. Srivastava

1998-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

409

BSW process of the slowly evaporating charged black hole  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we study the BSW process of the slowly evaporating charged black hole. It can be found that the BSW process will also arise near black hole horizon when the evaporation of charged black hole is very slow. But now the background black hole does not have to be an extremal black hole, and it will be approximately an extremal black hole unless it is nearly a huge stationary black hole.

Liancheng Wang; Feng He; Xiangyun Fu

2015-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

410

Conduction cooling: multicrate fastbus hardware  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Described is a new and novel approach for cooling nuclear instrumentation modules via heat conduction. The simplicity of liquid cooled crates and ease of thermal management with conduction cooled modules are described. While this system was developed primarily for the higher power levels expected with Fastbus electronics, it has many general applications.

Makowiecki, D.; Sims, W.; Larsen, R.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Cooling by heating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce the idea of actually cooling quantum systems by means of incoherent thermal light, hence giving rise to a counter-intuitive mechanism of "cooling by heating". In this effect, the mere incoherent occupation of a quantum mechanical mode serves as a trigger to enhance the coupling between other modes. This notion of effectively rendering states more coherent by driving with incoherent thermal quantum noise is applied here to the opto-mechanical setting, where this effect occurs most naturally. We discuss two ways of describing this situation, one of them making use of stochastic sampling of Gaussian quantum states with respect to stationary classical stochastic processes. The potential of experimentally demonstrating this counter-intuitive effect in opto-mechanical systems with present technology is sketched.

A. Mari; J. Eisert

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Method and apparatus for flash evaporation of liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vertical tube flash evaporator for introducing a superheated liquid into a flash evaporation chamber includes a vertical inlet tube with a flared diffuser portion at its upper outlet end. A plurality of annular screens are positioned in axially spaced-apart relation to each other around the periphery of the vertical tube and below the diffuser portion thereof. The screens are preferably curved upward in a cup-shaped configuration. These flash evaporators are shown in an ocean thermal energy conversion unit designed for generating electric power from differential temperature gradients in ocean water. The method of use of the flash evaporators of this invention includes flowing liquid upwardly through the vertical tube into the diffuser where initial expansion and boiling occurs quite violently and explosively. Unvaporized liquid sheets and drops collide with each other to enhance surface renewal and evaporation properties, and liquid flowing over the outlet end of the diffuser falls onto the curved screens for further surface renewal and evaporation.

Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Method and apparatus for flash evaporation of liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vertical tube flash evaporator for introducing a super-heated liquid into a flash evaporation chamber includes a vertical inlet tube with a flared diffuser portion at its upper outlet end. A plurality of annular screens are positioned in axially spaced-apart relation to each other around the periphery of the vertical tube and below the diffuser portion thereof. The screens are preferably curved upward in a cup-shaped configuration. These flash evaporators are shown in an ocean thermal energy conversion unit designed for generating electric power from differential temperature gradients in ocean water. The method of use of the flash evaporators of this invention includes flowing liquid upwardly through the vertical tube into the diffuser where initial expansion and boiling occurs quite violently and explosively. Unvaporized liquid sheets and drops collide with each other to enhance surface renewal and evaporation properties, and liquid flowing over the outlet end of the diffuser falls onto the curved screens for further surface renewal and evaporation.

Bharathan, D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Conduction cooled tube supports  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Becht, IV, Charles (Morristown, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Cab Heating and Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Schneider National, Inc., SNI, has concluded the Cab Heating and Cooling evaluation of onboard, engine off idling solutions. During the evaluation period three technologies were tested, a Webasto Airtronic diesel fired heater for cold weather operation, and two different approaches to cab cooling in warm weather, a Webasto Parking Cooler, phase change storage system and a Bergstrom Nite System, a 12 volt electrical air conditioning approach to cooling. Diesel fired cab heaters were concluded to provide adequate heat in winter environments down to 10 F. With a targeted idle reduction of 17%, the payback period is under 2 years. The Webasto Parking Cooler demonstrated the viability of this type of technology, but required significant driver involvement to achieve maximum performance. Drivers rated the technology as ''acceptable'', however, in individual discussions it became apparent they were not satisfied with the system limitations in hot weather, (over 85 F). The Bergstrom Nite system was recognized as an improvement by drivers and required less direct driver input to operate. While slightly improved over the Parking Cooler, the hot temperature limitations were only slightly better. Neither the Parking Cooler or the Nite System showed any payback potential at the targeted 17% idle reduction. Fleets who are starting at a higher idle baseline may have a more favorable payback.

Damman, Dennis

2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

416

Floating loop method for cooling integrated motors and inverters using hot liquid refrigerant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for cooling vehicle components using the vehicle air conditioning system comprising the steps of: tapping the hot liquid refrigerant of said air conditioning system, flooding a heat exchanger in the vehicle component with said hot liquid refrigerant, evaporating said hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant using the heat from said vehicle component, and returning said hot vapor refrigerant to the hot vapor refrigerant line in said vehicle air conditioning system.

Hsu, John S.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester; Marlino, Laura D.

2007-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

417

Dry Transfer Facility #1 - Ventilation Confinement Zoning Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this analysis is to establish the preliminary Ventilation Confinement Zone (VCZ) for the Dry Transfer Facility (DTF). The results of this document is used to determine the air quantities for each VCZ that will eventually be reflected in the development of the Ventilation Flow Diagrams. The calculations contained in this document were developed by D and E/Mechanical-HVAC and are intended solely for the use of the D and E/Mechanical-HVAC department in its work regarding the HVAC system for the Dry Transfer Facility. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from the D and E/Mechanical-HVAC department should be consulted before use of the calculation for purposes other than those stated herein or used by individuals other than authorized personnel in D and E/Mechanical-HVAC department.

K.D. Draper

2005-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

418

LBNL-XXXXX | Logue et al., Evaluation of an Incremental Ventilation Energy Model for Estimating Impacts of Air Sealing and Mechanical Ventilation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-XXXXX | Logue et al., Evaluation of an Incremental Ventilation Energy Model for Estimating. Turner, Iain S. Walker, and Brett C. Singer Environmental Energy Technologies Division June 2012 LBNL-5796E #12;LBNL-XXXXX | Logue et al., Evaluation of an Incremental Ventilation Energy Model

419

Availability Analysis of the Ventilation Stack CAM Interlock System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ventilation Stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock System failure modes, failure frequencies, and system availability have been evaluated for the RPP. The evaluation concludes that CAM availability is as high as assumed in the safety analysis and that the current routine system surveillance is adequate to maintain this availability credited in the safety analysis, nor is such an arrangement predicted to significantly improve system availability.

Young, J

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Evaluation of Existing Technologies for Meeting Residential Ventilation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

....................................................................................................................... 5 Heating and Cooling Equipment) ........................................................................... 9 5. Central Fan Integrated (CFI) Supply with air inlet in return and continuously operating exhaust ........................................................................................................ 9 6. Continuous Supply

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies in New Construction Multifamily Buildings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the 'fresh' air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent, and the 'normal leakage paths through the building envelope' disappear. CARB researchers have found that the majority of high performance, new construction, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four general strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. Insufficient information is available to designers on how these various systems are best applied. Product performance data are based on laboratory tests, and the assumption is that products will perform similarly in the field. Proper application involves matching expected performance at expected building pressures, but there is no guarantee that those conditions will exist consistently in the finished building. This research effort, which included several weeks of building pressure monitoring, sought to provide field validation of system performance. The performance of four substantially different strategies for providing make-up air to apartments was evaluated.

Maxwell, S.; Berger, D.; Zuluaga, M.

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Classroom HVAC: Improving ventilation and saving energy -- field study plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary goals of this research effort are to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate a very practical HVAC system for classrooms that consistently provides classrooms (CRs) with the quantity of ventilation in current minimum standards, while saving energy, and reducing HVAC-related noise levels. This research is motivated by the public benefits of energy efficiency, evidence that many CRs are under-ventilated, and public concerns about indoor environmental quality in CRs. This document provides a summary of the detailed plans developed for the field study that will take place in 2005 to evaluate the energy and IAQ performance of a new classroom HVAC technology. The field study will include measurements of HVAC energy use, ventilation rates, and IEQ conditions in 10 classrooms with the new HVAC technology and in six control classrooms with a standard HVAC system. Energy use and many IEQ parameters will be monitored continuously, while other IEQ measurements will be will be performed seasonally. Continuously monitored data will be remotely accessed via a LonWorks network. Instrument calibration plans that vary with the type of instrumentation used are established. Statistical tests will be employed to compare energy use and IEQ conditions with the new and standard HVAC systems. Strengths of this study plan include the collection of real time data for a full school year, the use of high quality instrumentation, the incorporation of many quality control measures, and the extensive collaborations with industry that limit costs to the sponsors.

Apte, Michael G.; Faulkner, David; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.

2004-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

423

Upward-facing Lithium Flash Evaporator for NSTX-U  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NSTX plasma performance has been significantly enhanced by lithium conditioning [1]. To date, the lower divertor and passive plates have been conditioned by downward facing lithium evaporators (LITER) as appropriate for lower null plasmas. The higher power operation expected from NSTX-U requires double null plasma operation in order to distribute the heat flux between the upper and lower divertors making it desirable to coat the upper divertor region with Li as well. An upward aiming LITER (U-LITER) is presently under development and will be inserted into NSTX-U using a horizontal probe drive located in a 6" upper midplane port. In the retracted position the evaporator will be loaded with up to 300 mg of Li granules utilizing one of the calibrated NSTX Li powder droppers[2]. The evaporator will then be inserted into the vessel in a location within the shadow of the RF limiters and will remain in the vessel during the discharge. About 10 seconds before a discharge, it will be rapidly heated and the lithium completely evaporated onto the upper divertor, thus avoiding the complication of a shutter that prevents evaporation during the shot when the diagnostic shutters are open. The minimal time interval between the evaporation and the start of the discharge will avoid the passivation of the lithium by residual gases and enable the study of the conditioning effects of un-passivated Li surfaces [3]. Two methods are being investigated to accomplish the rapid (few second) heating of the lithium. A resistive method relies on passing a large current through a Li filled crucible. A second method requires using a 3 kW e-beam gun to heat the Li. In this paper the evaporator systems will be described and the pros and cons of each heating method will be discussed.

Roquemore, A. L.

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

424

Marketing Cool Storage Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

storage has been substantiated. bv research conducted by Electric Power Research Institute, and by numerous installations, it has become acknowledged that cool stora~e can provide substantial benefits to utilities and end-users alike. A need was reco...~ned to improve utility load factors, reduce peak electric demands, and other-wise mana~e the demand-side use of electricity. As a result of these many pro~rams, it became apparent that the storage of coolin~, in the form of chilled water, ice, or other phase...

McCannon, L.

425

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to User GroupInformationE-Gov ContactsContractOfficeCool Magnetic

426

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New SubstationCleanCommunity2Workshops01ControllingControls onPolymersCookingCool

427

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New SubstationCleanCommunity2Workshops01ControllingControlsCool Magnetic Molecules

428

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New SubstationCleanCommunity2Workshops01ControllingControlsCool Magnetic

429

Cool horizons lead to information loss  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There are two evidences for information loss during black hole evaporation: (i) a pure state evolves to a mixed state and (ii) the map from the initial state to final state is non-invertible. Any proposed resolution of the information paradox must address both these issues. The firewall argument focuses only on the first and this leads to order one deviations from the Unruh vacuum for maximally entangled black holes. The nature of the argument does not extend to black holes in pure states. It was shown by Avery, Puhm and the author that requiring the initial state to final state map to be invertible mandates structure at the horizon even for pure states. The proof works if black holes can be formed in generic states and in this paper we show that this is indeed the case. We also demonstrate how models proposed by Susskind, Papadodimas et al. and Maldacena et al. end up making the initial to final state map non-invertible and thus make the horizon "cool" at the cost of unitarity.

Borun D. Chowdhury

2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

430

Indirect passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Passive cooling safety system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA); Hui, Marvin M. (Sunnyvale, CA); Berglund, Robert C. (Saratoga, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Emergency core cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor provided with an emergency core cooling system includes a reactor vessel which contains a reactor core comprising an array of fuel assemblies and a plurality of blanket assemblies. The reactor core is immersed in a pool of liquid metal coolant. The reactor also includes a primary coolant system comprising a pump and conduits for circulating liquid metal coolant to the reactor core and through the fuel and blanket assemblies of the core. A converging-diverging venturi nozzle with an intermediate throat section is provided in between the assemblies and the pump. The intermediate throat section of the nozzle is provided with at least one opening which is in fluid communication with the pool of liquid sodium. In normal operation, coolant flows from the pump through the nozzle to the assemblies with very little fluid flowing through the opening in the throat. However, when the pump is not running, residual heat in the core causes fluid from the pool to flow through the opening in the throat of the nozzle and outwardly through the nozzle to the assemblies, thus providing a means of removing decay heat.

Schenewerk, William E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Glasgow, Lyle E. (Westlake Village, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

AGN and Cooling Flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For two decades the steady-state cooling-flow model has dominated the literature of cluster and elliptical-galaxy X-ray sources. For ten years this model has been in severe difficulty from a theoretical point of view, and it is now coming under increasing pressure observationally. For two decades the steady-state cooling-flow model has dominated the literature of cluster and elliptical-galaxy X-ray sources. For ten years this model has been in severe difficulty from a theoretical point of view, and it is now coming under increasing pressure observationally. A small number of enthusiasts have argued for a radically different interpretation of the data, but had little impact on prevailing opinion because the unsteady heating picture that they advocate is extremely hard to work out in detail. Here I explain why it is difficult to extract robust observational predictions from the heating picture. Major problems include the variability of the sources, the different ways in which a bi-polar flow can impact on X-ray emission, the weakness of synchrotron emission from sub-relativistic flows, and the sensitivity of synchrotron emission to a magnetic field that is probably highly localized.

James Binney

2001-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

434

Building America Webinar: Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and Compartmentalization Requirements- Joe Lstiburek  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation will be delivered at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America webinar, Multifamily Ventilation Strategies and Compartmentalization Requirements, on September 24, 2014. Joe...

435

Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine's crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages.

Boggs, David Lee (Bloomfield Hills, MI); Baraszu, Daniel James (Plymouth, MI); Foulkes, David Mark (Erfstadt, DE); Gomes, Enio Goyannes (Ann Arbor, MI)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine`s crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages. 4 figs.

Boggs, D.L.; Baraszu, D.J.; Foulkes, D.M.; Gomes, E.G.

1998-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

437

THE IMPACT OF REDUCED VENTILATION ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide fron gas appliances;quality, infiltration, nitrogen dioxide, radon, ventilation.carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (N02)• formaldehyde (

Berk, James V.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Room air stratification in combined chilled ceiling and displacement ventilation systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environments. Proceedings of Indoor Air 2005: 10 thInternational Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate,displacement ventilation hybrid air conditioning system-

Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred; Tully, Brad; Rimmer, Julian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Field Test of Room-to-Room Distribution of Outside Air with Two Residential Ventilation Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uniform distribution of outside air is one way to ensure that residential dilution ventilation systems will provide a known amount of fresh air to all rooms.

Hendron, R.; Anderson, R.; Barley, D.; Rudd, A.; Townsend, A.; Hancock, E.

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Developing evidence-based prescriptive ventilation rate standards for commercial buildings in California: a proposed framework  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

quality survey. In: Healthy Buildings 2006. Lisbon,In: Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2006. Lisbon, Portugal:as ventilation varies. In: Healthy Buildings 2012. Brisbane,

Mendell, Mark J.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Development of a Direct Evaporator for the Organic Rankine Cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes research and development currently underway to place the evaporator of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system directly in the path of a hot exhaust stream produced by a gas turbine engine. The main goal of this research effort is to improve cycle efficiency and cost by eliminating the usual secondary heat transfer loop. The project’s technical objective is to eliminate the pumps, heat exchangers and all other added cost and complexity of the secondary loop by developing an evaporator that resides in the waste heat stream, yet virtually eliminates the risk of a working fluid leakage into the gaseous exhaust stream. The research team comprised of Idaho National Laboratory and General Electric Company engineers leverages previous research in advanced ORC technology to develop a new direct evaporator design that will reduce the ORC system cost by up to 15%, enabling the rapid adoption of ORCs for waste heat recovery.

Donna Post Guillen; Helge Klockow; Matthew Lehar; Sebastian Freund; Jennifer Jackson

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Evaporation rate of hot Jupiters and formation of Chthonian planets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Among the hundred of known extrasolar planets, about 15% are closer than 0.1 AU from their parent stars. But there are extremely few detections of planets orbiting in less than 3 days. At this limit the planet HD209458b has been found to have an extended upper atmosphere of escaping hydrogen. This suggests that the so-called hot Jupiters which are close to their parent stars could evaporate. Here we estimate the evaporation rate of hydrogen from extrasolar planets in the star vicinity. With high exospheric temperatures, and owing to the tidal forces, planets evaporate through a geometrical blow-off. This may explain the absence of Jupiter mass planets below a critical distance from the stars. Below this critical distance, we infer the existence of a new class of planets made of the residual central core of former hot Jupiters, which we propose to call the ``Chthonian'' planets.

G. Hébrard; A. Lecavelier des Étangs; A. Vidal-Madjar; J. -M. Désert; R. Ferlet

2003-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

443

Simulation of multicomponent evaporation in electron beam melting and refining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental results and a mathematical model are presented to describe differential evaporation rates in electron beam melting of titanium alloys containing aluminum and vanadium. Experiments characterized the evaporation rate of commercially pure titanium, and vapor composition over titanium with up to 6% Al and 4.5% V content as a function of beam power, scan frequency and background pressure. The model is made up of a steady-state heat and mass transport model of a melting hearth and a model of transient thermal and flow behavior near the surface. Activity coefficients for aluminum and vanadium in titanium are roughly estimated by fitting model parameters to experimental results. Based on the ability to vary evaporation rate by 10-15% using scan frequency alone, we discuss the possibility of on-line composition control by means of intelligent manipulation of the electron beam.

Powell, A.; Szekely, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Van Den Avyle, J.; Damkroger, B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Direct cooled power electronics substrate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN) [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

445

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be removed from the datacenter efficiently. The transitionone half of an air-cooled datacenter's energy consumption isof time if desired by the datacenter owner. If the building

Coles, Henry

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Electron beam evaporation for titanium metal matrix composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

3M, in partnership with ARPA, is developing electron beam evaporation as a method for producing titanium metal matrix composites (TMC`s). This paper discusses some of the opportunities presented by these strong and lightweight structural materials but also points out the many challenges which must be met. The excellent mechanical properties of titanium matrix composites have been recognized for quite some time; however use of these materials has been limited by the lack of a commercially viable process to produce them. 3M is removing this logjam in processing technology by using high rate electron beam evaporation technology to manufacture these materials on a significantly large scale.

Storer, J. [3M, Mendota Heights, MN (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

447

Simulation of Diffusive Lithium Evaporation Onto the NSTX Vessel Walls  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A model for simulating the diffusive evaporation of lithium into a helium filled NSTX vacuum vessel is described and validated against an initial set of deposition experiments. The DEGAS 2 based model consists of a three-dimensional representation of the vacuum vessel, the elastic scattering process, and a kinetic description of the evaporated atoms. Additional assumptions are required to account for deuterium out-gassing during the validation experiments. The model agrees with the data over a range of pressures to within the estimated uncertainties. Suggestions are made for more discriminating experiments that will lead to an improved model.

Stotler, D. P.; Skinner, C. H.; Blanchard, W. R.; Krstic, P. S.; Kugel, H. W.; Schneider, H.; Zakharov, L. E.

2010-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

448

CO2 MONITORING FOR DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sensors are often deployed in commercial buildings to obtain CO{sub 2} data that are used, in a process called demand-controlled ventilation, to automatically modulate rates of outdoor air ventilation. The objective is to keep ventilation rates at or above design specifications and code requirements and also to save energy by avoiding excessive ventilation rates. Demand controlled ventilation is most often used in spaces with highly variable and sometime dense occupancy. Reasonably accurate CO{sub 2} measurements are needed for successful demand controlled ventilation; however, prior research has suggested substantial measurement errors. Accordingly, this study evaluated: (a) the accuracy of 208 CO{sub 2} single-location sensors located in 34 commercial buildings, (b) the accuracy of four multi-location CO{sub 2} measurement systems that utilize tubing, valves, and pumps to measure at multiple locations with single CO{sub 2} sensors, and (c) the spatial variability of CO{sub 2} concentrations within meeting rooms. The field studies of the accuracy of single-location CO{sub 2} sensors included multi-concentration calibration checks of 90 sensors in which sensor accuracy was checked at multiple CO{sub 2} concentrations using primary standard calibration gases. From these evaluations, average errors were small, -26 ppm and -9 ppm at 760 and 1010 ppm, respectively; however, the averages of the absolute values of error were 118 ppm (16%) and 138 ppm (14%), at concentrations of 760 and 1010 ppm, respectively. The calibration data are generally well fit by a straight line as indicated by high values of R{sup 2}. The Title 24 standard specifies that sensor error must be certified as no greater than 75 ppm for a period of five years after sensor installation. At 1010 ppm, 40% of sensors had errors greater than {+-}75 ppm and 31% of sensors has errors greater than {+-}100 ppm. At 760 ppm, 47% of sensors had errors greater than {+-}75 ppm and 37% of sensors had errors greater than {+-}100 ppm. A significant fraction of sensors had errors substantially larger than 100 ppm. For example, at 1010 ppm, 19% of sensors had an error greater than 200 ppm and 13% of sensors had errors greater than 300 ppm. The field studies also included single-concentration calibration checks of 118 sensors at the concentrations encountered in the buildings, which were normally less than 500 ppm during the testing. For analyses, these data were combined with data from the calibration challenges at 510 ppm obtained during the multi-concentration calibration checks. For the resulting data set, the average error was 60 ppm and the average of the absolute value of error was 154 ppm. Statistical analyses indicated that there were statistically significant differences between the average accuracies of sensors from different manufacturers. Sensors with a 'single lamp single wavelength' design tended to have a statistically significantly smaller average error than sensors with other designs except for 'single lamp dual wavelength' sensors, which did not have a statistically significantly lower accuracy. Sensor age was not consistently a statistically significant predictor of error.

Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Faulkner, David; Eliseeva, Ekaterina

2010-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

449

Parametric Study of Turbine Blade Internal Cooling and Film Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is used to remove heat from the hot turbine blade. This air flows through passages in the hollow blade (internal cooling), and is also ejected onto the surface of the blade to form an insulating film (film cooling). Modern land-based gas turbine engines...

Rallabandi, Akhilesh P.

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

450

COOL03 Workshop September 27, 2003 Muon Cooling Channels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Japan 19 to 23 May 2003 My WWW home directory: http://keil.home.cern.ch/keil/ MuMu/Doc/COOL03/talk03.pdf and II and have ­ no dispersion ­ transverse cooling ­ no wedge-shaped absorbers ­ longitudinal heating and heating by multiple scattering and straggling rate of change per unit length of RMS relative momentum

Keil, Eberhard

451

Film cooling for a closed loop cooled airfoil  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Turbine stator vane segments have radially inner and outer walls with vanes extending therebetween. The inner and outer walls are compartmentalized and have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall plenum passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall upper surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. At least one film cooling hole is defined through a wall of at least one of the cavities for flow communication between an interior of the cavity and an exterior of the vane. The film cooling hole(s) are defined adjacent a potential low LCF life region, so that cooling medium that bleeds out through the film cooling hole(s) reduces a thermal gradient in a vicinity thereof, thereby the increase the LCF life of that region.

Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY); Yu, Yufeng Phillip (Simpsonville, SC); Itzel, Gary Michael (Simpsonville, SC)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Spectropolarimetry of cool stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In recent years, the development of spectropolarimetric techniques deeply modified our knowledge of stellar magnetism. In the case of solar-type stars, the challenge is to measure a geometrically complex field and determine its evolution over very different time frames. In this article, I summarize some important observational results obtained in this field over the last two decades and detail what they tell us about the dynamo processes that orchestrate the activity of cool stars. I also discuss what we learn from such observations about the ability of magnetic fields to affect the formation and evolution of Sun-like stars. Finally, I evoke promising directions to be explored in the coming years, thanks to the advent of a new generation of instruments specifically designed to progress in this domain.

P. Petit

2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

453

Thermoelectrically cooled water trap  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water trap system based on a thermoelectric cooling device is employed to remove a major fraction of the water from air samples, prior to analysis of these samples for chemical composition, by a variety of analytical techniques where water vapor interferes with the measurement process. These analytical techniques include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography. The thermoelectric system for trapping water present in air samples can substantially improve detection sensitivity in these analytical techniques when it is necessary to measure trace analytes with concentrations in the ppm (parts per million) or ppb (parts per billion) partial pressure range. The thermoelectric trap design is compact and amenable to use in a portable gas monitoring instrumentation.

Micheels, Ronald H. (Concord, MA)

2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

454

Summary of Workshop: Barriers to Energy Efficient Residential Ventilation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives for this workshop were to bring together those with different viewpoints on the implementation of energy efficient ventilation in homes to share their perspectives. The primary benefit of the workshop is to allow the participants to get a broader understanding of the issues involved and thereby make themselves more able to achieve their own goals in this area. In order to achieve this objective each participant was asked to address four objectives from their point of view: (1) Drivers for energy efficient residential ventilation: Why is this an important issue? Who cares about it? Where is the demand: occupants, utilities, regulation, programs, etc? What does sustainability mean in this context? (2) Markets & Technologies: What products, services and systems are out there? What kinds of things are in the pipeline? What is being installed now? Are there regional or other trends? What are the technology interactions with other equipment and the envelope? (3) Barriers to Implementation: What is stopping decision makers from implementing energy-efficient residential ventilation systems? What kind of barriers are there: technological, cost, informational, structural, etc. What is the critical path? (4) Solutions: What can be done to overcome the barriers and how can/should we do it? What is the role of public vs. private institutions? Where can investments be made to save energy while improving the indoor environment? Ten participants prepared presentations for the workshop. Those presentations are included in sections at the end of this workshop report. These presentations provided the principal context for the discussions that happened during the workshop. Critical path issues were raised and potential solutions discussed during the workshop. As a secondary objective they have listed key issues and some potential consensus items which resulted from the discussions.

Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max

2008-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

455

Are the tunnel ventilation systems adapted for the different risk situations?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into an evaporating pool such as Acrolein. This work will consider the natural behaviour of the gases

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

456

Study of parameters affecting the performance of solar desiccant cooling systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of a solar desiccant cooling system depends on the performance of its components, particularly the desiccant dehumidifier and solar collectors. The desiccant dehumidifier performance is affected by the properties of the desiccant, particularly the shape of the isotherm and the regeneration temperature. The performance of a solar collector, as one would expect, depends on its operating temperature, which is very close to the desiccant regeneration temperature. The purpose of this study was to identify the desiccant isotherm shape (characterized by separation factor) that would result in the optimum performance - based on thermal coefficient of performance and cooling capacity - of a desiccant cooling cycle operating in ventilation mode. Different regeneration temperatures ranging from 65[degree]C to 160[degree]C were investigated to identify the corresponding optimum isotherm shape at each. Thermal COP dictates the required area of the solar collectors, and the cooling capacity is an indication of the size and cost of the cooling equipment. Staged and no-staged regeneration methods were studied.

Pesaran, A.A.; Hoo, E.A.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Study of parameters affecting the performance of solar desiccant cooling systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of a solar desiccant cooling system depends on the performance of its components, particularly the desiccant dehumidifier and solar collectors. The desiccant dehumidifier performance is affected by the properties of the desiccant, particularly the shape of the isotherm and the regeneration temperature. The performance of a solar collector, as one would expect, depends on its operating temperature, which is very close to the desiccant regeneration temperature. The purpose of this study was to identify the desiccant isotherm shape (characterized by separation factor) that would result in the optimum performance - based on thermal coefficient of performance and cooling capacity - of a desiccant cooling cycle operating in ventilation mode. Different regeneration temperatures ranging from 65{degree}C to 160{degree}C were investigated to identify the corresponding optimum isotherm shape at each. Thermal COP dictates the required area of the solar collectors, and the cooling capacity is an indication of the size and cost of the cooling equipment. Staged and no-staged regeneration methods were studied.

Pesaran, A.A.; Hoo, E.A.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

Forsberg, C.W.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Energy penalty analysis of possible cooling water intake structurerequirements on existing coal-fired power plants.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act requires that cooling water intake structures must reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. Many existing power plants in the United States utilize once-through cooling systems to condense steam. Once-through systems withdraw large volumes (often hundreds of millions of gallons per day) of water from surface water bodies. As the water is withdrawn, fish and other aquatic organisms can be trapped against the screens or other parts of the intake structure (impingement) or if small enough, can pass through the intake structure and be transported through the cooling system to the condenser (entrainment). Both of these processes can injure or kill the organisms. EPA adopted 316(b) regulations for new facilities (Phase I) on December 18, 2001. Under the final rule, most new facilities could be expected to install recirculating cooling systems, primarily wet cooling towers. The EPA Administrator signed proposed 316(b) regulations for existing facilities (Phase II) on February 28, 2002. The lead option in this proposal would allow most existing facilities to achieve compliance without requiring them to convert once-through cooling systems to recirculating systems. However, one of the alternate options being proposed would require recirculating cooling in selected plants. EPA is considering various options to determine best technology available. Among the options under consideration are wet-cooling towers and dry-cooling towers. Both types of towers are considered to be part of recirculating cooling systems, in which the cooling water is continuously recycled from the condenser, where it absorbs heat by cooling and condensing steam, to the tower, where it rejects heat to the atmosphere before returning to the condenser. Some water is lost to evaporation (wet tower only) and other water is removed from the recirculating system as a blow down stream to control the building up of suspended and dissolved solids. Makeup water is withdrawn, usually from surface water bodies, to replace the lost water. The volume of makeup water is many times smaller than the volume needed to operate a once-through system. Although neither the final new facility rule nor the proposed existing facility rule require dry cooling towers as the national best technology available, the environmental community and several States have supported the use of dry-cooling technology as the appropriate technology for addressing adverse environmental impacts. It is possible that the requirements included in the new facility rule and the ongoing push for dry cooling systems by some stakeholders may have a role in shaping the rule for existing facilities. The temperature of the cooling water entering the condenser affects the performance of the turbine--the cooler the temperature, the better the performance. This is because the cooling water temperature affects the level of vacuum at the discharge of the steam turbine. As cooling water temperatures decrease, a higher vacuum can be produced and additional energy can be extracted. On an annual average, once-through cooling water has a lower temperature than recirculated water from a cooling tower. By switching a once-through cooling system to a cooling tower, less energy can be generated by the power plant from the same amount of fuel. This reduction in energy output is known as the energy penalty. If a switch away from once-through cooling is broadly implemented through a final 316(b) rule or other regulatory initiatives, the energy penalty could result in adverse effects on energy supplies. Therefore, in accordance with the recommendations of the Report of the National Energy Policy Development Group (better known as the May 2001 National Energy Policy), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its Office of Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), has studied the energy penalty resulting from converting plants with once-through cooling to wet towers or indirect-dry towers. Five l

Veil, J. A.; Littleton, D. J.; Gross, R. W.; Smith, D. N.; Parsons, E.L., Jr.; Shelton, W. W.; Feeley, T. J.; McGurl, G. V.

2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

242-A Evaporator Waste Analysis Plan. Revision 5  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) provides the plan for obtaining information needed for proper waste handling and processing in the 242-A Evaporator (Evaporator) located on the Hanford Site. In particular it addresses analysis necessary to manage the waste according to Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303 and Parts 264 and 265 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Regulatory and safety issues are addressed by establishing boundary conditions for waste received and treated at the 242-A Evaporator. The boundary conditions are set by establishing limits for items such as potential exothermic reactions, waste compatibility, and control of vessel vent organic emissions. Boundary conditions are also set for operational considerations and to ensure waste acceptance at receiving facilities. The issues that are addressed in this plan include prevention of exotherms in the waste, waste compatibility, and vessel vent emissions. Samples from the other streams associated with the Evaporator are taken as required by Process Control Plans but are excluded from this plan because either the streams do not contain dangerous waste or the analyses are not required by WAC 173-303-300.

Basra, T.S.

1995-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

462

Nanotube Boiler 1 Abstract--Controlled copper evaporation at attogram  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanotube Boiler 1 Abstract-- Controlled copper evaporation at attogram level from individual carbon nanotube (CNT) vessels, which we call nanotube boilers, is investigated experimentally, and ionization in these CNT boilers, which can serve as sources for mass transport and deposition in nanofluidic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

463

11Chandra 'Sees' a Distant Planet Evaporating NASA's Chandra Observatory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy. A simple model of this planet's interior suggests that its atmosphere might account for as much11Chandra 'Sees' a Distant Planet Evaporating NASA's Chandra Observatory has discovered that the star CoRot-2a is a powerful X-ray source. This is unfortunate because it is also known that a planet

464

Hanford high-level waste evaporator/crystallizer corrosion evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy, Hanford Site nuclear reservation, located in Southeastern Washington State, is currently home to 61 Mgal of radioactive waste stored in 177 large underground storage tanks. As an intermediate waste volume reduction, the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer processes waste solutions from most of the operating laboratories and plants on the Hanford Site. The waste solutions are concentrated in the Evaporator/Crystallizer to a slurry of liquid and crystallized salts. This concentrated slurry is returned to Hanford Site waste tanks at a significantly reduced volume. The Washington State Department of Ecology Dangerous Waste Regulations, WAC 173-393 require that a tank system integrity assessment be completed and maintained on file at the facility for all dangerous waste tank systems. This corrosion evaluation was performed in support of the 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Tank System Integrity Assessment Report. This corrosion evaluation provided a comprehensive compatibility study of the component materials and corrosive environments. Materials used for the Evaporator components and piping include austenitic stainless steels (SS) (primarily ASTM A240, Type 304L) and low alloy carbon steels (CS) (primarily ASTM A53 and A106) with polymeric or asbestos gaskets at flanged connections. Building structure and secondary containment is made from ACI 301-72 Structural Concrete for Buildings and coated with a chemically resistant acrylic coating system.

Ohl, P.C.; Carlos, W.C.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Calculation of Reactive-evaporation Rates of Chromia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A methodology is developed to calculate Cr-evaporation rates from Cr2O3 with a flat planar geometry. Variables include temperature, total pressure, gas velocity, and gas composition. The methodology was applied to solid-oxide, fuel cell conditions for metallic interconnects and to advanced-steam turbines conditions. The high velocities and pressures of the advanced steam turbine led to evaporation predictions as high as 5.18 9 10-8 kg/m2/s of CrO2(OH)2(g) at 760 °C and 34.5 MPa. This is equivalent to 0.080 mm per year of solid Cr loss. Chromium evaporation is expected to be an important oxidation mechanism with the types of nickel-base alloys proposed for use above 650 °C in advanced-steam boilers and turbines. It is shown that laboratory experiments, with much lower steam velocities and usually much lower total pressure than found in advanced steam turbines, would best reproduce chromium-evaporation behavior with atmospheres that approach either O2 + H2O or air + H2O with 57% H2O.

Holcomb, G.R.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Enhanced Raman sideband cooling of caesium atoms in a vapour-loaded magneto-optical trap  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report enhanced three-dimensional degenerated Raman sideband cooling (3D DRSC) of caesium (Cs) atoms in a standard single-cell vapour-loading magneto-optical trap. Our improved scheme involves using a separate repumping laser and optimized lattice detuning. We load $1.5 \\times 10^7$ atoms into the Raman lattice with a detuning of -15.5 GHz (to the ground F = 3 state). Enhanced 3D DRSC is used to cool them from 60 $\\mu$K to 1.7 $\\mu$K within 12 ms and the number of obtained atoms is about $1.2 \\times 10^7$. A theoretical model is proposed to simulate the measured number of trapped atoms. The result shows good agreement with the experimental data. The technique paves the way for loading a large number of ultracold Cs atoms into a crossed dipole trap and efficient evaporative cooling in a single-cell system.

Li, Y; Feng, G; Nute, J; Piano, S; Hackermuller, L; Ma, J; Xiao, L; Jia, S

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Laser cooling to quantum degeneracy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in a gas of strontium atoms, using laser cooling as the only cooling mechanism. The condensate is formed within a sample that is continuously Doppler cooled to below 1\\muK on a narrow-linewidth transition. The critical phase-space density for BEC is reached in a central region of the sample, in which atoms are rendered transparent for laser cooling photons. The density in this region is enhanced by an additional dipole trap potential. Thermal equilibrium between the gas in this central region and the surrounding laser cooled part of the cloud is established by elastic collisions. Condensates of up to 10^5 atoms can be repeatedly formed on a timescale of 100ms, with prospects for the generation of a continuous atom laser.

Stellmer, Simon; Grimm, Rudolf; Schreck, Florian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Film cooling air pocket in a closed loop cooled airfoil  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Turbine stator vane segments have radially inner and outer walls with vanes extending between them. The inner and outer walls are compartmentalized and have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall plenum passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall upper surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. To provide for air film cooing of select portions of the airfoil outer surface, at least one air pocket is defined on a wall of at least one of the cavities. Each air pocket is substantially closed with respect to the cooling medium in the cavity and cooling air pumped to the air pocket flows through outlet apertures in the wall of the airfoil to cool the same.

Yu, Yufeng Phillip (Simpsonville, SC); Itzel, Gary Michael (Simpsonville, SC); Osgood, Sarah Jane (East Thetford, VT); Bagepalli, Radhakrishna (Schenectady, NY); Webbon, Waylon Willard (Greenville, SC); Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Economic Analysis and Optimization of Exterior Insulation Requirements for Ventilated Buildings at Power Generation Facilities with High Internal Heat Gain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Industrial buildings require a large amount of heating and ventilation equipment to maintain the indoor environment within acceptable levels for personnel protection and equipment protection. The required heating and ventilation equipment...

Hughes, Douglas E.

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

470

Infiltration Effects on Residential Pollutant Concentrations for Continuous and Intermittent Mechanical Ventilation Approaches  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The prevailing residential ventilation standard in North America, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specifies volumetric airflow requirements as a function of the overall size of the home and the number of bedrooms, assumes a fixed, minimal amount of infiltration, and requires mechanical ventilation to achieve the remainder. The standard allows for infiltration credits and intermittent ventilation patterns that can be shown to provide comparable performance. Whole-house ventilation methods have a substantial effect on time-varying indoor pollutant concentrations. If alternatives specified by Standard 62.2, such as intermittent ventilation, are used, short-term pollutant concentrations could exceed acute health standards even if chronic health standards are met.The authors present a methodology for comparing ASHRAE- and non-ASHRAE-specified ventilation scenarios on relative indoor pollutant concentrations. We use numerical modeling to compare the maximum time-averaged concentrations for acute exposure relevant (1-hour, 8-hour, 24-hour ) and chronic exposure relevant (1-year) time periods for four different ventilation scenarios in six climates with a range of normalized leakage values. The results suggest that long-term concentrations are the most important metric for assessing the effectiveness of whole-house ventilation systems in meeting exposure standards and that, if chronic health exposure standards are met, acute standards will also be met.

Sherman, Max; Logue, Jennifer; Singer, Brett

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

10/15/03 LBNL-53800 Residential Ventilation Standards Scoping Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

10/15/03 LBNL-53800 Residential Ventilation Standards Scoping Study T-01 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Report Number: LBNL-53800 OVERVIEW This document presents contract no. DE-AC03-76SF00098. #12;VENTILATIONS STANDARDS SCOPING STUDY PAGE LBNL-53800 2 TABLE

472

SURVEY OF THE EXISTING APPROACHES TO ASSESS AND DESIGN NATURAL VENTILATION AND NEED FOR FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SURVEY OF THE EXISTING APPROACHES TO ASSESS AND DESIGN NATURAL VENTILATION AND NEED FOR FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS Marcello Caciolo, Dominique Marchio, Pascal Stabat Ecole des Mines de Paris- Center for Energy their attention to natural ventilation, due to the potential benefits in terms of energy consumption related

Boyer, Edmond

473

Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems Michael Wetter available Modelica library for building heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. The library is based on the Modelica.Fluid library. It has been developed to support research and development

474

A case study of boundary layer ventilation by convection and coastal processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the pollution in the atmosphere originates from emissions in the atmospheric boundary layer, the region; published 12 September 2007. [1] It is often assumed that ventilation of the atmospheric boundary layer responsible for ventilation of the atmospheric boundary layer during a nonfrontal day that occurred on 9 May

Dacre, Helen

475

Usability Heuristics and Qualitative Indicators for the Usability Evaluation of Touch Screen Ventilator Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

system provides respiratory support to critically ill patients in the Intensive Care Unit. Increasing, multi-parameter monitoring system, defibrillator, ECG analyzer, etc. Mechanical age medical equipments evaluation. A ventilator system gives respiratory support to critically ill patients [5]. Ventilators can

Boyer, Edmond

476

A web based CBR system for heating ventilation and air conditioning systems sales support  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A web based CBR system for heating ventilation and air conditioning systems sales support D describes the implementation of a case-based reasoning (CBR) system to support heating ventilation and air conditioning systems (HVAC) sales staff operating in remote locations. The system operates on the world wide

Watson, Ian

477

Created: July, 2014 Laboratory Safety Design Guide Section 3 Laboratory Ventilation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Created: July, 2014 Laboratory Safety Design Guide Section 3 ­ Laboratory Ventilation 3-1 Section 3 ...................................................................................3-5 #12;Created: July, 2014 Laboratory Safety Design Guide Section 3 ­ Laboratory Ventilation 3-2 A without compromising safety or system integrity. The following should be included unless alternate design

Queitsch, Christine

478

Predictive pre-cooling control for low lift radiant cooling using building thermal mass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low lift cooling systems (LLCS) hold the potential for significant energy savings relative to conventional cooling systems. An LLCS is a cooling system which leverages existing HVAC technologies to provide low energy cooling ...

Gayeski, Nicholas (Nicholas Thomas)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

SRS reactor control rod cooling without normal forced convection cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes an analytical study of the coolability of the control rods in the Savannah River site (SRS) K production reactor under conditions of loss of normal forced convection cooling. The study was performed as part of the overall safety analysis of the reactor supporting its restart. The analysis addresses the buoyancy-driven boiling flow over the control rods that occurs when forced cooling is lost. The objective of the study was to demonstrate that the control rods will remain cooled (i.e., no melting) at powers representative of those anticipated for restart of the reactor.

Smith, D.C. (SAIC, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Easterling, T.C. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Building America Case Study: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document addresses adding -or improving - mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including some discussion of relevant codes and standards. Advantages, disadvantages, and approximate costs of various system types are presented along with general guidelines for implementing the systems in homes. CARB intends for this document to be useful to decision makers and contractors implementing ventilation systems in homes. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors. It is the intent of this document to assist contractors in making more informed decisions when selecting systems. Ventilation is an integral part of a high-performance home. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability.

Not Available

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Impact of Residential Mechanical Ventilation on Energy Cost and Humidity Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The DOE Building America program has been conducting research leading to cost effective high performance homes since the early 1990's. Optimizing whole house mechanical ventilation as part of the program's systems engineered approach to constructing housing has been an important subject of the program's research. Ventilation in residential buildings is one component of an effective, comprehensive strategy for creation and maintenance of a comfortable and healthy indoor air environment. The study described in this white paper is based on building energy modeling with an important focus on the indoor humidity impacts of ventilation. The modeling tools used were EnergyPlus version 7.1 (E+) and EnergyGauge USA (EGUSA). Twelve U.S. cities and five climate zones were represented. A total of 864 simulations (2*2*3*3*12= 864) were run using two building archetypes, two building leakage rates, two building orientations, three ventilation systems, three ventilation rates, and twelve climates.

Martin, E.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

R.J. : Effect of ventilation rate in a healthy building.IAQ '91: Healthy Buildings, American Society of Heating,

Thatcher, Tracy L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Acoustic cooling engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An acoustic cooling engine with improved thermal performance and reduced internal losses comprises a compressible fluid contained in a resonant pressure vessel. The fluid has a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and is capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave. A thermodynamic element has first and second ends and is located in the resonant pressure vessel in thermal communication with the fluid. The thermal response of the thermodynamic element to the acoustic standing wave pumps heat from the second end to the first end. The thermodynamic element permits substantial flow of the fluid through the thermodynamic element. An acoustic driver cyclically drives the fluid with an acoustic standing wave. The driver is at a location of maximum acoustic impedance in the resonant pressure vessel and proximate the first end of the thermodynamic element. A hot heat exchanger is adjacent to and in thermal communication with the first end of the thermodynamic element. The hot heat exchanger conducts heat from the first end to portions of the resonant pressure vessel proximate the hot heat exchanger. The hot heat exchanger permits substantial flow of the fluid through the hot heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one quarter wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir. The frequency of the acoustic driver can be continuously controlled so as to maintain resonance.

Hofler, Thomas J. (Los Alamos, NM); Wheatley, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Migliori, Albert (Santa Fe, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a Dual Heat Exchanger Rack Cooling Device  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

eliminating the need for compressor cooling. The plant modelunique design (using compressor cooling only when needed by

Greenberg, Steve

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Non-intrusive cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A readily replaceable heat exchange cooling jacket for applying fluid to a system conduit pipe. The cooling jacket comprises at least two members, separable into upper and lower portions. A chamber is formed between the conduit pipe and cooling jacket once the members are positioned about the pipe. The upper portion includes a fluid spray means positioned above the pipe and the bottom portion includes a fluid removal means. The heat exchange cooling jacket is adaptable with a drain tank, a heat exchanger, a pump and other standard equipment to provide a system for removing heat from a pipe. A method to remove heat from a pipe, includes the steps of enclosing a portion of the pipe with a jacket to form a chamber between an outside surface of the pipe and the cooling jacket; spraying cooling fluid at low pressure from an upper portion of the cooling jacket, allowing the fluid to flow downwardly by gravity along the surface of the pipe toward a bottom portion of the chamber; and removing the fluid at the bottom portion of the chamber.

Morrison, Edward F. (Burnt Hills, NY); Bergman, John W. (Barrington, NH)

2001-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

486

Stochastic cooling in muon colliders  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analysis of muon production techniques for high energy colliders indicates the need for rapid and effective beam cooling in order that one achieve luminosities > 10{sup 30} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} as required for high energy physics experiments. This paper considers stochastic cooling to increase the phase space density of the muons in the collider. Even at muon energies greater than 100 GeV, the number of muons per bunch must be limited to {approximately}10{sup 3} for the cooling rate to be less than the muon lifetime. With such a small number of muons per bunch, the final beam emittance implied by the luminosity requirement is well below the thermodynamic limit for beam electronics at practical temperatures. Rapid bunch stacking after the cooling process can raise the number of muons per bunch to a level consistent with both the luminosity goals and with practical temperatures for the stochastic cooling electronics. A major advantage of our stochastic cooling/stacking scheme over scenarios that employ only ionization cooling is that the power on the production target can be reduced below 1 MW.

Barletta, W.A.; Sessler, A.M.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Cooling load design tool for UFAD systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fraction (SPF) of cooling Supply Plenum SPF heat transfer bythrough the supply ple- Figure 2: Design day cooling loadsupply represent the????????????????????????????????????????????? air temperature, diffuser type and number, room setpoint instantaneous cooling

Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Cooling arrangement for a tapered turbine blade  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cooling arrangement (11) for a highly tapered gas turbine blade (10). The cooling arrangement (11) includes a pair of parallel triple-pass serpentine cooling circuits (80,82) formed in an inner radial portion (50) of the blade, and a respective pair of single radial channel cooling circuits (84,86) formed in an outer radial portion (52) of the blade (10), with each single radial channel receiving the cooling fluid discharged from a respective one of the triple-pass serpentine cooling circuit. The cooling arrangement advantageously provides a higher degree of cooling to the most highly stressed radially inner portion of the blade, while providing a lower degree of cooling to the less highly stressed radially outer portion of the blade. The cooling arrangement can be implemented with known casting techniques, thereby facilitating its use on highly tapered, highly twisted Row 4 industrial gas turbine blades that could not be cooled with prior art cooling arrangements.

Liang, George (Palm City, FL)

2010-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

489

Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence of the evaporator dump  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this calculation note is to provide the basis for evaporator dump consequence for the Tank Farm Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Evaporator Dump scenario is developed and details and description of the analysis methods are provided.

Crowe, R.D., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

490

Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence of the evaporator dump  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this calculation note is to provide the basis for evaporator dump consequence for the Tank Farm Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Evaporator Dump scenario is developed and details and description of the analysis methods are provided.

Crowe, R.D.

1996-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

491

The Savannah River Site Replacement High Level Radioactive Waste Evaporator Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Replacement High Level Waste Evaporator Project was conceived in 1985 to reduce the volume of the high level radioactive waste Process of the high level waste has been accomplished up to this time using Bent Tube type evaporators and therefore, that type evaporator was selected for this project. The Title I Design of the project was 70% completed in late 1990. The Department of Energy at that time hired an independent consulting firm to perform a complete review of the project. The DOE placed a STOP ORDER on purchasing the evaporator in January 1991. Essentially, no construction was to be done on this project until all findings and concerns dealing with the type and design of the evaporator are resolved. This report addresses two aspects of the DOE design review; (1) Comparing the Bent Tube Evaporator with the Forced Circulation Evaporator, (2) The design portion of the DOE Project Review - concentrated on the mechanical design properties of the evaporator. 1 ref.

Presgrove, S.B. (Bechtel Savannah River, Inc., North Augusta, SC (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

The Savannah River Site Replacement High Level Radioactive Waste Evaporator Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Replacement High Level Waste Evaporator Project was conceived in 1985 to reduce the volume of the high level radioactive waste Process of the high level waste has been accomplished up to this time using Bent Tube type evaporators and therefore, that type evaporator was selected for this project. The Title I Design of the project was 70% completed in late 1990. The Department of Energy at that time hired an independent consulting firm to perform a complete review of the project. The DOE placed a STOP ORDER on purchasing the evaporator in January 1991. Essentially, no construction was to be done on this project until all findings and concerns dealing with the type and design of the evaporator are resolved. This report addresses two aspects of the DOE design review; (1) Comparing the Bent Tube Evaporator with the Forced Circulation Evaporator, (2) The design portion of the DOE Project Review - concentrated on the mechanical design properties of the evaporator. 1 ref.

Presgrove, S.B. [Bechtel Savannah River, Inc., North Augusta, SC (United States)

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Cool Cities, Cool Planet (LBNL Science at the Theater)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Science at the Theater: Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how cool roofs can cool your building, your city ... and our planet. Arthur Rosenfeld, Professor of Physics Emeritus at UC Berkeley, founded the Berkeley Lab Center for Building Science in 1974. He served on the California Energy Commission from 2000 to 2010 and is commonly referred to as California's godfather of energy efficiency. Melvin Pomerantz is a member of the Heat Island Group at Berkeley Lab. Trained as a physicist at UC Berkeley, he specializes in research on making cooler pavements and evaluating their effects. Ronnen Levinson is a staff scientist at Berkeley Lab and the acting leader of its Heat Island Group. He has developed cool roofing and paving materials and helped bring cool roof requirements into building energy efficiency standards.

Rosenfeld, Arthur; Pomerantz, Melvin; Levinson, Ronnen

2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

494

New Approaches to Final Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A high-energy muon collider scenario requires a "final cooling" system that reduces transverse emittance by a factor of ~10 while allowing longitudinal emittance increase. The baseline approach has low-energy transverse cooling within high-field solenoids, with strong longitudinal heating. This approach and its recent simulation are discussed. Alternative approaches which more explicitly include emittance exchange are also presented. Round-to-flat beam transform, transverse slicing, and longitudinal bunch coalescence are possible components of the alternative approach. A more explicit understanding of solenoidal cooling beam dynamics is introduced.

Neuffer, David

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

The Cooling of Compact Stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The cooling of a compact star depends very sensitively on the state of dense matter at supranuclear densities, which essentially controls the neutrino emission, as well as on the structure of the stellar outer layers which control the photon emission. Open issues concern the hyperon population, the presence of meson condensates, superfluidity and superconductivity, and the transition of confined hadronic matter to quark matter. This paper describes these issues and presents cooling calculations based on a broad collection of equations of state for neutron star matter and strange matter. These results are tested against the body of observed cooling data.

Dany Page; Ulrich Geppert; Fridolin Weber

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

NightCool: An Innovative Residential Nocturnal Radiation Cooling Concept  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) will store sensible cooling to reduce daytime space conditioning needs. The concept may also be able to help with daytime heating needs in cold climates as well by using a darker roof as a solar collector. SIMULATION MODEL Within the assessment, we...NIGHTCOOL: AN INNOVATIVE RESIDENTIAL NOCTURNAL RADIATION COOLING CONCEPT Danny S. Parker John Sherwin Principal Research Scientist Research Engineer Florida Solar Energy Center Cocoa, FL ABSTRACT Using a...

Parker, D. S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Detailed modeling of the evaporation and thermal decomposition of urea-water-solution in SCR systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the UWS evaporation is taken into account using a NRTL activity model. The thermal decomposition model

Boyer, Edmond

498

Inkjet fabrication of polymer microarrays and grids-solving the evaporation problem   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

allowing the rapid generation of a broad range of co-polymers, while solving the problem of selective monomer evaporation....

Bradley M.; Zhang R.; Liberski A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.

Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

500

Best Management Practice #10: Cooling Tower Management  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Cooling towers regulate temperature by dissipating heat from recirculating water used to cool chillers, air-conditioning equipment, or other process equipment. Heat is rejected from the tower...