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1

Ventilative cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis evaluates the performance of daytime and nighttime passive ventilation cooling strategies for Beijing, Shanghai and Tokyo. A new simulation method for cross-ventilated wind driven airflow is presented . This ...

Graça, Guilherme Carrilho da, 1972-

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Energy Basics: Evaporative Cooling  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

absorbent material. Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. How Evaporative Coolers Work There are two types of evaporative...

3

Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling (Redirected from Hybrid Cooling) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Evaporative Cooling: An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling Tower Diagram of Evaporative Cooling Tower Evaporative cooling technologies take advantage of both air and water to extract heat from a power plant. By utilizing both water and air one can

4

Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling: Evaporative Cooling: An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling Tower Diagram of Evaporative Cooling Tower Evaporative cooling technologies take advantage of both air and water to extract heat from a power plant. By utilizing both water and air one can reduce the amount of water required for a power plant as well as reduce the

5

Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:53pm Addthis Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. An illustration of an evaporative cooler. In this example of an evaporative cooler, a small motor (top) drives a large fan (center) which blows air out the bottom and into your home. The fan sucks air in through the louvers around the box, which are covered with water-saturated absorbent material. How Evaporative Coolers Work There are two types of evaporative coolers: direct and indirect. Direct evaporative coolers, also called swamp coolers, work by cooling outdoor air by passing it over water-saturated pads, causing the water to evaporate into it. The 15°-40°F-cooler air is then directed into the home

7

Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:53pm Addthis Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. An illustration of an evaporative cooler. In this example of an evaporative cooler, a small motor (top) drives a large fan (center) which blows air out the bottom and into your home. The fan sucks air in through the louvers around the box, which are covered with water-saturated absorbent material. How Evaporative Coolers Work There are two types of evaporative coolers: direct and indirect. Direct evaporative coolers, also called swamp coolers, work by cooling outdoor air by passing it over water-saturated pads, causing the water to evaporate into it. The 15°-40°F-cooler air is then directed into the home

8

Indirect evaporative cooling in retail  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

JCPenney Co., Inc., recently opened a 126,000-sq ft, two-level retail store in Albuquerque, NM. The project construction was accomplished using a design-build format. This process allows preliminary construction processes to begin while the design is finalized. Law/Kingdom, Inc. was assigned the architectural and engineering services for this building. During the process of design, the team decided to study the addition of evaporative cooling into the air system. This article reviews system design, selection, and performance using an indirect evaporative system in the HVAC system. It also demonstrates the company`s design approach on the original equipment selection for a typical anchor store.

Bartlett, T.A. [JCPenney Co., Plano, TX (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Ventilation Systems for Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling May 30, 2012 - 6:19pm Addthis Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Ventilation is the least expensive and most energy-efficient way to cool buildings. Ventilation works best when combined with methods to avoid heat buildup in your home. In some cases, natural ventilation will suffice for cooling, although it usually needs to be supplemented with spot ventilation, ceiling fans, and window fans. For large homes, homeowners might want to investigate whole house fans. Interior ventilation is ineffective in hot, humid climates where

10

Ventilation Systems for Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling May 30, 2012 - 6:19pm Addthis Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Proper ventilation helps you save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of JD Hancock. Ventilation is the least expensive and most energy-efficient way to cool buildings. Ventilation works best when combined with methods to avoid heat buildup in your home. In some cases, natural ventilation will suffice for cooling, although it usually needs to be supplemented with spot ventilation, ceiling fans, and window fans. For large homes, homeowners might want to investigate whole house fans. Interior ventilation is ineffective in hot, humid climates where

11

Definition: Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate.[1] References ↑ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evaporative_cooler Ret LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. rieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Evaporative_Cooling&oldid=601323" Category: Definitions What links here Related changes

12

Evaporative Enhancement for Air Cooled Condensers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes research into condenser air evaporative pre-cooling technologies and the associated potential for energy and peak power savings. The interest in this project is evaluation of the specific application of evaporative cooling to the inlet air of condenser coils, particularly for large roof-top type air cooled chillers. While the technology is established and understood particularly well for hot, dry climates, this report is intended to also examine evaporative ...

2013-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

13

Dew-Point Evaporative Comfort Cooling (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Presentation on innovative indirect evaporative cooling technology developed by Coolerado Corporation given at the Rocky Mountain Chapter ASHRAE conference in April 2012.

Dean, J.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream. 3 figures.

Carr, P.

1991-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

15

Evaporative Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

cooler. In this example of an evaporative cooler, a small motor (top) drives a large fan (center) which blows air out the bottom and into your home. The fan sucks air in...

16

Conductive Thermal Interaction in Evaporative Cooling Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has long been recognized that evaporative cooling is an effective and logical substitute for mechanical cooling in hot-arid climates. This paper explores the application of evaporative coolers to the hot-humid climates using a controlled temperature of the incoming water. With exploitation of the effect of the thermal conduction between cool underground water and entering air, the performance of an evaporative cooler can be enhanced and its use in hot and moderately humid climates should also be considered. Usually the dry-bulb depression performed by an evaporative cooler depends solely on the ambient wet-bulb temperature. The cool underground water in an evaporative cooler can cause not only adiabatic evaporation but also sensible heat transfer between water and entering air for thermal comfort. This hybrid system outperforms the two-stage evaporative cooler without employing a complicated heat exchanger (indirect system), if the temperature of underground water is lower than the ambient wet-bulb temperature. Several areas in the southern hot-humid parts of the U.S. meet this condition.

Kim, B. S.; Degelman, L. O.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Evaporative Roof Cooling - A Simple Solution to Cut Cooling Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the "Energy Crisis" Evaporative Roof Cooling Systems have gained increased acceptance as a cost effective method to reduce the high cost of air conditioning. Documented case histories in retrofit installations show direct energy savings and paybacks from twelve to thirty months. The main operating cost of an Evaporative Roof Cooling System is water. One thousand gallons of water, completely evaporated, will produce over 700 tons of cooling capability. Water usage seldom averages over 100 gallons per 1000 ft^2 of roof area per day or 10 oz. of water per 100 ft^2 every six minutes. Roof Cooling Systems, when planned in new construction, return 1-1/2 times the investment the first year in equipment savings and operating costs. Roof sprays are a low cost cooling solution for warehouses, distribution centers and light manufacturing or assembly areas with light internal loads. See text "Flywheel Cooling."

Abernethy, D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

New and Underutilized Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems New and Underutilized Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems October 4, 2013 - 4:43pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for evaporated pre-cooling systems within the Federal sector. Benefits Evaporative pre-cooling systems install ahead of the condenser to lower the condenser pressure. These systems can also work with an economizer. Evaporative pre-cooling reduces the requirement for energy intensive DX cooling. Application Evaporative pre-cooling systems are applicable in most building categories. Climate and Regional Considerations Evaporative pre-cooling systems are well suited in dry climates. Key Factors for Deployment Water usage needs to be taken into account in evaporative pre-cooling

19

New and Underutilized Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems New and Underutilized Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems October 4, 2013 - 4:43pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for evaporated pre-cooling systems within the Federal sector. Benefits Evaporative pre-cooling systems install ahead of the condenser to lower the condenser pressure. These systems can also work with an economizer. Evaporative pre-cooling reduces the requirement for energy intensive DX cooling. Application Evaporative pre-cooling systems are applicable in most building categories. Climate and Regional Considerations Evaporative pre-cooling systems are well suited in dry climates. Key Factors for Deployment Water usage needs to be taken into account in evaporative pre-cooling

20

EVAPORATIVE COOLING - CONCEPTUAL DESIGN FOR ATLAS SCT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The conceptual design of an evaporative two-phase flow cooling system for the ATLAS SCT detector is described, using perfluorinated propane (C3F8) as a coolant. Comparison with perfluorinated butane (C4F10) is made, although the detailed design is presented only for C3F8. The two-phase pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient are calculated in order to determine the dimensions of the cooling pipes and module contacts for the Barrel SCT. The region in which the flow is homogeneous is determined. The cooling cycle, pipework, compressor, heat exchangers and other main elements of the system are calculated in order to be able to discuss the system control, safety and reliability. Evaporative cooling appears to be substantially better than the binary ice system from the point of view of safety, reliability, detector thickness, heat transfer coefficient, cost and simplicity.

Niinikoski, T O

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Modeling Coupled Evaporation and Seepage in Ventilated Cavities  

SciTech Connect

Cavities excavated in unsaturated geological formations are important to activities such as nuclear waste disposal and mining. Such cavities provide a unique setting for simultaneous occurrence of seepage and evaporation. Previously, inverse numerical modeling of field liquid-release tests and associated seepage into cavities were used to provide seepage-related large-scale formation properties by ignoring the impact of evaporation. The applicability of such models was limited to the narrow range of ventilation conditions under which the models were calibrated. The objective of this study was to alleviate this limitation by incorporating evaporation into the seepage models. We modeled evaporation as an isothermal vapor diffusion process. The semi-physical model accounts for the relative humidity, temperature, and ventilation conditions of the cavities. The evaporation boundary layer thickness (BLT) over which diffusion occurs was estimated by calibration against free-water evaporation data collected inside the experimental cavities. The estimated values of BLT were 5 to 7 mm for the open underground drifts and 20 mm for niches closed off by bulkheads. Compared to previous models that neglected the effect of evaporation, this new approach showed significant improvement in capturing seepage fluctuations into open cavities of low relative humidity. At high relative-humidity values (greater than 85%), the effect of evaporation on seepage was very small.

T. Ghezzehei; R. Trautz; S. Finsterle; P. Cook; C. Ahlers

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Establish feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Natural draft towers can be used for cooling and ventilating structures. From an operational perspective, the downdraft evaporatively cooled tower is preferred for a dry climate. Solar chimneys, when used alone, tend to require an excessively large solar collector area when appreciable quantities of air must be moved. When used in combination with a downdraft tower, the roof and attic of buildings may assist the solar chimney and their use becomes more attractive. Both a frame building and a greenhouse were successfully cooled during this program. The economics of the downdraft tower compare favorably with conventional evaporative cooling for some application.

Cunningham, W.A.; Mignon, G.V.; Thompson, T.L.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Establish feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporate downdraft chimneys  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Natural draft towers can be used for cooling and ventilating structures. From an operational perspective, the downdraft evaporatively cooled tower is preferred for a dry climate. Solar chimneys, when used alone, tend to require an excessively large solar collector area when appreciable quantities of air must be moved. When used in combination with a downdraft tower, the roof and attic of buildings may assist the solar chimney and their use becomes more attractive. Both a frame building and a greenhouse were successfully cooled during this program. The economics of the downdraft tower compare favorably with conventional evaporative cooling for some applications.

Cunningham, W.A.; Mignon, G.V.; Thompson, T.L.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Dehumidification and cooling loads from ventilation air  

SciTech Connect

The importance of controlling humidity in buildings is cause for concern, in part, because of indoor air quality problems associated with excess moisture in air-conditioning systems. But more universally, the need for ventilation air has forced HVAC equipment (originally optimized for high efficiency in removing sensible heat loads) to remove high moisture loads. To assist cooling equipment and meet the challenge of larger ventilation loads, several technologies have succeeded in commercial buildings. Newer technologies such as subcool/reheat and heat pipe reheat show promise. These increase latent capacity of cooling-based systems by reducing their sensible capacity. Also, desiccant wheels have traditionally provided deeper-drying capacity by using thermal energy in place of electrical power to remove the latent load. Regardless of what mix of technologies is best for a particular application, there is a need for a more effective way of thinking about the cooling loads created by ventilation air. It is clear from the literature that all-too-frequently, HVAC systems do not perform well unless the ventilation air loads have been effectively addressed at the original design stage. This article proposes an engineering shorthand, an annual load index for ventilation air. This index will aid in the complex process of improving the ability of HVAC systems to deal efficiently with the amount of fresh air the industry has deemed useful for maintaining comfort in buildings. Examination of typical behavior of weather shows that latent loads usually exceed sensible loads in ventilation air by at least 3:1 and often as much as 8:1. A designer can use the engineering shorthand indexes presented to quickly assess the importance of this fact for a given system design. To size those components after they are selected, the designer can refer to Chapter 24 of the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals, which includes separate values for peak moisture and peak temperature.

Harriman, L.G. III [Mason-Grant, Portsmouth, NH (United States); Plager, D. [Quantitative Decision Support, Portsmouth, NH (United States); Kosar, D. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

New and Underutilized Technology: Multi-stage Indirect Evaporative Cooling  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Multi-stage Indirect Evaporative Multi-stage Indirect Evaporative Cooling New and Underutilized Technology: Multi-stage Indirect Evaporative Cooling October 4, 2013 - 4:33pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for multi-stage evaporative cooling within the Federal sector. Benefits Multi-stage indirect evaporative cooling is an advanced evaporative cooler that can lower air temperatures without adding moisture. These systems evaporate water in a secondary (or working) airstream, which is discharged in multiple stages. No water or humidity is added to the primary (or product) airstream in the process. Application Multi-stage indirect evaporative cooling is applicable in office, research and development, service, and school applications. Climate and Regional Considerations

26

Rain on the Roof-Evaporative Spray Roof Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes evaporative spray roof cooling systems, their components, performance and applications in various climates and building types. The evolution of this indirect evaporative cooling technique is discussed. Psychrometric and sol-air principles are covered and a simplified method of evaluation presented. A life cycle energy savings example is discussed. Benefits of roof life and roof top equipment efficiency and maintenance are covered as well as water consumption and performance trade-offs with alternate methods of roof heat gain control. Testimonials and case studies are presented. The gradual migration of business, industry, and populace to the southern United States was largely brought on by the advent of the practical air-conditioner, cheap electricity, and the harshness of northern winters. But while "wintering at Palm Beach" has been replaced by "Sun Belt industries" ; the compression-refrigeration cooling cycle is about the only thing separating millions of southerners (native and adopted) from August heat stroke and the Detroit News employment ads. This migration has been spurred by economic recessions which hit harder at the competitively populated northern centers than at the still growing industries of the south. These trends are important illustrations of the concern for efficient cooling strategies. Not only are homes in hot climates vulnerable to the now not-so-low cost of electricity but large, compact. and heavily occupied buildings (offices, schools, hospitals, theaters, etc.) often must air-condition year-around. In 1968. air-conditioning was 3% of U.S. end energy consumption compared to 18% for space heating and 25% for transportation. By 1980, according to Electric Power Research Institute's Oliver Yu, air-conditioning use was 12.5% of all electricity generated and by the year 2000 is projected to reach 16.7% "as migration slows and the GNP reaches a stable 3% growth rate" (EPRI 1982 to 1986 Overview and Strategy). Of further significance is the effect of air-conditioning loads on the peak generating requirements of electrical utilities. Because utilities must build generating capacity to meet peak requirements, they normally charge a higher summer kWh rate (for residential) and levy a peak kW demand charge on a monthly or even annual "ratchet" rate (for larger service customers). The June '83 cover of Houston City Magazine, in reference to future electrical rates, promised: "Pay or Sweat". Typical of many cooling or heat gain prevention strategies being employed on "innovative" buildings in warm climates, evaporative spray roof cooling (ESRC) systems (not to be confused with roof ponds) are not new. Like ventilated structures, ice house roofs, enhanced ventilation, masonry walls, night sky radiation and ground contact cooling, evaporative cooling in many forms has been around for centuries. (See Solar Age, July '82 and February '81 for related articles). Even the development of roof spray systems is not as newly founded as one might suspect.

Bachman, L. R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Cooling Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these...

28

Steam compression with inner evaporative spray cooling: a case study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An adiabatic dry saturated steam compression process with inner evaporative spray cooling in screw compressors for steam heat pump systems is studied. Thermodynamic model and simulation of this variable-mass compression process are devised. Differential ... Keywords: inner evaporative spray cooling, screw compressors, simulation, steam compression, steam heat pumps, thermodynamic modelling, variable-mass compression, water injection

Jian Qui; Zhaolin Gu; Guoguang Cai

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Computer models have been developed to describe the operation of both solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys. Design studies are being conducted at the present time to use the towers for cooling an experimental, well instrumented, structure to study passive cooling in residential buildings. (MHR)

Mignon, G.V.; Cunningham, W.A.; Thompson, T.L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Cooling airflow design tool for displacement ventilation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with Equation  7.4 of the ASHRAE Design Guidelines for efficiency air diffusers. The ASHRAE method does not takeVentilation” Atlanta: ASHRAE. Jiang, Z. , Chen, Q. , and

Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Floating dry cooling: a competitive alternative to evaporative cooling in a binary cycle geothermal power plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The application of the floating cooling concept to non-evaporative and evaporative atmospheric heat rejection systems was studied as a method of improving the performance of geothermal powerplants operating upon medium temperature hydrothermal resources. The LBL thermodynamic process computer code GEOTHM is used in the case study of a 50 MWe isobutane binary cycle power plant at Heber, California. It is shown that operating a fixed capacity plant in the floating cooling mode can generate significantly more electrical energy at a higher thermodynamic efficiency and reduced but bar cost for approximately the same capital investment. Floating cooling is shown to benefit a plant which is dry cooled to an even greater extent than the same plant operating with an evaporative heat rejection system. Results of the Heber case study indicate that a dry floating cooling geothermal binary cycle plant can produce energy at a bus bar cost which is competitive with the cost of energy associated with evaporatively cooled systems.

Pines, H.S.; Green, M.A.; Pope, W.L.; Doyle, P.A.

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Advances in the application of passive down-draft evaporative cooling technology in the cooling of buildings.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A passive down-draft evaporative cooling (PDEC) tower is a component that is designed to capture the wind at the top of a tower and cool… (more)

Kang, Daeho

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Potential of Evaporative Cooling Systems for Buildings in India  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evaporative cooling potential for building in various climatic zones in India is investigated. Maintainable indoor conditions are obtained from the load - capacity analysis for the prevailing ambient conditions. For the assumed activity level, clothing and air velocity, the predicted mean vote (PMV), predicted percentage dissatisfied (PPD), and cumulative dissatisfaction levels for each month are estimated. Time - air condition contours of ambient, supply air and indoor air are plotted on a psychrometric chart for different cities in India like Ahmadabad, Jodhpur, Nagpur and New Delhi representing different climatic conditions of India. While satisfactorily comfort can be achieved at cool and dry weather conditions by evaporative cooling system throughout the year, some discomfort prevailed for few months around July at hot and dry/humid weather conditions. The results are also quantified in terms of PMV, PPD and their cumulative factors; PMV-hour and PPD-hour.

Maiya, M. P.; Vijay, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Establish feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporate downdraft chimneys. Final report, June 15, 1984--December 31, 1987  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Natural draft towers can be used for cooling and ventilating structures. From an operational perspective, the downdraft evaporatively cooled tower is preferred for a dry climate. Solar chimneys, when used alone, tend to require an excessively large solar collector area when appreciable quantities of air must be moved. When used in combination with a downdraft tower, the roof and attic of buildings may assist the solar chimney and their use becomes more attractive. Both a frame building and a greenhouse were successfully cooled during this program. The economics of the downdraft tower compare favorably with conventional evaporative cooling for some applications.

Cunningham, W.A.; Mignon, G.V.; Thompson, T.L.

1987-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

35

Establish feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys. Final report, June 15, 1984--December 31, 1987  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Natural draft towers can be used for cooling and ventilating structures. From an operational perspective, the downdraft evaporatively cooled tower is preferred for a dry climate. Solar chimneys, when used alone, tend to require an excessively large solar collector area when appreciable quantities of air must be moved. When used in combination with a downdraft tower, the roof and attic of buildings may assist the solar chimney and their use becomes more attractive. Both a frame building and a greenhouse were successfully cooled during this program. The economics of the downdraft tower compare favorably with conventional evaporative cooling for some application.

Cunningham, W.A.; Mignon, G.V.; Thompson, T.L.

1987-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

36

Emerging Technologies for Efficient Data Centers: Uninterruptible Power Supply Eco Mode, Liquid Cooling, and Evaporative Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes research in emerging technologies that improve data center energy efficiency, including evaporative cooling, liquid cooling, and high-efficiency eco mode operation of the uninterruptible power supply. The report describes the efficiency gains of these technologies and their impact on total data center energy use. It also identifies market barriers for each technology and potential next steps to promote adoption of these efficient technologies.

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

37

Green Data Center Cooling: Achieving 90% Reduction: Airside Economization and Unique Indirect Evaporative Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Green Data Center Project was a successful effort to significantly reduce the energy use of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Through a full retrofit of a traditional air conditioning system, the cooling energy required to meet the data center's constant load has been reduced by over 70% for summer months and over 90% for cooler winter months. This significant change is achievable through the use of airside economization and a new indirect evaporative cooling system. One of the goals of this project was to create awareness of simple and effective energy reduction strategies for data centers. This project's geographic location allowed maximizing the positive effects of airside economization and indirect evaporative cooling, but these strategies may also be relevant for many other sites and data centers in the U.S.

Weerts, B. A.; Gallaher, D.; Weaver, R.; Van Geet, O.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Assessment of Evaporative Cooling Enhancement Methods for Air-Cooled Geothermal Power Plants: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many binary-cycle geothermal power plants are air cooled because insufficient water is available to provide year-round water cooling. The performance of air-cooled geothermal plants is highly dependent on the dry bulb temperature of the air (much more so than fossil fuel plants that operate at higher boiler temperatures), and plant electric output can drop by 50% or more on hot summer days, compared to winter performance. This problem of reduced summer performance is exacerbated by the fact that electricity has a higher value in the summer. This paper describes a spreadsheet model that was developed to assess the cost and performance of four methods for using supplemental evaporative cooling to boost summer performance: (1) pre-cooling with spray nozzles, (2) pre-cooling with Munters media, (3) a hybrid combination of nozzles and Munters media, and (4) direct deluge cooling of the air-cooled condenser tubes. Although all four options show significant benefit, deluge cooling has the potential to be the most economic. However, issues of scaling and corrosion would need to be addressed.

Kutscher, C.; Costenaro, D.

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Vibration Induced Droplet Generation from a Liquid Layer for Evaporative Cooling in a Heat Transfer Cell .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??During this investigation, vibration induced droplet generation from a liquid layer was examined as a means for achieving high heat flux evaporative cooling. Experiments were… (more)

Pyrtle, Frank, III

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Preconditioning Outside Air: Cooling Loads from Building Ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HVAC equipment manufacturers, specifiers and end users interacting in the marketplace today are only beginning to address the series of issues promulgated by the increased outside air requirements in ASHRAE Standard 62- 1989, "Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality", that has cascaded into building codes over the early to mid 1990's. There has been a twofold to fourfold increase in outside air requirements for many commercial building applications, compared to the 1981 version of the standard. To mitigate or nullify these additional weather loads, outdoor air preconditioning technologies are being promoted in combination with conventional HVAC operations downstream as a means to deliver the required fresh air and control humidity indoors. Preconditioning is the term applied for taking outside air to the indoor air setpoint (dry bulb temperature and relative humidity). The large humidity loads from outside air can now be readily recognized and quantified at cooling design point conditions using the extreme humidity ratios/dew points presented in the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals Chapter 26 "Climatic Design Information". This paper presents an annual index called the Ventilation Load Index (VLI), recently developed by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) that measures the magnitude of latent (and sensible) loads for preconditioning outside air to indoor space conditions over the come of an entire year. The VLI has units of ton-hrs/scfm of outside air. The loads are generated using new weather data binning software called ~BinMaker, also from GRI, that organizes the 239 city, 8760 hour by hour, TMY2 weather data into user selected bidtables. The VLI provides a simple methodology for accessing the cooling load impact of increased ventilation air volumes and a potential basis for defining a "humid" climate location.

Kosar, D.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Development of an Integrated Residential Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification System for Residences  

SciTech Connect

The Need and the Opportunity Codes such as ASHRAE 90.2 and IECC, and programs such as Energy Star and Builders Challenge, are causing new homes to be built to higher performance standards. As a result sensible cooling loads in new homes are going down, but indoor air quality prerogatives are causing ventilation rates and moisture loads to increase in humid climates. Conventional air conditioners are unable to provide the low sensible heat ratios that are needed to efficiently cool and dehumidify homes since dehumidification potential is strongly correlated with cooling system operating hours. The project team saw an opportunity to develop a system that is at least as effective as a conventional air conditioner plus dehumidifier, removes moisture without increasing the sensible load, reduces equipment cost by integrating components, and simplifies installation. Project Overview Prime contractor Davis Energy Group led a team in developing an Integrated Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification (I-HVCD) system under the DOE SBIR program. Phase I and II SBIR project activities ran from July 2003 through December 2007. Tasks included: (1) Mechanical Design and Prototyping; (2) Controls Development; (3) Laboratory and Field Testing; and (4) Commercialization Activities Technology Description. Key components of the prototype I-HVCD system include an evaporator coil assembly, return and outdoor air damper, and controls. These are used in conjunction with conventional components that include a variable speed air handler or furnace, and a two-stage condensing unit. I-HVCD controls enable the system to operate in three distinct cooling modes to respond to indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels. When sensible cooling loads are high, the system operates similar to a conventional system but varies supply airflow in response to indoor RH. In the second mode airflow is further reduced, and the reheat coil adds heat to the supply air. In the third mode, the reheat coil adds additional heat to maintain the supply air temperature close to the return air temperature (100% latent cooling). Project Outcomes Key Phase II objectives were to develop a pre-production version of the system and to demonstrate its performance in an actual house. The system was first tested in the laboratory and subsequently underwent field-testing at a new house in Gainesville, Florida. Field testing began in 2006 with monitoring of a 'conventional best practices' system that included a two stage air conditioner and Energy Star dehumidifier. In September 2007, the I-HVCD components were installed for testing. Both systems maintained uniform indoor temperatures, but indoor RH control was considerably better with the I-HVCD system. The daily variation from average indoor humidity conditions was less than 2% for the I-HVCD vs. 5-7% for the base case system. Data showed that the energy use of the two systems was comparable. Preliminary installed cost estimates suggest that production costs for the current I-HVCD integrated design would likely be lower than for competing systems that include a high efficiency air conditioner, dehumidifier, and fresh air ventilation system. Project Benefits This project verified that the I-HVCD refrigeration compacts are compact (for easy installation and retrofit) and can be installed with air conditioning equipment from a variety of manufacturers. Project results confirmed that the system can provide precise indoor temperature and RH control under a variety of climate conditions. The I-HVCD integrated approach offers numerous benefits including integrated control, easier installation, and reduced equipment maintenance needs. Work completed under this project represents a significant step towards product commercialization. Improved indoor RH control and fresh air ventilation are system attributes that will become increasingly important in the years ahead as building envelopes improve and sensible cooling loads continue to fall. Technologies like I-HVCD will be instrumental in meeting goals set by Building America

Hoeschele, M.A.; D.A. Springer

2008-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

42

Development of an Integrated Residential Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification System for Residences  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Need and the Opportunity Codes such as ASHRAE 90.2 and IECC, and programs such as Energy Star and Builders Challenge, are causing new homes to be built to higher performance standards. As a result sensible cooling loads in new homes are going down, but indoor air quality prerogatives are causing ventilation rates and moisture loads to increase in humid climates. Conventional air conditioners are unable to provide the low sensible heat ratios that are needed to efficiently cool and dehumidify homes since dehumidification potential is strongly correlated with cooling system operating hours. The project team saw an opportunity to develop a system that is at least as effective as a conventional air conditioner plus dehumidifier, removes moisture without increasing the sensible load, reduces equipment cost by integrating components, and simplifies installation. Project Overview Prime contractor Davis Energy Group led a team in developing an Integrated Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification (I-HVCD) system under the DOE SBIR program. Phase I and II SBIR project activities ran from July 2003 through December 2007. Tasks included: (1) Mechanical Design and Prototyping; (2) Controls Development; (3) Laboratory and Field Testing; and (4) Commercialization Activities Technology Description. Key components of the prototype I-HVCD system include an evaporator coil assembly, return and outdoor air damper, and controls. These are used in conjunction with conventional components that include a variable speed air handler or furnace, and a two-stage condensing unit. I-HVCD controls enable the system to operate in three distinct cooling modes to respond to indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels. When sensible cooling loads are high, the system operates similar to a conventional system but varies supply airflow in response to indoor RH. In the second mode airflow is further reduced, and the reheat coil adds heat to the supply air. In the third mode, the reheat coil adds additional heat to maintain the supply air temperature close to the return air temperature (100% latent cooling). Project Outcomes Key Phase II objectives were to develop a pre-production version of the system and to demonstrate its performance in an actual house. The system was first tested in the laboratory and subsequently underwent field-testing at a new house in Gainesville, Florida. Field testing began in 2006 with monitoring of a 'conventional best practices' system that included a two stage air conditioner and Energy Star dehumidifier. In September 2007, the I-HVCD components were installed for testing. Both systems maintained uniform indoor temperatures, but indoor RH control was considerably better with the I-HVCD system. The daily variation from average indoor humidity conditions was less than 2% for the I-HVCD vs. 5-7% for the base case system. Data showed that the energy use of the two systems was comparable. Preliminary installed cost estimates suggest that production costs for the current I-HVCD integrated design would likely be lower than for competing systems that include a high efficiency air conditioner, dehumidifier, and fresh air ventilation system. Project Benefits This project verified that the I-HVCD refrigeration compacts are compact (for easy installation and retrofit) and can be installed with air conditioning equipment from a variety of manufacturers. Project results confirmed that the system can provide precise indoor temperature and RH control under a variety of climate conditions. The I-HVCD integrated approach offers numerous benefits including integrated control, easier installation, and reduced equipment maintenance needs. Work completed under this project represents a significant step towards product commercialization. Improved indoor RH control and fresh air ventilation are system attributes that will become increasingly important in the years ahead as building envelopes improve and sensible cooling loads continue to fall. Technologies like I-HVCD will be instrumental in meeting goals set by Building America

Hoeschele, M.A.; D.A. Springer

2008-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

43

CFD Simulation and Analysis of the Combined Evaporative Cooling and Radiant Ceiling Air-conditioning System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Due to such disadvantages as large air duct and high energy consumption of the current all- outdoor air evaporative cooling systems used in the dry region of Northwest China, as well as the superiority of the ceiling cooling system in improving thermal comfort and saving energy, a combined system is presented in this paper. It combines an evaporative cooling system with ceiling cooling, in which the evaporative cooling system handles the entire latent load and one part of the sensible loads, and the ceiling cooling system deals with the other part of sensible loads in the air-conditioned zone, so that the condensation on radiant panels and the insufficiency of cooling capacity can be avoided. The cooling water at 18? used in the cooling coils of ceiling cooling system can be ground water, tap water or the cooled water from cooling towers in the summer. This new air-conditioning system and existing all- outdoor air evaporative cooling system are applied to a project in the city of Lanzhou. Energy consumption analysis of the building is carried out using the energy consumption code. Velocity and temperature distribution in the air-conditioned zone is computed using CFD. According to the results, the energy consumption and indoor human thermal comfort of both systems are then compared. It is concluded that the new system occupies less building space, reduces energy consumption, improves indoor human thermal comfort and saves initial investment.

Xiang, H.; Yinming, L.; Junmei, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Application Research of Evaporative Cooling in the Waste Heat Recovery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evaporative condenser is one kind of high-efficient and energy-water saving heat exchange equipment, which has been widely applied in many engineering fields. The theory and product characteristic of evaporative condenser is introduced in this paper. ... Keywords: Evaporative condenser, Waste heat recovery, Energy saving, Water saving

Zhijiang Wu; Nan Wang; Gongsheng Zhu

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Cooling System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Cooling technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these technologies work. Ventilation Ventilation allows air to move into and out of homes and buildings either by natural or mechanical means. Evaporative Cooling In dry climates, evaporative cooling or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the cooler. The heat is drawn out of the air and the cooled air is blown into the space by the cooler's fan. Air Conditioning Air conditioners, which employ the same operating principles and basic

46

Cooling System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics Cooling System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:08pm Addthis Cooling technologies used in homes and buildings include ventilation, evaporative cooling, air conditioning, absorption cooling, and radiant cooling. Learn more about how these technologies work. Ventilation Ventilation allows air to move into and out of homes and buildings either by natural or mechanical means. Evaporative Cooling In dry climates, evaporative cooling or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the cooler. The heat is drawn out of the air and the cooled air is blown into the space by the cooler's fan. Air Conditioning Air conditioners, which employ the same operating principles and basic

47

Dust and Ventilation Effects on Radiant Barriers: Cooling Season Energy Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study on the effects of attic ventilation area and type and dust buildup on horizontal and truss radiant barriers in insulated homes can help utilities reduce cooling season electric energy requirements. Increasing the ventilation area ratio and changing ventilation types had little effect on radiant barrier performance. Dust did degrade performance, but insulated homes with radiant barriers still had lower energy requirements than those without radiant barriers.

1990-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

48

Estimating the Evaporative Cooling Bias of an Airborne Reverse Flow Thermometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Airborne reverse flow immersion thermometers were designed to prevent sensor wetting in cloud. Yet there is strong evidence that some wetting does occur and therefore also sensor evaporative cooling as the aircraft exits a cloud. Numerous ...

Yonggang Wang; Bart Geerts

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Use of DOE-2 to Evaluate Evaporative Cooling in Texas Correctional Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study investigates the feasibility of using direct and indirect evaporative cooling systems for correctional facilities in two different Texas climatic regions with the DOE-2.1E hourly energy simulation program. The analysis is based on adding user defined functions to the DOE-2 SYSTEMS subprogram to simulate direct and indirect evaporative cooling configurations. The DOE-2 program was run with two weather tapes, one for Kingsville, Texas and one for Abilene, Texas during April, July, and October to resemble neutral, summer and winter weather conditions. The results showed that direct evaporative cooling is applicable in April for Abilene and October for Kingsville. The indirect evaporative cooling is feasible in July for Abilene and April for Kingsville.

Saman, N.; Heneghan, T.; Bou-Saada, T. E.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

An experimental study of evaporative cooling from liquid droplets impinging on a hot surface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have performed a series of experiments to characterize the different regimes observed in drop impacts during evaporative cooling of heated surfaces. We found four regimes which were named splashing, fizzing, flat film, ...

Koveal, Catherine Helene

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Projected Benefits of New Residential Evaporative Cooling Systems: Progress Report #2  

SciTech Connect

The use of conventional evaporative cooling has rapidly declined in the United States despite the fact that it has high potential for energy savings in dry climates. Evaporative systems are very competitive in terms of first cost and provide significant reductions in operating energy use, as well as peak-load reduction benefits. Significant market barriers still remain and can be addressed through improved systems integration. This report investigates the first of these approaches, exploring innovative components. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America research teams are investigating the use of two promising new pieces of residential cooling equipment that employ evaporative cooling as a part of their system design. The OASys unit, which is a combination of direct and indirect evaporative cooling stages developed by Davis Energy Group (DEG) and manufactured by Speakman CRS, is used to ultimately provide outside air to the living space. The outdoor air provided is indirectly and directly evaporatively cooled in two stages to a condition that can be below the wet-bulb (wb) temperature of the outside air, thus outperforming a conventional single-stage direct evaporative cooler.

Kutscher, C.; Eastment, M.; Hancock, E.; Reeves, P.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Indoor Humidity Analysis of an Integrated Radiant Cooling and Desiccant Ventilation System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiant cooling is credited with improving energy efficiency and enhancing the comfort level as an alternative method of space cooling in mild and dry climates, according to recent research. Since radiant cooling panels lack the capability to remove latent heat, they normally are used in conjunction with an independent ventilation system, which is capable of decoupling the space sensible and latent loads. Condensation concerns limit the application of radiant cooling. This paper studies the dehumidification processes of solid desiccant systems and investigates the factors that affect the humidity levels of a radiantly cooled space. Hourly indoor humidity is simulated at eight different operating conditions in a radiantly cooled test-bed office. The simulation results show that infiltration and ventilation flow rates are the main factors affecting indoor humidity level and energy consumption in a radiantly cooled space with relatively constant occupancy. It is found that condensation is hard to control in a leaky office operated with the required ventilation rate. Slightly pressurizing the space is recommended for radiant cooling. The energy consumption simulation shows that a passive desiccant wheel can recover about 50% of the ventilation load.

Gong, X.; Claridge, D. E.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Computer Simulation of Cooling Effect of Wind Tower on Passively Ventilated Building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Traditional buildings are cooled and ventilated by mechanically induced drafts. Natural ventilation aspires to cool and ventilate a building by natural means, such as cross ventilation or wind towers, without mechanical equipment. A simple computer program was developed to simulate airflow through a wind tower based on tower dimensions and air temperature. The program was compared to experimental results with reasonable agreement. Parametric analysis indicates that interior air temperature approaches outdoor air temperature asymptotically as tower height and cross-sectional area are increased, and that it may be more cost effective to increase the tower?s height than its cross sectional area. The program was then used to simulate hour-by-hour indoor air temperatures of an occupied auditorium in Dayton, OH. The results indicate that a large wind tower was able to keep the temperature of an occupied auditorium at a comfortable level year round.

Seryak, J.; Kissock, J. K.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Home Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooling Cooling Home Cooling Ventilation Systems for Cooling Learn how to avoid heat buildup and keep your home cool with ventilation. Read more Cooling with a Whole House Fan A whole-house fan, in combination with other cooling systems, can meet all or most of your home cooling needs year round. Read more Although your first thought for cooling may be air conditioning, there are many alternatives that provide cooling with less energy use. You might also consider fans, evaporative coolers, or heat pumps as your primary means of cooling. In addition, a combination of proper insulation, energy-efficient windows and doors, daylighting, shading, and ventilation will usually keep homes cool with a low amount of energy use in all but the hottest climates. Although ventilation is not an effective cooling strategy in hot, humid

55

Dew Point Evaporative Comfort Cooling: Report and Summary Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The project objective was to demonstrate the capabilities of the high-performance multi-staged IEC technology and its ability to enhance energy efficiency and interior comfort in dry climates, while substantially reducing electric-peak demand. The project was designed to test 24 cooling units in five commercial building types at Fort Carson Army Base in Colorado Springs, Colorado.

Dean, J.; Herrmann, L.; Kozubal, E.; Geiger, J.; Eastment, M.; Slayzak, S.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Dust and ventilation effects on radiant barriers: Cooling season energy measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling season tests were conducted in three unoccupied ranch-style houses in Karns, Tennessee, to determine the effects on attic radiant barrier performance incurred by changes in attic ventilation area ratio, attic ventilation type, and the buildup of dust on horizontal radiant barriers. All three houses had R-19 fiberglass batt insulation in their attics. Horizontal radiant barriers were artificially dusted and the dusted barriers showed measurable performance degradations, although the dusted barriers were still superior to no radiant barriers. Dust loadings of 0.34 and 0.74 mg/cm{sup 2} reduced a clean radiant barrier surface emissivity of 0.055 to 0.125 and 0.185, respectively. Total house cooling load increases amounted to 2.3 and 8.4% compared to house loads with clean horizontal barriers, respectively. When compared to R-19 with no horizontal radiant barrier conditions, the dusted horizontal radiant barriers reduced cooling loads by about 7%. Testing showed that increasing the attic ventilation area ratio from the minimum recommended of 1/300 to 1/150 had little if any effect on the house cooling load with either truss or horizontal barriers present in the attics. Radiant barriers, however, still reduced the house cooling load. There was essentially no difference in house cooling load reduction between either ridge/soffit or gable/soffit vent type with a truss radiant barrier, as both reduced cooling loads by about 8% when compared to no radiant barrier conditions. The attic-ventilation-type testing was done with a ventilation area ratio of 1/150.

Levins, W.P.; Karnitz, M.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Hall, J.A. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville, TN (USA))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Cooling season energy measurements of dust and ventilation effects on radiant barriers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling season tests were conducted in three unoccupied ranch-style houses in Karns, Tennessee, to determine the effects on attic radiant barrier performance incurred by changes in attic ventilation area ratio, attic ventilation type, and the buildup of dust on horizontal radiant barriers. All three houses had R-19 fiberglass batt insulation in their attics. Horizontal radiant barriers were artificially dusted and the dusted barriers showed measurable performance degradations, although the dusted barriers were still superior to no radiant barriers. Dust loadings of 0.34 and 0.74 mg/cm{sup 2} reduced a clean radiant barrier surface emissivity of 0.055 to 0.125 and 0.185, respectively. Total house cooling load increases amounted to 2.3 and 8.4% compared to house loads with clean horizontal barriers, respectively. When compared to R-19 with no horizontal radiant barrier conditions, the dusted horizontal radiant barriers reduced cooling loads by about 7%. Testing showed that increasing the attic ventilation area ratio from the minimum recommended of 1/300 (1 ft{sup 2} of effective ventilation area per 300 ft{sup 2} of attic area) to 1/150 had little if any effect on the house cooling load with either truss or horizontal barriers present in the attics. Radiant barriers, however, still reduced the house cooling load. 18 refs., 17 figs., 26 tabs.

Levins, W.P.; Karnitz, M.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Hall, J.A. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (USA))

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Hydronic rooftop cooling systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A roof top cooling unit has an evaporative cooling section that includes at least one evaporative module that pre-cools ventilation air and water; a condenser; a water reservoir and pump that captures and re-circulates water within the evaporative modules; a fan that exhausts air from the building and the evaporative modules and systems that refill and drain the water reservoir. The cooling unit also has a refrigerant section that includes a compressor, an expansion device, evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, and connecting refrigerant piping. Supply air components include a blower, an air filter, a cooling and/or heating coil to condition air for supply to the building, and optional dampers that, in designs that supply less than 100% outdoor air to the building, control the mixture of return and ventilation air.

Bourne, Richard C. (Davis, CA); Lee, Brian Eric (Monterey, CA); Berman, Mark J. (Davis, CA)

2008-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

59

Direct Numerical Simulation of Evaporative Cooling at the Lateral Boundary of Shallow Cumulus Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the dynamics of the subsiding shell at the lateral boundary of cumulus clouds, focusing on the role of evaporative cooling. Since the size of this shell is well below what large-eddy simulations can resolve, the authors ...

Dick Abma; Thijs Heus; Juan Pedro Mellado

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Effect of adding flash tank on the evaporator's thermal load of the combined ejector-absorption cooling system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A modified combined absorption-ejector cooling system using aqua-ammonia (NH3-H2O) refrigerant has been investigated. Removable flash tank was added between the condenser and the evaporator. The modified cycle brings the advantage of improving in the ... Keywords: absorption system, combined absorption cooling system, ejectors, evaporators

Ranj Sirwan; Yusoff Ali; A. Zaharim; K. Sopian

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Original papers: Aerodynamic analysis and CFD simulation of several cellulose evaporative cooling pads used in Mediterranean greenhouses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present work makes an aerodynamic analysis and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the four commercial models of corrugated cellulose evaporative cooling pads that are most widely used in Mediterranean greenhouses. The geometric characteristics ... Keywords: Aerodynamic analysis, CFD, Evaporative cooling, Fan and pad, Greenhouse, Pressure drop

A. Franco; D. L. Valera; A. Peña; A. M. Pérez

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Experimental Study of the Floor Radiant Cooling System Combined with Displacement Ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As a comfortable and energy-efficient air conditioning system, the application of floor radiant heating system is used increasingly greatly in the north of China. As a result, the feasibility of floor radiant cooling has gained more attention. To examine the thermodynamic performance of the floor radiant cooling system, we measured the operational conditions including the minimum floor surface temperature, the cooling capacity, and the indoor temperature field distribution under different outdoor temperatures in Beijing. Because the ground temperature changes with the mean temperature of the supplied and returned water and room temperature, the mean temperature of the supplied and retuned water was obtained. Finally, we analyzed the phenomenon of dewing and developed measures for preventing it. The dry air layer near the floor formed by a displacement ventilation system can effectively prevent dews on the surface of the floor in the wet and hot days in summer. In addition, for the sake of the displacement ventilation system, the heat transfer effect between floor and space is enhanced. Our analysis pointed out that floor radiant cooling system combined with displacement ventilation ensures good comfort and energy efficiency.

Ren, Y.; Li, D.; Zhang, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Establishing feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At the present time all experimental towers (chimneys) are completed and operating. This consists of both a solar updraft and a natural-evaporative downdraft tower retrofitted to an existing residence structure and a greenhouse. The residential, experimental, natural-draft cooling system was completed in May, 1985, and five months of summer data on a Hewlet Packard 85 data acquisition computer with a digital voltmeter were acquired. The cooling tower and solar chimney on the experimental greenhouse became operational in September of 1985. A conceptual drawing of both the greenhouse and the residence natural-draft towers is included in the appendix along with the September 85 progress report.

Cunningham, W.A.; Mignon, G.V.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

A feasibility study of internal evaporative cooling for proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of using the technique of ultrasonic nebulization of water into the anode gas stream for evaporative cooling of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The basic concept of this form of internal evaporative cooling of the PEM fuel cell is to introduce finely atomized liquid water into the anode gas stream, so that the finely atomized liquid water adsorbs onto the anode and then moves to the cathode via electro-osmotic drag, where this water then evaporates into the relatively dry cathode gas stream, carrying with it the waste thermal energy generated within the fuel cell. The thermal and electrical performance of a 50 cm2 PEM fuel cell utilizing this technique was compared to the performance obtained with conventional water management. Both techniques were compared over a range of humidification chamber temperatures for both the anode and cathode gas streams so as to determine the robustness of the proposed method. The proposed method produced only meager levels of evaporative cooling (at best 2 watts, for which a minimum of 30 watts was required for adequate cooling), but the average cell voltage increased considerably (as much as a 10% gain), and the technique increased the fault tolerance of the fuel cell (the Nafion� membrane did not dry out even if cell temperature went well in excess of 70° C despite both anode and cathode humidification temperatures of 55° C). An interesting phenomena was also observed wherein the fuel cell voltage oscillated regularly with a period of tens of seconds, and that the amplitude of this oscillation corresponded inversely with the level of humidification received by the fuel cell.

Snyder, Loren E

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Evaluation of cooling performance of thermally activated building system with evaporative cooling source for typical United States climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cooling (TABS) with a cooling tower providing chilled waterevaporative cooling (cooling tower) for radiant ceiling slabradiant cooling with a cooling tower providing chilled water

Feng, Jingjuan; Bauman, Fred

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys. Interim report, June 15, 1984--March 1, 1985  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Computer models have been developed to describe the operation of both solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys. Design studies are being conducted at the present time to use the towers for cooling an experimental, well instrumented, structure to study passive cooling in residential buildings. (MHR)

Mignon, G.V.; Cunningham, W.A.; Thompson, T.L.

1985-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

67

Cooling season energy measurements of dust and ventilation effects on radiant barriers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling season tests were conducted in three unoccupied ranch-style houses in Karns, Tennessee, to determine the effects on attic radiant barrier performance incurred by changes in attic ventilation area ratio, attic ventilation type, and the buildup of dust on horizontal radiant barriers. All three houses had R-19 fiberglass batt insulation in their attics. Horizontal radiant barriers were artificially dusted and the dusted barriers showed measurable performance degradations, although the dusted barriers were still superior to no radiant barriers. Dust loadings of 0.34 and 0.74 mg/cm{sup 2} reduced a clean radiant barrier surface emissivity of 0.055 to 0.125 and 0.185, respectively. Total house cooling load increases amounted to 2.3 and 8.4% compared to house loads with clean horizontal barriers, respectively. When compared to R-19 with no horizontal radiant barrier conditions, the dusted horizontal radiant barriers reduced cooling loads by about 7%. 18 refs., 18 figs., 30 tabs.

Levins, W.P.; Karnitz, M.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Hall, J.A. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville, TN (USA))

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Evaporative CO2 cooling using microchannels etched in silicon for the future LHCb vertex detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The extreme radiation dose received by vertex detectors at the Large Hadron Collider dictates stringent requirements on their cooling systems. To be robust against radiation damage, sensors should be maintained below -20 degree C and at the same time, the considerable heat load generated in the readout chips and the sensors must be removed. Evaporative CO2 cooling using microchannels etched in a silicon plane in thermal contact with the readout chips is an attractive option. In this paper, we present the first results of microchannel prototypes with circulating, two-phase CO2 and compare them to simulations. We also discuss a practical design of upgraded VELO detector for the LHCb experiment employing this approach.

A. Nomerotski; J. Buytart; P. Collins; R. Dumps; E. Greening; M. John; A. Mapelli; A. Leflat; Y. Li; G. Romagnoli; B. Verlaat

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

69

Evaluation of cooling performance of thermally activated building system with evaporative cooling source for typical United States climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

have higher cooling capacity because the thermal resistancethe thermal comfort requirement unless the cooling capacitysurface cooling system and TABS systems THERMAL COMFORT

Feng, Jingjuan; Bauman, Fred

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Evaluation of cooling performance of thermally activated building system with evaporative cooling source for typical United States climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

allows the use of alternative cooling sources, for example,allows the use of alternative cooling sources, for example,system, and alternative radiant cooling technology, i.e.

Feng, Jingjuan; Bauman, Fred

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Performance evaluation of an active solar cooling system utilizing low cost plastic collectors and an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the summer of 1982, air conditioning in Solar House III at Colorado State University was provided by an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller. The single-effect lithium bromide chiller provided by Arkla Industries is an experimental three-ton unit from which heat is rejected by direct evaporative cooling of the condenser and absorber walls, thereby eliminating the need for a separate cooling tower. Domestic hot water was also provided by use of a double-walled heat exchanger and 300-l (80-gal) hot water tank. For solar heat supply to the cooling system, plastic thin film collectors developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory were installed on the roof of Solar House III. Failure to withstand stagnation temperatures forced replacement of solar energy with an electric heat source. Objectives of the project were: (1) evaluation of system performance over the course of one cooling season in Fort collins, Colorado; (2) optimization of system operation and control; (3) development of a TRNSYS compatible model of the chiller; and (4) determination of cooling system performance in several US climates by use of the model.

Lof, G.O.G.; Westhoff, M.A.; Karaki, S.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Evaluation of models for predicting evaporative water loss in cooling impoundments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling impoundments can offer a number of advantages over cooling towers for condenser water cooling at steam electric power plants. However, a major disadvantage of cooling ponds is a lack of confidence in the ability ...

Helfrich, Karl Richard

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

An air cooled tube-fin evaporator model for an expansion valve control law  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For control purposes, a mathematical model of a tube-fin evaporator of a vapour compression plant running with R22 is analyzed. The refrigerant behavior in an evaporating region is described by a homogeneous model. The balance equations, together with ... Keywords: Control devices, Evaporator models, Heat transfer, Nonlinear differential systems, Numerical methods, Phase transition

C. Aprea; C. Renno

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Establishing feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys. Progress report, October 1985--February 1986  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At the present time all experimental towers (chimneys) are completed and operating. This consists of both a solar updraft and a natural-evaporative downdraft tower retrofitted to an existing residence structure and a greenhouse. The residential, experimental, natural-draft cooling system was completed in May, 1985, and five months of summer data on a Hewlet Packard 85 data acquisition computer with a digital voltmeter were acquired. The cooling tower and solar chimney on the experimental greenhouse became operational in September of 1985. A conceptual drawing of both the greenhouse and the residence natural-draft towers is included in the appendix along with the September 85 progress report.

Cunningham, W.A.; Mignon, G.V.

1986-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

75

Waste-heat vertical tube foam evaporation for cooling tower blowdown renovation/recycle. Project summary report  

SciTech Connect

A prototype waste-heat vertical tube foam evaporation (WH-VTFE) plant was designed, constructed, and field-tested for reducing power plant cooling tower blowdown to a small residual volume of solids slurried in brine, while producing distilled water for reuse. Facility design was based on previously-developed pilot plant test data. The WH-VTFE facility was constructed for initial parametric testing in upflow/downflow evaporation modes with boiler steam. The field test/demonstration phase was conducted at a power plant site using turbine exhaust steam for the up to 50-fold cooling tower blowdown concentration in a foamy-flow seed-slurried mode of downflow vertical tube evaporation. The VTFE heat transfer coefficient ranged between 5600 to 9000 W/sq m/degree, over 4-fold the level considered as acceptable in another study. Further, a sufficient temperature difference is available within a typical power plant heat rejection system to operate a WH-VTFE when the plant load is above 50% of its design capacity. Scale formed from inadequate brine recycle rates was readily removed by recycling fresh water through the evaporator to restore the high heat transfer performance of the WH-VTFE. It was concluded that WH-VTFE was demonstrated as feasible and commercially viable.

Sephton, H.H.; Someahsaraii, K.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Evaporation and condensation of spherical interstellar clouds. Self-consistent models with saturated heat conduction and cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shortened version: The fate of IS clouds embedded in a hot tenuous medium depends on whether the clouds suffer from evaporation or whether material condensates onto them. Analytical solutions for the rate of evaporative mass loss from an isolated spherical cloud embedded in a hot tenuous gas are deduced by Cowie & McKee (1977). In order to test the validity of the analytical results for more realistic IS conditions the full hydrodynamical equations must be treated. Therefore, 2D numerical simulations of the evolution of IS clouds %are performed with different internal density structures and surrounded by a hot plasma reservoir. Self-gravity, interstellar heating and cooling effects and heat conduction by electrons are added. Classical thermal conductivity of a fully ionized hydrogen plasma and saturated heat flux are considered. Using pure hydrodynamics and classical heat flux we can reproduce the analytical results. Heat flux saturation reduces the evaporation rate by one order of magnitude below the analytical value. The evolution changes totally for more realistic conditions when interstellar heating and cooling effects stabilize the self-gravity. Evaporation then turns into condensation, because the additional energy by heat conduction can be transported away from the interface and radiated off efficiently from the cloud's inner parts. I.e. that the saturated heat flux consideration is inevitable for IS clouds embedded in hot tenuous gas. Various consequences are discussed in the paper.

W. Vieser; G. Hensler

2007-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

77

Establishing feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The solar updraft and a natural evaporative downdraft tower built onto an existing residence structure and a greenhouse were completed and operating. Performance data for the hottest days of June, July, and August, 1985 are included. (MHR)

Cunningham, W.A.; Migon, G.V.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Effects of evaporative cooling on the regulation of body water and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

building, causing air to be drawn through the cooling pads. The study was conducted during two ...... of gut water in living ruminants. Aust J Agric Res 15:

79

Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rudd. 2007. Review of residential ventilation technologies.2009. EISG Final Report: Residential Integrated VentilationDesign and Operation of Residential Cooling Systems. Proc.

Sherman, Max H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

Ken Mortensen

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Experimental evaluation and modeling of a turbine blade with potassium evaporative cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new method of turbine blade cooling, the Return Flow Cascade, has been developed in which vaporization of a liquid metal such as potassium is used to maintain the blade surface at a nearly uniform temperature. Turbine ...

Townsend, Jessica Lee

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation...  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

Lifetimes and Ages Median Equipment Type Lifetime Air Conditioners Through-the-Wall 15 Water-CooledPackage 24 (1) Roof-Top 15 Chillers Reciprocating 20 Centrifugal 25 (1)...

83

Economizers and Coolerado Evaporative Cooling for Data Centers: Technical Assessments for the Data Center Interest Group  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Given the reliance that business has on uninterrupted communications, data centers are required to provide the highest level of reliability. Yet, this emphasis on reliability allows many opportunities for increasing the energy efficiency of data centers. In a typical data center, about 40% of the energy is used for cooling systems. The conventional methods of removing heat from a data center involve either a direct-expansion (DX) computer room air conditioner (CRAC) or a chilled-water plant to ...

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

84

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

2 2 Main Commercial Heating and Cooling Equipment as of 1995, 1999, and 2003 (Percent of Total Floorspace) (1) Heating Equipment 1995 1999 2003 (2) Cooling Equipment 1995 1999 2003 (2) Packaged Heating Units 29% 38% 28% Packaged Air Conditioning Units 45% 54% 46% Boilers 29% 29% 32% Individual Air Conditioners 21% 21% 19% Individual Space Heaters 29% 26% 19% Central Chillers 19% 19% 18% Furnaces 25% 21% 30% Residential Central Air Conditioners 16% 12% 17% Heat Pumps 10% 13% 14% Heat Pumps 12% 14% 14% District Heat 10% 8% 8% District Chilled Water 4% 4% 4% Other 11% 6% 5% Swamp Coolers 4% 3% 2% Other 2% 2% 2% Note(s): Source(s): 1) Heating and cooling equipment percentages of floorspace total more than 100% since equipment shares floorspace. 2) Malls are no longer included in most CBECs tables; therefore, some data is not directly comparable to past CBECs.

85

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

3 3 Main Commercial Primary Energy Use of Heating and Cooling Equipment as of 1995 Heating Equipment | Cooling Equipment Packaged Heating Units 25% | Packaged Air Conditioning Units 54% Boilers 21% | Room Air Conditioning 5% Individual Space Heaters 2% | PTAC (2) 3% Furnaces 20% | Centrifugal Chillers 14% Heat Pumps 5% | Reciprocating Chillers 12% District Heat 7% | Rotary Screw Chillers 3% Unit Heater 18% | Absorption Chillers 2% PTHP & WLHP (1) 2% | Heat Pumps 7% 100% | 100% Note(s): Source(s): 1) PTHP = Packaged Terminal Heat Pump, WLHP = Water Loop Heat Pump. 2) PTAC = Packaged Terminal Air Conditioner BTS/A.D. Little, Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems, Volume 1: Chillers, Refrigerant Compressors, and Heating Systems, Apr. 2001, Figure 5-5, p. 5-14 for cooling and Figure 5-10, p. 5-18 for heating

86

The design and evaluation of a water delivery system for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An investigation was performed to demonstrate system design for the delivery of water required for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The water delivery system uses spray nozzles capable of injecting water directly and uniformly to the nickel metal foam flow-field (element for distributing the reactant gases over the surface of the electrodes) on the anode side from which water can migrate to the cathode side of the cell via electroosmotic drag. For an effective overall cooling, water distribution over the surface of the nickel foam has to be uniform to avoid creation of hotspots within the cell. A prototype PEMFC structure was constructed modeled after a 35 kW electrical output PEMFC stack. Water was sprayed on the nickel metal foam flow-field using two types of nozzle spray, giving conical fog type flow and flat fan type flow. A detailed investigation of the distribution pattern of water over the surface of the nickel metal flow field was conducted. The motive behind the investigation was to determine if design parameters such as type of water flow from nozzles, vertical location of the water nozzles above the flowfield, area of the nozzles, or operating variables such as reactant gas flow had any effect on water distribution over the surface of the Ni-metal foam flow field. It was found that the design parameters (types of flow, area and location of the nozzle) had a direct impact on the distribution of water in the nickel metal foam. However, the operating variable, reactant gas flow, showed no effect on the water distribution pattern in the Ni-foam.

Al-Asad, Dawood Khaled Abdullah

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Natural Ventilation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Natural Ventilation Natural Ventilation Natural Ventilation May 30, 2012 - 7:56pm Addthis Opening a window is a simple natural ventilation strategy. | Credit: ©iStockphoto/Simotion Opening a window is a simple natural ventilation strategy. | Credit: ©iStockphoto/Simotion What does this mean for me? If you live in a part of the country with cool nights and breezes, you may be able to cool your house with natural ventilation. If you're building a new home, design it to take advantage of natural ventilation. Natural ventilation relies on the wind and the "chimney effect" to keep a home cool. Natural ventilation works best in climates with cool nights and regular breezes. The wind will naturally ventilate your home by entering or leaving windows, depending on their orientation to the wind. When wind blows against your

88

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

5 5 Commercial Equipment Efficiencies Equipment Type Chiller Screw COP(full-load / IPLV) 2.80 / 3.05 2.80 / 3.05 3.02 / 4.45 Scroll COP 2.80 / 3.06 2.96 / 4.40 N.A. Reciprocating COP(full-load / IPLV) 2.80 / 3.05 2.80 / 3.05 3.52 / 4.40 Centrifugal COP(full-load / IPLV) 5.0 / 5.2 6.1 / 6.4 7.3 / 9.0 Gas-Fired Absorption COP 1.0 1.1 N.A. Gas-Fired Engine Driven COP 1.5 1.8 N.A. Rooftop A/C EER 10.1 11.2 13.9 Rooftop Heat Pump EER (cooling) 9.8 11.0 12.0 COP (heating) 3.2 3.3 3.4 Boilers Gas-Fired Combustion Efficiency 77 80 98 Oil-Fired Thermal Efficiency 80 84 98 Electric Thermal Efficiency 98 98 98 Furnace AFUE 77 80 82 Water Heater Gas-Fired Thermal Efficiency 78 80 96 Oil-Fired Thermal Efficiency 79 80 85 Electric Resistance Thermal Efficiency 98 98 98 Gas-Fired Instantaneous Thermal Efficiency 77 84 89 Source(s): Parameter Efficiency

89

Energy Basics: Cooling Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the...

90

Establishing feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys. Progress report, March 1985--September 1985  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The solar updraft and a natural evaporative downdraft tower built onto an existing residence structure and a greenhouse were completed and operating. Performance data for the hottest days of June, July, and August, 1985 are included. (MHR)

Cunningham, W.A.; Migon, G.V.

1985-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

91

Ventilation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

(often required by building codes) will help to reduce your use of air conditioning, and attic fans may also help keep cooling costs down. Learn More Whole-House Ventilation...

92

Evaporative Coolers | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaporative Coolers Evaporative Coolers Evaporative Coolers July 1, 2012 - 6:51pm Addthis Evaporative Coolers, sometimes called swamp coolers, is another way to cool air in warm climates with low humidity. | Photo courtesy of Public Domain Photos. Evaporative Coolers, sometimes called swamp coolers, is another way to cool air in warm climates with low humidity. | Photo courtesy of Public Domain Photos. What does this mean for me? If you live in a warm, dry climate, you can save money on utility bills and stay comfortable during the cooling season by installing an evaporative cooler. Evaporative coolers add humidity to indoor air, a benefit in dry, warm climates. Unlike air conditioners that recirculate air, an evaporative cooler

93

Improvements in solid desiccant cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The DINC (Direct-Indirect Evaporative Cooling) cycle was proposed in 1986 by Texas A and M researchers. The idea was to combine the benefits of direct and indirect evaporative cooling with desiccant dehumidifying using a rotating solid silica-gel dehumidifier. Recent parametric studies completed for the Texas Energy Research in Applications Program have developed a computer design for a nominal 3-ton system that would minimize the energy consumption (both thermal and electric) while maintaining a sensible heat ratio of 75% or less. That optimum design for the original 1986 DINC cycle was modified to improve its energy efficiency. The modifications described in this paper were: (1) staging the desiccant regeneration air and (2) recirculation of the primary air to the secondary side of the indirect evaporative cooling. Computer simulations were run to study the effect of the modifications on the performance of the system. American Refrigeration Institute (AIR) standard conditions (Ambient air at 35C, 40% R.H. and Room air at 26.7C, 50% R.H.) were used for all the modifications. Results were also compared to the familiar Pennington (ventilation) cycle. The study indicated that recirculating the indirect evaporative cooler air only degenerated the performance. However, staging a portion of the regeneration air could improve the thermal coefficient of Performance by 25% over the non-staged DINC cycle. Compared to a similar staged-regeneration Pennington cycle it is a 16% improvement in thermal COP and the sensible heat ratio was 70%.

Waugaman, D.; Kini, A.; Kettleborough, C.F. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Flywheel Cooling: A Cooling Solution for Non Air-Conditioned Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"Flywheel Cooling" utillzes the natural cooling processes of evaporation, ventilation and air circulation. These systems are providing low-cost cooling for distribution centers, warehouses, and other non air-conditioned industrial assembly plants with little or no internal loads. The evaporative roof cooling system keeps the building from heating up during the day by misting the roof surface with a fine spray of water -just enough to evaporate. This process keeps the roof surface at 90° levels instead of 150° and knocks out the radiant heat transfer from the roof into the building. The system is controlled by a thermostat and automatically shuts off at night or when the roof surface cools below the set point. The same control system turns on exhaust fans to load the building with cool night air. Air circulators are installed to provide air movement on workers during the day. Best results are achieved by closing dock doors and minimizing hot air infiltration during the day. The typical application will maintain inside temperatures that will average 84° -86° when outside ambient temperatures range from 98 °-100°. Many satisfied users will attest to marked improvements in employee moral and productivity, along with providing safe storage temperatures for many products. Installed "Flywheel" systems' costs are usually less than 20% of comparable air-conditioning equipment. By keeping a built up roof cooler, the system will eliminate thermal shock and extend roof life while reducing maintenance.

Abernethy, D.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Passive heating and cooling strategies for single family housing in Fresno, California: a case study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study focuses on the integration of passive heating, cooling, and ventilating techniques for detached single family housing in Fresno, California. The energy use and patterns of energy use were simulated for a typical tract house in Fresno, and serves as a case study, to which energy saving strategies were applied and evaluated using Ener-Win software. The effectiveness of each strategy was assessed based on the annual savings, the initial cost, and a life-cycle cost analysis. Specific areas of evaluation include: shading, improving the R-value and infiltration rate of the building envelope, thermal mass, natural ventilation, and evaporative cooling. The optimum strategies selected utilize only traditional building techniques. Evaporative cooling used in conjunction with an air conditioner was the most effective energy reducing strategy, but a combination of purely passive strategies yield competitive results. Although the typical Fresno home is already energy efficient, small alterations provide energy savings up to 75% for space conditioning.

Winchester, Nathan James

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this measure guideline on evaporative condensers is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for energy and demand savings in homes with cooling loads. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices. This document has been prepared to provide a process for properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs.

German, A.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

A computer simulation appraisal of non-residential low energy cooling systems in California  

SciTech Connect

An appraisal of the potential performance of different Low Energy Cooling (LEC) systems in nonresidential buildings in California is being conducted using computer simulation. The paper presents results from the first phase of the study, which addressed the systems that can be modeled, with the DOE-2.1E simulation program. The following LEC technologies were simulated as variants of a conventional variable-air-volume system with vapor compression cooling and mixing ventilation in the occupied spaces: Air-side indirect and indirect/direct evaporative pre-cooling. Cool beams. Displacement ventilation. Results are presented for four populous climates, represented by Oakland, Sacramento, Pasadena and San Diego. The greatest energy savings are obtained from a combination of displacement ventilation and air-side indirect/direct evaporative pre-cooling. Cool beam systems have the lowest peak demand but do not reduce energy consumption significantly because the reduction in fan energy is offse t by a reduction in air-side free cooling. Overall, the results indicate significant opportunities for LEC technologies to reduce energy consumption and demand in nonresidential new construction and retrofit.

Bourassa, Norman; Haves, Philip; Huang, Joe

2002-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

98

The Temperature of Evaporating Sea Spray Droplets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evaporating sea spray droplets are often assumed to be at the temperature of a well-ventilated wet-bulb thermometer, Twet. Although this assumption may be accurate enough in practice, it is incorrect on theoretical grounds. Spray droplets have ...

Edgar L. Andreas

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Ventilation System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation System Basics Ventilation System Basics Ventilation System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:33pm Addthis Ventilation is the process of moving air into and out of an interior space by natural or mechanical means. Ventilation is necessary for the health and comfort of occupants of all buildings. Ventilation supplies air for occupants to breathe and removes moisture, odors, and indoor pollutants like carbon dioxide. Too little ventilation may result in poor indoor air quality, while too much may cause unnecessarily higher heating and cooling loads. Natural Ventilation Natural ventilation occurs when outdoor air is drawn inside through open windows or doors. Natural ventilation is created by the differences in the distribution of air pressures around a building. Air moves from areas of

100

Ventilation System Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation System Basics Ventilation System Basics Ventilation System Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:33pm Addthis Ventilation is the process of moving air into and out of an interior space by natural or mechanical means. Ventilation is necessary for the health and comfort of occupants of all buildings. Ventilation supplies air for occupants to breathe and removes moisture, odors, and indoor pollutants like carbon dioxide. Too little ventilation may result in poor indoor air quality, while too much may cause unnecessarily higher heating and cooling loads. Natural Ventilation Natural ventilation occurs when outdoor air is drawn inside through open windows or doors. Natural ventilation is created by the differences in the distribution of air pressures around a building. Air moves from areas of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Alternatives to compressor cooling in California climates  

SciTech Connect

This review and discussion has been prepared for the California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE) to examine research on alternatives to compressor cooling. The report focuses on strategies for eliminating compressors in California's transition climates -- moderately warm areas located between the cool coastal regions and the hot central regions. Many of these strategies could also help reduce compressor use in hotter climates. Compressor-driven cooling of residences in California's transition climate regions is an undesirable load for California's electric utilities because load factor is poor and usage is typically high during periods of system peak demand. We review a number of alternatives to compressors, including low-energy strategies: evaporative cooling, natural and induced ventilation, reflective coatings, shading with vegetation and improved glazing, thermal storage, and radiative cooling. Also included are two energy-intensive strategies: absorption cooling and desiccant cooling. Our literature survey leads us to conclude that many of these strategies, used either singly or in combination, are technically and economically feasible alternatives to compressor-driven cooling. 78 refs., 8 figs.

Feustel, H. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); de Almeida, A. (Coimbra Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Blumstein, C. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Universitywide Energy Research Group)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Ventilation Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Ventilation is the process of moving air into and out of an interior space by natural or mechanical means. Ventilation is necessary for the health and comfort of occupants of all buildings....

103

Sensitivity of Tropical Cyclone Intensity to Ventilation in an Axisymmetric Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sensitivity of tropical cyclone intensity to ventilation of cooler, drier air into the inner core is examined using an axisymmetric tropical cyclone model with parameterized ventilation. Sufficiently strong ventilation induces cooling of the ...

Brian Tang; Kerry Emanuel

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants ProMIS/Project No.:DE-NT0005647  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improvement to AIr2AIr® technology Improvement to AIr2AIr® technology to reduce Fresh-WAter evAporAtIve coolIng loss At coAl-BAsed thermoelectrIc poWer plAnts promIs/project no. :de-nt0005647 Background The production of electricity requires a reliable, abundant, and predictable source of freshwater - a resource that is limited in many parts of the United States and throughout the world. The process of thermoelectric generation from fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas is water intensive. According to the 2000 U.S. Geological Survey, thermoelectric-power withdrawals accounted for 48 percent of total water use, 39 percent of total freshwater withdrawals (136 billion gallons per day) for all categories, and 52 percent of fresh surface water withdrawals. As a growing economy drives the need for more electricity, demands on freshwater

105

Modeling buoyancy-driven airflow in ventilation shafts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Naturally ventilated buildings can significantly reduce the required energy for cooling and ventilating buildings by drawing in outdoor air using non-mechanical forces. Buoyancy-driven systems are common in naturally ...

Ray, Stephen D. (Stephen Douglas)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Natural ventilation : design for suburban houses in Thailand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural Ventilation is the most effective passive cooling design strategy for architecture in hot and humid climates. In Thailand, natural ventilation has been the most essential element in the vernacular architecture such ...

Tantasavasdi, Chalermwat, 1971-

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

A scale model study of displacement ventilation with chilled ceilings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Displacement ventilation is a form of air-conditioning which provides good air quality and some energy savings. The air quality is better than for a conventional mixed ventilation system. The maximum amount of cooling that ...

Holden, Katherine J. A. (Katherine Joan Adrienne)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Methodology for the evaluation of natural ventilation in buildings using a reduced-scale air model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Commercial office buildings predominantly are designed to be ventilated and cooled using mechanical systems. In temperate climates, passive ventilation and cooling techniques can be utilized to reduce energy consumption ...

Walker, Christine E. (Christine Elaine)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Analysis of climatic conditions and preliminary assessment of alternative cooling strategies for houses in California transition climate zones  

SciTech Connect

This is a preliminary scoping study done as part of the {open_quotes}Alternatives to Compressive Cooling in California Transition Climates{close_quotes} project, which has the goal of demonstrating that houses in the transitional areas between the coast and the Central Valley of California do not require air-conditioning if they are properly designed and operated. The first part of this report analyzes the climate conditions within the transitional areas, with emphasis on design rather than seasonal conditions. Transitional climates are found to be milder but more variable than those further inland. The design temperatures under the most stringent design criteria, e.g. 0.1 % annual, are similar to those in the Valley, but significantly lower under more relaxed design criteria, e.g., 2% annual frequency. Transition climates also have large day-night temperature swings, indicating significant potential for night cooling, and wet-bulb depressions in excess of 25 F, indicating good potential for evaporative cooling. The second part of the report is a preliminary assessment using DOE-2 computer simulations of the effectiveness of alternative cooling and control strategies in improving indoor comfort conditions in two conventional Title-24 houses modeled in various transition climate locations. The cooling measures studied include increased insulation, light colors, low-emissivity glazing, window overhangs, and exposed floor slab. The control strategies studied include natural and mechanical ventilation, and direct and two-stage evaporative cooling. The results indicate the cooling strategies all have limited effectiveness, and need to be combined to produce significant improvements in indoor comfort. Natural and forced ventilation provide similar improvements in indoor conditions, but during peak cooling periods, these will still be above the comfort zone. Two-stage evaporative coolers can maintain indoor comfort at all hours, but not so direct evaporative coolers.

Huang, Y.J.; Zhang, H.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Convection-Evaporation Feedback in the Equatorial pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The coupling between convection and surface evaporation is investigated to assess the importance of evaporative cooling in regulating the tropical sea surface temperature. It is found that such a coupling is scale dependent. On timescales of ...

Guang Jun Zhang; V. Ramanathan; Michael J. McPhaden

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Section 4.1.3 Natural Ventilation: Greening Federal Facilities...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in and through build- ings. These airflows may be used both for ventilation air and for passive cooling strategies. Natural ventila- tion is often strongly preferred by building...

112

Expansion and user study of CoolVent : inclusion of thermal comfort models in an early-design natural ventilation tool  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CoolVent, a software design tool for architects, has been improved. The work of Maria- Alejandra Menchaca-B. and colleagues has been improved to include a more robust and intuitive building and window dimensioning scheme, ...

Rich, Rebecca E. (Rebecca Eileen)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

DRIFT : a numerical simulation solution for cooling tower drift eliminator performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A method for the analysis of the performance of standard industrial evaporative cooling tower drift

Chan, Joseph Kwok-Kwong

114

"Increasing Solar Panel Efficiency And Reliability By Evaporative...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Increasing Solar Panel Efficiency And Reliability By Evaporative Cooling" Inventors..--.. Lewis Meixler, Charles Gentile, Patricia Hillyer, Dylan Carpe, Jason Wang, Caroline Brooks...

115

Performance Assessment of Photovoltaic Attic Ventilator Fans  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Controlling summer attic heat gain is important to reducing air conditioning energy use in homes in hot-humid climates. Both heat transfer through ceilings and t attic duct systems can make up a large part of peak cooling demand, Attic ventilation has long been identified as a method to abate such heat gains. We present test results from using the photovoltaic (PV) attic ventilator fans in a test home to assess impact on attic and cooling energy performance.

Parker, D. S.; Sherwin, J. R.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Analysis of Evaporation Data From Heated Ponds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Controlled field experiments have improved understanding of the role evaporation plays in the thermal performance and water consumption of utility cooling ponds. The data show significant effects of water surface temperature, fetch or wind direction, and pond sheltering.

1987-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

117

Shading and Cooling: Impacts of Solar Control and Windows on Indoor Airflow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

movement for thermal  comfort: evaporative cooling is less wind?driven cooling acceptable  for thermal comfort?  What is wind?driven cooling acceptable for thermal comfort?  

Hildebrand, Penapa Wankaeo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Assessment of Energy Use and Comfort in Buildings Utilizing Mixed-Mode Controls with Radiant Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

can often be met by cooling towers, heat exchange with theradiant surfaces, and cooling towers that chill water toby evaporative chillers or cooling towers) and/or night

Borgeson, Samuel Dalton

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Passive containment cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Robinson Township, Allegheny County, PA); Stewart, William A. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Subsurface Ventilation System Description Document  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Subsurface Ventilation System supports the construction and operation of the subsurface repository by providing air for personnel and equipment and temperature control for the underground areas. Although the system is located underground, some equipment and features may be housed or located above ground. The system ventilates the underground by providing ambient air from the surface throughout the subsurface development and emplacement areas. The system provides fresh air for a safe work environment and supports potential retrieval operations by ventilating and cooling emplacement drifts. The system maintains compliance within the limits established for approved air quality standards. The system maintains separate ventilation between the development and waste emplacement areas. The system shall remove a portion of the heat generated by the waste packages during preclosure to support thermal goals. The system provides temperature control by reducing drift temperature to support potential retrieval operations. The ventilation system has the capability to ventilate selected drifts during emplacement and retrieval operations. The Subsurface Facility System is the main interface with the Subsurface Ventilation System. The location of the ducting, seals, filters, fans, emplacement doors, regulators, and electronic controls are within the envelope created by the Ground Control System in the Subsurface Facility System. The Subsurface Ventilation System also interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical System for power, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System to ensure proper and safe operation, the Safeguards and Security System for access to the emplacement drifts, the Subsurface Fire Protection System for fire safety, the Emplacement Drift System for repository performance, and the Backfill Emplacement and Subsurface Excavation Systems to support ventilation needs.

Eric Loros

2001-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Subsurface Ventilation System Description Document  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Subsurface Ventilation System supports the construction and operation of the subsurface repository by providing air for personnel and equipment and temperature control for the underground areas. Although the system is located underground, some equipment and features may be housed or located above ground. The system ventilates the underground by providing ambient air from the surface throughout the subsurface development and emplacement areas. The system provides fresh air for a safe work environment and supports potential retrieval operations by ventilating and cooling emplacement drifts. The system maintains compliance within the limits established for approved air quality standards. The system maintains separate ventilation between the development and waste emplacement areas. The system shall remove a portion of the heat generated by the waste packages during preclosure to support thermal goals. The system provides temperature control by reducing drift temperature to support potential retrieval operations. The ventilation system has the capability to ventilate selected drifts during emplacement and retrieval operations. The Subsurface Facility System is the main interface with the Subsurface Ventilation System. The location of the ducting, seals, filters, fans, emplacement doors, regulators, and electronic controls are within the envelope created by the Ground Control System in the Subsurface Facility System. The Subsurface Ventilation System also interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical System for power, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System to ensure proper and safe operation, the Safeguards and Security System for access to the emplacement drifts, the Subsurface Fire Protection System for fire safety, the Emplacement Drift System for repository performance, and the Backfill Emplacement and Subsurface Excavation Systems to support ventilation needs.

NONE

2000-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

122

Ventilation measurements in large office buildings  

SciTech Connect

Ventilation rates were measured in nine office buildings using an automated tracer gas measuring system. The buildings range in size from a two-story federal building with a floor area of about 20,000 ft/sup 2/ (1900 m/sup 2/) to a 26-story office building with a floor area of 700,000 ft/sup 2/ (65,000 m/sup 2/). The ventilation rates were measured for about 100 hours in each building over a range of weather conditions. The results are presented and examined for variation with time and weather. In most cases, the ventilation rate of a building is similar for hot and cold weather. In mild weather, outdoor air is used to cool the building and the ventilation rate increases. In the buildings where infiltration is a significant portion of the total ventilation rate, this total rate exhibits a dependence on weather conditions. The measured ventilation rates are discussed in relation to the outdoor air intake strategy in each building. The ventilation rates are also compared to the design rates in the buildings and ventilation rates based on the ASHRAE Standard 62-81. Some of the buildings are at times operated at lower ventilation rates than recommended in Standard 62-81.

Persily, A.K.; Grot, R.A.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Suncatcher and cool pool. Project report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Suncatcher is a simple, conical solar concentrating device that captures light entering clerestory windows and directs it onto thermal storage elements at the back of a south facing living space. The cone shape and inclination are designed to capture low angle winter sunlight and to reflect away higher angle summer sunlight. It is found that winter radiation through a Suncatcher window is 40 to 50% higher than through an ordinary window, and that the average solar fraction is 59%. Water-filled steal culvert pipes used for thermal storage are found to undergo less stratification, and thus to be more effective, when located where sunlight strikes the bottom rather than the top. Five Suncatcher buildings are described. Designs are considered for 32/sup 0/, 40/sup 0/ and 48/sup 0/ north latitude, and as the latitude increases, the inclination angle of the cone should be lowered. The Cool Pool is an evaporating, shaded roof pond which thermosiphons cool water into water-filled columns within a building. Preliminary experiments indicate that the best shade design has unimpeded north sky view, good ventilation, complete summer shading, a low architectural profile, and low cost attic vent lowers work. Another series of experiments established the satisfactory performance of the Cool Pool on a test building using four water-filled cylinders, two cylinders, and two cylinders connected to the Cool Pool through a heat exchanger. Although an unshaded pool cools better at night than a shaded one, daytime heat gain far offsets this advantage. A vinyl waterbag heat exchanger was developed for use with the Cool Pool. (LEW)

Hammond, J.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Breathing HRV by the Concept of AC Ventilation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Breathing HRV by the Concept of AC Ventilation Breathing HRV by the Concept of AC Ventilation Speaker(s): Hwataik Han Date: July 10, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Thomas McKone Heat recovery ventilators are frequently used to save heating/cooling loads of buildings for ventilation. There are several types of HRV's, including a parallel plate type, a rotary type, a capillary type, and a heat pipe type. The breathing HRV is a heat recovery ventilator of a new kind using the concept of alternating-current ventilation. The AC ventilation is the ventilation with the airflow directions reversed periodically. It has an advantage of using a single duct system, for both supply and exhaust purposes. In order to develop a breathing HRV system, the thermal recovery performance should be investigated depending on many parameters, such as

125

Ventilation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation Ventilation Ventilation Controlled ventilation keeps energy-efficient homes healthy and comfortable. Learn more about ventilation. Controlled ventilation keeps energy-efficient homes healthy and comfortable. Learn more about ventilation. When creating an energy-efficient, airtight home through air sealing, it's very important to consider ventilation. Unless properly ventilated, an airtight home can seal in indoor air pollutants. Ventilation also helps control moisture-another important consideration for a healthy, energy-efficient home. Featured Whole-House Ventilation A whole-house ventilation system with dedicated ducting in a new energy-efficient home. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/brebca. Tight, energy-efficient homes require mechanical -- usually whole-house --

126

Hybrid Wet/Dry Cooling for Power Plants (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation includes an overview of cooling options, an analysis of evaporative enhancement of air-cooled geothermal power plants, field measurements at a geothermal plant, a preliminary analysis of trough plant, and improvements to air-cooled condensers.

Kutscher, C.; Buys, A.; Gladden, C.

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Steam-Electric Power-Plant-Cooling Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The Steam-Electric Power Plant Cooling Handbook provides summary data on steam-electric power plant capacity, generation and number of plants for each cooling means, by Electric Regions, Water Resource Regions and National Electric Reliability Council Areas. Water consumption by once-through cooling, cooling ponds and wet evaporative towers is discussed and a methodology for computation of water consumption is provided for a typical steam-electric plant which uses a wet evaporative tower or cooling pond for cooling.

Sonnichsen, J.C.; Carlson, H.A.; Charles, P.D.; Jacobson, L.D.; Tadlock, L.A.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning May 29, 2012 - 5:22pm Addthis This breakthrough combines desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90 percent less electricity and up to 80 percent less total energy than traditional air conditioning. This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings. View the entire Lab Breakthrough playlist. What are the key facts? Recent materials advances and liquid desiccant advances to design the compact and cost-effective DEVAP system. DEVAP uses 90 percent less electricity and up to 80 percent less

129

Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning May 29, 2012 - 5:22pm Addthis This breakthrough combines desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90 percent less electricity and up to 80 percent less total energy than traditional air conditioning. This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings. View the entire Lab Breakthrough playlist. What are the key facts? Recent materials advances and liquid desiccant advances to design the compact and cost-effective DEVAP system.

130

A model-based predictive supervisory controller for multi-evaporator HVAC systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multi-evaporator vapor compression cooling systems are representative of the complex, distributed nature of modern HVAC systems. Earlier research efforts focused on the development of a decentralized control architecture for individual evaporators that ...

Matthew S. Elliott; Bryan P. Rasmussen

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Liquid ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For 350 million years, fish have breathed liquid through gills. Mammals evolved lungs to breathe air. Rarely, circumstances can occur when a mammal needs to `turn back the clock' to breathe through a special liquid medium. This is particularly true if surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung is increased, as in acute lung injury. In this condition, surface tension increases because the pulmonary surfactant system is damaged, causing alveolar collapse, atelectasis, increased right-to-left shunt and hypoxaemia. 69 The aims of treatment are: (i) to offset increased forces causing lung collapse by applying mechanical ventilation with PEEP; (ii) to decrease alveolar surface tension with exogenous surfactant; (iii) to eliminate the air-liquid interface by filling the lung with a fluid in

U. Kaisers; K. P. Kelly; T. Busch

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 {+-} 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

133

JILA Physicists Achieve Elusive 'Evaporative Cooling' of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... new X-Wing, which opened earlier this year. ... pulses that tweak the molecules' energy states to ... are affected, and which molecular energies to cull. ...

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

134

Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems Title Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation...

135

Direct Evaporative Precooling Model and Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Evaporative condenser pre-cooling expands the availability of energy saving, cost-effective technology options (market engagement) and serves to expedite the range of options in upcoming codes and equipment standards (impacting regulation). Commercially available evaporative pre-coolers provide a low cost retrofit for existing packaged rooftop units, commercial unitary split systems, and air cooled chillers. We map the impact of energy savings and peak energy reduction in the 3 building types (medium office, secondary school, and supermarket) in 16 locations for three building types with four pad effectivenesses and show the effect for HVAC systems using either refrigerants R22 or R410A

Shen, Bo [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Craddick, William G [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 Authors Fisk, William J., Mark J. Mendell, Molly Davies, Ekaterina Eliseeva, David Faulkner, Tienzen Hong, and Douglas P. Sullivan Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory City Berkeley Keywords absence, building s, carbon dioxide, demand - controlled ventilation, energy, indoor air quality, schools, ventilation Abstract This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling. Major findings included:  The single-location carbon dioxide sensors widely used for demand controlled ventilation frequently have large errors and will fail to effectively control ventilation rates (VRs).  Multi-location carbon dioxide measurement systems with more expensive sensors connected to multi-location sampling systems may measure carbon dioxide more accurately.

137

Performance analysis of heat transfer processes from wet and dry surfaces : cooling towers and heat exchangers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objective of this work is to study the thermal and hydraulic performance of evaporatively cooled heat exchangers, including closed wet cooling towers, and dry… (more)

Hasan, Ala Ali

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Performance Analysis of Heat Transfer Processes from Wet and Dry Surfaces: Cooling Towers and Heat Exchangers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objective of this work is to study the thermal and hydraulic performance of evaporatively cooled heat exchangers, including closed wet cooling towers, and dry… (more)

Hasan, Ala Ali

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

VENTILATION NEEDS DURING CONSTRUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this analysis is to determine ventilation needs during construction and development of the subsurface repository and develop systems to satisfy those needs. For this analysis, construction is defined as pre-emplacement excavation and development is excavation that takes place simultaneously with emplacement. The three options presented in the ''Overall Development and Emplacement Ventilation Systems'' analysis (Reference 5.5) for development ventilation will be applied to construction ventilation in this analysis as well as adding new and updated ventilation factors to each option for both construction and development. The objective of this analysis is to develop a preferred ventilation system to support License Application Design. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Description of ventilation conditions; (2) Ventilation factors (fire hazards, dust control, construction logistics, and monitoring and control systems); (3) Local ventilation alternatives; (4) Global ventilation options; and (5) Evaluation of options.

C.R. Gorrell

1998-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

140

Intelligent Control of Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposed a simulation-optimization energy saving strategy for heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems' condenser water loop through intelligent control of single speed cooling towers' components. An analysis of system components ...

Patrick Low Kie; Lau Bee Theng

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Natural vs. mechanical ventilation and cooling.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to a hybrid approach to space conditioning that uses aconditioning control strategies, usually in terms of whether they exist in different spaces (

Brager, Gail; Alspach, Peter; Nall, Daniel H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Natural vs. mechanical ventilation and cooling.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cant and well-docu- mented. ASHRAE Standard 55 prescribes aless comfortable. ASHRAE Standard 55-2004 includes an “adap-and standards, includ- ing ASHRAE Standard 90.1. Mechanical

Brager, Gail; Alspach, Peter; Nall, Daniel H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Cooling airflow design tool for displacement ventilation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

zone.   Heat load from heat conduction through the room Total heat load from heat conduction through the room the heat gain from heat conduction through the room envelope

Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Carbon-dioxide-controlled ventilation study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The In-House Energy Management (IHEM) Program has been established by the U.S. Department of Energy to provide funds to federal laboratories to conduct research on energy-efficient technology. The Energy Sciences Department of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was tasked by IHEM to research the energy savings potential associated with reducing outdoor-air ventilation of buildings. By monitoring carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels in a building, outdoor air provided by the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system can be reduced to the percentage required to maintain satisfactory CO{sub 2} levels rather than ventilating with a higher outdoor-air percentage based on an arbitrary minimum outdoor-air setting. During summer months, warm outdoor air brought into a building for ventilation must be cooled to meet the appropriate cooling supply-air temperature, and during winter months, cold outdoor air must be heated. By minimizing the amount of hot or cold outdoor air brought into the HVAC system, the supply air requires less cooling or heating, saving energy and money. Additionally, the CO{sub 2} levels in a building can be monitored to ensure that adequate outdoor air is supplied to a building to maintain air quality levels. The two main considerations prior to implementing CO{sub 2}-based ventilation control are its impact on energy consumption and the adequacy of indoor air quality (IAQ) and occupant comfort. To address these considerations, six portable CO{sub 2} monitors were placed in several Hanford Site buildings to estimate the adequacy of office/workspace ventilation. The monitors assessed the potential for reducing the flow of outdoor-air to the buildings. A candidate building was also identified to monitor various ventilation control strategies for use in developing a plan for implementing and assessing energy savings.

McMordie, K.L.; Carroll, D.M.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Numerical Investigations of the Roles of Radiative and Evaporative Feedbacks in Stratocumulus Entrainment and Breakup  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When the surface buoyancy flux is small and the shear is weak, turbulence circulations within a stratus-topped boundary layer are driven by two buoyancy-generating processes at cloud top: radiative cooling and evaporative cooling. These two ...

Chin-Hoh Moeng; Don H. Lenschow; David A. Randall

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Coolerado Cooler Helps to Save Cooling Energy and Dollars: New Cooling Technology Targets Peak Load Reduction  

SciTech Connect

This document is about a new evaporative cooling technology that can deliver cooler supply air temperatures than either direct or indirect evaporative cooling systems, without increasing humidity. The Coolerado Cooler technology can help Federal agencies reach the energy-use reduction goals of EPAct 2005, particularly in the western United States.

Robichaud, R.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Ventilation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation Ventilation Ventilation May 7, 2012 - 2:49pm Addthis This ventilation system in a tight, energy-efficient home ensures good indoor air quality. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/brebca. This ventilation system in a tight, energy-efficient home ensures good indoor air quality. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/brebca. What does this mean for me? After you've reduced air leakage in your home, adequate ventilation is critical for health and comfort. Depending on your climate, there are a number of strategies to ventilate your home. Ventilation is very important in an energy-efficient home. Air sealing techniques can reduce air leakage to the point that contaminants with known health effects such as formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, and radon

148

Ventilation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation Ventilation Ventilation May 7, 2012 - 2:49pm Addthis This ventilation system in a tight, energy-efficient home ensures good indoor air quality. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/brebca. This ventilation system in a tight, energy-efficient home ensures good indoor air quality. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto.com/brebca. What does this mean for me? After you've reduced air leakage in your home, adequate ventilation is critical for health and comfort. Depending on your climate, there are a number of strategies to ventilate your home. Ventilation is very important in an energy-efficient home. Air sealing techniques can reduce air leakage to the point that contaminants with known health effects such as formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, and radon

149

The Ventilated Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Adiabatic theories of ocean circulation and density structure have a long tradition, from the concept of the ventilated thermocline to the notion that deep ocean ventilation is controlled by westerly winds over the Southern Ocean. This study ...

Patrick Haertel; Alexey Fedorov

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

VENTILATION MODEL REPORT  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their postclosure analyses.

V. Chipman

2002-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

151

Design of a Solar Thermal Powered Cooling System.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Abstract The main objective of the thesis was to design a mechanical structure for a desiccant evaporative cooling, to apply solar thermal powered air conditioning… (more)

Hurri, Olli

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Passive cooling system for a vehicle - Energy Innovation Portal  

The passive cooling system includes one or more heat pipes (112) having an evaporator section ... Building Energy Efficiency; ... Solar Thermal; Startup America;

153

Comparative evaluation of cooling tower drift eliminator performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The performance of standard industrial evaporative cooling tower drift eliminators is analyzed using experiments and numerical simulations. The experiments measure the

Chan, Joseph Kwok-Kwong

154

Energy Efficient, Evaporative Desalination Using ...  

Energy Efficient, Evaporative Desalination Using Superhydrophobic (SH) Technology Evaporative desalination is a simple and easy way to convert salt ...

155

An Analysis of the Effect of Local Heat Advection on Evaporation over Wet and Dry Surface Strips  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of local advection on evaporation and Bowen ratio over alternating crosswind infinite dry-warm and wet-cool surface strips (patches), by redistribution of surface heat, is analysed. The analysis shows that evaporation over the region ...

Ya Guo; Peter H. Schuepp

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning: Parametric Analysis and Design; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a parametric analysis using a numerical model of a new concept in desiccant and evaporative air conditioning. The concept consists of two stages: a liquid desiccant dehumidifier and a dew-point evaporative cooler. Each stage consists of stacked air channel pairs separated by a plastic sheet. In the first stage, a liquid desiccant film removes moisture from the process (supply-side) air through a membrane. An evaporatively-cooled exhaust airstream on the other side of the plastic sheet cools the desiccant. The second-stage indirect evaporative cooler sensibly cools the dried process air. We analyze the tradeoff between device size and energy efficiency. This tradeoff depends strongly on process air channel thicknesses, the ratio of first-stage to second-stage area, and the second-stage exhaust air flow rate. A sensitivity analysis reiterates the importance of the process air boundary layers and suggests a need for increasing airside heat and mass transfer enhancements.

Woods, J.; Kozubal, E.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Solar Desiccant Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solar Desiccant Cooling Solar Desiccant Cooling Speaker(s): Paul Bourdoukan Date: December 6, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Ashok Gadgil The development of HVAC systems is a real challenge regarding its environmental impact. An innovative technique operating only by means of water and solar energy, is desiccant cooling. The principle is evaporative cooling with the introduction of a dehumidification unit, the desiccant wheel to control the humidity levels. The regeneration of the desiccant wheel requires a preheated airstream. A solar installation is a very interesting option for providing the preheated airstream. In France, at the University of La Rochelle, and at the National Institute of Solar Energy (INES), the investigation of the solar desiccant cooling technique has been

158

User's Manual: Cooling-Tower-Plume Prediction Code  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilities planning to build generating plants that use evaporative cooling are required to estimate potential seasonal and annual environmental effects of cooling-tower plumes. An easy-to-use computerized method is now available for making such estimates.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Sensor-based demand controlled ventilation  

SciTech Connect

In most buildings, occupancy and indoor pollutant emission rates vary with time. With sensor-based demand-controlled ventilation (SBDCV), the rate of ventilation (i.e., rate of outside air supply) also varies with time to compensate for the changes in pollutant generation. In other words, SBDCV involves the application of sensing, feedback and control to modulate ventilation. Compared to ventilation without feedback, SBDCV offers two potential advantages: (1) better control of indoor pollutant concentrations; and (2) lower energy use and peak energy demand. SBDCV has the potential to improve indoor air quality by increasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are high and occupants are present. SBDCV can also save energy by decreasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are low or occupants are absent. After providing background information on indoor air quality and ventilation, this report provides a relatively comprehensive discussion of SBDCV. Topics covered in the report include basic principles of SBDCV, sensor technologies, technologies for controlling air flow rates, case studies of SBDCV, application of SBDCV to laboratory buildings, and research needs. SBDCV appears to be an increasingly attractive technology option. Based on the review of literature and theoretical considerations, the application of SBDCV has the potential to be cost-effective in applications with the following characteristics: (a) a single or small number of dominant pollutants, so that ventilation sufficient to control the concentration of the dominant pollutants provides effective control of all other pollutants; (b) large buildings or rooms with unpredictable temporally variable occupancy or pollutant emission; and (c) climates with high heating or cooling loads or locations with expensive energy.

De Almeida, A.T. [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dep. Eng. Electrotecnica; Fisk, W.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Building Science - Ventilation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation Ventilation Joseph Lstiburek, Ph.D., P.Eng, ASHRAE Fellow www.buildingscience.com Build Tight - Ventilate Right Building Science Corporation Joseph Lstiburek 2 Build Tight - Ventilate Right How Tight? What's Right? Building Science Corporation Joseph Lstiburek 3 Air Barrier Metrics Material 0.02 l/(s-m2) @ 75 Pa Assembly 0.20 l/(s-m2) @ 75 Pa Enclosure 2.00 l/(s-m2) @ 75 Pa 0.35 cfm/ft2 @ 50 Pa 0.25 cfm/ft2 @ 50 Pa 0.15 cfm/ft2 @ 50 Pa Building Science Corporation Joseph Lstiburek 4 Getting rid of big holes 3 ach@50 Getting rid of smaller holes 1.5 ach@50 Getting German 0.6 ach@50 Building Science Corporation Joseph Lstiburek 5 Best As Tight as Possible - with - Balanced Ventilation Energy Recovery Distribution Source Control - Spot exhaust ventilation Filtration

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

ASHRAE and residential ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

conditioning Engineers. 2001. ASHRAE, “Indoor Air QualityABOUT/IAQ_papr01.htm ASHRAE. “Standard 62.2-2003:Ventilation Requirements. ” ASHRAE Journal, pp. 51- 55, June

Sherman, Max H.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Measuring Residential Ventilation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

measured. The local exhaust flows can be measured or can meet prescriptive ducting and fan labeling requirements that use ratings provided by the Home Ventilating Institute (HVI,...

163

Development of a Dedicated 100 Percent Ventilation Air Heat Pump  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The concept of using dedicated 100 percent ventilation makeup air conditioning units to meet indoor air quality standards is attractive because of the inherent advantages. However, it is challenging to design and build direct expansion unitary equipment for this purpose. EPRI teamed with ClimateMaster to develop and test a prototype of a vapor compression heat pump to advance the state of the art in such equipment. The prototype unit provides deep dehumidification and cooling of ventilation air in the su...

2000-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

164

Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

165

Personal cooling apparatus and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable lightweight cooling apparatus for cooling a human body is disclosed, having a channeled sheet which absorbs sweat and/or evaporative liquid, a layer of highly conductive fibers adjacent the channeled sheet; and, an air-moving device for moving air through the channeled sheet, wherein the layer of fibers redistributes heat uniformly across the object being cooled, while the air moving within the channeled sheet evaporates sweat and/or other evaporative liquid, absorbs evaporated moisture and the uniformly distributed heat generated by the human body, and discharges them into the environment. Also disclosed is a method for removing heat generated by the human body, comprising the steps of providing a garment to be placed in thermal communication with the body; placing a layer of highly conductive fibers within the garment adjacent the body for uniformly distributing the heat generated by the body; attaching an air-moving device in communication with the garment for forcing air into the garment; removably positioning an exchangeable heat sink in communication with the air-moving device for cooling the air prior to the air entering the garment; and, equipping the garment with a channeled sheet in communication with the air-moving device so that air can be directed into the channeled sheet and adjacent the layer of fibers to expell heat and moisture from the body by the air being directed out of the channeled sheet and into the environment. The cooling system may be configured to operate in both sealed and unsealed garments.

Siman-Tov, Moshe (Knoxville, TN); Crabtree, Jerry Allen (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Why We Ventilate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Why We Ventilate Why We Ventilate Title Why We Ventilate Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBNL-5093E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Logue, Jennifer M., Phillip N. Price, Max H. Sherman, and Brett C. Singer Conference Name Proceedings of the 2011 32nd AIVC Conference and 1st Tightvent Conference Date Published October 2011 Conference Location Brussels, Belgium Keywords indoor environment department, resave, ventilation and air cleaning Abstract It is widely accepted that ventilation is critical for providing good indoor air quality (IAQ) in homes. However, the definition of "good" IAQ, and the most effective, energy efficient methods for delivering it are still matters of research and debate. This paper presents the results of work done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab to identify the air pollutants that drive the need for ventilation as part of a larger effort to develop a health-based ventilation standard. First, we present results of a hazard analysis that identified the pollutants that most commonly reach concentrations in homes that exceed health-based standards or guidelines for chronic or acute exposures. Second, we present results of an impact assessment that identified the air pollutants that cause the most harm to the U.S. population from chronic inhalation in residences. Lastly, we describe the implications of our findings for developing effective ventilation standards.

167

Multifamily Ventilation Retrofit Strategies  

SciTech Connect

In multifamily buildings, central ventilation systems often have poor performance, overventilating some portions of the building (causing excess energy use), while simultaneously underventilating other portions (causing diminished indoor air quality). BSC and Innova Services Corporation performed a series of field tests at a mid-rise test building undergoing a major energy audit and retrofit, which included ventilation system upgrades.

Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.; Bergey, D.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Multifamily Ventilation - Best Practice?  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Multifamily Ventilation - Best Practice? Multifamily Ventilation - Best Practice? Dianne Griffiths April 29, 2013 Presentation Outline * Basic Objectives * Exhaust Systems * Make-up Air Systems Two Primary Ventilation Objectives 1) Providing Fresh Air - Whole-House 2) Removing Pollutants - Local Exhaust Our goal is to find the simplest solution that satisfies both objectives while minimizing cost and energy impacts. Common Solution: Align local exhaust with fresh air requirements (Ex: 25 Bath + 25 Kitchen) Exhaust-Driven Fresh Air Design * Exhaust slightly depressurizes the units * Outside air enters through leaks, cracks, or planned inlets * Widely used in the North Multifamily Ventilation Best Practice * Step 1: Understand ventilation requirements * Step 2: Select the simplest design that can

169

Whole Building Ventilation Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Whole-Building Whole-Building Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. Home Performance / Weatherization  Addressing ventilation is the exception  Max tightness, e.g. BPI's "Building Airflow Standard" (BAS)  References ASHRAE 62-89  BAS = Max [0.35 ACH, 15 CFM/person], CFM50 eq.  If BD tests show natural infiltration below BAS...  Ventilation must be recommended or installed.  SO DON'T AIR SEAL TO MUCH! © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. © 2011 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. Ventilation Requirements Ventilation systems for existing homes that are:

170

Soluble Substances and Evaporation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Soluble Substances and Evaporation Soluble Substances and Evaporation Name: JD Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: FL Country: New Zealand Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: Do soluble substances evaporate with the water? Replies: JD, As a general rule, no. If the soluble substance is a solid, then its boiling point is well above that of water, so it cannot possibly boil off. If the substance is a liquid, it may have a boiling point that is below that of water and will boil off at a lower temperature than water. If the boiling point is higher than that of water, than it will boil off after the water has evaporated. Some substances, like ethanol for example, form an "azeotrope" with water. The combination of ethanol and water form a tight intermolecular connection that makes the two substances boil off at the same time.

171

A New Ventilation System Integrates Total Energy Recovery, Conventional Cooling and a Novel 'Passive' Dehumidification Wheel to Mitigate the Energy, Humidity Control and First Cost Concerns Often Raised when Designing for ASHRAE Standard 62-1999 Compliance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper introduces a novel, ''passive" desiccant based outdoor air preconditioning system (PDH) that is shown to be significantly more energy-efficient than all known alternatives, and has the unique ability to dehumidify outdoor air streams to very low dewpoints unattainable with conventional cooling approaches. The system allows for precise control of the indoor space humidity while delivering high quantities of outdoor air, at both peak and part load conditions, and during both occupied and unoccupied modes. Low operating cost, reasonable first cost and a significant reduction in cooling plant capacity requirements provide a life cycle cost that is substantially less than that of more conventional system approaches.

Fischer, J. C.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System provides heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) for the contaminated, potentially contaminated, and uncontaminated areas of the Monitored Geologic Repository's (MGR) Waste Treatment Building (WTB). In the uncontaminated areas, the non-confinement area ventilation system maintains the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort. In the contaminated and potentially contaminated areas, in addition to maintaining the proper environmental conditions for personnel comfort and equipment operation, the contamination confinement area ventilation system directs potentially contaminated air away from personnel in the WTB and confines the contamination within high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration units. The contamination confinement area ventilation system creates airflow paths and pressure zones to minimize the potential for spreading contamination with the building. The contamination confinement ventilation system also protects the environment and the public by limiting airborne releases of radioactive or other hazardous contaminants from the WTB. The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System confines the radioactive and hazardous material within the building such that the release rates comply with regulatory limits, The system design, operations, and maintenance activities incorporate ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) principles to maintain personnel radiation doses to all occupational workers below regulatory limits and as low as is reasonably achievable. The system provides status of important system parameters and equipment operation, and provides audible and/or visual indication of off-normal conditions and equipment failures. The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System interfaces with the Waste Treatment Building System by being located in the WTB, and by maintaining specific pressure, temperature, and humidity environments within the building. The system also depends on the WTB for normal electric power supply and the required supply of water for heating, cooling, and humidification. Interface with the Waste Treatment Building System includes the WTB fire protection subsystem for detection of fire and smoke. The Waste Treatment Building Ventilation System interfaces with the Site Radiological Monitoring System for continuous monitoring of the exhaust air and key areas within the WTB, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for monitoring and control of system operations, and the Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System and Site Generated Hazardous, Non-Hazardous & Sanitary Waste Disposal System for routing of pretreated toxic, corrosive, and radiologically contaminated effluent from process equipment to the HEPA filter exhaust ductwork and air-cleaning unit.

P.A. Kumar

2000-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

173

Air-Cooled Condenser Design, Specification, and Operation Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In contrast to once-through and evaporative cooling systems, use of the air-cooled condenser (ACC) for heat rejection in steam electric power plants has historically been very limited, especially in the United States. However, greater industry focus on water conservation - combined with continued concern over the environmental effects of once-through and evaporative cooling - will almost certainly increase interest in ACC applications. While operating experience and performance data are, to some extent, ...

2005-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

174

Residential Ventilation & Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 Residential Ventilation & Energy Figure 1: Annual Average Ventilation Costs of the Current U.S. Single-Family Housing Stock ($/year/house). Infiltration and ventilation in dwellings is conventionally believed to account for one-third to one-half of space conditioning energy. Unfortunately, there is not a great deal of measurement data or analysis to substantiate this assumption. As energy conservation improvements to the thermal envelope continue, the fraction of energy consumed by the conditioning of air may increase. Air-tightening programs, while decreasing energy requirements, have the tendency to decrease ventilation and its associated energy penalty at the possible expense of adequate indoor air quality. Therefore, more energy may be spent on conditioning air.

175

Why We Ventilate  

SciTech Connect

It is widely accepted that ventilation is critical for providing good indoor air quality (IAQ) in homes. However, the definition of"good" IAQ, and the most effective, energy efficient methods for delivering it are still matters of research and debate. This paper presents the results of work done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab to identify the air pollutants that drive the need for ventilation as part of a larger effort to develop a health-based ventilation standard. First, we present results of a hazard analysis that identified the pollutants that most commonly reach concentrations in homes that exceed health-based standards or guidelines for chronic or acute exposures. Second, we present results of an impact assessment that identified the air pollutants that cause the most harm to the U.S. population from chronic inhalation in residences. Lastly, we describe the implications of our findings for developing effective ventilation standards.

Logue, Jennifer M.; Sherman, Max H.; Price, Phil N.; Singer, Brett C.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Best Management Practice: Cooling Tower Management | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Best Management Practice: Cooling Tower Management Best Management Practice: Cooling Tower Management Best Management Practice: Cooling Tower Management October 8, 2013 - 9:39am Addthis Cooling towers regulate temperature by dissipating heat from recirculating water used to cool chillers, air-conditioning equipment, or other process equipment. Heat is rejected from the tower primarily through evaporation. Therefore, by design, cooling towers consume significant amounts of water. Overview The thermal efficiency and longevity of the cooling tower and equipment used to cool depend on the proper management of water recirculated through the tower. Water leaves a cooling tower system in any one of four ways: Evaporation: This is the primary function of the tower and is the method that transfers heat from the cooling tower system to the

177

Oriented spray-assisted cooling tower  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Apparatus useful for heat exchange by evaporative cooling when employed in conjunction with a conventional cooling tower. The arrangement includes a header pipe which is used to divert a portion of the water in the cooling tower supply conduit up stream of the cooling tower to a multiplicity of vertical pipes and spray nozzles which are evenly spaced external to the cooling tower so as to produce a uniform spray pattern oriented toward the central axis of the cooling tower and thereby induce an air flow into the cooling tower which is greater than otherwise achieved. By spraying the water to be cooled towards the cooling tower in a region external to the cooling tower in a manner such that the spray falls just short of the cooling tower basin, the spray does not interfere with the operation of the cooling tower, proper, and the-maximum increase in air velocity is achieved just above the cooling tower basin where it is most effective. The sprayed water lands on a concrete or asphalt apron which extends from the header pipe to the cooling tower basin and is gently sloped towards the cooling tower basin such that the sprayed water drains into the basin. By diverting a portion of the water to be cooled to a multiplicity of sprays external to the cooling tower, thermal performance is improved. 4 figs.

Bowman, C.F.

1995-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

178

Hot air drum evaporator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

Black, Roger L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

A computer simulation appraisal of non-residential low energy cooling systems in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

evaporative pre-cool on a vapor compression system. H eatingventilation with vapor compression system. Heating Coilschematic of the baseline vapor compression built-up system.

Bourassa, Norman; Haves, Philip; Huang, Joe

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Summary of human responses to ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

low ventilation rates and increase in health problems:rate. As ventilation rates increase, benefits gained fordetermined that increases in ventilation rates above 10 Ls -

Seppanen, Olli A.; Fisk, William J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Infiltration in ASHRAE's Residential Ventilation Standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Related  to  Residential  Ventilation  Requirements”.  Rudd,  A.   2005.   “Review  of  Residential  Ventilation and  Matson  N.E. ,  “Residential  Ventilation  and  Energy 

Sherman, Max

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Design methods for displacement ventilation: Critical review.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Displacement Ventilation. ASHRAE Research project-RP-949.displacement ventilation. ASHRAE Transaction, 96 (1). Ar ???due to displacement ventilation. ASHRAE Transaction, 96 (1).

Schiavon, Stefano

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Operational test report integrated system test (ventilation upgrade)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Operational Final Test Report for Integrated Systems, Project W-030 (Phase 2 test, RECIRC and HIGH-HEAT Modes). Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks, including upgraded vapor space cooling and filtered venting of tanks AY101, Ay102, AZ101, AZ102.

HARTY, W.M.

1999-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

184

Alternate Cooling Methods for Industrial Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling in industrial facilities has traditionally been performed by mechanical vapor compression units. While it remains the standard, recent concerns with the rising cost of electricity and environmental legislation restricting or outlawing CFC refrigerants has caused many plants to evaluate existing cooling methods. This paper presents case studies on alternate cooling methods used for space conditioning at several different industrial facilities. Methods discussed include direct and indirect evaporative, desiccant, and absorption cooling. Cooling effectiveness, operating cost and investment are also presented. Data for this evaluation was collected from clients served by Georgia Tech's Industrial Energy Extension Service, a state-sponsored energy conservation assistance program.

Brown, M.; Moore, D.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Effects of Material Moisture Adsorption and Desorption on Building Cooling Loads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Moisture adsorption and desorption (MAD) by internal building materials and furnishings can be significant in buildings. For many building cooling strategies, MAD may have overriding effects on building cooling loads. For example, natural ventilation of buildings in hot, humid climates has been shown to induce higher latent loads and higher room relative humidities during periods following the ventilation.

Fairey, P.; Kosar, D.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Stochastic Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

Blaskiewicz, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Mapping evaporate minerals by ASTER  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evaporate minerals are important industrial raw materials that have been used in diverse industries for many years. As one of the most extensively used evaporate minerals, gypsum is an important raw material in the construction, agriculture, textile, ...

N. Serkan Oztan; M. Lutfi Suzen

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Measuring Residential Ventilation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measuring Residential Ventilation Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 2 - Field Evaluation of Airflow Meter Devices and System Flow Verification J. Chris Stratton, Iain S. Walker, Craig P. Wray Environmental Energy Technologies Division October 2012 LBNL-5982E 2 Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor the Regents of the University of California, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any

189

Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems  

SciTech Connect

Existing ventilation standards, including American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specify continuous operation of a defined mechanical ventilation system to provide minimum ventilation, with time-based intermittent operation as an option. This requirement ignores several factors and concerns including: other equipment such as household exhaust fans that might incidentally provide ventilation, negative impacts of ventilation when outdoor pollutant levels are high, the importance of minimizing energy use particularly during times of peak electricity demand, and how the energy used to condition air as part of ventilation system operation changes with outdoor conditions. Dynamic control of ventilation systems can provide ventilation equivalent to or better than what is required by standards while minimizing energy costs and can also add value by shifting load during peak times and reducing intake of outdoor air contaminants. This article describes the logic that enables dynamic control of whole-house ventilation systems to meet the intent of ventilation standards and demonstrates the dynamic ventilation system control concept through simulations and field tests of the Residential Integrated Ventilation-Energy Controller (RIVEC).

Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Effects of Diabatic Cooling in a Shear Flow with a Critical Level  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The response of a two-dimensional, stably stratified shear flow to diabatic cooling, which represents the evaporative cooling of falling precipitation in the subcloud layer, is examined using both a linear analytical theory and a nonlinear ...

Yuh-Lang Lin; Hye-Yeong Chun

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Results from evaporation tests to support the MWTF heat removal system design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental tests program was conducted to measure the evaporative heat removal from the surface of a tank of simulated waste. The results contained in this report constitute definition design data for the latest heat removal function of the MWTF primary ventilation system.

Crea, B.A.

1994-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

192

The Potential for Wind Induced Ventilation to Meet Occupant Comfort Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes a simple graphic tool that enables a building designer to evaluate the potential for wind induced ventilation cooling in several climate zones. Long term weather data were analyzed to determine the conditions for which available wind speed can be used to meet occupant comfort conditions. By calculating the change in enthalpy produced by a typical residential air conditioner during those hours when an occupant is uncomfortable, we were able to estimate the impact of natural ventilation on building cooling load. The graphic presentation of the results allows a designer to determine the potential energy savings of increasing the ventilation air flow rate as well as the orientation of building openings that will maximize ventilation cooling of the building occupants.

Byrne, S. J.; Huang, Y. J.; Ritschard, R. L.; Foley, D. M.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Natural ventilation: it's as easy as opening the windows, or is it  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The research consisted of an evaluation of the existing technologies available for passive cooling with an emphasis on strategies related to the use of natural ventilation. A preliminary data base for the study was established by three major efforts: 1. An extensive literature search of the architectural press was undertaken to ascertain the degree to which passive cooling strategies in general and natural ventilation in particular are designed into buildings at the present time. 2. An investigation of existing building stock profiles was undertaken to identify the existing and potential obstacles or advantages to the implementation of natural ventilation as a passive cooling strategy. The EIA Nonresidential Buildings Energy Consumption Survey and two previous PNL studies were reviewed. 3. Components 1 and 2 were followed up with telephone interviews and site visits with the architects, building owners and operators of selected buildings from 1 and 2 above to gain more specific insights into the problems and pleasures typically associated with natural ventilation.

Siebein, G.W.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Falling film evaporator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A falling film evaporator including a vertically oriented pipe heated exteriorly by a steam jacket and interiorly by a finned steam tube, all heating surfaces of the pipe and steam tube being formed of a material wet by water such as stainless steel, and packing within the pipe consisting of Raschig rings formed of a material that is not wet by water such as polyvinylidene fluoride.

Bruns, Lester E. (Kennewick, WA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Compact Liquid Waste Evaporator for Cleanup on Hanfords Hot Cells [FULL PAPER  

SciTech Connect

Removal of radionuclide and hazardous contaminants from hot cells in Hanford's 324 Building will produce an aqueous waste stream requiring volume reduction and packaging. This paper describes a compact and remotely-operated evaporator system that was designed for use in the 324 Building's B-Cell (a shielded hot cell) to volume-reduce the waste waters that are generated from pressure washing of hot cell ceiling, wall, and floor surfaces. The evaporator incorporates an electric-heated reboiler to provide evaporation and drying to allow disposal of waste material. Design features of the evaporator system were strongly influenced by the need for remote handling and remote maintenance. Purified water vapor from the evaporation process will be released directly to the hot cell ventilation air.

HOBART, R.L.

2003-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

196

Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

Kozubal, E.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Fans for Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fans for Cooling Fans for Cooling Fans for Cooling May 30, 2012 - 7:46pm Addthis Ceiling fans circulate air in a room to help keep occupants cool. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/jimkruger Ceiling fans circulate air in a room to help keep occupants cool. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/jimkruger What does this mean for me? You may be able to keep your home cool with energy-efficient and well-placed fans. Fans are less expensive to operate than air conditioners. Circulating fans include ceiling fans, table fans, floor fans, and fans mounted to poles or walls. These fans create a wind chill effect that will make you more comfortable in your home, even if it's also cooled by natural ventilation or air conditioning. Ceiling Fans Ceiling fans are considered the most effective of these types of fans,

198

Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning  

SciTech Connect

NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Passive Cooling System for a Vehicle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive cooling system for a vehicle (114) transfers heat from an overheated internal component, for example, an instrument panel (100), to an external portion (116) of the vehicle (114), for example, a side body panel (126). The passive cooling system includes one or more heat pipes (112) having an evaporator section (118) embedded in the overheated internal component and a condenser section (120) at the external portion (116) of the vehicle (114). The evaporator (118) and condenser (120) sections are in fluid communication. The passive cooling system may also include a thermally conductive film (140) for thermally connecting the evaporator sections (118) of the heat pipes (112) to each other and to the instrument panel (100).

Hendricks, T. J.; Thoensen, T.

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

200

2011 CERN Waste Heat EN-CV February 28th 2011 Power Dissipated by the Cooling Towers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2011 CERN Waste Heat EN-CV February 28th 2012 1 2011 Power Dissipated by the Cooling Towers The cooling circuits at CERN use evaporative open cooling towers to discharge into the atmosphere the heat towers per complex depend on the amount of cooling power required. LHC one cooling tower per even LHC

Wu, Sau Lan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Response of a Stably Stratified Flow to Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spreading of the low-level cold pool produced by evaporation of precipitation is generally acknowledged to be an important mechanism for the regeneration of moist convection. We show that cooling a stably stratified nocturnal boundary layer ...

David J. Raymond; Richard Rotunno

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Cooling of Entrained Parcels in a Large-Eddy Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relative importance, for cloud-top entrainment, of the cooling rates due to longwave radiation, evaporation, and mixing was assessed through analysis of the results produced by a Lagrangian parcel-tracking model (LPTM) incorporated into a ...

Takanobu Yamaguchi; David A. Randall

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

ASHRAE and residential ventilation  

SciTech Connect

In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the logical place to provide leadership. This leadership has been demonstrated most recently by the publication of the first nationally recognized standard on ventilation in homes, ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2003, which builds on work that has been part of ASHRAE for many years and will presumably continue. Homeowners and occupants, which includes virtually all of us, will benefit from the application of Standard 62.2 and use of the top ten list. This activity is exactly the kind of benefit to society that the founders of ASHRAE envisioned and is consistent with ASHRAE's mission and vision. ASHRAE members should be proud of their Society for taking leadership in residential ventilation.

Sherman, Max H.

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Guide to Energy-Efficient Ventilation Methods for Acceptable Levels of Indoor Air Quality Levels in Commercial Buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Indoor air quality is important in commercial buildings to maintain employee health, well-being, and productivity and avoid employer liability. The most common method to improve indoor air quality in commercial buildings is to use outside ventilation air for dilution of the inside air. Unfortunately, the conditioning of outdoor ventilation air may result in increased energy use for cooling, dehumidification, and heating; and humid outdoor ventilation air also can degrade indoor air quality. Some commerci...

2007-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

205

Feasibility of a hybrid cooling system in a thermal power plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The feasibility of introducing a hybrid cooling system in a thermal power plant is investigated with an aim to reduce water use with a minimum impact on plant performance. A number of cooling systems have been modelled including existing evaporative ... Keywords: cooling, hybrid cooling, power station, sustainable water consumption

C. R. Williams; M. G. Rasul

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Passive cooling program element. [Skytherm system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An outline of the Passive Cooling R and D program element is presented with significant technical achievements obtained during FY 1978. Passive cooling mechanisms are enumerated and a survey of ongoing projects is made in the areas of cooling resource assessment and system development. Results anticipated within the next fiscal year are discussed and the direction of the R and D effort is indicated. Passive cooling system development has centered primarily about the Skytherm system. Two projects are underway to construct such systems in regions having a higher cooling load than the original Skytherm site at Atascadero, California. Component development and commercialization studies are major goals of these two projects and a third project at Atascadero. A two-story passive cooling test module has been built to study radiative, evaporative and convective cooling effects in a structure making use of the thermosiphon principle, but not equipped with a roof pond.

Wahlig, M.; Martin, M.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Program on Technology Innovation: Review of Advanced Cooling Tower Technologies with Reduced Cooled Water Temperature and Evaporatio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report reviews current technologies and solutions for advanced cooling towers with reduced cooled water temperature and evaporation losses. This is the first report for the dew-point cooling tower fill development project, funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Program on Technology Innovation, Water Conservation program. It is prepared by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI).This review is based on a literature and patent survey; it summarizes advancements in cooling ...

2013-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

208

Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

increased cost per unit of energy at times of peak demandminimizing energy costs and operation during peak timesenergy and cost impacts of ventilation vary with weather and time

Sherman, Max H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Low Energy Buildings: CFD Techniques for Natural Ventilation and Thermal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low Energy Buildings: CFD Techniques for Natural Ventilation and Thermal Low Energy Buildings: CFD Techniques for Natural Ventilation and Thermal Comfort Prediction Speaker(s): Malcolm Cook Date: February 14, 2013 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Michael Wetter Malcolm's presentation will cover both his research and consultancy activities. This will cover the work he has undertaken during his time spent working with architects on low energy building design, with a particular focus on natural ventilation and passive cooling strategies, and the role computer simulation can play in this design process. Malcolm will talk about the simulation techniques employed, as well as the innovative passive design principles that have led to some of the UK's most energy efficient buildings. In addition to UK building projects, the talk will

210

Heat pump system with selective space cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

Pendergrass, J.C.

1997-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

211

Heat pump system with selective space cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve.

Pendergrass, Joseph C. (Gainesville, GA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

Affinito, John D. (Kennewick, WA); Gross, Mark E. (Pasco, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

HVAC Technology Report: A Review of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Technology and Markets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For many of us, roughly 95 percent of our time is spent indoors. To enable humans to spend this much time inside, mechanical equipment is necessary to provide space conditioning to control the temperature (heating and cooling), ventilation, humidity, and indoor air quality. This report introduces the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry to EPRI member utility employees. The document describes the most common technologies and applications and provides an overview of industry statisti...

2000-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

214

Ventilation and Work Performance in Office Work  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A). When ventilation rate increases from V to V\\, the ratiowork when ventilation rates increase. Field studies withper 10 L/s person increase in ventilation rate and relative

Seppanen, Olli; Fisk, William J.; Lei, Q.H.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Radar Measurement of Cooling Tower Drift  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method of radar measurement of drift, generated by the wet cooling towers of power plants, is proposed. The water given off by the evaporative towers consists of two kinds of droplets: the recondensation droplets—generally less than 20 ?m in ...

Henri Sauvageot

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Effect of attic ventilation on the performance of radiant barriers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the experiments was to quantify how attic ventilation would affect the performance of a radiant barrier. Ceiling heat flux and space cooling load were both measured. Results of side-by-side radiant barrier experiments using two identical 13.38 m[sup 2] (nominal) test houses are presented in this paper. The test houses responded similarly to weather variations. Indoor temperatures of the test houses were controlled to within 0.2 [degrees] C. Ceiling heat fluxes and space cooling load were within a 2.5 percent difference between both test houses. The results showed that a critical attic ventilation flow rate of 1.3 (1/sec)/m[sup 2] of the attic floor existed after which the percentage reduction in ceiling heat fluxes produced by the radiant barriers did not change with increasing attic airflow rates. The ceiling heat flux reductions produced by the radiant barriers were between 25 and 35 percent, with 28 percent being the percent reduction observed most often in the presence of attic ventilation. The space-cooling load reductions observed were between two to four percent. All results compiled in this paper were for attics with unfaced fiberglass insulation with a resistance level of 3.35 m[sup 2]K/W (nominal) and for a perforated radiant barrier with low emissivities (less than 0.05) on both sides.

Medina, M.A.; O'Neal, D.L. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Turner, W.D. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Coll. of Engineering)

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Modeling study of ventilation, IAQ and energy impacts of residential mechanical ventilation  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a simulation study of indoor air quality, ventilation and energy impacts of several mechanical ventilation approaches in a single-family residential building. The study focused on a fictitious two-story house in Spokane, Washington and employed the multizone airflow and contaminant dispersal model CONTAM. The model of the house included a number of factors related to airflow including exhaust fan and forced-air system operation, duct leakage and weather effects, as well as factors related to contaminant dispersal including adsorption/desorption of water vapor and volatile organic compounds, surface losses of particles and nitrogen dioxide, outdoor contaminant concentrations, and occupant activities. The contaminants studied include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor, fine and coarse particles, and volatile organic compounds. One-year simulations were performed for four different ventilation approaches: a base case of envelope infiltration only, passive inlet vents in combination with exhaust fan operation, an outdoor intake duct connected to the forced-air system return balanced by exhaust fan operation, and a continuously-operated exhaust fan. Results discussed include whole building air change rates, air distribution within the house, heating and cooling loads, contaminants concentrations, and occupant exposure to contaminants.

Persily, A.K.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Chemical Treatment Fosters Zero Discharge by Making Cooling Water Reusable  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the past decade, the water requirements for cooling industrial manufacturing processes have changed dramatically. Once-through cooling has been largely replaced by open recirculating cooling water methods. This approach reduces water consumption by increasing the use of recycled water. Simplistically, the circulating cooling water flows through heat exchanger equipment and is cooled by passing through a cooling tower. The recycled water is cooled by evaporation of some of the circulating water as it passes through the tower. As a result of the evaporation process, the dissolved solids in the water become concentrated. The evaporated water is replaced by fresh makeup water. The dissolved solids content of the water is maintained by the rate of water discharge (blowdown). As the amount of dissolved solids increases, their solubility is exceeded and the solids tend to precipitate from the cooling water. The precipitated scale adheres to heat transfer surfaces and reduces heat transfer efficiency. In order to achieve zero discharge of water, it is paramount that the potential for scale formation and deposition be minimized. This can be accomplished through physical separation of scale-forming ions and particulate matter. Two widely used mechanical methods in this category are lime-soda side stream softening and vapor compression blowdown evaporation. Another approach is chemical treatment to promote scale inhibition and dispersion.

Boffardi, B. P.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

VENTILATION (HVAC) FAILURE (BUILDING WIDE)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

VENTILATION (HVAC) FAILURE (BUILDING WIDE) A failure or shutdown of the ventilation system will be signaled by cessation of the audible background "rumbling" sound of the building's HVAC system. As building durations. NOTE: Due to unpredictable pressure differentials in and around the labs during an HVAC failure

Strynadka, Natalie

220

RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION AND ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

while still providing ventilation for adequate indoor air quality. Various ASHRAE Standards (e.g., 62 to the ASHRAE Standard 119 levels while still providing adequate ventilation through infiltration or mechanical alternatives. Various ASHRAE Standards are used to assist us. ASHRAE Standard 119-19885 classifies the envelope

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Transpired Air Collectors - Ventilation Preheating  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many commercial and industrial buildings have high ventilation rates. Although all that fresh air is great for indoor air quality, heating it can be very expensive. This short (2-page) fact sheet describes a technology available to use solar energy to preheat ventilation air and dramatically reduce utility bills.

Christensen, C.

2006-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

222

Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile … Outside Air Ventilation Controller  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

partner Davis Energy partner Davis Energy Group worked with Monley Cronin Construction to build 100 energy-efficient homes in Woodland, CA, with night- cooling ventilation systems. BUILDING AMERICA TOP INNOVATIONS HALL OF FAME PROFILE INNOVATIONS CATEGORY: 1. Advanced Technologies and Practices 1.3 Assured Health, Safety, and Durability Outside Air Ventilation Controller Building America researchers developed technologies to harness the natural day-night temperature swings in the U.S. Southwest to cut cooling energy peak demand with no compromise in comfort. Building America research has shown that, in dry climates, the use of ventilation cooling can significantly reduce, delay, or completely eliminate air conditioner operation resulting in both energy savings and reduction of peak demand

223

Desiccant Cooling Systems - A Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Desiccant cooling systems have been investigated extensively during the past decade as alternatives to electrically driven vapor compression systems because regeneration temperatures of the desiccant - about 160°F, can be achieved using natural gas or by solar systems. Comfort is achieved by reducing the moisture content of air by a solid or liquid desiccant and then reducing the temperature in an evaporative cooler (direct or indirect). Another system is one where the dehumidifier removes enough moisture to meet the latent portion of the load while the sensible portion is met by a vapor compression cooling system; desiccant regeneration is achieved by using the heat rejected from the condenser together with other thermal sources. At present, residential desiccant cooling systems are in actual operation but are more costly than vapor compression systems, resulting in relatively long payback periods. Component efficiencies need to be improved, particularly the efficiency of the dehumidifier.

Kettleborough, C. F.; Ullah, M. R.; Waugaman, D. G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Innovative Energy Efficient Industrial Ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper was written to describe an innovative “on-demand” industrial ventilation system for woodworking, metalworking, food processing, pharmaceutical, chemical, and other industries. Having analyzed existing industrial ventilation in 130 factories, we found striking dichotomy between the classical “static” design of ventilation systems and constantly changing workflow and business demands. Using data from real factories, we are able to prove that classical industrial ventilation design consumes 70 % more energy than necessary. Total potential electricity saving achieved by using on-demand systems instead of classically designed industrial ventilation in the U.S. could be 26 billion kWh. At the average electricity cost of 7 cents per kWh, this would represent $1.875 billion. Eighty such systems are already installed in the USA and European Union.

Litomisky, A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Why We Ventilate - Recent Advances  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

WHY WE VENTILATE: WHY WE VENTILATE: Recent Advances Max Sherman BA Stakeholders meeting ASHRAE BIO  Distinguished Lecturer  Exceptional Service Award  Board of Directors; TechC  Chair of committees:  62.2; Standards Committee  TC 4.3; TC 2.5  Holladay Distinguished Fellow OVERVIEW QUESTIONS  What is Ventilation? What is IAQ?  What functions does it provide?  How much do we need? Why?  How should ventilations standards be made? LBL has working on these problems Who Are You?  Engineers (ASHRAE Members & not);  architects,  contractors,  reps,  builders,  vendors,  code officials WHAT IS VENTILATION  Medicine: To Exchange Air In the Lungs  Latin: Ventilare, "to expose to the wind"  Today: To Bring In Outdoor Air And Replace

226

Infiltration as ventilation: Weather-induced dilution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Infiltration as ventilation: Weather-induced dilution Title Infiltration as ventilation: Weather-induced dilution Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5795E Year of...

227

Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing...

228

Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies October 7, 2013 - 11:50am Addthis Photo of a dark brown perforated metal...

229

Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Relocatable Classroom...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Relocatable Classroom Field Study Interim Report Title Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Relocatable Classroom Field Study Interim...

230

Whole-House Ventilation | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

air quality. There are four basic mechanical whole-house ventilation systems -- exhaust, supply, balanced, and energy recovery. Comparison of Whole-House Ventilation Systems...

231

RESIDENTIAL INTEGRATED VENTILATION ENERGY CONTROLLER - Energy ...  

A residential controller is described which is used to manage the mechanical ventilation systems of a home, installed to meet whole-house ventilation requirements, at ...

232

Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Passive Ventilation by Constant Area Vents to Maintain Indoor Air Quality in Houses. ”Passive Ventilation by Constant Area Vents to Maintain Indoor Air Quality in Houses."

Walker, Iain

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

The evaporative gas turbine (EGT) cycle  

SciTech Connect

Humidification of the flow through a gas turbine has been proposed in a variety of forms. The STIG plant involves the generation of steam by the gas turbine exhaust in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), and its injection into or downstream of the combustion chamber. This increases the mass flow through the turbine and the power output from the plant, with a small increase in efficiency. In the evaporative gas turbine (or EGT) cycle, water is injected in the compressor discharge in a regenerative gas turbine cycle (a so-called CBTX plant--compressor [C], burner [B], turbine [T], heat exchanger [X]); the air is evaporatively cooled before it enters the heat exchanger. While the addition of water increases the turbine mass flow and power output, there is also apparent benefit in reducing the temperature drop in the exhaust stack. In one variation of the basic EGT cycle, water is also added downstream of the evaporative aftercooler, even continuously in the heat exchanger. There are several other variations on the basic cycle (e.g., the cascaded humidified advanced turbine [CHAT]). The present paper analyzes the performance of the EGT cycle. The basic thermodynamics are first discussed, and related to the cycle analysis of a dry regenerative gas turbine plant. Subsequently some detailed calculations of EGT cycles are presented. The main purpose of the work is to seek the optimum pressure ratio in the EGT cycle for given constraints (e.g., fixed maximum to minimum temperature). It is argued that this optimum has a relatively low value.

Horlock, J.H. [Whittle Lab., Cambridge (United Kingdom)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Cooled railplug  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers.

Weldon, William F. (Austin, TX)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Energy-saving strategies with personalized ventilation in cold climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

designs of personalized ventilation, International Journal of heating, Ventilation and Refrigeration

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

, 2011 , 2011 Ventilation in Multifamily Buildings Welcome to the Webinar! We will start at 2:00 PM Eastern Time Be sure that you are also dialed into the telephone conference call: Dial-in number: 888-324-9601; Pass code: 5551971 Download the presentation at: www.buildingamerica.gov/meetings.html Building Technologies Program eere.energy.gov Building America: Introduction November 1, 2011 Cheryn Engebrecht Cheryn.engebrecht@nrel.gov Building Technologies Program Building Technologies Program eere.energy.gov * Reduce energy use in new and existing residential buildings * Promote building science and systems engineering / integration approach * "Do no harm": Ensure safety, health and durability are maintained or improved * Accelerate adoption of high performance technologies

237

Low Energy Ventilation and Cooling of Non-Domestic Buildings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Contact: Paul Mathew Short's Cambridge University-based research group develops passive and hybrid low-energy design strategies for non-domestic buildings in different...

238

TOP DOWN VENTILATION AND COOLING Stephen A. Gage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the CIBSE National Conference, II. London: Chartered In- stitution of Building Services Engineers, pp. 102 driven by the com- bined forces of buoyancy and wind. Proceedings of the CIBSE National Conference, I

Linden, Paul F.

239

Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Presented By: WALTER E. JOHNSTON, PE Presented By: WALTER E. JOHNSTON, PE CEM, CEA, CLEP, CDSM, CPE Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system is to provide and maintain a comfortable environment within a building for the occupants or for the process being conducted Many HVAC systems were not designed with energy efficiency as one of the design factors 3 Air Air is the major conductor of heat. Lack of heat = air conditioning OR 4 Btu - Amount of heat required to raise one pound of water 1 F = 0.252 KgCal 1 Pound of Water = About 1 Pint of Water ~ 1 Large Glass 1 Kitchen Match Basics of Air Conditioning = 1 Btu 5 = 6 Low Cost Cooling Unit 7 8 Typical Design Conditions 75 degrees F temperature 50% relative humidity 30 - 50 FPM air movement

240

FOCUS COOLING  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

www.datacenterdynamics.com www.datacenterdynamics.com FOCUS COOLING Issue 28, March/April 2013 LBNL'S NOVEL APPROACH TO COOLING Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and APC by Schneider Electric test a unique double-exchanger cooling system LBNL program manager Henry Coles says can cut energy use by half A s part of a demonstration sponsored by the California Energy Commission in support of the Silicon Valley Leadership Group's data center summit, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with APC by Schneider Electric to demonstrate a novel prototype data center cooling device. The device was installed at an LBNL data center in Berkeley, California. It included two air-to-water heat exchangers. Unlike common single-heat-exchanger configurations, one of these was supplied with

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Review of Residential Ventilation Technologies.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Review of Residential Ventilation Technologies. Review of Residential Ventilation Technologies. Title Review of Residential Ventilation Technologies. Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-57730 Year of Publication 2007 Authors Russell, Marion L., Max H. Sherman, and Armin F. Rudd Journal HVAC&R Research Volume 13 Start Page Chapter Pagination 325-348 Abstract This paper reviews current and potential ventilation technologies for residential buildings in North America and a few in Europe. The major technologies reviewed include a variety of mechanical systems, natural ventilation, and passive ventilation. Key parameters that are related to each system include operating costs, installation costs, ventilation rates, heat recovery potential. It also examines related issues such as infiltration, duct systems, filtration options, noise, and construction issues. This report describes a wide variety of systems currently on the market that can be used to meet ASHRAE Standard 62.2. While these systems generally fall into the categories of supply, exhaust or balanced, the specifics of each system are driven by concerns that extend beyond those in the standard and are discussed. Some of these systems go beyond the current standard by providing additional features (such as air distribution or pressurization control). The market will decide the immediate value of such features, but ASHRAE may wish to consider modifications to the standard in the future.

242

Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved evaporator section is described for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes. 1 figure.

Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

243

Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved evaporator section for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes.

Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rawlinson, K. Scott (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study is made of several outstanding issues concerning the commercial development of environmental control systems for electric vehicles (EVs). Engineering design constraints such as federal regulations and consumer requirements are first identified. Next, heating and cooling loads in a sample automobile are calculated using a computer model available from the literature. The heating and cooling loads are then used as a basis for estimating the electrical consumption that is to be expected for heat pumps installed in EVs. The heat pump performance is evaluated using an automobile heat pump computer model which has been developed recently at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The heat pump design used as input to the model consists of typical finned-tube heat exchangers and a hermetic compressor driven by a variable-speed brushless dc motor. The simulations suggest that to attain reasonable system efficiencies, the interior heat exchangers that are currently installed as automobile air conditioning will need to be enlarged. Regarding the thermal envelope of the automobile itself, calculations are made which show that considerable energy savings will result if steps are taken to reduce {open_quote}hot soak{close_quote} temperatures and if the outdoor air ventilation rate is well controlled. When these changes are made, heating and cooling should consume less than 10% of the total stored electrical energy for steady driving in most U.S. climates. However, this result depends strongly upon the type of driving: The fraction of total power for heating and cooling ({open_quote}range penalty{close_quote}) increases sharply for driving scenarios having low average propulsion power, such as stop-and-go driving.

Kyle, D.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Sullivan, R.A. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Innovative Evaporative and Thermally Activated Technologies Improve Air Conditioning, The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Fact Sheet)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Innovative Evaporative and Innovative Evaporative and Thermally Activated Technologies Improve Air Conditioning Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invented a breakthrough technology that improves air conditioning in a novel way-with heat. NREL combined desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90% less electricity and up to 80% less total energy than traditional air conditioning (AC). This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings. Desiccants are an example of a thermally activated technology (TAT) that relies on heat instead

246

Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2009. ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, Ventilation andleakage. The ASHRAE Handbook of fundamentals (ASHRAE 2009),

Sherman, Max

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Preoperational test report, vent building ventilation system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This represents a preoperational test report for Vent Building Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) for the W-030 Ventilation Building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

Clifton, F.T.

1997-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

248

A review of desiccant cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes recent published design advances that have been made in desiccant cooling systems. In desiccant cooling cycles, the desiccant reduces the humidity of the air by removing moisture from the air. Then the temperature is reduced by other components such as heat exchangers, evaporative coolers, or conventional cooling coils. The main advantage that desiccant cooling systems offer is the capability of using low-grade thermal energy. Desiccant cooling systems for residential and commercial applications are now being used to reduce energy-operating costs. However, the initial costs are comparatively high. The focus of research for the past decade has been to develop desiccant systems with a high coefficient of performance. Recent studies have emphasized computer modeling and hybrid systems that combine desiccant dehumidifiers with conventional systems.

Waugaman, D.G.; Kini, A.; Kettleborough, C.F. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

A cool disk in the Galactic Center?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the possibility of a cool disk existing in the Galactic Center in the framework of the disk-corona evaporation/condensation model. Assuming an inactive disk, a hot corona should form above the disk since there is a continuous supply of hot gas from stellar winds of the close-by massive stars. Whether the cool disk can survive depends on the mass exchange between the disk and corona. If the disk-corona interaction is dominated by evaporation and the rate is larger than the Bondi accretion rate in the Galactic Center, the disk will be depleted within a certain time period and no persistent disk will exist. On the other hand, if the interaction results in hot gas steadily condensing into the disk, an inactive cool disk might survive. For this case we further investigate the Bremsstrahlung radiation from the hot corona and compare it with the observed X-ray luminosity. Our model shows that, for standard viscosity in the corona (alpha=0.3), the mass evaporation rate is much higher than the Bondi accretion rate and the coronal density is much larger than that inferred from Chandra observations. An inactive disk can not survive such strong evaporation. For small viscosity (alphanature.

B. F. Liu; F. Meyer; E. Meyer-Hofmeister

2004-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

250

Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality  

SciTech Connect

We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Cooled railplug  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers. 10 figs.

Weldon, W.F.

1996-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

252

Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Laboratory Study in a Modular  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Laboratory Study in a Modular Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Laboratory Study in a Modular Classroom Test Bed Title Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Laboratory Study in a Modular Classroom Test Bed Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2005 Authors Apte, Michael G., Ian S. Buchanan, David Faulkner, William J. Fisk, Chi-Ming Lai, Michael Spears, and Douglas P. Sullivan Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract The primary goals of this research effort were to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate a practical HVAC system for classrooms that consistently provides classrooms with the quantity of ventilation in current minimum standards, while saving energy, and reducing HVAC-related noise levels. This research was motivated by several factors, including the public benefits of energy efficiency, evidence that many classrooms are under-ventilated, and public concerns about indoor environmental quality in classrooms. This project involved the installation and verification of the performance of an Improved Heat Pump Air Conditioning (IHPAC) system, and its comparison, a standard HVAC system having an efficiency of 10 SEER. The project included the verification of the physical characteristics suitable for direct replacement of existing 10 SEER systems, quantitative demonstration of improved energy efficiency, reduced acoustic noise levels, quantitative demonstration of improved ventilation control, and verification that the system would meet temperature control demands necessary for the thermal comfort of the occupants. Results showed that the IHPAC met these goals. The IHPAC was found to be a direct bolt-on replacement for the 10 SEER system. Calculated energy efficiency improvements based on many days of classroom cooling or heating showed that the IHPAC system is about 44% more efficient during cooling and 38% more efficient during heating than the 10 SEER system. Noise reduction was dramatic, with measured A-weighed sound level for fan only operation conditions of 34.3 dB(A), a reduction of 19 dB(A) compared to the 10 SEER system. Similarly, the IHPAC stage-1 and stage-2 compressor plus fan sound levels were 40.8 dB(A) and 42.7 dB(A), reductions of 14 and 13 dB(A), respectively. Thus, the IHPAC is 20 to 35 times quieter than the 10 SEER systems depending upon the operation mode. The IHPAC system met the ventilation requirements and was able to provide consistent outside air supply throughout the study. Indoor CO2 levels with simulated occupancy were maintained below 1000 ppm. Finally temperature settings were met and controlled accurately. The goals of the laboratory testing phase were met and this system is ready for further study in a field test of occupied classrooms

253

Demonstration of Demand Control Ventilation Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Demand Control Ventilation (DCV) is one of the control strategies that can be used modulate the amount of ventilation air for space conditioning in commercial buildings. DCV modulates the amount of ventilation air introduced into the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system based on carbon dioxide levels sensed in the areas served. The carbon dioxide level is a proxy for the number of people within the space, from which the required quantity of ventilation air is determined. By using this ...

2011-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

254

Ventilation Model and Analysis Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This model and analysis report develops, validates, and implements a conceptual model for heat transfer in and around a ventilated emplacement drift. This conceptual model includes thermal radiation between the waste package and the drift wall, convection from the waste package and drift wall surfaces into the flowing air, and conduction in the surrounding host rock. These heat transfer processes are coupled and vary both temporally and spatially, so numerical and analytical methods are used to implement the mathematical equations which describe the conceptual model. These numerical and analytical methods predict the transient response of the system, at the drift scale, in terms of spatially varying temperatures and ventilation efficiencies. The ventilation efficiency describes the effectiveness of the ventilation process in removing radionuclide decay heat from the drift environment. An alternative conceptual model is also developed which evaluates the influence of water and water vapor mass transport on the ventilation efficiency. These effects are described using analytical methods which bound the contribution of latent heat to the system, quantify the effects of varying degrees of host rock saturation (and hence host rock thermal conductivity) on the ventilation efficiency, and evaluate the effects of vapor and enhanced vapor diffusion on the host rock thermal conductivity.

V. Chipman

2003-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

255

The Thermodynamic and Cost Benefits of Floating Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Historically, a fixed cooling concept is used in the design of evaporative heat rejection systems for process and power plants. In the fixed cooling mode, a plant is designed for maximum output at the design summer wet bulb temperature. The application of a floating cooling concept to evaporative heat rejection systems can have significant impact on improving plant performance. The floating cooling concept refers to the optimization of yearly plant output and energy consumption by taking advantage of seasonal wet bulb temperature fluctuations. The maximum plant output occurs at the average winter wet bulb temperature. Floating cooling is especially suited to base load power plants located in regions with large daily and seasonal wet bulb temperature variations. An example for a geothermal power plant is included in this paper.

Svoboda, K. J.; Klooster, H. J.; Johnnie, D. H., Jr.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Applications of Mechanical Vapor Recompression to Evaporation and Crystallization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the past 10-15 years, mechanical vapor recompression (MVR) has become the preferred system in many industrial evaporation and crystallization applications, because of its economy and simplicity of operation. In most instances, the need for steam to provide heat for the evaporation and cooling water for condensing the overhead vapors is virtually eliminated; and, at the same time, a wide range of turndown is available. An MVR is generally found to be the most economical choice when there is no boiler plant available or when electrical power is priced competitively in comparison to steam. Vapor recompression is accomplished using centrifugal, axial-flow, or positive displacement compressors and these compressors can be powered by electricity, steam turbine or a gas turbine. The use of an MVR Evaporator/Crystallizer provides a comparatively low cost means of expanding the production capability of an existing evaporation plant either by adding a "stand alone" unit or by reconfiguring a multiple-effect system into several single-effect MVR's.

Outland, J. S.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Micro loop heat pipe evaporator coherent pore structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Loop heat pipes seem a promising approach for application in modern technologies where such thermal devices as cooling fans and radiators cannot satisfy overall requirements. Even though a loop heat pipe has a big potential to remove the thermal energy from a high heat flux source, the heat removal performance of heat pipes cannot be predicted well since a first principles of evaporation has not been established. An evaporation model based on statistical rate theory has been recently suggested by Ward and developed for a single pore by Oinuma. A loop heat pipe with coherent pore wick structure has been proposed as a design model. To limit product development risk and to enhance performance assurance, design model features and performance parameters have been carefully reviewed during the concept development phase and have been deliberately selected so as to be well-founded on the limited existing loop heat pipe knowledge base. A first principles evaporation model has been applied for evaporator geometry optimization. A number of iteration calculations have been performed to satisfy design and operating limitations. A set of recommendations for design optimization has been formulated. An optimal model has been found and proposed for manufacture and experimental investigation.

Alexseev, Alexandre Viktorovich

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Classroom HVAC: Improving ventilation and saving energy -- field study plan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in this study. Classroom HVAC: Improving Ventilation andV8doc.sas.com/sashtml. Classroom HVAC: Improving VentilationBerkeley, CA 94720. Classroom HVAC: Improving Ventilation

Apte, Michael G.; Faulkner, David; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

On The Valuation of Infiltration towards Meeting Residential Ventilation Needs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Literature Related to Residential Ventilation Requirements”.A. 2005. “Review of Residential Ventilation Technologies”,M.H. and Matson N.E. , “Residential Ventilation and Energy

Sherman, Max H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Residential ventilation standards scoping study  

SciTech Connect

The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Practical Estimates of Lake Evaporation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Practical estimates of lake evaporation must rely on data that can be observed in the land environment. This requires the ability to take into account the changes in the temperature and humidity that occur when the air passes from the land to the ...

F. I. Morton

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, in exit ventilation ducts, from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Initially, methods were developed to cool fire-heated air by fine water spray upstream of the filters. It was recognized that smoke aerosol exposure to HEPA filters could also cause disruption of the containment system. Through testing and analysis, several methods to partially mitigate the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified. A continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. The technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total time duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modification of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, rolling filter media were laminated with the desired properties. The approach was Edisonian, but truncation in short order to a combination of prefilters was effective. The application of this technique was qualified, since it is of use only to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols. It is not believed that this technique is cost effective in the total spectrum of containment systems, especially if standard fire protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high-fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

Alvares, N.; Beason, D.; Bergman, V.; Creighton, J.; Ford, H.; Lipska, A.

1980-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

263

The Histoty of Ventilation and Air Conditioning is CERN Up to Date with the latest Technological Developments?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The invention of ventilation cannot be ascribed to a certain date. It started with simple aeration when man brought fire into his abode and continued through different stages including air cooling using ice to finally arrive at the time when ventilation and air conditioning has become an essential part of our life and plays an important role in human evolution. This paper presents the history of ventilation and air conditioning, explains the key constraints over the centuries, and shows its influence on everyday life. Some examples of previous air-conditioning plants are described and different approaches to the way of calculation of ventilation systems discussed. It gives an overview of the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) installations at CERN and points out their particularities. It also compares them with the latest technological developments in the field as well as showing the new trends that are being applied at CERN.

Kühnl-Kinel, J

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

The Effect of Reduced Evaporator Air Flow on the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper discusses the measured degradation in performance of a residential air conditioning system operating under reduced evaporator air flow. Experiments were conducted using a R-22 three-ton split-type cooling system with a short-tube orifice expansion device. Results are presented here for a series of tests in which the evaporator air flow was reduced from 25 to 90% below what is normally recommended for this air conditioner. At present, very little information is available which quantifies the performance of a residential cooling system operating under degraded conditions such as reduced evaporator air flow. Degraded performance measurements can provide information which could help electric utilities evaluate the potential impact of system-wide maintenance programs.

Palani, M.; O'Neal, D.; Haberl, J.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

"Hot" for Warm Water Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

liquid cooling, dry cooler, cooling tower 1. INTRODUCTIONsolutions for cooling. Substituting cooling towers,hybrid cooling towers, or dry coolers that provide warmer

Coles, Henry

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Midlevel Ventilation’s Constraint on Tropical Cyclone Intensity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Midlevel ventilation, or the flux of low-entropy air into the inner core of a tropical cyclone (TC), is a hypothesized mechanism by which environmental vertical wind shear can constrain a tropical cyclone’s intensity. An idealized framework based ...

Brian Tang; Kerry Emanuel

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Psychrometric Bin Analysis for Alternative Cooling Strategies in Data Centers  

SciTech Connect

Data centers are significant energy users and require continuous cooling to maintain high levels of computing performance. The majority of data centers have direct-expansion cooling which typically accounts for approximately 50% of the energy usage of data centers. However, using typical meteorological year 3 (TMY3) weather data and a simple psychometric bin analysis, alternative cooling strategies using a combination of economizer, evaporative, and supplemental DX cooling have been shown to be applicable in all climate zones in the United States. Average data center cooling energy savings across the U.S. was approximately 80%. Analysis of cooling energy savings is presented for various ASHRAE climate zones. The psychometric bin analysis is conducted for the ASHRAE recommended and allowable operating environment zones, as well as, a modified allowable operating environment. Control strategies are discussed. Finally, examples of energy efficient data centers using alternative cooling strategies are presented.

Metzger, I.; VanGeet, O.; Rockenbaugh, C.; Dean, J.; Kurnik, C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Whole-House Ventilation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Whole-House Ventilation Whole-House Ventilation Whole-House Ventilation May 30, 2012 - 2:37pm Addthis A whole-house ventilation system with dedicated ducting in a new energy-efficient home. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/brebca. A whole-house ventilation system with dedicated ducting in a new energy-efficient home. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/brebca. What does this mean for me? Whole-house ventilation is critical in an energy-efficient home to maintain adequate indoor air quality and comfort. The whole-house ventilation system you choose will depend upon your climate, budget, and the availability of experienced contractors in your area. Energy-efficient homes -- both new and existing -- require mechanical ventilation to maintain indoor air quality. There are four basic mechanical

269

Ventilation Controller for Improved Indoor Air Quality  

Iain Walker and colleagues at Berkeley Lab have developed a dynamic control system for whole-house ventilation fans that provides maximal air quality while reducing by 18-44% the energy spent on ventilation. The system, the Residential Integrated ...

270

Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. References ASHRAE.2009. ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, Ventilation andChapter. Atlanta GA: ASHRAE. ASHRAE. 2007. “Ventilation and

Sherman, Max

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

May 1999 LBNL -42975 ASHRAE'S RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

May 1999 LBNL - 42975 ASHRAE'S RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION STANDARD: EXEGESIS OF PROPOSED STANDARD 62 Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, CA 94720 April 1999 In January 1999 ASHRAE's Standard Project, approved ASHRAE's first complete standard on residential ventilation for public review

272

Thermodynamics of an Evaporating Schwarzschild Black Hole in Noncommutative Space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the effects of space noncommutativity and the generalized uncertainty principle on the thermodynamics of a radiating Schwarzschild black hole. We show that evaporation process is in such a way that black hole reaches to a maximum temperature before its final stage of evolution and then cools down to a nonsingular remnant with zero temperature and entropy. We compare our results with more reliable results of string theory. This comparison Shows that GUP and space noncommutativity are similar concepts at least from view point of black hole thermodynamics.

Kourosh Nozari; Behnaz Fazlpour

2006-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

273

Cooling and Dehumidification HVAC Technology for 1990s  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Desiccant Cooling and Dehumidification HVAC Technology for 1990s HVAC: Heating, Ventilation Research Trusts SERI #12;Challenges Facing HVAC Industry in 1990's * Reduction of CFCs * Indoor air quality to solve the problems of the HVAC industry faced in1990's for space conditioning. SERI #12;l- = m mN a- mg

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

274

Analysis and comparison of active solar desiccant and absorption cooling systems. Part 1; Model description  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A comparative analysis has been performed to compare the cooling and dehumidification performance of future ventilation-mode desiccant systems, proposed advanced absorption systems, and conventional vapor compression systems. A common framework has been developed for direct comparison of these different cooling technologies; this method is described in this paper.

Warren, M.L. (ASI Controls, San Ramon, CA (US)); Wahlig, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA). Applied Science Div.)

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

REACTOR COOLING  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear reactor with provisions for selectively cooling the fuel elements is described. The reactor has a plurality of tubes extending throughout. Cylindrical fuel elements are disposed within the tubes and the coolant flows through the tubes and around the fuel elements. The fuel elements within the central portion of the reactor are provided with roughened surfaces of material. The fuel elements in the end portions of the tubes within the reactor are provlded with low conduction jackets and the fuel elements in the region between the central portion and the end portions are provided with smooth surfaces of high heat conduction material.

Quackenbush, C.F.

1959-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

276

Iodine retention during evaporative volume reduction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method for retaining radioactive iodine in aqueous waste solutions during volume reduction is disclosed. The method applies to evaporative volume reduction processes whereby the decontaminated (evaporated) water can be returned safely to the environment. The method generally comprises isotopically diluting the waste solution with a nonradioactive iodide and maintaining the solution at a high pH during evaporation.

Godbee, H.W.; Cathers, G.I.; Blanco, R.E.

1975-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

277

Direct numerical simulation of evaporating droplets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model for the three-dimensional direct numerical simulation of evaporating, deforming droplets in incompressible flow is presented. It is based on the volume-of-fluid method and is therefore capable of capturing very strong deformations. The evaporation ... Keywords: DNS, Deformed droplets, Evaporation, Multiphase flow, Stefan flow, VOF

Jan Schlottke; Bernhard Weigand

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Ventilation Based on ASHRAE 62.2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Indoor Ventilation Based on ASHRAE 62.2 Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor California Energy Commission Ventilation (ASHRAE 62.2) Minimum Best Practices Guide - Exhaust-Only Ventilation Introduction: The California Energy Commission has created the following guide to provide assistance in complying with ANSI/ASHRAE

279

2F and 2H evaporator loop evaluation closure report  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the Concentrate Transfer System (CTS) tank ventilation system contamination event, a task team was formed to evaluate instrument loops associated with waste reduction equipment. During the event a conductivity probe designed to provide an alarm and initiate an interlock failed to respond to the presence of liquid. An investigation revealed that the probe had become disconnected from the loop. The daily functional check of the conductivity probe circuit only tested the circuit continuity from the ventilation unit to the control room and did not actually test the probe. To test the continuity, a test switch was used to simulate the conducting probe. Because the functional check did not test each part of the loop, the test could be satisfactorily completed even though the probe itself was inoperable. The function of the task team was to develop a list of loops and interlocks prioritized by importance and likelihood of similar failure. The team evaluated the associated loop calibration and functional test procedures to verify that they are adequate to ensure loop performance on a periodic frequency. This report documents the evaluation findings and associated actions required prior to startup of the 2F and 2H evaporators.

Bates, W.F.

1994-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

280

Ventilation problems in heritage buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The control of indoor conditions in heritage buildings, such as castles or museums, is of paramount importance for the proper preservation of the artworks kept in. As heritage buildings are often not equipped with HVAC systems, it is necessary to provide ... Keywords: CO2 concentration, IAQ, heritage buildings, ventilation

S. Costanzo; A. Cusumano; C. Giaconia; S. Mazzacane

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Ventilation Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

is important in understanding cooling strategies for homes and buildings. Principles of Heat Transfer Heat is transferred to and from objects via three processes: conduction,...

282

Trends in Heating and Cooling Degree Days: Implications for Energy Demand Issues  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Weather-related energy use, in the form of heating, cooling, and ventilation, accounted for more than 40 percent of all delivered energy use in residential and commercial buildings in 2006. Given the relatively large amount of energy affected by ambient temperature in the buildings sector, EIA has reevaluated what it considers normal weather for purposes of projecting future energy use for heating, cooling, and ventilation. In AEO2008, estimates of normal heating and cooling degree-days are based on the population-weighted average for the 10-year period from 1997 through 2006.

2011-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

283

Trends in Heating and Cooling Degree Days: Implications for Energy Demand Issues (released in AEO2008)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Weather-related energy use, in the form of heating, cooling, and ventilation, accounted for more than 40 percent of all delivered energy use in residential and commercial buildings in 2006. Given the relatively large amount of energy affected by ambient temperature in the buildings sector, EIA has reevaluated what it considers normal weather for purposes of projecting future energy use for heating, cooling, and ventilation. In AEO2008, estimates of normal heating and cooling degree-days are based on the population-weighted average for the 10-year period from 1997 through 2006.

Information Center

2008-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

284

A Microcomputer Model of Crossflow Cooling Tower Performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The energy use characteristics of evaporative cooling towers are of interest because, although such towers are widely used in industry, they do require a substantial amount of energy. Evaporative cooling towers are basically large heat exchangers that use both sensible heat transfer and mass transfer to cool. The heat and mass transfer process for a crossflow cooling tower has been modeled on an Apple II microcomputer. Various heat loads or weather conditions can be imposed on a given tower to evaluate its response; moreover, a subprogram can evaluate pressure drop and motor/fan characteristics. Determination of the energy required to operate the tower enables its performance to be compared against energy-saving operations such as variable speed drive or changes in fill height or type.

Reichelt, G. E; Jones, J. W.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller Title Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5554E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Walker, Iain S., Max H. Sherman, and Darryl J. Dickerhoff Keywords ashrae standard 62,2, california title 24, residential ventilation, ventilation controller Abstract The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20%, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.

286

Preliminary evaluation of the performance, water use, and current application trends of evaporative coolers in California climates  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the latest results of an ongoing analysis investigating the potential for evaporative cooling as an energy-efficient alternative to standard air-conditioning in California residences. In particular, the study uses detailed numerical models of evaporative coolers linked with the DOE-2 building energy simulation program to study the issues of indoor comfort, energy and peak demand savings with and without supplemental air-conditioning and consumptive water use. In addition, limited surveys are used to assess the current market availability of evaporative cooling in California, typical contractor practices and costs, and general acceptance of the technology among engineers, contractors, and manufacturers. The results show that evaporative coolers can provide significant energy and peak demand savings in California residences, but the impact of the increased indoor humidity on human comfort remains an unanswered question that requires further research and clarification. Evaluated against ASHRAE comfort standards developed primarily for air-conditioning both direct and two-stage evaporative coolers would not maintain comfort at peak cooling conditions due to excessive humidity. However, using bioclimatic charts that place human comfort at the 80% relative humidity line, the study suggests that direct evaporative coolers will work in mild coastal climates, while two-stage models should provide adequate comfort in Title 24 houses throughout California, except in the Imperial Valley. The study also shows that evaporative coolers will increase household water consumption by less than 6% on an annual basis, and as much as 23% during peak cooling months, and that the increases in water cost are minimal compared to the electricity savings. Lastly, a survey of engineers and contractors revealed generally positive experiences with evaporative coolers, with operational cost savings, improved comfort, unproved air quality as the primary benefits in their use.

Huang, Y.J.; Hanford, J.W.; Wu, H.F.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Diffusion-Controlled Evaporating Completely Wetting Meniscus in a Channel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coefficient of grooved heat pipe evaporator walls. ’ Int. J.ranging from micro heat pipes to grooved evaporators. In

Njante, Jean-Pierre

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Evaporation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

• The Office of Science (SC) is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, … providing more than 40 percent of total funding … for the Nation’s research programs in high-energy physics, nuclear physics, and fusion energy sciences.

An Esnet Perspective; Joint Techs; William E. Johnston; Esnet Department Head; Senior Scientist; Snow Melt

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Energy Efficient Ventilation for Maintaining Indoor Air Quality in Large Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

this paper was presented at the 3rd International Conference on Cold Climate Heating, Ventilating and Air-conditioning, Sapporo, Japan, November 2000 C. Y. Shaw Rsum Institute for Research in Construction, National Research Council Canada Achieving good indoor air quality in large residential and commercial buildings continues to be a top priority for owners, designers, building managers and occupants alike. Large buildings present a greater challenge in this regard than do smaller buildings and houses. The challenge is greater today because there are many new materials, furnishings, products and processes used in these buildings that are potential sources of air contaminants. There are three strategies for achieving acceptable indoor air quality: ventilation (dilution), source control and air cleaning/filtration. Of the three, the most frequently used strategy, and in most cases the only one available to building operators, is ventilation. Ventilation is the process of supplying outdoor air to an enclosed space and removing stale air from this space. It can control the indoor air quality by both diluting the indoor air with less contaminated outdoor air and removing the indoor contaminants with the exhaust air. Ventilation costs money because the outdoor air needs to be heated in winter and cooled in summer. To conserve energy, care must be taken to maximize the efficiency of the ventilation system. In this regard, a number of factors come into play

C. Y. Shaw; C. Y. Shaw Résumé

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation: Simulation and Comparison of Normalized Exposures  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of ventilation is to dilute indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. Even when providing the same nominal rate of outdoor air, different ventilation systems may distribute air in different ways, affecting occupants' exposure to household contaminants. Exposure ultimately depends on the home being considered, on source disposition and strength, on occupants' behavior, on the ventilation strategy, and on operation of forced air heating and cooling systems. In any multi-zone environment dilution rates and source strengths may be different in every zone and change in time, resulting in exposure being tied to occupancy patterns.This paper will report on simulations that compare ventilation systems by assessing their impact on exposure by examining common house geometries, contaminant generation profiles, and occupancy scenarios. These simulations take into account the unsteady, occupancy-tied aspect of ventilation such as bathroom and kitchen exhaust fans. As most US homes have central HVAC systems, the simulation results will be used to make appropriate recommendations and adjustments for distribution and mixing to residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.This paper will report on work being done to model multizone airflow systems that are unsteady and elaborate the concept of distribution matrix. It will examine several metrics for evaluating the effect of air distribution on exposure to pollutants, based on previous work by Sherman et al. (2006).

Petithuguenin, T.D.P.; Sherman, M.H.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Analysis and comparison of active solar desiccant and absorption cooling systems. Part 2; Annual simulation results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A comparative analysis has been performed to compare the cooling and dehumidification performance of future ventilation mode desiccant systems, proposed advanced absorption systems, and conventional vapor compression systems. A common framework has been developed for direct comparison of these different cooling technologies; this method is described in a companion paper. This paper presents the application of this method to annual simulations of cooling system performance in five cities.

Warren, M.L. (ASI Controls, San Ramon, CA (US)); Wahlig, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA). Applied Science Div.)

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Energy Star Building Upgrade Manual Heating and Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9. Heating and 9. Heating and Cooling Revised January 2008 9.1 Overview 2 9.2 Central Cooling Systems 3 Chiller Plant Operations and Maintenance 4 Chiller Plant Retrofits 6 9.3 Central Heating Systems 10 Boiler System Operations and Maintenance 11 Boiler System Retrofits 11 Improving Furnace Efficiency 13 9.4 Unitary Systems 14 Packaged Rooftop Units 16 Split-System Packaged Units 18 Air-Source Heat Pumps 18 Ground-Source, Closed-Loop Heat Pumps 19 9.5 Additional Strategies 20 Air-Side Economizer 20 Energy Recovery 20 Desiccant Dehumidification 20 Night Precooling 21 Cool Storage 22 Evaporative Cooling 22 9.6 Summary 22 Bibliography 23 Glossary G-1 1 ENERGY STAR ® Building Manual ENERGY STAR ® Building Manual 9. Heating and Cooling 9.1 Overview Although heating and cooling systems provide a useful service by keeping occupants comfort-

293

Passive ventilation for residential air quality control  

SciTech Connect

Infiltration has long served the residential ventilation needs in North America. In Northern Europe it has been augmented by purpose-provided natural ventilation systems--so-called passive ventilation systems--to better control moisture problems in dwellings smaller than their North American counterparts and in a generally wetter climate. The growing concern for energy consumption, and the environmental impacts associated with it, has however led to tighter residential construction standards on both continents and as a result problems associated with insufficient background ventilation have surfaced. Can European passive ventilation systems be adapted for use in North American dwellings to provide general background ventilation for air quality control? This paper attempts to answer this question. The configuration, specifications and performance of the preferred European passive ventilation system--the passive stack ventilation (PSV) system--will be reviewed; innovative components and system design strategies recently developed to improve the traditional PSV system performance will be outlined; and alternative system configurations will be presented that may better serve the climatic extremes and more urban contexts of North America. While these innovative and alternative passive ventilation systems hold great promise for the future, a rational method to size the components of these systems to achieve the control and precision needed to meet the conflicting constraints of new ventilation and air tightness standards has not been forthcoming. Such a method will be introduced in this paper and an application of this method will be presented.

Axley, J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20percent, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.

Staff Scientist; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max; Dickerhoff, Darryl

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Cooling-Tower Performance Prediction and Improvement: Volumes 1 and 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New data and methods enable engineers to predict and improve the thermal performance of evaporative cooling towers. Current EPRI research focuses on analytic tools that will help utilities avoid costly operating penalties associated with cooling towers that do not meet thermal performance specifications.

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Particle deposition in ventilation ducts  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the experimental measurements was applied to evaluate particle losses in supply and return duct runs. Model results suggest that duct losses are negligible for particle sizes less than 1 {micro}m and complete for particle sizes greater than 50 {micro}m. Deposition to insulated ducts, horizontal duct floors and bends are predicted to control losses in duct systems. When combined with models for HVAC filtration and deposition to indoor surfaces to predict the ultimate fates of particles within buildings, these results suggest that ventilation ducts play only a small role in determining indoor particle concentrations, especially when HVAC filtration is present. However, the measured and modeled particle deposition rates are expected to be important for ventilation system contamination.

Sippola, Mark R.

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

RADIATIVE AND PASSIVE COOLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at the 3rd Annual Solar Heating and Cooling R&D Contractors'been supported by the Solar Heating and Cooling Research andof Energy. 3rd Annual Solar Heating and Cooling R&D

Martin, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Portable brine evaporator unit, process, and system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention discloses a comprehensive, efficient, and cost effective portable evaporator unit, method, and system for the treatment of brine. The evaporator unit, method, and system require a pretreatment process that removes heavy metals, crude oil, and other contaminates in preparation for the evaporator unit. The pretreatment and the evaporator unit, method, and system process metals and brine at the site where they are generated (the well site). Thus, saving significant money to producers who can avoid present and future increases in transportation costs.

Hart, Paul John (Indiana, PA); Miller, Bruce G. (State College, PA); Wincek, Ronald T. (State College, PA); Decker, Glenn E. (Bellefonte, PA); Johnson, David K. (Port Matilda, PA)

2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

299

Available Technologies: Ventilation Controller for Improved Indoor ...  

Iain Walker and colleagues at Berkeley Lab have developed a dynamic control system for whole-house ventilation fans that provides maximal air quality while reducing ...

300

Case Study 1 - Ventilation in Manufactured Houses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Ventilation in Manufactured Houses. ... fan operation, an outdoor air intake duct installed on the forced-air return, and whole house exhaust with and ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Summary of human responses to ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coils of commercial air-conditioning systems. Proceedings ofrefrigerating and air-conditioning engineers, inc. pp 601-for ventilation and air-conditioning systems - offices and

Seppanen, Olli A.; Fisk, William J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Mixed-Mode Ventilation and Building Retrofits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

November 1994, ENTPE, Lyon. [CIBSE] Chartered Institution ofMixed-mode ventilation. CIBSE Applications Manual AM13.incorporated by the design. CIBSE, 2000 Mixed-mode

Brager, Gail; Ackerly, Katie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Indoor Air Quality & Ventilation Group Staff Directory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation Group Staff. Staff Listing. Dr. Andrew K. Persily, Leader, Supervisory Mechanical Engineer, 301-975-6418. ...

2013-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

304

Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective? Maxmanufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitutethe University of California. Does Mixing Make Residential

Sherman, Max

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Analysis of Demand Controlled Ventilation Technology and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The actual health, comfort, and productivity impacts of mechanical ventilation ... p strat i csp o ... in California and elsewhere is the impact of ambient air ...

2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

306

Preliminary economic assessment or residential passive solar cooling potential in the United States  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In many areas of the continental United States, residential cooling loads are equal to or greater than energy used for residential space heating. Offsetting part of the cooling load could yield considerable dollar savings to the consumer as well as total energy savings. The physical performances of three passive cooling designs are used to estimate the dollar value of first-year fuel savings (excluding heating benefits) and a maximum affordable design cost. The designs include natural ventilation, forced ventilation, and evaoprative cooling concepts. Because economic performance is primarily governed by the level of electricity prices, dollars savings are greatest in regions that show both good physical performance of the cooling design and high electricity prices. Physical and economic performance summaries are presented in mapped form for 220 solar regions within the continental United States.

Kirschner, C.; Mangeng, C.; Yemans, M.; Roach, F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine geothermal ORC system Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine geothermal ORC system Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and Development/Analysis Project Type / Topic 2 Air-Cooling Project Description The technical approaches are: -UTRC shall develop a lab-based analysis of hybrid-water/air-cooled condensers with minimal water consumption, focusing on combined mist evaporative pre-cooling and mist deluge evaporative cooling technology applied to microchannel heat exchangers. Models to predict evaporative cooling performance will be validated by sub-scale testing. The predicted performance will be compared to that of state-of-the-art commercial evaporative coolers. -UTRC shall analyze the interaction of turbine design and cooling needs and specifically address how an enhanced turbine, which features variable nozzles and diffuser boundary layer suction, would further improve the ORC system performance and enable full utilization of the hybrid-cooled system. UTRC shall design, procure and test the enhanced turbine in an existing 200 kW geothermal ORC system for a technology demonstration. -UTRC shall complete a detailed design of the hybrid-cooled geothermal ORC system with an enhanced turbine that complies with its performance, cost, and quality requirements, and use this system design to prescribe subsystem/component technology requirements and interfaces. UTRC shall optimize UTC's PureCycle® geothermal ORC system integrated with a hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser and an enhanced turbine for net power output, efficiency and water consumption. -UTRC shall analyze the feasibility of addressing pure water supply for hybrid-water/aircooled condenser by using geothermal-driven Liquid-Gap-Membrane-Distillation (LGMD) technology, as an alternative to conventional Reverse Osmosis/De-Ionized treatment.

308

'Radio Wave Cooling' Offers New Twist on Laser Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

'Radio Wave Cooling' Offers New Twist on Laser Cooling. From NIST Tech Beat: September 13, 2007. ...

2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

309

Proceedings: Cooling Tower and Advanced Cooling Systems Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling towers and associated systems performance strongly affects availability and heat rate in fossil and nuclear power plants. Papers presented at EPRI's 1994 Cooling Tower and Advanced Cooling Systems Conference discuss research results, industry experience, and case histories of cooling tower problems and solutions. Specific topics include cooling tower upgrades and retrofits, cooling tower performance, cooling tower fouling, and dry and hybrid cooling systems.

1995-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

310

A Wind-Tunnel Study of Wind Effects on Air-Cooled Condensers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to increasing competition for fresh water supplies in the future, development of power plants that use a minimum of water is crucial. When minimizing water use in a water-constrained environment, direct dry cooling systems are a good alternative to once-through cooling systems with an evaporative wet cooling tower. The core of any direct dry cooling system is an air-cooled condenser (ACC). A number of studies have shown that wind can negatively impact ACC system performance. Based on these observati...

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

311

SOLERAS - Saudi University Solar Cooling Laboratories Project: King Faisal University. Design and analysis study. Volume 2. Appendixes I-VI  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Documents supporting the proposed construction of a passively cooled house at King Faisal University in Saudi Arabia are presented. The papers include the following topics: comfort measurements; cooling methods and strategies for hot/arid climates; ventilation design; solar hot water heaters; backup HVAC equipment specifications; and computer printouts for design review and analysis. (BCS)

Not Available

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Definition and means of maintaining the ventilation system confinement portion of the PFP safety envelope  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Plutonium Finishing Plant Heating Ventilation and Cooling system provides for the confinement of radioactive releases to the environment and provides for the confinement of radioactive contamination within designated zones inside the facility. This document identifies the components and procedures necessary to ensure the HVAC system provides these functions. Appendices E through J provide a snapshot of non-safety class HVAC equipment and need not be updated when the remainder of the document and Appendices A through D are updated.

Dick, J.D.; Grover, G.A.; O`Brien, P.M., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

313

A Parameterization of the Evaporation of Rainfall  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study we develop theoretical expressions for the rainfall rate, P(z), and the total evaporation rate from cloud base to a level z below cloud base, E(z). The resultant parameterization for the total evaporation is given by E(z) = CP?(0)?(...

Michael E. Schlesinger; Jai-Ho Oh; Daniel Rosenfeld

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Advanced evaporator technology progress report FY 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work that was completed in FY 1992 on the program {open_quotes}Technology Development for Concentrating Process Streams.{close_quotes} The purpose of this program is to evaluate and develop evaporator technology for concentrating radioactive waste and product streams such as those generated by the TRUEX process. Concentrating these streams and minimizing the volume of waste generated can significantly reduce disposal costs; however, equipment to concentrate the streams and recycle the decontaminated condensates must be installed. LICON, Inc., is developing an evaporator that shows a great deal of potential for this application. In this report, concepts that need to be incorporated into the design of an evaporator operated in a radioactive environment are discussed. These concepts include criticality safety, remote operation and maintenance, and materials of construction. Both solubility and vapor-liquid equilibrium data are needed to design an effective process for concentrating process streams. Therefore, literature surveys were completed and are summarized in this report. A model that is being developed to predict vapor phase compositions is described. A laboratory-scale evaporator was purchased and installed to study the evaporation process and to collect additional data. This unit is described in detail. Two new LICON evaporators are being designed for installation at Argonne-East in FY 1993 to process low-level radioactive waste generated throughout the laboratory. They will also provide operating data from a full-sized evaporator processing radioactive solutions. Details on these evaporators are included in this report.

Chamberlain, D.; Hutter, J.C.; Leonard, R.A. [and others

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Ion-Drop Interaction During Drop Evaporation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As a basic experiment in warm cloud electrification, evaporating large drops were studied as they floated in an ion-rich environment in a vertical wind tunnel. The drops were found to acquire a positive charge during their evaporation, a result ...

Tsutomu Takahashi; Tatsuo Endoh

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

OCCUPATIONAL COOLING TOWERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HEALTH SCIENCES LIBRARY COOLING TOWERS EMPLOYEE HEALTH B C D F E CHILDREN'S ELEVATORS MEDICAL SCHOOL

Crews, Stephen

317

Quantitative relationship of sick building syndrome symptoms with ventilation rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

32%), and as ventilation rate increases from 10 to 25 L/s-0.85) as ventilation rate increases from 10 to 25 L/s-29% as ventilation rate increases from 10 to 25 L/s-person.

Fisk, William J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Review of Literature Related to Residential Ventilation Requirements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

typical existing house. Designed passive ventilation systemsPassive Ventilation by Constant Area Vents to Maintain Indoor Air Quality in Houses."House Ventilation Rates Local Exhaust Rates Air Distribution and Duct Leakage Infiltration Windows and Passive

McWilliams, Jennifer; Sherman, Max

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

On Sea Surface Salinity Skin Effect Induced by Evaporation and Implications for Remote Sensing of Ocean Salinity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The existence of a cool and salty sea surface skin under evaporation was first proposed by Saunders in 1967, but few efforts have since been made to perceive the salt component of the skin layer. With two salinity missions scheduled to launch in ...

Lisan Yu

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Hybrid Cooling Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water consumption by power plants has become an increasingly contentious siting issue. In nearly all fossil-fired and nuclear plants, water for plant cooling is by far the greatest water requirement. Therefore, the use of water-conserving cooling systems such as dry or hybrid cooling is receiving increasing attention. This technology overview from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provides a brief introduction to hybrid cooling systems. As defined in the report, the term "hybrid cooling" refer...

2011-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Cooling Plant Optimization Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Central cooling plants or district cooling systems account for 22 percent of energy costs for cooling commercial buildings. Improving the efficiency of central cooling plants will significantly impact peak demand and energy usage for both building owners and utilities. This guide identifies opportunities for optimizing a central cooling plant and provides a simplified optimization procedure. The guide focuses on plant optimization from the standpoint of minimizing energy costs and maximizing efficiencies...

1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

322

Commissioning Ventilated Containment Systems in the Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This Best Practices Guide focuses on the specialized approaches required for ventilated containment systems, understood to be all components that drive and control ventilated enclosures and local exhaust systems within the laboratory. Geared toward architects, engineers, and facility managers, this guide provides information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

Not Available

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Preoperational test report, primary ventilation system  

SciTech Connect

This represents a preoperational test report for Primary Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space filtered venting of tanks AY101, AY102, AZ101, AZ102. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

Clifton, F.T.

1997-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

324

Infiltration in ASHRAE's Residential Ventilation Standards  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of ventilation is to dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant could be exposed to. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. ASHRAE Standards including standards 62, 119, and 136 have all considered the contribution of infiltration in various ways, using methods and data from 20 years ago. The vast majority of homes in the United States and indeed the world are ventilated through natural means such as infiltration caused by air leakage. Newer homes in the western world are tight and require mechanical ventilation. As we seek to provide acceptable indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate norunder-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to correctly evaluate the contribution infiltration makes to both energy consumption and equivalent ventilation. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 specifies how much mechanical ventilation is considered necessary to provide acceptable indoor air quality, but that standard is weak on how infiltration can contribute towards meeting the total requirement. In the past ASHRAE Standard 136 was used to do this, but new theoretical approaches and expanded weather data have made that standard out of date. This article will describe how to properly treat infiltration as an equivalent ventilation approach and then use new data and these new approaches to demonstrate how these calculations might be done both in general and to update Standard 136.

Sherman, Max

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Federal Energy Management Program: Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solar Ventilation Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Solar Ventilation Preheating Resources and Technologies on AddThis.com... Energy-Efficient Products

326

CO2 Monitoring for Demand Controlled Ventilation in Commercial...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CO2 Monitoring for Demand Controlled Ventilation in Commercial Buildings Title CO2 Monitoring for Demand Controlled Ventilation in Commercial Buildings Publication Type Report Year...

327

Ventilation, temperature, and HVAC characteristics in small and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ventilation, temperature, and HVAC characteristics in small and medium commercial buildings in California Title Ventilation, temperature, and HVAC characteristics in small and...

328

Association of Classroom Ventilation with Reduced Illness Absence...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ventilation with Reduced Illness Absence: A Prospective Study in California Elementary Schools Title Association of Classroom Ventilation with Reduced Illness Absence: A...

329

Why We Ventilate Our Houses - An Historical Look  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The knowledge of how to ventilate buildings, and how much ventilation is necessary for human health and comfort, has evolved over centuries of trial and error. Humans and...

330

Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 2 - Field...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measuring Residential Ventilation System Airflows: Part 2 - Field Evaluation of Airflow Meter Devices and System Flow Verification Title Measuring Residential Ventilation System...

331

Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Final Report on Indoor...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Final Report on Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Monitoring in Sixteen Relocatable Classrooms Title Improving Ventilation and Saving...

332

Demand-Controlled Ventilation Using CO2 Sensors - Federal Technology...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fresh air in a building can be a problem. Over ventilation results in higher energy usage and costs than are necessary with appropriate ventilation while potentially increasing...

333

Modeling indoor exposures to VOCs and SVOCs as ventilation rates...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modeling indoor exposures to VOCs and SVOCs as ventilation rates vary Title Modeling indoor exposures to VOCs and SVOCs as ventilation rates vary Publication Type Conference Paper...

334

Report on Applicability of Residential Ventilation Standards in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

but also because passive, whole-house ventilation systemsPassive Ventilation by Constant Area Vents to Maintain Indoor Air Quality in Houses",

Sherman, Max H.; McWilliam, Jennifer A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Overview of Open-Cycle Desiccant Cooling Systems and Materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper has presented a review of the thermodynamics of three desiccant cooling cycles: the ventilation cycle, the recirculation cycle, and the Dunkle cycle. For the ventilation cycle the qualitative effects of changes in the effectiveness of individual components were analyzed. There are two possible paths to improved dehumidifier performance: changing the design of dehumidifiers using currently available desiccants so as to increase effectiveness without increasing parasitic losses, or developing new desiccants specifically tailored for solar cooling applications. The later part of this paper has considered the second option. A list of desirable desiccant properties was defined, properties of currently used solid and liquid desiccants were compared to this list, and a hypothetical desiccant type that would give improved system performance was discussed.

Collier, R.; Arnold, F.; Barlow, R.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Black Hole Evaporation as a Nonequilibrium Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When a black hole evaporates, there arises a net energy flow from the black hole into its outside environment due to the Hawking radiation and the energy accretion onto black hole. Exactly speaking, due to the net energy flow, the black hole evaporation is a nonequilibrium process. To study details of evaporation process, nonequilibrium effects of the net energy flow should be taken into account. In this article we simplify the situation so that the Hawking radiation consists of non-self-interacting massless matter fields and also the energy accretion onto the black hole consists of the same fields. Then we find that the nonequilibrium nature of black hole evaporation is described by a nonequilibrium state of that field, and we formulate nonequilibrium thermodynamics of non-self-interacting massless fields. By applying it to black hole evaporation, followings are shown: (1) Nonequilibrium effects of the energy flow tends to accelerate the black hole evaporation, and, consequently, a specific nonequilibrium phenomenon of semi-classical black hole evaporation is suggested. Furthermore a suggestion about the end state of quantum size black hole evaporation is proposed in the context of information loss paradox. (2) Negative heat capacity of black hole is the physical essence of the generalized second law of black hole thermodynamics, and self-entropy production inside the matter around black hole is not necessary to ensure the generalized second law. Furthermore a lower bound for total entropy at the end of black hole evaporation is given. A relation of the lower bound with the so-called covariant entropy bound conjecture is interesting but left as an open issue.

Hiromi Saida

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

337

Ventilation and air-conditioning concept for CNGS underground areas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of the CNGS project is to prove the existence of neutrino oscillation by generating an intense neutrino beam from CERN in the direction of the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, where two large neutrino detectors are built to detect the neutrinos. All the components for producing the neutrino beam will be situated in the underground tunnels, service galleries and chambers. The ventilation and air-conditioning systems installed in these underground areas have multiple tasks. Depending on the operating mode and structure to be air-conditioned, the systems are required to provide fresh air, cool the machine, dehumidify areas housing sensible equipment or assure the smoke removal in a case of a fire. This paper presents the technical solutions foreseen to meet these requirements.

Lindroos, J

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY SPX COOLING TECHNOLOGIES, INC. FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SPX COOLING TECHNOLOGIES, INC. FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF SPX COOLING TECHNOLOGIES, INC. FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN INVENTION RIGHTS UNDER DOE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NO. DE-NT0005647; W(A)-09-049, CH-1512 The Petitioner, SPX Cooling Technologies, Inc. (SPX), was awarded a cooperative agreement for the performance of work entitled, "Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Freshwater Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants." In its response to questions 2 and 3 of the petition, SPX states that the purpose of the cooperative agreement is to re-work and test technology of the petitioner related to the Reduction of Freshwater Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Base Thermoelectric Power Plants. Petitioner has filed a patent application entitled, "Fill Pack Assembly and Method with Bonded Sheet Pairs,"

339

Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. 2009.1999. Evaporative Air-Conditioning: Applications forDirect Evaporative Air Conditioning, Final Report . Davis,

Sahai, Rashmi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Performance Assessment of a Desiccant Cooling System in a CHP Application with an IC Engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Performance of a desiccant cooling system was evaluated in the context of combined heat and power (CHP). The baseline system incorporated a desiccant dehumidifier, a heat exchanger, an indirect evaporative cooler, and a direct evaporative cooler. The desiccant unit was regenerated through heat recovery from a gas-fired reciprocating internal combustion engine. The system offered sufficient sensible and latent cooling capacities for a wide range of climatic conditions, while allowing influx of outside air in excess of what is typically required for commercial buildings. Energy and water efficiencies of the desiccant cooling system were also evaluated and compared with those of a conventional system. The results of parametric assessments revealed the importance of using a heat exchanger for concurrent desiccant post cooling and regeneration air preheating. These functions resulted in enhancement of both the cooling performance and the thermal efficiency, which are essential for fuel utilization improvement. Two approaches for mixing of the return air and outside air were examined, and their impact on the system cooling performance and thermal efficiency was demonstrated. The scope of the parametric analyses also encompassed the impact of improving the indirect evaporative cooling effectiveness on the overall cooling system performance.

Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.; Slayzak, S.; Judkoff, R.; Schaffhauser, T.; DeBlasio, R.

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

DOE Science Showcase - Cool roofs, cool research, at DOE | OSTI...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Accelerator returns cool roof documents from 6 DOE Databases Executive Order on Sustainability Secretary Chu Announces Steps to Implement One Cool Roof Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler...

342

Simulation and study of thermal performance of liquid desiccant cooling cycle configurations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Five configurations of a 3-ton liquid desiccant cooling cycle were simulated and analyzed on a digital computer. Algebraic equations were developed for the dry bulbtemperatures and humidity ratios at different locations in the systems and solved using a finite difference scheme. The simulations were done at steady state and standard ASHRAE indoor and outdoor conditions. The study compared thermal performance of these five system configurations consisting of a direct evaporative cooler, indirect evaporative cooler(s), liquid desiccant packed dehumidifying tower, and air-to-air heat exchanger. Constant effectiveness of 0.85 and 0.9 were assumed for the direct evaporative cooler and air-to-air heat exchanger respectively. The performance of these five cycles is judged by the thermal Coefficient of Performance (COP). The Sensible Heat Ratio (SHR) is used to quantify the ratio of sensible cooling provided to the total cooling done (sensible plus latent).

Dhir, Rajesh

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Space Heating and Cooling  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A wide variety of technologies are available for heating and cooling homes and other buildings. In addition, many heating and cooling systems have certain supporting equipment in common, such as...

344

Cooling System Functions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...size Flow restrictions Heat exchanger size and design All of these factors must be considered. Every component in the cooling

345

Cooling load estimation methods  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described. Correlations are described that permit auxiliary cooling estimates from monthly average insolation and weather data. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy required of a given building.

McFarland, R.D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Cooling Water System Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During summer months, many manufacturing plants have to cut back in rates because the cooling water system is not providing sufficient cooling to support higher production rates. There are many low/no-cost techniques available to improve tower performance. To understand the importance of the optimization techniques, cooling tower theory will be discussed first.

Aegerter, R.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Stochastic cooling in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

After the success of longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched heavy ion beam in RHIC, transverse stochastic cooling in the vertical plane of Yellow ring was installed and is being commissioned with proton beam. This report presents the status of the effort and gives an estimate, based on simulation, of the RHIC luminosity with stochastic cooling in all planes.

Brennan,J.M.; Blaskiewicz, M. M.; Severino, F.

2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

348

Natural Cooling Retrofit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Substantial numbers of existing plants and buildings are found to depend solely upon Mechanical Cooling even though Natural Cooling techniques could be employed utilizing ambient air. Most of these facilities were constructed without Natural Cooling capability due to 'first cost' budget constraints when the cost and availability of energy were of little concern.

Fenster, L. C.; Grantier, A. J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

AEDG Implementation Recommendations: Ventilation | Building Energy Codes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ventilation Ventilation The Advanced Energy Design Guide (AEDG) for Small Office Buildings, 30% series, seeks to achieve 30% savings over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999. This guide focuses on improvements to small office buildings, less than 20,000ft2. The recommendations in this article are adapted from the implementation section of the guide and focus on ventilation air; exhaust air; control strategies; carbon dioxide sensors; economizers. Publication Date: Wednesday, May 13, 2009 air_ventilation.pdf Document Details Affiliation: DOE BECP Focus: Compliance Building Type: Commercial Code Referenced: ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 Document type: AEDG Implementation Recommendations Target Audience: Architect/Designer Builder Contractor Engineer State: All States Contacts Web Site Policies

350

Floor-supply displacement ventilation system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research on indoor environments has received more attention recently because reports of symptoms and other health complaints related to indoor environments have been increasing. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning ...

Kobayashi, Nobukazu, 1967-

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Scale model studies of displacement ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Displacement ventilation is an air conditioning method that provides conditioned air to indoor environments with the goal to improve air quality while reducing energy consumption. This study investigates the performance ...

Okutan, Galip Mehmet

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Midlevel Ventilation's Constraint on Tropical Cyclone Intensity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Midlevel ventilation, or the flux of low-entropy air into the inner core of a tropical cyclone (TC), is a hypothesized mechanism by which environmental vertical wind shear can constrain a tropical cyclone’s intensity. An ...

Tang, Brian Hong-An

353

A Ventilation Index for Tropical Cyclones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An important environmental control of both tropical cyclone intensity and genesis is vertical wind shear. One hypothesized pathway by which vertical shear affects tropical cyclones is midlevel ventilation—or the flux of ...

Tang, Brian

354

Whole-House Ventilation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

into the house to be filtered to remove pollen and dust or dehumidified to provide humidity control Supply ventilation systems work best in hot or mixed climates. Because they...

355

Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA.Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA.of Ventilation and Air Conditioning: Is CERN up to Date With

Walker, Iain

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Ventilation of the Subtropical North Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ventilation of the subtropical North Pacific is studied using a simple analytical model. The model is forced by winter mixed layer density and depth calculated from the Levitus climatology and wind stress curl from the Hellerman and ...

Rui Xin Huang; Sarah Russell

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Midlevel ventilation's constraint on tropical cyclone intensity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Midlevel ventilation, or the flux of low-entropy air into the inner core of a tropical cyclone (TC), is a hypothesized mechanism by which environmental vertical wind shear can constrain a TC's intensity. An idealized ...

Tang, Brian Hong-An

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Chlorofluorocarbon Constraints on North Atlantic Ventilation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The North Atlantic Ocean vigorously ventilates the ocean interior. Thermocline and deep water masses are exposed to atmospheric contact there and are sequestered in two principal classes: Subtropical Mode Water (STMW: 26.5 ? ?? ? 26.8) and ...

Thomas W. N. Haine; Kelvin J. Richards; Yanli Jia

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Shut-off mechanism for ventilation hose  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A shut-off mechanism to provide automatic closure of a ventilation hose when the operation of drawing air through the hose is terminated. The mechanism includes a tube of light gauge metal inside of which are mounted a plurality of louver doors positioned in the closed position due to gravity when the ventilation unit is not operational. When the unit is operational, air flowing into the unit maintains the doors in the open position. 5 figs.

Huyett, J.D.; Meskanick, G.R.

1989-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

360

Cooling water distribution system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Tracer dating and ocean ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The interpretation of transient tracer observations depends on dif•cult to obtain information on the evolution in time of the tracer boundary conditions and interior distributions. Recent studies have attempted to circumvent this problem by making use of a derived quantity, age, based on the simultaneous distribution of two complementary tracers, such as tritium and its daughter, helium 3. The age is defined with reference to the surface such that the boundary condition takes on a constant value of zero. We use a two-dimensional model to explore the circumstances under which such a combination of conservation equations for two complementary tracers can lead to a cancellation of the time derivative terms. An interesting aspect of this approach is that mixing can serve as a source or sink of tracer based age. We define an idealized "ventilation age tracer " that is conservative with respect to mixing, and we explore how its behavior compares with that of the tracer-based ages over a range of advective and diffusive parameters. 1.

G. Thiele; J. L. Sarmiento

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Pretest Predictions for Phase II Ventilation Tests  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this calculation is to predict the temperatures of the ventilating air, waste package surface, and concrete pipe walls that will be developed during the Phase II ventilation tests involving various test conditions. The results will be used as inputs to validating numerical approach for modeling continuous ventilation, and be used to support the repository subsurface design. The scope of the calculation is to identify the physical mechanisms and parameters related to thermal response in the Phase II ventilation tests, and describe numerical methods that are used to calculate the effects of continuous ventilation. The calculation is limited to thermal effect only. This engineering work activity is conducted in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Subsurface Performance Testing for License Application (LA) for Fiscal Year 2001'' (CRWMS M&O 2000d). This technical work plan (TWP) includes an AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities'', activity evaluation (CRWMS M&O 2000d, Addendum A) that has determined this activity is subject to the YMP quality assurance (QA) program. The calculation is developed in accordance with the AP-3.12Q procedure, ''Calculations''. Additional background information regarding this activity is contained in the ''Development Plan for Ventilation Pretest Predictive Calculation'' (DP) (CRWMS M&O 2000a).

Yiming Sun

2001-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

363

SOLERAS solar cooling project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In view of the increasing demand for cooling in both the United States and Saudi Arabia, solar cooling systems are being considered as serious alternatives to the energy intensive conventional systems, especially when confronted with rising fossil fuel costs. Saudi Arabia and the hot, southern regions of the United States, having abundant sunshine and high cooling demand, are obvious candidates for solar active cooling systems and passive cooling design. Solar active cooling has yet to be shown to be either technologically mature or economically feasible, but efforts have been, and are presently being made within the United States National Solar Cooling Program to develop reliable systems which can compete economically with conventional cooling systems. Currently, the program is funding research and development projects in the areas of absorption, Rankine, dessicant, and advanced technologies. Saudi Arabia has a long and successful tradition of building cooling using passive architectural designs. Combining these past achievements with a program of research and development in both active and passive solar cooling should permit an early economical introduction of entirely solar cooled buildings to Saudi Arabia and the southern United States.

Corcoleotes, G.; Williamson, J.S.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Measured Natural Cooling Enhancement of a While House Fan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study was carried out in the summer of 1991 to investigate the natural cooling potential of use of a whole house fan in Central Florida's hot and humid climate. The residential building, in Cocoa Beach, FL, is typical of much of the existing housing stock in Florida: a concrete block structure with R-11 ceiling insulation. The building was ventilated with all windows open during the three month summer test period (June- August). Air temperatures and relative humidity inside the home interior along with exterior meteorological conditions (insolation, wind speed, air temperature, relative humidity) were scanned every five seconds with integrated averages recorded on a multi-channel data logger every 15- minutes. The house was naturally ventilated during the first half of summer. After a significant period of pre-retrofit summer data had been collected characterizing the building's thermal response, a 24" whole house fan was installed. The house was then force ventilated during evening hours for the remainder of the summer to establish potential of whole-house fans to improve interior comfort conditions. The electrical consumption of the fan was measured at both available fan speeds. Measurements revealed that the building interior was 3 - 6°F cooler during the evening hours after the whole house fan was operated. However, data also showed that nighttime humidity levels rose: relative humidity increased from 74% to 83% during the nighttime period where fan-powered ventilation was used. Using the data results, an analysis was performed using Orlando, Florida TMY data to see how limits to whole house ventilation based on humidity and temperature conditions would affect the potential of such a cooling strategy.

Parker, D. S.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar) Place Livermore, California Zip 94550 Product CoolEarth is a concentrated PV developer using inflatable concentrators to focus light onto triple-junction cells. References CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar) is a company located in Livermore, California . References ↑ "CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=CoolEarth_formerly_Cool_Earth_Solar&oldid=343892" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations

366

Elaboration Of Global Quality Standards For Natural And Low Energy Cooling In French  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

water heaters. We evaluated, with the aid of an airflow and thermal building simulation software of passive cooling architectural components, natural ventilation and energy efficient systems such as solar water which has led to the haphazard installation of instant electrical hot water boilers and badly

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

367

Cost-Effective Integration of Efficient Low-Lift Baseload Cooling Equipment: FY08 Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Documentation of a study to investigate one heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system option, low-lift cooling, which offers potentially exemplary HVAC energy performance relative to American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1-2004.

Katipamula, Srinivas; Armstrong, P. R.; Wang, Weimin; Fernandez, Nicholas; Cho, Heejin; Goetzler, W.; Burgos, J.; Radhakrishnan, R.; Ahlfeldt, C.

2010-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

368

Description and cost analysis of a deluge dry/wet cooling system.  

SciTech Connect

The use of combined dry/wet cooling systems for large base-load power plants offers the potential for significant water savings as compared to evaporatively cooled power plants and significant cost savings in comparison to dry cooled power plants. The results of a detailed engineering and cost study of one type of dry/wet cooling system are described. In the ''deluge'' dry/wet cooling method, a finned-tube heat exchanger is designed to operate in the dry mode up to a given ambient temperature. To avoid the degradation of performance for higher ambient temperatures, water (the delugeate) is distributed over a portion of the heat exchanger surface to enhance the cooling process by evaporation. The deluge system used in this study is termed the HOETERV system. The HOETERV deluge system uses a horizontal-tube, vertical-plate-finned heat exchanger. The delugeate is distributed at the top of the heat exchanger and is allowed to fall by gravity in a thin film on the face of the plate fin. Ammonia is used as the indirect heat transfer medium between the turbine exhaust steam and the ambient air. Steam is condensed by boiling ammonia in a condenser/reboiler. The ammonia is condensed in the heat exchanger by inducing airflow over the plate fins. Various design parameters of the cooling system have been studied to evaluate their impact on the optimum cooling system design and the power-plant/utility-system interface. Annual water availability was the most significant design parameter. Others included site meteorology, heat exchanger configuration and air flow, number and size of towers, fan system design, and turbine operation. It was concluded from this study that the HOETERV deluge system of dry/wet cooling, using ammonia as an intermediate heat transfer medium, offers the potential for significant cost savings compared with all-dry cooling, while achieving substantially reduced water consumption as compared to an evaporatively cooled power plant. (LCL)

Wiles, L.E.; Bamberger, J.A.; Braun, D.J.; Braun, D.J.; Faletti, D.W.; Willingham, C.E.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Stochastic cooling in RHIC  

SciTech Connect

The full 6-dimensional [x,x'; y,y'; z,z'] stochastic cooling system for RHIC was completed and operational for the FY12 Uranium-Uranium collider run. Cooling enhances the integrated luminosity of the Uranium collisions by a factor of 5, primarily by reducing the transverse emittances but also by cooling in the longitudinal plane to preserve the bunch length. The components have been deployed incrementally over the past several runs, beginning with longitudinal cooling, then cooling in the vertical planes but multiplexed between the Yellow and Blue rings, next cooling both rings simultaneously in vertical (the horizontal plane was cooled by betatron coupling), and now simultaneous horizontal cooling has been commissioned. The system operated between 5 and 9 GHz and with 3 x 10{sup 8} Uranium ions per bunch and produces a cooling half-time of approximately 20 minutes. The ultimate emittance is determined by the balance between cooling and emittance growth from Intra-Beam Scattering. Specific details of the apparatus and mathematical techniques for calculating its performance have been published elsewhere. Here we report on: the method of operation, results with beam, and comparison of results to simulations.

Brennan J. M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Mernick, K.

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

370

Cool pool development. Quarterly technical report No. 1, April-June 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Cool Pool is a passive cooling system consisting of a shaded, evaporating roof pond which thermosiphons cool water into water-filled, metal columns (culvert pipes) located within the building living space. The water in the roof pond is cooled by evaporation, convection and radiation. Because the water in the pool and downcomer is colder and denser than the water in the column a pressure difference is created and the cold water flows from the pool, through the downcomer and into the bottom of the column. The warm column water rises and flows through a connecting pipe into the pool. It is then cooled and the cycle repeats itself. The system requires no pumps. The water column absorbs heat from the building interior primarily by convection and radiation. Since the column is radiating at a significantly lower temperature than the interior walls it plays a double role in human comfort. Not only does it cool the air by convection but it provides a heat sink to which people can radiate. Since thermal radiation is important to the cooling of people, the cold water column contributes substantially to their feelings of comfort. Research on the Cool Pool system includes the following major tasks: control of biological organisms and debris in the roof pond and water cylinders; development of a heat exchanger; experimental investigation of the system's thermal performance; and development of a predictive computer simulation of the Cool Pool. Progress in these tasks is reported.

Crowther, K.

1979-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

371

Desiccant cooling using unglazed transpired solar collectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of unglazed solar collectors for desiccant regeneration in a solid desiccant cooling cycle was investigated because these collectors are lower in cost than conventional glazed flat-plate collectors. Using computer models, the performance of a desiccant cooling ventilation cycle integrated with either unglazed transpired collectors or conventional glazed flat-plate collectors was obtained. We found that the thermal performance of the unglazed system was lower than the thermal performance of the glazed system because the unglazed system could not take advantage of the heat of adsorption released during the dehumidification process. For a 3-ton cooling system, although the area required for the unglazed collector was 69% more than that required for the glazed collector, the cost of the unglazed collector array was 44% less than the cost of the glazed collector array. The simple payback period of the unglazed system was half of the payback period of the glazed collector when compared to an equivalent gas-fired system. Although the use of unglazed transpired collectors makes economic sense, some practical considerations may limit their use in desiccant regeneration. 8 refs.

Pesaran, A.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Wipke, K. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Gas-fired cooling status and trends  

SciTech Connect

The current US heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) market shows that the predictions of a health expansion in this market are attainable in this decade. The HVAC industry`s positive trade balance is widening; their successful hedge against various economic problems (the lack of financial and personnel resources) and their initiative to overcome the technical obstacles (caused by environmental issues) will have a positive, long-term impact. This along with energy availability and a favorable price structure has created a unique opportunity for the gas industry to regain and surpass previous respectable market shares attained with gas cooling technologies. New first generation gas cooling equipment is now entering the US marketplace with bold market predictions for commercial chillers and roof-top units, as well as for residential equipment. The marketing campaign covers a broad base of technical and supporting elements. It is the continued research, education, and training of engineers, architects, dealers, and utility sales personnel that can break the existing and serious barriers to the successful marketing of these cooling equipment products. Research in lowering equipment costs, personnel training, more units in the field, and more utility support in commercialization and deployment activities will guarantee an expansion of the market for the gas industry.

Wurm, J. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Space Conditioning Research

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

373

Evaluating the income and employment impacts of gas cooling technologies  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to estimate the potential employment and income benefits of the emerging market for gas cooling products. The emphasis here is on exports because that is the major opportunity for the U.S. heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry. But domestic markets are also important and considered here because without a significant domestic market, it is unlikely that the plant investments, jobs, and income associated with gas cooling exports would be retained within the United States. The prospects for significant gas cooling exports appear promising for a variety of reasons. There is an expanding need for cooling in the developing world, natural gas is widely available, electric infrastructures are over-stressed in many areas, and the cost of building new gas infrastructure is modest compared to the cost of new electric infrastructure. Global gas cooling competition is currently limited, with Japanese and U.S. companies, and their foreign business partners, the only product sources. U.S. manufacturers of HVAC products are well positioned to compete globally, and are already one of the faster growing goods-exporting sectors of the U.S. economy. Net HVAC exports grew by over 800 percent from 1987 to 1992 and currently exceed $2.6 billion annually (ARI 1994). Net gas cooling job and income creation are estimated using an economic input-output model to compare a reference case to a gas cooling scenario. The reference case reflects current policies, practices, and trends with respect to conventional electric cooling technologies. The gas cooling scenario examines the impact of accelerated use of natural gas cooling technologies here and abroad.

Hughes, P.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Laitner, S.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Advanced Controls and Sustainable Systems for Residential Ventilation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Controls and Sustainable Systems for Residential Ventilation Advanced Controls and Sustainable Systems for Residential Ventilation Title Advanced Controls and Sustainable Systems for Residential Ventilation Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5968E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Turner, William J. N., and Iain S. Walker Date Published 12/2012 Keywords ashrae standard 62,2, california title 24, passive ventilation, residential ventilation, ventilation controller Abstract Whole-house ventilation systems are becoming commonplace in new construction, remodeling/renovation, and weatherization projects, driven by combinations of specific requirements for indoor air quality (IAQ), health, and compliance with standards, such as ASHRAE 62.2. At the same time we wish to reduce the energy use in homes and therefore minimize the energy used to provide ventilation. This study examined several approaches to reducing the energy requirements of providing acceptable IAQ in residential buildings. Two approaches were taken. The first used RIVEC - the Residential Integrated VEntilation Controller - a prototype ventilation controller that aims to deliver whole-house ventilation rates that comply with ventilation standards, for the minimum use of energy. The second used passive and hybrid ventilation systems, rather than mechanical systems, to provide whole-house ventilation.

375

Ball feeder for replenishing evaporator feed  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Vapor source material such as uranium, which is to be dropped into a melt in an evaporator, is made into many balls of identical diameters and placed inside a container. An elongated sloping pipe is connected to the container and leads to the evaporator such that these balls can travel sequentially therealong by gravity. A metering valve in this pipe for passing these balls one at a time is opened in response to a signal when it is ascertained by a detector that there is a ball ready to be passed. A gate in the pipe near the evaporator momentarily stops the motion of the traveling ball and is then opened to allow the ball drop into the melt at a reduced speed.

Felde, D.K.; McKoon, R.H.

1993-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

376

Ball feeder for replenishing evaporator feed  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Vapor source material such as uranium, which is to be dropped into a melt in an evaporator, is made into many balls of identical diameters and placed inside a container. An elongated sloping pipe is connected to the container and leads to the evaporator such that these balls can travel sequentially therealong by gravity. A metering valve in this pipe for passing these balls one at a time is opened in response to a signal when it is ascertained by a detector that there is a ball ready to be passed. A gate in the pipe near the evaporator momentarily stops the motion of the traveling ball and is then opened to allow the ball drop into the melt at a reduced speed.

Felde, David K. (Oak Ridge, TN); McKoon, Robert H. (San Ramon, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

New generation of software? Modeling of energy demands for residential ventilation with HTML interface  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents an interactive on-line package for calculation of energy and cost demands for residential infiltration and ventilation, with input and output data entry through a web browser. This is a unique tool. It represents a new kind of approach to developing software employing user (client) and server (package provider) computers. The main program, servicing {open_quotes}intelligent{close_quotes} CGI (Common Gateway Interface) calls, resides on the server and dynamically handles the whole package performance and the procedure of calculations. The {open_quotes}computing engine{close_quotes} consists of two parts: RESVENT - the previously existing program for ventilation calculations and ECONOMICS - for heating and cooling system energy and cost calculations. The user interface is designed in such a way, that it allows simultaneous access by many users from all over the world.

Forowicz, T.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

A field demonstration of automatic restroom ventilation control to reduce energy consumption  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the motion sensor evaluation task for the Hanford Energy Management Committee (HEMC) performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to support the energy reduction mission. The study included installing automatic exhaust ventilation controls in the restrooms of the 1103 Building, 100N area. The goal of this task was to measure the benefit of automatically controlling exhaust ventilation in restrooms of an office building on the Hanford Site. The HEMC belief is that the value of controlling the fans is not limited to the power consumed by the fans, but also includes the value invested to condition (heat or cool) the makeup air. The air exhausted to the exterior of the building must ultimately be replaced by unconditioned air from the outside. This outside air must then by conditioned to maintain the comfort of building occupants. 6 figs., 1 tab.

Doggett, W.H.; Merrick, S.B.; Richman, E.E.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Gas turbine cooling system  

SciTech Connect

A gas turbine engine (10) having a closed-loop cooling circuit (39) for transferring heat from the hot turbine section (16) to the compressed air (24) produced by the compressor section (12). The closed-loop cooling system (39) includes a heat exchanger (40) disposed in the flow path of the compressed air (24) between the outlet of the compressor section (12) and the inlet of the combustor (14). A cooling fluid (50) may be driven by a pump (52) located outside of the engine casing (53) or a pump (54) mounted on the rotor shaft (17). The cooling circuit (39) may include an orifice (60) for causing the cooling fluid (50) to change from a liquid state to a gaseous state, thereby increasing the heat transfer capacity of the cooling circuit (39).

Bancalari, Eduardo E. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

WASTE HANDLING BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System provides heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) for the contaminated, potentially contaminated, and uncontaminated areas of the Monitored Geologic Repository's (MGR) Waste Handling Building (WHB). In the uncontaminated areas, the non-confinement area ventilation system maintains the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort. In the contaminated and potentially contaminated areas, in addition to maintaining the proper environmental conditions for equipment operation and personnel comfort, the contamination confinement area ventilation system directs potentially contaminated air away from personnel in the WHB and confines the contamination within high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration units. The contamination confinement areas ventilation system creates airflow paths and pressure zones to minimize the potential for spreading contamination within the building. The contamination confinement ventilation system also protects the environment and the public by limiting airborne releases of radioactive or other hazardous contaminants from the WHB. The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System is designed to perform its safety functions under accident conditions and other Design Basis Events (DBEs) (such as earthquakes, tornadoes, fires, and loss of the primary electric power). Additional system design features (such as compartmentalization with independent subsystems) limit the potential for cross-contamination within the WHB. The system provides status of important system parameters and equipment operation, and provides audible and/or visual indication of off-normal conditions and equipment failures. The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System confines the radioactive and hazardous material within the building such that the release rates comply with regulatory limits. The system design, operations, and maintenance activities incorporate ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) principles to maintain personnel radiation doses to all occupational workers below regulatory limits and as low as is reasonably achievable. The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System by being located within the WHB and by maintaining specific pressures, temperatures, and humidity within the building. The system also depends on the WHB for water supply. The system interfaces with the Site Radiological Monitoring System for continuous monitoring of the exhaust air; the Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System for detection of fire and smoke; the Waste Handling Building Electrical System for normal, emergency, and standby power; and the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for monitoring and control of the system.

P.A. Kumar

2000-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Hot air drum evaporator. [Patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

Black, R.L.

1980-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

382

Keeping Cool, Saving Water and Money | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Keeping Cool, Saving Water and Money Keeping Cool, Saving Water and Money Keeping Cool, Saving Water and Money July 2, 2010 - 2:25pm Addthis The Orlando Science Center has installed a new energy efficient HVAC unit. | Photo courtesy of Orlando Science Center The Orlando Science Center has installed a new energy efficient HVAC unit. | Photo courtesy of Orlando Science Center In the summer of 2009, the Orlando Science Center (OSC) was full of hot air, literally. The museum's heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system - which had been an operational challenge for several years - was running at 30 percent capacity. That meant the building's interior temperature was often at a toasty 80 degrees, subjecting patrons to miserable conditions. "To keep visitors happy, the museum had to reduce admission prices and

383

Keeping Cool, Saving Water and Money | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool, Saving Water and Money Cool, Saving Water and Money Keeping Cool, Saving Water and Money July 2, 2010 - 2:25pm Addthis The Orlando Science Center has installed a new energy efficient HVAC unit. | Photo courtesy of Orlando Science Center The Orlando Science Center has installed a new energy efficient HVAC unit. | Photo courtesy of Orlando Science Center In the summer of 2009, the Orlando Science Center (OSC) was full of hot air, literally. The museum's heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system - which had been an operational challenge for several years - was running at 30 percent capacity. That meant the building's interior temperature was often at a toasty 80 degrees, subjecting patrons to miserable conditions. "To keep visitors happy, the museum had to reduce admission prices and

384

Unitary solar heating/cooling system package development. Progress report, June 1, 1977--January 31, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During this period, a 3 ton residential system hardware package has been developed and is operating in an Arkla owned solar house in Evansville. The Arkla tower-cooled WF36 chiller has been substituted for the evaporatively cooled chiller under development in the package. The residential software and manufacturing programs are underway. Only preliminary thinking has been done on the commercial 25 ton program which will soon be getting major attention.

Merrick, R.H.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

HOW THE LEED VENTILATION CREDIT IMPACTS ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF GSHP SYSTEMS A CASE STUDY FOR PRIMARY SCHOOLS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a study on the impacts of increased outdoor air (OA) ventilation on the performance of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems that heat and cool typical primary schools. Four locations Phoenix, Miami, Seattle, and Chicago are selected in this study to represent different climate zones in the United States. eQUEST, an integrated building and HVAC system energy analysis program, is used to simulate a typical primary school and the GSHP system at the four locations with minimum and 30% more than minimum OA ventilation. The simulation results show that, without an energy recovery ventilator, the 30% more OA ventilation results in an 8.0 13.3% increase in total GSHP system energy consumption at the four locations. The peak heating and cooling loads increase by 20.2 30% and 14.9 18.4%, respectively, at the four locations. The load imbalance of the ground heat exchanger is increased in hot climates but reduced in mild and cold climates.

Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

The role of the US Department of Energy in indoor air quality and building ventilation policy development  

SciTech Connect

Building ventilation consumes about 5.8 exajoules of energy each year in the US The annual cost of this energy, used for commercial building fans (1.6 exajoules) and the heating and cooling of outside air (4.2 exajoules), is about $US 33 billion per year. Energy conservation measures that reduce heating and cooling season ventilation rates 15 to 35% in commercial and residential buildings can result in a national savings of about 0.6 to 1.5 exajoules ($US 3-8 billion) per year assuming no reduction of commercial building fan energy use. The most significant adverse environmental impact of reduced ventilation and infiltration is the potential degradation of the buildings indoor air quality. Potential benefits to the US from the implementation of sound indoor air quality and building ventilation reduction policies include reduced building-sector energy consumption; reduced indoor, outdoor, and global air pollution; reduced product costs; reduced worker absenteeism; reduced health care costs; reduced litigation; increased worker well-being and productivity; and increased product quality and competitiveness.

Traynor, G.W. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Talbott, J.M.; Moses, D.O. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Energy Basics: Absorption Cooling  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

cooling. Other potential heat sources include propane, solar-heated water, or geothermal-heated water. Although mainly used in industrial or commercial settings, absorption...

388

Power electronics cooling apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

Sanger, Philip Albert (Monroeville, PA); Lindberg, Frank A. (Baltimore, MD); Garcen, Walter (Glen Burnie, MD)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Process Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling towers have been on the scene for more than 50 years. It is because they have proven to be an economic choice for waste heat dissipation. But it seems, for some reason, that after installation very little attention is paid to the cooling-tower and its effect on plant operating efficiency and production. This paper will describe the value of working with a cooling tower specialist to establish the physical and thermal potential of an existing cooling tower. It also demonstrates that a repair and thermal upgrade project to improve efficiency will have a better than average return on investment.

McCann, C. J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Effect of a Radiant Panel Cooling System on Indoor Air Quality of a Conditioned Space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper discusses the effect of a radiant cooling panel system on an indoor air quality (IAQ) of a conditioned space. In this study, ceiling radiant cooling panel, mechanical ventilation with fan coil unit (FCU) and 100% fresh air are used. Temperature sensors are located at different locations inside the conditioned space in order to sense dry bulb temperatures, relative humidity to compare it with standard ASHRAE comfort values. The present investigation indicates that the radiant cooling system not only improves the indoor air quality but also reduces the building energy consumption in the conditioned space.

Mohamed, E.; Abdalla, K. N.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL DRAFT COOLING TOWER  

SciTech Connect

Industrial processes use mechanical draft cooling towers (MDCT's) to dissipate waste heat by transferring heat from water to air via evaporative cooling, which causes air humidification. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has cross-flow and counter-current MDCT's consisting of four independent compartments called cells. Each cell has its own fan to help maximize heat transfer between ambient air and circulated water. The primary objective of the work is to simulate the cooling tower performance for the counter-current cooling tower and to conduct a parametric study under different fan speeds and ambient air conditions. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model and performed the benchmarking analysis against the integral measurement results to accomplish the objective. The model uses three-dimensional steady-state momentum, continuity equations, air-vapor species balance equation, and two-equation turbulence as the basic governing equations. It was assumed that vapor phase is always transported by the continuous air phase with no slip velocity. In this case, water droplet component was considered as discrete phase for the interfacial heat and mass transfer via Lagrangian approach. Thus, the air-vapor mixture model with discrete water droplet phase is used for the analysis. A series of parametric calculations was performed to investigate the impact of wind speeds and ambient conditions on the thermal performance of the cooling tower when fans were operating and when they were turned off. The model was also benchmarked against the literature data and the SRS integral test results for key parameters such as air temperature and humidity at the tower exit and water temperature for given ambient conditions. Detailed results will be published here.

Lee, S; Alfred Garrett, A; James02 Bollinger, J; Larry Koffman, L

2009-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

392

Research on Convective Heat Transfer and Mass Transfer of the Evaporator in Micro/Mini-Channel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the development of science and technology, various heating and cooling equipment have a development trend of micromation. Micro-fabrication processes make it possible to conduct research on condensation heat transfer in micro-channels. Based on the reviewers on the present household air conditioners, the potential requirements for new heat transfer enhancement used for household air conditioners are discussed. Investigations on condensation and boiling of refrigerants in mini/micro channels have indicated that the evaporator and condenser of air conditioner would be more efficient and more compact by using microchannels, and hence it could improve the coefficient of performance of air conditioners to meet the new energy conversion standards in China. The relationship between condensation heat transfer of refrigerants and surface physical characteristics of the evaporator are pointed out and analyzed in order to achieving the corresponding heat transfer coefficients.

Su, J.; Li, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system  

SciTech Connect

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Fanning, Alan W. (San Jose, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Cool Storage Technology Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is a fact that avoiding load growth is cheaper than constructing new power plants. Cool storage technologies offer one method for strategically stemming the impact of future peak demand growth. This guide provides a comprehensive resource for understanding and evaluating cool storage technologies.

2000-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

395

Cooling Tower Technology Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooling towers and associated systems cause significant loss of availability and heat rate degradation in both nuclear and fossil-fired power plants. Twenty-one papers presented at a 2003 conference in Charleston, South Carolina discussed industrial experience and provided case histories of cooling tower problems and solutions.

2003-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

396

Tank 26F-2F Evaporator Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tank 26F supernate sample was sent by Savannah River Remediation to Savannah River National Laboratory for evaporation test to help understand the underlying cause of the recent gravity drain line (GDL) pluggage during operation of the 2F Evaporator system. The supernate sample was characterized prior to the evaporation test. The evaporation test involved boiling the supernate in an open beaker until the density of the concentrate (evaporation product) was between 1.4 to 1.5 g/mL. It was followed by filtering and washing of the precipitated solids with deionized water. The concentrate supernate (or concentrate filtrate), the damp unwashed precipitated solids, and the wash filtrates were characterized. All the precipitated solids dissolved during water washing. A semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis on the unwashed precipitated solids revealed their composition. All the compounds with the exception of silica (silicon oxide) are known to be readily soluble in water. Hence, their dissolution during water washing is not unexpected. Even though silica is a sparingly water-soluble compound, its dissolution is also not surprising. This stems from its small fraction in the solids as a whole and also its relative freshness. Assuming similar supernate characteristics, flushing the GDL with water (preferably warm) should facilitate dissolution and removal of future pluggage events as long as build up/aging of the sparingly soluble constituent (silica) is limited. On the other hand, since the amount of silica formed is relatively small, it is quite possible dissolution of the more soluble larger fraction will cause disintegration or fragmentation of the sparingly soluble smaller fraction (that may be embedded in the larger soluble solid mass) and allow its removal via suspension in the flushing water.

Adu-Wusu, K.

2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

397

Water cooled steam jet  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Cool Roof Colored Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Roof Colored Materials Cool Roof Colored Materials Speaker(s): Hashem Akbari Date: May 29, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60% can reduce cooling-energy use in buildings in excess of 20%. Cool roofs also result in a lower ambient temperature that further decreases the need for air conditioning and retards smog formation. Reflective roofing products currently available in the market are typically used for low-sloped roofs. For the residential buildings with steep-sloped roofs, non-white (colored) cool roofing products are generally not available and most consumers prefer colors other than white. In this collaborative project LBNL and ORNL are working with the roofing industry to develop and produce reflective, colored roofing products and make yhrm a market reality within three to

399

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Cool Magnetic Molecules Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Wednesday, 25 May 2011 00:00 Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

400

Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 4 Hydronic Radiant Cooling Systems Cooling nonresidential buildings in the U.S. contributes significantly to electrical power consumption and peak power demand. Part of the electrical energy used to cool buildings is drawn by fans transporting cool air through the ducts. The typical thermal cooling peak load component for California office buildings can be divided as follows: 31% for lighting, 13% for people, 14% for air transport, and 6% for equipment (in the graph below, these account for 62.5% of the electrical peak load, labeled "chiller"). Approximately 37% of the electrical peak power is required for air transport, and the remainder is necessary to operate the compressor. DOE-2 simulations for different California climates using the California

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Turbine blade cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

Staub, Fred Wolf (Schenectady, NY); Willett, Fred Thomas (Niskayuna, NY)

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

402

Turbine blade cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number.

Staub, Fred Wolf (Schenectady, NY); Willett, Fred Thomas (Niskayuna, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Turbine blade cooling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A turbine rotor blade comprises a shank portion, a tip portion and an airfoil. The airfoil has a pressure side wall and a suction side wall that are interconnected by a plurality of partition sidewalls, defining an internal cooling passageway within the airfoil. The internal cooling passageway includes at least one radial outflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the shank portion towards the tip portion and at least one radial inflow passageway to direct a cooling medium flow from the tip portion towards the shank portion. A number of mixing ribs are disposed on the partition sidewalls within the radial outflow passageways so as to enhance the thermal mixing of the cooling medium flow, thereby producing improved heat transfer over a broad range of the Buoyancy number. 13 figs.

Staub, F.W.; Willett, F.T.

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

404

Review on Ventilation Rate Measuring and Modeling Techniques in Naturally  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Review on Ventilation Rate Measuring and Modeling Techniques in Naturally Review on Ventilation Rate Measuring and Modeling Techniques in Naturally Ventilated Building Speaker(s): Sezin Eren Ozcan Date: May 16, 2006 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Due to limited energy sources, countries are looking for alternative solutions to decrease energy needs. In that context, natural ventilation can be seen as a very attractive sustainable technique in building design. However, understanding of ventilation dynamics is needed to provide an efficient control. Ventilation rate has to be determined not only in terms of energy, but also for controlling indoor air quality and emissions. For these reasons, agricultural buildings (livestock houses, greenhouses, etc.), naturally ventilated industrial buildings, and residences require a reliable ventilation rate measuring technique. Measuring techniques suffer

405

Quantitative relationship of sick building syndrome symptoms with ventilation rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at two outdoor air supply rates." Indoor Air 14 Suppl 8: 7-Miettinen (1995). "Ventilation rate in office buildings andAssociation of ventilation rates and CO 2 concentrations

Fisk, William J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Stochastic Optimization Approach to Water Management in Cooling-Constrained Power Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

constraints and weather conditions on generation capacity. In a pulverized coal power plant study we have source of freshwater withdrawals in the United States [10]. In base-load power plants (i.e., coal of evaporation. A 500 MW coal-fired power plant that employs once-through cooling can use more than 10 million

407

Cooling concept integration. Phase I final technical report, October 1, 1979-July 31, 1981. [For pre-engineered metal buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Before specific test prototypes were developed, six potential evaporative roof cooling configurations with alternative storage and heat transfer mechanisms were examined, and preliminary cost estimates were made. Each system uses a wet roof system which sprays or floods the roof, allowing evaporative heat transfer to the environment. Finite difference thermal network methods were used for the evaluation of the systems. Detailed results including charts of the hourly heat flows during particular days are presented, and the performance is summarized for Las Vegas. (LEW)

Fraker, H.; Glennie, W.; Snyder, M.K.

1981-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

408

Spot Ventilation: Source Control to Improve Indoor Air Quality  

SciTech Connect

Fact sheet for homeowners and contractors on how to employ spot ventilation in the home for comfort and safety.

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Whole-House Ventilation Systems: Improved Control of Air Quality  

SciTech Connect

Fact sheet for homeowners and contractors on how to employ spot ventilation in the home for comfort and safety.

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Project: Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality in Low-Energy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality in Low-Energy Buildings Project. Summary: NIST is developing tools and metrics to both ...

2012-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

411

On the Evaporation Duct for Inhomogeneous Conditions in Coastal Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evaporation ducts are ubiquitous phenomena over the oceans, and they are responsible for much of the over-the-horizon propagation occurring with millimeter and microwave radars. The height of the evaporation duct depends on meteorological ...

G. L. Geernaert

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

New Approach to the Measurement of Interception Evaporation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evaporation of water intercepted by vegetation represents an important (sometimes major) part of evapotranspiration in temperate regions. Interception evaporation is an important process where insufficient measurement techniques hamper progress ...

A. Lundberg; M. Eriksson; S. Halldin; E. Kellner; J. Seibert

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Sensible Heat Observations Reveal Soil-Water Evaporation Dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil-water evaporation is important at scales ranging from microbial ecology to large-scale climate. Yet routine measurements are unable to capture rapidly shifting near-surface soil heat and water processes involved in soil-water evaporation. ...

J. L. Heitman; R. Horton; T. J. Sauer; T. M. DeSutter

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Global Atmospheric Evaporative Demand over Land from 1973 to 2008  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pan evaporation (EP), an index of atmospheric evaporative demand, has been widely reported to have weakened in the past decades. However, its interpretation remains controversial because EP observations are not globally available and observations ...

Kaicun Wang; Robert E. Dickinson; Shunlin Liang

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Ventilation planning at Energy West's Deer Creek mine  

SciTech Connect

In 2004 ventilation planning was initiated to exploit a remote area of Deer Creek mine's reserve (near Huntington, Utah), the Mill Fork Area, located under a mountain. A push-pull ventilation system was selected. This article details the design process of the ventilation system upgrade, the procurement process for the new fans, and the new fan startup testing. 5 figs., 1 photo.

Tonc, L.; Prosser, B.; Gamble, G. [Pacific Corp., Huntington, UT (United States)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

416

Chemical Potential Jump during Evaporation of a Quantum Bose Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dependence of the chemical potential jump coefficient on the evaporation coefficient is analyzed for the case in which the evaporating component is a Bose gas. The concentration of the evaporating component is assumed to be much lower than the concentration of the carrier gas. The expression for the chemical potential jump is derived from the analytic solution of the problem for the case in which the collision frequency of molecules of the evaporating component is constant.

E. A. Bedrikova; A. V. Latyshev

2013-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

417

A database of PFT ventilation measurements  

SciTech Connect

About five years ago, a method for measuring the ventilation flows of a building was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). This method is based on the use of a family of compounds known as perfluorocarbon tracers or PFTs. Since 1982, BNL has measured ventilation in more than 4000 homes, comprising about 100 separate research projects throughout the world. This measurement set is unique in that it is the only set of ventilation measurements that acknowledge and measure the multizone characteristics of residences. Other large measurement sets assume that a home can be treated as a single well-mixed zone. This report describes the creation of a database of approximately half of the PFT ventilation measurements made by BNL over the last five years. The PFT database is currently available for use on any IBM PC or Apple Macintosh based personal computer system. In addition to its utility in modeling indoor pollutant dispersion, this database may also be useful to those people studying energy conservation, thermal comfort and heating system design in residential buildings. 2 refs.

D' Ottavio, T.W.; Goodrich, R.W.; Spandau, D.J.; Dietz, R.N.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

A Ventilation Index for Tropical Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An important environmental control of both tropical cyclone intensity and genesis is vertical wind shear. One hypothesized pathway by which vertical shear affects tropical cyclones is midlevel ventilation—or the flux of low-entropy air into the center of ...

Brian Tang; Kerry Emanuel

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Solar ventilation preheating: FEMP fact sheet  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Installing a ''solar wall'' to heat air before it enters a building, called solar ventilation preheating, is one of the most efficient ways of reducing energy costs using clean and renewable energy. A solar wall can be designed as an integral part of a new building or it can be added in a retrofit project.

Clyne, R.

1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

420

Hysteresis effects in hybrid building ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

radiation, external wind forcing and internal heat gains e.g. due to electrical equipment or building chloride, etc. Developing world: By-products of cooking or heating fires Ghiaus & Allard (2005) · Exposure-breeze, displacement ventilation dissipate internal heat gains e.g. from kitchen stove · Wintertime: Spaces filled

Flynn, Morris R.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Overview: Home Cooling Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

than earlier models. Dehumidifying heat pipes can help an air conditioner remove humidity and more efficiently cool the air. Radiant Cooling Radiant cooling cools a floor or...

422

The Partitioning of Evapotranspiration into Transpiration, Soil Evaporation, and Canopy Evaporation in a GCM: Impacts on Land–Atmosphere Interaction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although the global partitioning of evapotranspiration (ET) into transpiration, soil evaporation, and canopy evaporation is not well known, most current land surface schemes and the few available observations indicate that transpiration is the ...

David M. Lawrence; Peter E. Thornton; Keith W. Oleson; Gordon B. Bonan

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Experimental study of a R-407C drop-in test on an off-the-shelf air conditioner with a counter-cross-flow evaporator  

SciTech Connect

An off-the-shelf 2-ton window air conditioner having an energy efficiency ratio of 10 was used to perform a drop-in test with R-407C. Laboratory tests were performed using a parallel-cross-flow (PCF) evaporator and a counter-cross-flow (CCF) evaporator. The CCF configuration is designed to take advantage of the temperature glide of R-407C so that the warm evaporator inlet air will be in contact with the higher temperature part of the evaporator coils first. The test results indicated that, at the Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute-rated indoor and outdoor conditions, the cooling capacity was 8% higher and system coefficient of performance about 3.8% higher for the CCF evaporator than for the PCF evaporator. The test results also showed that the latent load for CCF was 30.6% higher than for PCF. The far better dehumidification effect provided by the CCF evaporator design is desirable for areas where the latent load is high. The experimental findings should be useful for future efforts to design a dehumidifier that uses a zeotropic refrigerant that provides a significant temperature glide. R-22 test data from a previous project are included as a reference.

Mei, V.C.; Domitrovic, R.; Chen, F.C.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

LBNL's Novel Approach to Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

systems department, chilled water, cooling water tower, double exchanger cooling, dual heat exchanger, high tech and industrial systems group, inrow, lawrence berkeley national...

425

Cool Roofs and Heat Islands  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(510) 486-7494 Links Heat Island Group The Cool Colors Project Batteries and Fuel Cells Buildings Energy Efficiency Applications Commercial Buildings Cool Roofs and...

426

Information Loss in Black Hole Evaporation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Parikh-Wilczek tunnelling framework is investigated again. We argue that Parikh-Wilczek's treatment, which satisfies the first law of black hole thermodynamics and consists with an underlying unitary theory, is only suitable for a reversible process. Because of the negative heat capacity, an evaporating black hole is a highly unstable system. That is, the factual emission process is irreversible, the unitary theory will not be satisfied and the information loss is possible.

Jingyi Zhang; Yapeng Hu; Zheng Zhao

2005-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

427

SY Tank Farm ventilation isolation option risk assessment report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The safety of the 241-SY Tank Farm ventilation system has been under extensive scrutiny due to safety concerns associated with tank 101-SY. Hydrogen and other gases are generated and trapped in the waste below the liquid surface. Periodically, these gases are released into the dome space and vented through the exhaust system. This attention to the ventilation system has resulted in the development of several alternative ventilation system designs. The ventilation system provides the primary means of mitigation of accidents associated with flammable gases. This report provides an assessment of various alternatives ventilation system designs.

Powers, T.B.; Morales, S.D.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

On The Valuation of Infiltration towards Meeting Residential Ventilation Needs  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. In most homes, especially existing homes, infiltration provides the dominant fraction of the ventilation. As we seek to provide acceptable indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate nor under-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to correctly evaluate the contribution infiltration makes to both energy consumption and equivalent ventilation. ASHRAE Standards including standards 62, 119, and 136 have all considered the contribution of infiltration in various ways, using methods and data from 20 years ago.

Sherman, Max H.

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Optimization of Cooling Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A cooling water system can be optimized by operation at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces. The way to optimize will be shown, with a number of examples of new systems.

Matson, J.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

RADIATIVE AND PASSIVE COOLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Passive Cooling Marlo Martin and Paul Berdahl SeptemberNTIS. 3. P. Berdahl and M. Martin, "The Resource for Radia-1978) p. 684. 4. M. Martin and P. Berdahl, "Description of a

Martin, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

432

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

433

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

434

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

435

Cool Magnetic Molecules  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Cool Magnetic Molecules Print Certain materials are known to heat up or cool down when they are exposed to a changing magnetic field. This is known as the magnetocaloric effect. All magnetic materials exhibit this effect, but in most cases, it is too small to be technologically useful. Recently, however, the search for special molecules with a surprisingly large capacity to keep cool has heated up, driven by environmental and cost considerations as well as by recent improvements in our ability to design, assemble, and probe the structure and chemistry of small molecules. An international collaboration of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." The work targets the synthesis of molecular cluster compounds containing many unpaired electrons ("nanomagnets") for applications involving enhanced magnetic refrigeration at very low temperatures.

436

Stimulated radiative laser cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Building a refrigerator based on the conversion of heat into optical energy is an ongoing engineering challenge. Under well-defined conditions, spontaneous anti-Stokes fluorescence of a dopant material in a host matrix is capable of lowering the host temperature. The fluorescence is conveying away a part of the thermal energy stored in the vibrational oscillations of the host lattice. In particular, applying this principle to the cooling of (solid-state) lasers opens up many potential device applications, especially in the domain of high-power lasers. In this paper, an alternative optical cooling scheme is outlined, leading to radiative cooling of solid-state lasers. It is based on converting the thermal energy stored in the host, into optical energy by means of a stimulated nonlinear process, rather than a spontaneous process. This should lead to better cooling efficiencies and a higher potential of applying the principle for device applications.

Muys, Peter

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Sisyphus Cooling of Lithium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laser cooling to sub-Doppler temperatures by optical molasses is thought to be inhibited in atoms with unresolved, near-degenerate hyperfine structure in the excited state. We demonstrate that such cooling is possible in one to three dimensions, not only near the standard D2 line for laser cooling, but over a range extending to the D1 line. Via a combination of Sisyphus cooling followed by adiabatic expansion, we reach temperatures as low as 40 \\mu K, which corresponds to atomic velocities a factor of 2.6 above the limit imposed by a single photon recoil. Our method requires modest laser power at a frequency within reach of standard frequency locking methods. It is largely insensitive to laser power, polarization and detuning, magnetic fields, and initial hyperfine populations. Our results suggest that optical molasses should be possible with all alkali species.

Paul Hamilton; Geena Kim; Trinity Joshi; Biswaroop Mukherjee; Daniel Tiarks; Holger Müller

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

438

Colloidal Shape Effects in Evaporating Drops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explore the influence of particle shape on the behavior of evaporating drops. A first set of experiments discovered that particle shape modifies particle deposition after drying. For sessile drops, spheres are deposited in a ring-like stain, while ellipsoids are deposited uniformly. Experiments elucidate the kinetics of ellipsoids and spheres at the drop's edge. A second set of experiments examined evaporating drops confined between glass plates. In this case, colloidal particles coat the ribbon-like air-water interface, forming colloidal monolayer membranes (CMMs). As particle anisotropy increases, CMM bending rigidity was found to increase, which in turn introduces a new mechanism that produces a uniform deposition of ellipsoids and a heterogeneous deposition of spheres after drying. A final set of experiments investigates the effect of surfactants in evaporating drops. The radially outward flow that pushes particles to the drop's edge also pushes surfactants to the drop's edge, which leads to a radially inward flow on the drop surface. The presence of radially outward flows in the bulk fluid and radially inward flows at the drop surface creates a Marangoni eddy, among other effects, which also modifies deposition after drying.

Peter J. Yunker; Tim Still; A. G. Yodh

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

439

Evaporated lithium surface coatings in NSTX.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two lithium evaporators were used to evaporate more than 100 g of lithium on to the NSTX lower divertor region. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators were withdrawn behind shutters, where they also remained during the subsequent HeGDC applied for periods up to 9.5 min. After the HeGDC, the shutters were opened and the LITERs were reinserted to deposit lithium on the lower divertor target for 10 min, at rates of 10-70 mg/min, prior to the next discharge. The major improvements in plasma performance from these lithium depositions include: (1) plasma density reduction as a result of lithium deposition; (2) suppression of ELMs; (3) improvement of energy confinement in a low-triangularity shape; (4) improvement in plasma performance for standard, high-triangularity discharges; (5) reduction of the required HeGDC time between discharges; (6) increased pedestal electron and ion temperature; (7) reduced SOL plasma density; and (8) reduced edge neutral density.

Zakharov, L. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Gates, D. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Menard, J. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Maingi, R. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Schneider, H. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Mueller, D. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Wampler, William R.; Roquemore, A. L. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Kallman, Jeffrey K. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Sabbagh, S. (Columbia University, New York, NY); LeBlanc, B. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Raman, R. (University of Washington, Seattle, WA); Ono, M. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Wilgren, J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Allain, J.P. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Timberlake, J. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Stevenson, T. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Ross, P. W. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Majeski, R. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Kugel, Henry W. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Skinner, C. H. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Gerhardt, S. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Paul, S. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Bell, R. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Kaye, S. M. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Kaita, R. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Soukhanovskii, V. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Bell, Michael G. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Mansfield, D. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ)

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Nuclear evaporation process with simultaneous multiparticle emission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The nuclear evaporation process is reformulated by taking into account simultaneous multiparticle emission from a hot compound nucleus appearing as an intermediate state in many nuclear reaction mechanisms. The simultaneous emission of many particles is particularly relevant for high excitation energy of the compound nucleus.These channels are effectively open in competition with the single particle emissions and fission in this energy regime. Indeed, the inclusion of these channels along the decay evaporating chain shows that the yield of charged particles and occurrence of fission are affected by these multiparticle emission processes of the compounded nucleus, when compared to the single sequential emission results. The effect also shows a qualitative change in the neutron multiplicity of different heavy compound nucleus considered. This should be an important aspect for the study of spallation reaction in Acceleration Driven System (ADS) reactors. The majority of neutrons generated in these reactions come from the evaporation stage of the reaction, the source of neutron for the system. A Monte Carlo simulation is employed to determine the effect of these channels on the particle yield and fission process. The relevance of the simultaneous particle emission with the increasing of excitation energy of the compound nucleus is explicitly shown.

Leonardo P. G. De Assis; Sergio B. Duarte; Bianca M. Santos

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Cooling tower waste reduction  

SciTech Connect

At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the two main cooling tower systems (central and northwest) were upgraded during the summer of 1997 to reduce the generation of hazardous waste. In 1996, these two tower systems generated approximately 135,400 lbs (61,400 kg) of hazardous sludge, which is more than 90 percent of the hazardous waste for the site annually. At both, wet decks (cascade reservoirs) were covered to block sunlight. Covering the cascade reservoirs reduced the amount of chemical conditioners (e.g. algaecide and biocide), required and in turn the amount of waste generated was reduced. Additionally, at the northwest cooling tower system, a sand filtration system was installed to allow cyclical filtering and backflushing, and new pumps, piping, and spray nozzles were installed to increase agitation. the appurtenance upgrade increased the efficiency of the cooling towers. The sand filtration system at the northwest cooling tower system enables operators to continuously maintain the cooling tower water quality without taking the towers out of service. Operational costs (including waste handling and disposal) and maintenance activities are compared for the cooling towers before and after upgrades. Additionally, the effectiveness of the sand filter system in conjunction with the wet deck covers (northwest cooling tower system), versus the cascade reservoir covers alone (south cooling tower south) is discussed. the overall expected return on investment is calculated to be in excess of 250 percent. this upgrade has been incorporated into the 1998 DOE complex-wide water conservation project being led by Sandia National Laboratory/Albuquerque.

Coleman, S.J.; Celeste, J.; Chine, R.; Scott, C.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seiber, Larry E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlino, Laura D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

443

Laser cooling of solids  

SciTech Connect

We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

WATER COOLED RETORT COVER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A retort cover is designed for use in the production of magnesium metal by the condensation of vaporized metal on a collecting surface. The cover includes a condensing surface, insulating means adjacent to the condensing surface, ind a water-cooled means for the insulating means. The irrangement of insulation and the cooling means permits the magnesium to be condensed at a high temperature and in massive nonpyrophoric form. (AEC)

Ash, W.J.; Pozzi, J.F.

1962-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Experimental Evaluation of a Downsized Residential Air Distribution System: Comfort and Ventilation Effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

Good air mixing not only improves thermal comfort Human thermal comfort is the state of mind that expresses satisfaction with the surrounding environment, according to ASHRAE Standard 55. Achieving thermal comfort for most occupants of buildings or other enclosures is a goal of HVAC design engineers. but also enhances ventilation effectiveness by inducing uniform supply-air diffusion. In general, the performance of an air distribution system in terms of comfort and ventilation effectiveness is influenced by the supply air temperature, velocity, and flow rate, all of which are in part dictated by the HVAC (Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning) In the home or small office with a handful of computers, HVAC is more for human comfort than the machines. In large datacenters, a humidity-free room with a steady, cool temperature is essential for the trouble-free system as well as the thermal load attributes. Any potential deficiencies associated with these design variables can be further exacerbated by an improper proximity of the supply and return outlets with respect to the thermal and geometrical characteristics of the indoor space. For high-performance houses, the factors influencing air distribution performance take on an even greater significance because of a reduced supply-air design flow rate resulting from downsized HVAC systems.

Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Performance evaluation of passive cooling in office buildings based on uncertainty and sensitivity analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Natural night ventilation is an interesting passive cooling method in moderate climates. Driven by wind and stack generated pressures, it cools down the exposed building structure at night, in which the heat of the previous day is accumulated. The performance of natural night ventilation highly depends on the external weather conditions and especially on the outdoor temperature. An increase of this outdoor temperature is noticed over the last century and the IPCC predicts an additional rise to the end of this century. A methodology is needed to evaluate the reliable operation of the indoor climate of buildings in case of warmer and uncertain summer conditions. The uncertainty on the climate and on other design data can be very important in the decision process of a building project. The aim of this research is to develop a methodology to predict the performance of natural night ventilation using building energy simulation taking into account the uncertainties in the input. The performance evaluation of natural night ventilation is based on uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. The results of the uncertainty analysis showed that thermal comfort in a single office cooled with single-sided night ventilation had the largest uncertainty. The uncertainties on thermal comfort in case of passive stack and cross ventilation were substantially smaller. However, since wind, as the main driving force for cross ventilation, is highly variable, the cross ventilation strategy required larger louvre areas than the stack ventilation strategy to achieve a similar performance. The differences in uncertainty between the orientations were small. Sensitivity analysis was used to determine the most dominant set of input parameters causing the uncertainty on thermal comfort. The internal heat gains, solar heat gain coefficient of the sunblinds, internal convective heat transfer coefficient, thermophysical properties related to thermal mass, set-point temperatures controlling the natural night ventilation, the discharge coefficient C{sub d} of the night ventilation opening and the wind pressure coefficients C{sub p} were identified to have the largest impact on the uncertainty of thermal comfort. The impact of the warming climate on the uncertainty of thermal comfort was determined. The uncertainty on thermal comfort appeared to increase significantly when a weather data set with recurrence time of 10 years (warm weather) was applied in the transient simulations in stead of a standard weather data set. Natural night ventilation, designed for normal weather conditions, was clearly not able to ensure a high probability of good thermal comfort in warm weather. To ensure a high probability of good thermal comfort and to reduce the performance uncertainty in a warming climate, natural night ventilation has to be combined with additional measures. Different measures were analysed, based on the results of the sensitivity analysis. All the measures were shown to significantly decrease the uncertainty of thermal comfort in warm weather. The study showed the importance to carry out simulations with a warm weather data set together with the analysis under typical conditions. This approach allows to gain a better understanding of the performance of a natural night ventilation design, and to optimize the design to a robust solution. (author)

Breesch, H. [Building Physics, Construction and Services, Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Ghent University, J. Plateaustraat 22, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Sustainable Building Research Group, Department of Construction, Catholic University College Ghent, Gebroeders Desmetstraat 1, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Janssens, A. [Building Physics, Construction and Services, Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Ghent University, J. Plateaustraat 22, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

447

Ventilating system for reprocessing of nuclear fuel rods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a nuclear facility such as a reprocessing plant for nuclear fuel rods, the central air cleaner discharging ventilating gas to the atmosphere must meet preselected standards not only as to the momentary concentration of radioactive components, but also as to total quantity per year. In order to comply more satisfactorily with such standards, reprocessing steps are conducted by remote control in a plurality of separate compartments. The air flow for each compartment is regulated so that the air inventory for each compartment has a slow turnover rate of more than a day but less than a year, which slow rate is conveniently designated as quasihermetic sealing. The air inventory in each such compartment is recirculated through a specialized processing unit adapted to cool and/or filter and/or otherwise process the gas. Stale air is withdrawn from such recirculating inventory and fresh air is injected (eg., By the less than perfect sealing of a compartment) into such recirculating inventory so that the air turnover rate is more than a day but less than a year. The amount of air directed through the manifold and duct system from the reprocessing units to the central air cleaner is less than in reprocessing plants of conventional design.

Szulinski, M.J.

1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

448

Solar heating and cooling commercialization research program. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Solar Heating and Cooling Commercialization Research Program has addressed a recognized need to accelerate the commercialization of solar products. The development of communication techniques and materials for a target group of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) wholesalers and distributors has been the primary effort. A summary of the program, the approach to the development of the techniques and materials, the conclusions derived from seminar feedback, the development of additional research activities and reports and the recommendations for follow-on activities are presented. The appendices offer detailed information on specific elements of the research effort.

Christensen, D.L.; Tragert, W.; Weir, S.

1979-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Cool-down and frozen start-up behavior of a grooved water heat pipe  

SciTech Connect

A grooved water heat pipe was tested to study its characteristics during the cool-down and start-up periods. The water heat pipe was cooled down from the ambient temperature to below the freezing temperature of water. During the cool-down, isothermal conditions were maintained at the evaporator and adiabatic sections until the working fluid was frozen. When water was frozen along the entire heat pipe, the heat pipe was rendered inactive. The start-up of the heat pipe from this state was investigated under several different operating conditions. The results show the existence of large temperature gradients between the evaporator and the condenser, and the moving of the melting front of the working fluid along the heat pipe. Successful start-up was achieved for some test cases using partial gravity assist. The start-up behavior depended largely on the operating conditions.

Jang, J.H.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Use of unglazed transpired solar collectors for desiccant cooling  

SciTech Connect

The use of unglazed transpired solar collectors for desiccant regeneration in a solid desiccant cooling cycle was investigated because these collectors are less expensive than conventional glazed flat-plate collectors. Using computer models, we studied the performance of a desiccant cooling ventilation cycle integrated with either unglazed transpired collectors or conventional glazed flat-plate collectors. We found that the thermal coefficient of performance of the cooling system with unglazed collectors was lower than that of the cooling system with glazed collectors because the former system did not use the heat of adsorption released during the dehumidification process. Although the area required for the unglazed collector array was 70% more than that required for the glazed collector array in a 10.56 kW (3 ton) solar cooling system, the cost of the unglazed array was 45% less than the cost of the glazed array. The simple payback period of the unglazed collector was half of the payback period of the glazed collector when replacing an equivalent gas-fired air heater. Although the use of unglazed transpired collectors seems to make economic sense relative to use of glazed conventional collectors, some practical considerations may limit their use for desiccant regeneration.

Pesaran, A.A.; Wipke, K.B. (National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States))

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Energy saving strategies with personalized ventilation in tropics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Agency, Solar Heating and Cooling Programme, (2003).through the IEA solar heating and cooling programme, Task

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen; Chandra Sekhar, Chandra Sekhar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Recommended Changes to Specifications for Demand Controlled Ventilation in California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards  

SciTech Connect

In demand-controlled ventilation (DCV), rates of outdoor air ventilation are automatically modulated as occupant density varies. The objective is to keep ventilation rates at or above design specifications and code requirements and also to save energy by avoiding excessive ventilation rates. DCV is most often used in spaces with highly variable and sometime dense occupancy. In almost all cases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sensors installed in buildings provide the signal to the ventilation rate control system. People produce and exhale CO{sub 2} as a consequence of their normal metabolic processes; thus, the concentrations of CO{sub 2} inside occupied buildings are higher than the concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the outdoor air. The magnitude of the indoor-outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration difference decreases as the building's ventilation rate per person increases. The difference between the indoor and outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration is also a proxy for the indoor concentrations of other occupant-generated bioeffluents, such as body odors. Reviews of the research literature on DCV indicate a significant potential for energy savings, particularly in buildings or spaces with a high and variable occupancy. Based on modeling, cooling energy savings from applications of DCV are as high as 20%. With support from the California Energy Commission and the U.S. Department of Energy, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has performed research on the performance of CO{sub 2} sensing technologies and optical people counters for DCV. In addition, modeling was performed to evaluate the potential energy savings and cost effectiveness of using DCV in general office spaces within the range of California climates. The above-described research has implications for the specifications pertaining to DCV in section 121 of the California Title 24 Standard. Consequently, this document suggests possible changes in these specifications based on the research findings. The suggested changes in specifications were developed in consultation with staff from the Iowa Energy Center who evaluated the accuracy of new CO{sub 2} sensors in laboratory-based research. In addition, staff of the California Energy Commission, and their consultants in the area of DCV, provided input for the suggested changes in specifications.

Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Faulkner, David

2010-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

453

Economic evaluation of four types of dry/wet cooling applied to the 5-MWe Raft River geothermal power plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A cost study is described which compared the economics of four dry/wet cooling systems to use at the existing Raft River Geothermal Plant. The results apply only at this site and should not be generalized without due consideration of the complete geothermal cycle. These systems are: the Binary Cooling Tower, evaporative condenser, Combin-aire, and a metal fin-tube dry cooling tower with deluge augmentation. The systems were evaluated using cooled, treated geothermal fluid instead of ground or surface water in the cooling loops. All comparisons were performed on the basis of a common plant site - the Raft River 5 MWe geothermal plant in Idaho. The Binary Cooling Tower and the Combin-aire cooling system were designed assuming the use of the isobutane/water surface condenser currently installed at the Raft River Plant. The other two systems had the isobutane ducted to the evaporative condensers. Capital credit was not given to the system employing the direct condensing process. The cost of the systems were estimated from designs provided by the vendors. The levelized energy cost range for each cooling system is listed below. The levelized energy cost reflects the incremental cost of the cooling system for the life of the plant. The estimates are presented in 1981 dollars.

Bamberger, J.A.; Allemann, R.T.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Crystallization Temperature of Aqueous Lithium Bromide Solutions at Low Evaporation Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water- aqueous Lithium Bromide (LiBr) solutions have shown superior performance as working fluid pairs for absorption refrigeration cycles. Most of the available literature (e.g. ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, etc.) provide crystallization behavior down to only 10 C. The typical evaporating temperature for an absorption chiller system is usually lower than 10 C. Hence, it is essential to have an accurate prediction of the crystallization temperature in this range in order to avoid crystallization during the design phase. We have therefore conducted a systematic study to explore the crystallization temperatures of LiBr/Water solutions that fall below an evaporating temperature of 10 C. Our preliminary studies revealed that the rate of cooling of the sample solution influences the crystallization temperature; therefore we have performed a quasi steady test where the sample was cooled gradually by reducing the sample temperature in small steps. Results from this study are reported in this paper and can be used to extend the data available in open literature.

Kisari, Padmaja [ORNL; Wang, Kai [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Solar heating and cooling results for the Los Alamos study center  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The solar energy system for the Study Center consists of an 8000 ft/sup 2/ array of selectively coated, single-glazed collectors, a 5000 gallon pressurized tank for hot storage in the cooling mode, and a 10,000 gallon tank, which is used for hot storage in the heating mode and cold storage in the cooling mode. Either of two chillers may be used in series with the cold storage tank, an 85 ton absorption unit, or a 77 ton Rankine cycle unit. Night evaporative cooling is also used to cool the 10,000 gallon tank. A heat recovery unit is used to preheat fresh air in the winter, and, by means of spraying the exhaust air, to pre-cool fresh air in the summer. Daily, monthly, and seasonal energy summaries are presented for the system. Performance data for the two chillers include tabulation of thermal and system coefficients of performance.

Hedstrom, J.C.; Murray, H.S.; Balcomb, J.D.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Air Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Air Cooling: Air cooling is commonly defined as rejecting heat from an object by flowing air over the surface of the object, through means of convection. Air cooling requires that the air must be cooler than the object or surface from which it is expected to remove heat. This is due to the second law of thermodynamics, which states that heat will only move spontaneously from a hot reservoir (the heat sink) to a cold reservoir (the air). Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Air Cooling Air Cooling Diagram of Air Cooled Condenser designed by GEA Heat Exchangers Ltd. (http://www.gea-btt.com.cn/opencms/opencms/bttc/en/Products/Air_Cooled_Condenser.html) Air cooling is limited on ambient temperatures and typically require a

457

Water Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling: Cooling: Water cooling is commonly defined as a method of using water as a heat conduction to remove heat from an object, machine, or other substance by passing cold water over or through it. In energy generation, water cooling is typically used to cool steam back into water so it can be used again in the generation process. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Water Cooling Typical water cooled condenser used for condensing steam Water or liquid cooling is the most efficient cooling method and requires the smallest footprint when cold water is readily available. When used in power generation the steam/vapor that exits the turbine is condensed back into water and reused by means of a heat exchanger. Water cooling requires a water resource that is cold enough to bring steam, typically

458

Gas-cooled reactors  

SciTech Connect

Experience to date with operation of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors has been quite favorable. Despite problems in completion of construction and startup, three high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) units have operated well. The Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (AGR) in the United Kingdom has had an excellent operating history, and initial operation of commercial AGRs shows them to be satisfactory. The latter reactors provide direct experience in scale-up from the Windscale experiment to fullscale commercial units. The Colorado Fort St. Vrain 330-MWe prototype helium-cooled HTGR is now in the approach-to-power phase while the 300-MWe Pebble Bed THTR prototype in the Federal Republic of Germany is scheduled for completion of construction by late 1978. THTR will be the first nuclear power plant which uses a dry cooling tower. Fuel reprocessing and refabrication have been developed in the laboratory and are now entering a pilot-plant scale development. Several commercial HTGR power station orders were placed in the U.S. prior to 1975 with similar plans for stations in the FRG. However, the combined effects of inflation, reduced electric power demand, regulatory uncertainties, and pricing problems led to cancellation of the 12 reactors which were in various stages of planning, design, and licensing.

Schulten, R.; Trauger, D.B.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Cooling Towers, The Debottleneckers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power generating plants and petro-chemical works are always expanding. An on-going problem is to identify and de-bottle neck restricting conditions of growth. The cooling tower is a highly visible piece of equipment. Most industrial crossflow units are large structures, Illustration 1. Big budget money and engineering time goes into gleaming stainless steel equipment and exotic process apparatus, the poor cooling tower is the ignored orphan of the system. Knowledgeable Engineers, however, are now looking into the function of the cooling tower, which is to produce colder water- and question the quality of water discharged from that simple appearing box. These cross-flow structures are quite large, ranging up to 60 feet tall with as many as 6 or more cells in a row. With cells up to 42 feet long so immense in aspect, with fans rotating, operators assume, just by appearances, that all is well, and usually pay no attention to the quality of cold water returning from the cooling tower. The boxes look sturdy, but the function of the cooling tower is repeated ignored production of water as cold as possible.

Burger, R.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Desiccant degradation in desiccant cooling systems: A system study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors predict the impact of desiccant degradation on the performance of an open-cycle desiccant cooling system in ventilation mode using the degradation data on silica gel obtained from a previous study. The degradation data were based on thermal cycling desiccant samples and exposing them to ambient or contaminated air. Depending on the degree of desiccant degradation, the decrease in the thermal coefficient of performance (COP) and the cooling capacity of the system for low-temperature regeneration was 10 percent to 35 percent. The 35 percent loss occurred based on the worst-case desiccant degradation scenario. Under more realistic conditions the loss in system performance is expected to be lower.

Pesaran, A.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "ventilation evaporative cooling" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Desiccant dehumidification and cooling systems assessment and analysis  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to provide a preliminary analysis of the principles, sensitivities, and potential for national energy savings of desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems. The report is divided into four sections. Section I deals with the maximum theoretical performance of ideal desiccant cooling systems. Section II looks at the performance effects of non-ideal behavior of system components. Section III examines the effects of outdoor air properties on desiccant cooling system performance. Section IV analyzes the applicability of desiccant cooling systems to reduce primary energy requirements for providing space conditioning in buildings. A basic desiccation process performs no useful work (cooling). That is, a desiccant material drying air is close to an isenthalpic process. Latent energy is merely converted to sensible energy. Only when heat exchange is applied to the desiccated air is any cooling accomplished. This characteristic is generic to all desiccant cycles and critical to understanding their operation. The analyses of Section I show that desiccant cooling cycles can theoretically achieve extremely high thermal CoP`s (>2). The general conclusion from Section II is that ventilation air processing is the most viable application for the solid desiccant equipment analyzed. The results from the seasonal simulations performed in Section III indicate that, generally, the seasonal performance of the desiccant system does not change significantly from that predicted for outdoor conditions. Results from Section IV show that all of the candidate desiccant systems can save energy relative to standard vapor-compression systems. The largest energy savings are achieved by the enthalpy exchange devise.

Collier, R.K. Jr. [Collier Engineering, Reno, NV (United States)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

cooling | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cooling cooling Dataset Summary Description The following data-set is for a benchmark residential home for all TMY3 locations across all utilities in the US. The data is indexed by utility service provider which is described by its "unique" EIA ID ( Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released April 05th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated April 06th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords AC apartment CFL coffeemaker Computer cooling cost demand Dishwasher Dryer Furnace gas HVAC Incandescent Laptop load Microwave model NREL Residential television tmy3 URDB Data text/csv icon Residential Cost Data for Common Household Items (csv, 14.5 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually Time Period License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL)

463

Passive containment cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

Billig, Paul F. (San Jose, CA); Cooke, Franklin E. (San Jose, CA); Fitch, James R. (San Jose, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Passive containment cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

1994-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

465

Radion clouds around evaporating black holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Kaluza-Klein model, with a matter source associated with Hawking radiation from an evaporating black hole, is used to obtain a simple form for the radion effective potential. The environmental effect generally causes a matter-induced shift of the radion vacuum, resulting in the formation of a radion cloud around the hole. There is an albedo due to the radion cloud, with an energy dependent reflection coefficient that depends upon the size of the extra dimensions and the temperature of the hole.

J. R. Morris

2009-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

466

Study of falling-jet flash evaporators  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experimental results of flash evaporation from sheets of water, 3.2 mm and 6.3 mm thick and 27.9 cm wide, falling freely in the presence of their own vapor, are reported. With no flashing the jets fall in coherent sheets, but with flashing the jets were observed to spread and break up into droplets. Flashing was characterized by an effectiveness parameter, which was found to increase with increasing water temperature and jet length. Variations in water flow rate and heat flux did not influence the effectiveness appreciably.

Kreith, F.; Olson, D.A.; Bharathan, D.; Green, H.J.