Sample records for venezuelan furrial venezuelan

  1. Impacts of the Venezuelan Crude Oil Production Loss

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This assessment of the Venezuelan petroleum loss examines two areas. The first part of the analysis focuses on the impact of the loss of Venezuelan crude production on crude oil supply for U.S. refiners who normally run a significant fraction of Venezuelan crude oil. The second part of the analysis looks at the impact of the Venezuelan production loss on crude markets in general, with particular emphasis on crude oil imports, refinery crude oil throughput levels, stock levels, and the changes in price differences between light and heavy crude oils.

  2. Focus on Venezuelan heavy crude: refining margins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Of six crudes refined in the US Gulf Coast, heavy Venezuelan crude Lagunillas (15/sup 0/ API) provides the best margin per barrel. Data for end of December 1983 and the first three weeks of January show that margins on all crudes are on the rise in this market, due to a turnaround in product prices. The lighter crudes are showing the greatest increase in Gross Product Worth. This is having a modest shrinking effect on the margin differential between light and heavy crudes in this market. The domestic crude West Texas Intermediate, at 40/sup 0/ API, provides the highest GPW in this crude slate sample, over US $31 per barrel, compared to GPW of under US $28 per barrel for Lagunillas. Still, as Lagunillas cost about US $8 less than does WTI, refiners with sufficient residue conversion capacity can be earning about US $3.50 more in margin per barrel than they can with WTI. Although few refiners would be using a 15/sup 0/ API crude exclusively for any length of time, heavier oil's inclusion in modern refiners' diets is enhancing their competitive position more than any other single factor. This issue of Energy Detente presents the fuel price/tax series and industrial fuel prices for January 1984 for countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  3. Long range weathering effects on the chemical properties of two Venezuelan crude oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bautz, Anton Frank

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LONG RANGE WEATHERING EFFECTS ON Tl'iE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF TWO VENEZUELAN CRUDE OILS A Thesis ANTON FRANK BAUTZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1974 Major Subject: Oceanography LONG RANGE WEATHERING EFFECTS ON THE CHEHICAL PROPERTIES OF TWO VENEZUELAN CRUDE OILS A Thesis by ANTON FRANK BAUTZ Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of C t Head of Department Hember...

  4. Seismic properties of a Venezuelan heavy oil in water emulsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maldonado, F.; Liu, Y.; Mavko, G.; Mukerji, T. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several procedures for the production of low-viscosity, surfactant-stabilized, easy-transportable dispersions of heavy crude oil in water-briefly, oil in water (or o/w) emulsions - have been recently patented. Some of them propose to form the o/w emulsion in the reservoir, after the injection of a mixture of water and surfactants, increasing significantly the per well daily production. Progression of the o/w emulsion front, through the reservoir to the production wells, can be monitored in seismic planar slices with successive 3D seismic surveys (413 seismic), if enough contrast exists between the seismic velocity value of the o/w emulsion and the one of the oil in place. To facilitate the analysis of the contrast, this study presents high frequency acoustic velocity measurements performed in the laboratory. The experimental setup includes two reflectors and an ultrasonic transducer with double burst train emission. The estimated velocity precision is 0.02%. The measured samples are: a Venezuelan heavy o/w emulsion, a mixture of the same heavy oil and gasoil and a saturated sandstone core containing the o/w emulsion. Additionally, seismic velocities of the actual pore fluids - live oil and five o/w emulsion - and saturated sandstone are calculated using the above laboratory measurements, Wood`s equation, and Gassman`s and Biot`s models.

  5. The Possible Loss of Venezuelan Heavy Crude Oil Imports Underscores the Strategic Importance of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    The Possible Loss of Venezuelan Heavy Crude Oil Imports Underscores the Strategic Importance crude, making reliance on Canadian heavy crude oil more significant, and the approval of the Keystone XL of ConocoPhillips' Petrozuata- Hamaca and ExxonMobil's Cerro Negro Orinoco Belt heavy oil projects

  6. A Non Parametric Model for the Forecasting of the Venezuelan Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Costanzo, Sabatino; Dehne, Wafaa; Prato, Hender

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A neural net model for forecasting the prices of Venezuelan crude oil is proposed. The inputs of the neural net are selected by reference to a dynamic system model of oil prices by Mashayekhi (1995, 2001) and its performance is evaluated using two criteria: the Excess Profitability test by Anatoliev and Gerko (2005) and the characteristics of the equity curve generated by a trading strategy based on the neural net predictions. ----- Se introduce aqui un modelo no parametrico para pronosticar los precios del petroleo Venezolano cuyos insumos son seleccionados en base a un sistema dinamico que explica los precios en terminos de dichos insumos. Se describe el proceso de recoleccion y pre-procesamiento de datos y la corrida de la red y se evaluan sus pronosticos a traves de un test estadistico de predictibilidad y de las caracteristicas del Equity Curve inducido por la estrategia de compraventa bursatil generada por dichos pronosticos.

  7. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus entry mechanism requires late endosome formation and resists cell membrane cholesterol depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolokoltsov, Andrey A. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Fleming, Elisa H. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Davey, Robert A. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)]. E-mail: radavey@utmb.edu

    2006-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Virus envelope proteins determine receptor utilization and host range. The choice of receptor not only permits specific targeting of cells that express it, but also directs the virus into specific endosomal trafficking pathways. Disrupting trafficking can result in loss of virus infectivity due to redirection of virions to non-productive pathways. Identification of the pathway or pathways used by a virus is, thus, important in understanding virus pathogenesis mechanisms and for developing new treatment strategies. Most of our understanding of alphavirus entry has focused on the Old World alphaviruses, such as Sindbis and Semliki Forest virus. In comparison, very little is known about the entry route taken by more pathogenic New World alphaviruses. Here, we use a novel contents mixing assay to identify the cellular requirements for entry of a New World alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). Expression of dominant negative forms of key endosomal trafficking genes shows that VEEV must access clathrin-dependent endocytic vesicles for membrane fusion to occur. Unexpectedly, the exit point is different from Old World alphaviruses that leave from early endosomes. Instead, VEEV also requires functional late endosomes. Furthermore, unlike the Old World viruses, VEEV entry is insensitive to cholesterol sequestration from cell membranes and may reflect a need to access an endocytic compartment that lacks cholesterol. This indicates fundamental differences in the entry route taken by VEEV compared to Old World alphaviruses.

  8. Discovery of a Novel Compound with Anti-Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity That Targets the Nonstructural Protein 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Dong-Hoon; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Tower, Nichole A.; Chu, Yong-Kyu; Sahin, Ergin; Golden, Jennifer E.; Noah, James W.; Schroeder, Chad E.; Stosky, Julie B.; Sosa, Melinda; Cramer, Daniel E.; McKellip, Sara N.; Rasmussen, Lynn; White, E. Lucile; Schmaljohn, Connie S.; Julander, Justin G.; Smith, Jeffery M.; Filone, Claire Marie; Connor, John H.; Sakurai, Yasuteru; Davey, Robert A.

    2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    W. Noah4, Chad E. Schroeder5, Julie B. Sotsky2, Melinda I. Sosa4, Daniel E. Cramer2, Sara N. McKellip4, Lynn Rasmussen4, E. Lucile White4, Connie S. Schmaljohn6, Justin G. Julander7, Jeffrey M. Smith6, Claire Marie Filone8, John H. Connor8, Yasuteru... infection. Citation: Chung D-H, Jonsson CB, Tower NA, Chu Y-K, Sahin E, et al. (2014) Discovery of a Novel Compound with Anti-Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity That Targets the Nonstructural Protein 2. PLoS Pathog 10(6): e1004213. doi:10...

  9. Geology reinterpretation of an inactive old field-Mata 3, Venezuelan East Basin-using computer methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, O.; Rivero, C.; Abud, J. [East Univ., Corpoven, S.A. (Venezuela)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nowadays to find a new oil field is a very dificult task that the petroleum people know very well; therefore the reactivation of an old oil field that had important production is the best way to increase the economic benefits for the Corporation and for the country in general. In this paper, the most important point was the Geology Study regarding the reopening of the Mata-3 oil field, which ceased to be active 15 years ago, after producing 30 mmbls of light oil. There are 30 prospective sands but only 3 of them have produced 70% of the primary production. Thus, the principal objectives were the S2, S3, 4 sands of Oficina Formation (Venezuelan East Basin) in 476 wells located in this area. The following computer systems that were available to us: GIPSIE System, Vax (Intergraph Co.); PMSE System, Vax (Intergraph Co.); CPS-3 System, Unix (Radian Co.); and SIGEMAP System PC (Corpoven, S.A.). All of them assist in the different tasks that must be done by the geologists working in the interpretation area. In the end, we recommended 40 wells to workover (2 wells/year for 20 years) and thereby to increase the POI (petroleum in situ) and increase the reserves by 13.4 mmbls of fight oil, important commercial production. The estimate of the total investment is about $2 million (340 mmBs.).

  10. User's guide to the Venezuelan macrofinancial model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aliana, Simon

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a user's guide and documentation for a macrofinancial model of Venezuela. This model was developed under a DOE International Affairs Division grant (contract no. EX-76-A-01-2295) for the project, "A ...

  11. An Early Warning System for Bankruptcy Prediction: lessons from the Venezuelan Bank Crisis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trigo, Loren; Gonzalez, Felix; Llamozas, Jose

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During 1993-94 Venezuela experienced a severe banking crisis which ended up with 18 commercial banks intervened by the government. Here we develop an early warning system for detecting credit related bankruptcy through discriminant functions developed on financial and macroeconomic data predating the crisis. A robustness test performed on these functions shows high precision in error estimation. The model calibrated on pre-crisis data could detect abnormal financial tension in the late Banco Capital many months before it was intervened and liquidated.

  12. Ream-while-drilling tool cuts costs of three Venezuelan wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rothe, J.R. [Lagoven SA, Maturin (Venezuela); Carre C., L.J. [Corpoven SA, Norte de Monagas (Venezuela); Portillo, R. [Hughes Christensen Co., Maracaibo (Venezuela); Leal, M. [Hughes Christensen Co., Maturin (Venezuela)

    1997-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A new tool that permits simultaneous drilling and hole enlargement reduced drilling costs by more than $780,000 on three wells in eastern Venezuela. The new ream-while-drilling (RWD) tool was used for the first time in Venezuela in Lagoven SA`s exploratory well PTL-4X, in which an influx of formation gas in the top hole required an unexpected alteration of the original casing program. The modification of the casing program necessitated underreaming for the first time in the new field, located in the State of Monagas. On the basis of eliminating the additional 36 days of rig time and other expenses associated with the conventional reaming undertaken in similar wells in the area, the one-pass operation saved an estimated $634,834 in drilling costs. Because of the success of the PTL-4X operation, Corpoven SA subsequently used the RWD system in the Mulata field, where offset wells traditionally required an average of 1,973 ft of underreaming. One tool successfully drilled and reamed two wells and remained in a condition suitable for reuse. Corpoven ran the tool under a rental agreement and saved $146,782, when compared to three Mulata offsets. The paper discusses reaming experience, RWD tool design, and economic analysis.

  13. Long range weathering effects on the chemical properties of two Venezuelan crude oilsá

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bautz, Anton Frank

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    number and size of oil tankers carrying oil from South America and the Middle East to the United States and Western Europe increases the risk of future oil spills and the associated pollution of the open seas, estuaries, and harbors. Thus an Increase..., and c'!eanup of oil spills. Research is very intensive in the analysis of the spilled and weathered petroleum products found on the seas. When exposed to the marine environment, petroleum and its products undergo chemical and physical compositional...

  14. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Venezuelan Oil Industry Total Wells Drilled and InvestmentWells Drilled and Investment in the Venezuelan Oil Industryopenness of the oil sector to foreign investment contributes

  15. Contextualization of four exemplary models of contemporary Venezuelan narrative: Contextualizacion de cuatro pautas para la narritiva Venezolana contemporaneaá

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanchez Borjas, Gladys Margarita

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sociales. Intentaba dar testimonio de los hechos historicos y sociales influenciada por el medio ambiente politico y social que imperaba en Latinoamerica para esa epoca. Los narradores postmodernistas intentaron combinar ambas corrientes para producir... resultaron ser el futurismo, el dadalsmo y el surrealismo. La narrativa vanguardista inici6 una renovacion tecnica que llega hasta nuestros dias. Uno de los procedimientos que caracterizan esta narrativa es la corriente de conciencia o el mon6logo...

  16. Contextualization of four exemplary models of contemporary Venezuelan narrative: Contextualizacion de cuatro pautas para la narritiva Venezolana contemporanea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanchez Borjas, Gladys Margarita

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Esta novela tiene una fuerte intenci6n social, ref leja la explotacion, el abuso y el abandono al que esta sometido el indigena. El bnfasis de esta narrativa esta en la descripcion de la condici6n social exterior del indio y no en su mundo interior...

  17. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Oil Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .in the Venezuelan Oil Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . .and Productivity: Evidence from the Oil Industry . .

  18. Experimental study of oil yields and properties of light and medium Venezuelan crude oils under steam and steam-propane distillationá

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plazas Garcia, Joyce Vivia

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Six experimental runs were carried out to study the yields for a light crude oil (34.2░API) and an intermediate crude oil (25.1░API) under steam distillation and steam-propane distillation. Yields, were measured at five temperatures, 110, 150, 200...

  19. Experimental study of oil yields and properties of light and medium Venezuelan crude oils under steam and steam-propane distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plazas Garcia, Joyce Vivia

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Six experimental runs were carried out to study the yields for a light crude oil (34.2░API) and an intermediate crude oil (25.1░API) under steam distillation and steam-propane distillation. Yields, were measured at five temperatures, 110, 150, 200...

  20. Highlights from ThreeHighlights from Three Decades of Loblolly PineDecades of Loblolly Pine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Payne''s Flying Services Flying Service Smurfit CartSmurfit Cart├│├│n de Venezuelan de Venezuela Synagro

  1. Geochemical tools and paleoclimate clues : multi-molecular and isotropic investigations of tropical marine sediments and alpine ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makou, Matthew C

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    South American climate has undergone dramatic changes since the last glacial period, as evidenced from Cariaco Basin (Venezuelan coast) and Peru Margin marine sediment biomarker records. Compounds derived from vascular ...

  2. Real vs. artefactual absences in species distributions: tests for Oryzomys albigularis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Robert P.

    distribucio┬┤n de una especie. Usando datos del Smithsonian Venezuelan Project (una serie grande de inventarios┬┤tesis sobre la distribucio┬┤n del roedor sigmodontino Oryzomys albigularis (Tomes, 1860). Tales inventarios

  3. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reserves. In the data, crude oil reserve addi- tions consistForce and Proven Reserves in the Venezuelan Oil Industry .such as crude oil production, proved reserves, new reserves,

  4. Upper mantle structure beneath the Caribbean-South American plate boundary from surface wave tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Fenglin

    Upper mantle structure beneath the Caribbean-South American plate boundary from surface wave velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle of the Caribbean-South American boundary region American continental lithosphere, the Venezuelan archipelago, and the Caribbean oceanic lithosphere

  5. The gravity field and plate boundaries in Venezuela

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Folinsbee, Robert Allin

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Free-air and simple Bouguer anomaly maps of the Venezuelan continental margin (from 60░W to 72░W and from 7░N to 13░N) are presented. The major features of the free-air map are: the large lows associated with the deep ...

  6. William L. Fisher THESES AND DISERTATIONS SUPERVISED OR CO-SUPERVISED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    and stratigraphic interpretation of the Morichito Subbasin, Eastern Venezuelan Basin (co-supervised with Lorena Merletti (M.S.) Extrapolation of elastic and petrophysical properties from wells using 3D prestack seismicVa deterministic and stochastic inversion of 3D partially stacked seismic data and well logs for the spatial

  7. 6, 68416852, 2006 Methane emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    is an important greenhouse gas, whose radiative forcing (1750ş1998) has been estimated to be 0.48 Wm -2 , 20). The methane bud-15 get (sources and sinks) was believed to be relatively well known, however, recently confusing results were obtained in studies of CH4 soil fluxes in the Venezuelan savanna region (Hao et al

  8. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 53155319, 2006 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/6/5315/2006/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÚ de

    to the global budget of methane. 1 Introduction Methane is an important greenhouse gas, whose radiative forcing) was believed to be relatively well known, however, recently a surprising dis- covery, based on laboratory confusing results were obtained in studies of CH4 soil fluxes in the Venezuelan savanna region (Hao et al

  9. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 275280, 2004 www.atmos-chem-phys.org/acp/4/275/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÚ de

    -MS) technique, acetonitrile was measured during the wet season in a Venezuelan woodland savanna. The site daytime in the well mixed boundary layer, which is about 60 pmol/mol above background concentrations Acetonitrile (methyl cyanide, CH3CN) is an ubiquitous trace gas in the atmosphere. Chemically relatively stable

  10. If Saddam Were Only Brazilian By NICHOLAS D. KRISTOF (NYT) 769 words

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez-Carr, David

    to forestall a riot (though Venezuelan gas is wimpish stuff, like onion-scented air freshener). My mob was made. The ground was littered with broken glass, a few gunshots had been fired, and the army was popping tear gas't done well in South America. ''Inequality in most Latin American countries is far worse than 10 years

  11. 3, 52755288, 2003 New insights in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÚ de

    (PTR-MS) technique, acetoni- trile was measured during the wet season in a Venezuelan woodland savanna observed during daytime in the well mixed boundary layer, which is about 60 pmol/mol above background Acetonitrile (methyl cyanide, CH3CN) is an ubiquitous trace gas in the atmosphere. Chemically relatively stable

  12. Patricia A. Castillo is currently a MSc. Petroleum Engineering student at the Colorado School of Mines, where she also serves as a Research and Teaching Assistant. She received her

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Mines, where she also serves as a Research and Teaching Assistant. She received her BS in Petroleum Engineering from Universidad Central de Venezuela in 2007. During her Bachelor program she developed software, and also was presented in the SPE Venezuelan Student Chapter. Her research focuses on achieve a better

  13. A global perspective on energy markets and economic integration.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Arnold Barry

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    What will be the effect of Iraqi domestic instability on Iraqi oil production Negotiations for Iranian nuclear technology on Iranian oil supplies Saudi commitment to expanded oil production President Putin's policies on Russian oil and natural gas supplies President Chavez's policies on Venezuelan oil supplies Instability in Nigeria Higher oil prices on world economic growth Effect of economic growth on oil demand in China, India, U.S., etc. Higher oil prices on non-OPEC oil supplies

  14. The effects of petroleum residues and the associated degrading bacteria on the development and survival of the larvae of Penaeus aztecus ives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clary, John Curtis

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Penaeus setiferus to petroleum hydrocarbons, specifically, south Louisiana crude oil, Kuwait crude oil, 1)2 fuel oil and Venezuelan Bunker C oil. The water soluble fractions of the refined products were more toxic to the crustaceans than were the water... to the grass shrimp Palaemonetes ~u io than did refined petroleum products. Larval stages were more susceptible to the oils than were postlarvae or adults. Young (77) investigated the effects of naphthalene and phenanthrene on the grass shrimp Palaemonetes...

  15. The Usual and Some Better Shows: Peruvian Theatre in 1981

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luchting, Wolfgang A.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of certain theaters traditionally devoted to the 'classical' genre" (El observador [inter alia], Lima, 12/29/81). The AFP-survey men tions as the most interesting productions Ultimo round by Venezuelan Rodolfo Santana, La se˝orita de Tacna by Peruvian... of the group and the playwright J. Rivera Saavedra; (4) celebrating the International Year of the Physically Handicapped, Osvaldo Cattone gave us Mark Medoffs Hijos de un Dios menor [Teatro Marsano]; (5) El gran des chave [Teatro Larco; cf. supra]." When...

  16. Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Ketoff, A.; Masera, O.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela will help free domestic oil resources that can be sold to the rest of the world. Energy conservation will also contribute to a faster recovery of the economy by reducing the need for major investments in new energy facilities, allowing the Venezuelan government to direct its financial investments towards other areas of development. Local environmental benefits will constitute an important additional by-product of implementing energy-efficiency policies in Venezuela. Caracas`s residential sector shows great potential for energy conservation. The sector is characterized by high saturation levels of major appliances, inefficiency of appliances available in the market, and by careless patterns of energy use. Household energy use per capita average 6.5 GJ/per year which is higher than most cities in developing countries; most of this energy is used for cooking. Electricity accounts for 41% of all energy use, while LPG and natural gas constitute the remainder. Specific options for inducing energy conservation and energy efficiency in Caracas`s residential sector include energy-pricing policies, fuel switching, particularly from electricity to gas, improving the energy performance of new appliances and customer information. To ensure the accomplishment of an energy-efficiency strategy, a concerted effort by energy users, manufacturers, utility companies, government agencies, and research institutions will be needed.

  17. Refinements in hierarchical phrase-based translation systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pino, Juan Miguel

    2015-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    translation. After manual inspection of the system output, we show a few examples of output sentences that are relatively long and still have reasonable quality in Figure 1.1: 7 http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/mig/openmt12.cfm CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 4 Minister... government officials to closely monitor the speech of foreigners when they visit Venezuela. If anyone is found publicly criticizing him or the Venezuelan government, they should be all deported. US-China strategic economic dialogue ôfocused on the economic...

  18. Household energy use in urban Venezuela: Implications from surveys in Maracaibo, Valencia, Merida, and Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Sathaye, J.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report identifies the most important results of a comparative analysis of household commercial energy use in Venezuelan urban cities. The use of modern fuels is widespread among all cities. Cooking consumes the largest share of urban household energy use. The survey documents no use of biomass and a negligible use of kerosene for cooking. LPG, natural gas, and kerosene are the main fuels available. LPG is the fuel choice of low-income households in all cities except Maracaibo, where 40% of all households use natural gas. Electricity consumption in Venezuela`s urban households is remarkably high compared with the levels used in households in comparable Latin American countries and in households of industrialized nations which confront harsher climatic conditions and, therefore, use electricity for water and space heating. The penetration of appliances in Venezuela`s urban households is very high. The appliances available on the market are inefficient, and there are inefficient patterns of energy use among the population. Climate conditions and the urban built form all play important roles in determining the high level of energy consumption in Venezuelan urban households. It is important to acknowledge the opportunities for introducing energy efficiency and conservation in Venezuela`s residential sector, particularly given current economic and financial constraints, which may hamper the future provision of energy services.

  19. Kinetic modeling of petroleum formation in the Maracaibo Basin: Final report, Annex 12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnham, A.K.; Braun, R.L.; Sweeney, J.J.; Reynolds, J.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Vallejos, C.; Talukdar, S. [INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project is to develop and test improved kinetic models of petroleum generation and cracking, pore pressure buildup, and fluid expulsion. The work was performed jointly between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Research Organization of the Venezuelan National Petroleum Company under Annex 12 of an agreement between DOE and the Venezuelan Ministry of Energy and Mines. Laboratory experiments were conducted at both LLNL and INTEVEP to obtain the reaction rate and product composition information needed to develop chemical kinetic models. Experiments at INTEVEP included hydrous pyrolysis and characterization of oils by gas and liquid chromatography. Experiments at LLNL included programmed pyrolysis in open and self-purging reactors, sometimes including on-line gas analysis by tandem mass spectrometry, and characterization of oils by gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. The PMOD code was used to develop a detailed pyrolysis mechanism from the extensive laboratory data. This mechanism is able to predict yield of bitumen, oil, and gas as a function of time and temperature for such diverse laboratory conditions as hydrous pyrolysis and rapid, programmed, open pyrolysis. PMOD calculations were compared to geologic observations for 22 wells in the Maracaibo basin. When permeability parameters are chosen to match calculated pore pressures with measured present day values, the PMOD calculations indicate that organic maturation reactions contribute a significant fraction of the overpressure during oil generation and early oil cracking. Calculations agreed with observed geochemical maturity parameters of the source rock. 37 refs., 64 figs., 20 tabs.

  20. Effect of asphaltene deposition on the internal corrosion in the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palacios T, C.A. [CORPOVEN S.A., Puerto La Cruz (Venezuela). Gerencia de Ingenieria de Petroleo; Morales, J.L.; Viloria, A. [INTEVEP, S.A., Los Teques (Venezuela). Gerencia de Tecnologia de Materiales

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crude oil from Norte de Monagas field, in Venezuela, contains large amounts of asphaltenes. Some of them are very unstable with a tendency to precipitate. Because liquid is carried over from the separation process in the flow stations, asphaltenes are also present in the gas gathering and transmission lines, precipitating on the inner wall of pipelines. The gas gathering and transmission lines contain gas with high partial pressures of CO{sub 2}, some H{sub 2}S and are water saturated; therefore, inhibitors are used to control internal corrosion. There is uncertainty on how inhibitors perform in the presence of asphaltene deposition. The purpose of this paper is to describe the causes that enhance asphaltene deposition in gas pipelines and present some results from an ongoing research project carried out by the Venezuelan Oil Companies.

  1. Evaluation of Control Strategies to Effectively Meet 70-90% Mercury Reduction on an Eastern Bituminous Coal Cyclone Boiler with SCR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tom Campbell

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final site report for testing conducted at Public Service of New Hampshire's (PSNH) Merrimack Unit 2 (MK2). This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase III project with the goal to develop mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. While results from testing at Merrimack indicate that the DOE goal was partially achieved, further improvements in the process are recommended. Merrimack burned a test blend of eastern bituminous and Venezuelan coals, for a target coal sulfur content of 1.2%, in its 335-MW Unit 2. The blend ratio is approximately a 50/50 split between the two coals. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on the flue gas stream either in front of the air preheater (APH) or in between the two in-series ESPs. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that, without SO3 control, the sorbent concentration required to achieve 50% control would not be feasible, either economically or within constraints specific to the maximum reasonable particle loading to the ESP. Subsequently, with SO{sub 3} control via trona injection upstream of the APH, economically feasible mercury removal rates could be achieved with PAC injection, excepting balance-of-plant concerns. The results are summarized along with the impacts of the dual injection process on the air heater, ESP operation, and particulate emissions.

  2. Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting system: Phase 3, Report. [Navy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; Das, S.; Lee, R.; Davis, R.M.

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The world oil scenarios were analyzed using the NMFFS. The linear programming models of the NMFFS have great value in the analysis of petroleum resource allocation and refining. The results of the general market analysis indicated that all disruptions resulted in reduced crude oil supply, higher prices, and reduced demand in the world. In a major Persian Gulf disruption, US refining capability appeared adequate to satisfy normal US military fuel requirements, including those supplied by foreign refiners. However, this would be at the expense of civilian fuels production. Mobilization fuel requirements during a major disruption that curtailed most Persian Gulf and Venezuelan crude exports resulted in significant competition in the production of civil versus military jet fuels, particularly in Texas Gulf Coast and West Coast refineries. In all disruption scenarios studied, the Middle East emerged as a potentially important refiner of both civil and military jet fuels. With SPR drawdown and the IEA agreements in effect, the impacts of the disruptions on the production of refined products were significantly reduced, particularly in the United States, compared to the impacts without these programs. The IEA agreement caused a redistribution of the regional demand levels among IEA countries in favor of the major oil consuming countries like the United States, Canada, and some of the European countries. The results of the RYM analysis of refinery regions focused on the availability and quality of JP-5 production in key Navy supply regions. Several findings potentially important to the Navy are listed.

  3. Petrophysical characterization of the Carito Norte, Mulata and Carito fields, Norte de Monagas, Eastern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porras, J.C. [Corpoven, S.A., Puerto La Cruz (Venezuela); De J. Valle, [Amoco Production Company, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Norte de Monagas trend is located in the Eastern Venezuelan Basin and is characterized by high temperature, high initial pressure and production rates, variable PVT properties, GORs, and asphaltene content, and the presence of a tar mat at the base of the oil column. These reservoirs were petrophysically characterized through the integration of core and log data. Productive sands are composed of very coarse- to medium-grained sands deposited primarily in deltaic to shallow marine environments. These sands are quartz-rich, with clay matrix averaging 3% in the Oligocene and 6% in the Cretaceous. The main difference is the presence of up to 30% feldspars in the Cretaceous. Clay mineralogy is dominated by illitic material in the Cretaceous and by kaolinite in the Oligocene. Post-depositional changes dominated by cementation, mechanical compaction and subsequent dissolution processes have resulted in marked improvement or degradation of the productive characteristics of these reservoirs. Rocks were divided into four petrophysical. categories based on grain size, pore throat radius, porosity and permeability. Mercury saturation vs. mercury saturation over capillary pressure plots show the dominant interconnected pore system which controls flow rates is best defined by 50% saturation. Plots constructed using R50 pore aperture correlation indicate the pore throats to be macro to mega porous. Average log calculated water saturation is 14% compared with estimated from capillary pressure data of 12% at 1200{prime} above free water level, and 15% from relative permeability data. Relative permeability data indicate the rocks behave preferably as water-wet.

  4. A field study on the trace metal behavior in atmospheric circulating fluidized-bed coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lind, T.; Kauppinen, E.I.; Jokiniemi, J.K.; Maenhaut, W.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Trace element behavior in atmospheric circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) of Venezuelan bituminous coal was studied by determining particle size distributions in the CFBC flue gas. The size distributions of calcium, iron, aluminium, and 21 trace elements, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Lu, Pb, and Th, in the size range 0.01--70{micro}m, were determined by collecting aerosols with a low-pressure impactor-cyclone sampling train from the flue gases of an 80-MW(th) CFBC boiler upstream of the electrostatic precipitator. The collected samples were analyzed gravimetrically and with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), particle-induced X-ray emission analysis (PIXE), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The number size distributions of the aerosols were determined with a differential electrical mobility method in the size range 0.01--0.8 {micro}m. In the ultrafine particle mode, i.e., D{sub p} < 0.1 {micro}m, the CFBC number concentrations varied strongly during the experiments, being one to two orders of magnitude lower than those observed in pulverized coal combustion. For all of the elements studied, 75% or more were found in particles larger than 5{micro}m. None of the studied elements showed significant vaporization and subsequent chemical surface reaction or condensation in the CFBC. The Sr, Se, V, Zn, Ga, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Lu, and Th size distributions resembled those of aluminium, suggesting their occurrence in aluminosilicate-rich particles in the fly ash. The association of the trace elements with aluminium in the fly ash particles may result from reactions of the trace elements with the aluminosilicate mineral particles inside the burning coal particles, or their initial occurrence in association with these minerals.

  5. Competitiveness of Mexican crude

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Mexico is under great pressure to maintain oil export revenue levels if it is to avoid a reversal in its economic recovery program. While the country's vulnerability to a price plunge is also applicable to OPEC countries, the North Sea producers, and others, Mexico does have an ace. The ace is that its heavier, metals-ridden and sulfur-laden Maya crude, which had to be pushed on customers until about 1981, is now in strong demand. Comparisons are presented of the market value of five crude oils refined in the US Gulf Coast: West Texas Intermediate (or WTI, a 40/sup 0/ API, light), Arabian Light and Isthmus (both 34/sup 0/ medium-light), Alaska North Slope (or ANS, a 27/sup 0/ API, a medium), and Maya (22/sup 0/ API, medium-heavy). In this mix, the heavier the crude, the greater is the refining margin (except for Arabian Light, for which freight cost and product yield provide lower margins than those derived from WTI). The sacrifice by OPEC and other producers cutting crude oil prices was to the benefit to refiners' improved margins during the first half of 1983. Those cuts were on the lighter-quality oils. But prices for heavier Venezuelan, Californian, and Mexican crudes increased during the second half of 1983, due to developing refinery technologies in extracting favorable product yields from them. This issue of Energy Detente presents their fuel price/tax series and industrial fuel prices for December 1983 for countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  6. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiman, W.D.

    1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1986 was considerably reduced compared to 1985. Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Venezuela had increased oil production, with Colombia showing a dramatic 71% increase attributed mainly to bringing on-stream the pipeline connecting Occidental-Shell-Ecopetrol's Cano Limon complex to the port of Covenas. Significant discoveries were reported from Argentina in the Olmedo, Oran, and San Jorge basins; Brazil in the offshore Campos and Amazon basins; Colombia in the Llanos basin; Ecuador in the Oriente basin; Mexico in the Bay of Campeche; Peru in the Ucayali basin; and Venezuela in the Eastern Venezuela basin. Eastern Venezuela's Furrial discovery is reported to have recoverable reserves of more than 1 million bbl of oil, and Shell's Ucayali basin discovery is reported to hold more than 7 tcf of gas. 7 figures, 10 tables.

  7. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiman, W.D.

    1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1985 was concentrated in proven petroleum provinces. Successful exploration and development efforts were most intense in Colombia and Venezuela, where activity centered around the Cano Limon field area. Initial production of 30,000 BOPD from Cano Limon started in December, raising Colombia again to the ranks of an exporting nation. Another significant discovery in Colombia was San Francisco field in the Upper Magdalena basin. Argentina reported significant discoveries by YPF in the Northwest Cretaceous and Neuquen basins and by Total offshore Tierra del Fuego. Brazil continued to discover major reserves in the offshore Campos basin in ever-increasing water depths. At year end, Venezuela was drilling Furrial-1 in eastern Venezuela. The well is reported to be the outstanding discovery of 1985, if not of the last 2 decades. 4 figures, 7 tables.