National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for venezuelan furrial venezuelan

  1. Venezuelan energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available


    This paper reports that because military and political instability in the Persian Gulf makes the United States vulnerable to oil supply disruptions, a 1991 Department of Energy report encourages diversification of U.S. oil sources and greater reliance on imports from countries outside the Gulf, such as Venezuela. GAO's report, also published in Spanish, discusses recent increases in Venezuelan oil production and the main factors affecting continued increases through 1996, assesses recent investment reforms in the Venezuelan petroleum industry and U.S. petroleum companies' response to these reforms, identifies the major impediments and inducements to U.S. investment in Venezuela's petroleum industry, and reviews U.S. government efforts to support Venezuela's energy sector.

  2. The Venezuelan natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, P.V.; Hernandez, N.


    Venezuela's consumption energy of comes from three primary sources: hydroelectricity, liquid hydrocarbons and natural gas. In 1986, the energy consumption in the internal market was 95.5 thousand cubic meters per day of oil equivalent, of which 32% was natural gas, 46% liquid hydrocarbons and 22% hydroelectricity. The Venezuelan energy policy established natural gas usage after hydroelectricity, as a substitute of liquid hydrocarbons, in order to increase exports of these. This policy permits a solid development of the natural gas industry, which is covered in this paper.

  3. Impacts of the Venezuelan Crude Oil Production Loss

    Reports and Publications (EIA)


    This assessment of the Venezuelan petroleum loss examines two areas. The first part of the analysis focuses on the impact of the loss of Venezuelan crude production on crude oil supply for U.S. refiners who normally run a significant fraction of Venezuelan crude oil. The second part of the analysis looks at the impact of the Venezuelan production loss on crude markets in general, with particular emphasis on crude oil imports, refinery crude oil throughput levels, stock levels, and the changes in price differences between light and heavy crude oils.

  4. Food webs of two Venezuelan clear-water streams with seasonal fluctuations in hydrology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Christopher Chase


    Two Venezuelan clear-water streams were sampled to describe resource use by fishes, community interactions, and the effects of seasonal environmental change and resource availability on food web structure. Previous studies ...

  5. Long range weathering effects on the chemical properties of two Venezuelan crude oils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bautz, Anton Frank


    LONG RANGE WEATHERING EFFECTS ON Tl'iE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF TWO VENEZUELAN CRUDE OILS A Thesis ANTON FRANK BAUTZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1974 Major Subject: Oceanography LONG RANGE WEATHERING EFFECTS ON THE CHEHICAL PROPERTIES OF TWO VENEZUELAN CRUDE OILS A Thesis by ANTON FRANK BAUTZ Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of C t Head of Department Hember...

  6. Seismic properties of a Venezuelan heavy oil in water emulsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maldonado, F.; Liu, Y.; Mavko, G.; Mukerji, T. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    Several procedures for the production of low-viscosity, surfactant-stabilized, easy-transportable dispersions of heavy crude oil in water-briefly, oil in water (or o/w) emulsions - have been recently patented. Some of them propose to form the o/w emulsion in the reservoir, after the injection of a mixture of water and surfactants, increasing significantly the per well daily production. Progression of the o/w emulsion front, through the reservoir to the production wells, can be monitored in seismic planar slices with successive 3D seismic surveys (413 seismic), if enough contrast exists between the seismic velocity value of the o/w emulsion and the one of the oil in place. To facilitate the analysis of the contrast, this study presents high frequency acoustic velocity measurements performed in the laboratory. The experimental setup includes two reflectors and an ultrasonic transducer with double burst train emission. The estimated velocity precision is 0.02%. The measured samples are: a Venezuelan heavy o/w emulsion, a mixture of the same heavy oil and gasoil and a saturated sandstone core containing the o/w emulsion. Additionally, seismic velocities of the actual pore fluids - live oil and five o/w emulsion - and saturated sandstone are calculated using the above laboratory measurements, Wood`s equation, and Gassman`s and Biot`s models.

  7. The Possible Loss of Venezuelan Heavy Crude Oil Imports Underscores the Strategic Importance of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    The Possible Loss of Venezuelan Heavy Crude Oil Imports Underscores the Strategic Importance. This potential sale reflects in part Venezuela's urgent need for crude oil in order to satisfy required payments crude, making reliance on Canadian heavy crude oil more significant, and the approval of the Keystone XL

  8. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus entry mechanism requires late endosome formation and resists cell membrane cholesterol depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolokoltsov, Andrey A.; Fleming, Elisa H.; Davey, Robert A. . E-mail:


    Virus envelope proteins determine receptor utilization and host range. The choice of receptor not only permits specific targeting of cells that express it, but also directs the virus into specific endosomal trafficking pathways. Disrupting trafficking can result in loss of virus infectivity due to redirection of virions to non-productive pathways. Identification of the pathway or pathways used by a virus is, thus, important in understanding virus pathogenesis mechanisms and for developing new treatment strategies. Most of our understanding of alphavirus entry has focused on the Old World alphaviruses, such as Sindbis and Semliki Forest virus. In comparison, very little is known about the entry route taken by more pathogenic New World alphaviruses. Here, we use a novel contents mixing assay to identify the cellular requirements for entry of a New World alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). Expression of dominant negative forms of key endosomal trafficking genes shows that VEEV must access clathrin-dependent endocytic vesicles for membrane fusion to occur. Unexpectedly, the exit point is different from Old World alphaviruses that leave from early endosomes. Instead, VEEV also requires functional late endosomes. Furthermore, unlike the Old World viruses, VEEV entry is insensitive to cholesterol sequestration from cell membranes and may reflect a need to access an endocytic compartment that lacks cholesterol. This indicates fundamental differences in the entry route taken by VEEV compared to Old World alphaviruses.

  9. Geology reinterpretation of an inactive old field-Mata 3, Venezuelan East Basin-using computer methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, O.; Rivero, C.; Abud, J.


    Nowadays to find a new oil field is a very dificult task that the petroleum people know very well; therefore the reactivation of an old oil field that had important production is the best way to increase the economic benefits for the Corporation and for the country in general. In this paper, the most important point was the Geology Study regarding the reopening of the Mata-3 oil field, which ceased to be active 15 years ago, after producing 30 mmbls of light oil. There are 30 prospective sands but only 3 of them have produced 70% of the primary production. Thus, the principal objectives were the S2, S3, 4 sands of Oficina Formation (Venezuelan East Basin) in 476 wells located in this area. The following computer systems that were available to us: GIPSIE System, Vax (Intergraph Co.); PMSE System, Vax (Intergraph Co.); CPS-3 System, Unix (Radian Co.); and SIGEMAP System PC (Corpoven, S.A.). All of them assist in the different tasks that must be done by the geologists working in the interpretation area. In the end, we recommended 40 wells to workover (2 wells/year for 20 years) and thereby to increase the POI (petroleum in situ) and increase the reserves by 13.4 mmbls of fight oil, important commercial production. The estimate of the total investment is about $2 million (340 mmBs.).

  10. Holocene hydrologic balance of tropical South America from oxygen isotopes of lake sediment opal, Venezuelan Andes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Alexander P.

    Holocene hydrologic balance of tropical South America from oxygen isotopes of lake sediment opal.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: oxygen isotopes; biogenic opal; hydrologic balance; Holocene; Venezuela

  11. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]



    Venezuelan Oil Industry Total Wells Drilled and InvestmentWells Drilled and Investment in the Venezuelan Oil Industryopenness of the oil sector to foreign investment contributes

  12. Discovery of a Novel Compound with Anti-Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity That Targets the Nonstructural Protein 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Dong-Hoon; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Tower, Nichole A.; Chu, Yong-Kyu; Sahin, Ergin; Golden, Jennifer E.; Noah, James W.; Schroeder, Chad E.; Stosky, Julie B.; Sosa, Melinda; Cramer, Daniel E.; McKellip, Sara N.; Rasmussen, Lynn; White, E. Lucile; Schmaljohn, Connie S.; Julander, Justin G.; Smith, Jeffery M.; Filone, Claire Marie; Connor, John H.; Sakurai, Yasuteru; Davey, Robert A.


    assays. Detailed procedures for these procedures are described in elsewhere (PubChem AID: 588727. http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm. = 588727&loc = ea_ras). A similar approach was used to measure the dose-response inhibition... reagents and World Reference Center for Emerging Viruses and Arboviruses for VEEV TrD. Author Contributions Conceived and designed the experiments: DHC CBJ ELW JEG CSS JGJ JHC RAD. Performed the experiments: DHC NAT YKC ES JWN CES JBS DEC SNM LR JGJ JMS CMF...

  13. Contextualization of four exemplary models of contemporary Venezuelan narrative: Contextualizacion de cuatro pautas para la narritiva Venezolana contemporanea 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanchez Borjas, Gladys Margarita


    sociales. Intentaba dar testimonio de los hechos historicos y sociales influenciada por el medio ambiente politico y social que imperaba en Latinoamerica para esa epoca. Los narradores postmodernistas intentaron combinar ambas corrientes para producir... aproximaci6n a la realidad, comparten las siguientes caracteristicas: el hombre se convierte en el centro de la vision del mundo, la naturaleza ya no interesa corno entidad aut6noma, sino que sirve para explicar al hombre en su medio ambiente ( , de Jose...

  14. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]



    the Oil Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .in the Venezuelan Oil Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . .and Productivity: Evidence from the Oil Industry . .

  15. Experimental study of oil yields and properties of light and medium Venezuelan crude oils under steam and steam-propane distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plazas Garcia, Joyce Vivia


    Six experimental runs were carried out to study the yields for a light crude oil (34.2°API) and an intermediate crude oil (25.1°API) under steam distillation and steam-propane distillation. Yields, were measured at five temperatures, 110, 150, 200...

  16. Including Outsiders: Social Policy Expansion in Latin America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garay, Maria Candelaria


    to outsiders. Despite the oil rents enjoyed since 2003, andChap 2). The decline of oil rents, on which the Venezuelan

  17. A reservoir characterization for a complex multilayered system in Eastern Venezuela 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avila, Carmen Esther


    the Venezuelan national oil company and comprises: production data, well ales, core analyses, well log data, some PVT analyses, and well completion data. Four formations were characterized in this work. Correlations from core data were established to calculate...

  18. Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKenzie, Heather Lorelei


    such as the Canadian oil sands, extra-heavy Venezuelan oilhydrocarbons such as oil sands, oil shale, methane or coal.blend that is 2% Canadian oil sands, 6.86% Alaskan crude,

  19. Letter from the Director Greetings from the Latin American Institute. Spring is in the air, and we

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of corridos in Mexico and the US Southwest, and their enduring legacy as expressions of social commentary his legacy, commentary has focused on his impact on the Venezuelan polity and economy, and his tense

  20. Women weaving the dream of the revolution in the American continent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angeleri, Sandra


    the Venezuelan oil-based governmental strategy with financecomes from oil extraction? The hegemony of finance capitalfinance speculation expelled them and made them move to the 5 th Avenue. An oil

  1. Detecting Voter Fraud in an Electronic Voting Context An Analysis of the Unlimited Reelection Vote in Venezuela

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Ines


    Between December 2007 and February 2009, Venezuelans participated twice in constitutional referenda where the elimination of presidential term limits was one of the most salient proposals. Assuming voter preferences did ...

  2. Political Bots and the Manipulation of Public Opinion in Venezuela

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forelle, Michelle; Monroy-Hernández, Andrés; Savage, Saiph


    Social and political bots have a small but strategic role in Venezuelan political conversations. These automated scripts generate content through social media platforms and then interact with people. In this preliminary study on the use of political bots in Venezuela, we analyze the tweeting, following and retweeting patterns for the accounts of prominent Venezuelan politicians and prominent Venezuelan bots. We find that bots generate a very small proportion of all the traffic about political life in Venezuela. Bots are used to retweet content from Venezuelan politicians but the effect is subtle in that less than 10 percent of all retweets come from bot-related platforms. Nonetheless, we find that the most active bots are those used by Venezuela's radical opposition. Bots are pretending to be political leaders, government agencies and political parties more than citizens. Finally, bots are promoting innocuous political events more than attacking opponents or spreading misinformation.

  3. Geochemical tools and paleoclimate clues : multi-molecular and isotropic investigations of tropical marine sediments and alpine ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makou, Matthew C


    South American climate has undergone dramatic changes since the last glacial period, as evidenced from Cariaco Basin (Venezuelan coast) and Peru Margin marine sediment biomarker records. Compounds derived from vascular ...

  4. Reviving the Developmental State? The Myth of the National Bourgeoisie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chibber, Vivek


    rise to power of Luis Inacio Lula da Silva and the Worker’sof textile magnate Jose Alencar as Lula’s Vice-President.And both Kirchner and Lula follow in the wake of Venezuelan

  5. Refinements in hierarchical phrase-based translation systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pino, Juan Miguel


    administration.” Chavez has ordered government officials to keep an eye on foreign- ers visiting venezuela’s speech, when a person is found to have publicly criticized him or the Venezuelan government, are to be deported. Reference: Chavez has already ordered... government officials to closely monitor the speech of foreigners when they visit Venezuela. If anyone is found publicly criticizing him or the Venezuelan government, they should be all deported. US-China strategic economic dialogue “focused on the economic...

  6. Alvenus oil spill debris disposal and the potential of land treatment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Kenneth Gregory


    , as possible; and b. where air pollution standards can be met, thermally oxidize (i. e. ? burn, incinerate, pyrolyze, etc. ) the remaining oily debris; or c. where debris size permits, land cultivate (i. e. ? aerobic microbially decompose) the remaining...-saturates common to a heavy Venezuelan crude and a light Arabian crude were degraded less in the Venezuelan crude than in the Arabian crude oil. Brown and Donnelly (1983) reported the most rapid degradation of oily sludges occurred 19 in the saturate fraction...

  7. Quick Anomaly Detection by the Newcomb--Benford Law, with Applications to Electoral Processes Data from the USA, Puerto Rico and Venezuela

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pericchi, Luis; 10.1214/09-STS296


    A simple and quick general test to screen for numerical anomalies is presented. It can be applied, for example, to electoral processes, both electronic and manual. It uses vote counts in officially published voting units, which are typically widely available and institutionally backed. The test examines the frequencies of digits on voting counts and rests on the First (NBL1) and Second Digit Newcomb--Benford Law (NBL2), and in a novel generalization of the law under restrictions of the maximum number of voters per unit (RNBL2). We apply the test to the 2004 USA presidential elections, the Puerto Rico (1996, 2000 and 2004) governor elections, the 2004 Venezuelan presidential recall referendum (RRP) and the previous 2000 Venezuelan Presidential election. The NBL2 is compellingly rejected only in the Venezuelan referendum and only for electronic voting units. Our original suggestion on the RRP (Pericchi and Torres, 2004) was criticized by The Carter Center report (2005). Acknowledging this, Mebane (2006) and The...

  8. The gravity field and plate boundaries in Venezuela

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Folinsbee, Robert Allin


    Free-air and simple Bouguer anomaly maps of the Venezuelan continental margin (from 60°W to 72°W and from 7°N to 13°N) are presented. The major features of the free-air map are: the large lows associated with the deep ...

  9. Foreign Fishery Developments 3.000 CJ NOMINAL VALUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the Venezuelan Gov Brazil, and Cuba) export more than $0.1 (Figure 1, Table 1). Chile's export earn ernment in a variety of other Argentina reported an export increase (tuna), Argentina (hake), Brazil (shrimp fisheries ican export earnings increased by near groundfish in Europe and the United ings in 1987, even though

  10. Receiver function study of the crustal structure of the southeastern Caribbean plate boundary and Venezuela

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Fenglin

    and Venezuela Fenglin Niu,1 Tammy Bravo,2 Gary Pavlis,2 Frank Vernon,3 Herbert Rendon,4 Maximiliano Bezada,1 broadband array deployed under the BOLIVAR project and the permanent national seismic network of Venezuela northeastern Venezuela and the Venezuelan Andes. There is a good correlation between crustal structure

  11. Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKenzie, Heather Lorelei


    Venezuelan oil or coal to liquids, is growing 3 but theseBrandt and Farrell 2 . Coal to liquid (CTL) fuel productionE-04 ii Middle East Coal to Liquid 2.10 E-04 i 3.62 E-04 ii

  12. A global perspective on energy markets and economic integration.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Arnold Barry


    What will be the effect of Iraqi domestic instability on Iraqi oil production Negotiations for Iranian nuclear technology on Iranian oil supplies Saudi commitment to expanded oil production President Putin's policies on Russian oil and natural gas supplies President Chavez's policies on Venezuelan oil supplies Instability in Nigeria Higher oil prices on world economic growth Effect of economic growth on oil demand in China, India, U.S., etc. Higher oil prices on non-OPEC oil supplies

  13. Welwitschia mirabilis 11 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leon Pratorius


    Gonzalez Leon opina lo siguiente: En nuestra generaci6n hay, sin duda algunos excelentes narradores, pero creo que no hemos logrado un acoplamiento maduro con nuestra realidad. Creo que hemos tenido miedo de nombrar las cosas por su propio nombre... Gonzalez Leon, Salvador Garmendia. According to our analysis, beginning in 1958 Venezuelan narrative experienced a renovation period. The young authors started writing on new topics. They used techniques like those of the best Latin-American narrative...

  14. International Bibliography of Vegetation Maps 2nd Edition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ku?chler, A. W. (August William)


    . Parana-Uruguay c. Patagonia d. Mountain e. Marsh IV. Bushlands 8. a. Humid mountains b. Arid mountains c. Intermontanc valley d. Patagonia e. Inner coastal desert V. Deserts 9. a. Peruvian-Chilean b. Lomas c. Venezuelan sand-dunes d. Salt.... Bunch grasses, annual grasses and herbs, and shrubs 1. Tola heath puna 2. Paramo grassland: grasses 3. Tundra: low shrubs, mosses VI. Desert A. Coastal desert of Peru and Chile B. Fog vegetation of Peru Coast (lomas vegetation). Predominantly...

  15. Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Ketoff, A.; Masera, O.


    This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela will help free domestic oil resources that can be sold to the rest of the world. Energy conservation will also contribute to a faster recovery of the economy by reducing the need for major investments in new energy facilities, allowing the Venezuelan government to direct its financial investments towards other areas of development. Local environmental benefits will constitute an important additional by-product of implementing energy-efficiency policies in Venezuela. Caracas`s residential sector shows great potential for energy conservation. The sector is characterized by high saturation levels of major appliances, inefficiency of appliances available in the market, and by careless patterns of energy use. Household energy use per capita average 6.5 GJ/per year which is higher than most cities in developing countries; most of this energy is used for cooking. Electricity accounts for 41% of all energy use, while LPG and natural gas constitute the remainder. Specific options for inducing energy conservation and energy efficiency in Caracas`s residential sector include energy-pricing policies, fuel switching, particularly from electricity to gas, improving the energy performance of new appliances and customer information. To ensure the accomplishment of an energy-efficiency strategy, a concerted effort by energy users, manufacturers, utility companies, government agencies, and research institutions will be needed.

  16. HDH{trademark} commercial application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marzin, R.; Solari, B.; Duque, J. [INTEVEP, Caracas (Venezuela)


    Venezuela has approximately 28% of the world reserves of heavy crude oil and natural bitumen. The amount of future recoverable oil reserves is estimated to be 44 GM{sup 3}. The Venezuelan oil industry is now facing the challenge of introducing this cheap source of energy into a fuel market that has grown in environmentally restrictive legislation affecting the refining industry. This challenge calls for the use of the right type of resid upgrading technology, that both will improve its environmental performance and ensure its economic and financial viability. This paper describes two technologies to reduce high sulfur fuel oil production while incorporating more heavy crude into refineries.

  17. e-Science perspectives in Venezuela

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Díaz, G; Hamar, V; Hoeger, H; Mendoza, C; Mendez, Z; Núñez, L A; Ruiz, N; Torrens, R; Uzcategui, M


    We describe the e-Science strategy in Venezuela, in particular initiatives by the Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico Universidad de Los Andes (CECALCULA), Merida, the Universidad de Los Andes (ULA), Merida, and the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas. We present the plans for the Venezuelan Academic Grid and the current status of Grid ULA supported by Internet2. We show different web-based scientific applications that are being developed in quantum chemistry, atomic physics, structural damage analysis, biomedicine and bioclimate within the framework of the E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America (EELA)

  18. Household energy use in urban Venezuela: Implications from surveys in Maracaibo, Valencia, Merida, and Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Sathaye, J.


    This report identifies the most important results of a comparative analysis of household commercial energy use in Venezuelan urban cities. The use of modern fuels is widespread among all cities. Cooking consumes the largest share of urban household energy use. The survey documents no use of biomass and a negligible use of kerosene for cooking. LPG, natural gas, and kerosene are the main fuels available. LPG is the fuel choice of low-income households in all cities except Maracaibo, where 40% of all households use natural gas. Electricity consumption in Venezuela`s urban households is remarkably high compared with the levels used in households in comparable Latin American countries and in households of industrialized nations which confront harsher climatic conditions and, therefore, use electricity for water and space heating. The penetration of appliances in Venezuela`s urban households is very high. The appliances available on the market are inefficient, and there are inefficient patterns of energy use among the population. Climate conditions and the urban built form all play important roles in determining the high level of energy consumption in Venezuelan urban households. It is important to acknowledge the opportunities for introducing energy efficiency and conservation in Venezuela`s residential sector, particularly given current economic and financial constraints, which may hamper the future provision of energy services.

  19. LPG in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero, O.


    The use of LPG for domestic consumption in Venezuela began in late 1929 when LPG was imported in lots of 500 cylinders. These cylinders were then returned to the U.S. for refilling. Total consumption at that time was some 40M/sup 3/ (250 barrels) per year and by 1937 had grown to some 540M/sup 3/ (3,400 barrels) per year. Local production of LPG from gas began in the mid thirties with a small cooling plant in the Mene Grande Field in the Lake Maracaibo area, the first field to produce oil in Venezuela (1914). This plant produced gasoline for a refinery and some of the first LPG used in Venezuela for domestic consumption. The capacity of this plant was insufficient to satisfy the growing demand for LPG which was supplied from refinery production until the development of the natural gas processing industry. At the present time, Venezuelan refineries are net consumers of LPG.

  20. Measuring Political Polarization: Twitter shows the two sides of Venezuela

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morales, A J; Losada, J C; Benito, R M


    We say that a population is perfectly polarized when divided in two groups of the same size and opposite opinions. In this paper, we propose a methodology to study and measure the emergence of polarization from social interactions. We begin by proposing a model to estimate opinions in which a minority of influential individuals propagate their opinions through a social network. The result of the model is an opinion probability density function. Next, we propose an index to quantify the extent to which the resulting distribution is polarized. Finally, we apply the proposed methodology to a Twitter conversation about the late Venezuelan president, Hugo Ch\\'avez, finding a good agreement between our results and offline data. Hence, we show that our methodology can detect different degrees of polarization, depending on the structure of the network.

  1. Refiner/marketer targets production of transportation fuels and distillates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, J.E.


    Citgo Petroleum Corp., the wholly owned subsidiary of Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA), the Venezuelan national oil company, owns two gasoline producing refineries, a 305,000-b/d system in Lake Charles, La., and a 130,000-b/d facility in Corpus Christi, Texas. Each is considered a deep conversion facility capable of converting heavy, sour crudes into a high percentage of transportation fuels and distillates. Two smaller refineries, one in Paulsboro, N.J., and one in Savannah, GA., have the capacity to process 40,000 b/d and 28,000 b/d of crude, respectively, for asphalt products. In the past two years, Citgo`s light oils refineries operated safely and reliably with a minimum of unscheduled shutdowns. An ongoing emphasis to increase reliability has resulted in extended run lengths at the refineries. Citgo has invested $314 million at its facilities in 1995, much of this toward environmental and regulatory projects, such as the new waste water treatment unit at the Lake Charles refinery. Over the next few years, Citgo expects to complete $1.5 billion in capital spending for major processing units such as a 60,000-b/d FCC feed hydrotreater unit at the Lake Charles refinery and crude expansion at the Corpus Christi refinery. Product exchanges and expanded transport agreements are allowing Citgo to extend its marketing reach.

  2. Evaluation of Control Strategies to Effectively Meet 70-90% Mercury Reduction on an Eastern Bituminous Coal Cyclone Boiler with SCR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tom Campbell


    This is the final site report for testing conducted at Public Service of New Hampshire's (PSNH) Merrimack Unit 2 (MK2). This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase III project with the goal to develop mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. While results from testing at Merrimack indicate that the DOE goal was partially achieved, further improvements in the process are recommended. Merrimack burned a test blend of eastern bituminous and Venezuelan coals, for a target coal sulfur content of 1.2%, in its 335-MW Unit 2. The blend ratio is approximately a 50/50 split between the two coals. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on the flue gas stream either in front of the air preheater (APH) or in between the two in-series ESPs. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that, without SO3 control, the sorbent concentration required to achieve 50% control would not be feasible, either economically or within constraints specific to the maximum reasonable particle loading to the ESP. Subsequently, with SO{sub 3} control via trona injection upstream of the APH, economically feasible mercury removal rates could be achieved with PAC injection, excepting balance-of-plant concerns. The results are summarized along with the impacts of the dual injection process on the air heater, ESP operation, and particulate emissions.

  3. Venezuela natural gas for vehicles project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsicobetre, D.; Molero, T. [Corpoven S.A., Miami, FL (United States)


    The Natural Gas for Vehicles (NGV) Project in Venezuela describes the development and growth of the NGV project in the country. Venezuela is a prolific oil producer with advanced exploration, production, refining and solid marketing infrastructure. Gas production is 5.2 Bscfd. The Venezuelan Government and the oil state owned company Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), pursued the opportunity of using natural gas for vehicles based on the huge amounts of gas reserves present and produced every day associated with the oil production. A nationwide gas pipeline network crosses the country from south to west reaching the most important cities and serving domestic and industrial purposes but there are no facilities to process or export liquefied natural gas. NGV has been introduced gradually in Venezuela over the last eight years by PDVSA. One hundred forty-five NGV stations have been installed and another 25 are under construction. Work done comprises displacement or relocation of existing gasoline equipment, civil work, installation and commissioning of equipment. The acceptance and usage of the NGV system is reflected in the more than 17,000 vehicles that have been converted to date using the equivalent of 2,000 bbl oil/day.

  4. A field study on the trace metal behavior in atmospheric circulating fluidized-bed coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lind, T.; Kauppinen, E.I.; Jokiniemi, J.K.; Maenhaut, W.


    Trace element behavior in atmospheric circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) of Venezuelan bituminous coal was studied by determining particle size distributions in the CFBC flue gas. The size distributions of calcium, iron, aluminium, and 21 trace elements, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Lu, Pb, and Th, in the size range 0.01--70{micro}m, were determined by collecting aerosols with a low-pressure impactor-cyclone sampling train from the flue gases of an 80-MW(th) CFBC boiler upstream of the electrostatic precipitator. The collected samples were analyzed gravimetrically and with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), particle-induced X-ray emission analysis (PIXE), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The number size distributions of the aerosols were determined with a differential electrical mobility method in the size range 0.01--0.8 {micro}m. In the ultrafine particle mode, i.e., D{sub p} < 0.1 {micro}m, the CFBC number concentrations varied strongly during the experiments, being one to two orders of magnitude lower than those observed in pulverized coal combustion. For all of the elements studied, 75% or more were found in particles larger than 5{micro}m. None of the studied elements showed significant vaporization and subsequent chemical surface reaction or condensation in the CFBC. The Sr, Se, V, Zn, Ga, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Lu, and Th size distributions resembled those of aluminium, suggesting their occurrence in aluminosilicate-rich particles in the fly ash. The association of the trace elements with aluminium in the fly ash particles may result from reactions of the trace elements with the aluminosilicate mineral particles inside the burning coal particles, or their initial occurrence in association with these minerals.

  5. Cameron synthetic fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available


    The increasing scarcity of conventional crude oil resources, as well as the sharply higher prices of crude oil, will generate increased interest in heavy oil, tar sands, and oil shale as potential substitutes. For all of these unconventional oil resources, extraction will be much more difficult, time consuming, and costly than for conventional crude oil. Although the inplace resources are vast and exist in many areas including the United States, the USSR, western Europe, Canada, and Latin America, probably only a small fraction of the inplace resources will prove to be economically extractable. These unconventional oil resources are now being developed in several locations around the world, and depending upon the exact definition probably account for less than 1 percent of current world oil supplies. The major current developments include: Canadian tar sands. Heavy oil production at Yarega in the Komi Autonomous Republic in the Soviet Union. The USSR also burns shale for power generation in Estonia. Venezuelan production of heavy oil in the Orinoco Heavy Oil Belt is currently about 15,000 b/d. Oil shale is likely to prove much less important than heavy oil and tar sands over the next 20 years. Further development of these unconventional resources is planned, and many projects are under way or under study. On the basis of current planning, world output of heavy oils and oil from tar sands and shale will be unlikely to exceed 2 million b/d by 1990, roughly five time today's level. However, both of these resources will require the development of new technologies for any large increases in output above what is now planned. The bulk of Canada's tar sands exists at great depths and will require the development of in situ processes for extraction. In the Orinoco, heavy metals contained in the oil make it difficult to refine with existing technology.

  6. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiman, W.D.


    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1986 was considerably reduced compared to 1985. Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Venezuela had increased oil production, with Colombia showing a dramatic 71% increase attributed mainly to bringing on-stream the pipeline connecting Occidental-Shell-Ecopetrol's Cano Limon complex to the port of Covenas. Significant discoveries were reported from Argentina in the Olmedo, Oran, and San Jorge basins; Brazil in the offshore Campos and Amazon basins; Colombia in the Llanos basin; Ecuador in the Oriente basin; Mexico in the Bay of Campeche; Peru in the Ucayali basin; and Venezuela in the Eastern Venezuela basin. Eastern Venezuela's Furrial discovery is reported to have recoverable reserves of more than 1 million bbl of oil, and Shell's Ucayali basin discovery is reported to hold more than 7 tcf of gas. 7 figures, 10 tables.

  7. Oil discoveries and basin resource prediction in Latin America: Past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kronman, G.E.; Aleman, A.M.; Rushworth, S.W. (Amoco Production Company, Houston, TX (United States))


    Over 350 oil discoveries were made in Latin America during the 1980s. About 12% are estimated to contain reserves greater than 100 MMBO. Several of the larger finds (>500 MMBO), such as Cusiana (Colombia), Furrial/Musipan (Venezuela), Cano Lima (Colombia) and Marlim (Brazil) represent an important part of the giant field found worldwide since 1980. Most of the larger discoveries were made by national oil companies in Venezuela, Mexico and Brazil. Undiscovered oil resources of 40-80 BBO are estimated to remain in the highest potential Latin American basins, including those in Mexico, based on historical field size data and current geological knowledge. Over 150 BBO of produced oil and proven reserves has been found in the same group of basins. The probability of finding large undiscovered oil and gas fields (>100 MMBOE) in selected established and mature Latin American basins is high. The Campos (Brazil), Llanos (Colombia), Magadalena (Colombia), Maracaibo (Venezuela), Marahon-Oriente-Putomayo (Peru-Ecuador-Colombia), Maturin (Venezuela), Reforma-Campeche (Mexico) and Ucayali (Peru) basins have the best possibility for such accumulations. Another tier of frontier and emerging basins may also contain significant resources, but limited data makes it difficult to estimate their undiscovered resources. Some of the higher potential basins in this group include the Sierra de Chiapas (Mexico/Guatemala), Huallaga (Peru), Yucatan (Mexico), Sabinas, and Burgos (Mexico) basins.