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Sample records for vegetation cover analysis

  1. Vegetation Cover Analysis of Hazardous Waste Sites in Utah and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    www.mdpi.comjournalremotesensing Article Vegetation Cover Analysis of Hazardous Waste Sites in Utah and Arizona Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Jungho Im 1, *, John R....

  2. VEGETATION COVER ANALYSIS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES IN UTAH AND ARIZONA USING HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serrato, M.; Jungho, I.; Jensen, J.; Jensen, R.; Gladden, J.; Waugh, J.

    2012-01-17

    Remote sensing technology can provide a cost-effective tool for monitoring hazardous waste sites. This study investigated the usability of HyMap airborne hyperspectral remote sensing data (126 bands at 2.3 x 2.3 m spatial resolution) to characterize the vegetation at U.S. Department of Energy uranium processing sites near Monticello, Utah and Monument Valley, Arizona. Grass and shrub species were mixed on an engineered disposal cell cover at the Monticello site while shrub species were dominant in the phytoremediation plantings at the Monument Valley site. The specific objectives of this study were to: (1) estimate leaf-area-index (LAI) of the vegetation using three different methods (i.e., vegetation indices, red-edge positioning (REP), and machine learning regression trees), and (2) map the vegetation cover using machine learning decision trees based on either the scaled reflectance data or mixture tuned matched filtering (MTMF)-derived metrics and vegetation indices. Regression trees resulted in the best calibration performance of LAI estimation (R{sup 2} > 0.80). The use of REPs failed to accurately predict LAI (R{sup 2} < 0.2). The use of the MTMF-derived metrics (matched filter scores and infeasibility) and a range of vegetation indices in decision trees improved the vegetation mapping when compared to the decision tree classification using just the scaled reflectance. Results suggest that hyperspectral imagery are useful for characterizing biophysical characteristics (LAI) and vegetation cover on capped hazardous waste sites. However, it is believed that the vegetation mapping would benefit from the use of 1 higher spatial resolution hyperspectral data due to the small size of many of the vegetation patches (< 1m) found on the sites.

  3. Vegetation Change Analysis User's Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. J. Hansen; W. K. Ostler

    2002-10-01

    Approximately 70 percent of all U.S. military training lands are located in arid and semi-arid areas. Training activities in such areas frequently adversely affect vegetation, damaging plants and reducing the resilience of vegetation to recover once disturbed. Fugitive dust resulting from a loss of vegetation creates additional problems for human health, increasing accidents due to decreased visibility, and increasing maintenance costs for roads, vehicles, and equipment. Diagnostic techniques are needed to identify thresholds of sustainable military use. A cooperative effort among U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of Defense, and selected university scientists was undertaken to focus on developing new techniques for monitoring and mitigating military impacts in arid lands. This manual focuses on the development of new monitoring techniques that have been implemented at Fort Irwin, California. New mitigation techniques are described in a separate companion manual. This User's Manual is designed to address diagnostic capabilities needed to distinguish between various degrees of sustainable and nonsustainable impacts due to military training and testing and habitat-disturbing activities in desert ecosystems. Techniques described here focus on the use of high-resolution imagery and the application of image-processing techniques developed primarily for medical research. A discussion is provided about the measurement of plant biomass and shrub canopy cover in arid. lands using conventional methods. Both semiquantitative methods and quantitative methods are discussed and reference to current literature is provided. A background about the use of digital imagery to measure vegetation is presented.

  4. Vegetation study in support of the design and optimization of vegetative soil covers, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peace, Gerald L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM inc., Albuquerque, NM); Knight, Paul J. (Marron and Associates, Albuquerque, NM); Ashton, Thomas S. (Marron and Associates, Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-11-01

    A vegetation study was conducted in Technical Area 3 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico in 2003 to assist in the design and optimization of vegetative soil covers for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste landfills at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and Kirtland Air Force Base. The objective of the study was to obtain site-specific, vegetative input parameters for the one-dimensional code UNSAT-H and to identify suitable, diverse native plant species for use on vegetative soil covers that will persist indefinitely as a climax ecological community with little or no maintenance. The identification and selection of appropriate native plant species is critical to the proper design and long-term performance of vegetative soil covers. Major emphasis was placed on the acquisition of representative, site-specific vegetation data. Vegetative input parameters measured in the field during this study include root depth, root length density, and percent bare area. Site-specific leaf area index was not obtained in the area because there was no suitable platform to measure leaf area during the 2003 growing season due to severe drought that has persisted in New Mexico since 1999. Regional LAI data was obtained from two unique desert biomes in New Mexico, Sevilletta Wildlife Refuge and Jornada Research Station.

  5. VEGETATION SUCCESSION AND ROOT PENETRATION ON THE LORRAINE COVER USED TO LIMIT ACID MINE DRAINAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aubertin, Michel

    1 VEGETATION SUCCESSION AND ROOT PENETRATION ON THE LORRAINE COVER USED TO LIMIT ACID MINE DRAINAGE to limit the generation of acid mine drainage. The CCBE is made up of three layers: a 0.3 m layer of sand (CCBE), biointrusion, long-term performance, vegetation succession, root depth, acid mine drainage

  6. Using Unmanned Helicopters to Assess Vegetation Cover in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert P. Breckenridge; Maxine Dakins; Stephen Bunting; Jerry Harbour; Randy Lee

    2012-07-01

    Evaluating vegetation cover is an important factor in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems. Methods that have sufficient accuracy and improved cost efficiency could dramatically alter how biotic resources are monitored on both public and private lands. This will be of interest to land managers because there are rarely enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluations. In this project, unmanned helicopters were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess vegetation cover during May, June, and July in 2005. The images were used to estimate percent cover for six vegetative cover classes (shrub, dead shrub, grass, forbs, litter, and bare ground). The field plots were located on the INL site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho. Ocular assessments of digital imagery were performed using a software program called SamplePoint, and the results were compared against field measurements collected using a point-frame method to assess accuracy. The helicopter imagery evaluation showed a high degree of agreement with field cover class values for litter, bare ground, and grass, and reasonable agreement for dead shrubs. Shrub cover was often overestimated and forbs were generally underestimated. The helicopter method took 45% less time than the field method to set plots and collect and analyze data. This study demonstrates that UAV technology provides a viable method for monitoring vegetative cover on rangelands in less time and with lower costs. Tradeoffs between cost and accuracy are critical management decisions that are important when managing vegetative conditions across vast sagebrush ecosystems throughout the Intermountain West.

  7. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Assess Vegetative Cover in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosytstems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert P. Breckenridge

    2005-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with the University of Idaho, is evaluating novel approaches for using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quicker and safer method for monitoring biotic resources. Evaluating vegetative cover is an important factor in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems. In assessing vegetative cover, methods that improve accuracy and cost efficiency could revolutionize how biotic resources are monitored on western federal lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species, some of which are important indicator species (e.g., sage grouse). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluation of these ecosystems. In this project, two types of UAV platforms (fixed wing and helicopter) were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate total percent cover, (2) estimate percent cover for six different types of vegetation, and (3) locate sage grouse based on representative decoys. The field plots were located on the INL site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetative cover. A software program called SamplePoint developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) was used to evaluate the imagery for percent cover for the six vegetation types (bare ground, litter, shrubs, dead shrubs, grasses, and forbs). Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy.

  8. Comparison of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Platforms for Assessing Vegetation Cover in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert P. Breckenridge; Maxine Dakins; Stephen Bunting; Jerry Harbour; Sera White

    2011-09-01

    In this study, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quick and safe method for monitoring biotic resources was evaluated. Vegetation cover and the amount of bare ground are important factors in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems and assessment of rangeland health. Methods that improve speed and cost efficiency could greatly improve how biotic resources are monitored on western lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species (including sage grouse and pygmy rabbit). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluations. In this project, two UAV platforms, fixed wing and helicopter, were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess vegetation cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate percent cover for six different vegetation types (shrub, dead shrub, grass, forb, litter, and bare ground) and (2) locate sage grouse using representative decoys. The field plots were located on the Idaho National Engineering (INL) site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetation cover. A software program called SamplePoint was used along with visual inspection to evaluate percent cover for the six cover types. Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy. The comparison of fixed-wing and helicopter UAV technology against field estimates shows good agreement for the measurement of bare ground. This study shows that if a high degree of detail and data accuracy is desired, then a helicopter UAV may be a good platform to use. If the data collection objective is to assess broad-scale landscape level changes, then the collection of imagery with a fixed-wing system is probably more appropriate.

  9. Calculation set for design and optimization of vegetative soil covers Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peace, Gerald L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-02-01

    This study demonstrates that containment of municipal and hazardous waste in arid and semiarid environments can be accomplished effectively without traditional, synthetic materials and complex, multi-layer systems. This research demonstrates that closure covers combining layers of natural soil, native plant species, and climatic conditions to form a sustainable, functioning ecosystem will meet the technical equivalency criteria prescribed by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. In this study, percolation through a natural analogue and an engineered cover is simulated using the one-dimensional, numerical code UNSAT-H. UNSAT-H is a Richards. equation-based model that simulates soil water infiltration, unsaturated flow, redistribution, evaporation, plant transpiration, and deep percolation. This study incorporates conservative, site-specific soil hydraulic and vegetation parameters. Historical meteorological data are used to simulate percolation through the natural analogue and an engineered cover, with and without vegetation. This study indicates that a 3-foot (ft) cover in arid and semiarid environments is the minimum design thickness necessary to meet the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency-prescribed technical equivalency criteria of 31.5 millimeters/year and 1 x 10{sup -7} centimeters/second for net annual percolation and average flux, respectively. Increasing cover thickness to 4 or 5 ft results in limited additional improvement in cover performance.

  10. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Assess Vegetative Cover and Identify Biotic Resources in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems: Preliminary Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert P. Breckenridge

    2006-04-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with the University of Idaho, is evaluating novel approaches for using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quicker and safer method for monitoring biotic resources. Evaluating vegetative cover is an important factor in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems. In assessing vegetative cover, methods that improve accuracy and cost efficiency could revolutionize how biotic resources are monitored on western federal lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species, some of which are important indicator species (e.g., sage grouse). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluation of these ecosystems. In this project, two types of UAV platforms (fixed wing and helicopter) were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate total percent cover, (2) estimate percent cover for six different types of vegetation, and (3) locate sage grouse based on representative decoys. The field plots were located on the INL site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetative cover. A software program called SamplePoint developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service was used to evaluate the imagery for percent cover for the six vegetation types (bare ground, litter, shrubs, dead shrubs, grasses, and forbs). Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy.

  11. Changes in the Vegetation Cover in a Constructed Wetland at Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergman, C.L.; LaGory, K.

    2004-01-01

    Wetlands are valuable resources that are disappearing at an alarming rate. Land development has resulted in the destruction of wetlands for approximately 200 years. To combat this destruction, the federal government passed legislation that requires no net loss of wetlands. The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is responsible for regulating wetland disturbances. In 1991, the USACE determined that the construction of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory would damage three wetlands that had a total area of one acre. Argonne was required to create a wetland of equal acreage to replace the damaged wetlands. For the first five years after this wetland was created (1992-1996), the frequency of plant species, relative cover, and water depth was closely monitored. The wetland was not monitored again until 2002. In 2003, the vegetation cover data were again collected with a similar methodology to previous years. The plant species were sampled using quadrats at randomly selected locations along transects throughout the wetland. The fifty sampling locations were monitored once in June and percent cover of each of the plant species was determined for each plot. Furthermore, the extent of standing water in the wetland was measured. In 2003, 21 species of plants were found and identified. Eleven species dominated the wetland, among which were reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), crown vetch (Coronilla varia), and Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense). These species are all non-native, invasive species. In the previous year, 30 species were found in the same wetland. The common species varied from the 2002 study but still had these non-native species in common. Reed canary grass and Canada thistle both increased by more than 100% from 2002. Unfortunately, the non-native species may be contributing to the loss of biodiversity in the wetland. In the future, control measures should be taken to ensure the establishment of more desired native species.

  12. Analysis and Design of Evapotranspirative Cover for Hazardous Waste Landfill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    Analysis and Design of Evapotranspirative Cover for Hazardous Waste Landfill Jorge G. Zornberg, M, Inc. OII Superfund landfill in southern California. This cover system constitutes the first ET cover flow analyses performed for closure design at the OII site show that an ET cover is feasible for a wide

  13. Modeled Impacts of Cover Crops and Vegetative Barriers on Corn Stover Availability and Soil Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian J. Bonner; David J. Muth Jr.; Joshua B. Koch; Douglas L. Karlen

    2014-06-01

    Environmentally benign, economically viable, and socially acceptable agronomic strategies are needed to launch a sustainable lignocellulosic biofuel industry. Our objective was to demonstrate a landscape planning process that can ensure adequate supplies of corn (Zea mays L.) stover feedstock while protecting and improving soil quality. The Landscape Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) was used to develop land use strategies that were then scaled up for five U.S. Corn Belt states (Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Minnesota) to illustrate the impact that could be achieved. Our results show an annual sustainable stover supply of 194 million Mg without exceeding soil erosion T values or depleting soil organic carbon [i.e., soil conditioning index (SCI)?>?0] when no-till, winter cover crop, and vegetative barriers were incorporated into the landscape. A second, more rigorous conservation target was set to enhance soil quality while sustainably harvesting stover. By requiring erosion to be <1/2 T and the SCI-organic matter (OM) subfactor to be >?0, the annual sustainable quantity of harvestable stover dropped to148 million Mg. Examining removal rates by state and soil resource showed that soil capability class and slope generally determined the effectiveness of the three conservation practices and the resulting sustainable harvest rate. This emphasizes that sustainable biomass harvest must be based on subfield management decisions to ensure soil resources are conserved or enhanced, while providing sufficient biomass feedstock to support the economic growth of bioenergy enterprises.

  14. An Introduction to Wavelet Analysis with Applications to Vegetation Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Percival, Don

    · example: time series of vegetation areas over land (50 ­90 N) (based on monthly SAT data from Climate change from one place to the next on a given scale, where here `scale' is either - an interval (span;Basics of Wavelet Analysis: II · reparameterize using width and time t of center of interval: A(, t) (t

  15. SPECIAL ANALYSIS OF OPERATIONAL STORMWATER RUNOFF COVERS OVER SLIT TRENCHES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collard, L; Luther Hamm, L

    2008-12-18

    Solid Waste Management (SWM) commissioned this Special Analysis (SA) to determine the effects of placing operational stormwater runoff covers (referred to as covers in the remainder of this document) over slit trench (ST) disposal units ST1 through ST7 (the center set of slit trenches). Previously the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entered into an agreement with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to place covers over Slit Trenches 1 and 2 to be able to continue disposing Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) solid waste (see USDOE 2008). Because the covers changed the operating conditions, DOE Order 435.1 (DOE 1999) required that an SA be performed to assess the impact. This Special Analysis has been prepared to determine the effects of placing covers over slit trenches at about years 5, 10 and 15 of the 30-year operational period. Because some slit trenches have already been operational for about 15 years, results from analyzing covers at 5 years and 10 years provide trend analysis information only. This SA also examined alternatives of covering Slit Trenches 1 and 2 with one cover and Slit Trenches 3 and 4 with a second cover versus covering them all with a single cover. Based on modeling results, minimal differences exist between covering Slit Trench groups 1-2 and 3-4 with two covers or one large cover. This SA demonstrates that placement of covers over slit trenches will slow the subsequent release and transport of radionuclides in the vadose zone in the early time periods (from time of placement until about 100 years). Release and transport of some radionuclides in the vadose zone beyond 100 years were somewhat higher than for the case without covers. The sums-of-fractions (SOFs) were examined for the current waste inventory in ST1 and ST2 and for estimated inventories at closure for ST3 through ST7. In all cases SOFs were less than one (except for one SOF for ST5 that remained at one), indicating that there should be no unacceptable impacts on operations from placing covers for the cover alternatives that were analyzed. Minimal operational limits provided in Table 4 should be used as the new set of limits for Slit Trenches 1 through 7. ST1 and ST2 are expected to be covered about 15 years after the first disposal in ST1. Because the time of actual placement of covers over the other slit trenches is unknown, this SA did not consider limit increases, only limit decreases. Thus, each minimal operational limit is the minimum of the Performance Assessment (PA) final limit and the limit calculated in this SA if covers were placed at about 5, 10 or 15 years. If other cover times are desired, further analysis will be required.

  16. Vegetation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  17. Vegetation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentric viewingValidatingRoadmapVannevarVasudhaVegetation

  18. Global Analysis of Snow Cover Changes Using Google Earth Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coll, Jim

    2014-11-19

    Global Analysis of Snow Cover Changes Using MODIS and Google Earth Engine By: Jim Coll Importance of This Project • To establish whether or not Google Earth Engine is a viable platform for this type of “big data” analysis • Depending... is Google Earth Engine? Google Earth Engine is a massive data warehouse (2+ petabytes) of remote sensing imagery including all past Landsat and MODIS data. The platform supports JavaScript and Python analysis of these data, and performs the calculations...

  19. Analysis and Mapping of Vegetation and Habitat for the Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tagestad, Jerry D.

    2010-06-01

    The Lakeview, Oregon, office of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) contracted Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to classify vegetation communities on Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge in northeastern Nevada. The objective of the mapping project was to provide USFWS refuge biologists and planners with detailed vegetation and habitat information that can be referenced to make better decisions regarding wildlife resources, fuels and fire risk, and land management. This letter report describes the datasets and methods used to develop vegetation cover type and shrub canopy cover maps for the Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge. The two map products described in this report are 1) a vegetation cover classification that provides updated information on the vegetation associations occurring on the refuge and 2) a map of shrub canopy cover based on high-resolution images and field data.

  20. Analysis and Mapping of Vegetation and Habitat for the Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tagestad, Jerry D.

    2010-06-01

    The Lakeview, Oregon, office of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) contracted Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to classify vegetation communities on Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge in northeastern Nevada. The objective of the mapping project was to provide USFWS refuge biologists and planners with detailed vegetation and habitat information that can be referenced to make better decisions regarding wildlife resources, fuels and fire risk, and land management. This letter report describes the datasets and methods used to develop vegetation cover type and shrub canopy cover maps for the Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge. The two map products described in this report are (1) a vegetation cover classification that provides updated information on the vegetation associations occurring on the refuge and (2) a map of shrub canopy cover based on high-resolution images and field data.

  1. Since Iceland was settled 1100 y ago, declines in vegetated land cover has been accompanied by severe wind and water erosion. Interaction of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Archer, Steven R.

    Since Iceland was settled 1100 y ago, declines in vegetated land cover has been accompanied microtopography (i.e. hummock shape and size). DEGRADATION OF ICELANDIC RANGELANDS: PROCESSESS AND PROPERTIES J&M University, College Station, 2Soil Conservation Service, Gunnarsholt, Iceland, 3Agricultural Research

  2. A comparison of methods for estimating fractional green vegetation cover within a desert-to-upland transition zone in central New Mexico, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Jingfeng

    , University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3220, USA b Department of Geography and Curriculum in Ecology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3220, USA Received., 2001; Tueller, 1987; Ward & Robinson, 2000). Thus, fractional green vegetation cover ( fc

  3. Satellite image analysis for surveillance, vegetation and climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, D Michael

    2011-01-18

    Recently, many studies have provided abundant evidence to show the trend of tree mortality is increasing in many regions, and the cause of tree mortality is associated with drought, insect outbreak, or fire. Unfortunately, there is no current capability available to monitor vegetation changes, and correlate and predict tree mortality with CO{sub 2} change, and climate change on the global scale. Different survey platforms (methods) have been used for forest management. Typical ground-based forest surveys measure tree stem diameter, species, and alive or dead. The measurements are low-tech and time consuming, but the sample sizes are large, running into millions of trees, covering large areas, and spanning many years. These field surveys provide powerful ground validation for other survey methods such as photo survey, helicopter GPS survey, and aerial overview survey. The satellite imagery has much larger coverage. It is easier to tile the different images together, and more important, the spatial resolution has been improved such that close to or even higher than aerial survey platforms. Today, the remote sensing satellite data have reached sub-meter spatial resolution for panchromatic channels (IKONOS 2: 1 m; Quickbird-2: 0.61 m; Worldview-2: 0.5 m) and meter spatial resolution for multi-spectral channels (IKONOS 2: 4 meter; Quickbird-2: 2.44 m; Worldview-2: 2 m). Therefore, high resolution satellite imagery can allow foresters to discern individual trees. This vital information should allow us to quantify physiological states of trees, e.g. healthy or dead, shape and size of tree crowns, as well as species and functional compositions of trees. This is a powerful data resource, however, due to the vast amount of the data collected daily, it is impossible for human analysts to review the imagery in detail to identify the vital biodiversity information. Thus, in this talk, we will discuss the opportunities and challenges to use high resolution satellite imagery and machine learning theory to monitor tree mortality at the level of individual trees.

  4. An Introduction to Wavelet Analysis with Applications to Vegetation Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Percival, Don

    . example: time series of vegetation areas over land (50 # --90 # N) (based on monthly SAT data from Climate change from one place to the next on a given scale, where here `scale' is either - an interval (span t of center of interval: A(#, t) # #(t - # 2 , t + # 2 ) = 1 # Z t+ # 2 t- # 2 x(u) du - # # b - a is called

  5. Gradient Analysis and Classification of Carolina Bay Vegetation: A Framework for Bay Wetlands Conservation and Restoration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diane De Steven,Ph.D.; Maureen Tone,PhD.

    1997-10-01

    This report address four project objectives: (1) Gradient model of Carolina bay vegetation on the SRS--The authors use ordination analyses to identify environmental and landscape factors that are correlated with vegetation composition. Significant factors can provide a framework for site-based conservation of existing diversity, and they may also be useful site predictors for potential vegetation in bay restorations. (2) Regional analysis of Carolina bay vegetation diversity--They expand the ordination analyses to assess the degree to which SRS bays encompass the range of vegetation diversity found in the regional landscape of South Carolina's western Upper Coastal Plain. Such comparisons can indicate floristic status relative to regional potentials and identify missing species or community elements that might be re-introduced or restored. (3) Classification of vegetation communities in Upper Coastal Plain bays--They use cluster analysis to identify plant community-types at the regional scale, and explore how this classification may be functional with respect to significant environmental and landscape factors. An environmentally-based classification at the whole-bay level can provide a system of templates for managing bays as individual units and for restoring bays to desired plant communities. (4) Qualitative model for bay vegetation dynamics--They analyze present-day vegetation in relation to historic land uses and disturbances. The distinctive history of SRS bays provides the possibility of assessing pathways of post-disturbance succession. They attempt to develop a coarse-scale model of vegetation shifts in response to changing site factors; such qualitative models can provide a basis for suggesting management interventions that may be needed to maintain desired vegetation in protected or restored bays.

  6. Vegetation Cover Analysis of Hazardous Waste Sites in Utah and Arizona

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

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  7. Vegetation Cover Analysis of Hazardous Waste Sites in Utah and Arizona Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996HowFOAShowing YouNeedofDepartmentVOICES of Experience955Reactive

  8. The Effect of Grain Size on Spectral Mixture Analysis of Snow-Covered Area from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Jeff

    The Effect of Grain Size on Spectral Mixture Analysis of Snow-Covered Area from AVIRIS Data Thomas to improve spectral mixture Results were verified with a high spatial resolution aerial analysis of snow of multiple snow endmembers. Snow reflectance of fraction under/overflow and residuals confirmed mix- in near

  9. A Linear-Time Approach for Static Timing Analysis Covering All Process Corners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    A Linear-Time Approach for Static Timing Analysis Covering All Process Corners Sari Onaissi into the timing analysis of a circuit. With the increase in the number of interesting process vari- ables process variations lead to circuit timing variability and a corresponding timing yield loss. Traditional

  10. Efficient Block-Based Parameterized Timing Analysis Covering All Potentially Critical Paths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    Efficient Block-Based Parameterized Timing Analysis Covering All Potentially Critical Paths Khaled in the parameter space, by reporting all paths that can become critical. Using an efficient pruning algorithm, only) but by knowledge of the paths that can become critical at nearby points in parameter space. We give a formal

  11. LAI, fAPAR and fCover CYCLOPES global products derived1 from VEGETATION. Part 1: Principles of the algorithm2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    description of the VEGETATION sensors, radiometric calibration19 process, based on vicarious desertic targets24 red, near infrared and short wave infrared bands used to the remaining cloud free observations25 and climate modelling, resource evaluation (water, agriculture or forest3 production). Surface process models

  12. Screening Analysis for EPACT-Covered Commercial HVAC and Water-Heating Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somasundaram, Sriram; Armstrong, Peter R; Belzer, David B; Gaines, Suzanne C; Hadley, Donald L; Smith, David L; Winiarski, David W

    2000-04-25

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) establishes that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulate efficiency levels of certain categories of commercial heating, cooling, and water-heating equipment. EPACT establishes the initial minimum efficiency levels for products falling under these categories, based on ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 requirements. EPCA states that, if ASHRAE amends Standard 90.1-1989 efficiency levels, then DOE must establish an amended uniform national manufacturing standard at the minimum level specified in the amended Standard 90.1 and that it can establish higher efficiency levels if they would result in significant additional energy savings. 011Standard 90.1-1999 increases minimum efficiency levels for some of the equipment categories covered by EPCA 92. DOE conducted a screening analysis to determine the energy-savings potential for EPACT-covered products meet and exceeding these levels. This paper describes the methodology, data assumptions, and results of the analysis.

  13. Screening Analysis for EPACT-Covered Commercial HVAC and Water-Heating Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somasundaram, Sriram; Armstrong, Peter R.; Belzer, David B.; Gaines, Suzanne C.; Hadley, Donald L.; Katipumula, S.; Smith, David L.; Winiarski, David W.

    2000-04-25

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) establishes that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulate efficiency levels of certain categories of commercial heating, cooling, and water-heating equip-ment. EPACT establishes the initial minimum efficiency levels for products falling under these categories, based on ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 requirements. EPCA states that, if ASHRAE amends Standard 90.1-1989 efficiency levels, then DOE must establish an amended uniform national manufacturing standard at the minimum level specified in the amended Standard 90.1 and that it can establish higher efficiency levels if they would result in significant additional energy savings. Standard 90.1-1999 increases minimum efficiency levels for some of the equipment categories covered by EPCA 92. DOE conducted a screening analysis to determine the energy-savings potential for EPACT-covered products meet and exceeding these levels. This paper describes the methodology, data assumptions, and results of the analysis.

  14. Fractional Snow-Cover Mapping Through Artificial Neural Network Analysis of MODIS Surface Reflectance. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobreva, Iliyana D.

    2010-07-14

    Accurate areal measurements of snow-cover extent are important for hydrological and climate modeling. The traditional method of mapping snow cover is binary where a pixel is approximated to either snow-covered or snow-free. Fractional snow cover...

  15. Uncertainty analysis of vegetation distribution in the northern high latitudes during the 21st

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    environmental changes. Being data-driven, the Program uses extensive Earth system and economic data and models's Integrated Global System Model. Through this integrated model, the Program seeks to: discover new century with a dynamic vegetation model Yueyang Jiang, Qianlai Zhuang, Sibyll Schaphoff, Stephen Sitch

  16. Endovascular Treatment of Peripheral Artery Disease with Expanded PTFE-Covered Nitinol Stents: Interim Analysis from a Prospective Controlled Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duda, S.H. [Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Bosiers, M. [Dienst Vaatchirurgie, Sint Blasius Ziekenhuis, Dendermonde (Belgium); Pusich, B. [Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Huettl, K. [Institute for Cardiac and Vascular Surgery, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Oliva, V. [Department of Radiology, CHUM, Montreal (Canada); Mueller-Huelsbeck, S. [Department of Radiology, University of Kiel, Kiel (Germany); Bray, A. [Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Lake Macquaire Hospital, Newcastle (Australia); Luz, O.; Remy, C. [Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Radiology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Hak, J.B. [Cordis Clinical Research Europe, Waterloo (Belgium); Beregi, J.-P. [CHRU, Hopital Cardiologique, Lille (France)

    2002-10-15

    Purpose: Current covered peripheral stent designs have significant drawbacks in terms of stent delivery characteristics and flexibility. The aim of this study was to analyze the technical performance, safety and initial clinical efficacy of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered nitinol stents for arteriosclerotic peripheral artery disease. Methods:Eighty-two patients underwent implantation of PTFE-covered nitinol stents for iliac and/or femoral obstructions. The study was conducted prospectively in seven European centers and one Canadian center. Patients were controlled clinically and by duplex ultrasound follow-up. Data up to discharge were collected in 79 patients. Seventy-four patients have thus far received 1 month follow-up and 32 patients, 6 month follow-up examinations. Results: The average lesion length measured 47 mm for the common and external iliac arteries and 50 mm for the femoral arteries. The mean severity of the stenoses was reduced from 94% to 4% in the iliac arteries and from 98% to 7% in the femoral arteries after stent placement and dilatation. One device deviation (inadvertent stent misplacement) and one puncture-related severe adverse event with formation of a pseudoaneurysm occurred. There were occlusions of the stent in five patients. No infections were noticed. Conclusion: The interim analysis of this trial using PTFE-covered nitinol stents indicates that a strategy using primary implantation of this stent type is technically feasible, has an acceptable safety profile and is effective from a short-term perspective.

  17. Comparison of Canopy Cover Estimation Using Densiometer and Photo Analysis Software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    of the canopy with a digital camera with a basic lens and then using photo analysis software to determine Determined if transformation was appropriate based on qq plots and Shapiro-Wilk normality test Ran offset

  18. Detailed analysis of the energy yield of systems with covered sheet-and-tube PVT collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santbergen, R.; Rindt, C.C.M.; van Zolingen, R.J.Ch.; Zondag, H.A.

    2010-05-15

    Solar cells have a typical efficiency in the range of 5-20%, implying that 80% or more of the incident solar energy can be harvested in the form of heat and applied for low-temperature heating. In a PVT collector one tries to collect this heat. In this work, the electrical and thermal yield of solar domestic hot water systems with one-cover sheet-and-tube PVT collectors were considered. Objectives of the work were to understand the mechanisms determining these yields, to investigate measures to improve these yields and to investigate the yield consequences if various solar cell technologies are being used. The work was carried out using numerical simulations. A detailed quantitative understanding of all loss mechanisms was obtained, especially of those being inherent to the use of PVT collectors instead of PV modules and conventional thermal collectors. The annual electrical efficiencies of the PVT systems investigated were up to 14% (relative) lower compared to pure PV systems and the annual thermal efficiencies up to 19% (relative) lower compared to pure thermal collector systems. The loss of electrical efficiency is mainly caused by the relatively high fluid temperature. The loss of thermal efficiency is caused both by the high emissivity of the absorber and the withdrawal of electrical energy. However, both the loss of electrical and thermal efficiency can be reduced further by the application of anti-reflective coatings. The thermal efficiency can be improved by the application of a low-emissivity coating on the absorber, however at the cost of a reduced electrical efficiency. (author)

  19. An Analysis of Self-similarity, Momentum Conservation and Energy Transport for an Axisymmetric Turbulent Jet through a Staggered Array of Rigid Emergent Vegetation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Jon Scott

    2013-05-29

    as storm protection using an ADV measurement technique, and is the first to apply jet self-similarity analysis to characterize the overall mean and turbulent flow properties of a three-dimensional axisymmetric jet through a vegetated array. The mean axial...

  20. Analysis of postharvest handling and marketing systems for vegetable production in East and Central Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vamosy, Margaret Laurain

    1985-01-01

    , as Ackoff and Emery (1) noted that the difficulty some researchers have in synthesizing system components "derives from the confusion of taking the results of disciplinary analysis as the starting points of experience, rather than taking conceptual...

  1. An ecological and range vegetation analysis of the upland sites of the southern extension of the oak-hickory forest region in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCaleb, John Earl

    1954-01-01

    a c r e s p er animal unit y e a r ................... 99 Table Page 1 AN ECOLOGICAL AND RANGE VEGETATION ANALYSIS OF THE UPLAND SITES OF THE SOUTHERN EXTENSION OF THE OAK- HICKORY FOREST REGION IN TEXAS INTRODUCTION The oak -h ick o ry fo... the nature o f the vegetational changes which are o c cu rr in g is n e c e s sa ry fo r p roper management o f these a reas as range lands. 4 OBJECTIVES The ob je c t iv es set forth in this study are th ree - fo ld : 1. To make an e co lo g...

  2. Equilibrium Response and Transient Dynamics Datasets from VEMAP: Vegetation/Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Users of the VEMAP Portal can access input files of numerical data that include monthly and daily files of geographic data, soil and site files, scenario files, etc. Model results from Phase I, the Equilibrium Response datasets, are available through the NCAR anonymous FTP site at http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/vemap/vresults.html. Phase II, Transient Dynamics, include climate datasets, models results, and analysis tools. Many supplemental files are also available from the main data page at http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/vemap/datasets.html.

  3. An Ecological Analysis of the Impact of Weather, Land Cover and Politics on Childhood Pneumonia in Tanzania 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mgendi, Mlenge 1971-

    2012-12-03

    .................................................................................................... 91 Table 13: Linking air-pollutants and Land use / Land cover (LULC) in the recent studies (2007 ? 2011) inquiries indexed in MEDLINE database....................... 103 xvi Table 14: Disbursement to the local government authorities (LGA... the link between land cover and disease is of increasing interest to researchers across academic disciplines. Different land cover types have been associated with either being sources or sinks of particulate air pollution, and by extension, the spatial...

  4. Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Tsuhan

    Bear Snow Vegetation RhinoWater Vegetation Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Rhino Water Rhino Water Ground Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Vegetation Rhino Vegetation Ground Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky

  5. 2013 Distributed Wind Market Report Cover | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    & Publications U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing & Supply Chain Cover Photo 2013 Wind Technologies Market Report Cover 2014 Offshore Wind Market & Economic Analysis Cover Photo...

  6. Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change, and HydrologyHydrology Steven Fassnacht Watershed Science Colorado State University The Importance of Climate · Climate affects the environment and us ­ Ecology: vegetation and animals ­ Water Systems ­ People

  7. The influence of vegetation on frost dynamics, infiltration rate and surface stability in Icelandic Andisolic rangelands 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orradottir, Berglind

    2002-01-01

    . When snow cover was present soil temperature fluctuations were negligible. Incidence of frost heaving of wooden pegs in sparsely vegetated plant community was 3x greater than that observed in well-vegetated communities. Heaving of willow seedlings...

  8. Can remote sensing of land cover improve species distribution modelling?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradley, Bethany

    of continuous values, and are more often used for predict- ing species distributions (Guisan & Zim- mermann regions. The structural complexity of vegetation and the relative proportion of cover in the understorey scattering data, both of which provide a much greater range of continuous data values than vegetation

  9. Global 3-D model analysis of the seasonal cycle of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide: Implications for terrestrial vegetation uptake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    Global 3-D model analysis of the seasonal cycle of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide: Implications of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) to interpret observations at a network of surface sites. We aim to identify, and D. J. Jacob (2008), Global 3-D model analysis of the seasonal cycle of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide

  10. Analysis of photonic band gaps in two-dimensional photonic crystals with rods covered by a thin interfacial layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trifonov, T.; Marsal, L.F.; Pallares, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Alcubilla, R.

    2004-11-15

    We investigate different aspects of the absolute photonic band gap (PBG) formation in two-dimensional photonic structures consisting of rods covered with a thin dielectric film. Specifically, triangular and honeycomb lattices in both complementary arrangements, i.e., air rods drilled in silicon matrix and silicon rods in air, are studied. We consider that the rods are formed of a dielectric core (silicon or air) surrounded by a cladding layer of silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}), silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), or germanium (Ge). Such photonic lattices present absolute photonic band gaps, and we study the evolution of these gaps as functions of the cladding material and thickness. Our results show that in the case of air rods in dielectric media the existence of dielectric cladding reduces the absolute gap width and may cause complete closure of the gap if thick layers are considered. For the case of dielectric rods in air, however, the existence of a cladding layer can be advantageous and larger absolute PBG's can be achieved.

  11. Back Cover Front Cover Office of Continuing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Robert M.

    Back Cover Front Cover Office of Continuing Professional Education 2012­2013 Professional Landscape of Golf Course Irrigation Systems (p. 13) · Basics of Turf Management (p. 21) · Turfgrass Establishment (p

  12. Hydrodynamics of vegetated channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nepf, Heidi

    This paper highlights some recent trends in vegetation hydrodynamics, focusing on conditions within channels and spanning spatial scales from individual blades, to canopies or vegetation patches, to the channel reach. At ...

  13. Image analysis for facility siting: a comparison of low- and high-altitude image interpretability for land use/land cover mapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borella, H.M.; Estes, J.E.; Ezra, C.E.; Scepan, J.; Tinney, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    For two test sites in Pennsylvania the interpretability of commercially acquired low-altitude and existing high-altitude aerial photography are documented in terms of time, costs, and accuracy for Anderson Level II land use/land cover mapping. Information extracted from the imagery is to be used in the evaluation process for siting energy facilities. Land use/land cover maps were drawn at 1:24,000 scale using commercially flown color infrared photography obtained from the United States Geological Surveys' EROS Data Center. Detailed accuracy assessment of the maps generated by manual image analysis was accomplished employing a stratified unaligned adequate class representation. Both are-weighted and by-class accuracies were documented and field-verified. A discrepancy map was also drawn to illustrate differences in classifications between the two map scales. Results show that the 1:24,000 scale map set was accurate (99% to 94% area-weighted) than the 1:62,500 scale set, especially when sampled by class (96% to 66%). The 1:24,000 scale maps were also more time-consuming and costly to produce, due mainly to higher image acquisition costs.

  14. Vegetable Gardening in Containers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masabni, Joseph; Cotner, Sam

    2009-02-25

    space for a productive mini-garden. Problems with soilborne diseases, nematodes or poor soil conditions can be easily overcome by switching to a container garden. Ready access to con- tainers means that pest management is easier. Container vegetable... of selected vegetables which are ideally suited for these mini-gardens are indicated in Table 1. Table 1. Varieties for Container Grown Vegetables Broccoli (2 gallons, 1 plant) Packman, Bonanza, others Carrot (1 gallon, 2-3 plants. Use pots 2 inch deeper...

  15. Revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beedlow, P.A.; McShane, M.C.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1982-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is developing design and performance guidelines for surface stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings. In this work, vegetation and rock covers are being evaluated for maintaining long-term integrity of impoundment systems. Methods are being developed to estimate erosion rates associated with rock and/or vegetation covers, and to determine the effects of surface treatments on soil moisture. Interactions between surface treatments and barriers (radon and biological) are being studied as well. The product will be a set of guidelines to aid in designing surface covers. This report presents the status of this program and a discussion of considerations pertinent to the application of surface covers to tailings. Test plots located in Grand Junction, Colorado and Waterflow, New Mexico are being used to study: (1) the interactions between vegetation and radon and biological barriers, (2) the effects of surface covers on soil moisture, and (3) the effects of rock covers on vegetation.

  16. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV) HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING FOR DRYLAND VEGETATION MONITORING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nancy F. Glenn; Jessica J. Mitchell; Matthew O. Anderson; Ryan C. Hruska

    2012-06-01

    UAV-based hyperspectral remote sensing capabilities developed by the Idaho National Lab and Idaho State University, Boise Center Aerospace Lab, were recently tested via demonstration flights that explored the influence of altitude on geometric error, image mosaicking, and dryland vegetation classification. The test flights successfully acquired usable flightline data capable of supporting classifiable composite images. Unsupervised classification results support vegetation management objectives that rely on mapping shrub cover and distribution patterns. Overall, supervised classifications performed poorly despite spectral separability in the image-derived endmember pixels. Future mapping efforts that leverage ground reference data, ultra-high spatial resolution photos and time series analysis should be able to effectively distinguish native grasses such as Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda), from invasives such as burr buttercup (Ranunculus testiculatus) and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum).

  17. Bonneville - Hood River Vegetation Management Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    1998-08-01

    To maintain the reliability of its electrical system, BPA, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, needs to expand the range of vegetation management options used to clear unwanted vegetation on about 20 miles of BPA transmission line right-of-way between Bonneville Dam and Hood River; Oregon, within the Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area (NSA). We propose to continue controlling undesirable vegetation using a program of Integrated Vegetation Management (IVM) which includes manual, biological and chemical treatment methods. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1257) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  18. Insects in Vegetables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, C.L.; Jackman, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    (Blank Pa,ge In OriglDai BuUetinl ' ?L "Z : .. . "."'- ., ? CONTENTS Soil Insects That Attack Vegetables Black Cutworm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5 Variegated Cutworm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7 Pillbugs and Sowbugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7 Chewing Insects Corn Earworm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8 Cabbage Looper ............................. 8 Imported Cabbageworm...

  19. Developing the CLAMS Simulation Units from Topography, Vegetation, and Ownership Coastal Landscape Analysis and Modeling Study; College of Forestry, Oregon State University, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Corvallis, OR; Oregon De

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Developing the CLAMS Simulation Units from Topography, Vegetation, and Ownership Coastal Landscape a three step process which focuses on topography, vegetation, and ownership. Once complete, the resulting

  20. NERSC Journal Cover Stories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | png | 729 KB AGU-WRR2015Cover.png Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tightshale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater:...

  1. The Impacts of Land Cover Change on Climate over China 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Liang

    2015-06-22

    experienced significant land cover changes, such as urbanization (Hua et al. 2008; Zhou et al. 2004), agricultural expansion (Zhang 2000), and desertification (Wang et al. 2006a; Xue 1996). Even though there have been several studies focusing on land... processes (Kalnay and Cai 2003). By using the OMR method, Zhang et al. (2005) suggest that urbanization in southern China, deforestation, and desertification in northern China may increase surface temperature, while vegetation cover increases may decrease...

  2. COVER IMAGE Mechanical metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    COVER IMAGE Mechanical metamaterials are artificial structures whose properties originate from a range of structural deformations. Letter p153; News & Views p95 IMAGE: JAYSON PAULOSE COVER DESIGN in elementary optical excitations of monolayer WSe2 Ajit Srivastava, Meinrad Sidler, Adrien V. Allain, Dominik S

  3. Influences of vegetation characteristics and invertebrate abundance of Rio Grande wild turkey populations, Edwards Plateau, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Randel, Charles Jack

    2005-02-17

    , and cover scores of forbs, grass, litter, and bare ground at each nest site and surrounding area were sampled. This was done to determine if wild turkey hens selected nest sites with vegetative characteristics differing from surrounding habitat. Brood...

  4. A comparison of neural network and processbased models for vegetation distribution under global climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    climate change Eric Chown chown@cs.orst.edu Thomas G. Dietterich tgd@cs.orst.edu Department of Computer covering current climate and vegetation distribution in the coterminous United States. Completely automated on two tasks: prediction of current vegetation distribution given current climate and prediction

  5. Vegetation responses in Alaskan arctic tundra after 8 years of a summer warming and winter snow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ickert-Bond, Steffi

    by insulating vegetation from winter wind and temperature extremes, modifying winter soil temperaturesVegetation responses in Alaskan arctic tundra after 8 years of a summer warming and winter snow ) open-topped fiberglass chambers (OTCs) to study the effects of changes in winter snow cover and summer

  6. Vegetable Gardening in Containers. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cotner, Sam

    1981-01-01

    for a productive mini-garden. Prob lems with soil -borne diseases, nematodes or poor soil condi tions can be easily overcome by switching to a container garden. ? Extension horticu ltur ist, The Texas A&M University System. 3 Crop Selection.... Variety selection is of extreme importance. Most varieties that will do well when planted in a yard garden will also do well in containers. Some varieties of selected vegetables which are ideally suited for these mini gardens are indicated in Table...

  7. Covering Walls With Fabrics. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anonymous,

    1979-01-01

    , grasscloth and many other textures and weaves are available in this type of wall covering. When selecting fabrics to apply to interior walls, consider pattern, color, amount of shrink age and weight. Check to see if the design is printed with the grain... several times over a 12-inch length until fabric is cut through and can be pulled away easily (see Figure 5) . Figure 5 To cover raw edges at top or bottom when . there is no molding, attach an attractive gimp, flat braid or decorative molding...

  8. Retrieval of subpixel snow-covered area and grain size from imaging spectrometer data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Jeff

    Retrieval of subpixel snow-covered area and grain size from imaging spectrometer data Thomas H 2002 Abstract We describe and validate an automated model that retrieves subpixel snow-covered area multiple endmember spectral mixtures with a spectral library of snow, vegetation, rock, and soil. We derive

  9. Specialty Vegetables in Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Longbrake, Thomas D.; Baker, Marvin L.; Cotner, Sam; Parsons, Jerry; Roberts, Roland; Stein, Larry

    1988-01-01

    Jicama (Yam Bean, Mexican Turnip) 7 Kohlrabi 7 Leeks 7 Melons 8 Mushrooms 8 Parsnips 9 Pigeon Peas 9 Rhubarb 9 Rutabaga 9 Salsify 10 Shallots 10 Spaghetti Squash 10 Taro 11 Tomatillo 11 Summary 11 SPECIALTY VEGETABLES IN TEXAS Thomas D...-round and oblong. Fruit range from 8 to 12 pounds. CuUure. This warm weather, vining crop is grown as watermelon. Mushrooms (Enoki, Pleurotus, Shiitake) , Description. The popularity of different species and varieties of mushrooms has increased in the past...

  10. Vegetation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThin FilmUnitedVairex Corporation JumpVaron Lighting GroupVegetation

  11. Climate Effects of Global Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbard, S G; Caldeira, K; Bala, G; Phillips, T; Wickett, M

    2005-08-24

    There are two competing effects of global land cover change on climate: an albedo effect which leads to heating when changing from grass/croplands to forest, and an evapotranspiration effect which tends to produce cooling. It is not clear which effect would dominate in a global land cover change scenario. We have performed coupled land/ocean/atmosphere simulations of global land cover change using the NCAR CAM3 atmospheric general circulation model. We find that replacement of current vegetation by trees on a global basis would lead to a global annual mean warming of 1.6 C, nearly 75% of the warming produced under a doubled CO{sub 2} concentration, while global replacement by grasslands would result in a cooling of 0.4 C. These results suggest that more research is necessary before forest carbon storage should be deployed as a mitigation strategy for global warming. In particular, high latitude forests probably have a net warming effect on the Earth's climate.

  12. An assessment of plant biointrusion at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project rock-covered disposal cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    This study is one of a number of special studies that have been conducted regarding various aspects of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This special study was proposed following routine surveillance and maintenance surveys and observations reported in a special study of vegetative covers (DOE, 1988), in which plants were observed growing up through the rock erosion layer at recently completed disposal cells. Some of the plants observed were deep-rooted woody species, and questions concerning root intrusion into disposal cells and the need to control plant growth were raised. The special study discussed in this report was designed to address some of the ramifications of plant growth on disposal cells that have rock covers. The NRC has chosen rock covers over vegetative covers in the arid western United States because licenses cannot substantiate that the vegetative covers will be significantly greater than 30 percent and preferably 70 percent,'' which is the amount of vegetation required to reduce flow to a point of stability.'' The potential impacts of vegetation growing in rock covers are not addressed by the NRC (1990). The objectives, then, of this study were to determine the species of plants growing on two rock-covered disposal cells, study the rooting pattern of plants on these cells, and identify possible impacts of plant root penetration on these and other UMTRA Project rock-covered cells.

  13. ARM - Cover Competition Winners

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us agovInstrumentswrf-chemMeetingsCover Competition Winners Science

  14. PAGE Cover: Top Photo

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1, CONDUCT P - . . - - 4 v - r REQUESTCostPAGE Cover: Top

  15. Eolian cover sands: a sedimentologic model and paleoenvironmental implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lea, P.D.

    1985-01-01

    In periglacial areas, accumulations of eolian sand commonly form low-relief blankets without well-developed dunes. Internally, these sandsheet deposits exhibit subhorizontal lamination rather than high-angle cross-bedding. Such cover sands of late-Pleistocene age mantle extensive areas in northern Europe, but have been reported more rarely from North America. The processes by which cover sands, as opposed to dunes, accumulate have not yet been determined conclusively. Wind ripples and sand dunes do not form a continuum; flow separation and avalanching and negligible in the former and vital in the latter. Accretion of a sand patch into a mound sufficient to cause flow separation and dune growth requires a consistently available supply of loose sand. In cover-sand areas, sand may be immobilized prior to dune development by several factors: (1) a sparse vegetation cover, (2) moist ground conditions, (3) snow cover, and (4) a shallow permafrost table and/or an ice-cemented active layer. Detailed sedimentologic studies may allow discrimination among these various controls. The importance of the individual controlling factors can vary seasonally in a given deposit, as well as between deposits in different paleogeographic settings. However, all factors imply more mesic conditions than those associated with many dune deposits. The association of cover sands with paraboloid dunes is also consistent with somewhat moist conditions. The relatively mesic nature of cover sands controls their Pleistocene distribution; they become decreasingly important relative to dunes in maritime-to-continental transects across Alaska and northern Europe.

  16. GoMRC Website ‘Meta-analysis Report: Land-use and submerged aquatic vegetation change in the Gulf of Mexico’

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judd, Chaeli; Stefansson, Emily S.; Brushnahan, Heather

    2007-12-06

    Over the past century, health and spatial extent of seagrasses has decreased dramatically in the Gulf of Mexico. While some of the changes can be explained by direct impacts to the seagrass beds, we hypothesize that changes in the land use in the watersheds can also be correlated with the decline of seagrasses. Through this meta-analysis, we researched historical and compared trends in seagrass populations and land use in five bays and their watersheds within the Gulf of Mexico: Mobile Bay, Perdido Bay, Tampa Bay, Charlotte Harbor, and Galveston Bay. Using both historical records and spatial datasets, we examined land use and seagrass trends in these five areas.

  17. Longitudinal dispersion in vegetated flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, Enda

    2006-01-01

    Vegetation is ubiquitous in rivers, estuaries and wetlands, strongly influencing both water conveyance and mass transport. The plant canopy affects both mean and turbulent flow structure, and thus both advection and ...

  18. Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean-Vegetation Simulations for Modern and Mid-Holocene Climates: Role of Extratropical Vegetation Cover Feedbacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    past times, such as for 6000 yr BP, has led to collaborative model/data comparison projects (COHMAP in the seasonal cycle of solar radiation (more in northern summer, less in winter). Summer monsoons strengthen over North Africa to Asia and over the Americas partly in response to warmer continental interiors

  19. Vegetable Crops Hotline index 2008 MANAGEMENT TIPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginzel, Matthew

    's Wilt 489 Using Herbicides with Plastic Mulch 490 Midwest Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial

  20. Covered Product Category: Commercial Griddles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial griddles, which is a product category covered by the ENERGY STAR program

  1. Covered Product Category: Commercial Fryers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial fryers, which is a product category covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

  2. Covered Product Category: Commercial Ovens

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial ovens, which is a product category covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

  3. Mapping swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) seed productivity using spectral values and vegetation indices in managed wetlands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahilly, P.J.A.; Li, D.; Guo, Q.; Zhu, J.; Ortega, R.; Quinn, N.W.T.; Harmon, T.C.

    2010-01-15

    This work examines the potential to predict the seed productivity of a key wetland plant species using spectral reflectance values and spectral vegetation indices. Specifically, the seed productivity of swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) was investigated in two wetland ponds, managed for waterfowl habitat, in California's San Joaquin Valley. Spectral reflectance values were obtained and associated spectral vegetation indices (SVI) calculated from two sets of high resolution aerial images (May 11, 2006 and June 9, 2006) and were compared to the collected vegetation data. Vegetation data were collected and analyzed from 156 plots for total aboveground biomass, total aboveground swamp timothy biomass, and total swamp timothy seed biomass. The SVI investigated included the Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Transformed Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (TSAVI), Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI), and Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI). We evaluated the correlation of the various SVI with in situ vegetation measurements for linear, quadratic, exponential and power functions. In all cases, the June image provided better predictive capacity relative to May, a result that underscores the importance of timing imagery to coincide with more favorable vegetation maturity. The north pond with the June image using SR and the exponential function (R{sup 2}=0.603) proved to be the best predictor of swamp timothy seed productivity. The June image for the south pond was less predictive, with TSAVI and the exponential function providing the best correlation (R{sup 2}=0.448). This result was attributed to insufficient vegetal cover in the south pond (or a higher percentage of bare soil) due to poor drainage conditions which resulted in a delay in swamp timothy germination. The results of this work suggest that spectral reflectance can be used to estimate seed productivity in managed seasonal wetlands.

  4. Combining satellite multispectral image data and a digital elevation model for mapping debris-covered glaciers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kääb, Andreas

    Combining satellite multispectral image data and a digital elevation model for mapping debris classification alone. Based on the observation of low slope angles for debris-covered glacier tongues, we of automated multispectral classification for clean glacier ice and vegetation with slope information derived

  5. National Land Cover Data National Land Cover Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    _Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data Other_Citation_Details: Classification and processing of the orginal remote sensing (NLCD). The NLCD is a 21-class land cover classification of the entire United States. It is derived from

  6. Vegetable oils as an on the farm diesel fuel substitute: the North Carolina situation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harwood, H.J.

    1981-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of using vegetable oil as a diesel fuel alternative is reviewed. Particular emphasis has been placed on using vegetable oil in farm vehicles as an emergency fuel which may be produced on-farm. The following are reviewed: the mechanical feasibility, on-farm fuel production, and economic analysis.

  7. Selecting Fresh Fruits and Vegetables 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Amanda

    2008-09-05

    and Vegetables Amanda Scott* E-197 9/08 This publication was sponsored by a grant from the Initiative for Future Agriculture Food Systems, a program of the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, which is an agency of the United States...

  8. Journal of Vegetation Science 24 (2013) 332343 Community-level consequences of cattle grazing for an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cushman, J. Hall

    2013-01-01

    Journal of Vegetation Science 24 (2013) 332­343 Community-level consequences of cattle grazing by cattle mediate the composition of a coastal grassland community and do native and exotic taxa from/spring grazing by cattle (average of 0.75 cow-calf pairsÁhaÀ1 ) on species richness and percentage cover

  9. Herbicidal Activity of Mustard Seed Meal on Weed and Vegetable Emergence 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xi

    2014-11-21

    to determine the herbicidal activity of MSMs (Sinapis alba ‘IdaGold’ and Brassica juncea ‘Pacific Gold’) on weed and vegetable emergence. In Expt. 1, MSMs were applied at 0, 50, 100, 200 or 300 g/m2 to the bottom of petri dishes and covered with germination mix...

  10. Cover Crops for the Garden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    matter for your soil or compost pile. Organic matter is thatin the spring or made into compost, cover crops will act asgathered up and added to your compost pile. The first method

  11. Quantifying Vegetation Recovery on Santa Rosa Island 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rentschlar, Elizabeth

    2014-12-09

    following Hurricanes Opal and Ivan. Multispectral airborne imagery is used to analyze vegetation patterns and recovery. If no vegetation is present, sediment will not be deposited consistently. The clumps of plants collect sand in their wind shadows...

  12. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-04-01

    Two-page fact sheet discussing the pitfalls of using straight vegetable oil (SVO) as a transportation fuel.

  13. Cover

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p aDepartmentEnergyEvery Thanksgiving, we hear and Decommissioning

  14. cover

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos AlamosSimulation Initiative798/%2A en NNSA announces retirement of

  15. Cover

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electric vehicle (PEV)Day-June2012 |DepartmentRemarks Prepared

  16. Sky Vegetables | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing Capacity forSilicium de Provence SASSinemSissonville,Skokie,Vegetables Jump

  17. Vegetative covers for sediment control and phosphorus sequestration from dairy waste application fields 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giri, Subhasis

    2008-10-10

    in either PO4-P or TP. Blanco-Canqui et al. (2004) compared the effectiveness among fescue filter strip (FS), barrier fescue FS, and barrier native FS in reducing runoff, sediment, nitrogen, and P loss in a Mexico silt loam soil. They used switchgrass... brome grass, timothy fescue Coland soil Simulated 66 37 34 Blanco- Canqui et al. (2004) Fertilizer switch, gama indian grass big bluestem gray-head cornflower Mexico silt loam Simulated 78 _ 37 McFarland and Hauck (2004) manure coastal...

  18. RAPID SEPARATION OF ACTINIDES AND RADIOSTRONTIUM IN VEGETATION SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, S.

    2010-06-01

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides and radiostrontium in vegetation samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used in emergency response situations or for routine analysis. The actinides in vegetation method utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride matrix removal step, and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and DGA Resin cartridges. Lanthanum was separated rapidly and effectively from Am and Cm on DGA Resin. Alpha emitters are prepared using rare earth microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The purified {sup 90}Sr fractions are mounted directly on planchets and counted by gas flow proportional counting. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. The actinide and {sup 90}Sr in vegetation sample analysis can be performed in less than 8 h with excellent quality for emergency samples. The rapid fusion technique is a rugged sample digestion method that ensures that any refractory actinide particles or vegetation residue after furnace heating is effectively digested.

  19. Corrugated cover plate for flat plate collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hollands, K. G. Terry (Elora, CA); Sibbitt, Bruce (Waterloo, CA)

    1978-01-01

    A flat plate radiant energy collector is providing having a transparent cover. The cover has a V-corrugated shape which reduces the amount of energy reflected by the cover away from the flat plate absorber of the collector.

  20. Vegetation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentric viewingValidatingRoadmapVannevarVasudha

  1. Marine Fisheries On the cover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marine Fisheries ~@WD@W On the cover: The red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus (NMFS photograph). Articles 56(2), 1994 Sea Turtle Observations at Explosive Removals of Energy Structures Gregg R. Gitschlag AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION D. James Baker, Under Secretary for Oceans and Atmosphere National Marine

  2. Washing Fresh Fruits and Vegetables 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Amanda

    2008-09-05

    seconds before and after handling food, and after touching raw meat, changing a diaper, using the restroom, handling a pet or touching anything that could contami- nate your hands. Then dry your hands with a paper towel. Also wash and sanitize all.... Wash the sink with hot, soapy water and then rinse it. Sanitize the sink by pouring a mixture of 1 teaspoon of chlorine bleach in 1 quart of water into the sink. Wash the produce Wash all whole fruits and vegetables before preparing them ? even...

  3. Editor: Barbara Lorenz Cover Design: John Hobbs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Barbara Lorenz Cover Design: John Hobbs Graphics: Ivan Lorenz John Hobbs Cover Photo: Ranch Road 337 Bandera County, Texas Cover Photo: Ranch Road 337 Bandera County, Texas Cover Photo: John Hobbs #12. Participation at national and in- ternational meetings and professional conferences is a critical part of our

  4. The biopolitics of the vegetative subject

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pelaprat, Etienne

    2010-01-01

    Foucault, Michel. 1982. “The Subject and Power. ” Pp. 208-Foucault, Michel. 2000. “The Subject and Power. ” Pp. 326-production of a vegetative subject through an apparatus of

  5. The biopolitics of the vegetative subject

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pelaprat, Etienne

    2010-01-01

    Michel. 1984. “Nietzsche, Genealogy, History. ” Pp. 76-100Michel. 2006. “On the Genealogy of Ethics: An Overview ofof life, death and the genealogy of the vegetative

  6. An application of predictive vegetation mapping to mountain vegetation in Sweden 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Janet Alexis

    2006-04-12

    Predictive vegetation mapping was employed to predict the distribution of vegetation communities and physiognomies in the portion of the Scandinavian mountains in Sweden. This was done to address three main research questions: (1) what environmental...

  7. Monte Carlo simulation model for electromagnetic scattering from vegetation and inversion of vegetation parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Li-Fang, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis research, a coherent scattering model for microwave remote sensing of vegetation canopy is developed on the basis of Monte Carlo simulations. An accurate model of vegetation structure is essential for the ...

  8. Coupled Environmental Processes and Long-term Performance of Landfill Covers in the northern Mojave Desert

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Shafer; Michael Young; Stephen Zitzer; Eric McDonald; Todd Caldwell

    2004-05-12

    Evapotransiration (ET) covers have gained widespread acceptance as a closure feature for waste disposal sites, particularly in the arid and semi-arid regions of the southwestern U.S. But as landforms, ET covers are subject to change over time because of processes such as pedogenesis, hydrologic processes, vegetation establishment and change, and biological processes. To better understand the effects of coupled process changes to ET covers, a series of four primary analog sites in Yucca Flat on the Nevada Test Site, along with measurements and observations from other locations in the Mojave Desert, were selected to evaluate changes in ET covers over time. The analog sites, of varying ages, were selected to address changes in the early post-institutional control period, the 1,000-year compliance period for disposal of low-level and mixed low-level waste, and the 10,000-year compliance period for transuranic waste sites.

  9. MONITORING THE PERFORMANCE OF AN ALTERNATIVE COVER USING CAISSON LYSIMETERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waugh, W.J. [S.M. Stoller Corporation; Smith, G.M.; Mushovic, P.S.; none,

    2004-02-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) office in Grand Junction, Colorado, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 8, collaborated on a series of field lysimeter studies to design and monitor the performance of an alternative cover for a uranium mill tailings disposal cell at the Monticello, Utah, Superfund Site. Because groundwater recharge is naturally limited at Monticello in areas with thick loess soils, DOE and EPA chose to design a cover for Monticello using local soils and a native plant community to mimic this natural soilwater balance. Two large drainage lysimeters fabricated of corrugated steel culvert lined with high-density polyethylene were installed to evaluate the hydrological and ecological performance of an alternative cover design constructed in 2000 on the disposal cell. Unlike conventional, lowpermeability designs, this cover relies on (1) the water storage capacity of a 163-cm soil “sponge” layer overlying a sand-and-gravel capillary barrier to retain precipitation while plants are dormant and (2) native vegetation to remove precipitation during the growing season. The sponge layer consists of a clay loam subsoil compacted to 1.65 g/cm2 in one lysimeter and a loam topsoil compacted to 1.45 g/cm2 in the other lysimeter, representing the range of as-built conditions constructed in the nearby disposal cell cover. About 0.1 mm of drainage occurred in both lysimeters during an average precipitation year and before they were planted, an amount well below the EPA target of <3.0 mm/yr. However, the cover with less compacted loam topsoil sponge had a 40% greater water storage capacity than the cover with overly compacted clay loam subsoil sponge. The difference is attributable in part to higher green leaf area and water extraction by plants in the loam topsoil. The lesson learned is that seemingly subtle differences in soil types, sources, and compaction can result in salient differences in performance. Diverse, seeded communities of predominantly native perennial species were established on both lysimeters during an extended 3-yr drought, highlighting the importance of a sound understanding of the local ecology and of implementing the science and methods of disturbed-land revegetation.

  10. Fish and Vegetables in Foil Ingredients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Fish and Vegetables in Foil Ingredients: 1 1/2 pounds fresh or frozen fish fillets or steaks 4 sodium) Directions 1. Rinse fish under cold water and pat dry. Place 4 individual portions of fish on 4 pieces of foil large enough to completely wrap around the fish and vegetables. 2. Diagonally slice

  11. 2013 Wind Technologies Market Report Cover | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Technologies Market Report Cover.JPG More Documents & Publications NOWEGIS Report Cover 2014 Water Power Peer Review Report Cover Water Power For a Clean Energy Future Cover Photo...

  12. Assessing the extent of agriculture/pasture and secondary succession forest in the Brazilian Legal Amazon using SPOT VEGETATION data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisboa, Universidade Técnica de

    influence on the observed increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and consequent climatic Técnico, Lisboa, Portugal. c Remote Sensing Department, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Av. dos vegetation cover in the past, acting as a source of carbon. On the contrary, the secondary succession forest

  13. Interaction between flow, transport and vegetation spatial structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luhar, Mitul

    This paper summarizes recent advances in vegetation hydrodynamics and uses the new concepts to explore not only how vegetation impacts flow and transport, but also how flow feedbacks can influence vegetation spatial ...

  14. Gas tagging and cover gas combination for nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Kenny C. (Lemont, IL); Laug, Matthew T. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1985-01-01

    The invention discloses the use of stable isotopes of neon and argon, that are grouped in preselected different ratios one to the other and are then sealed as tags in different cladded nuclear fuel elements to be used in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. Failure of the cladding of any fuel element allows fission gases generated in the reaction and these tag isotopes to escape and to combine with the cover gas held in the reactor over the fuel elements. The isotopes specifically are Ne.sup.20, Ne.sup.21 and Ne.sup.22 of neon and Ar.sup.36, Ar.sup.38 and Ar.sup.40 of argon, and the cover gas is helium. Serially connected cryogenically operated charcoal beds are used to clean the cover gas and to separate out the tags. The first or cover gas cleanup bed is held between approximately 0.degree. and -25.degree. C. operable to remove the fission gases from the cover gas and tags and the second or tag recovery system bed is held between approximately -170.degree. and -185.degree. C. operable to isolate the tags from the cover gas. Spectrometric analysis further is used to identify the specific tags that are recovered, and thus the specific leaking fuel element. By cataloging the fuel element tags to the location of the fuel elements in the reactor, the location of the leaking fuel element can then be specifically determined.

  15. Final covering of the Ronneburg uranium mining site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoepfner, Uwe [LAGB Halle (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The rehabilitation of WISMUT's former Ronneburg uranium mining site involves backfilling of waste rock to the Lichtenberg open pit. The relocation project comprises about 110 million m{sup 3} of sulphide-bearing and AMD-generating waste rock which makes it the most important and most cost-intensive single surface restoration project conducted by WISMUT at the Ronneburg site. The backfilled waste rock has to be covered on an area of about 220 ha to control water infiltration and gas diffusion. Design planning for the final cover placement which began in 2004 had to be based on a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis as well on field tests of alternative cover options which are in compliance with legal requirements. An intensive testing program concerning the vadose zone of soil covers has therefore been started in 2000. The paper presents an overview of the monitoring program and the results of the vadose zone measurements. The water of soil covers have to be predicted for extended evaluation periods. Therefore water balance simulations of single layer covers (storage and evaporation concept) taking current and future soil and climate conditions into account are performed with the HYDRUS 2D code. (author)

  16. Improved gas tagging and cover gas combination for nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, K.C.; Laug, M.T.

    1983-09-26

    The invention discloses the use of stable isotopes of neon and argon, sealed as tags in different cladding nuclear fuel elements to be used in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. Cladding failure allows fission gases and these tag isotopes to escape and to combine with the cover gas. The isotopes are Ne/sup 20/, Ne/sup 21/ and Ne/sup 22/ and Ar/sup 36/, Ar/sup 38/ and Ar/sup 40/, and the cover gas is He. Serially connected cryogenically operated charcoal beds are used to clean the cover gas and to separate out the tags. The first or cover gas cleanup bed is held between 0 and -25/sup 0/C to remove the fission gases from the cover gas and tags, and the second or tag recovery system bed between -170 and -185/sup 0/C to isolate the tags from the cover gas. Spectrometric analysis is used to identify the specific tags that are recovered, and thus the specific leaking fuel element. By cataloging the fuel element tags to the location of the fuel elements in the reactor, the location of the leaking fuel element can then be determined.

  17. Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, T

    2006-01-01

    emissions from vegetation pyrolysis Comprehensive laboratoryfrom the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation J. P.J. Anal. and Appl. Pyrolysis, 60, 123–130, 2000. Fall, R. :

  18. Final Report Responses of Fishes, Waterbirds, Invertebrates, Vegetation, and Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Final Report Responses of Fishes, Waterbirds, Invertebrates, Vegetation, and Water Quality Section Page Number Chapter 1 - Executive Summary ..........................................................5 Emergent Vegetation

  19. Membrane degumming of crude vegetable oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Lan

    1997-01-01

    Crude vegetable oils contain various minor substances like phospholipids, coloring pigments, and free fatty acids (FFA) that may affect quality of the oil. Reduction of energy costs and waste disposal are major concerns for many oil refiners who...

  20. Vegetation Dynamics in Seasonally Grazed Upland Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollock, Meg L

    This thesis addresses the effects of seasonality of grazing on vegetation dynamics. Background to the thesis is provided by the Hill Sheep and Native Woodland (HSNW) project, a system-scale experiment with the long-term ...

  1. Safe Storage of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Amanda

    2008-09-05

    Proper storage of fresh fruits and vegetables can help consumers avoid foodborne illness. This publication explains how to safely store apples, bananas, berries, beets, broccoli, carrots, corn, grapes, herbs, lettuce and greens, melons, nectarines...

  2. Nonlinear Characteristics of Wave Propagation over Vegetation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkattaramanan, Aravinda

    2014-04-28

    The attenuation of wave energy by submerged or near-emergent coastal vegetation is one of the prominent methods of energy dissipation in areas with significant presence of wetlands. In this thesis, the nature of this dissipation in nearshore random...

  3. Improved Approximation Algorithms for the Min-max Tree Cover and Bounded Tree Cover Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salavatipour, Mohammad R.

    ). In this paper we consider Min-Max k-Tree Cover Problem (MMkTC) and Bounded Tree Cover Problem (BTC) defined of the largest tree in the cover is minimized. In the Bounded Tree Cover problem (BTC), we are given the weight G

  4. Post-Fire Vegetation Response 49 Barbara A. Holzman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruns, Tom

    -Fire Vegetation Response in the Bishop Pine Forest at Point Reyes National Seashore Chinook helicopter dropping

  5. SOUTHWESTERN WOODY RIPARIAN VEGETATION AND SUCCESSION: AN EVOLUTIONARY APPROACH1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in desertification and endangering native riverine ecosystems. Woody Riparian Vegetation Trees and shrubs are major

  6. DESIGN, PERFORMANCE, AND SUSTAINABILITY OF ENGINEERED COVERS FOR URANIUM MILL TAILINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waugh, W. Jody

    2004-04-21

    Final remedies at most uranium mill tailings sites include engineered covers designed to contain metals and radionuclides in the subsurface for hundreds of years. Early cover designs rely on compacted soil layers to limit water infiltration and release of radon, but some of these covers inadvertently created habitats for deep-rooted plants. Root intrusion and soil development increased the saturated hydraulic conductivity several orders of magnitude above design targets. These covers may require high levels of maintenance to sustain long-term performance. Relatively low precipitation, high potential evapotranspiration, and thick unsaturated soils favor long-term hydrologic isolation of buried waste at arid and semiarid sites. Later covers were designed to mimic this natural soil-water balance with the goal of sustaining performance with little or no maintenance. For example, the cover for the Monticello, Utah, Superfund site relies on a thick soil-sponge layer overlying a sand-and-gravel capillary barrier to store precipitation while plants are dormant and on native vegetation to dry the soil sponge during the growing season. Measurements of both off-site caisson lysimeters and a large 3-ha lysimeter built into the final cover show that drainage has been well below a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency target of less than 3.0 mm/yr. Our stewardship strategy combines monitoring precursors to failure, probabilistic riskbased modeling, and characterization of natural analogs to project performance of covers for a range of possible future environmental scenarios. Natural analogs are needed to understand how ecological processes will influence cover performance, processes that cannot be predicted with short-term monitoring and existing numerical models.

  7. Covered Product Category: Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial refrigerators and freezers, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

  8. Cover Letter Formula Ready Reference F-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cover Letter Formula Ready Reference F-3 College of Engineering, Architecture & Technology Career Services Oklahoma State University College of Engineering, Architecture & Technology Career Services Office

  9. Covered Product Category: Commercial Steam Cookers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial steam cookers, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

  10. Covered Product Category: Hot Food Holding Cabinets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for hot food holding cabinets, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

  11. Centrifugal Modeling of Subsidence of Landfill Covers [abstract

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sterling, Harry; Ronayne, Michael

    1984-01-01

    j "Centrifugal Moueling of Subsidence of Landfill Covers" bysites may result in subsidence of the soil cover system.Following subsidence, water flow through the cover may rise

  12. 2014 Wind Program Peer Review Report Cover | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Cover 2014 Wind Program Peer Review Report.JPG More Documents & Publications 2014 Water Power Peer Review Report Cover 2013 Wind Technologies Market Report Cover Energy...

  13. DOE-L.__ PROPOSAL PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS - COVER LETTER AND

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    L. PROPOSAL PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS - COVER LETTER AND VOLUME I, OFFER AND OTHER DOCUMENTS (a) Instruction - Cover Letter. The cover letter shall include, but not be limited to,...

  14. Retrieval of subpixel snow covered area, grain size, and albedo from MODIS Thomas H. Painter a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Jeff

    Retrieval of subpixel snow covered area, grain size, and albedo from MODIS Thomas H. Painter a Keywords: Snow Grain size Albedo Spectral mixture analysis MODIS We describe and validate a model that retrieves fractional snow-covered area and the grain size and albedo of that snow from surface reflectance

  15. Relationships between expanding pinyonjuniper cover and topography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradley, Bethany

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Relationships between expanding pinyon­juniper cover and topography in the central conifer cover and topography. Location The central Great Basin in the state of Nevada, USA. Methods We­juniper woodland and topography can inform regional land management and improve projections of long-term ecosystem

  16. Ice Cover on the Great Lakes NATIONALOCEANIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : In the shallow waters where whitefish spawn, ice cover protects their eggs from destructive wind and wave action://coastwatch.glerl.noaa.gov/glsea/cur/glsea_cur.png #12;GLERL Research Forecast capability The capability to forecast and predict ice cover is important for recreational safety and rescue efforts as well as for navigation, weather forecasting, adapting to lake level

  17. Overview of vegetation monitoring data, 1952--1983. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, J.P.

    1994-03-01

    This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The goal of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from emissions since 1944 at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Members of the HEDR Project`s Environmental Monitoring Data Task have developed databases of historical environmental measurements of such emissions. The HEDR Project is conducted by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories. This report is the third in a series that documents the information available on measurements of iodine-131 concentrations in vegetation. The first two reports provide the data for 1945--1951. This report provides an overview of the historical documents, which contain vegetation data for 1952--1983. The overview is organized according to the documents available for any given year. Each section, covering one year, contains a discussion of the media sampled, the sampling locations, significant events if there were any, emission quantities, constituents measured, and a list of the documents with complete reference information. Because the emissions which affected vegetation were significantly less after 1951, the vegetation monitoring data after that date have not been used in the HEDR Project. However, access to these data may be of interest to the public. This overview is, therefore, being published.

  18. Thermal Performance of Vegetative Roofing Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL; Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL; Ennis, Mike J [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Vegetative roofing, otherwise known as green or garden roofing, has seen tremendous growth in the last decade in the United States. The numerous benefits that green roofs provide have helped to fuel their resurgence in industrial and urban settings. There are many environmental and economical benefits that can be realized by incorporating a vegetative roof into the design of a building. These include storm-water retention, energy conservation, reduction in the urban heat island effect, increased longevity of the roofing membrane, the ability of plants to create biodiversity and filter air contaminants, and beautification of the surroundings by incorporating green space. The vegetative roof research project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was initiated to quantify the thermal performance of various vegetative roofing systems relative to black and white roofs. Single Ply Roofing Institute (SPRI) continued its long-term commitment to cooperative research with ORNL in this project. Low-slope roof systems for this study were constructed and instrumented for continuous monitoring in the mixed climate of East Tennessee. This report summarizes the results of the annual cooling and heating loads per unit area of three vegetative roofing systems with side-by-side comparison to black and white roofing systems as well as a test section with just the growing media without plants. Results showed vegetative roofs reduced heat gain (reduced cooling loads) compared to the white control system due to the thermal mass, extra insulation, and evapo-transpiration associated with the vegetative roofing systems. The 4-inch and tray systems reduced the heat gain by approximately 61%, while the reduction with the 8-inch vegetative roof was found to be approximately 67%. The vegetative roofing systems were more effective in reducing heat gain than in reducing heat losses (heating loads). The reduction in heat losses for the 4-inch and tray systems were found to be approximately 40% in the mixed climate of East Tennessee. It should be noted that these values are climate dependent. Vegetative roofs also reduced the temperature (heat exposure) and temperature fluctuations (thermal stress) experienced by the membrane. In the cooling season of East Tennessee, the average peak temperature of the 4-inch and tray systems was found to be approximately 94 F cooler than the control black roofing system. The average temperature fluctuations at the membrane for the 4-inch and tray systems were found to be approximately 10 F compared to 125 F for black and 64 F for white systems. As expected, the 8-inch vegetative roof had the lowest fluctuations at approximately 2 F. Future work will include modeling of the energy performance of vegetative roof panels in the test climate of East Tennessee. The validated model then will be used to predict energy use in roofs with different insulation levels and in climates different from the test climate.

  19. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel, a renewable fuel produced from animal fats or vegetable oils, is popular among many vehicle owners and fleet managers seeking to reduce emissions and support U.S. energy security. Questions sometimes arise about the viability of fueling vehicles with straight vegetable oil (SVO), or waste oils from cooking and other processes, without intermediate processing. But SVO and waste oils differ from biodiesel (and conventional diesel) in some important ways and are generally not considered acceptable vehicle fuels for large-scale or long-term use.

  20. 2014 Water Power Peer Review Report Cover | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Peer Review Report Cover 2014 Water Power Peer Review Report Cover 2014 Water Power Peer Review Report Cover.JPG More Documents & Publications NOWEGIS Report Cover Water Power For...

  1. Deployment of an alternative cover and final closure of the Mixed Waste Landfill, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peace, Gerald L.; Goering, Timothy James; McVey, Michael David (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Borns, David James

    2003-06-01

    An alternative cover design consisting of a monolithic layer of native soil is proposed as the closure path for the Mixed Waste Landfill at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The proposed design would rely upon soil thickness and evapotranspiration to provide long-term performance and stability, and would be inexpensive to build and maintain. The proposed design is a 3-ft-thick, vegetated soil cover. The alternative cover meets the intent of RCRA Subtitle C regulations in that: (a) water migration through the cover is minimized; (b) maintenance is minimized by using a monolithic soil layer; (c) cover erosion is minimized by using erosion control measures; (d) subsidence is accommodated by using a ''soft'' design; and (e) the permeability of the cover is less than or equal to that of natural subsurface soil present. Performance of the proposed cover is integrated with natural site conditions, producing a ''system performance'' that will ensure that the cover is protective of human health and the environment. Natural site conditions that will produce a system performance include: (a) extremely low precipitation and high potential evapotranspiration; (b) negligible recharge to groundwater; (c) an extensive vadose zone; (d) groundwater approximately 500 ft below the surface; and (e) a versatile, native flora that will persist indefinitely as a climax ecological community with little or no maintenance.

  2. Monitoring urban land cover change: An expert system approach to land cover classification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramsey, Michael

    such as land use data, spatial texture, and digital elevation models (DEMs) to obtain greater classificationMonitoring urban land cover change: An expert system approach to land cover classification with Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data to derive a land cover classification for the semiarid Phoenix

  3. Equivalence demonstration of an alternative cover system 307 EQUIVALENCE DEMONSTRATION OF AN ALTERNATIVE COVER SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    at the Operating Industries, Inc. (OII) Superfund landfill in southern California. Infiltration control of the closure design show that an evapotranspirative cover is feasible at the site for a wide range engineered components of municipal and hazardous waste landfills is the cover system. The cover system should

  4. Impact of parameterizations in snow physics and interface processes on the simulation of snow cover and runoff at several cold region sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Yongkang

    Impact of parameterizations in snow physics and interface processes on the simulation of snow cover] A series of numerical experiments have been designed to understand the physics at the soil-vegetation-snow of Canada were used to help interpret the results. This study shows that snow layering and compaction

  5. Aerial Photo: P. velutina cover derived from June 1996 color-infrared digital ortho-photographs and classified with Maximum Likelihood supervised classification algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Archer, Steven R.

    ·· Aerial Photo: P. velutina cover derived from June 1996 color-infrared digital ortho- photographs relationships were then used in conjunction with field surveys and aerial photos to ascertain the extent these to the stand-level using standard vegetation sampling protocols was problematic. · The GIS / aerial photo

  6. Covered Product Category: Exterior Lighting | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    & Technologies Energy-Efficient Products Covered Product Category: Exterior Lighting Covered Product Category: Exterior Lighting The Federal Energy Management Program...

  7. Amazonian peatland vegetation and its representation in the modern pollen rain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brierley, Andrew

    of peat-forming and wetland ecosystems in the Pastaza-Marañon Fan Basin in northern Peru (the largest analysis in peat cores obtained from lowland peatlands in northern Peru has enabled past vegetation dating methods), records obtained from these peatlands potentially represent an extremely powerful tool

  8. Graphical methods for evaluating covering arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Youngil; Jang, Dae -Heung; Anderson-Cook, Christine M.

    2015-08-10

    Covering arrays relax the condition of orthogonal arrays by only requiring that all combination of levels be covered but not requiring that the appearance of all combination of levels be balanced. This allows for a much larger number of factors to be simultaneously considered but at the cost of poorer estimation of the factor effects. To better understand patterns between sets of columns and evaluate the degree of coverage to compare and select between alternative arrays, we suggest several new graphical methods that show some of the patterns of coverage for different designs. These graphical methods for evaluating covering arrays are illustrated with a few examples.

  9. Graphical methods for evaluating covering arrays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Youngil; Jang, Dae -Heung; Anderson-Cook, Christine M.

    2015-08-10

    Covering arrays relax the condition of orthogonal arrays by only requiring that all combination of levels be covered but not requiring that the appearance of all combination of levels be balanced. This allows for a much larger number of factors to be simultaneously considered but at the cost of poorer estimation of the factor effects. To better understand patterns between sets of columns and evaluate the degree of coverage to compare and select between alternative arrays, we suggest several new graphical methods that show some of the patterns of coverage for different designs. These graphical methods for evaluating covering arraysmore »are illustrated with a few examples.« less

  10. SRS 2010 Vegetation Inventory GeoStatistical Mapping Results for Custom Reaction Intensity and Total Dead Fuels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Lloyd A. [Leading Solutions, LLC.; Paresol, Bernard [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR.

    2014-09-01

    This report of the geostatistical analysis results of the fire fuels response variables, custom reaction intensity and total dead fuels is but a part of an SRS 2010 vegetation inventory project. For detailed description of project, theory and background including sample design, methods, and results please refer to USDA Forest Service Savannah River Site internal report “SRS 2010 Vegetation Inventory GeoStatistical Mapping Report”, (Edwards & Parresol 2013).

  11. Spatiotemporal Monitoring of Urban Vegetation Christopher Small

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Small, Christopher

    and absorbtion of solar radiation, by modulation of evapotranspiration and by sequestration of pollutants by selective reflection and absorption of solar radiation (e.g. Goward et al, 1985; Roth et al, 1989; Gallo et in vegetation abundance influence environmental conditions and energy fluxes by selective reflection

  12. CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON CALIFORNIA VEGETATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON CALIFORNIA VEGETATION: PHYSIOLOGY, LIFE HISTORY, AND ECOSYSTEM or implied, and assume no legal liability for the information in this paper; nor does any party represent that the uses of this information will not infringe upon privately owned rights. This paper has not been

  13. Vegetation Indices to Aid Areal Evapotranspiration Estimations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szilagyi, Jozsef

    1982­1990 monthly areal evapotranspiration AET was modeled with the Morton approach at the Solar: Evapotranspiration; Vegetation. Introduction In regional water-balance calculations and watershed modeling, one not necessarily deteriorate with the growing aridity of the environ- ment, provided that a time-lag is considered

  14. Energy accounting for eleven vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goering, C.E.; Daugherty, M.J.

    1982-09-01

    Energy inputs and outputs were comparatively analyzed for 11 vegetable oil fuels. Three-year average prices and production quantities were also compared. All nonirrigated oil crops had favorable energy ratios. Soybean, peanut and sunflower oils were the most promising as domestic fuel sources. Rapeseed oil would also be promising if significant domestic production can be established.

  15. Swimming Pool Covers | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Gas Heating Costs and Savings Use of a pool cover also can help reduce the size of a solar pool heating system, which can save money. How They Work Swimming pools lose energy in...

  16. Swimming Pool Covers | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of heating pools with and without pool covers in different U.S. cities: Estimating Heat Pump Swimming Pool Heater Costs and Savings Estimating Swimming Pool Gas Heating Costs...

  17. FUNDAMENTAL GROUPS AND COVERING SPACES ETHAN JERZAK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    May, J. Peter

    FUNDAMENTAL GROUPS AND COVERING SPACES ETHAN JERZAK Abstract. In this paper, I will briefly develop) Date: August 22, 2008. 1 #12;2 ETHAN JERZAK the structure of a group; the constant loop is the identity

  18. CERTIFICATION REGARDING LOBBYING LOWER TIER COVERED TRANSACTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    , or an employee of a Member of Congress in connection with this commitment providing for the United StatesCERTIFICATION REGARDING LOBBYING LOWER TIER COVERED TRANSACTIONS Applicants should review

  19. Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with capacities of 20 to 120 gallons and maximum energy input of 12 kW. Residential heat pump and gas storage water heaters are covered by ENERGY STAR. Boilers, swimming pool...

  20. Features . . . Cover Crop Value to Cotton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    .............................................................................................Page 6 Fuel Prices Projections - Encouraging News .......................Page 7 Agronomy Notes VolumeFeatures . . . Cotton Cover Crop Value to Cotton Cotton Price and Rotation ..............................................................Page 5 Miscellaneous Large differences in nitrogen prices.......................................Page 6

  1. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-08-04

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  2. Repositioning of Covered Stents: The Grip Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, John Martin; Guo Xiaofeng; Midia, Mehran

    2011-06-15

    Introduction: Retrieval and repositioning of a stent deployed beyond its intended target region may be a difficult technical challenge. Materials and Methods: A balloon-mounted snare technique, a variant of the coaxial loop snare technique, is described. Results: The technique is described for the repositioning of a covered transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt stent and a covered biliary stent. Conclusion: The balloon-mounted snare technique is a useful technique for retrieval of migrated stents.

  3. Interactions between currents and the spatial structure of aquatic vegetation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rominger, Jeffrey T. (Jeffrey Tsaros)

    2009-01-01

    Vegetation is present in nearly all aquatic environments, ranging from meandering streams to constructed channels and rivers, as well as in lakes and coastal zones. This vegetation grows in a wide range of flow environments ...

  4. Global longterm passive microwave satellitebased retrievals of vegetation optical depth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Jason

    Global longterm passive microwave satellitebased retrievals of vegetation optical depth Yi Y. Liu,1 optical depth (VOD) retrievals from three satellitebased passive microwave instruments were merged longterm passive microwave satellitebased retrievals of vegetation optical depth, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38

  5. Momentum and scalar transport in vegetated shear flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghisalberti, Marco (Marco Andrea), 1976-

    2005-01-01

    Environmental aquatic flows are seldom free of vegetative influence. However, the impact of submerged vegetation on the hydrodynamics and mixing processes in aquatic flows remains poorly understood. In this thesis, I present ...

  6. Influence of physiography and vegetation on small mammals at the Naval Petroleum Reserves, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cypher, B.L.

    1995-02-13

    Influence of physiography and vegetation on small mammal abundance and species Composition was investigated at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 in California to assess prey abundance for Federally endangered San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) and to assess the distribution of two Federal candidate species, San Joaquin antelope squirrels (Ammospermophilus nelsoni) and short-nosed kangaroo rats (Dinodomys nitratoides brevinasus). The specific objectives of this investigation were to determine whether small mammal abundance and community composition varied with north-south orientation, terrain, ground cover, and Cypher shrub density, and whether these factors influenced the distribution and abundance of San Joaquin antelope squirrels and short-nosed kangaroo rats.

  7. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel? (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-05-01

    Discusses the use of straight vegetable oil as a diesel fuel and the use of biodiesel as a transportation fuel.

  8. Multi-Spectral imaging of vegetation for detecting CO2 leaking from underground

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rouse, J.H.; Shaw, J.A.; Lawrence, R.L.; Lewicki, J.L.; Dobeck, L.M.; Repasky, K.S.; Spangler, L.H.

    2010-06-01

    Practical geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration will require long-term monitoring for detection of possible leakage back into the atmosphere. One potential monitoring method is multi-spectral imaging of vegetation reflectance to detect leakage through CO{sub 2}-induced plant stress. A multi-spectral imaging system was used to simultaneously record green, red, and near-infrared (NIR) images with a real-time reflectance calibration from a 3-m tall platform, viewing vegetation near shallow subsurface CO{sub 2} releases during summers 2007 and 2008 at the Zero Emissions Research and Technology field site in Bozeman, Montana. Regression analysis of the band reflectances and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index with time shows significant correlation with distance from the CO{sub 2} well, indicating the viability of this method to monitor for CO{sub 2} leakage. The 2007 data show rapid plant vigor degradation at high CO{sub 2} levels next to the well and slight nourishment at lower, but above-background CO{sub 2} concentrations. Results from the second year also show that the stress response of vegetation is strongly linked to the CO{sub 2} sink-source relationship and vegetation density. The data also show short-term effects of rain and hail. The real-time calibrated imaging system successfully obtained data in an autonomous mode during all sky and daytime illumination conditions.

  9. Vegetated Roof Water-Balance Model: Experimental and Model Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vegetated Roof Water-Balance Model: Experimental and Model Results James A. Sherrard Jr.1 and Jennifer M. Jacobs, M.ASCE2 Abstract: A five parameter, daily vegetated roof water balance model (VR-WBM) was developed, calibrated, and validated by using experimental vegetated roof data from the Seacoast, New

  10. Classification of Sweden's Forest and Alpine Vegetation Using Optical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Classification of Sweden's Forest and Alpine Vegetation Using Optical Satellite and Inventory Data of Sweden's Forest and Alpine Vegetation Using Optical Satellite and Inventory Data. Abstract Creation of accurate vegetation maps from optical satellite data requires use of reference data to aid

  11. Climate and coastal dune vegetation: disturbance, recovery, and succession

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Thomas E.

    Climate and coastal dune vegetation: disturbance, recovery, and succession Thomas E. Miller Æ Elise. Foredune, interdune, and backdune habitats common to most coastal dunes have very different vegetation deterministic trajectories. Keywords Dune habitats Á Succession Á Disturbance Á Coastal vegetation Á Hurricane Á

  12. Influences of soil moisture and vegetation on convective precipitation forecasts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Influences of soil moisture and vegetation on convective precipitation forecasts over the United and vegetation on 30 h convective precipitation forecasts using the Weather Research and Forecasting model over, the complete removal of vegetation produced substantially less precipitation, while conversion to forest led

  13. A Water Balance Study of Four Landfill Cover Designs at Material Disposal Area B in Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David D. Breshears; Fairley J. Barnes; John W. Nyhan; Johnny A. Salazar

    1998-09-01

    The goal of disposing of low-level radioactive and hazardous waste in shallow landfills is to reduce risk to human health and the environment by isolating contaminants until they no longer pose an unacceptable hazard. In order to achieve this, the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration Program is comparing the performance of several different surface covers at Material Disposal Area (MDA) B in Los Alamos. Two conventional landfill were compared with an improved cover designed to minimize plant and animal intrusion and to minimize water infiltration into the underlying wastes. The conventional covers varied in depth and both conventional and improved designs had different combinations of vegetation (grass verses shrub) and gravel mulch (no mulch verses mulch). These treatments were applied to each of 12 plots and water balance parameters were measured from March1987 through June 1995. Adding a gravel mulch significantly influenced the plant covered field plots receiving no gravel mulch averaged 21.2% shrub cover, while plots with gravel had a 20% larger percent cover of shrubs. However, the influence of gravel mulch on the grass cover was even larger than the influence on shrub cover, average grass cover on the plots with no gravel was 16.3%, compared with a 42% increase in grass cover due to gravel mulch. These cover relationships are important to reduce runoff on the landfill cover, as shown by a regression model that predicts that as ground cover is increased from 30 to 90%,annual runoff is reduced from 8.8 to 0.98 cm-a nine-fold increase. We also found that decreasing the slope of the landfill cover from 6 to 2% reduced runoff from the landfill cover by 2.7-fold. To minimize the risk of hazardous waste from landfills to humans, runoff and seepage need to be minimized and evapotranspiration maximized on the landfill cover. This has to be accomplished for dry and wet years at MDA B. Seepage consisted of 1.9% and 6.2% of the precipitation in the average and once in ten year events, respectively, whereas corresponding values for runoff were 13% and 16%; these changes were accompanied by corresponding decreases in evapotranspiration, which accounted for 86% and only 78% of the precipitation occurring on the average and once in ten year even~ respectively.

  14. ?Aceite Vegetal Puro Como Combustible Diesel? (Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel? Spanish Version) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    Discusses the use of straight vegetable oil as a diesel fuel and the use of biodiesel as a transportation fuel.

  15. Using LiDAR and normalized difference vegetation index to remotely determine LAI and percent canopy cover at varying scales 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, Alicia Marie Rutledge

    2009-05-15

    The use of airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) as a direct method to evaluate forest canopy parameters is vital in addressing both forest management and ecological concerns. The overall goal of this study was to develop the use of airborne...

  16. The effects of fall and spring burning on water quality and vegetative cover in the Post Oak Savannah of Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garza, Nick Ernest

    1983-01-01

    assigned one of three treatments; unburned, fall burned and spring burned. Mean runoff tended to be greater from unburned plots than from burned plots although differences were seldom significant. Mean sedi- iv ment export (kg/ha) during the 18 month... study period was not signifi- cantly different between treatments, however, trends would suggest that spring burned plots lost lese soil than did fall burned or unburned plots. The data imply that greater loss of soil occurred during the dry season...

  17. int. j. remote sensing, 2000, vol. 21, no. 18, 35333538 Close-range remote sensing of aquatic macrophyte vegetation cover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debinski, Diane M.

    int. j. remote sensing, 2000, vol. 21, no. 18, 3533­3538 Close-range remote sensing of aquatic Applied Remote Sensing (KARS) Program, 2291 Irving Hill Road, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 location of sampling plots. While aerial photography and satellite remotely sensed imagery have been used

  18. Upscaling fluxes from tower to landscape: Overlaying flux footprints on high-resolution (IKONOS) images of vegetation cover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Qinghua

    Laboratory for Environmental Physics, University of Georgia, Griffin, GA 30223-1797, USA d Department

  19. Spatial Scaling of Land Cover Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Small, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Spatial networks of land cover are well-described by power law rank-size distributions. Continuous field proxies for human settlements, agriculture and forest cover have similar spatial scaling properties spanning 4 to 5 orders of magnitude. Progressive segmentation of these continuous fields yields spatial networks with rank-size distributions having slopes near -1 for a wide range of thresholds. We consider a general explanation for this scaling that does not require different processes for each type of land cover. The same conditions that give rise to scale-free networks in general can produce power law distributions of component sizes for bounded spatial networks confined to a plane or surface. Progressive segmentation of a continuous field naturally results in growth of the network while the increasing perimeters of the growing components result in preferential attachment to the larger components with the longer perimeters. Progressive segmentation of two types of random continuous field results in progr...

  20. Covered Product Category: Light Fixtures (Luminaires)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including luminaires, or light fixtures. The luminaires product category is very broad and covers a wide variety of lighting products. Both ENERGY STAR® and FEMP provide programmatic guidance for various types of luminaires. See table 2 for more information about which types of light fixtures are covered by which program (FEMP or ENERGY STAR). Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  1. Land Use and Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Daniel; Polsky, Colin; Bolstad, Paul V.; Brody, Samuel D.; Hulse, David; Kroh, Roger; Loveland, Thomas; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-05-01

    A contribution to the 3rd National Climate Assessment report, discussing the following key messages: 1. Choices about land-use and land-cover patterns have affected and will continue to affect how vulnerable or resilient human communities and ecosystems are to the effects of climate change. 2. Land-use and land-cover changes affect local, regional, and global climate processes. 3. Individuals, organizations, and governments have the capacity to make land-use decisions to adapt to the effects of climate change. 4. Choices about land use and land management provide a means of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels.

  2. Sandia Energy - Sandians on the Cover of Advanced Functional Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-Throughput AnalysisSinkhole OfficialsWork onandEnvironmentalon the Cover of

  3. On the cOver efimov states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    On the cOver efimov states Two trimers to scale Article p586; News & Views p533 Supersolid helium literature news & Views 533 Few-body physics: giant trimers true to scale Vitaly Efimov 534 Supersolid helium: Stiffer but flowing Sébastien Balibar 535 Lunar science: in the moon's wake David Gevaux 536 cell

  4. Simulation of Synchronous Machines This chapter covers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    1 Simulation of Synchronous Machines This chapter covers: (A) Sections 5.25.7: Determination of initial conditions (B) Section 5.8: Determination of machine parameters from manufacturers' data.3: Machine connected to an infinite bus through a line · Section 5.4: Machine connected

  5. 1CHANCELLOR'S REPORT 20112012 On the cover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Renewable Energy Fueled by a Cell1CHANCELLOR'S REPORT 2011­2012 #12;2 On the cover Examining the role that marine microbes play and Education (C-MORE) at the University of Hawai`i at Mnoa. The first of its kind to focus on microbes, C

  6. EXCEPTIONAL COVERS AND BIJECTIONS ON RATIONAL POINTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fried, Michael

    EXCEPTIONAL COVERS AND BIJECTIONS ON RATIONAL POINTS ROBERT M. GURALNICK, THOMAS J. TUCKER proved by Davenport and Lewis [DL], Mac- Cluer [Mac], Williams [Wi], Cohen [Co], and Fried [Fr, Fr3, FGS was partially supported by NSF grant DMS-0140578. 1 #12;2 ROBERT M. GURALNICK, THOMAS J. TUCKER, AND MICHAEL E

  7. EXCEPTIONAL COVERS AND BIJECTIONS ON RATIONAL POINTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zieve, Michael E.

    EXCEPTIONAL COVERS AND BIJECTIONS ON RATIONAL POINTS ROBERT M. GURALNICK, THOMAS J. TUCKER cases and weaker versions were previously proved by Davenport and Lewis [DL], Mac- Cluer [Mac], Williams was partially supported by NSF grant DMS-0140578. 1 #12;2 ROBERT M. GURALNICK, THOMAS J. TUCKER, AND MICHAEL E

  8. I. Cover Page Ubiquitous Smart Spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abowd, Gregory D.

    I. Cover Page Ubiquitous Smart Spaces Topic Area: Smart Spaces Gregory Abowd, Chris Atkeson, Irfan. Ubiquitous Smart Spaces II.1 Innovative Capability Envisioned The next revolutionary advance in smart spaces research is to create and experiment with ubiquitous smart spaces. Current research has created isolated

  9. Fast Algorithm for Partial Covers in Words

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lonardi, Stefano

    Fast Algorithm for Partial Covers in Words Tomasz Kociumaka1 , Solon P. Pissis2,3 , Jakub Bad Herrenalb, June 17, 2013 T. Kociumaka, S. Pissis, J. Radoszewski, W. Rytter, T. Wale Fast are aligned. a a a a a a a a a a a ab b b b T. Kociumaka, S. Pissis, J. Radoszewski, W. Rytter, T. Wale Fast

  10. ibm.com/redbooks Front cover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Westall, James M.

    ibm.com/redbooks Front cover IBM XIV Storage System: Architecture, Implementation, and Usage Organization IBM XIV Storage System: Architecture, Implementation, and Usage September 2009 SG24-7659-01 #12 with IBM Corp. Second Edition (September 2009) This edition applies to Version 10, Release 1, of the XIV

  11. ibm.com/redbooks Front cover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    ibm.com/redbooks Front cover IBM System Blue Gene Solution: Application Development Gary L. Mullen Organization IBM System Blue Gene Solution: Application Development June 2007 SG24-7179-04 #12;© Copyright Restricted Rights -- Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP Schedule Contract with IBM Corp

  12. Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including refrigerated beverage vending machines, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR® program. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  13. Corn Ethanol -April 2006 11 Cover Story

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Corn Ethanol - April 2006 11 Cover Story orn ethanol is the fuel du jour. It's domestic. It's not oil. Ethanol's going to help promote "energy independence." Magazines trumpet it as the motor vehicle Midwest fields, waiting to rot or be processed into ethanol. Interestingly, the National Corn Growers

  14. Covered Product Category: Commercial Gas Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including commercial gas water heaters, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR® program. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  15. Vegetation Description, Rare Plant Inventory, and Vegetation Monitoring for Craig Mountain, Idaho.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancuso, Michael; Moseley, Robert

    1994-12-01

    The Craig Mountain Wildlife Mitigation Area was purchased by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as partial mitigation for wildlife losses incurred with the inundation of Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork Clearwater River. Upon completion of the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) process, it is proposed that title to mitigation lands will be given to the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG). Craig Mountain is located at the northern end of the Hells Canyon Ecosystem. It encompasses the plateau and steep canyon slopes extending from the confluence of the Snake and Salmon rivers, northward to near Waha, south of Lewiston, Idaho. The forested summit of Craig Mountain is characterized by gently rolling terrain. The highlands dramatically break into the canyons of the Snake and Salmon rivers at approximately the 4,700 foot contour. The highly dissected canyons are dominated by grassland slopes containing a mosaic of shrubfield, riparian, and woodland habitats. During the 1993 and 1994 field seasons, wildlife, habitat/vegetation, timber, and other resources were systematically inventoried at Craig Mountain to provide Fish and Game managers with information needed to draft an ecologically-based management plan. The results of the habitat/vegetation portion of the inventory are contained in this report. The responsibilities for the Craig Mountain project included: (1) vegetation data collection, and vegetation classification, to help produce a GIS-generated Craig Mountain vegetation map, (2) to determine the distribution and abundance of rare plants populations and make recommendations concerning their management, and (3) to establish a vegetation monitoring program to evaluate the effects of Fish and Game management actions, and to assess progress towards meeting habitat mitigation goals.

  16. FEMP First Thursday Update Covers Strategies for Renewable Energy...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Update Covers Strategies for Renewable Energy Deployment FEMP First Thursday Update Covers Strategies for Renewable Energy Deployment December 7, 2015 - 5:06pm Addthis FEMP First...

  17. First-ever Hydropower Market Report Covers Hydropower Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    First-ever Hydropower Market Report Covers Hydropower Generation Infrastructure First-ever Hydropower Market Report Covers Hydropower Generation Infrastructure May 28, 2015 -...

  18. Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling in Snow-Covered Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grogan, Paul

    snow cover through shading, wind sheltering, and interception. Changes in snow cover associated and nitrogen cycling. Introduction Approximately 60% of the terrestrial earth surface experiences seasonal snow

  19. Microsoft Word - FOA cover sheet.doc | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Microsoft Word - FOA cover sheet.doc Recovery Act, Office of the Biomass Program,Funding Opportunity Announcements Special Notice Microsoft Word - FOA cover sheet.doc...

  20. Vegetable Adaptability in the Wichita Valley. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pickett, B. S. (Barzalli Stewart)

    1942-01-01

    2 Rlarch 12 Rlarch 12 3Ialrch 12 Rfarch 24 March 24 April 5 April 5 April 5 April 5 April 5 April 5 April 5 Reasonably safe date of planting* Beets Onions Chard Kale Kohl-rabi Mustard English peas Radish ,Spinach Turnip.... Table 2 contains information concerning the limiting temperature fac- tors of certain spring-planted vegetables in reference to harvest periods. Here again it should be remembered that all dates in Table 2, both for planting and harvest, are averages...

  1. Safe Handling of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Amanda

    2008-09-05

    paper towel. Also wash all utensils, countertops and cutting boards with hot, soapy water. Then sanitize them with a mixture of 1 teaspoon chlorine bleach in 1 quart of water. Do this before and after preparing food. It is especially important... to wash and sanitize cutting boards and utensils that have been in contact with raw meat before using them with fresh produce. Wash all whole fruits and vegetables before preparing them?even if the skin or rind will not be eaten. This prevents...

  2. Microsoft Word - 00_Cover_Vol_I.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    water quality, geology and soils, transportation, air quality, noise, climate change, fish, vegetation and wetlands, wildlife, power production and energy, aesthetic and visual...

  3. Process analysis and optimization of biodiesel production from vegetable oils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myint, Lay L.

    2009-05-15

    ???????????????????????? 12 2.3 Fatty Acid Methyl Ester???????????????????. 12 2.4 Comparison of Different Oil Prices in the United States??????... 15 2.5 Biodiesel Production Plant Capacities using Different Feedstocks??... 16 2.6 Molecular Structure of Soap...?????????????????.. 18 2.7 Emulsification of Bioidiesel by Soap??????????????. 18 2.8 Intermediate Steps in Biodiesel Transesterification????????... 21 3.1 Schematic of Proposed Process Design?????????????. 26 4.1 Process Synthesis?????????????????????... 27 4...

  4. High-latitude vegetation dynamics: 850 years of vegetation development on Mt Hekla, Iceland 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cutler, Nick

    2008-01-01

    on Mt Hekla in south-central Iceland. The chronosequence approach was used to infer 850 years of vegetation development from a suite of 14 lava flows (five of which had been disturbed by the deposition of volcanic tephra). The thesis is organised around...

  5. Reconstruction of Intensity From Covered Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barabash, Rozaliya; Watkins, Thomas R; Meisner, Roberta Ann; Burchell, Timothy D; Rosseel, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    The safe handling of activated samples requires containment and covering the sample to eliminate any potential for contamination. Subsequent characterization of the surface with x-rays ideally necessitates a thin film. While many films appear visually transparent, they are not necessarily x-ray transparent. Each film material has a unique beam attenuation and sometimes have amorphous peaks that can superimpose with those of the sample. To reconstruct the intensity of the underlying activated sample, the x-ray attenuation and signal due to the film needs to be removed from that of the sample. This requires the calculation of unique deconvolution parameters for the film. The development of a reconstruction procedure for a contained/covered sample is described.

  6. Toward a mechanistic modeling of nitrogen limitation on vegetation dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Chonggang [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Fisher, Rosie [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Wilson, Cathy [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Cai, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); McDowell, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen is a dominant regulator of vegetation dynamics, net primary production, and terrestrial carbon cycles; however, most ecosystem models use a rather simplistic relationship between leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity. Such an approach does not consider how patterns of nitrogen allocation may change with differences in light intensity, growing-season temperature and CO{sub 2} concentration. To account for this known variability in nitrogen-photosynthesis relationships, we develop a mechanistic nitrogen allocation model based on a trade-off of nitrogen allocated between growth and storage, and an optimization of nitrogen allocated among light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, and respiration. The developed model is able to predict the acclimation of photosynthetic capacity to changes in CO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, and radiation when evaluated against published data of V{sub c,max} (maximum carboxylation rate) and J{sub max} (maximum electron transport rate). A sensitivity analysis of the model for herbaceous plants, deciduous and evergreen trees implies that elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations lead to lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation but higher allocation to storage. Higher growing-season temperatures cause lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation, due to higher nitrogen requirements for light capture pigments and for storage. Lower levels of radiation have a much stronger effect on allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation for herbaceous plants than for trees, resulting from higher nitrogen requirements for light capture for herbaceous plants. As far as we know, this is the first model of complete nitrogen allocation that simultaneously considers nitrogen allocation to light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, respiration and storage, and the responses of each to altered environmental conditions. We expect this model could potentially improve our confidence in simulations of carbon-nitrogen interactions and the vegetation feedbacks to climate in Earth system models.

  7. Influence of the Eurasian snow cover on the Indian summer monsoon variability in observed climatologies and CMIP3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influence of the Eurasian snow cover on the Indian summer monsoon variability in observed of the winter/spring Eurasian snow cover on the subsequent Indian summer precipitation using sev- eral statistical tools including a maximum covariance analysis. The snow­monsoon relationship is explored using

  8. Influence of the Eurasian snow cover on the Indian summer monsoon variability in observed climatologies and CMIP3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influence of the Eurasian snow cover on the Indian summer monsoon variability in observed the possible influence of the winter/spring Eurasian snow cover on the subsequent Indian summer precipitation using sev- eral statistical tools including a maximum covariance analysis. The snow­monsoon relationship

  9. Local Incentive-Based Policy for Vegetable-Agroforestry: alocally...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Local Incentive-Based Policy for Vegetable-Agroforestry: a locally-appropriate adaptation and mitigation action (LAAMA) to climate change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary...

  10. Transmission Vegetation Management NERC Standard FAC-003-2 Technical...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Transmission Vegetation Management NERC Standard FAC-003-2 Technical Reference Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance -...

  11. Influence of vegetation and seasonal forcing on carbon dioxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ecosystem atmosphere CO2 exchange. These sites were exposed to similar temperatureprecipitation regimes and spanned a range of vegetation types typical of the region (northern...

  12. Earthshine observation of vegetation and implication for life detection on other planets - A review of 2001 - 2006 works

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luc Arnold

    2007-06-26

    The detection of exolife is one of the goals of very ambitious future space missions that aim to take direct images of Earth-like planets. While associations of simple molecules present in the planet's atmosphere ($O_2$, $O_3$, $CO_2$ etc.) have been identified as possible global biomarkers, we review here the detectability of a signature of life from the planet's surface, i.e. the green vegetation. The vegetation reflectance has indeed a specific spectrum, with a sharp edge around 700 nm, known as the "Vegetation Red Edge" (VRE). Moreover vegetation covers a large surface of emerged lands, from tropical evergreen forest to shrub tundra. Thus considering it as a potential global biomarker is relevant. Earthshine allows to observe the Earth as a distant planet, i.e. without spatial resolution. Since 2001, Earthshine observations have been used by several authors to test and quantify the detectability of the VRE in the Earth spectrum. The egetation spectral signature is detected as a small 'positive shift' of a few percents above the continuum, starting at 700 nm. This signature appears in most spectra, and its strength is correlated with the Earth's phase (visible land versus visible ocean). The observations show that detecting the VRE on Earth requires a photometric relative accuracy of 1% or better. Detecting something equivalent on an Earth-like planet will therefore remain challenging, moreover considering the possibility of mineral artifacts and the question of 'red edge' universality in the Universe.

  13. Vegetable Oil from Leaves and Stems: Vegetative Production of Oil in a C4 Crop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: Arcadia Biosciences, in collaboration with the University of California-Davis, is developing plants that produce vegetable oil in their leaves and stems. Ordinarily, these oils are produced in seeds, but Arcadia Biosciences is turning parts of the plant that are not usually harvested into a source of concentrated energy. Vegetable oil is a concentrated source of energy that plants naturally produce and is easily separated after harvest. Arcadia Biosciences will isolate traits that control oil production in seeds and transfer them into leaves and stems so that all parts of the plants are oil-rich at harvest time. After demonstrating these traits in a fast-growing model plant, Arcadia Biosciences will incorporate them into a variety of dedicated biofuel crops that can be grown on land not typically suited for food production

  14. Influence of C4 vegetation on 13 CO2 discrimination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Influence of C4 vegetation on 13 CO2 discrimination and isoforcing in the upper Midwest, United vegetation on the 13 CO2 photosynthetic discrimination and atmospheric isotopic forcing in the upper Midwest discrimination within this heterogeneous landscape? (3) To what extent does land use change (i.e., a change in C4

  15. 9 Towards Adaptive Management of Native Vegetation in Regional Landscapes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burgman, Mark

    in the approach to defining management objectives and specifying assumptions behind vegetation change models9 Towards Adaptive Management of Native Vegetation in Regional Landscapes David H Duncan1 of the `adaptive management' paradigm to natural resource man- agement, using regional management of native

  16. RESEARCH ARTICLE Topography-mediated controls on local vegetation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teskey, Robert O.

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Topography-mediated controls on local vegetation phenology estimated from MODIS patterns of phenology in humid temperate forest as a function of topography. Moderate-resolution imaging spectro- radiometer (MODIS) vegetation indices are used to derive local patterns of topography

  17. Translational genomics of Vegetable Crops Las Vegas, NV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douches, David S.

    Translational genomics of Vegetable Crops Las Vegas, NV July 21, 2005 David Francis and Allen Van Deynze At the recent ASHS meetings in Las Vegas, a workshop "Translational Genomics of Vegetable Crops interventions" (Minna and Gazdar, 1996). In applied plant science, "translational genomics" implies

  18. UAB's four campus buildings featuring green vegetative roofs have performed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bedwell, David M.

    UAB's four campus buildings featuring green vegetative roofs have performed well through the years vegetative roof on the second floor of the Hill University Center. The roof is the first pilot-scale green Maintenance, Campus Services & Grounds, and Energy Management and student groups including Science

  19. UNDERSTORY LIGHT AND VEGETATION IN TWO FLOODPLAIN FORESTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UNDERSTORY LIGHT AND VEGETATION IN TWO FLOODPLAIN FORESTS IN COASTAL BRITISH COLUMBIA by Ian J of Resource Management Project No.: 508 Title of Thesis: Understory light and vegetation in two floodplain characteristics on a systematic grid and generated maps of understory light transmission. Both sites have 92% area

  20. Study on the reduction of atmospheric mercury emissions from mine waste enriched soils through native grass cover in the Mt. Amiata region of Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fantozzi, L., E-mail: l.fantozzi@iia.cnr.it [CNR-Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research, c/o: UNICAL-Polifunzionale, 87036 Rende (Italy); Ferrara, R., E-mail: romano.ferrara@pi.ibf.cnr.it [CNR-Institute of Biophysics, San Cataldo Research Area, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Dini, F., E-mail: fdiniprotisti@gmail.com [University of Pisa, Department of Biology, Via A. Volta 4, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Tamburello, L., E-mail: ltamburello@biologia.unipi.it [University of Pisa, Department of Biology, Via Derna 1, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F. [CNR-Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research, c/o: UNICAL-Polifunzionale, 87036 Rende (Italy)] [CNR-Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research, c/o: UNICAL-Polifunzionale, 87036 Rende (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine-waste enriched soils were measured in order to compare the mercury fluxes of bare soils with those from other soils covered by native grasses. Our research was conducted near Mt. Amiata in central Italy, an area that was one of the largest and most productive mining centers in Europe up into the 1980s. To determine in situ mercury emissions, we used a Plexiglas flux chamber connected to a portable mercury analyzer (Lumex RA-915+). This allowed us to detect, in real time, the mercury vapor in the air, and to correlate this with the meteorological parameters that we examined (solar radiation, soil temperature, and humidity). The highest mercury flux values (8000 ng m{sup ?2} h{sup ?1}) were observed on bare soils during the hours of maximum insulation, while lower values (250 ng m{sup ?2} h{sup ?1}) were observed on soils covered by native grasses. Our results indicate that two main environmental variables affect mercury emission: solar radiation intensity and soil temperature. The presence of native vegetation, which can shield soil surfaces from incident light, reduced mercury emissions, a result that we attribute to a drop in the efficiency of mercury photoreduction processes rather than to decreases in soil temperature. This finding is consistent with decreases in mercury flux values down to 3500 ng m{sup ?2} h{sup ?1}, which occurred under cloudy conditions despite high soil temperatures. Moreover, when the soil temperature was 28 °C and the vegetation was removed from the experimental site, mercury emissions increased almost four-fold. This increase occurred almost immediately after the grasses were cut, and was approximately eight-fold after 20 h. Thus, this study demonstrates that enhancing wild vegetation cover could be an inexpensive and effective approach in fostering a natural, self-renewing reduction of mercury emissions from mercury-contaminated soils. -- Highlights: ? Mercury air/surface exchange from grass covered soil is different from bare soil. ? Light enhances mercury emissions and is the main parameter driving the process. ? The presence of wild vegetation covering the soil reduces mercury emission. ? Vegetative covers could be a solution to reduce atmospheric mercury pollution.

  1. CHANGES IN RIPARIAN VEGETATION IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES: Floods and Riparian Vegetation on the San Juan River, Southeastern Utah

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CHANGES IN RIPARIAN VEGETATION IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES: Floods and Riparian Vegetation (Surveyed Water Surface Elevation) 113 m3/s (Calculated Water Surface Elevation) 4,200 m3 /s (1911 Flood) 1,980 m3 /s (Peak Flood of Gaging Record) 900 m3/s 1911 Slackwater Deposits Driftwood Other Historic

  2. Coupled Environmental Processes in the Mojave Desert and Implications for ET Covers as Stable Landforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Shafer; M. Y oung; S. Zitzer; E. McDonald; T. Caldwell

    2006-01-18

    Monolayer evapotranspiration (ET) covers are the baseline method for closure of disposal sites for low-level radioactive waste (LLW), mixed LLW, and transuranic (TRU) waste at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The regulatory timeline is typically 1,000 years for LLW and 10,000 years for TRU waste. Covers for such waste have different technical considerations than those with shorter timelines because they are subject to environmental change for longer periods of time, and because the environmental processes are often coupled. To evaluate these changes, four analog sites (approximately 30, 1,000 to 2,000, 7,000 to 12,500, and 125,000 years in age) on the NTS were analyzed to address the early post-institutional control period (the youngest site), the 1,000-year compliance period for disposal of LLW, and the 10,000-year period for TRU waste. Tests included soil texture, structure, and morphology; surface soil infiltration and hydraulic conductivity; vegetation and faunal surveys; and literature reviews. Separate measurements were made in plant undercanopy and intercanopy areas. The results showed a progressive increase in silt and clay content of surface soils with age. Changes in soil texture and structure led to a fivefold decline in saturated hydraulic conductivity in intercanopy areas, but no change in undercanopies, which were subject to bioturbation. These changes may have been responsible for the reduction in total plant cover, most dramatically in intercanopy areas, primarily because more precipitation either runs off the site or is held nearer to the surface where plant roots are less common. The results suggest that covers may evolve over longer timeframes to stable landforms that minimize the need for active maintenance.

  3. Vegetation water content mapping using Landsat data derived normalized difference water index for corn and soybeans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt Jr., E. Raymond

    Vegetation water content mapping using Landsat data derived normalized difference water index Information about vegetation water content (VWC) has widespread utility in agriculture, forestry. D 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Vegetation water content; Landsat; NDWI 1

  4. Laboratory experiments and numerical modeling of wave attenuation through artificial vegetation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Augustin, Lauren Nicole

    2009-05-15

    It is commonly known that coastal vegetation dissipates energy and aids in shoreline protection by damping incoming waves and depositing sediment in vegetated regions. However, this critical role of vegetation to dampen wave forces is not fully...

  5. Cover Heated, Open Vessels, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip Sheet...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9 Cover Heated, Open Vessels Open vessels that contain heated liquids often have high heat loss due to surface evaporation. Both energy and liquid losses are reduced by covering...

  6. Forcing of the Arctic Oscillation by Eurasian Snow Cover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Robert J; Zender, Charles S

    2011-01-01

    Springtime warming and reduced snow cover from carbonaceousrole of eastern Siberian snow and soil moisture anomalies inL. Gimeno, 2003: The role of snow cover fluctu- ations in

  7. Cover Image: The cover shows the crystal structure of the alanate NaAlH4,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) - p13 (top): The estimated power output from 10% efficient solar cells covering 1.7% of the land area, Argonne National Laboratory Michelle Buchanan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Panel Chairs: Production Tom efficiency of improved gasoline vehicles, this reduction in petroleum use would require the annual production

  8. Finding GIS data: Land cover and land use in Kansas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houser, Rhonda

    2006-12-08

    classes with no key to indicate class descriptions. The student understands how human actions modify the physical environment. The student helps create both a hard copy and digital pie chart that shows relative land cover class areas. The student... helps create a digital pie chart that shows relative land cover class areas. The student helps create a pie chart by hand that shows relative land cover class areas. The student creates e a pie chart by hand that shows relative land cover class...

  9. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  10. Gulf of Mexico Regional Land Cover Change Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gulf of Mexico Regional Land Cover Change Report 1996­2010 #12;About This Report The Gulf of Mexico at www.coast.noaa.gov. #12;GULF OF MEXICO REGIONAL LAND COVER CHANGE REPORT, 1996­2010 THE GULF OF MEXICO REGION covers over 200,400 square miles and extends from Texas'border with Mexico in the west to the tip

  11. Integrated rotation systems for soilborne disease, weed and fertility management in strawberry/vegetable production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    dahliae infection rate of strawberry plants at the organicsoilborne diseases in strawberry using vegetable rotations.Fertility Management in Strawberry/Vegetable Production M.

  12. Plant community composition and vegetation height, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sloan, Victoria; Norby, Richard; Siegrist, Julia; Iversen, Colleen; Brooks, Jonathan; Liebig, Jennifer; Wood, Sarah

    2014-04-25

    This dataset contains i) the results of field surveys of plant community composition and vegetation height made between 17th and 29th July 2012 in 48, 1 x 1 m plots located in areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska and ii) results of a mapping exercise undertaken in August 2013 using two perpendicular transects across each polygon containing vegetation plots to determine the boundaries of vegetation communities described in 2012.

  13. Plant community composition and vegetation height, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sloan, Victoria; Norby, Richard; Siegrist, Julia; Iversen, Colleen; Brooks, Jonathan; Liebig, Jennifer; Wood, Sarah

    This dataset contains i) the results of field surveys of plant community composition and vegetation height made between 17th and 29th July 2012 in 48, 1 x 1 m plots located in areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska and ii) results of a mapping exercise undertaken in August 2013 using two perpendicular transects across each polygon containing vegetation plots to determine the boundaries of vegetation communities described in 2012.

  14. Optimization of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Closure Cover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shott, Greg; Yucel, Vefa

    2009-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Manual DOE M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual,” requires that performance assessments demonstrate that releases of radionuclides to the environment are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Quantitative cost benefit analysis of radiation protection options is one component of the ALARA process. This report summarizes a quantitative cost benefit analysis of closure cover thickness for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada Test Site. The optimum cover thickness that maintains doses ALARA is shown to be the thickness with the minimum total closure cost. Total closure cost is the sum of cover construction cost and the health detriment cost. Cover construction cost is estimated based on detailed cost estimates for closure of the 92-acre Low-Level Waste Management Unit (LLWMU). The health detriment cost is calculated as the product of collective dose and a constant monetary value of health detriment in units of dollars per unit collective dose. Collective dose is the sum of all individual doses in an exposed population and has units of person-sievert (Sv). Five discrete cover thickness options ranging from 2.5 to 4.5 meters (m) (8.2 to 15 feet [ft]) are evaluated. The optimization was subject to the constraints that (1) options must meet all applicable regulatory requirements and that (2) individual doses be a small fraction of background radiation dose. Total closure cost is found to be a monotonically increasing function of cover thickness for the 92-ac LLWMU, the Northern Expansion Area, and the entire Area 5 RWMS. The cover construction cost is orders of magnitude greater than the health detriment cost. Two-thousand Latin hypercube sampling realizations of the relationship between total closure cost and cover thickness are generated. In every realization, the optimum cover thickness is 2.5 m (8.2 ft) for the 92-ac Low-Level Waste Management Unit, the Northern Expansion Area, and the entire Area 5 RWMS. The conclusions of the optimization are found to be insensitive to all input parameters, the monetary value of the health detriment over a range of values from $200,000 to $15,000,000 per person-Sv, and the period of integration of collective dose. A 2.5 m (8.2 ft) closure cover at the Area 5 RWMS can meet all applicable regulatory requirements and maintain radionuclide releases ALARA.

  15. Alternative Landfill Cover and Monitoring Systems for Landfills in Arid Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. E. Rawlinson

    2002-09-01

    In December 2000, a performance monitoring facility was constructed adjacent to the mixed waste disposal unit U-3ax/bl at the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site. This facility consists of eight drainage lysimeters measuring 10 feet in diameter, 8 feet deep, and backfilled with native soil. The lysimeters have three different surface treatments: two were left bare, two were revegetated with native species, and two were allowed to revegetate with invader species (two are reserved for future studies). The lysimeters are instrumented with an array of soil water content and soil water potential sensors and have sealed bottoms so that any drainage can be measured. All sensors are working properly and indicate that the bare lysimeters are the wettest, as expected. The vegetated lysimeters, both seeded and those allowed to revegetate with invader species, are significantly drier than the bare cover treatments. No drainage has occurred in any of the lysimeters. The Accelerated Site Technology Deployment program under the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science and Technology provided the funding for this project with the objective of reducing the uncertainty associated with the performance of monolayer-evapotranspiration waste covers in arid regions such as the one deployed at U-3ax/bl.

  16. Sediment patterns near a model patch of reedy emergent vegetation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Follett, Elizabeth M.

    This laboratory study describes the sediment patterns formed in a sand bed around circular patches of rigid vertical cylinders, representing a patch of reedy emergent vegetation. The patch diameter was much smaller than ...

  17. EIS-0097: Bonneville Power Administration Transmission Facilities Vegetation Management Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bonneville Power Administration prepared this statement to assess the potential environmental and socioeconomic implications of various alternatives associated with implementing a vegetation management program.

  18. Investigation of Soil Moisture - Vegetation Interactions in Oklahoma 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Trenton W.

    2013-03-06

    and-atmosphere interactions are an important component of climate, especially in semi-arid regions such as the Southern Great Plains. Interactions between soil moisture and vegetation modulate land-atmosphere coupling and thus represent a crucial...

  19. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Salt Marsh Vegetation across Scales 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Daehyun

    2010-10-12

    of submergence and, hence, waterlogging of marsh soils and plants, which has retarded ecological succession. At the mid-scale, spatial patterns of vegetation and environmental factors were examined across tidal creeks. Sites closer to tidal creeks, compared...

  20. Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Long Valley Caldera, Eastern California, Usa Abstract A survey of diffuse CO2 efflux, soil temperature and soil-gas chemistry over areas of localized vegetation-kill on and...

  1. Status of Baseline Sampling for Elements in Soil and Vegetation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Status of Baseline Sampling for Elements in Soil and Vegetation at Four Kgra's in the Imperial Valley, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Long Valley Caldera, Eastern California, USA Abstract A survey of diffuse CO2 efflux, soil temperature and soil-gas chemistry over areas of localized vegetation-kill on and...

  3. Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, T

    2006-01-01

    Pinus ponderosa, Eucalyptus saligna, Quercus gambelli,chem-phys.org/acp/6/81/ Eucalyptus J. P. Greenberg et al. :from vegetation pyrolysis Eucalyptus wood µ gC emission/gC/

  4. Drag, turbulence, and diffusion in flow through emergent vegetation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nepf, Heidi

    Aquatic plants convert mean kinetic energy into turbulent kinetic energy at the scale of the plant stems and branches. This energy transfer, linked to wake generation, affects vegetative drag and turbulence intensity. ...

  5. Soil and Vegetation Management: Keys to Water Conservation on Rangeland 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuster, Joseph L.

    2001-01-11

    The amount of water that soaks into the soil largely determines plant productivity. We can manage and conserve water where and when it falls, and by controlling the kind of vegetation we can make the fullest use of rain ...

  6. Managing Insect and Mite Pests in Vegetable Gardens 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, John A.

    2008-02-19

    are Green Light? Tomato & Vegetable Spray Read-to-Use (neem oil), Green Light? Neem Concentrate (neem oil), Green Light? Neem II Ready-to-Use (neem oil and pyrethrins), Green Light? Bioganic? series, Bonide? Bio-Neem, and some insecticidal soaps... insect pests. Vegetable Registered Pesticides (PHI) Common Insect Pests Pesticides Registered by Pest asparagus azadirachtin (NA) carbaryl (1) insecticidal soap (0) malathion (1) permethrin (1-3) petroleum oil (0) pyrethrins (0) rotenone (1) aphids...

  7. International Bibliography of Vegetation Maps 2nd Edition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ku?chler, A. W. (August William)

    1980-01-01

    . Parana-Uruguay c. Patagonia d. Mountain e. Marsh IV. Bushlands 8. a. Humid mountains b. Arid mountains c. Intermontanc valley d. Patagonia e. Inner coastal desert V. Deserts 9. a. Peruvian-Chilean b. Lomas c. Venezuelan sand-dunes d. Salt.... Bunch grasses, annual grasses and herbs, and shrubs 1. Tola heath puna 2. Paramo grassland: grasses 3. Tundra: low shrubs, mosses VI. Desert A. Coastal desert of Peru and Chile B. Fog vegetation of Peru Coast (lomas vegetation). Predominantly...

  8. Reformulation of the Covering and Quantizer Problems as Ground States of Interacting Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torquato, S

    2010-01-01

    We reformulate the covering and quantizer problems as the determination of the ground states of interacting particles in $\\mathbb{R}^d$ that generally involve single-body, two-body, three-body, and higher-body interactions. This is done by linking the covering and quantizer problems to certain optimization problems involving the "void" nearest-neighbor functions that arise in the theory of random media and statistical mechanics. These reformulations, which again exemplifies the deep interplay between geometry and physics, allow one now to employ theoretical and numerical optimization techniques to analyze and solve these energy minimization problems. The covering and quantizer problems have relevance in numerous applications, including wireless communication network layouts, the search of high-dimensional data parameter spaces, stereotactic radiation therapy, data compression, digital communications, meshing of space for numerical analysis, and coding and cryptography, among other examples. The connections be...

  9. Reformulation of the Covering and Quantizer Problems as Ground States of Interacting Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Torquato

    2010-11-19

    We reformulate the covering and quantizer problems as the determination of the ground states of interacting particles in $\\mathbb{R}^d$ that generally involve single-body, two-body, three-body, and higher-body interactions. This is done by linking the covering and quantizer problems to certain optimization problems involving the "void" nearest-neighbor functions that arise in the theory of random media and statistical mechanics. These reformulations, which again exemplifies the deep interplay between geometry and physics, allow one now to employ theoretical and numerical optimization techniques to analyze and solve these energy minimization problems. The covering and quantizer problems have relevance in numerous applications, including wireless communication network layouts, the search of high-dimensional data parameter spaces, stereotactic radiation therapy, data compression, digital communications, meshing of space for numerical analysis, and coding and cryptography, among other examples. The connections between the covering and quantizer problems and the sphere-packing and number-variance problems are discussed. We also show that disordered saturated sphere packings provide relatively thin (economical) coverings and may yield thinner coverings than the best known lattice coverings in sufficiently large dimensions. In the case of the quantizer problem, we derive improved upper bounds on the quantizer error using sphere-packing solutions, which are generally substantially sharper than an existing upper bound in low to moderately large dimensions. We also demonstrate that disordered saturated sphere packings yield relatively good quantizers. Finally, we remark on possible applications of our results for the detection of gravitational waves.

  10. -Environmental variation, vegetation distribution, carbon dynamics, and water/energy exchange -301 Journal of Vegetation Science 13: 301-314, 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGuire, A. David

    - Environmental variation, vegetation distribution, carbon dynamics, and water/energy exchange environmental variables, vegetation distribution, carbon dynamics, and water and energy exchange distribution, carbon stocks and turnover, and water and energy exchange are related to environmental variation

  11. Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Electric Chillers | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Chillers Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Electric Chillers The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency...

  12. A Centrifuge Modeling Procedure for Landfill Cover Subsidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sterling, Harry J; Ronayne, Michael C

    1984-01-01

    J,, Evaluation of Trench Subsidence and Stabilization attor Landfill Cower Subsidence by Harr y J. Sterling 1 and02 ABSTRACT Trench cover subsidence has been a common and

  13. FY 2009 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - Cover...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contents FY 2009 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - Cover and Contents The primary Lightweight Materials activity goal is to validate a cost-effective weight reduction...

  14. Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Gas Storage Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for gas storage...

  15. Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled Ice Machines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for air-cooled ice machines, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

  16. "List of Covered Electric Utilities" under the Public Utility...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    6 Revised "List of Covered Electric Utilities" under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) - 2006 Revised Under Title I of the Public Utility Regulatory...

  17. Microsoft Word - DOE_Staffing_Study_Cover.doc | Department of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Word - DOEStaffingStudyCover.doc More Documents & Publications 2010 DOE Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan - Report to the White House Council on Environmental...

  18. Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and Federal...

  19. Applicability of the “Gallet equation” to the vegetation clearances of NERC Reliability Standard FAC-003-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkham, Harold

    2012-03-31

    NERC has proposed a standard to use to specify clearances between vegetation and power lines. The purpose of the rule is to reduce the probability of flashover to a calculably low level. This report was commissioned by FERC’s Office of Electrical Reliability. The scope of the study was analysis of the mathematics and documentation of the technical justification behind the application of the Gallet equation and the assumptions used in the technical reference paper

  20. Landfill cover revegetation using organic amendments and cobble mulch in the arid southwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AGUILAR,RICHARD; DWYER,STEPHEN F.; REAVIS,BRUCE A.; NEWMAN,GRETCHEN CARR; LOFTIN,SAMUEL R.

    2000-02-01

    Cobble mulch and composted biosolids, greenwaste, and dairy manure were added to arid soil in an attempt to improve plant establishment and production, minimize erosion, increase evapotranspiration, and reduce leaching. Twenty-four plots (10 x 10 m) were established in a completely randomized block design (8 treatments, 3 plots per treatment). Treatments included (1) non-irrigated control, (2) irrigated control, (3) non-irrigated greenwaste compost (2.5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (4) irrigated greenwaste compost (5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (5) non-irrigated biosolids compost (2.5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (6) irrigated biosolids compost (5 yd{sup 3} per plot), (7) cobble-mulch, and (8) non-irrigated dairy manure compost (2.5 yd{sup 3} per plot). Soil samples were collected from each plot for laboratory analyses to assess organic matter contents, macro-nutrient levels and trace metal contents, and nitrogen mineralization potential. All plots were seeded similarly with approximately equal portions of cool and warm season native grasses. The organic composts (greenwaste, biosolids, dairy manure) added to the soils substantially increased soil organic matter and plant nutrients including total nitrogen and phosphorus. However, the results of a laboratory study of the soils' nitrogen mineralization potential after the application of the various composts showed that the soil nitrogen-supplying capability decreased to non-amended soil levels by the start of the second growing season. Thus, from the standpoint of nitrogen fertilizer value, the benefits of the organic compost amendments appear to have been relatively short-lived. The addition of biosolids compost, however, did not produce significant changes in the soils' copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations and thus did not induce adverse environmental conditions due to excessive heavy metal concentrations. Supplemental irrigation water during the first and second growing seasons did not appear to increase plant biomass production in the irrigated control plots over that produced in the non-irrigated control plots. This surprising result was probably due to the cumulative effects of other factors that influenced the initial establishment and production of plants in the plots (e.g., plant species competition, seed germination delay times, differences in nutrient release and availability). Variation within individual plots, and among the three replicate plots associated with each treatment, rendered many of the recorded differences in vegetation establishment and production statistically insignificant. However, after two complete growing seasons the highest total plant foliar cover and the greatest biomass production and plant species diversity occurred in the cobble-mulched plots. These results suggest that cobble-mulch may be the desired amendment in re-vegetated arid landfill covers if the principal objectives are to quickly establish vegetation cover, stabilize the site from erosion, and increase water usage by plants, thereby reducing the potential for leaching and contaminant movement from the landfill's waste-bearing zone.

  1. ON THE FRONT COVER Kristen Barnes | Fifth year

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    Moul | Third year Sheridan Fuller | Third year Harry Whelchel | Fourth year ON THE BACK COVER Lukef a c t b o ok2012 #12;ON THE FRONT COVER Kristen Barnes | Fifth year Darren Daniels | First year William R. Richardson | Third year Alyson Richardson | Third year Chris Bergin | First year Shakye Jones

  2. HIDDEN SYMMETRIES OF CYCLIC BRANCHED COVERINGS OF 2-BRIDGE KNOTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HIDDEN SYMMETRIES OF CYCLIC BRANCHED COVERINGS OF 2-BRIDGE KNOTS MARCO RENI AND ANDREI VESNIN hyperbolic 3-manifolds Mn(K), which are n- fold cyclic branched coverings of 2-bridge knots K. We show the symmetry groups of knots and links (see [BZ], [Ka]). Particularly, the class of 2-bridge knots

  3. Novel Bioplastics and biocomposites from Vegetable Oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillip H. Henna

    2008-08-18

    Polymeric materials have been prevalent in our everyday lives for quite a long time. Most of today's polymeric materials are derived from nonrenewable petroleum-based feedstocks. Instabilities in the regions where petroleum is drilled, along with an increased demand in petroleum, have driven the price of crude oil to record high prices. This, in effect, increases the price of petroleum-based polymeric materials, which has caused a heightened awareness of renewable alternatives for polymeric feedstocks. Cellulose, starch, proteins and natural oils have all been examined as possible polymeric feedstocks. Natural oils are commercially available on a large scale and are relatively cheap. It is projected that the U.S. alone will produce 21 billion pounds of soybean oil in the period 2008/2009. Natural oils also have the advantages of inherent biodegradability, low toxicity, high purity and ready availability. Most natural oils possess a triglyceride structure as shown in Figure 1. Most natural oils have a unique distribution of fatty acid side chains, along with varying degrees of unsaturation per triglyceride. Common fatty acid side chains in naturally occurring oils are palmitic acid (C16:0), a 16 carbon fatty acid with no unsaturation; stearic acid (C18:0), an 18 carbon fatty acid with no unsaturation; oleic acid (C18:1), an 18 carbon fatty acid with one double bond; linoleic acid (C18:2), an 18 carbon fatty acid with two double bonds; and linolenic acid (C18:3), an 18 carbon fatty acid with three double bonds. Of course, there are other fatty acids with varying degrees of unsaturation, but their abundance is usually minimal. All of the unsaturated fatty acids mentioned have naturally occurring cis double bonds, which is common for most unsaturated fatty acids. In addition, the afore mentioned fatty acids have the first double bond at the position of carbon 9 (C9), followed by carbon 12 (C12), if there are two degrees of unsaturation, then at carbon 15 (C15), if there are three degrees of unsaturation. In addition, the double bonds are not in conjugation. Table 1 gives the fatty acid make-up of linseed oil. It can be seen that linseed oil has an average of 6.0 double bonds per triglyceride. Its fatty acid content consists of 5.4% palmitic acid (C16:0), 3.5% stearic acid (C18:0), 19% oleic acid (C18:1), 24 % linoleic acid (C18:2) and 47% linolenic (C18:3). Table 1 also gives the fatty acid composition and varying degrees of unsaturation for various other naturally-occurring natural vegetable oils. The regions of unsaturation in natural oils allow for interesting polymer chemistry to take place. Some of this interesting polymer science, however, involves chemical modification of the regions of unsaturation. Acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is prepared by epoxidation of the double bonds, followed by ring opening with acrylic acid. The resulting oil has both acrylate groups and hydroxyl groups. Wool and colleagues have further reacted the hydroxyl groups within the oil with maleic anhydride to produce maleated acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (MAESO). The MAESO has been copolymerized with styrene free radically to produce promising thermosetting sheet molding resins. Petrovi? and co-workers have directly ring opened the epoxidized oil to produce polyols that produce promising polyurethanes through condensation polymerization with diisocyanates. Our group's work initially focused on direct cationic copolymerization of the double bonds or conjugated double bonds of natural oils with monomers, such as styrene and divinylbenzene, to produce promising thermosetting resins. The only modification of the oils that was carried out in these studies was conjugation of the double bonds to enhance the reactivity of the oil. This work has been expanded recently with the incorporation of glass fiber to produce promising composites. We have also explored thermal polymerization techniques to make novel thermosets. This dissertation is divided into four chapters. The first chapter discusses the synthesis and characterization of biobased

  4. Vegetable oils: liquid coolants for solar heating and cooling applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ingley, H A

    1980-02-01

    It has been proposed that vegetable oils, renewable byproducts of agriculture processes, be investigated for possible use as liquid coolants. The major thrust of the project was to investigate several thermophysical properties of the four vegetable oils selected. Vapor pressures, specific heat, viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity were determined over a range of temperatures for corn, soybean, peanut, and cottonseed oil. ASTM standard methods were used for these determinations. In addition, chemical analyses were performed on samples of each oil. The samples were collected before and after each experiment so that any changes in composition could be noted. The tests included iodine number, fatty acid, and moisture content determination. (MHR)

  5. Design and Installation of a Disposal Cell Cover Field Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, C.H. [University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin; Waugh, W.J. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, Colorado; Albright, W.H. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada; Smith, G.M. [Geo-Smith Engineering, Grand Junction, Colorado; Bush, R.P. [U.S. Department of Energy, Grand Junction, Colorado

    2011-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Legacy Management (LM) initiated a cover assessment project in September 2007 to evaluate an inexpensive approach to enhancing the hydrological performance of final covers for disposal cells. The objective is to accelerate and enhance natural processes that are transforming existing conventional covers, which rely on low-conductivity earthen barriers, into water balance covers, that store water in soil and release it as soil evaporation and plant transpiration. A low conductivity cover could be modified by deliberately blending the upper layers of the cover profile and planting native shrubs. A test facility was constructed at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Disposal Site to evaluate the proposed methodology. The test cover was constructed in two identical sections, each including a large drainage lysimeter. The test cover was constructed with the same design and using the same materials as the existing disposal cell in order to allow for a direct comparison of performance. One test section will be renovated using the proposed method; the other is a control. LM is using the lysimeters to evaluate the effectiveness of the renovation treatment by monitoring hydrologic conditions within the cover profile as well as all water entering and leaving the system. This paper describes the historical experience of final covers employing earthen barrier layers, the design and operation of the lysimeter test facility, testing conducted to characterize the as-built engineering and edaphic properties of the lysimeter soils, the calibration of instruments installed at the test facility, and monitoring data collected since the lysimeters were constructed.

  6. PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN REMOTE SENSING OF VEGETATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank, Thomas D.

    make food from light energy, carbon dioxide and water in a series of chemical reactions. Some energy is then used to join hydrogen and carbon dioxide together to form a new molecule of sugarPHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN REMOTE SENSING OF VEGETATION ER = EI - (EA + ET) #12;What

  7. TECHNICAL POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE FOR THE FRUIT AND VEGETABLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;TECHNICAL POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE FOR THE FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PROCESSING INDUSTRY Pollution Abatement North Vancouver, B.C. Prepared by: PBK Engineering Ltd. Vancouver, B.C. September 1996 Plan through its Fraser Pollution Abatement Office. Environment Canada is not responsible

  8. Carbonaceous aerosol particles from common vegetation in the Grand Canyon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallock, K.A.; Mazurek, M.A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Cass, G.R. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Engineering Science)

    1992-05-01

    The problem of visibility reduction in the Grand Canyon due to fine organic aerosol particles in the atmosphere has become an area of increased environmental concern. Aerosol particles can be derived from many emission sources. In this report, we focus on identifying organic aerosols derived from common vegetation in the Grand Canyon. These aerosols are expected to be significant contributors to the total atmospheric organic aerosol content. Aerosol samples from living vegetation were collected by resuspension of surface wax and resin components liberated from the leaves of vegetation common to areas of the Grand Canyon. The samples were analyzed using high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Probable identification of compounds was made by comparison of sample spectra with National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) mass spectral references and positive identification of compounds was made when possible by comparison with authentic standards as well as NIST references. Using these references, we have been able to positively identify the presence of n-alkane and n-alkanoic acid homolog series in the surface waxes of the vegetation sampled. Several monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes were identified also as possible biogenic aerosols which may contribute to the total organic aerosol abundance leading to visibility reduction in the Grand Canyon.

  9. Part 5. Cultural Requirements Vegetation Management in Eucalyptus1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Part 5. Cultural Requirements Vegetation Management in Eucalyptus1 Clyde L. Elmore2 Weeds are plants that compete for water, nutrients and light, or in Eucalyptus plantations may interfere hazard. Eucalyptus species are grown in California for wood products, ornamental trees along roadways

  10. Fire Feedbacks with Vegetation and Alternative Stable States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckage, Brian

    landscape composition and that (ii) hurricane disturbances can mediate the frequency of fire that leads frequency. Our results indicate that gradual changes in global climate that influence disturbance frequency.Beckage@uvm.edu Positive feedbacks between vegetation and fire disturbance may lead to nonlinear ecosystem responses

  11. The Asian Tsunami: A Protective Role for Coastal Vegetation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    The Asian Tsunami: A Protective Role for Coastal Vegetation Finn Danielsen,1 * Mikael K. Sørensen,2 The scale of the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was almost unprecedented. In areas with the maximum tsunami intensity, little could have prevented catastrophic coast- al destruction. Further away, however

  12. Determining the covering factor of Compton-thick active galactic nuclei with NuSTAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brightman, M; Stern, D; Arevalo, P; Ballantyne, D R; Bauer, F E; Boggs, S E; Craig, W W; Christensen, F E; Comastri, A; Fuerst, F; Gandhi, P; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Hickox, R C; Koss, M; LaMassa, S; Puccetti, S; Rivers, E; Vasudevan, R; Walton, D J; Zhang, W W

    2015-01-01

    The covering factor of Compton-thick obscuring material associated with the torus in active galactic nuclei (AGN) is at present best understood through the fraction of sources exhibiting Compton-thick absorption along the line of sight ($N_{H}>1.5\\times10^{24}$ cm$^{-2}$) in the X-ray band, which reveals the average covering factor. Determining this Compton-thick fraction is difficult however, due to the extreme obscuration. With its spectral coverage at hard X-rays ($>$10 keV), NuSTAR is sensitive to the AGN covering factor since Compton scattering of X-rays off optically thick material dominates at these energies. We present a spectral analysis of 10 AGN observed with NuSTAR where the obscuring medium is optically thick to Compton scattering, so called Compton-thick (CT) AGN. We use the torus models of Brightman & Nandra which predict the X-ray spectrum from reprocessing in a torus and include the torus opening angle as a free parameter and aim to determine the covering factor of the Compton-thick gas i...

  13. Vegetable oils: Precombustion characteristics and performance as diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagby, M.O.

    1986-03-01

    Vegetable oils show technical promise as alternative fuels for diesel engines and have good potential as emergency fuels. Realistically, vegetable oils cause a number of problems when used in direct-injection diesel engines, generally attributable to inefficient combustion. At least partially responsible for poor combustion of neat vegetable oils are their high viscosity and non-volatility. To improve combustion several somewhat empirical approaches involving both chemical and physical modifications have been investigated by endurance tests in a variety of engines. Using the EMA 200 h engine screening test, several fuels show technical promise. These include methyl, ethyl, and butyl esters; high-oleic oils:diesel blend (1:3); diesel:soybean oil:butanol:cetane improver (33:33:33:1); and microemulsion fuels (diesel:soybean oil:190 proff ethanol:butanol, 50:25:5:20) and (soybean oil:methanol:2-octanol:cetane improver, 53:13:33:1). Using a pressure vessel, fuel injection system, and high speed motion picture camera, fuel injection characteristics of vegetable oils, e.g., soybean, sunflower, cottonseed, and peanut, have been observed in a quiescent nitrogen atmosphere at 480/sup 0/C and 4.1MPa. Their injection and atomization characteristics are markedly different from those of petroleum derived diesel fuels. Heating the vegetable oils to lower their viscosities increased spray penetration rate, reduced spray cone angles, and resulted in spray characteristics resembling those of diesel fuel. Significant chemical changes occurred following injection. Samples collected at about 400 microseconds after the injection event consisted of appreciable quantities of C/sub 4/-C/sub 16/ hydrocarbons, and free carboxyl groups were present.

  14. Assessing the effect of modified accessibility on land cover change 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, James E

    2009-11-26

    Policies taken towards transportation influence patterns of land cover change and in recent years, significant investments have been made in rail infrastructure in England. The introduction of high speed rail services, ...

  15. INTRODUCTION Continuous cover forestry (CCF) regimes are increasingly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 INTRODUCTION Continuous cover forestry (CCF) regimes are increasingly favoured in British Edinburgh EH12 7AT www.forestry.gov.uk Below-canopy light levels are commonly expressed as a proportion

  16. Cover Heated, Open Vessels - Steam Tip Sheet #19

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO steam tip sheet on covering heated, open vessels provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  17. Frobenius n-homomorphisms, transfers and branched coverings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rees E.G.; Buchstaber V.M.

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose is to characterise continuous maps that are n-branched coverings in terms of induced maps on the rings of functions. The special properties of Frobenius nhomomorphisms between two function spaces that ...

  18. Marine Fisheries On the cover: Transmission electron micro-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marine Fisheries ~@WD@~ On the cover: Transmission electron micro- graph of a myxosporidian. Kudoa by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington. DC 20402. Prices are: Single copy. $3. Washington. DC 20260. #12;

  19. Linking Siberian Snow Cover to Precursors of Stratospheric Variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Judah

    Previous research has linked wintertime Arctic Oscillation (AO) variability to indices of Siberian snow cover and upward wave activity flux in the preceding fall season. Here, daily data are used to examine the surface and ...

  20. "List of Covered Electric Utilities" under the Public Utility...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    8 "List of Covered Electric Utilities" under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) - 2008 Under Title I of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978...

  1. "List of Covered Electric Utilities" under the Public Utility...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    9 "List of Covered Electric Utilities" under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) - 2009 Under Title I, Sec. 102(c) of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies...

  2. This overview covers: Connecting to a Chado Database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maizels, Rick

    This overview covers: · Connecting to a Chado Database · Reading From the Database · iBatis Database Mapping · Gene Representation · Gene Building · Gene merging and splitting · Transfer Annotation Tool · Writing To The Database · Opening the Standalone Gene Builder · Community Annotation · Writing

  3. Marine Fisheries On the cover: An adult male

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marine Fisheries ~@\\YJD@W On the cover: An adult male northern fur seal, Callorhinus ursinus., in San Francisco Bay Impact of U.S. Wholesale Demand for Canned Sardines on Market Accessibility

  4. Second midterm review sheet The second midterm covers all the ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-10-25

    The second midterm covers all the material from chapters 3 – 5, and you may use results from chapters 1 – 5 without proof. Most of the midterm will consist of ...

  5. Interdisciplinary Pest Management Potentials of Cover Cropping Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bachie, Oli Gurmu

    2011-01-01

    Cover Crop. J. Agronomy & Crop Science 186, 145-149 Allisonresistance in cowpea. Crop Science 40:611-618. Finch S. andProduction. J. Agronomy & Crop Science 191: 172— Krueger

  6. Ecological Impacts of the Cerro Grande Fire: Predicting Elk Movement and Distribution Patterns in Response to Vegetative Recovery through Simulation Modeling October 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.P. Rupp

    2005-10-01

    In May 2000, the Cerro Grande Fire burned approximately 17,200 ha in north-central New Mexico as the result of an escaped prescribed burn initiated by Bandelier National Monument. The interaction of large-scale fires, vegetation, and elk is an important management issue, but few studies have addressed the ecological implications of vegetative succession and landscape heterogeneity on ungulate populations following large-scale disturbance events. Primary objectives of this research were to identify elk movement pathways on local and landscape scales, to determine environmental factors that influence elk movement, and to evaluate movement and distribution patterns in relation to spatial and temporal aspects of the Cerro Grande Fire. Data collection and assimilation reflect the collaborative efforts of National Park Service, U.S. Forest Service, and Department of Energy (Los Alamos National Laboratory) personnel. Geographic positioning system (GPS) collars were used to track 54 elk over a period of 3+ years and locational data were incorporated into a multi-layered geographic information system (GIS) for analysis. Preliminary tests of GPS collar accuracy indicated a strong effect of 2D fixes on position acquisition rates (PARs) depending on time of day and season of year. Slope, aspect, elevation, and land cover type affected dilution of precision (DOP) values for both 2D and 3D fixes, although significant relationships varied from positive to negative making it difficult to delineate the mechanism behind significant responses. Two-dimensional fixes accounted for 34% of all successfully acquired locations and may affect results in which those data were used. Overall position acquisition rate was 93.3% and mean DOP values were consistently in the range of 4.0 to 6.0 leading to the conclusion collar accuracy was acceptable for modeling purposes. SAVANNA, a spatially explicit, process-oriented ecosystem model, was used to simulate successional dynamics. Inputs to the SAVANNA included a land cover map, long-term weather data, soil maps, and a digital elevation model. Parameterization and calibration were conducted using field plots. Model predictions of herbaceous biomass production and weather were consistent with available data and spatial interpolations of snow were considered reasonable for this study. Dynamic outputs generated by SAVANNA were integrated with static variables, movement rules, and parameters developed for the individual-based model through the application of a habitat suitability index. Model validation indicated reasonable model fit when compared to an independent test set. The finished model was applied to 2 realistic management scenarios for the Jemez Mountains and management implications were discussed. Ongoing validation of the individual-based model presented in this dissertation provides an adaptive management tool that integrates interdisciplinary experience and scientific information, which allows users to make predictions about the impact of alternative management policies.

  7. Optimization of Geoscience Laser Altimeter System waveform metrics to support vegetation measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lefsky, Michael

    Optimization of Geoscience Laser Altimeter System waveform metrics to support vegetation GLAS Optimization Remote sensing Vegetation structure The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) has optimized a noise coefficient which could be constant or vary according to observation period or noise

  8. The Effect of Topography, Vegetation, and Weather on Cattle Distribution at the San

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Effect of Topography, Vegetation, and Weather on Cattle Distribution at the San Joaquin were implemented to judge the effects of these management techniques on cattle distribution. Animal period. Our study identified topographic, vegetative and environmental forces that affected cattle

  9. Effects of Added Vegetation on Sand Bar Stability and Stream Hydrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rominger, Jeffrey Tsaros

    Vegetation was added to a fully developed sandy point bar in the meander of a constructed stream. Significant changes in the flow structure and bed topography were observed. As expected, the addition of vegetative resistance ...

  10. Effects of Hurricane Katrina on the Mammalian and Vegetative Communities of the Barrier Islands of Mississippi 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scoggin, Annaliese K.

    2010-01-14

    The barrier islands of the gulf coast of the U.S. have been shaped and changed by hurricanes for centuries. These storms can alter the vegetation of the barrier islands by redistributing sediments, scouring off vegetation, physical damage...

  11. Journal of Vegetation Science 24 (2013) 384394 Disentangling the role of edaphic variability, flooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fine, Paul V.A.

    2013-01-01

    flooded white-sand vegetation at mesoscales in the Amazon Basin. Introduction In the Amazon, the two most

  12. INDICATOR: LAKE ERIE ICE COVER Winter ice cover on Lake Erie affects the amount of heat and moisture transferred

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by impeding or stopping navigation, interfering with power plants and cooling water intakes, and damaging was virtually free of any significant ice cover in 1998 and, with the exception of portions of January, the same

  13. Normalized Microwave Reflection Index: Validation of Vegetation Water Content Estimates from Montana Grasslands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Kristine

    1 Normalized Microwave Reflection Index: Validation of Vegetation Water Content Estimates from NMRI as a metric for estimating vegetation water content (VWC) and evaluate the normalization procedure Reflection Index (NMRI). It is a measure of vegetation water content (VWC) estimated from data archived

  14. Vegetation and temperature condition indices from NOAA AVHRR data for drought monitoring over India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Ramesh P.

    Vegetation and temperature condition indices from NOAA AVHRR data for drought monitoring over India. The present study shows the application of vegetation and temperature condition indices for drought monitoring and converting brightness temperature into the Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) and Temperature Condition Index

  15. Water under the Cover: Structures and Thermodynamics of Water Encapsulated by Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuping Jiao; Zhiping Xu

    2015-09-24

    Understanding the phase behaviors of nanoconfined water has driven notable research interests recently. In this work, we examine the structures and thermodynamics of water encapsulated under a graphene cover. We find layered water structures up to ~1000 molecules, which is stabilized by the spatial confinement and pressure induced by the adhesion between graphene cover and substrate. For monolayer encapsulations, we identify both crystalline lattices and defects. Free energy analysis shows that these low- entropy orders are compensated by high formation energies. There exists an order- disorder transition for this condensed phase at ~480-490 K, with a sharp reduction in the number of hydrogen bonds and increase in the entropy. These findings offer fundamental understandings of the encapsulated water, and provide guidance for practical applications with its presence, for example, in the design of nanoelectronic devices.

  16. Landscape and farm management effects on Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) diversity and parasitism of pests in organic vegetable production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bothwell, Sara G.

    2012-01-01

    or Eucalyptus forest, Salix or marsh riparian vegetation,as occur between Quercus and Salix designations, were thegrasslands marsh Quercus Salix noncrop vegetation perennial

  17. Influence of seasonality and vegetation type on suburban microclimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Emily B.; McFadden, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    tools to reduce urban heat islands and home energy use (ground cover and urban heat island of Nanjing, China. BuildEG (1994) Cooling urban heat islands with sustainable

  18. Effects of mature redberry juniper on associated herbaceous vegetation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dye, Kenneth Lynn

    1993-01-01

    The effects of mature redberry juniper (juniperus pinchotii Sudw.) trees on biomass, density and basal cover of associated herbaceous plants were quantified during 1991-1993 on 3 soils in the northern Edwards Plateau. Herbaceous biomass was 1024...

  19. TDR calibration for the alternative landfill cover demonstration (ALCD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, J.; Dwyer, S.F.; Swanson, J.N.

    1997-09-01

    The Alternative Landfill Cover Demonstration is a large scale field test that compares the performance of various landfill cover designs in dry environments. An important component of the comparison is the change in the moisture content of the soils throughout the different cover test plots. Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) is the primary method for the measurement of the volumetric moisture content. Each of the covers is composed of layers of varying types and densities of soils. The probes are therefore calibrated to calculate the volumetric moisture content in each of the different soils in order to gain the optimum performance of the TDR system. The demonstration plots are constructed in two phases; a different probe is used in each phase. The probe that is used in Phase 1 is calibrated for the following soils: compacted native soil, uncompacted native soil, compacted native soil mixed with 6% sodium bentonite by weight, and sand. The probe that is used in Phase 2 is calibrated for the following soils: compacted native soil, uncompacted native soil, and sand. In addition, the probes are calibrated for the varying cable lengths of the TDR probes. The resulting empirically derived equations allow for the calculation of in-situ volumetric moisture content of all of the varying soils throughout the cover test plots in the demonstration.

  20. ORIGINAL PAPER Sedimentary pellets as an ice-cover proxy in a High Arctic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent, Warwick F.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Sedimentary pellets as an ice-cover proxy in a High Arctic ice-covered lake Jessica-cover extent and dynamics on this perennially ice-covered, High Arctic lake. These pellets are interpreted growth. The pellets remain frozen in the ice until a summer or series of summers with reduced ice cover

  1. Project test plan for runoff and erosion on fine-soil barrier surfaces and rock-covered side slopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, W.H.; Hoover, K.A.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1990-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company are working together to develop protective barriers to isolate near-surface radioactive waste. The purpose of the barriers is to protect defense wastes at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site from infiltration of precipitation, biointrusion, and surficial erosion for up to 10,000 years without the need for long-term monitoring, maintenance, or institutional control. The barriers will be constructed of layered earth and rock material designed to direct surface and groundwater pathways away from the buried waste. To address soil erosion as it applies to barrier design and long-term stability, a task designed to study this problem has been included in the Protective Barriers Program at PNL. The barrier soil-erosion task will investigate the ability of the soil cover and side slopes to resist the erosional and destabilizing processes from externally applied water. The study will include identification and field testing of the dominant processes contributing to erosion and barrier failure. The effects of rock mulches, vegetation cover on the top fine-grained soil surface, as well as the stability of rock armoring on the side slopes, will be evaluated. Some of the testing will include the effects of animal intrusion on barrier erosion, and these will be coordinated with other animal intrusion studies. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Multi-well sample plate cover penetration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald (Pleasanton, CA)

    2011-12-27

    An apparatus for penetrating a cover over a multi-well sample plate containing at least one individual sample well includes a cutting head, a cutter extending from the cutting head, and a robot. The cutting head is connected to the robot wherein the robot moves the cutting head and cutter so that the cutter penetrates the cover over the multi-well sample plate providing access to the individual sample well. When the cutting head is moved downward the foil is pierced by the cutter that splits, opens, and folds the foil inward toward the well. The well is then open for sample aspiration but has been protected from cross contamination.

  3. Standard Guide for Irradiation of Dried Spices, Herbs, and Vegetable Seasonings to Control Pathogens and Other Microorganisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers procedures for irradiation of dried spices, herbs, and vegetable seasonings for microbiological control. Generally, these items have moisture content of 4.5 to 12 % and are available in whole, ground, chopped, or other finely divided forms, or as blends. The blends may contain sodium chloride and minor amounts of dry food materials ordinarily used in such blends. 1.2 This guide covers absorbed doses ranging from 3 to 30 kiloGray (kGy). Note 1—U.S. regulations permit a maximum dose of 30 kGy. (See 21CFR 179.26 Irradiation in the Production, Processing and Handling of Food.) 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. On-Line Machine Covering Yossi Azar1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azar, Yossi

    On-Line Machine Covering Yossi Azar1 ,Leah Epstein2 1 Dept. of Computer Science, Tel of scheduling a sequence of jobs to m parallel machines as to maximize the minimum load over the machines. This situation corresponds to a case that a system which consists of the m machines is alive (i.e. productive

  5. DDR sends cover letter with accommodation request to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saffman, Mark

    Approve DDR sends cover letter with accommodation request to employee/applicant; disseminate copies an accommodation. Need help? DDR informs employee of disability accommodation process, rights and responsibilities. Employee completes disability accommodation request form and sends it to DDR. Modify or Deny Consult

  6. 2010 OCEAN DRILLING CITATION REPORT Covering Citations Related to the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010 OCEAN DRILLING CITATION REPORT Covering Citations Related to the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Ocean Drilling Program, and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program from GeoRef Citations Indexed by the American Geological Institute from 1969 through 2009 Produced by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program

  7. 2008 OCEAN DRILLING CITATION REPORT Covering Citations Related to the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008 OCEAN DRILLING CITATION REPORT Covering Citations Related to the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Ocean Drilling Program, and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program from GeoRef Citations Indexed by the American Geological Institute from 1969 through 2007 Produced by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program

  8. 2007 OCEAN DRILLING CITATION REPORT Covering Deep Sea Drilling Project-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007 OCEAN DRILLING CITATION REPORT Covering Deep Sea Drilling Project- and Ocean Drilling Program Services on behalf of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program September 2007 #12;#12;OVERVIEW OF THE OCEAN DRILLING CITATION DATABASE The Ocean Drilling Citation Database, which in February 2007 contained

  9. 2009 OCEAN DRILLING CITATION REPORT Covering Citations Related to the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009 OCEAN DRILLING CITATION REPORT Covering Citations Related to the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Ocean Drilling Program, and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program from GeoRef Citations Indexed by the American Geological Institute from 1969 through 2008 Produced by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program

  10. 2012 OCEAN DRILLING CITATION REPORT Covering Citations Related to the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012 OCEAN DRILLING CITATION REPORT Covering Citations Related to the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Ocean Drilling Program, and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program from GeoRef Citations Indexed by the American Geological Institute from 1969 through 2011 Produced by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program

  11. 2013 OCEAN DRILLING CITATION REPORT Covering Citations Related to the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013 OCEAN DRILLING CITATION REPORT Covering Citations Related to the Deep Sea Drilling Project, Ocean Drilling Program, and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program from GeoRef Citations Indexed by the American Geological Institute from 1969 through 2012 Produced by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program

  12. Output-increasing, protective cover for a solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammerbacher, Milfred D. (Dallas, TX)

    1995-11-21

    A flexible cover (14) for a flexible solar cell (12) protects the cell from the ambient and increases the cell's efficiency. The cell(12)includes silicon spheres (16) held in a flexible aluminum sheet matrix (20,22). The cover (14) is a flexible, protective layer (60) of light-transparent material having a relatively flat upper, free surface (64) and an irregular opposed surface (66). The irregular surface (66) includes first portions (68) which conform to the polar regions (31R) of the spheres (16) and second convex (72) or concave (90) portions (72 or 90) which define spaces (78) in conjunction with the reflective surface (20T) of one aluminum sheet (20). Without the cover (14) light (50) falling on the surface (20T) between the spheres (16) is wasted, that is, it does not fall on a sphere (16). The surfaces of the second portions are non-parallel to the direction of the otherwise wasted light (50), which fact, together with a selected relationship between the refractive indices of the cover and the spaces, result in sufficient diffraction of the otherwise wasted light (50) so that about 25% of it is reflected from the surface (20T) onto a sphere (16).

  13. Moduli of Galois p-covers in mixed characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abramovich, Dan

    2010-01-01

    We define a proper moduli stack for degree $p$ covers $f:Y \\to \\cX$ where $\\cX$ is a twisted stable curve in the sense of [5] and [4], and $Y$ is a stable curve which via $f$ is a torsor over $\\cX$ under a finite flat group scheme $\\cG \\to \\cX$.

  14. SAMPLE COVER LETTER for BIOTECH INTERNSHIP Aaron Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickey, Timothy J.

    SAMPLE COVER LETTER for BIOTECH INTERNSHIP Aaron Smith 12 Echo Street Cambridge, MA 55555 September 14, 20xx Ms. Caroline Burnett Boston Biotech Company Somewhere, MA 55555 Dear Ms. Burnett job listings at the Brandeis University Career Center. Boston Biotech is a leader in the advancement

  15. Network Analyzer Basics This presentation covers the principles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    one-box) testers VSA Vector signal analyzer SA Spectrum analyzer VNA Vector signal analyzer TG/SA Tracking generator/spectrum analyzer SNA Scalar network analyzer NF Mtr. Noise-figure meter Imped. AnAgilent Network Analyzer Basics #12;2 Abstract This presentation covers the principles of measuring

  16. INVARIANT RADON MEASURES FOR HOROCYCLE FLOWS ON ABELIAN COVERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarig, Omri

    INVARIANT RADON MEASURES FOR HOROCYCLE FLOWS ON ABELIAN COVERS OMRI SARIG Dedicated to the memory of M. Babillot Abstract. We classify the ergodic invariant Radon measures for horocycle flows on Zd those supported on periodic orbits. There are however invariant Radon measures. Burger [Bu] classified

  17. (plexiglass) covers (negligible transmittance at 290320 nm). NOx emission decreased

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (plexiglass) covers (negligible transmittance at 290­320 nm). NOx emission decreased from shoots, and the compensation point was estimated to be around 1 p.p.b. As ultraviolet radiation induces NOx emission from P exposure to ultraviolet light and NOx emission, and between the ambient con- centration of NOx and its

  18. DISCIPLINE AND TERMINATION POLICY Employees covered by this policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DISCIPLINE AND TERMINATION POLICY Employees covered by this policy This policy applies to all non to discipline, suspend with or without pay, or terminate employees for just cause. Just cause includes to discipline or termination for just cause, the University reserves the right to demote, suspend or terminate

  19. GREAT LAKES ICE COVER RaymondA. Asset'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the early fifteenth centllry. in central Japan. southern Germany,and Switzerland." I National Oceanographic hydropower production and cooling water intakes, and damaging shore structures. Ice cover also impacts, and spring energy exchanges between the lake and the planetary boundary layer. Although observations of shore

  20. Operational Experience of Continuous Cover Forestry: UK Case Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    practical value. In addition, the information sources used in the management of the sites were assessed but frustration was expressed by some managers that there are no formal mechanisms for information sharing betweenOperational Experience of Continuous Cover Forestry: UK Case Studies INTERNAL PROJECT INFORMATION

  1. Covering Note INTER-ACADEMY REPORT ON GM CROPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giri, Ranjit K.

    Covering Note for INTER-ACADEMY REPORT ON GM CROPS (Updated) The Inter-Academy Report on GM crops the main conclusions and recommendations. The literature on GM crops is voluminous. More than a hundred seek to enunciate a national strategy on GM crops. The rest deals with concerns, surveillance etc. #12

  2. COVERING THEORY FOR LINEAR CATEGORIES WITH APPLICATION TO DERIVED CATEGORIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Shiping

    COVERING THEORY FOR LINEAR CATEGORIES WITH APPLICATION TO DERIVED CATEGORIES RAYMUNDO BAUTISTA-Schmidt categories preserves irreducible morphisms and almost splits sequences. Specializing to derived categories between the bounded derived categories of finite dimensional modules. As an application, we show that each

  3. Consideration of liners and covers in performance assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phifer, Mark A.; Seitz, Robert R.; Suttora, Linda C.

    2014-09-18

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several United States Department of Energy (USDOE) sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These disposal cells are typically regulated by States and/or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) in addition to having to comply with requirements in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management due to the radioactive waste. The USDOE-Environmental Management Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these CERCLA disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to CERCLA risk assessments and DOE Order 435.1 performance assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement, respectively. One of the issues considered by the working group, which is addressed in this report, was how to appropriately consider the performance of covers and liners/leachate collections systems in the context of a DOE Order 435.1 performance assessment (PA). This same information may be appropriate for consideration within CERCLA risk assessments for these facilities. These OSDCs are generally developed to meet hazardous waste (HW) disposal design standards under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as well as the DOE Order 435.1 performance based standards for disposal of radioactive waste. To meet the standards for HW, the facilities typically include engineered covers and liner/leachate collection systems. Thus, when considering such facilities in the context of a DOE Order 435.1 PA, there is a need to address the evolution of performance of covers and liner/leachate collection systems in the context of meeting a performance standard considering time frames of 1,000 years for compliance and potentially thousands of years based on the wastes to test the robustness of the system. Experience has shown that there are a range of expectations and perspectives from the different regulators involved at different sites when reviewing assumptions related to cover and liner/leachate collection system performance. However for HW disposal alone under RCRA the design standards are typically considered sufficient by the regulators without a requirement to assess long-term performance thus avoiding the need to consider the details addressed in this report. This report provides suggestions for a general approach to address covers and liners/leachate collection systems in a DOE Order 435.1 PA and how to integrate assessments with defense-in-depth considerations such as design, operations, and waste acceptance criteria to address uncertainties. The emphasis is on water balances and management in such assessments. Specific information and references are provided for details needed to address the evolution of individual components of cover and liner/leachate collection systems. This information was then synthesized into suggestions for best practices for cover and liner system design and examples of approaches to address the performance of covers and liners as part of a performance assessment of the disposal system. Numerous references are provided for sources of information to help describe the basis for performance of individual components of cover and liner systems.

  4. Vegetable Varieties for the Winter Garden Region of Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawthorn, L. R. (Leslie Rushton)

    1935-01-01

    and Roasting Ear ...;........................ 42 Cowpeas, Edible ...... 48 Cucumber ........................................................................................................ 50 Dandelion ...........-................. 55 Eggplant... garden. Globe artichoke is cultivated for its large globular flower haads, which are covered by rows of thick fleshy bracts. These are edible and con- sidered a great delicacy by some people. In appearance Globe artichoke resembles a large grey...

  5. Anisotropic capillary barrier for waste site surface covers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stormont, John C. (Sandia Park, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Waste sites are capped or covered upon closure. The cover structure incorporates a number of different layers each having a contributory function. One such layer is the barrier layer. Traditionally the barriers have been compacted soil and geosynthetics. These types of barriers have not been successfully implemented in unsaturated ground conditions like those found in dry climates. Capillary barriers have been proposed as barrier layers in dry environments, but the divergence length of these barriers has been found to be inadequate. An alternative to the capillary barrier is a anisotropic capillary barrier. An anisotropic capillary barrier has an increased divergence length which results in more water being diverted laterally preventing the majority of water from percolating in a downward direction through the barrier.

  6. Cover Sheet for Budget Item Predicted Cost Actual Cost Notes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cover Sheet for Budget Item Predicted Cost Actual Cost Notes Lodging $700.00 Three hotels: 1. $195, $154.00 was used for unintended transportations (taxi, train, bus, etc.) and lodging costs Meal Plan $1.70 10. Bus $1.70 11. Bus $2.83 12. Bus $4.53 13. Tram$3.28 = $96.11 These costs were paid

  7. Lower Bounds for Cover-Free Families Ali Z. Abdi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bshouty, Nader

    . Cover-free families were first introduced in 1964 by Kautz and Singleton [5]. Let N(n, (w, r)) denote the minimum number of points |X| in any (w, r)- CFF having |F| = n blocks. The best known lower bound for N(n, (w, r)) N(n - 1, (w - 1, r)) + N(n - 1, (w, r - 1)). (2) They then use it with (1) to prove two

  8. Indentation and recovery characteristics of common resilient floor coverings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Billy Ray

    1959-01-01

    ?ate'ties At tbe ' Tesperstnres of 50 p an4 11 p. . . . . . ' hf l . Xg, Typical indentation ebd aeooverp corrie af Robber Tile, Vinyl Tile ead Viayl?' Asbestos Tile ~ ' ~ ' ~ ~ ' ~ ~ ' ~ ~ ~ ~ ' ~ "a' ~ ~ ~ ', ~ do" ' l la;: Tppioe1 xsdestotios . end... . . . Rmhagasnsl ~ "r C . I prefect Qhs pi the genes Agricultural ggperiaent gtstion '-entitled &%'ho Desirability of Wetiridle end Methods of is- ' a?-' stslletioa for tloir Coverings, , Drainboard surfaces, yleor snd gall Piaiehes', ead gall. Co...

  9. Covered Product Category: Exterior Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|ProgramsLakeDepartmentEnergyEnterprise Servers Covered

  10. Relationships between climate, vegetation, and energy exchange across a montane gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Ray G.; Goulden, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    physical properties alter water and energy fluxes of an oak?fraction of energy used to evaporate water (equation (1)) EFwater supplies, predicting change in precipitation, vegetation, energy

  11. Some dry season plants recommended as edible vegetables in Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taiga, AKPOVUGHAYE Dr.

    2009-01-01

    vegetables cultivated in Nigeria are: cabbage, lettuce,Community in Kogi State, Nigeria, there are inadequateGovernment Area, Kogi State, Nigeria. Each of the fresh

  12. Approximation Algorithms for Union and Intersection Covering Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cygan, Marek; Leonardi, Stefano; Mucha, Marcin; Pilipczuk, Marcin; Sankowski, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    In a classical covering problem, we are given a set of requests that we need to satisfy (fully or partially), by buying a subset of items at minimum cost. For example, in the k-MST problem we want to find the cheapest tree spanning at least k nodes of an edge-weighted graph. Here nodes and edges represent requests and items, respectively. In this paper, we initiate the study of a new family of multi-layer covering problems. Each such problem consists of a collection of h distinct instances of a standard covering problem (layers), with the constraint that all layers share the same set of requests. We identify two main subfamilies of these problems: - in a union multi-layer problem, a request is satisfied if it is satisfied in at least one layer; - in an intersection multi-layer problem, a request is satisfied if it is satisfied in all layers. To see some natural applications, consider both generalizations of k-MST. Union k-MST can model a problem where we are asked to connect a set of users to at least one of ...

  13. NOWCAST WITH A FORESCAST SNOW COVER SIMULATIONS ON SLOPES Sascha Bellaire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamieson, Bruce

    NOWCAST WITH A FORESCAST ­ SNOW COVER SIMULATIONS ON SLOPES Sascha Bellaire 1* , Bruce Jamieson 1 of Calgary, AB, Canada ABSTRACT: The snow cover model SNOWPACK simulates the snow cover formation plot. Meteorological key parameters for the snow cover formation and evolution, e.g. precipitation

  14. ORE 630 Structural Analysis in Ocean Engineering Designation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORE 630 Structural Analysis in Ocean Engineering Designation Offshore Engineering Required Course Catalog Description Structural and finite element analyses, and design of ocean structures to withstand analysis, finite element analysis, and their application in ocean structure design. Topics Covered 1

  15. Advanced Combustion/Modeling and Analysis Toward HCCI/PCCI in a 60% Efficient Free-Piston Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation covers analysis and prediction of attainable combustion ratios in an HCCI/PCCI free-piston engine

  16. Post-project appraisal of year one Re-vegetation performance at the Nathanson Creek Restoration Project, Sonoma County, CA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blough, Alanna; Brandt, Reuben; Brady, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    GROUND, WALNUT COVER Rubus armeniacus Salix lasiolepis (SAPLING) Salix lasiolepis (COVER) Blough,  Brady, & Brandt punctatum Rubus armeniacus Salix lasiolepis (COVER)

  17. Revegetation and rock cover for stabilization of inactive uranium mill tailings disposal sites. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beedlow, P.A.

    1984-05-01

    Guidelines for using vegetation and rock to protect inactive uranium mill tailings from erosion were developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Technology Development program. Information on soils, climate, and vegetation were collected for 20 inactive tailings sites in the western United States. Sites were grouped according to similarities in climate and vegetation. Soil loss for those sites was characterized using the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Test plots were used to evaluate (1) the interaction between vegetation and sealant barrier systems and (2) the effects of surface rock on soil water and vegetation. Lysimeter and simulation studies were used to direct and support field experiments. 49 references, 17 figures, 16 tables.

  18. Growing Fall Vegetables and Annuals in South Central Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parsons, Jerry; Cotner, Sam; Johnson, Jerral; Janne, Everett; Stewart, J. W.; Roberts, Roland; Johnson, Shirley

    1979-01-01

    many spring-planted crops such as tomatoes, eggplants and peppers can be grown until the first killing frost, provided the plants remain healthy. In the southern areas of the state, home gardeners should begin fall gardens anew rather than trying.... Frost protection and the planting of a cereal rye cover crop are facilitated if such a grouping system is used. Frost-susceptible vege tables include beans, cantaloupes, corn, cucum bers, eggplants, okra, peas, peppers, Irish potatoes, sweet...

  19. Single-cylinder diesel engine study of four vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobus, M.J.; Geyer, S.M.; Lestz, S.S.; Risby, T.M.; Taylor, W.D.

    1983-10-01

    A single-cylinder, 0.36l, D.I. Diesel engine was operated on Diesel fuel, sunflowerseed oil, cottonseed oil, soybean oil, and peanut oil. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed comparison of performance and emissions data and to characterize the biological activity of the particulate soluble organic fraction for each fuel using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test. In addition, exhaust gas aldehyde samples were collected using the DNPH method. These samples were analyzed gravimetrically and separated into components from formaldehyde to heptaldehyde with a gas chromatograph. Results comparing the vegetable oils to Diesel fuel generally show slight improvements in thermal efficiency and indicated specific energy consumption; equal or higher gas-phase emissions; lower indicated specific revertant emissions; and significantly higher aldehyde emissions, including an increased percentage of formaldehyde.

  20. Percutaneous Endoluminal Bypass of Iliac Aneurysms with a Covered Stent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruebben, Alexander; Tettoni, Serena; Muratore, Pierluigi; Rossato, Dennis; Savio, Daniele; Rabbia, Claudio [Radiologia del Pronto Soccorso, Servizio di Angioradiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera San Giovanni Battista, Corso Bramante 88, I-10126 Turin (Italy)

    1998-07-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of percutaneous treatment of iliac aneurysms, a covered stent was inserted in nine men suffering from common iliac artery aneurysms (six cases), external iliac aneurysms (one case), or pseudoaneurysms (two cases). Placement of the stent was successful in all patients. In one patient, an endoprosthesis thrombosed after 15 days, but was successfully treated by thrombolysis and additional stent placement. At the follow-up examinations (mean period 22 months) all stent-grafts had remained patent. No late leakage or stenosis was observed.

  1. VEGETATION CLASSIFICATION USING SEASONAL VARIATIONS OF SCATTEROMETER DATA AT C-BAND AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, David G.

    VEGETATION CLASSIFICATION USING SEASONAL VARIATIONS OF SCATTEROMETER DATA AT C-BAND AND KU for submission to the university library. Date Dr. David Long Chair, Graduate Committee Accepted of Engineering and Technology #12;ABSTRACT VEGETATION CLASSIFICATION USING SEASONAL VARIATIONS OF SCATTEROMETER

  2. VEGETATED ROOFS FOR URBAN ECOSYSTEM REMEDIATION: PERFORMANCE AND POLICY IN THE TANYARD BRANCH WATERSHED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosemond, Amy Daum

    VEGETATED ROOFS FOR URBAN ECOSYSTEM REMEDIATION: PERFORMANCE AND POLICY IN THE TANYARD BRANCH the urbanization process. This study evaluated the performance and feasibility of using vegetated or green roof systems for urban ecosystem remediation. The stormwater retention performance of a thin-layer green roof

  3. Thermal Performance of Vegetative Roofing Systems Andre O. Desjarlais, Abdi Zaltash, and Jerald A. Atchley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Thermal Performance of Vegetative Roofing Systems Andre O. Desjarlais, Abdi Zaltash, and Jerald A purposes. #12;ABSTRACT Vegetative roofing, otherwise known as green or garden roofing, has seen tremendous growth in the last decade in the United States. The numerous benefits that green roofs provide have

  4. What is a healthy A diet that emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cantlon, Jessica F.

    cup fat free milk + 1 tbsp vegetable oil 1 egg 2 egg whites 1 tbsp butter 3/4 tbsp liquid vegetable oil Additional Resources: www.mypyramid.gov www.fda.gov www.nyapplecountry.org www.eatturkey.com www. These fluctuations can lead to medical emergencies. Avoid fasting and eating irregular meals to help maintain a more

  5. Flow, Sedimentation, and Biomass Production on a Vegetated Salt Marsh in South Carolina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mudd, Simon Marius

    . Introduction Vegetated salt marshes are a common feature along tectonically quiescent coastal mar- gins9 Flow, Sedimentation, and Biomass Production on a Vegetated Salt Marsh in South Carolina: Toward, sedimentation, and plant community evolution on a salt marsh populated by Spartina alterniflora is deve- loped

  6. Blank page retained for pagination PROPERTIES OF FISH AND VEGETABLE OIL MIXTURES.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Blank page retained for pagination #12;PROPERTIES OF FISH AND VEGETABLE OIL MIXTURES of various fish oils for the most diverse commercial operations, their substitution where possible for the more valuable vegetable oils, and the lack of intimate and complete knowledge of their physical

  7. Effects of Woody Vegetation Removal on Soil Water Dynamics in a South Texas Shrubland 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mattox, April Marie

    2013-07-30

    the root zone of plants. Water moving beyond the root zone is referred to as deep drainage, and has potential to become aquifer recharge. A vegetation manipulation project was designed to understand the effects of woody vegetation removal on soil water...

  8. Comparing Optical and Microwave Remote Sensing-based Vegetation Density over Mongolia for 1988-2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Jason

    Comparing Optical and Microwave Remote Sensing-based Vegetation Density over Mongolia for 1988 and microwave sensors are expected to provide complementary vegetation information. Here we compared NDVI from-annual variations. However, the long term changes reflected by them are divergent. Microwave based VOD shows

  9. SPECIAL ISSUE Multi-spectral imaging of vegetation for detecting CO2 leaking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Joseph A.

    vegetation near shallow subsurface CO2 releases during summers 2007 and 2008 at the Zero Emissions Research to the CO2 sink­source relationship and vegetation density. The data also show short-term effects of rain sequestration for reducing greenhouse gas emissions is accompanied by a need for methods to detect CO2

  10. Why do some small islands lack vegetation? Evidence from long-term introduction experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrison, Lloyd W.

    , and only two naturally vegetated islands lost all vegetation. Experimental introductions of two species Á and hurricanes appeared to have reduced the establishment success and possibly long-term survival of the introductions, although some populations survived four major hurricanes. Turnover rates of both introduced

  11. A Database of Herbaceous Vegetation Responses to Elevated Atmospheric CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Database of Herbaceous Vegetation Responses to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 ORNL/CDIAC-124 NDP-073/CDIAC-124 NDP-073 A DATABASE OF HERBACEOUS VEGETATION RESPONSES TO ELEVATED ATMOSPHERIC CO2 Contributed by Michael H. Jones Peter S. Curtis Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology The Ohio State

  12. Numerical study of turbulence and wave damping induced by vegetation canopies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirby, James T.

    accurate predictions of vegetation-induced wave energy dissipation. Wave propagation through a finite patch binder that resists coastal erosion. Vegetation can also dissipate wave energy (Augustin et al., 2009, Tamkang University, Taipei, Taiwan d Department of Marine Engineering Technology, Texas A & M University

  13. Air motion within and above forest vegetation in non-ideal conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Xuhui

    Air motion within and above forest vegetation in non-ideal conditions Xuhui Lee* School of Forestry state of knowledge about air ¯ow under ideal conditions (neutral to slightly unstable conditions knowledge of air motion in forest vegetation is a necessary step towards a better understanding of a number

  14. Using Long-Term Census Data to Inform Restoration Methods for Coastal Dune Vegetation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ronquist, Fredrik

    Using Long-Term Census Data to Inform Restoration Methods for Coastal Dune Vegetation Elise S Barrier Island . Coastal ecology . Dune zone . Disturbance . Dune vegetation . Storm response Introduction), with varied results. Restoration strategies can be difficult to implement successfully in coastal dune systems

  15. Long-term effects of Lupinus lepidus on vegetation dynamics at Mount R. del Moral1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Moral, Roger

    (Jumpponen et al. 1998; Jones and del Moral 2005), slack dunes (Berendse et al. 1998), coastal dunes (Olff et-1 Long-term effects of Lupinus lepidus on vegetation dynamics at Mount St. Helens R. del Moral1 surfaces at Mount St. Helen. We compared vegetation structure in 30 Lupinus colonies in three age classes

  16. SURVEY OF LESION AND NORTHERN ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES ASSOCIATED WITH VEGETABLES IN VERMONT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neher, Deborah A.

    98 SURVEY OF LESION AND NORTHERN ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES ASSOCIATED WITH VEGETABLES IN VERMONT Yong Bao*, Deborah A. Neher Department of Plant and Soil Science, University of Vermont, 63 Carrigan Drive of lesion and northern root-knot nematodes associated with vegetables in Vermont. Nematropica 41

  17. Beryllium7 in soils and vegetation along an arid precipitation gradient in Owens Valley, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elmore, Andrew J.

    Beryllium7 in soils and vegetation along an arid precipitation gradient in Owens Valley, California; revised 29 March 2011; accepted 1 April 2011; published 7 May 2011. [1] Beryllium7 is a potentially potential as a sediment tracer in desert environments. Beryllium7 in vegetation and the upper few cm of soil

  18. Postglacial vegetation and climate dynamics in the Seymour-Belize Inlet Complex, central

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patterson, Timothy

    Postglacial vegetation and climate dynamics in the Seymour-Belize Inlet Complex, central coastal, H. M. 2009. Postglacial vegetation and climate dynamics in the Seymour-Belize Inlet Complex, central ABSTRACT: A pollen-based study from Tiny Lake in the Seymour-Belize Inlet Complex of central coastal

  19. Evaluation of the Hydro-Thermodynamic Soil Vegetation Scheme and implementation of a new numerical scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moelders, Nicole

    ii Evaluation of the Hydro-Thermodynamic Soil Vegetation Scheme and implementation of a new.S. Fairbanks, Alaska August 2005 #12;iii Abstract The Hydro-Thermodynamic Soil-Vegetation Scheme (HTSVS........................................................................................................................... 24 Evaluation of snow depth and soil temperatures predicted by the Hydro- Thermodynamic Soil

  20. Arctic Region Evaluation of the Hydro-Thermodynamic Soil Vegetation Scheme (HTSVS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moelders, Nicole

    Arctic Region Evaluation of the Hydro-Thermodynamic Soil Vegetation Scheme (HTSVS) Pamela Spier, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK Abstract This paper presents an evaluation of the Hydro. Introduction and Motivation The Hydro-Thermodynamic Soil Vegetation Scheme (HTSVS, Kramm et al. 1996, Mölders

  1. Operation of cover-gas system during SLSF tests. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braid, T.H.; Harper, H.A.; Wilson, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    During two tests in the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (W1 and P4), high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy was used to detect pin failure by observing radioactive fission product isotopes of Kr and Xe from exposed fuel. A continuous stream of argon cover gas from the in-pile loop was transferred to a shielded sample volume. Two germanium crystal spectrometers continuously recorded spectra of gamma rays in the energy range 80 keV to approx. 2.7 MeV. A very wide range of signal strength was accommodated without saturation by dilution of the sample, reduction of the sample chamber volume and insertion of detecter collimators. The cover gas system provided an unambiguous indication of fuel failure during a series of boiling tests in W1. In P4, spectra were recorded after a power transient that released molten fuel and from a mass of exposed fuel at a range of reactor power levels. Gamma rays were observed from isotopes of Kr and Xe with half-lives from 3.8 m to 5.2 d.

  2. Microsoft Word - DOE_Staffing_Study_Cover.doc

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to contractors. An analysis of the appropriate roles and responsibilities within these functions to be performed by federal and contractor personnel is currently being...

  3. Oil spreading in surface waters with an ice cover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yapa, P.D.; Weerasuriya, S.A.; Belaskas, D.P.; Chowdhury, T.

    1993-02-01

    A study of oil spreading in surface waters in the presence of a floating ice cover is presented. The ice can be solid or fragmented. Both axi-symmetrical and uni-directional spreading are studied. The report describes the analytical and numerical model development, the experimental set-up, results from the laboratory experiments, and their comparison with the derived theory and the numerical simulation. To analyze the spreading of oil under solid ice, new equations are derived. These equations consider gravity (buoyancy) - inertia phase, gravity (buoyancy) - viscous phase, and the termination of spreading during the buoyancy - surface tension phase. The derivation considers both the constant discharge mode and the constant volume mode. Therefore, a complete description of the spreading phenomena from the time of initial spill to termination of spreading is presented. The emphasis of the study is on the dominant spreading mechanism for oil under ice, which is the buoyancy-viscous phase.

  4. POLISSAR & FREEMAN, EFFECTS OF ARIDITY AND VEGETATION ON PLANT-WAX D EA-1 ,Page 1 of 21

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polissar, Pratigya J.

    POLISSAR & FREEMAN, EFFECTS OF ARIDITY AND VEGETATION ON PLANT-WAX D EA-1 ,Page 1 of 21 Polissar & Freeman (2010) Effects of Aridity and Vegetation on Plant-wax D in Modern Lake Sediments Electronic annex. References 6. Supplemental Figures #12;POLISSAR & FREEMAN, EFFECTS OF ARIDITY AND VEGETATION ON PLANT-WAX D

  5. INITIAL DEVELOPMENT OF RIPARIAN AND MARSH VEGETATION ON DREDGED-MATERIAL ISLANDS IN THE SACRAMENTO-SAN JOAQUIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INITIAL DEVELOPMENT OF RIPARIAN AND MARSH VEGETATION ON DREDGED-MATERIAL ISLANDS IN THE SACRAMENTO Planners, Sacramento District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Sacramento, CA. Abstract: Natural vegetation the breached lev- ees at Donlon Island in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. Vegetation measurements

  6. Annotated Resource List A select list of books and Web sites covering every

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Scott

    Annotated Resource List A select list of books and Web sites covering every continent's mammalian and Web sites covering every continent's mammalian fauna has been assembled for educators. Notes

  7. Remote sensing for continuous cover forestry: quantifying spatial structure and canopy gap distribution. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaulton, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    The conversion of UK even-aged conifer plantations to continuous cover forestry (CCF), a form of forest management that maintains forest cover over time and avoids clear-cutting, requires more frequent and spatially ...

  8. The New York Times covers "National Labs Race to Stop Iran"

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The New York Times covers "National Labs Race to Stop Iran" The New York Times covers "National Labs Race to Stop Iran" Given the stakes in the sensitive negotiations with Iran,...

  9. Bonneville Power Administration Transmission System Vegetation Management Program - Final Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2000-06-23

    Bonneville is responsible for maintaining a network of 24,000 kilometers (km) or 15,000 miles (mi.) of electric transmission lines and 350 substations in a region of diverse vegetation. This vegetation can interfere with electric power flow, pose safety problems for us and the public, and interfere with our ability to maintain these facilities. We need to (1) keep vegetation away from our electric facilities; (2) increase our program efficiency and consistency; (3) review herbicide use (under increased public scrutiny); and (4) maximize the range of tools we can use while minimizing environmental impact (Integrated Vegetation Management). This Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) establishes Planning Steps for managing vegetation for specific projects (to be tiered to this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)). In addition to No Action (current practice), alternatives are presented for Rights-of-way, Electric Yards, and Non-electric Facilities (landscaping, work yards). Four vegetation control methods are analyzed manual, mechanical, herbicide, and biological. Also evaluated are 23 herbicide active ingredients and 4 herbicide application techniques (spot, localized, broadcast, and aerial). For rights-of-way, we consider three sets of alternatives: alternative management approaches (time-driven or establishing low-growing plant communities); alternative method packages; and, if herbicides are in a methods package, alternative vegetation selections (noxious weeds, deciduous, or any vegetation). For electric yards, one herbicide-use alternative is considered. For non-electric facilities, two method package alternatives are considered. For rights-of-way, the environmentally preferred alternative(s) would use manual, mechanical, and biological control methods, as well as spot and localized herbicide applications for noxious and deciduous plant species; the BPA-preferred alternative(s) would add broadcast and aerial herbicide applications, and would use herbicides on any vegetation. Both would favor a management approach that fosters low-growing plant communities.

  10. Set Multicover The Set Multicover problem is the same as set cover except

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golin, Mordecai J.

    during that step. Notice that the average cost can not decrease. Then 8e 2 U price(e; 1) Ÿ price(e; 2) Ÿ to be covered a specified number of times. That is we want to pick a minimum­cost set cover such that element e algorithm to multi­ cover A Greedy MultiCover algorithm U / X C / ; select a F 2 F that minimizes Cost(F ) j

  11. Mount Cheops Cirque Glacier: Response of a Small Debris Covered Glacier to Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Dan

    was conducted to estimate the contribution of the Cheops glacial melt waters; changes in glacial hydrological systems are also changing patterns of vegetation and discharge fluctuations during the day, help to provide insight into the glacial

  12. Geosynthetics International, 2010, 17, No.3 Design of a landfill final cover system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geosynthetics International, 2010, 17, No.3 Design of a landfill final cover system T. D. Stark containment, Strength, Stability, Shearbox test, Failure, Final cover system, Landfill REFERENCE: Stark, T. D. & Newman, E. J. (20 I0). Design of a landfill final cover systcm. Geosynthetics [ntemational17, No.3, 124

  13. Spatial Snow Cover Processes at Kuhtai and Reynolds David Tarboton, Gunter Bloschl, Keith Cooley,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarboton, David

    7 Spatial Snow Cover Processes at Ku¨htai and Reynolds Creek David Tarboton, Gu¨nter Blo and understanding the spatio-temporal variability of snow-related quantities plays a key role in catchment hydrology from snow-covered catchments for water resources manage- ment. The snow cover is also a key link

  14. Establishing criteria for the design of a combination parallel and cross-flaming covered burner 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stark, Christopher Charles

    2003-01-01

    A burner was designed and constructed to combine weed control practices of parallel and cross-flaming with the technology of covers and insulation. It involved two covers designed to be placed on the sides of a crop row. The flame under the covers...

  15. Simplified Models for Exhaled Airflow from a Cough with the Mouth Covered

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    1 Simplified Models for Exhaled Airflow from a Cough with the Mouth Covered Chun Chen1 , Chao: (765) 496-0539, Email: yanchen@purdue.edu Abstract Covering a cough can be useful in reducing for predicting the exhaled airflow from a cough with the mouth covered. This investigation used smoke

  16. Trajectories of change in sagebrush steppe vegetation communities in relation to multiple wildfires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davies, G. M.; Bakker, J. D.; Dettweiler-Robinson, E.; Dunwiddie, Peter W.; Hall, S. A.; Downs, Janelle L.; Evans, J.

    2012-07-01

    Repeated perturbations, both biotic and abiotic, can lead to fundamental changes in the nature of ecosystems including changes in state. Sagebrush-steppe communities provide important habitat for wildlife and grazing for livestock. Fire is an integral part of these systems, but there is concern that increased ignition frequencies and invasive species are fundamentally altering these systems. Despite these issues, the majority of studies of fire effects in Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis-dominated systems have focused on the effects of single burns. The Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE), in south-central Washington (U.S.A.), was one of the largest areas of continuous shrub-steppe habitat in the state until large wildfires burnt the majority of it in 2000 and 2007. We analysed data from permanent vegetation transects established in 1996 and resampled in 2002 and 2009. Our objective was to describe how the fires, and subsequent post-fire restoration efforts, affected communities successional pathways. Plant communities differed in response to repeated fire and restoration; these differences could largely be ascribed to the functional traits of the dominant species. Low elevation communities, previously dominated by obligate seeders, moved farthest from their initial composition and were dominated by weedy, early successional species in 2009. Higher elevation sites with resprouting shrubs, native bunchgrasses and few invasive species were generally more resilient to the effects of repeated disturbances. Shrub cover has been almost entirely removed from ALE, though there is evidence of recovery where communities were dominated by re-sprouters. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) dominance was reduced by herbicide application in areas where it was previously abundant but increased significantly in untreated areas. Several re-sprouting species, notably Phlox longifolia and Poa secunda, expanded remarkably following competitive release from shrub canopies and/or abundant cheatgrass. Our results suggest that community dynamics can be understood through a state-and-transition model with two axes (shrub/grass and native/invasive abundance), though such models also need to account for differences in plant functional traits and disturbance regimes. We use our results to develop an illustrative model that will be expanded with further research.

  17. Regional Analysis Briefs

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2028-01-01

    Regional Analysis Briefs (RABs) provide an overview of specific regions that play an important role in world energy markets, either directly or indirectly. These briefs cover areas that are currently major producers (Caspian Sea), have geopolitical importance (South China Sea), or may have future potential as producers or transit areas (East Africa, Eastern Mediterranean).

  18. Complexity of Minimum Irreducible Infeasible Subsystem Covers for ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imke Joormann

    2015-03-07

    Analyzing infeasibility of linear programs (LPs) is an important topic, since it can help to ... The analysis of general infeasible linear systems has been extensively ...... [25] Mateti, P., Deo, N.: On algorithms for enumerating all circuits of a graph.

  19. Sequential fatty acid analysis of a peat core covering the last two millennia (Tritrivakely lake, Madagascar)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , Madagascar): Diagenesis appraisal and consequences for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction Jean-Robert Disnar

  20. A Fast Approach for Static Timing Analysis Covering All PVT Corners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    of Toronto Toronto, ON, Canada sari@eecg.utoronto.ca Feroze Taraporevala Synopsys Inc. Mountain View, CA, USA ferozet@synopsys.com Jinfeng Liu Synopsys Inc. Mountain View, CA, USA jinfengl@synopsys.com Farid Najm and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post

  1. Decision analysis for continuous cover gas monitoring of Ferrocyanide Watch List tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, K.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Graves, R.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-07-01

    This document pertains to underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site that have been identified to potentially contain a significant amount of ferrocyanide compounds. This document evaluates the need for continuously monitoring the headspace vapors in Ferrocyanide Watch List tanks to detect flammable gases or gases that could indicate the occurrence of a propagating ferrocyanide-nitrate/nitrite reaction. The results of modeling studies and gas monitoring, and sludge sample analyses of actual ferrocyanide tank wastes have indicated no need to continuously monitor the vapor spaces in ferrocyanide tanks. This conclusion is based in part on the following factors: (1) a study performance on waste aging suggests that the ferrocyanide has degraded in the tanks during the more than 35 years of storage; therefore, the ferrocyanide is not present in concentrations that could support an exothermic reaction, also, the moisture present in the waste is sufficient to preclude a self-sustaining (propagating) ferrocyanide-nitrate reaction; (2) evaluation of core sample results from Tank 241-C-109 and Tank 241-C-112 support laboratory studies showing that ferrocyanide has degraded and the fuel concentration in the tanks is considerably lower than postulated by flowsheet simulants; (3) no gases have been identified that would indicate the occurrence of a ferrocyanide nitrate/nitrite reaction; additionally, a self-sustaining ferrocyanide nitrate/nitrite reaction is not possible under current and future planned storage conditions. After reviewing the available information, it is evident that there would be little safety benefit from continuous in-tank vapor monitoring, and the time and commitment of operations schedule and equipment funds are not justified in the face of competing needs.

  2. Consistency of wind erosion assessments across land use and land cover types: A critical analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, J; Okin, GS; Tatarko, J; Webb, NP; Herrick, JE

    2014-01-01

    of the SWEEP model during high wind on the Columbia Plateau.J.D. , 1998a. A single event wind erosion model. Trans. ASAEZobeck, T.M. , 1998. Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ).

  3. Exploratory Analysis of Suburban Land Cover and Population Density in the U.S.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    ], socially and economically dependent on large cities. Suburbs have been given consideration in the past congestion and associ- ated degradation of air quality. According to the U.S.Census Bureau [2], between 1995 Areas (MSA) but out- side of a central city". Although this definition is intuitive and easily

  4. 2014 Offshore Wind Market & Economic Analysis Cover Photo | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOffice | Department of Energy Oakand14 U.S.|4

  5. Preliminary Analysis of ARM SGP Area Sky Cover and Downwelling SW Irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document w1.½tank

  6. Performance of Evapotranspirative Covers Under Enhanced Precipitation: Preliminary Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David C. Anderson, Lloyd T. Desotell, David B. Hudson, Gregory J. Shott, Vefa Yucel

    2007-02-01

    Since January 2001, drainage lysimeter studies have been conducted at Yucca Flat, on the Nevada Test Site, in support of an evapotranspirative cover design. Yucca Flat has an arid climate with average precipitation of 16.5 cm annually. The facility consists of six drainage lysimeters 3 m in diameter, 2.4 m deep, and backfilled with a single layer of native soil. The bottom of each lysimeter is sealed and equipped with a small drain that enables direct measurement of saturated drainage. Each lysimeter has eight time-domain reflectometer probes to measure moisture content-depth profiles paired with eight heat-dissipation probes to measure soil-water potential depth profiles. Sensors are connected to dataloggers which are remotely accessed via a phone line. The six lysimeters have three different surface treatments: two are bare-soil; two were revegetated with native species (primarily shadscale, winterfat, ephedra, and Indian rice grass); and two were allowed to revegetate naturally with such species as Russian thistle, halogeton, tumblemustard and cheatgrass. Beginning in October 2003, one half of the paired cover treatments (one bare soil, one invader species, and one native species) were irrigated with an amount of water equal to two times the natural precipitation to achieve a three times natural precipitation treatment. From October 2003 through December 2005, all lysimeters received 52.8 cm precipitation, and the four irrigated lysimeters received an extra 105.6 cm of irrigation. No drainage has occurred from any of the nonirrigated lysimeters, but moisture has accumulated at the bottom of the bare-soil lysimeter and the native-plant lysimeter. All irrigated lysimeters had some drainage. The irrigated baresoil lysimeter had 48.3 cm of drainage or 26.4 percent of the combined precipitation and applied irrigation for the entire monitoring record. The irrigated invader species lysimeter had 5.8 cm of drainage, about 3.2 percent of the combined precipitation and applied irrigation. An irrigation valve failure caused an additional 50.8 cm of irrigation to be applied to the irrigated native plant lysimeter. There has been 29.3 cm of drainage from this lysimeter, which is 11.5 percent of the total applied water. Approximately 40 percent of the drainage from the irrigated native plant lysimeter occurred within four weeks of the valve failure.

  7. Large-Scale Field Study of Landfill Covers at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1998-09-01

    A large-scale field demonstration comparing final landfill cover designs has been constructed and is currently being monitored at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle `D' Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle `C' Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed side-by-side with four alternative cover test plots designed for dry environments. The demonstration is intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. This paper presents an overview of the ongoing demonstration.

  8. Dual Durameter Blow Molded Rocker Cover Design With Unique Isolation Strategy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freese, V, Charles Edwin (Westland, MI)

    2000-07-11

    The rocker arm cover on a diesel engine can be formed of a rigid molded plastic material to minimize the transmission of noise into the atmosphere. Sonic vibration of the cover can be reduced by reducing the cover material stiffness. The reduced stiffness of the cover material allows the roof area of the cover to be momentarily displaced away from the cylinder head in the presence of an acoustic wave, so that the roof area is not able to develop the restoring force that is necessary for vibrational motion.

  9. High temperature flow-through device for rapid solubilization and analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Jason A. A. (Castro Valley, CA); Hukari, Kyle W. (San Ramon, CA); Patel, Kamlesh D. (Dublin, CA); Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Renzi, Ronald F. (Tracy, CA)

    2009-09-22

    Devices and methods for thermally lysing of biological material, for example vegetative bacterial cells and bacterial spores, are provided. Hot solution methods for solubilizing bacterial spores are described. Systems for direct analysis are disclosed including thermal lysers coupled to sample preparation stations. Integrated systems capable of performing sample lysis, labeling and protein fingerprint analysis of biological material, for example, vegetative bacterial cells, bacterial spores and viruses are provided.

  10. Investigation of the utility of the vegetation condition index (VCI) as an indicator of drought 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganesh, Srinivasan

    2009-05-15

    The relationship between the satellite-based Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) and frequently used agricultural drought indices like Palmer Drought Severity Index, Palmer’s Z-index, Standard Precipitation Index, percent ...

  11. Normalized Microwave Reflection Index: A Vegetation Measurement Derived From GPS Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Small, Eric

    M. Larson and Eric E. Small Abstract--Measurements of vegetation state are required both is also critical for retrieval of hydro- logic variables from remote sensing data--as both passive

  12. Using mobile technology to impact fruit and vegetable consumption in low-income youth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutcheson, Tresza Denae

    2012-12-31

    The benefits of fruits and vegetables (FV) include supplying nutrients and fiber to the diet, reducing risk of disease, and assisting in weight maintenance by increasing satiety and decreasing energy density of the diet. ...

  13. How does vegetation affect sedimentation on tidal marshes? Investigating particle capture and hydrodynamic controls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mudd, Simon Marius

    How does vegetation affect sedimentation on tidal marshes? Investigating particle capture stems, or enhanced settling due to a reduction in turbulent kinetic energy within flows through kinetic energy in the fertilized canopy. Our newly developed models of biologically mediated sedimentation

  14. Coastal Marsh Vegetation Dynamics of the East Bay of Galveston Bay, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Jeremy Scott

    2012-10-19

    The structure and function of coastal marshes results from a complex interaction of biotic and abiotic processes that continually influence the characteristics of marsh vegetation. A great deal of research has focused on how tidal processes...

  15. Estimation of the bed shear stress in vegetated and bare channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Qingjun (Judy Qingjun)

    2015-01-01

    The shear stress at the bed of a channel influences important benthic processes such as sediment transport. Several methods exist to estimate the bed shear stress in bare channels without vegetation, but most of these are ...

  16. Model and laboratory study of dispersion in flows with submerged vegetation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, E.

    Vegetation is ubiquitous in rivers, estuaries, and wetlands, strongly influencing water conveyance and mass transport. The plant canopy affects mean and turbulent flow structure, and thus both advection and dispersion. ...

  17. Impact of vegetation properties on U.S. summer weather prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Y; Fennessy, M; Sellers, P

    1996-01-01

    Meteorological Center, Mon. Weather Rev. , 108, 1279-1292,VEGETATION IN U.S. SUMMER WEATHER model (SIB) for use withinConference on Numerical Weather Prediction, pp. 726 -733,

  18. Effects of dynamic vegetation and topography on hydrological processes in semi-arid areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivanov, Valeri Yuryevich, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Ecosystems of dry climates represent a particularly interesting object for ecohydrological studies, as water is generally considered to be the key limiting resource. This work focuses on vegetation-water-energy dynamics ...

  19. A Comparison of Vegetation in Artificially Isolated Wetlands on West Galveston Island 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Ashley

    2012-07-16

    The purpose of this study was to compare vegetation systems among three artificially isolated wetlands on the west end of Galveston Island. Sample sites were identified as isolated wetlands and anthropogenic impact was observed. Wetland plant...

  20. Vegetation, soils, and surface hydrology of playa landforms in the Rio Grande Plains, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farley, Andrea Lee

    2000-01-01

    Playas in the Rio Grande Plains of southern Texas were compared with respect to their: 1) size, shape, soil properties, and microtopography, 2) vegetation composition and structure, 3) surface water accumulation potential, and 4) disturbance history...

  1. The coupled development of terrain and vegetation : the case of semiarid grasslands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores Cervantes, Javier Homero, 1977-

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of vegetation in semiarid landscapes organizes as a function of moisture availability, which is often mediated by the form of the land surface. Simultaneously the processes that shape the land surface are ...

  2. Shipping and nitrogen toning effects on postharvest shelf life of vegetative annuals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beach, Shannon Elizabeth

    2006-10-30

    Vegetative annuals are currently popular in the ornamental horticulture industry. Many crops are newly domesticated species and little is known about how they perform during shipping or in the retail environment. Nine ...

  3. Harmonic propagation of variability in surface energy balance within a coupled soil-vegetation-atmosphere system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gentine, P.

    [1] The response of a soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum model to incoming radiation forcing is investigated in order to gain insights into the coupling of soil and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) states and fluxes. The ...

  4. Management of shallow impoundments to provide emergent and submergent vegetation for waterfowl 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polasek, Len Gerard

    1994-01-01

    adjacent to water; and, grasses in upper, drier zones. Seed production of grasses, sedges, and forbs generally reflected vegetation present in each soil-moisture zone. Taxon richness of emergent plants was highest in dewatered zones. Drawdown timing did...

  5. Vegetation and sediment characteristics of created and natural Spartina alterniflora marshes in Lower Galveston Bay, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albertson, Andrea Kai

    1998-01-01

    Five natural and ten created Spartina altemiflora marshes in the Lower Galveston Bay System, Texas, were compared to determine if there were significantly different vegetative and sediment characteristics associated with ...

  6. Measurements and Linear Wave Theory Based Simulations of Vegetated Wave Hydrodynamics for Practical Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Mary Elizabeth

    2011-10-21

    impeded. Sparse vegetation fields dissipated less wave energy than the intermediate density; however, the extremely dense fields dissipated very little, if any, wave energy and sometimes wave growth was observed. This is possibly due to the highest...

  7. SITE DESIGN GUIDELINES PEDESTRIAN VEHICULAR BICYCLE VEGETATION FURNISHINGS LIGHTING SIGNAGE PAVING SITEWORK PARKING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    SITE DESIGN GUIDELINES PEDESTRIAN VEHICULAR BICYCLE VEGETATION FURNISHINGS LIGHTING SIGNAGE PAVING Table of Contents Table of Contents Section One Section Two Section Three 2.1 Pedestrian Nodes ....................................................................................... 2.3 Pedestrian Paths ............................................................................ 2

  8. Momentum and mass transport by coherent structures in a shallow vegetated shear flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Brian L., 1975-

    2006-01-01

    In many aquatic systems, from tidal creeks with fringing mangroves to rivers and associated floodplains, there exists an interface between dense vegetation and a high conveyance channel. A shear flow develops across this ...

  9. Contribution of vegetation and peat fires to particulate air pollution in Southeast Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddington, C L

    Smoke haze, caused by vegetation and peat fires in Southeast Asia, is of major concern because of its adverse impact on regional air quality. We apply two different methods (a chemical transport model and a Lagrangian ...

  10. An Experimental Investigation of Microexplosion in Emulsified Vegetable-Methanol Blend 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nam, Hyungseok

    2012-07-16

    of shock waves characteristic of explosions at larger scales. However, little is known about how emulsion composition and droplet size affect the micro-explosion process. Through this research, methanol-in-vegetable oil emulsion has been studied from...

  11. Effects of Vegetation Structure and Elevation on Lower Keys Marsh Rabbit Density 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dedrickson, Angela

    2012-02-14

    LKMR density on lands managed by the United States Navy, Naval Air Station Key West and evaluate how vegetation structure and patch elevation effect LKMR population density. I conducted fecal pellet counts to determine LKMR density, collected...

  12. Crop and vegetative growth impact on water infiltration into gulf coast soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peirce, Dwayne Jack

    1985-01-01

    CROP AND VEGETATIVE GROWTH IMPACT ON WATER INFILTRATION INTO GULF COAST SOILS A Thesis by DWAYNE JACK PEIRCE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1985 Major Subject: Soil Science CROP AND VEGETATIVE GROWTH IMPACT ON WATER INFILTRATION INTO GULF COAST SOILS A Thesis by DWAYNE JACK PEIRCE Approved as to style and content by: L. R. ossner (Chairman of Committee) M. J. Mc...

  13. Use of vegetation to ameliorate building microclimates: an assessment of energy-conservation potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hutchison, B.A.; Taylor, F.G.; Wendt, R.L.

    1982-04-01

    The space-conditioning energy conservation potentials of landscapes designed to ameliorate building microclimates are evaluated. The physical bases for vegetative modifications of climate are discussed, and results of past study of the effects of vegetation on space-conditioning energy consumption in buildings are reviewed. The state-of-the-art of energy-conserving landscape designs is assessed and recommendations are presented for further research.

  14. Evaluation of Vegetative Roofs' Performance on Energy Consumption in Hot and Humid Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, J.; Azarbayjani, M.

    2008-01-01

    policy- making. LEED standards evaluate buildings on a point system that considers site development, material selection, energy efficiency, and indoor environmental quality. Vegetative roofs qualify for up to 3 points in LEED as ?potential... technologies and strategies? under the storm water management and heat island effect categories. A vegetative roof may also accumulate points indirectly under the categories on energy efficiency and water efficient landscaping. (USGBC, 2002) Today...

  15. Long-wave infrared imaging of vegetation for detecting leaking CO2 gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Joseph A.

    Long-wave infrared imaging of vegetation for detecting leaking CO2 gas Jennifer E. Johnson Joseph A for detecting leaking CO2 gas Jennifer E. Johnson,a Joseph A. Shaw,a Rick Lawrence,b Paul W. Nugent,a Laura M of these calibrated imagers is imaging of vegetation for CO2 gas leak detection. During a four-week period

  16. Evaluation of vegetable oils for deep frying of batter-breaded meat nuggets 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Housson, Shirley Elizabeth

    1990-01-01

    EVALUATION OF VEGETABLE OILS FOR DEEP FRYING OF BATIER-BREADED MEAT NUGGETS A Thesis by SHIRLEY ELIZABETH HOUSSON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1990 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology EVALUATION OF VEGETABLE OILS FOR DEEP FRYING OF BATTER-BREADED MEAT NUGGETS A Thesis by SHIRLEY ELIZABETH HOUSSON Approved as to style and content by: Ki Soon Rhee (Chair...

  17. Ecosystem feedbacks to climate change in California: Development, testing, and analysis using a coupled regional atmosphere and land-surface model (WRF3-CLM3.5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subin, Z.M.; Riley, W.J.; Kueppers, L.M.; Jin, J.; Christianson, D.S.; Torn, M.S.

    2010-11-01

    A regional atmosphere model [Weather Research and Forecasting model version 3 (WRF3)] and a land surface model [Community Land Model, version 3.5 (CLM3.5)] were coupled to study the interactions between the atmosphere and possible future California land-cover changes. The impact was evaluated on California's climate of changes in natural vegetation under climate change and of intentional afforestation. The ability of WRF3 to simulate California's climate was assessed by comparing simulations by WRF3-CLM3.5 and WRF3-Noah to observations from 1982 to 1991. Using WRF3-CLM3.5, the authors performed six 13-yr experiments using historical and future large-scale climate boundary conditions from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model version 2.1 (GFDL CM2.1). The land-cover scenarios included historical and future natural vegetation from the Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System-Century 1 (MC1) dynamic vegetation model, in addition to a future 8-million-ha California afforestation scenario. Natural vegetation changes alone caused summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature changes of -0.7 to +1 C in regions without persistent snow cover, depending on the location and the type of vegetation change. Vegetation temperature changes were much larger than the 2-m air temperature changes because of the finescale spatial heterogeneity of the imposed vegetation change. Up to 30% of the magnitude of the summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature increase and 70% of the magnitude of the 1600 local time (LT) vegetation temperature increase projected under future climate change were attributable to the climate-driven shift in land cover. The authors projected that afforestation could cause local 0.2-1.2 C reductions in summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature and 2.0-3.7 C reductions in 1600 LT vegetation temperature for snow-free regions, primarily because of increased evapotranspiration. Because some of these temperature changes are of comparable magnitude to those projected under climate change this century, projections of climate and vegetation change in this region need to consider these climate-vegetation interactions.

  18. Delivery of Vegetable Oil Suspensions in a Shear Thinning Fluid for Enhanced Bioremediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Lirong; Truex, Michael J.; Kananizadeh, Negin; Li, Yusong; Lea, Alan S.; Yan, Xiulan

    2015-04-01

    In situ anaerobic biological processes are widely applied for dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. A wide range of organic substrates have been tested and applied to support the dechlorination processes. Vegetable oils are a promising substrate and have been shown to induce effective dechlorination, have limited geochemical impacts, and good longevity. Distribution of vegetable oil in the subsurface, because it is a non-aqueous phase material, has typically been addressed by creating emulsified oil solutions. In this study, inexpensive waste vegetable oils were suspended in a xanthan gum solution, a shear-thinning fluid, as an alternative oil delivery mechanism. The stability, oil droplet size and distribution, and rheological behavior of the oil suspensions that are created in the xanthan solutions were studied in batch experiments. The injectability of the suspensions and oil distribution in porous medium were evaluated in column tests. Numerical modeling of the oil droplet transport and distribution in porous media was conducted to help interpret the column-test data. Batch studies showed that simple mixing of vegetable oil and xanthan solution produced stable suspensions of the oil as micron-size droplets. The mixture rheology retains shear-thinning properties that facilitate improved uniformity of substrate distribution in heterogeneous aquifers. Column tests demonstrated successful injection of the vegetable oil suspension into porous medium. This study provided evidence that vegetable oil suspensions in xanthan are a potential substrate to support in situ anaerobic bioremediation with favorable injection properties.

  19. CEE 812 Structural Engineering Seminar Series Langley Covered Bridge Rehabilitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    as the building envelope. He also places emphasis on analysis, design, evaluation, and repair of pre's Committees on Parking Structures, Prestressing, and Strength Evaluation of Existing Concrete Buildings. He of the Timber Frame Engineering Council, a group dedicated to advancing the technology and practice of timber

  20. Issues in Midterm Analysis and Forecasting

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    Final issue of this report. Presents a series of eight papers, which cover topics in analysis and modeling that underlie the Annual Energy Outlook 1999, as well as other significant issues in midterm energy markets.

  1. Microbial Diversity Studies in Sediments of Perennially Ice-covered Lakes, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Chao

    2009-01-01

    perennial ice cover. Sedimentology 38: 363-379. Takacs,perennial ice cover. Sedimentology 38: 363-379. Suzuki, M. ,perennial ice cover. Sedimentology 38: 363-379. Tamaki, H. ,

  2. Taking off the training wheels: the properties of a dynamic vegetation model without climate envelopes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fisher, R. A.; Muszala, S.; Verteinstein, M.; Lawrence, P.; Xu, C.; McDowell, N. G.; Knox, R. G.; Koven, C.; Holm, J.; Rogers, B. M.; et al

    2015-04-29

    We describe an implementation of the Ecosystem Demography (ED) concept in the Community Land Model. The structure of CLM(ED) and the physiological and structural modifications applied to the CLM are presented. A major motivation of this development is to allow the prediction of biome boundaries directly from plant physiological traits via their competitive interactions. Here we investigate the performance of the model for an example biome boundary in Eastern North America. We explore the sensitivity of the predicted biome boundaries and ecosystem properties to the variation of leaf properties determined by the parameter space defined by the GLOPNET global leafmore »trait database. Further, we investigate the impact of four sequential alterations to the structural assumptions in the model governing the relative carbon economy of deciduous and evergreen plants. The default assumption is that the costs and benefits of deciduous vs. evergreen leaf strategies, in terms of carbon assimilation and expenditure, can reproduce the geographical structure of biome boundaries and ecosystem functioning. We find some support for this assumption, but only under particular combinations of model traits and structural assumptions. Many questions remain regarding the preferred methods for deployment of plant trait information in land surface models. In some cases, plant traits might best be closely linked with each other, but we also find support for direct linkages to environmental conditions. We advocate for intensified study of the costs and benefits of plant life history strategies in different environments, and for the increased use of parametric and structural ensembles in the development and analysis of complex vegetation models.« less

  3. Taking off the training wheels: the properties of a dynamic vegetation model without climate envelopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, R. A. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Muszala, S. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Verteinstein, M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Lawrence, P. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Xu, C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McDowell, N. G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Knox, R. G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Koven, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000233670065); Holm, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rogers, B. M. [Woods Hole Research Center, Falmouth, MA (United States); Lawrence, D. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Bonan, G. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We describe an implementation of the Ecosystem Demography (ED) concept in the Community Land Model. The structure of CLM(ED) and the physiological and structural modifications applied to the CLM are presented. A major motivation of this development is to allow the prediction of biome boundaries directly from plant physiological traits via their competitive interactions. Here we investigate the performance of the model for an example biome boundary in Eastern North America. We explore the sensitivity of the predicted biome boundaries and ecosystem properties to the variation of leaf properties determined by the parameter space defined by the GLOPNET global leaf trait database. Further, we investigate the impact of four sequential alterations to the structural assumptions in the model governing the relative carbon economy of deciduous and evergreen plants. The default assumption is that the costs and benefits of deciduous vs. evergreen leaf strategies, in terms of carbon assimilation and expenditure, can reproduce the geographical structure of biome boundaries and ecosystem functioning. We find some support for this assumption, but only under particular combinations of model traits and structural assumptions. Many questions remain regarding the preferred methods for deployment of plant trait information in land surface models. In some cases, plant traits might best be closely linked with each other, but we also find support for direct linkages to environmental conditions. We advocate for intensified study of the costs and benefits of plant life history strategies in different environments, and for the increased use of parametric and structural ensembles in the development and analysis of complex vegetation models.

  4. Mapping critical levels of ozone, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide for crops, forests and natural vegetation in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenbaum, B.J.; Strickland, T.C.; McDowell, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    Air pollution abatement strategies for controlling nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone emissions in the United States focus on a 'Standards-based' approach. This approach places limits on air pollution by maintaining a baseline value for air quality, no matter what the ecosystem can or cannot withstand. In the paper, the authors present example critical levels maps for the conterminous U.S. developed using the 'effects-based' mapping approach as defined by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe's Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, Task Force on Mapping. The approach emphasizes the pollution level or load capacity an ecosystem can accommodate before degradation occurs, and allows for analysis of cumulative effects. They present the first stage of an analysis that reports the distribution of exceedances of critical levels for NO2, SO3, and O3 in sensitive forest, crop, and natural vegetation ecosystems in the contiguous United States. They conclude that extrapolation to surrounding geographic areas requires the analysis of diverse and compounding factors that preclude simple extrapolation methods. (Copyright (c) 1994 Kluwer Academic Publishers.)

  5. KineticsFinal Report Cover Page Bakajin, O 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    KineticsFinal Report Cover Page Bakajin, O 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; 42 ENGINEERING; CONSUMPTION RATES; DEAD TIME; DETECTION; DIFFUSION; DNA; ENERGY TRANSFER; FABRICATION;...

  6. New frontiers in oilseed biotechnology: meeting the growing global demand for vegetable oils for food, feed, biofuel, and industrial uses.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, C; Napier, JA; Clemente, TE; Cahoon, EB

    2011-01-01

    Vegetable oils have historically been a valued commodity for food use and to a lesser extent for non-edible applications such as detergents and lubricants. The increasing reliance on biodiesel as a transportation fuel has contributed to rising demand and higher prices for vegetable oils. Biotechnology offers a number of solutions to meet the growing need for affordable vegetable oils and vegetable oils with improved fatty acid compositions for food and industrial uses. New insights into oilseed metabolism and its transcriptional control are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and quality. Alternative crop platforms and emerging technologies for metabolic engineering also hold promise for meeting global demand for vegetable oils and for enhancing nutritional, industrial, and biofuel properties of vegetable oils. Here, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of oilseed metabolism and in the development of new oilseed platforms and metabolic engineering technologies.

  7. Modelling vegetation dynamics at global scale due to climate changes: Comparison of two approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belotelov, N.V.; Bogatyrev, B.G.; Lobanov, A.I.

    1996-12-31

    Climate changes will influence vegetation dynamics. One of the ways of forecasting these changes is the creation of mathematical models describing vegetation dynamics. Computer experiments can then be conducted under climate change scenarios. Two main approaches are used to create such models. The first approach is based on a bioclimatic dynamic approach. The second approach is based on modelling the main eco-physiological processes. The bioclimatic dynamic approach consists of hypotheses about vegetation types or biomes, and their interrelationships with climate. In the eco-physiological approach, a detailed description of the processes, such as production, mortality, plants migration and their competition is presented. A number of computer experiments has been conducted for several climatic scenario for Russia and the whole world. A qualitative comparison of the results with the results of an earlier bioclimatic model has been done.

  8. Variables affecting the yields of fatty esters from transesterified vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freedman, B.; Pryde, E.H.; Mounts, T.L.

    1984-10-01

    Transesterification reaction variables that affect yield and purity of the product esters from cottonseed, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils include molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil, type of catalyst (alkaline vs acidic), temperature and degree of refinement of the vegetable oil. With alkaline catalysts (either sodium hydroxide or methoxide), temperatures of 60 degrees C or higher, molar ratios of at least 6 to 1 and with fully refined oils, conversion to methyl, ethyl and butyl esters was essentially complete in 1 hr. At moderate temperatures (32 degrees C), vegetable oils were 99% transesterified in ca. 4 hr with an alkaline catalyst. Transesterification by acid catalysis was much slower than by alkali catalysis. Although the crude oils could be transesterified, ester yields were reduced because of gums and extraneous material present in the crude oils. 30 references.

  9. On 2-coverings and 2-packings of laminar families J. Cheriyan T. Jordan y R. Ravi z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheriyan, Joseph

    On 2-coverings and 2-packings of laminar families J. Cheriyan T. Jordan y R. Ravi z January 24: laminar family of subsets, 1-covers, 2-covers, 1-packings, 2-packings, NP-hard, approximation algorithm grant CCR{9625297. 1 #12;1 Introduction Coverings and packings of laminar families by edges Let H

  10. Object-Based High-Resolution Land-Cover Mapping Operational Considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    . They overcome the limitations of traditional pixel-based classification methods by incorporating not only cover, remote sensing, high resolution I. INTRODUCTION Commercial satellites, digital aerial imaging-cover mapping over large areas. Pixel-based classification techniques, in which a given pixel is assigned

  11. THE CLASSIFICATION OF DIGITAL COVERING SPACES Laurence Boxer and Ismet KARACA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boxer, Laurence

    THE CLASSIFICATION OF DIGITAL COVERING SPACES Laurence Boxer and Ismet KARACA Abstract Classification. Primary 55N35, 68R10, 68U05, 68U10. Key words and phrases. digital image, digital topology. In this paper we classify digital covering spaces using the conjugacy class corre- sponding to a digital

  12. Risk Management Contract Cover Sheet https://controller.psu.edu/risk-management/contract-information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilf, Peter

    Risk Management Contract Cover Sheet https://controller.psu.edu/risk-management-865-0512 Remit cover sheet and contract by ONE of the following methods: Risk Management Notes for Assistant Treasurer Email: riskcontracts@psu.edu US Mail: Risk Management Office The Pennsylvania State University 227

  13. Geophysical methods applied to characterize landfill covers with geocomposite F. Genelle1, 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Geophysical methods applied to characterize landfill covers with geocomposite F. Genelle1, 2 , C attempt to characterize with geophysical methods the state of landfill covers to detect damages that can. The geophysical methods used were the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), cartography with an Automatic

  14. Ionization probability of atoms and molecules sputtered from a cesium covered silver surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wucher, Andreas

    Ionization probability of atoms and molecules sputtered from a cesium covered silver surface S that the dependence of the AgCs ion fraction on the cesium surface concentration does not follow the ionization conditions by a rastered 10 keV Xe ion beam and subsequently covered with cesium by deposition from

  15. Runoff characteristics and the influence of land cover in drylands of western Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yun

    2009-06-02

    In dryland regions, where water is a limited resource, land use/land cover has undergone and continues to undergo significant change mainly due to human activities. The nature of runoff from dryland regions and the influence of land use/land cover...

  16. Robust and Efficient Covering of Unknown Continuous Domains with Simple, Ant-Like

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruckstein, Alfred M.

    want to cover (or clean or search or paint) a connected domain in R2 simple robots having effectors (or that a domain was covered by the (team of) robots if each and every point of the domain was swept by a robot effector. In fact, every time we want to build an automatic machine suitable for applications such as floor

  17. Connectivity between Eurasian snow cover extent and Canadian snow water equivalent and river

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dery, Stephen

    Connectivity between Eurasian snow cover extent and Canadian snow water equivalent and river historical time series of satellite-based measurements of Eurasian snow cover extent and of observed Canadian snow water equivalent (SWE) and freshwater discharge, with a focus on the Churchill River Basin

  18. Sub-grid parameterization of snow distribution for an energy and mass balance snow cover model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sub-grid parameterization of snow distribution for an energy and mass balance snow cover model-element scale variability in snow accumulation and ablation is increasingly recognized as important spatial variability in snow accumulation and melt. Model state variables are snow-covered area average

  19. Evaluation of MODIS snow cover and cloud mask and its application in Northern Xinjiang, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at San Antonio, University of

    Evaluation of MODIS snow cover and cloud mask and its application in Northern Xinjiang, China in revised form 14 May 2007; accepted 26 May 2007 Abstract Using five-year (2001­2005) ground-observed snow the accuracy of the 8-day snow cover product (MOD10A2) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

  20. Bile Duct Disruption Following Radiofrequency Ablation: Successful Repair Using a Covered Stent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Philip M.; Hare, Christopher M.B., E-mail: christopher.hare@uclh.org; Lees, William R. [Middlesex Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2004-08-15

    Persistent biliary leaks, whether iatrogenic or secondary to malignancy, often present a difficult management problem. Recent reports have suggested a role for covered metallic stents in this context. We describe the successful use of a covered stent to seal a persistent biliary leak following radiofrequency ablation of colorectal liver metastases.

  1. Simulated heat storage in a perennially ice-covered high Arctic lake: Sensitivity to climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent, Warwick F.

    . In contrast, the perennially ice-covered lakes found at high latitudes can store heat in excess of the annualSimulated heat storage in a perennially ice-covered high Arctic lake: Sensitivity to climate change conductivity and temperature profiles. They are salinity stratified and have deep thermal maxima that persist

  2. THE RELATIVE BRAUER GROUP AND GENERALIZED CYCLIC CROSSED PRODUCTS FOR A RAMIFIED COVERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Timothy J.

    in the Picard group of S. For the rest of the homomorphisms in the seven term sequence explicit descriptionsTHE RELATIVE BRAUER GROUP AND GENERALIZED CYCLIC CROSSED PRODUCTS FOR A RAMIFIED COVERING TIMOTHY J the relative Brauer group fits into the exact sequence of Galois cohomology associated to the ramified covering

  3. Cover your Cough! Quantifying the Benefits of a Localized Healthy Behavior Intervention on Flu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swarup, Samarth

    Cover your Cough! Quantifying the Benefits of a Localized Healthy Behavior Intervention on Flu a policy that encourages healthy behaviors (such as covering your cough and using hand sanitizers) at four coughs, minimizing contact with potential fomites) at major tourist locations. We use a synthetic

  4. A COVERING-GRAPH APPROACH TO EPIDEMICS ON SIS AND SIS-LIKE NETWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floyd, William

    without first passing to the sus- ceptible state. We use a covering graph construction to compare SIR, SIS of infectives. The same covering graph construction allows us to characterize the recurrent states in a SIS on the stochastic SIS model, so that asymptotic behavior is uninteresting; we consider certain long-lived states

  5. Importance of moisture transport, snow cover and soil freezing to ground temperature predictions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Importance of moisture transport, snow cover and soil freezing to ground temperature predictions moisture transport, snow accumulation and melting, and soil freezing and thawing are investigated transport, snow cover, and soil freezing. 1. Introduction Prediction of ground temperature is an important

  6. Design Rationale for Construction and Monitoring of Unsaturated Soil Covers at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    Design Rationale for Construction and Monitoring of Unsaturated Soil Covers at the Rocky Mountain, a high-profile hazardous waste facility located near Denver, Colorado, USA. The soil cover system has presented by the interdependent criteria, and the post-construction monitoring program. INTRODUCTION The use

  7. Decomposing aerosol cloud radiative effects into cloud cover, liquid water path and Twomey components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    Decomposing aerosol cloud radiative effects into cloud cover, liquid water path and Twomey December 2013 A method for separating the three components of the marine stratocumulus (MSC) aerosol cloud interactions radiative effects, i.e., the cloud cover, liquid water path (LWP) and cloud drop radius (Twomey

  8. Middle to Late Holocene Fluctuations of C3 and C4 Vegetation in a Northern New England Salt Marsh, Sprague Marsh, Phippsburg Maine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, B J; Moore, K A; Lehmann, C; Bohlen, C; Brown, T A

    2006-05-26

    A 3.1 meter sediment core was analyzed for stable carbon isotope composition of organic matter and higher plant leaf wax (HPLW) lipid biomarkers to determine Holocene shifts in C{sub 3} (higher high marsh) and C{sub 4} (low and/or high marsh) plant deposition at the Sprague River Salt Marsh, Phippsburg, Maine. The carbon isotope composition of the bulk sediment and the HPLW parallel each other throughout most of the core, suggesting that terrestrial plants are an important source of organic matter to the sediments, and diagenetic alteration of the bulk sediments is minimal. The current salt marsh began to form 2500 cal yr BP. Low and/or high C{sub 4} marsh plants dominated deposition at 2000 cal yr BP, 700 cal yr BP, and for the last 200 cal yr BP. Expansion of higher high marsh C{sub 3} plants occurred at 1300 and 600 cal yr BP. These major vegetation shifts result from a combination of changes in relative sea-level rise and sediment accumulation rates. Average annual carbon sequestration rates for the last 2500 years approximate 40 g C yr{sup -1} m{sup -2}, and are in strong agreement with other values published for the Gulf of Maine. Given that Maine salt marshes cover an area of {approx}79 km{sup 2}, they represent an important component of the terrestrial carbon sink. More detailed isotopic and age records from a network of sediment cores at Sprague Marsh are needed to truly evaluate the long term changes in salt marsh plant communities and the impact of more recent human activity, including global warming, on salt marsh vegetation.

  9. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS PROTOCOLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jannik, T; P Fledderman, P

    2007-02-09

    Radiological sampling and analyses are performed to collect data for a variety of specific reasons covering a wide range of projects. These activities include: Effluent monitoring; Environmental surveillance; Emergency response; Routine ambient monitoring; Background assessments; Nuclear license termination; Remediation; Deactivation and decommissioning (D&D); and Waste management. In this chapter, effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance programs at nuclear operating facilities and radiological sampling and analysis plans for remediation and D&D activities will be discussed.

  10. A newsletter for commercial vegetable growers prepared by the Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginzel, Matthew

    the hole and mound a "soil dome." 4. Cover the mound with an18-inch-square black plastic mulch, and cover the edges with soil to hold the plastic sheet down. 5. Place one trap for each acre or at least ten traps

  11. Species richness and vegetation pattern in interdune lowlands of an active dune field in Inner Mongolia, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jianguo "Jingle"

    Species richness and vegetation pattern in interdune lowlands of an active dune field in Inner Limnocryptophyte species Psammophyte Semi-arid inner dunes Steppe species Species­area curve A B S T R A C T Vegetation pattern in lowlands between active sand dunes has rarely been studied, but it may play

  12. ALLUVIAL SCRUB VEGETATION IN COASTAL SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA1 Ted L. Hanes, Richard D. Friesen, and Kathy Keane2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ALLUVIAL SCRUB VEGETATION IN COASTAL SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA1 Ted L. Hanes, Richard D. Friesen deposits along the coastal side of major mountains of southern California. This vegetation type is adapted coastal and desert dunes, coastal val- leys and foothills, interior mountains and desert flats. Holland

  13. A record of Lateglacial and Holocene vegetation and climate change from Woods Lake, Seymour Inlet, coastal British Columbia, Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patterson, Timothy

    A record of Lateglacial and Holocene vegetation and climate change from Woods Lake, Seymour Inlet vegetation and environmental history recorded in a small coastal lake in the Seymour Inlet area, British in the Seymour Inlet area, a remote part of the central mainland coast located northeast of Vancouver Island

  14. Outbreaks of Foodborne Disease Associated with Fruit and Vegetable Juices, 192220101

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, Jacqueline K.

    microorganism," which is de ned as "the most resistant microorganism of public health signi cance that is likely to occur in the juice." Iden- ti cation of the pertinent microorganism for a particular juice may be based involving isolation of pathogens from juices or the fruits or vegetables used to produce those juices

  15. Global latitudinal-asymmetric vegetation growth trends and their driving mechanisms: 1982-2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter E; Hoffman, Forrest M; Zhu, Zaichun; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2013-01-01

    Using a recent Leaf Area Index (LAI) dataset and the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4), we investigate percent changes and controlling factors of global vegetation growth for the period 1982 to 2009. Over that 28-year period, both the remote-sensing estimate and model simulation show a significant increasing trend in annual vegetation growth. Latitudinal asymmetry appeared in both products, with small increases in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) and larger increases at high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). The south-to-north asymmetric land surface warming was assessed to be the principal driver of this latitudinal asymmetry of LAI trend. Heterogeneous precipitation functioned to decrease this latitudinal LAI gradient, and considerably regulated the local LAI change. CO2 fertilization during the last three decades, was simulated to be the dominant cause for the enhanced vegetation growth. Our study, though limited by observational and modeling uncertainties, adds further insight into vegetation growth trends and environmental correlations. These validation exercises also provide new quantitative and objective metrics for evaluation of land ecosystem process models at multiple spatio-temporal scales.

  16. Effects of aridity and vegetation on plant-wax dD in modern lake sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polissar, Pratigya J.

    Effects of aridity and vegetation on plant-wax dD in modern lake sediments Pratigya J. Polissar Abstract We analyzed the deuterium composition of individual plant-waxes in lake sediments from 28 fractionation (ea) between plant-wax n-alkanes and precipitation differs with watershed ecosystem type

  17. Characterizing the molecular composition of epicuticular waxes of vegetation and in surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Characterizing the molecular composition of epicuticular waxes of vegetation and in surface MBL Street, Woods Hole, MA 02543 #12;Abstract: Epicuticular plant waxes are nearly omnipresent of origin. These waxes can provide that information in real time when collected in aerosols, or from

  18. Hydraulic Effects of Changes in Bottom-Land Vegetation on Three

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydraulic Effects of Changes in Bottom-Land Vegetation on Three Major Floods, Gila RiverKelvey, Director Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Burkham, D. E. 1927 Hydraulic effects 19.16:655-J 1. Gila River-Floods. 2. Hydraulics. 3. Botany-Ecology-Gila River. 1. Title: Hydraulic

  19. Storage of water on vegetation under simulated rainfall of varying intensity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keim, Richard

    Storage of water on vegetation under simulated rainfall of varying intensity R.F. Keim a,*, A Little is understood about how storage of water on forest canopies varies during rainfall, even though storage changes intensity of throughfall and thus affects a variety of hydrological processes

  20. Normalized Microwave Reflection Index: Validation of Vegetation Water Content Estimates From

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Small, Eric

    of plant height, biomass, and VWC were taken on a biweekly basis during 2012 at four grassland sites. There is no clear relationship between NMRI and either vegetation height or biomass. The importance of normalization) estimated from data archived by GPS instruments deployed for geodetic appli- cations, such as the 1100

  1. Sensitivity of Mesoscale Surface Dynamics to Surface Soil and Vegetation Contrasts over the Carolina Sandhills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raman, Sethu

    Sensitivity of Mesoscale Surface Dynamics to Surface Soil and Vegetation Contrasts over in mesoscale summertime precipitation over this region. Numerical simulations are analyzed to investigate the relationships between mesoscale surface dynamics and the transition from clay to sandy soils over this region

  2. scholarship enabled me to travel to an organic vegetable farm in Minnesota during

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    scholarship enabled me to travel to an organic vegetable farm in Minnesota during the summer today. Thanks to the Academic Year Scholars program I was able to return to the Food Bank this semester of Guatemalan agriculture, I look forward to beginning a job with the Food Bank as a program designer

  3. INFLUENCE OF VEGETATION, TOPOGRAPHY, AND ROADS ON COUGAR MOVEMENT IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beier, Paul

    264 INFLUENCE OF VEGETATION, TOPOGRAPHY, AND ROADS ON COUGAR MOVEMENT IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA BRETT of corridors, and that corridors should lie along routes with relatively gentle topography. Our results suggest, topography, and roads can help parameterize an individually-based movement model for cougars in human

  4. Oil palm vegetation liquor: a new source of phenolic bioactives Ravigadevi Sambanthamurthi1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinskey, Anthony J.

    Oil palm vegetation liquor: a new source of phenolic bioactives Ravigadevi Sambanthamurthi1 *, Yew , Krishnan Subramaniam5 , Soon-Sen Leow1 , Kenneth C. Hayes6 and Mohd Basri Wahid1 1 Malaysian Palm Oil Board, 6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang Selangor, Malaysia 2 Malaysian Palm Oil

  5. The Earth as an extrasolar planet: the vegetation spectral signature today

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Luc

    The Earth as an extrasolar planet: the vegetation spectral signature today and during the last extrasolar Earth-like planet integrated reflectance spectrum. Here, we investigate the potential during these extrema, when Earth's climate and biomes maps were different from today, we are able to test

  6. Modeling of the interactions between forest vegetation, disturbances, and sediment yields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarboton, David

    Modeling of the interactions between forest vegetation, disturbances, and sediment yields Erkan on the frequency and magnitude of sediment delivery from a small watershed ($3.9 km2 ) in the Idaho batholith weathering and the divergence of diffusive sediment transport on hillslopes. Soil removal is due to episodic

  7. Chapter 5 -Sediment, Nutrient, and Vegetation Trends Along the Tidal, Forested Pocomoke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter 5 - Sediment, Nutrient, and Vegetation Trends Along the Tidal, Forested Pocomoke River-tidal upstream sites. Floodplain sediments in the past W.H. Conner, T.W. Doyle, and K.W. Krauss (eds.), Ecology]). These sediments overlie hundreds of meters of Tertiary (2-65 mybp) greensands and clay- silt. The Tertiary

  8. A Database of Herbaceous Vegetation Responses to Elevated Atmospheric CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Database of Herbaceous Vegetation Responses to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 ORNL/CDIAC-124 NDP-073, which may not be used without his written permission. #12;ORNL/CDIAC-124 NDP-073 A DATABASE Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal Biology The Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio Prepared

  9. -Establishment of Norway spruce seedlings -681 Journal of Vegetation Science 7: 681-684, 1996

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leps, Jan "Suspa"

    - Establishment of Norway spruce seedlings - 681 Journal of Vegetation Science 7: 681-684, 1996 abandoned for half a century and are sur- rounded by Picea abies (Norway spruce) forests. The causes of inhibition of establishment of Norway spruce seedlings in the meadows were tested experimentally

  10. The Earth as an extrasolar planet: The vegetation spectral signature today and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The Earth as an extrasolar planet: The vegetation spectral signature today and during the last in an unresolved extrasolar Earth-like planet integrated reflectance spectrum. Here we investigate the potential during these extrema when 1 hal-00351408,version1-9Jan2009 #12;Earth's climate and biomes maps were

  11. Recycled/Recyclable Printed with vegetable oil based inks on recycled paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden, Kenneth M.

    #12;Recycled/Recyclable Printed with vegetable oil based inks on recycled paper (minimum 50 renting, buying or renovating pre- 1978 housing. F ederal law requires that individuals receive certain information before renting, buying, or renovating pre-1978 housing: LANDLORDS have to disclose known infor

  12. Expansion of the world's deserts due to vegetation-albedo feedback under global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Ning

    -ocean-land model with a dynamic vegetation component that predicts surface albedo change, here we simulate, the model simulated an increase in the world's `warm desert' area of 2.5 million km2 or 10% at the end Coupled- Carbon-Cycle-Climate Model Intercomparison Project [Friedlingstein et al., 2006] (C4MIP) has

  13. Influence of woody plant on spring and riparian vegetation in central Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Li

    2009-05-15

    flow at Pedernales River upland catchments, and (2) the ecological responses of vegetation to altered flow regimes that result from brush management at the upland riparian zones. The study finds that an average of 3.67% of the monthly water budget...

  14. The effects of fire and tephra deposition on forest vegetation in the Central Cascades, Oregon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Colin

    The effects of fire and tephra deposition on forest vegetation in the Central Cascades, Oregon watershed and to examine the short-term effects that tephra deposition have on forest composition and fire Pinus forest with Artemisia as a common understory species. Fire episodes occurred on average every 115

  15. Vegetational changes in the San Antonio Prairie caused by mowing, grazing and abandonment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Launchbaugh, John L.

    1952-01-01

    ................................... 4 REVIEW OF LITERATURE............................... 9 Vegetation ....................................... 9 Succession....................................... 13 M e t h o d s ......................................... 15 DESCRIPTION OF A R E A... ............................... 17 G e o l o g y ......................................... 17 S o i l s ........................................... 17 Wilson Soils ................................... 18 Crockett Soils ................................. 19 M E T H O D...

  16. RECOVERY OF RIPARIAN VEGETATION ON AN INTERMITTENT STREAM FOLLOWING REMOVAL OF CATTLE1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RECOVERY OF RIPARIAN VEGETATION ON AN INTERMITTENT STREAM FOLLOWING REMOVAL OF CATTLE1 Jerry J. Prior to removal of cattle in 1983, the plots contained mature sycamores, one young sycamore, and five, a significant willow corridor is probably only possible in the absence of cattle browsing. Grazing has been

  17. Eighty years of change: vegetation in the montane ecoregion of Jasper National Park, Alberta,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macdonald, Ellen

    Eighty years of change: vegetation in the montane ecoregion of Jasper National Park, Alberta and dis- tribution in the montane ecoregion of Jasper National Park, in the Rocky Mountains of Alberta parc natio- nal de Jasper, situé dans les Montagnes Rocheuses en Alberta, au Canada. Une approche

  18. Eat at least 5fruits and vegetables every day. Drink at least 4 glasses of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, David J.

    Eat at least 5fruits and vegetables every day. Drink at least 4 glasses of water every day. Eat 3 Secure your valuableS. Leave cash, mp3 players and other property in a secure location before taking. Sometimes simply acting alert can ward off an assailant. call for help. If you feel threatened or need

  19. NITRATE MOVEMENT IN SOUTHEASTERN COASTAL PLAIN SOILS UNDER CONSERVATION-TILLED VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Decoteau, Dennis R.

    NITRATE MOVEMENT IN SOUTHEASTERN COASTAL PLAIN SOILS UNDER CONSERVATION-TILLED VEGETABLE PRODUCTION G.D. Hoyt1 , D.C. Sanders2 , J.T. D.R. Decoteau3 , ABSTRACT Movement of soil nitrates by leaching. This study measured soil nitrate-N with depth at planting and after cucumber harvest at Clinton, NC, Florence

  20. Influence of the atmosphere on remotely sensed reflection from vegetation surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmer, C.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1985-01-01

    Multiple scattering of solar radiation in a vegetation canopy is modelled equivalent to absorbing and scattering in a turbid medium with direction-dependent cross sections. Perturbations of plant reflection patterns due to atmospheric effects are computed at different altitudes and compared to the angular reflection characteristics caused by Lambertian surfaces of varying albedoes.

  1. Fuel and lubricant additives from acid treated mixtures of vegetable oil derived amides and esters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonazza, B.R.; Devault, A.N.

    1981-05-26

    Vegetable oils such as corn oil, peanut oil, and soy oil are reacted with polyamines to form a mixture containing amides, imides, half esters, and glycerol with subsequent treatment with a strong acid such as sulfonic acid to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels and lubricants.

  2. MODELLING MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING FOR FRUITS AND VEGETABLES USING MEMBRANE SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinze, Thomas

    of polymeric film in or- der to modify the O2 and CO2 concentrations inside the package, reducing metabolic are not fully under- stood. As examples we can refer to the little knowl- edge about the effect of CO2MODELLING MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING FOR FRUITS AND VEGETABLES USING MEMBRANE SYSTEMS Gabi

  3. The Center's first project was in 1985 developing of a vegetation sampling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research The Center's first project was in 1985 developing of a vegetation sampling scheme, technical writers, photographers, and editors develop materials in all media for effective, professional-year projects. Workshops, Short Courses, and Training CEMML provides a wide range of professional training

  4. Holocene vegetation and fire dynamics in the supra-mediterranean belt of the Nebrodi Mountains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bern, Universität

    Holocene vegetation and fire dynamics in the supra-mediterranean belt of the Nebrodi Mountains, a small lake in the supra-mediterranean belt in the Nebrodi Mountains of Sicily (Italy). The data suggest from Sicily. In the thermo-mediterranean belt (i.e. broadleaved evergreen wood- lands

  5. Including Atmospheric Layers in Vegetation and Urban Offline Surface Schemes VALE RY MASSON AND YANN SEITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is able to model the 2-m temperature accurately, as well as the 10-m wind, without any use of analyticalIncluding Atmospheric Layers in Vegetation and Urban Offline Surface Schemes VALE´ RY MASSON coupling between atmospheric-model levels and surface-scheme levels, the coupling proposed here remains

  6. Low-cost multispectral vegetation imaging system for detecting leaking CO2 gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Joseph A.

    Low-cost multispectral vegetation imaging system for detecting leaking CO2 gas Justin A. Hogan,1 sequestration sites for possible leaks of the CO2 gas from underground reservoirs, a low-cost multispectral are then flagged for closer inspection with in-situ CO2 sensors. The system is entirely self

  7. CROP SCIENCE, VOL. 51, SEPTEMBEROCTOBER 2011 2219 The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CROP SCIENCE, VOL. 51, SEPTEMBER­OCTOBER 2011 2219 RESEARCH The normalized difference vegetation.2135/cropsci2010.12.0729 Published online 6 July 2011. © Crop Science Society of America | 5585 Guilford Rd, reflectance at 661 nm; R935, reflectance at 935 nm. Published in Crop Sci. 51:2219­2227 (2011). doi: 10

  8. Vegetation succession and carbon sequestration in a coastal wetland in northwest Florida: Evidence from carbon isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vegetation succession and carbon sequestration in a coastal wetland in northwest Florida: Evidence from carbon isotopes Yonghoon Choi and Yang Wang Department of Geological Sciences, Florida State. Measurements of stable carbon isotopic ratios as well as carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) contents

  9. Precipitation Change Effects Evaluated For Seven Ecosystems With Distinctive Vegetation and Hydrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Post, Wilfred M.

    Precipitation Change Effects Evaluated For Seven Ecosystems With Distinctive Vegetation and Hydrology Contact: Paul J. Hanson hansonpj@ornl.gov 865-574-5361 Doubled Precipitation Contact: Paul JCent, ORCHIDEE, TECO), were used to explored effects of potential precipitation changes (P) on water limitation

  10. Quantifying the effect of land use and land cover changes on green water and blue water in northern part of China 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, X.; Ren, L.; Yuan, F.; Singh, V. P.; Fang, X.; Yu, Z.; Zhang, W.

    2009-06-12

    ) and runoff. The LULC data showed that from 1980 to 1996 grass land and water body had decreased and forest land and crop land had increased. This change caused the evaporation from vegetation interception and vegetation transpiration to increase, whereas...

  11. From land use to land cover: Restoring the afforestation signal in a coupled integrated assessment - earth system model and the implications for CMIP5 RCP simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Vittorio, Alan; Chini, Louise M.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Truesdale, John E.; Craig, Anthony P.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Jones, Andrew D.; Collins, William D.; Edmonds, James A.; Hurtt, George; Thornton, Peter E.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-11-27

    Climate projections depend on scenarios of fossil fuel emissions and land use change, and the IPCC AR5 parallel process assumes consistent climate scenarios across Integrated Assessment and Earth System Models (IAMs and ESMs). To facilitate consistency, CMIP5 used a novel land use harmonization to provide ESMs with seamless, 1500-2100 land use trajectories generated by historical data and four IAMs. However, we have identified and partially addressed a major gap in the CMIP5 land coupling design. The CMIP5 Community ESM (CESM) global afforestation is only 22% of RCP4.5 afforestation from 2005 to 2100. Likewise, only 17% of the Global Change Assessment Model’s (GCAM’s) 2040 RCP4.5 afforestation signal, and none of the pasture loss, were transmitted to CESM within a newly integrated model. This is a critical problem because afforestation is necessary for achieving the RCP4.5 climate stabilization. We attempted to rectify this problem by modifying only the ESM component of the integrated model, enabling CESM to simulate 66% of GCAM’s afforestation in 2040, and 94% of GCAM’s pasture loss as grassland and shrubland losses. This additional afforestation increases vegetation carbon gain by 19 PgC and decreases atmospheric CO2 gain by 8 ppmv from 2005 to 2040, implying different climate scenarios between CMIP5 GCAM and CESM. Similar inconsistencies likely exist in other CMIP5 model results, primarily because land cover information is not shared between models, with possible contributions from afforestation exceeding model-specific, potentially viable forest area. Further work to harmonize land cover among models will be required to adequately rectify this problem.

  12. Overview of Opportunities for Co-Location of Solar Energy Technologies and Vegetation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macknick, J.; Beatty, B.; Hill, G.

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale solar facilities have the potential to contribute significantly to national electricity production. Many solar installations are large-scale or utility-scale, with a capacity over 1 MW and connected directly to the electric grid. Large-scale solar facilities offer an opportunity to achieve economies of scale in solar deployment, yet there have been concerns about the amount of land required for solar projects and the impact of solar projects on local habitat. During the site preparation phase for utility-scale solar facilities, developers often grade land and remove all vegetation to minimize installation and operational costs, prevent plants from shading panels, and minimize potential fire or wildlife risks. However, the common site preparation practice of removing vegetation can be avoided in certain circumstances, and there have been successful examples where solar facilities have been co-located with agricultural operations or have native vegetation growing beneath the panels. In this study we outline some of the impacts that large-scale solar facilities can have on the local environment, provide examples of installations where impacts have been minimized through co-location with vegetation, characterize the types of co-location, and give an overview of the potential benefits from co-location of solar energy projects and vegetation. The varieties of co-location can be replicated or modified for site-specific use at other solar energy installations around the world. We conclude with opportunities to improve upon our understanding of ways to reduce the environmental impacts of large-scale solar installations.

  13. Measurement of directional thermal infrared emissivity of vegetation and soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, J.M. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Soil Science; Balick, L.K. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A new method has been developed for measuring directional thermal emissivity as a function of view angle for plant canopies and soils using two infrared thermometers each sensitive to a different wavelength band. By calibrating the two infrared thermometers to 0.1C consistency, canopy directional emissivity can be estimated with typical errors less than 0.005 in the 8--14 um wavelength band, depending on clarity of the sky and corrections for CO{sub 2} absorption by the atmosphere. A theoretical justification for the method is developed along with an error analysis. Laboratory measurements were used to develop corrections for CO{sub 2}, absorption and a field calibration method is used to obtain the necessary 0.1C consistency for relatively low cost infrared thermometers. The emissivity of alfalfa (LAI=2.5) and corn (LAI=3.2) was near 0.995 and independent of view angle. Individual corn leaves had an emissivity of 0.97. A wheat (LAI=3.0) canopy had an emissivity of 0.985 at nadir and 0.975 at 75 degree view angle. The canopy emissivity values tend to be higher than values in the literature, and are useful for converting infrared thermometer measurements to kinetic temperature and interpreting satellite thermal observations.

  14. Vegetation History And Logging Disturbance: Effects On Rain Forest In The Lope Reserve, Gabon (With Special Emphasis On Elephants and Apes) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Lee JT

    An investigation of the effects of commercial mechanised selective logging on rain forest vegetation and mammals, was undertaken in the Lope Reserve, central Gabon, between January 1989 to July 1991. Vegetation in Lope ...

  15. Seasonal Precipitation Variability and Its Impact on Vegetation Dynamics under Climate Change and Aridity Spectra of the Southwest United States Ecosystems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoulande Djebou, Dagbegnon Clement

    2015-01-16

    This study combines hydro-climatological and biological components for addressing variability in precipitation and vegetation patterns under climate change. We explore the marginal and interactive effects of vegetation and atmospheric variables...

  16. First midterm review sheet The first midterm covers all the material ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-09-23

    18.100B. Fall 2012. First midterm review sheet. The first midterm covers all the material from chapters one and two, except for the appendix to chapter one.

  17. Attoyac Bayou GIS Inventory, Source Survey and Land Use Cover Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boitnott, N.; Castilaw, A.; Gregory, L.; Wagner, K.

    2014-01-01

    will be developed and will integrate numerous existing information resources into a single location. Generally, the GIS will illustrate waterbodies, roadways, permitted point-source dischargers, and other points of concern. Additionally, current land use/land cover...

  18. Plasmas as cover art for The American Journal of Physics | Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasmas as cover art for The American Journal of Physics November 5, 2013 American Journal of Physics, Volume 81, No. 9, September 2013 (Photo by American Journal of Physics,...

  19. Support pedestals for interconnecting a cover and nozzle band wall in a gas turbine nozzle segment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Yufeng Phillip (Simpsonville, SC); Itzel, Gary Michael (Simpsonville, SC); Webbon, Waylon Willard (Greenville, SC); Bagepalli, Radhakrishna (Schenectady, NY); Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY); Kellock, Iain Robertson (Simpsonville, SC)

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner band portions. Each band portion includes a nozzle wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through the apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. Structural pedestals interconnect the cover and nozzle wall and pass through holes in the impingement plate to reduce localized stress otherwise resulting from a difference in pressure within the chamber of the nozzle segment and the hot gas path and the fixed turbine casing surrounding the nozzle stage. The pedestals may be cast or welded to the cover and nozzle wall.

  20. LCA comparison of windrow composting of yard wastes with use as alternative daily cover (ADC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    LCA comparison of windrow composting of yard wastes with use as alternative daily cover (ADC) Rob Assessment was made using the SimaPro LCA software and showed that the ADC scenario is more beneficial