National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for variable speed air-source

  1. Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various Electric Water Heating Options Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various...

  2. Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013 Peer Review Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for...

  3. Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Advanced variable-speed Air Source Integrated Heat Pump prototype system and field test site near Knoxville, TN Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Advanced variable-speed Air Source...

  4. Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Overview * Electric Water Heating Options - Conventional Electric Water Heaters - Heat Pump Water Heaters * Air-Source * Ground-Source - Solar Thermal Water Heater * Variable...

  5. Advanced variable speed air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced variable speed air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Field test system IHP concept - all HVACWH integrated into one...

  6. Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Research at NREL Advanced PetroleumDepartment ofvariable speed

  7. Development of a Variable-Speed Residential Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C Keith [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A residential air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) is under development in partnership with a U.S. manufacturer. A nominal 10.6 kW (3-ton) cooling capacity variable-speed unit, the system provides both space conditioning and water heating. This multi-functional unit can provide domestic water heating (DWH) in either full condensing (FC) (dedicated water heating or simultaneous space cooling and water heating) or desuperheating (DS) operation modes. Laboratory test data were used to calibrate a vapor-compression simulation model for each mode of operation. The model was used to optimize the internal control options for efficiency while maintaining acceptable comfort conditions and refrigerant-side pressures and temperatures within allowable operating envelopes. Annual simulations were performed with the AS-IHP installed in a well-insulated house in five U.S. climate zones. The AS-IHP is predicted to use 45 to 60% less energy than a DOE minimum efficiency baseline system while meeting total annual space conditioning and water heating loads. Water heating energy use is lowered by 60 to 75% in cold to warmer climates, respectively. Plans are to field test the unit in Knoxville, TN.

  8. Control of outdoor air source water heating using variable-speed heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudley, K.F.; Paige, L.E.; Dunshee, K.B.; Voorhis, R.J.

    1991-10-01

    This patent describes a process of controlling an integrated heat pump system of the type. It comprises a variable speed compressor having a discharge port and a suction port; a water heater exchanger coupled to the discharge port of the compressor for heating water by transfer of heat from a compressed heat exchange fluid; an outdoor evaporator heat exchanger having an outdoor fan and a coil receiving the heat exchange fluid from the water heat exchanger and coupled also to the suction port of the compressor, for drawing heat from the outdoor air which heat is transferred to the water in the water heat exchanger; a controller having output channels to control an outdoor fan and the speed of the variable speed compressor and inputs respectively coupled to a water heater setpoint adjustment means, an outdoor air temperature sensor for sensing the outdoor temperature of the outdoor air; and a water temperature sensor for sensing the temperature of the water heated by the water heat exchanger; the process comprising the steps of sensing the outdoor temperature T{sub o}.

  9. Advanced variable speed air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) development - CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D.; Rice, C. Keith; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Ally, Moonis Raza; Shen, Bo

    2015-09-30

    Between August 2011 and September 2015, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Nordyne, LLC (now Nortek Global HVAC LLC, NGHVAC) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) system for the US residential market. Two generations of laboratory prototype systems were designed, fabricated, and lab-tested during 2011-2013. Performance maps for the system were developed using the latest research version of the DOE/ORNL Heat Pump Design Model, or HPDM, (Rice 1991; Rice and Jackson 2005; Shen et al 2012) as calibrated against the lab test data. These maps were the input to the TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) system to predict annual performance relative to a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of 13 SEER air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater with Energy Factor (EF) of 0.9). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a tight, well insulated 2600 ft2 (242 m2) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 46 to 61%, averaging 52%, relative to the baseline system (lowest savings at the cold-climate Chicago location). Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 62 to 76% relative to resistance WH. Based on these lab prototype test and analyses results a field test prototype was designed and fabricated by NGHVAC. The unit was installed in a 2400 ft2 (223 m2) research house in Knoxville, TN and field tested from May 2014 to April 2015. Based on the demonstrated field performance of the AS-IHP prototype and estimated performance of a baseline system operating under the same loads and weather conditions, it was estimated that the prototype would achieve ~40% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite. The estimated WH savings were >60% and SC mode savings were >50%. But estimated SH savings were only about 20%. It is believed that had the test house been better insulated (more like the house used for the savings predictions noted above) and the IHP system nominal capacity been a bit lower that the energy savings estimate would have been closer to 45% or more (similar to the analytical prediction for the cold climate location of Chicago).

  10. Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various Electric Water Heating Options

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This presentation was delivered at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Technical Update meeting on April 29-30, 2013, in Denver, Colorado.

  11. Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y A sCOLONY PROJECTRecord4 AdvanceEnergyDepartment

  12. Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013 Peer Review |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12 Beta-3AUDITLeslie Pezzullo OfficeDepartment of

  13. Renewable variable speed hybrid system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stott, Paul Anthony

    2010-01-01

    At present many remote and Island communities rely solely on diesel powered generators to provide electricity. Diesel fuel is both expensive and polluting and the constant speed operation of the diesel engine is inefficient. ...

  14. Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump with Variable-Speed Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump with Variable-Speed Technology Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump with Variable-Speed Technology Purdue prototype system Purdue prototype system...

  15. Thermodynamics in variable speed of light theories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Racker, Juan [CONICET, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Avenida Bustillo 9500 (8400), San Carlos De Bariloche (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N (1900), La Plata (Argentina); Sisterna, Pablo [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350 (7600), Mar del Plata (Argentina); Vucetich, Hector [Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N (1900), La Plata (Argentina)

    2009-10-15

    The perfect fluid in the context of a covariant variable speed of light theory proposed by J. Magueijo is studied. On the one hand the modified first law of thermodynamics together with a recipe to obtain equations of state are obtained. On the other hand the Newtonian limit is performed to obtain the nonrelativistic hydrostatic equilibrium equation for the theory. The results obtained are used to determine the time variation of the radius of Mercury induced by the variability of the speed of light (c), and the scalar contribution to the luminosity of white dwarfs. Using a bound for the change of that radius and combining it with an upper limit for the variation of the fine structure constant, a bound on the time variation of c is set. An independent bound is obtained from luminosity estimates for Stein 2015B.

  16. Thermodynamics in variable speed of light theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juan Racker; Pablo Sisterna; Hector Vucetich

    2009-11-30

    The perfect fluid in the context of a covariant variable speed of light theory proposed by J. Magueijo is studied. On the one hand the modified first law of thermodynamics together with a recipe to obtain equations of state are obtained. On the other hand the Newtonian limit is performed to obtain the nonrelativistic hydrostatic equilibrium equation for the theory. The results obtained are used to determine the time variation of the radius of Mercury induced by the variability of the speed of light ($c$), and the scalar contribution to the luminosity of white dwarfs. Using a bound for the change of that radius and combining it with an upper limit for the variation of the fine structure constant, a bound on the time variation of $c$ is set. An independent bound is obtained from luminosity estimates for Stein 2015B.

  17. Thermoacoustic tomography with variable sound speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plamen Stefanov; Gunther Uhlmann

    2009-05-30

    We study the mathematical model of thermoacoustic tomography in media with a variable speed for a fixed time interval, greater than the diameter of the domain. In case of measurements on the whole boundary, we give an explicit solution in terms of a Neumann series expansion. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for uniqueness and stability when the measurements are taken on a part of the boundary.

  18. Thermoacoustic tomography with variable sound speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanov, Plamen

    2009-01-01

    We study the mathematical model of thermoacoustic tomography in media with a variable speed for a fixed time interval, greater than the diameter of the domain. In case of measurements on the whole boundary, we give an explicit solution in terms of a Neumann series expansion. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for uniqueness and stability when the measurements are taken on a part of the boundary.

  19. WIND SPEED VARIABILITY AND ADAPTATION STRATEGIES IN COASTAL AREAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohfeld, Karen

    WIND SPEED VARIABILITY AND ADAPTATION STRATEGIES IN COASTAL AREAS OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST of Thesis: Wind Speed Variability and Adaptation Strategies in Coastal Areas of the Pacific Northwest/Approved: ___________________________________________ #12;iii ABSTRACT Overall, previous wind speed studies in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) present

  20. Cloud speed impact on solar variability scaling â?? Application to the wavelet variability model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Kleissl, J. , 2013. Deriving cloud velocity from an array ofCloud Speed Impact on Solar Variability Scaling -this work, we determine from cloud speeds. Cloud simulator

  1. Promising Technology: Magnetic Bearing Variable-Speed Centrifugal Chillers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Magnetic bearing variable speed centrifugal chillers save energy compared to conventional chillers by eliminating friction with the magnetic bearings and by improving efficiency at partial loads with the variable speed drive. In addition to saving energy, the magnetic bearings eliminate the maintenance costs associated with lubricating conventional metal bearings.

  2. Energy Savings of Variable Speed Motors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fishel, F. D.

    1979-01-01

    speed system. The actual values used in the table above are an average of the efficiency referenced in the Bibli ography. = (% design flow)(% system head)(% Epd)(% E dd ) 4. HP p.u. (% E )(% E ) pl dl where E dd = .9 and E pd = .78 at design...

  3. Variable Speed Pumping for Level Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasel, M.

    1982-01-01

    analysis, and a brief discussion of variable frequency drive design considerations. Energy savings figures are based upon actual electricity costs at the plant involved. Process duty cycle and energy requirement levels were verified by a wattmeter...

  4. Measure Guideline. Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, A.; Easley, S.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provides a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  5. Measure Guideline: Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, A.; Easley, S.

    2012-05-01

    The report evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provide a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  6. Variable current speed controller for eddy current motors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerth, H.L.; Bailey, J.M.; Casstevens, J.M.; Dixon, J.H.; Griffith, B.O.; Igou, R.E.

    1982-03-12

    A speed control system for eddy current motors is provided in which the current to the motor from a constant frequency power source is varied by comparing the actual motor speed signal with a setpoint speed signal to control the motor speed according to the selected setpoint speed. A three-phase variable voltage autotransformer is provided for controlling the voltage from a three-phase power supply. A corresponding plurality of current control resistors is provided in series with each phase of the autotransformer output connected to inputs of a three-phase motor. Each resistor is connected in parallel with a set of normally closed contacts of plurality of relays which are operated by control logic. A logic circuit compares the selected speed with the actual motor speed obtained from a digital tachometer monitoring the motor spindle speed and operated the relays to add or substract resistance equally in each phase of the motor input to vary the motor current to control the motor at the selected speed.

  7. EFFECT OF PITCH CONTROL AND POWER CONDITIONING ON POWER QUALITY OF VARIABLE SPEED WIND TURBINE GENERATORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EFFECT OF PITCH CONTROL AND POWER CONDITIONING ON POWER QUALITY OF VARIABLE SPEED WIND TURBINE), Curtin University of Technology, WA Abstract: Variable speed wind turbine generators provide the opportunity to capture more power than fixed speed turbines. However the variable speed machine output can

  8. A Machian Version of Einstein's Variable Speed of Light Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Unzicker; Jan Preuss

    2015-03-28

    It is a little known fact that while he was developing his theory of general relativity, Einstein's initial idea was a variable speed of light theory. Indeed space-time curvature can be mimicked by a speed of light $c(r)$ that depends on the distribution of masses. Einstein's 1911 theory was considerably improved by Robert Dicke in 1957, but only recently has the equivalence of the variable speed of light approach to the conventional formalism been demonstrated (Broekaert, 2008). Using Green's functions, we show that Einstein's 1911 idea can be expressed in an analytic form, similar to the Poisson equation. Using heuristic arguments, we derive a simple formula that directly relates curvature $w$ to the local speed of light, $w= -c^2 \\Delta \\frac{1}{c^2}$. In contrast to the conventional formulation, this allows for a Machian interpretation of general relativity and the gravitational constant $G$. Gravity, though described by local equations, has its origin in all other masses in the universe.

  9. Variable-Speed, Low-Cost Motor for Residential HVAC Systems ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HVAC Systems Variable-Speed, Low-Cost Motor for Residential HVAC Systems Lower-Cost, Variable-Speed Electric Motor Improves Energy Efficiency In 2011, the U.S. industrial,...

  10. Aalborg Universitet Energy Efficient Control of a Boosting System with Multiple Variable-Speed Pumps in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zhenyu

    -Speed Pumps in Parallel Yang, Zhenyu; Børsting, Hakon Published in: I E E E Conference on Decision and Control of a Boosting System with Multiple Variable-Speed Pumps in Parallel. I E E E Conference on Decision and Control #12;Energy Efficient Control of a Boosting System with Multiple Variable-Speed Pumps in Parallel

  11. Variable Speed Wind Turbine Generator with Zero-sequence Filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muljadi, Eduard (Golden, CO)

    1998-08-25

    A variable speed wind turbine generator system to convert mechanical power into electrical power or energy and to recover the electrical power or energy in the form of three phase alternating current and return the power or energy to a utility or other load with single phase sinusoidal waveform at sixty (60) hertz and unity power factor includes an excitation controller for generating three phase commanded current, a generator, and a zero sequence filter. Each commanded current signal includes two components: a positive sequence variable frequency current signal to provide the balanced three phase excitation currents required in the stator windings of the generator to generate the rotating magnetic field needed to recover an optimum level of real power from the generator; and a zero frequency sixty (60) hertz current signal to allow the real power generated by the generator to be supplied to the utility. The positive sequence current signals are balanced three phase signals and are prevented from entering the utility by the zero sequence filter. The zero sequence current signals have zero phase displacement from each other and are prevented from entering the generator by the star connected stator windings. The zero sequence filter allows the zero sequence current signals to pass through to deliver power to the utility.

  12. Variable speed wind turbine generator with zero-sequence filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muljadi, Eduard (Golden, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A variable speed wind turbine generator system to convert mechanical power into electrical power or energy and to recover the electrical power or energy in the form of three phase alternating current and return the power or energy to a utility or other load with single phase sinusoidal waveform at sixty (60) hertz and unity power factor includes an excitation controller for generating three phase commanded current, a generator, and a zero sequence filter. Each commanded current signal includes two components: a positive sequence variable frequency current signal to provide the balanced three phase excitation currents required in the stator windings of the generator to generate the rotating magnetic field needed to recover an optimum level of real power from the generator; and a zero frequency sixty (60) hertz current signal to allow the real power generated by the generator to be supplied to the utility. The positive sequence current signals are balanced three phase signals and are prevented from entering the utility by the zero sequence filter. The zero sequence current signals have zero phase displacement from each other and are prevented from entering the generator by the star connected stator windings. The zero sequence filter allows the zero sequence current signals to pass through to deliver power to the utility.

  13. Variable speed wind turbine generator with zero-sequence filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muljadi, E.

    1998-08-25

    A variable speed wind turbine generator system to convert mechanical power into electrical power or energy and to recover the electrical power or energy in the form of three phase alternating current and return the power or energy to a utility or other load with single phase sinusoidal waveform at sixty (60) hertz and unity power factor includes an excitation controller for generating three phase commanded current, a generator, and a zero sequence filter. Each commanded current signal includes two components: a positive sequence variable frequency current signal to provide the balanced three phase excitation currents required in the stator windings of the generator to generate the rotating magnetic field needed to recover an optimum level of real power from the generator; and a zero frequency sixty (60) hertz current signal to allow the real power generated by the generator to be supplied to the utility. The positive sequence current signals are balanced three phase signals and are prevented from entering the utility by the zero sequence filter. The zero sequence current signals have zero phase displacement from each other and are prevented from entering the generator by the star connected stator windings. The zero sequence filter allows the zero sequence current signals to pass through to deliver power to the utility. 14 figs.

  14. Air-Source Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air-Source Heat Pumps Air-Source Heat Pumps April 23, 2015 - 3:35pm Addthis When properly installed, an air-source heat pump can deliver one-and-a-half to three times more heat...

  15. Air-Source Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Basics Air-Source Heat Pump Basics August 19, 2013 - 11:03am Addthis Air-source heat pumps transfer heat between the inside of a building and the outside air. How Air-Source...

  16. How to Avoid Overestimating Variable Speed Drive Savings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, J. B.

    2005-01-01

    of Magnetically Coupled Adjustable Speed Drive Systems, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PNNL-13879, June 2002. 9. Electric Power Research Institute, Title and date unknown, PR I966-241, as cited in "Adjustable Speed Drives" section of "Industrial...

  17. Multiwave imaging in an enclosure with variable wave speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebastian Acosta; Carlos Montalto

    2015-04-10

    In this paper we consider the mathematical model of thermo- and photo-acoustic tomography for the recovery of the initial condition of a wave field from knowledge of its boundary values. Unlike the free-space setting, we consider the wave problem in a region enclosed by a surface where an impedance boundary condition is imposed. This condition models the presence of physical boundaries such as interfaces or acoustic mirrors which reflect some of the wave energy back into the enclosed domain. By recognizing that the inverse problem is equivalent to a statement of boundary observability, we use control operators to prove the unique and stable recovery of the initial wave profile from knowledge of boundary measurements. Since our proof is constructive, we explicitly derive a solvable equation for the unknown initial condition. This equation can be solved numerically using the conjugate gradient method. We also propose an alternative approach based on the stabilization of waves. This leads to an exponentially and uniformly convergent Neumann series reconstruction when the impedance coefficient is not identically zero. In both cases, if well-known geometrical conditions are satisfied, our approaches are naturally suited for variable wave speed and for measurements on a subset of the boundary.

  18. DIRECT REGULATION OF LARGE SPEED EXCURSIONS FOR VARIABLE SPEED WIND W. E. Leithead, D. J. Leith, F. Hardan, H.Markou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Ken

    DIRECT REGULATION OF LARGE SPEED EXCURSIONS FOR VARIABLE SPEED WIND TURBINES W. E. Leithead, D. J turbine aims to maintain the rotor speed within a permitted range. However, this requirement can of a pitch controller for 1 MW variable speed turbine which directly responds to a strong gust by pitching

  19. Variable Speed Pumping: A Guide to Successful Applications; Executive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    improved reliability, and reduced life cycle costs. Most existing systems requiring flow control make use of bypass lines, throttling valves, or pump speed adjustments. The...

  20. THERMOACOUSTIC TOMOGRAPHY WITH VARIABLE SOUND SPEED PLAMEN STEFANOV AND GUNTHER UHLMANN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uhlmann, Gunther

    THERMOACOUSTIC TOMOGRAPHY WITH VARIABLE SOUND SPEED PLAMEN STEFANOV AND GUNTHER UHLMANN ABSTRACT. We study the mathematical model of thermoacoustic tomography in media with a variable speed are taken on a part of the boundary. 1. INTRODUCTION In thermoacoustic tomography, a short electro

  1. Modelling and Analysis of Variable Speed Wind Turbines with Induction Generator during Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, René Rydhof

    Modelling and Analysis of Variable Speed Wind Turbines with Induction Generator during Grid Fault Risø National Laboratory Vestas Wind Systems A/S #12;#12;I Modelling and Analysis of Variable Speed Wind Turbines with Induction Generator during Grid Fault by Sigrid M. Bolik Institute of Energy

  2. Damage measurements on the NWTC direct-drive, variable-speed test bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherland, H.J.; Carlin, P.W.

    1998-12-31

    The NWTC (National Wind Technology Center) Variable-Speed Test Bed turbine is a three-bladed, 10-meter, downwind machine that can be run in either fixed-speed or variable-speed mode. In the variable-speed mode, the generator torque is regulated, using a discrete-stepped load bank to maximize the turbine`s power coefficient. At rated power, a second control loop that uses blade pitch to maintain rotor speed essentially as before, i.e., using the load bank to maintain either generator power or (optionally) generator torque. In this paper, the authors will use this turbine to study the effect of variable-speed operation on blade damage. Using time-series data obtained from blade flap and edge strain gauges, the load spectrum for the turbine is developed using rainflow counting techniques. Miner`s rule is then used to determine the damage rates for variable-speed and fixed-speed operation. The results illustrate that the controller algorithm used with this turbine introduces relatively large load cycles into the blade that significantly reduce its service lifetime, while power production is only marginally increased.

  3. Energy Implications of Retrofitting Retail Sector Rooftop Units with Stepped-Speed and Variable-Speed Functionality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Studer, D.; Romero, R.; Herrmann, L.; Benne, K.

    2012-04-01

    Commercial retailers understand that retrofitting constant-speed RTU fan motors with stepped- or variable-speed alternatives could save significant energy in most U.S. climate zones. However, they lack supporting data, both real-world and simulation based, on the cost effectiveness and climate zone-specific energy savings associated with this measure. Thus, building managers and engineers have been unable to present a compelling business case for fan motor upgrades to upper management. This study uses whole-building energy simulation to estimate the energy impact of this type of measure so retailers can determine its economic feasibility.

  4. Variable speed pumping: A guide to successful applications - Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2004-05-01

    This document is the result of a collaboration between the Hydraulic Institute, Europump, and the U.S. DOE Industrial Technologies Program, and describes the cost and energy savings potential of pumping applications with variable duty requirements.

  5. The New Active Output Filter for Variable Speed Constant Frequency Aerospace Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alhuwaishel, Fahad

    2015-08-06

    capacitor filter. Moreover, the main square wave inverter has a capability to regulate the output voltage depending on the Load requirements providing a wide range of modulation index. The operation principle of the concept is demonstrated for Variable Speed...

  6. A New Numerical Algorithm for Thermoacoustic and Photoacoustic Tomography with Variable Sound Speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Thomas S.

    A New Numerical Algorithm for Thermoacoustic and Photoacoustic Tomography with Variable Sound Speed algorithm for reconstructing an unknown source in Thermoacoustic and Photoacoustic Tomography based Thermoacoustic (TAT) and Photoacoustic (PAT) Tomography are emerging medical imaging modal- ities [32, 30

  7. Estimating the effect of Earth elasticity and variable water density on tsunami speeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Victor C.

    Estimating the effect of Earth elasticity and variable water density on tsunami speeds Victor C; revised 25 December 2012; accepted 7 January 2013; published 13 February 2013. [1] The speed of tsunami comparisons of tsunami arrival times from the 11 March 2011 tsunami suggest, however, that the standard

  8. The Impacts of Wind Speed Trends and Long-term Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohfeld, Karen

    The Impacts of Wind Speed Trends and Long- term Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric Reservoir and Long-term Variability in Relation to Hydroelectric Reservoir Inflows on Wind Power in the Pacific through diversification. In hydroelectric dominated systems, like the PNW, the benefits of wind power can

  9. Electric power demand limit for variable speed heat pumps and integrated water heating heat pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudley, K.F.

    1992-03-17

    This patent describes a method of operating an integrated heat pump and hot water system that is capable of providing heating or cooling to an environmental comfort zone. The heat pump and hot water system including a variable speed compressor whose operating speed is substantially linearly related to the difference between outdoor air temperature and indoor air temperature in the comfort zone, and also including means to receive a utility peak demand limit signal to initiate automatic power limiting to reduce the power demand imposed by the heat pump and hot water system, the method comprising sensing the outdoor temperature T{sub OD}; sensing the indoor temperature T{sub ID} in the comfort zone; sensing the speed S{sub 1} of the variable speed compressor; and in response to receiving the utility peak demand limit signal DLS calculating a reference speed S{sub R} for the compressor as a function of the speed S{sub 1}, the outdoor temperature T{sub OD}, the indoor temperature T{sub ID}, and predetermined values that correspond to a reference indoor temperature T{sub ID} and a zero-load temperature difference {Delta}T{sub Z} that corresponds to the difference between the outdoor and indoor temperatures that result in a zero load requirement on the compressor; and during occurrence of the signal DLS operating the compressor at a reduced operating speed limited to a predetermined fraction, less than unity, times the reference speed S{sub R}.

  10. Covered Product Category: Residential Air-Source Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for residential air-source heat pumps, which is an ENERGY STAR qualified product category.

  11. Cloud speed impact on solar variability scaling â?? Application to the wavelet variability model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2013-01-01

    index: Analysis and statistics. Solar Energy. 81, 195-206.Proc. of International Solar Energy World Congress, Kassel,irradiance variability. Solar Energy. 85, 1343-1353. Perez,

  12. Simplified Modelling and Control of a Synchronous Machine with VariableSpeed SixStep Drive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Seth

    Simplified Modelling and Control of a Synchronous Machine with Variable­Speed Six­Step Drive on simple and intuitive techniques for the modelling of synchronous machines and their associated control design process for synchronous machines. What the two techniques have in common is a reliance

  13. Aalborg Universitet Individual Pitch Control for Mitigation of Power Fluctuation of Variable Speed Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Weihao

    angles are adjusted separately according to the generator output power and the azimuth angle of the wind Wind Turbines Zhang, Yunqian; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Cheng, Ming Published in: Proceedings of the 10th Pitch Control for Mitigation of Power Fluctuation of Variable Speed Wind Turbines. In Proceedings

  14. Comparative Analysis between Grundfos CRE 15-3 Variable Speed Centrifugal Pumps and a Worthington D-824 Constant Speed Centrifugal Pump in a KU Steam Power Plant Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Fabian Philip

    2014-05-31

    This document presents a comparative analysis between the use of a Grundfos CRE 15-3 variable speed centrifugal pump and a Worthington D-824 constant speed centrifugal pump in a steam power plant application. This was performed since, in many...

  15. A New Numerical Algorithm for Thermoacoustic and Photoacoustic Tomography with Variable Sound Speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Jianliang; Uhlmann, Gunther; Zhao, Hongkai

    2011-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for reconstructing an unknown source in Thermoacoustic and Photoacoustic Tomography based on the recent advances in understanding the theoretical nature of the problem. We work with variable sound speeds that might be also discontinuous across some surface. The latter problem arises in brain imaging. The new algorithm is based on an explicit formula in the form of a Neumann series. We present numerical examples with non-trapping, trapping and piecewise smooth speeds, as well as examples with data on a part of the boundary. These numerical examples demonstrate the robust performance of the new algorithm.

  16. Variable-speed wind power system with improved energy capture via multilevel conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, Robert W.; Al-Naseem, Osama A.; Fingersh, Lee Jay

    2005-05-31

    A system and method for efficiently capturing electrical energy from a variable-speed generator are disclosed. The system includes a matrix converter using full-bridge, multilevel switch cells, in which semiconductor devices are clamped to a known constant DC voltage of a capacitor. The multilevel matrix converter is capable of generating multilevel voltage wave waveform of arbitrary magnitude and frequencies. The matrix converter can be controlled by using space vector modulation.

  17. Field monitoring of a variable-speed integrated heat pump/water-heating appliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fanney, A.H. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Building and Fire Research Lab.

    1995-12-31

    A variable-speed integrated heat pump/water-heating appliance was monitored for two years while meeting the space-conditioning and water-heating needs of an occupied residence. Experimental results are presented that show the total energy consumed by the residence was significantly reduced compared to previous years in which electric base-board heat, a wood stove, and window air conditioners were used. During the two space-heating seasons, the variable-speed integrated heat pump/water-heating appliance used 60% less energy than would have been consumed by an electric furnace with the same air distribution system and a storage-type electric water heater. The monthly space-cooling-only coefficients of performance (COP) ranged from 2.50 to 4.03, whereas the monthly space-heating-only coefficients of performance ranged from a low of 0.91 to a high of 3.33. A proposed index to quantify the overall system performance of integrated water-heating/space-conditioning appliances, referred to as the combined performance factor, ranged from 1.55 to 3.50. The majority of larger values occurred during months in which space cooling dominated. The combined performance factor for the entire two-year study was 2.45. A conventional watt-hour meter supplied by the local electrical utility and an electronic digital power analyzer were used to measure the energy consumption of the variable-speed heat pump to discern if variable-speed equipment introduces errors in conventional utility metering equipment. Measurements made using the two instruments were in excellent agreement. The monthly energy consumption and peak electrical demands of the residence, integrated heat pump/water-heating appliance, supplemental space heater, and water heater are discussed. The influence of outdoor temperature on electrical power demand is presented.

  18. Air-Source Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    When properly installed, an air-source heat pump can deliver one-and-a-half to three times more heat energy to a home than the electrical energy it consumes. | Photo courtesy of...

  19. Nonlinear Dual-Mode Control of Variable-Speed Wind Turbines with Doubly Fed Induction Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Choon Yik; Jiang, John N

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a feedback/feedforward nonlinear controller for variable-speed wind turbines with doubly fed induction generators. By appropriately adjusting the rotor voltages and the blade pitch angle, the controller simultaneously enables: (a) control of the active power in both the maximum power tracking and power regulation modes, (b) seamless switching between the two modes, and (c) control of the reactive power so that a desirable power factor is maintained. Unlike many existing designs, the controller is developed based on original, nonlinear, electromechanically-coupled models of wind turbines, without attempting approximate linearization. Its development consists of three steps: (i) employ feedback linearization to exactly cancel some of the nonlinearities and perform arbitrary pole placement, (ii) design a speed controller that makes the rotor angular velocity track a desired reference whenever possible, and (iii) introduce a Lyapunov-like function and present a gradient-based approach for mini...

  20. Strategy for the Operation of Cooling Towers with variable Speed Fans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iñigo-Golfín, J

    2001-01-01

    Within the SPS Cooling Water Project at CERN aimed at the reduction of water consumption, this primary open cooling loop will be closed and all the primary cooling circuit components will be upgraded to the new required duty and brought to the necessary safety and operability standards. In particular the tower fans will be fitted with variable frequency drives to replace the existing two speed motors. This paper presents a study to optimize the operation of SPS cooling towers taking into account outdoor conditions (wet and dry bulb temperatures) and the entirety of the primary circuit in which they will operate.

  1. Mathematical and Computational Applications, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 408-420, 2013 MODELING AND CONTROL OF A VARIABLE SPEED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    OF A VARIABLE SPEED VARIABLE PITCH ANGLE PROTOTYPE WIND TURBINE Sanem Evren, Mustafa Ünel and Mahmut F. Akit on modeling, control and simulation of a 500 horizontal axis prototype wind turbine that is being developed in the context of the MILRES (National Wind Energy Systems) Project in Turkey. The prototype turbine is designed

  2. Fixed-Speed and Variable-Slip Wind Turbines Providing Spinning Reserves to the Grid: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.

    2012-11-01

    As the level of wind penetration increases, wind turbine technology must move from merely generating power from wind to taking a role in supporting the bulk power system. Wind turbines should have the capability to provide inertial response and primary frequency (governor) response so they can support the frequency stability of the grid. To provide governor response, wind turbines should be able to generate less power than the available wind power and hold the rest in reserve, ready to be accessed as needed. This paper explores several ways to control wind turbine output to enable reserve-holding capability. This paper focuses on fixed-speed (also known as Type 1) and variable-slip (also known as Type 2) turbines.

  3. Comparing Two Types of Magnetically- Coupled Adjustable Speed Drives with Variable Frequency Drives in Pump and Fan Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, K. J.; Chvala, W. D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results from laboratory tests on MagnaDrive Corporations fixed-magnet magnetically-coupled adjustable speed drive (MC-ASD) and Coyote Electronics electromagnetic MC-ASD as compared to a typical variable frequency drive (VFD...

  4. Spacecraft Angular Velocity and Line-of-Sight Control Using A Single-Gimbal Variable-Speed Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsiotras, Panagiotis

    and/or angular velocity control27­29 problem using less than three reaction wheels. Recently, a newSpacecraft Angular Velocity and Line-of-Sight Control Using A Single-Gimbal Variable-Speed Control possible. In this paper, feedback controllers that stabilize the angular velocity vector of a rigid

  5. Resonant Vibrations Resulting from the Re-Engineering of a Constant-Speed 2-Bladed Turbine to a Variable-Speed 3-Bladed Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleming, P.; Wright, A. D.; Finersh, L. J.

    2010-12-01

    The CART3 (Controls Advanced Research Turbine, 3-bladed) at the National Wind Technology Center has recently been converted from a 2-bladed constant speed machine to a 3-bladed variable speed machine designed specically for controls research. The purpose of this conversion was to develop an advanced controls field-testing platform which has the more typical 3-bladed configuration. A result of this conversion was the emergence of several resonant vibrations, some of which initially prevented operation of the turbine until they could be explained and resolved. In this paper, the investigations into these vibrations are presented as 'lessons-learned'. Additionally, a frequency-domain technique called waterfall plotting is discussed and its usefulness in this research is illustrated.

  6. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 40, NO. 2, MARCH/APRIL 2004 565 Modeling and Control of a Variable-Speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    and Control of a Variable-Speed Constant-Frequency Synchronous Generator With Brushless Exciter Chunting Mi. The main generator is a doubly fed induction machine which is operated as a synchronous generator-magnet exciter, synchronous generator excitation, synchronous generators, variable-speed constant

  7. Best Practices for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms Efficient HVAC Systems: Variable-Speed-Drive Chillers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    facilities. At part-load conditions, the pumps and heat rejection device often operated at constant speed-Speed-Drive Chillers Tengfang Xu June 15, 2005 The project is funded by the California Energy Commission's Industrial of individual components and subsystems in the plant. Major components include chillers, water pumps

  8. The VSL Discussion: What Does Variable Speed of Light Mean and Should we be Allowed to Think About ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Unzicker

    2007-09-09

    In the past years, variable speed of light (VSL) theories have been of growing interest but also a subject of controversial discussion. They have been accused both for tautologies and for violating special relativity, and concerns have been expressed about the validity of such approaches in general (e.g. Ellis, astro-ph/0703751). Without trying completeness on the issue, the example of Einstein's VSL attempts (1911) and Dicke's `electromagnetic' theory (1957) are urges to give some comments on the above criticism.

  9. Sliding Mode Power Control of Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    operation regions depending on wind turbines tip speed ratio. They are distinguished by a minimum phase such as robustness to parametric uncertainties of the turbine and the generator as well as to electric grid turbine to evaluate its consistency and performance. The next step was the validation using the NREL

  10. GLOBAL GAIN-SCHEDULING CONTROL FOR VARIABLE SPEED WIND TURBINES W. E. Leithead, D. J. Leith, F. Hardan, H.Markou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Ken

    1 GLOBAL GAIN-SCHEDULING CONTROL FOR VARIABLE SPEED WIND TURBINES W. E. Leithead, D. J. Leith, F wind turbines exhibit a separability property similar to that previously established for constant speed wind turbines. The importance of this result is that it establishes that from a control viewpoint

  11. Effectiveness of speed trailers on low-speed urban roadways 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perrillo, Kerry Victoria

    1997-01-01

    Efforts are being made to use speed management methods to match operating speeds to posted speeds and to reduce the variability in vehicle speeds. The effectiveness of many different methods of speed management has not been documented. This thesis...

  12. High-Speed Optical Spectroscopy of a Cataclysmic Variable Wind: BZ Camelopardalis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. A. Ringwald; T. Naylor

    1997-10-02

    BZ Cam is the first cataclysmic variable star with an accretion disk wind evident in its optical spectrum. The wind was found by Thorstensen, who discovered intermittent P Cygni profiles occurring simultaneously in He I 5876 Angstroms and H alpha. We have since obtained spectra with 0.4-Angstroms/pixel dispersion and 60-s time resolution. We find a wind much faster and more rapidly variable than the radiatively accelerated winds of OB stars, Wolf-Rayet stars, or luminous blue variables. Instead of showing blob ejection, the whole wind of BZ Cam appears to turn on and off. We use this to measure the acceleration law of a CV wind for the first time. The velocity increases linearly with time, attaining blue edge velocities near -3000 km/s, and absorption velocities near -1700 km/s, in 6 to 8 min after starting near rest. We also find a subsequent linear deceleration to nearly rest in 30 to 40 min, perhaps an effect of dilution as the wind expands. No periodicity from rotational outflow is obvious. This wind is erratic and incessantly variable, and perhaps bipolar and face-on, but not highly collimated. The P Cygni absorption events trace out sawtooth waves, occurring within 30 to 40 white dwarf radii from the disk. This is the approximate size of the disk, as well as the disk/wind transition region recently postulated by Knigge and Drew. We estimate a distance of 830 +/- 160 pc, and an orbital inclination i such that 12 < i(degrees) < 40.

  13. High-Speed Optical Spectroscopy of a Cataclysmic Variable Wind BZ Camelopardalis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ringwald, F A

    1997-01-01

    BZ Cam is the first cataclysmic variable star with an accretion disk wind evident in its optical spectrum. The wind was found by Thorstensen, who discovered intermittent P Cygni profiles occurring simultaneously in He I 5876 Angstroms and H alpha. We have since obtained spectra with 0.4-Angstroms/pixel dispersion and 60-s time resolution. We find a wind much faster and more rapidly variable than the radiatively accelerated winds of OB stars, Wolf-Rayet stars, or luminous blue variables. Instead of showing blob ejection, the whole wind of BZ Cam appears to turn on and off. We use this to measure the acceleration law of a CV wind for the first time. The velocity increases linearly with time, attaining blue edge velocities near -3000 km/s, and absorption velocities near -1700 km/s, in 6 to 8 min after starting near rest. We also find a subsequent linear deceleration to nearly rest in 30 to 40 min, perhaps an effect of dilution as the wind expands. No periodicity from rotational outflow is obvious. This wind is e...

  14. Kosciusko REMC- Residential Geothermal and Air-source Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Kosciusko REMC offers rebates (as bill credits) to residential members for the purchase and installation of high efficiency air-source heat pumps, geothermal heat pumps, and electric water heaters....

  15. Low Wind Speed Turbine Project Phase II: The Application of Medium-Voltage Electrical Apparatus to the Class of Variable Speed Multi-Megawatt Low Wind Speed Turbines; 15 June 2004--30 April 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdman, W.; Behnke, M.

    2005-11-01

    Kilowatt ratings of modern wind turbines have progressed rapidly from 50 kW to 1,800 kW over the past 25 years, with 3.0- to 7.5-MW turbines expected in the next 5 years. The premise of this study is simple: The rapid growth of wind turbine power ratings and the corresponding growth in turbine electrical generation systems and associated controls are quickly making low-voltage (LV) electrical design approaches cost-ineffective. This report provides design detail and compares the cost of energy (COE) between commercial LV-class wind power machines and emerging medium-voltage (MV)-class multi-megawatt wind technology. The key finding is that a 2.5% reduction in the COE can be achieved by moving from LV to MV systems. This is a conservative estimate, with a 3% to 3.5% reduction believed to be attainable once purchase orders to support a 250-turbine/year production level are placed. This evaluation considers capital costs as well as installation, maintenance, and training requirements for wind turbine maintenance personnel. Subsystems investigated include the generator, pendant cables, variable-speed converter, and padmount transformer with switchgear. Both current-source and voltage-source converter/inverter MV topologies are compared against their low-voltage, voltage-source counterparts at the 3.0-, 5.0-, and 7.5-MW levels.

  16. Power applications of high-temperature superconductivity: Variable speed motors, current switches, and energy storage for end use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawsey, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Banerjee, B.B.; Grant, P.M. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this project is to conduct joint research and development activities related to certain electric power applications of high-temperature superconductivity (HTS). The new superconductors may allow development of an energy-efficient switch to control current to variable speed motors, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, and other power conversion equipment. Motor types that were considered include induction, permanent magnet, and superconducting ac motors. Because it is impractical to experimentally alter certain key design elements in radial-gap motors, experiments were conducted on an axial field superconducting motor prototype using 4 NbTi magnets. Superconducting magnetic energy storage technology with 0.25--5 kWh stored energy was studied as a viable solution to short duration voltage sag problems on the customer side of the electric meter. The technical performance characteristics of the device wee assembled, along with competing technologies such as active power line conditioners with storage, battery-based uninterruptible power supplies, and supercapacitors, and the market potential for SMES was defined. Four reports were prepared summarizing the results of the project.

  17. State of the Art of Air-source Heat Pump for Cold Regions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, C.; Liang, N.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, research on air source heat pump systems for cold regions in recent years is first summarized and compared. These systems can be divided into three kinds: a single-stage compression heat pump, liquid/vapor injection heat pump, and a...

  18. Short communication Optimization of hybrid ground coupled and air source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

    Short communication Optimization of hybrid ­ ground coupled and air source ­ heat pump systems 2008 Accepted 14 January 2010 Available online 28 January 2010 Keywords: Ground coupled heat pump Air to water heat pump Thermal storage device Hybrid HVAC system Energy efficiency Numerical simulation a b

  19. Variability in Speed of Information Processing: A New Measure of Cognitive Impairment in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bodling, Angela Michelle

    2010-06-14

    Cognitive slowing has been firmly established as one of the few primary cognitive deficits associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Numerous studies have documented impairments in speed of information processing for MS ...

  20. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH TEMPERATE AIR-SOURCES INTEGRATED INTO A DWELLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH TEMPERATE AIR-SOURCES INTEGRATED.peuportier@mines-paristech.fr, Tel.: +33 1 40 51 91 51 ABSTRACT An inverter-driven air-to-air heat pump model has been developped capacity air-to-air heat pump coupled with temperate air sources (crawlspace, attic, sunspace, heat

  1. to the PORTAL servers, including count, occupancy, and time mean speeds in each lane. PORTAL also includes incident and variable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    measures are temperature, visibility, wind speed, and rainfall. From the basic sensor data PORTAL computes and is often broken into three component areas: environmental, economic, and social (3). Environmental consumption of nonrenewable fossil fuels. Economic Sustainability The cost of fuel consumed for transportation

  2. Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump for Near-Zero Energy Houses: Technology Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Richard W; Rice, C Keith; Baxter, Van D; Craddick, William G

    2007-07-01

    This report documents the development of an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) through the third quarter of FY2007. It describes the design, analyses and testing of the AS-IHP, and provides performance specifications for a field test prototype and proposed control strategy. The results obtained so far continue to support the AS-IHP being a promising candidate to meet the energy service needs for DOE's development of a Zero Energy Home (ZEH) by the year 2020.

  3. H. J. Sutherland and P. W. Carlin, "Damage Measurements on the NWTC Direct-Drive, Variable-Speed Test Bed," 1998 ASME Wind Energy Symposium, AIAA/ASME, 1998,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado 80401 Abstract The NWTC (National Wind Technology Center-Speed Test Bed," 1998 ASME Wind Energy Symposium, AIAA/ASME, 1998, pp. 315-322. DAMAGE MEASUREMENTS ON THE NWTC DIRECT-DRIVE, VARIABLE-SPEED TEST BED* Herbert J. Sutherland Wind Energy Department Sandia

  4. Field Study of Performance, Comfort, and Sizing of Two Variable-Speed Heat Pumps Installed in a Single 2-Story Residence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Odukomaiya, Adewale O [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    With the recent advancements in the application of variable-speed (VS) compressors to residential HVAC systems, opportunities are now available to size heat pumps (HPs) to more effectively meet heating and cooling loads in many of the climate zones in the US with limited use of inefficient resistance heat. This is in contrast to sizing guidance for traditional single-speed HPs that limits the ability to oversize with regard to cooling loads, because of risks of poor dehumidification during the cooling season and increased cycling losses. VS-drive HPs can often run at 30-40% of their rated cooling capacity to reduce cycling losses, and can adjust fan speed to provide better indoor humidity control. Detailed air-side performance data was collected on two VS-drive heat pumps installed in a single unoccupied research house in Knoxville, TN, a mixed-humid climate. One system provided space conditioning for the upstairs, while the other unit provided space conditioning for the downstairs. Occupancy was simulated by operating the lights, shower, appliances, other plug loads, etc. to simulate the sensible and latent loads imposed on the building space by internal electric loads and human occupants according to the Building America Research Benchmark (2008). The seasonal efficiency and energy use of the units are calculated. Annual energy use is compared to that of the single speed minimum efficiency HPs tested in the same house previously. Sizing of the units relative to the measured building load and manual J design load calculations is examined. The impact of the unit sizing with regards to indoor comfort is also evaluated.

  5. The effects of outdoor heat exchanger hydrophobic treatment on the performance of an air source heat pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Brandon DeWayne

    1995-01-01

    The effects of outdoor heat exchanger hydrophobic treatment on the performance of an air source heat pump were investigated. The base case tests used a bare aluminum outdoor heat exchanger in the experimental setup. The base case test results were...

  6. Development of an Air-Source Heat Pump Integrated with a Water Heating / Dehumidification Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C Keith; Uselton, Robert B.; Shen, Bo; Baxter, Van D; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    A residential-sized dual air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) concept is under development in partnership between ORNL and a manufacturer. The concept design consists of a two-stage air-source heat pump (ASHP) coupled on the air distribution side with a separate novel water heating/dehumidification (WH/DH) module. The motivation for this unusual equipment combination is the forecast trend for home sensible loads to be reduced more than latent loads. Integration of water heating with a space dehumidification cycle addresses humidity control while performing double-duty. This approach can be applied to retrofit/upgrade applications as well as new construction. A WH/DH module capable of ~1.47 L/h water removal and ~2 kW water heating capacity was assembled by the manufacturer. A heat pump system model was used to guide the controls design; lab testing was conducted and used to calibrate the models. Performance maps were generated and used in a TRNSYS sub-hourly simulation to predict annual performance in a well-insulated house. Annual HVAC/WH energy savings of ~35% are predicted in cold and hot-humid U.S. climates compared to a minimum efficiency baseline.

  7. Very High Fuel Economy, Heavy Duty, Constant Speed, Truck Engine Optimized Via Unique Energy Recovery Turbines and Facilitated High Efficiency Continuously Variable Drivetrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahman Habibzadeh

    2010-01-31

    The project began under a corporative agreement between Mack Trucks, Inc and the Department of Energy starting from September 1, 2005. The major objective of the four year project is to demonstrate a 10% efficiency gain by operating a Volvo 13 Litre heavy-duty diesel engine at a constant or narrow speed and coupled to a continuously variable transmission. The simulation work on the Constant Speed Engine started on October 1st. The initial simulations are aimed to give a basic engine model for the VTEC vehicle simulations. Compressor and turbine maps are based upon existing maps and/or qualified, realistic estimations. The reference engine is a MD 13 US07 475 Hp. Phase I was completed in May 2006 which determined that an increase in fuel efficiency for the engine of 10.5% over the OICA cycle, and 8.2% over a road cycle was possible. The net increase in fuel efficiency would be 5% when coupled to a CVT and operated over simulated highway conditions. In Phase II an economic analysis was performed on the engine with turbocompound (TC) and a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). The system was analyzed to determine the payback time needed for the added cost of the TC and CVT system. The analysis was performed by considering two different production scenarios of 10,000 and 60,000 units annually. The cost estimate includes the turbocharger, the turbocompound unit, the interstage duct diffuser and installation details, the modifications necessary on the engine and the CVT. Even with the cheapest fuel and the lowest improvement, the pay back time is only slightly more than 12 months. A gear train is necessary between the engine crankshaft and turbocompound unit. This is considered to be relatively straight forward with no design problems.

  8. Thermoacoustic tomography, variable sound speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plamen Stefanov

    2009-10-26

    In thermoacoustic tomography, a short electro-magnetic pulse is sent through a patient's body. The tissue reacts and emits an ultrasound wave form any point, ...

  9. Experimental Research of Air Source Heat Pump Frosting and Defrosting in a Double Stage-Coupling Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Z.; Gu, J.; Lu, Z.

    2006-01-01

    In a double stage-coupling heat pump, comprising an air source and water loop heat pump, the 13~20 ? low temperature water is supplied to the water loop heat pump unit. The water loop heat pump can extract heat from the water and heat the indoor air...

  10. IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 -19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan DYNAMIC MODELING OF AN AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SOURCE HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER Farouk Fardoun, Associate Professor, Department of Industrial Engineering- 1 - 10th IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 - 19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan DYNAMIC MODELING OF AN AIR of an air source heat pump water heater (ASHPWH). The mathematical model consists of submodels of the basic

  11. Air Source Heat Pumps for Cold Climate Applications: Recent U. S. R&D Results from IEA HPP Annex 41

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D; Groll, Dr. Eckhard A.; Shen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Air source heat pumps are easily applied to buildings almost anywhere. They are widespread in milder climate regions but their use in cold regions is hampered due to low efficiency and heating capacity at cold outdoor temperatures. This article describes selected R&D activities aimed at improving their cold weather performance.

  12. A Tool for Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) Based Design of Residential Air Source Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-01-01

    A tool for the design of air source heat pumps (ASHP) based on their life cycle climate performance (LCCP) analysis is presented. The LCCP model includes direct and indirect emissions of the ASHP. The annual energy consumption of the ASHP is determined based on AHRI Standard 210/240. The tool can be used as an evaluation tool when the user inputs the required performance data based on the ASHP type selected. In addition, this tool has system design capability where the user inputs the design parameters of the different components of the heat pump and the tool runs the system simulation software to calculate the performance data. Additional features available in the tool include the capability to perform parametric analysis and sensitivity study on the system. The tool has 14 refrigerants, and 47 cities built-in with the option for the user to add more refrigerants, based on NIST REFPROP, and cities, using TMY-3 database. The underlying LCCP calculation framework is open source and can be easily customized for various applications. The tool can be used with any system simulation software, load calculation tool, and weather and emissions data type.

  13. Development of a High Performance Air Source Heat Pump for the US Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Iu, Ipseng [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Heat pumps present a significant advantage over conventional residential heating technologies due to higher energy efficiencies and less dependence on imported oil. The US development of heat pumps dates back to the 1930 s with pilot units being commercially available in the 1950 s. Reliable and cost competitive units were available in the US market by the 1960 s. The 1973 oil embargo led to increased interest in heat pumps prompting significant research to improve performance, particularly for cold climate locations. Recent increasing concerns on building energy efficiency and environmental emissions have prompted a new wave of research in heat pump technology with special emphasis on reducing performance degradation at colder outdoor air temperatures. A summary of the advantages and limitations of several performance improvement options sought for the development of high performance air source heat pump systems for cold climate applications is the primary focus of this paper. Some recommendations for a high performance cold climate heat pump system design most suitable for the US market are presented.

  14. Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling Part 2: Dynamic behaviour and two-phase thermosiphon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of the high pressure control system, the transitions between heating, cooling and simultaneous modes1 Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling ­ Part 2 the concepts of an air-source Heat Pump for Simultaneous heating and cooling (HPS) designed for hotels

  15. Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling Part 1: Basic concepts and performance verification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    manufacturer. The operation of the high pressure control system, the transitions between heating, cooling1 Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling ­ Part 1 40 51 ABSTRACT This article presents the concepts of an air-source Heat Pump for Simultaneous heating

  16. Variable Frequency Pump Drives 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karassik, I. J.; Petraccaro, L. L.; McGuire, J. T.

    1986-01-01

    variable flow operation, Fig. 2 variable system head, the objective of the latter being to maintain pump flow within an optimum range while accommodating a wide variation in system head. VARYING OPERATING CAPACITY OPERATING CAPACITY? N, RANGE HEAD...-rotor motors and variable speed devices have slip losses that significantly reduce the savings that accrue by operating pumps at variable speed. Steam turbine drives may not always be the most practical or economic solution. The variable frequency...

  17. Economical Aspects of Adjustable Speed Drives in Pumping Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hovstadius, G.

    1999-01-01

    Speed variations of pumps have become increasingly popular as the technology to produce variable frequency drives has progressed. Variable speed drives have many advantages compared to throttle valves when it comes to regulation of flow. They offer...

  18. Field Test of High Efficiency Residential Buildings with Ground-source and Air-source Heat Pump Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the field performance of space conditioning and water heating equipment in four single-family residential structures with advanced thermal envelopes. Each structure features a different, advanced thermal envelope design: structural insulated panel (SIP); optimum value framing (OVF); insulation with embedded phase change materials (PCM) for thermal storage; and exterior insulation finish system (EIFS). Three of the homes feature ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and water heating while the fourth has a two-capacity air-source heat pump (ASHP) and a heat pump water heater (HPWH). Two of the GCHP-equipped homes feature horizontal ground heat exchange (GHX) loops that utillize the existing foundation and utility service trenches while the third features a vertical borehole with vertical u-tube GHX. All of the houses were operated under the same simulated occupancy conditions. Operational data on the house HVAC/Water heating (WH) systems are presented and factors influencing overall performance are summarized.

  19. The effect of light truck design variables on top speed, performance, and fuel economy, 1981. Final report Oct 80-Sep 81

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zub, R.W.; Meisner, R.P.

    1981-11-01

    The effect of vehicle weight, rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, and drive-line configuration on fuel economy and performance for light duty trucks is examined. The effect of lockup and extended gear ratio range is also investigated. The assessment of these vehicle variables on fuel economy and performance is determined by using the Transportation Systems Center's vehicle simulation program, VEHSIM, which predicts fuel economy and performance for vehicle parameter changes. The results indicate fuel economy and performance trends which can be used to project future improvements.

  20. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Tainzhen; Liu, Xaiobing

    2009-11-01

    With the current movement toward net zero energy buildings, many technologies are promoted with emphasis on their superior energy efficiency. The variable refrigerant flow (VRF) and ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are probably the most competitive technologies among these. However, there are few studies reporting the energy efficiency of VRF systems compared with GSHP systems. In this article, a preliminary comparison of energy efficiency between the air-source VRF and GSHP systems is presented. The computer simulation results show that GSHP system is more energy efficient than the air-source VRF system for conditioning a small office building in two selected US climates. In general, GSHP system is more energy efficient than the air-source VRV system, especially when the building has significant heating loads. For buildings with less heating loads, the GSHP system could still perform better than the air-source VRF system in terms of energy efficiency, but the resulting energy savings may be marginal.

  1. Thermoacoustic and Photoacoustic Tomography with a variable ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plamen Stefanov

    2010-11-09

    ... a joint work with. Jianliang Qian, Gunther Uhlmann and Hongkai Zhao. Plamen Stefanov (Purdue University ). Thermoacoustic Tomography, Variable Speed.

  2. VARIABLE SPEED INTEGRATED INTELLIGENT HVAC BLOWER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shixiao Wang; Herman Wiegman; Wilson Wu; John Down; Luana Iorio; Asha Devarajan; Jing Wang; Ralph Carl; Charlie Stephens; Jeannine Jones; Paul Szczesny

    2001-11-14

    This comprehensive topical report discusses the key findings in the development of a intelligent integrated blower for HVAC applications. The benefits of rearward inclined blades over that of traditional forward inclined blades is well documented and a prototype blower design is presented. A comparison of the proposed blower to that of three typical units from the industry is presented. The design of the blower housing is also addressed and the impact of size limitations on static efficiency is discussed. Issues of air flow controllability in the rearward inclined blower is addressed and a solution to this problem is proposed. Several motor design options are discussed including inside-out radial flux designs and novel axial flux designs, all are focused on the various blower needs. The control of the motor-blower and airflow through the use of a high density inverter stage and modern digital signal processor is presented. The key technical challenges of the approach are discussed. The use of the motor as a sensor in the larger heating/ventilating system is also discussed. Diagnostic results for both the motor itself and the blower system are presented.

  3. Emerging Technologies Program Overview - 2013 BTO Peer Review...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Prioritization Tool - 2013 BTO Peer Review Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013 Peer Review Develop Standard Method of Test for Integrated Heat Pump - 2013...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    equipment, HVAC equipment, anti-sweat heater controls for coolerfreezer doors, motors, variable speed drives, heat pumps (air-source and geothermal), food service...

  5. Next Generation Rooftop Unit - 2013 Peer Review | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RTU Challenge, RTU Advanced Controls and RTU Smart Monitoring and Diagnostic System - 2013 BTO Peer Review Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013 Peer Review...

  6. Prioritization Tool - 2013 BTO Peer Review | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Roadmap: Emerging Water Heating Technologies Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013 Peer Review Research & Development Roadmap: Emerging HVAC Technologies...

  7. Aalborg Universitet Flicker Mitigation by Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Weihao

    Aalborg Universitet Flicker Mitigation by Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Synchronous Generator Variable-Speed Wind Turbines. Energies, 6(8), 3807-3821. 10.3390/en6083807 General.mdpi.com/journal/energies Article Flicker Mitigation by Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Variable-Speed Wind

  8. Magnetically Coupled Adjustable Speed Motor Drives - Motor Tip Sheet #13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    Alternating current electric motors rotate at a nearly constant speed that is determined by motor design and line frequency. Energy savings of 50% or more may be available when fixed speed systems are modified to allow the motor speed to match variable load requirements of a centrifugal fan or pump.

  9. Speed control system for an access gate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-03-20

    An access control apparatus for an access gate. The access gate typically has a rotator that is configured to rotate around a rotator axis at a first variable speed in a forward direction. The access control apparatus may include a transmission that typically has an input element that is operatively connected to the rotator. The input element is generally configured to rotate at an input speed that is proportional to the first variable speed. The transmission typically also has an output element that has an output speed that is higher than the input speed. The input element and the output element may rotate around a common transmission axis. A retardation mechanism may be employed. The retardation mechanism is typically configured to rotate around a retardation mechanism axis. Generally the retardation mechanism is operatively connected to the output element of the transmission and is configured to retard motion of the access gate in the forward direction when the first variable speed is above a control-limit speed. In many embodiments the transmission axis and the retardation mechanism axis are substantially co-axial. Some embodiments include a freewheel/catch mechanism that has an input connection that is operatively connected to the rotator. The input connection may be configured to engage an output connection when the rotator is rotated at the first variable speed in a forward direction and configured for substantially unrestricted rotation when the rotator is rotated in a reverse direction opposite the forward direction. The input element of the transmission is typically operatively connected to the output connection of the freewheel/catch mechanism.

  10. Integrated Heat Pump (IHP) System Development - Air-Source IHP Control Strategy and Specifications and Ground-Source IHP Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Richard W [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    The integrated heat pump (IHP), as one appliance, can provide space cooling, heating, ventilation, and dehumidification while maintaining comfort and meeting domestic water heating needs in near-zero-energy home (NZEH) applications. In FY 2006 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) completed development of a control strategy and system specification for an air-source IHP. The conceptual design of a ground-source IHP was also completed. Testing and analysis confirm the potential of both IHP concepts to meet NZEH energy services needs while consuming 50% less energy than a suite of equipment that meets current minimum efficiency requirements. This report is in fulfillment of an FY06 DOE Building Technologies (BT) Joule Milestone.

  11. California high speed rail proposal: “High speed rail and wildlife”

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkerson, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    Chapter Wildlife and High Speed Rail C ALIFORNIA H IGH SDan Leavitt, California High Speed Rail Authority) AbstractThe California High Speed Rail (HSR) Proposal is in the

  12. High-Speed Photography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.; Schelev, M.Y.

    1998-08-01

    The applications of high-speed photography to a diverse set of subjects including inertial confinement fusion, laser surgical procedures, communications, automotive airbags, lightning etc. are briefly discussed. (AIP) {copyright} {ital 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.}

  13. Optimal Intercity Transportation Services with Heterogeneous Demand and Variable Fuel Price

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryerson, Megan Smirti

    2010-01-01

    Estimate Error A4.3 High Speed Rail Variable Constantcycle assessment of high-speed rail: the case of California.Economic Analysis of High Speed Rail in Europe. Fundación

  14. Optimal Intercity Transportation Services with Heterogeneous Demand and Variable Fuel Price

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryerson, Megan S.

    2010-01-01

    Economic Analysis of High Speed Rail in Europe. Fundacióncycle assessment of high-speed rail: the case of California.Estimate Error A4.3 High Speed Rail Variable Constant

  15. High speed door assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shapiro, C.

    1993-04-27

    A high speed door assembly is described, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

  16. High speed door assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Carolyn (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01

    A high speed door assembly, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

  17. Chapter 18: Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    An adjustable-speed drive (ASD) includes all devices that vary the speed of a rotating load, including those that vary the motor speed and linkage devices that allow constant motor speed while varying the load speed. The Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol presented here addresses evaluation issues for variable-frequency drives (VFDs) installed on commercial and industrial motor-driven centrifugal fans and pumps for which torque varies with speed. Constant torque load applications, such as those for positive displacement pumps, are not covered by this protocol. Other ASD devices, such as magnetic drive, eddy current drives, variable belt sheave drives, or direct current motor variable voltage drives, are also not addressed. The VFD is by far the most common type of ASD hardware. With VFD speed control on a centrifugal fan or pump motor, energy use follows the affinity laws, which state that the motor electricity demand is a cubic relationship to speed under ideal conditions. Therefore, if the motor runs at 75% speed, the motor demand will ideally be reduced to 42% of full load power; however, with other losses it is about 49% of full load power.

  18. MODELING AND VALIDATION OF A HIGH SPEED ROTARY PWM ON/OFF VALVE Haink C. Tu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    MODELING AND VALIDATION OF A HIGH SPEED ROTARY PWM ON/OFF VALVE Haink C. Tu Center for Compact-speed on/off valves are a critical technology for enabling digital control of hydraulic systems via pulse-width- modulation (PWM). High-speed valves, when used in virtually variable displacement pumps (VVDP), increase

  19. WAVE SPEEDS FOR AN ELASTOPLASTIC MODEL FOR TWODIMENSIONAL DEFORMATIONS WITH A NONASSOCIATIVE FLOW RULE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WAVE SPEEDS FOR AN ELASTOPLASTIC MODEL FOR TWO­DIMENSIONAL DEFORMATIONS WITH A NON­ASSOCIATIVE FLOW of variables, the character­ istic speeds of plane wave solutions of the system are computed. For both plastic and elastic deformations, there are two nonzero wave speeds, referred to as fast and slow waves. It is shown

  20. Control Strategies for Centrifugal Pumps with Variable Flow Rate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    pumping applications with variable flow rate requirements, adjustable speed drives (ASDs) are an efficient control alternative to throttling or bypass methods. ASDs save energy by...

  1. Sub-daily Statistical Downscaling of Meteorological Variables...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and variance that was accurate within 1% for all variables except atmospheric pressure, wind speed, and precipitation. Correlations between downscaled output and the expected...

  2. Forecasting Solar Wind Speeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takeru K. Suzuki

    2006-02-03

    By explicitly taking into account effects of Alfven waves, I derive from a simple energetics argument a fundamental relation which predicts solar wind (SW) speeds in the vicinity of the earth from physical properties on the sun. Kojima et al. recently found from their observations that a ratio of surface magnetic field strength to an expansion factor of open magnetic flux tubes is a good indicator of the SW speed. I show by using the derived relation that this nice correlation is an evidence of the Alfven wave which accelerates SW in expanding flux tubes. The observations further require that fluctuation amplitudes of magnetic field lines at the surface should be almost universal in different coronal holes, which needs to be tested by future observations.

  3. Two-speed transaxle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalns, Ilmars (Northville, MI)

    1981-01-01

    Disclosed is a drive assembly (10) for an electrically powered vehicle (12). The assembly includes a transaxle (16) having a two-speed transmission (40) and a drive axle differential (46) disposed in a unitary housing assembly (38), an oil-cooled prime mover or electric motor (14) for driving the transmission input shaft (42), an adapter assembly (24) for supporting the prime mover on the transaxle housing assembly, and a hydraulic system (172) providing pressurized oil flow for cooling and lubricating the electric motor and transaxle and for operating a clutch (84) and a brake (86) in the transmission to shift between the two-speed ratios of the transmission. The adapter assembly allows the prime mover to be supported in several positions on the transaxle housing. The brake is spring-applied and locks the transmission in its low-speed ratio should the hydraulic system fail. The hydraulic system pump is driven by an electric motor (212) independent of the prime mover and transaxle.

  4. Balancing of high speed, flexible rotating shafts across critical speeds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Gary Paul

    1977-01-01

    BALANCING OF HIGH SPEED, FLEXIBLE ROTATING SHAFTS ACROSS CRITICAL SPEEDS A Thesis by Gary Paul White Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1977 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering Gary Paul White 1977 BALANCING OF HIGH SPEED, FLEXIBLE ROTATING SHAFTS ACROSS CRITICAL SPEEDS A Thesis by GARY PAUL WHITE Approved as to style and content by: Head of Department Member August...

  5. Adjustable Speed Drive Part-Load Efficiency - Motor Tip Sheet #11

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    An adjustable speed drive (ASD) is a device that controls the rotational speed of motor-driven equipment. Variable frequency drives (VFDs), the most common type of ASDs, efficiently meet varying process requirements by adjusting the frequency and voltage of the power supplied to an AC motor to enable it to operate over a wide speed range. External sensors monitor flow, liquid levels, or pressure and then transmit a signal to a controller that adjusts the frequency and speed to match process requirements.

  6. Thermal expansion of the earth and the speed of neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. S. Unnikrishnan

    2011-10-04

    It is pointed out that one of the systematic effects that can affect the measurement of the speed of neutrinos significantly is the variability of the unaveraged measurement of the distance between two points on the earth due to thermal expansion. Possible difference between estimates done with surface GPS apparatus and the true underground baseline can change substantially the statistical significance of the result of superluminal speed of neutrinos, reported recently.

  7. High speed flywheel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGrath, Stephen V. (Knoxville, TN)

    1991-01-01

    A flywheel for operation at high speeds utilizes two or more ringlike coments arranged in a spaced concentric relationship for rotation about an axis and an expansion device interposed between the components for accommodating radial growth of the components resulting from flywheel operation. The expansion device engages both of the ringlike components, and the structure of the expansion device ensures that it maintains its engagement with the components. In addition to its expansion-accommodating capacity, the expansion device also maintains flywheel stiffness during flywheel operation.

  8. High-speed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energy neutronHigh-PressureLaboratoryspeed three-wave

  9. Unwinding the Spin on Variable Speed Drive Air Compressors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beals, C. E.

    2006-01-01

    – The Elimination of Moisture” 9 Industries Audited Aircraft Fasteners Aluminum Cans Aluminum Can Lids Automotive Batteries Automotive Dashboards Automotive Door Panels Automotive Frames Automotive Seating Automotive Tires Bottle Blowing... of expertise or experience in the industry. n clients have asked us to review these “free When clients have asked us to review these “free audit” reports we generally find that the salesperson has misinterpreted the data, the proposals are incomplete...

  10. Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NSIDC Data Center: Energy Reduction Strategies Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers Wireless Sensors Improve Data Center Efficiency...

  11. Adaptive pitch control for variable speed wind turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Kathryn E. (Boulder, CO); Fingersh, Lee Jay (Westminster, CO)

    2012-05-08

    An adaptive method for adjusting blade pitch angle, and controllers implementing such a method, for achieving higher power coefficients. Average power coefficients are determined for first and second periods of operation for the wind turbine. When the average power coefficient for the second time period is larger than for the first, a pitch increment, which may be generated based on the power coefficients, is added (or the sign is retained) to the nominal pitch angle value for the wind turbine. When the average power coefficient for the second time period is less than for the first, the pitch increment is subtracted (or the sign is changed). A control signal is generated based on the adapted pitch angle value and sent to blade pitch actuators that act to change the pitch angle of the wind turbine to the new or modified pitch angle setting, and this process is iteratively performed.

  12. Best Practicefor Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Variable SpeedPumping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Tengfang

    2005-06-15

    Cleanroom energy benchmarking data shows that chiller plant designs and operating efficiencies varied significantly from cleanroom to cleanroom. While system optimization is critical to the overall energy efficiency of chiller plants, the operating efficiency of chilled water and condenser pumps, along with chiller efficiency and cooling tower efficiency, is a major factor in the overall system efficiency. The design and operating efficiency of water pumps directly affects energy use for such facilities. Figure 1 shows benchmarked HVAC energy end use in a semiconductor cleanroom facility. In this case, the water pumps collectively accounted for 17% of the total energy use. Figure 2 shows the electric power demand of the components in a chiller plant system. Pumps accounted for 18% of the total power demand for the whole chiller plant. It is important to design, select, operate, and control water-pumping systems to achieve high efficiency and to lower life-cycle costs for cleanrooms and their adjacent spaces.

  13. Variable Speed Pumping: A Guide to Successful Applications -...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Conservation Program: Test Procedure for Pumps, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Summary of HI Standards Relating to Energy Efficency Pump Life Cycle Costs: A Guide to LCC Analysis...

  14. Evaluation of Retrofit Variable-Speed Furnace Fan Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldrich, R.; Williamson, J.

    2014-01-01

    In conjunction with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG), the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) has evaluated the Concept 3™ replacement motors for residential furnaces. These brushless, permanent magnet (BPM) motors can use much less electricity than their PSC (permanent split capacitor) predecessors. This evaluation focuses on existing homes in the heating-dominated climate of upstate New York with the goals of characterizing field performance and cost effectiveness. The project includes eight homes in and near Syracuse, NY. Tests and monitoring was performed both before and after fan motors were replaced. Results indicate that BPM replacement motors will be most cost effective in HVAC systems with longer run times and relatively low duct static pressures. More dramatic savings are possible if occupants use the fan-only setting when there is no thermal load. There are millions of cold-climate, U.S. homes that meet these criteria, but the savings in most homes tested in this study were modest.

  15. Evaluation of Retrofit Variable-Speed Furnace Fan Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldrich, R.; Williamson, J.

    2014-01-01

    In conjunction with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG), the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) has evaluated the Concept 3 (tm) replacement motors for residential furnaces. These brushless, permanent magnet (BPM) motors can use much less electricity than their PSC (permanent split capacitor) predecessors. This evaluation focuses on existing homes in the heating-dominated climate of upstate New York with the goals of characterizing field performance and cost-effectiveness. The results of this study are intended to be useful to home performance contractors, HVAC contractors, and home efficiency program stakeholders. The project includes eight homes in and near Syracuse, NY. Tests and monitoring was performed both before and after fan motors were replaced. Average fan power reductions were approximately 126 Watts during heating and 220 Watts during cooling operation. Over the course of entire heating and cooling seasons, these translated into average electric energy savings of 163 kWh. Average cost savings were $20 per year. Homes where the fan was used outside of heating and cooling mode saved an additional $42 per year on average. Results indicate that BPM replacement motors will be most cost-effective in HVAC systems with longer run times and relatively low duct static pressures. More dramatic savings are possible if occupants use the fan-only setting when there is no thermal load. There are millions of cold-climate, U.S. homes that meet these criteria, but the savings in most homes tested in this study were modest.

  16. Variable Speed Pumping: A Guide to Successful Applications - Executive

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-Sessions | Department ofVPV-Site Assembly Building

  17. Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump with Variable-Speed Technology |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool FitsProject DevelopsforReporting OccupationalPowerDepartment of EnergyDepartment

  18. Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And Statistics » USAJobs Search USAJobs SearchWater-SavingofCode |DepartmentVampire

  19. Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996HowFOAShowing YouNeedofDepartmentVOICES of Experience955

  20. High speed transient sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-11-28

    A high speed sampler comprises a meandered sample transmission line for transmitting an input signal, a straight strobe transmission line for transmitting a strobe signal, and a plurality of sampling gates along the transmission lines. The sampling gates comprise a four terminal diode bridge having a first strobe resistor connected from a first terminal of the bridge to the positive strobe line, a second strobe resistor coupled from the third terminal of the bridge to the negative strobe line, a tap connected to the second terminal of the bridge and to the sample transmission line, and a sample holding capacitor connected to the fourth terminal of the bridge. The resistance of the first and second strobe resistors is much higher than the signal transmission line impedance in the preferred system. This results in a sampling gate which applies a very small load on the sample transmission line and on the strobe generator. The sample holding capacitor is implemented using a smaller capacitor and a larger capacitor isolated from the smaller capacitor by resistance. The high speed sampler of the present invention is also characterized by other optimizations, including transmission line tap compensation, stepped impedance strobe line, a multi-layer physical layout, and unique strobe generator design. A plurality of banks of such samplers are controlled for concatenated or interleaved sample intervals to achieve long sample lengths or short sample spacing. 17 figs.

  1. High speed transient sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A high speed sampler comprises a meandered sample transmission line for transmitting an input signal, a straight strobe transmission line for transmitting a strobe signal, and a plurality of sampling gates along the transmission lines. The sampling gates comprise a four terminal diode bridge having a first strobe resistor connected from a first terminal of the bridge to the positive strobe line, a second strobe resistor coupled from the third terminal of the bridge to the negative strobe line, a tap connected to the second terminal of the bridge and to the sample transmission line, and a sample holding capacitor connected to the fourth terminal of the bridge. The resistance of the first and second strobe resistors is much higher than the signal transmission line impedance in the preferred system. This results in a sampling gate which applies a very small load on the sample transmission line and on the strobe generator. The sample holding capacitor is implemented using a smaller capacitor and a larger capacitor isolated from the smaller capacitor by resistance. The high speed sampler of the present invention is also characterized by other optimizations, including transmission line tap compensation, stepped impedance strobe line, a multi-layer physical layout, and unique strobe generator design. A plurality of banks of such samplers are controlled for concatenated or interleaved sample intervals to achieve long sample lengths or short sample spacing.

  2. Drill Press Speed Chart Recommended operating speeds (RPM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quigg, Chris

    Drill Press Speed Chart Recommended operating speeds (RPM) Accessory Softwood (Pine) Hardwood (Hard Maple) Acrylic Brass Aluminum Steel Shop Notes Twist drill bits 1/16" - 3/16" 1/4" - 3/8" 7/16"- 5/8" 11 1000 600 350 Lubricate drill with oil when cutting steel 1/8" or thicker. Use center punch on all holes

  3. Observational constraint on the varying speed of light theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jing-Zhao Qi; Ming-Jian Zhang; Wen-Biao Liu

    2014-10-07

    The varying speed of light (VSL) theory is controversial. It succeeds in explaining some cosmological problems, but on the other hand it is excluded by mainstream physics because it will shake the foundation of physics. In the present paper, we devote ourselves to test whether the speed of light is varying from the observational data of the type Ia Supernova, Baryon Acoustic Oscillation, Observational $H(z)$ data and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). We select the common form $c(t)=c_0a^n(t)$ with the contribution of dark energy and matter, where $c_0$ is the current value of speed of light, $n$ is a constant, and consequently construct a varying speed of light dark energy model (VSLDE). The combined observational data show a much trivial constraint $n=-0.0033 \\pm 0.0045$ at 68.3\\% confidence level, which indicates that the speed of light may be a constant with high significance. By reconstructing the time-variable $c(t)$, we find that the speed of light almost has no variation for redshift $z light is only in order of $10^{-2}$. We also introduce the geometrical diagnostic $Om (z)$ to show the difference between the VSLDE and $\\Lambda$CDM model. The result shows that the current data are difficult to differentiate them. All the results show that the observational data favor the constant speed of light.

  4. Method and apparatus for controlling continuously variable transmission for vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osanai, A.; Niwa, T.; Gono, T.

    1987-04-14

    A method is described of controlling a speed ratio of a continuously variable transmission for a vehicle for transmitting a rotary motion of an engine of the vehicle to drive wheels of the vehicle with a stepless speed change. The speed ratio of the transmission is regulated such that an actual speed of the engine coincides with a target engine speed. The method comprises: determining a first target speed of the engine based on a predetermined currently required output of the engine and according to a predetermined relation between the first target speed of the engine and the required output of the engine. The first target speed of the engine is normally used as the target engine speed to regulate the speed ratio of the transmission; detecting a running speed of the vehicle; and determining a second target speed of the engine based on a predetermined transmission efficiency of the transmission and on the first target speed of the engine. The second target speed of the engine is lower than the first target speed.

  5. Adjustable Speed Drives in the U.S. Petroleum Refining, Petrochemical, and Chemical Industries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foley, D. J.; Chodorowski, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes applications and incentives for the use of variable frequency drivers (VFD) in the petroleum refining, petrochemical, and chemical industries. VFDs are a particular type of adjustable speed driver (ASD) found prevalently...

  6. Effect of Inhomogeneity and Unsteadiness on the Stability of High-Speed Shear Flows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertsch, Rebecca Lynne

    2014-07-09

    In hypersonic flows, turbulence critically influences mass and momentum transport, mixing, heat transfer and acoustic noise generation. In contrast to incompressible flow, in high speed flows pressure is a true thermodynamic variable...

  7. Numerical wind speed simulation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Athey, G.F.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1981-09-01

    A relatively simple stochastic model for simulating wind speed time series that can be used as an alternative to time series from representative locations is described in this report. The model incorporates systematic seasonal variation of the mean wind, its standard deviation, and the correlation speeds. It also incorporates systematic diurnal variation of the mean speed and standard deviation. To demonstrate the model capabilities, simulations were made using model parameters derived from data collected at the Hanford Meteorology Station, and results of analysis of simulated and actual data were compared.

  8. Forecasting wind speed financial return

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Amico, Guglielmo; Prattico, Flavio

    2013-01-01

    The prediction of wind speed is very important when dealing with the production of energy through wind turbines. In this paper, we show a new nonparametric model, based on semi-Markov chains, to predict wind speed. Particularly we use an indexed semi-Markov model that has been shown to be able to reproduce accurately the statistical behavior of wind speed. The model is used to forecast, one step ahead, wind speed. In order to check the validity of the model we show, as indicator of goodness, the root mean square error and mean absolute error between real data and predicted ones. We also compare our forecasting results with those of a persistence model. At last, we show an application of the model to predict financial indicators like the Internal Rate of Return, Duration and Convexity.

  9. Adjustable Speed Drive Industrial Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, J. N.

    1989-01-01

    Electric motors are significant users of electricity in the United States. Approximately 66 percent of the total electricity in the U.S. is used by electric motors. Electronic adjustable speed drives (ASDs) can save energy, lower maintenance cost...

  10. Cloud speed impact on solar variability scaling â?? Application to the wavelet variability model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2013-01-01

    index: Analysis and statistics. Solar Energy. 81, 195-206.analysis. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. 90, 3356-PV systems. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. 47, 281-

  11. Variable Speed Drive Volumetric Tracking (VSDVT) for Airflow Control in Variable Air Volume (VAV) Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, M.

    2002-01-01

    drives (VSD) instead of the flow stations. Its performance is studied and compared with the fan tracking (FT) method using model simulations. The VSDVT maintains a constant building pressure and the required outside airflow under all load conditions...

  12. Cloud speed impact on solar variability scaling â?? Application to the wavelet variability model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2013-01-01

    photovoltaic systems. Progress in Photovoltaics: Researcha low pass filter. Progress in Photovoltaics. 19, 505-510.

  13. Cloud speed impact on solar variability scaling â?? Application to the wavelet variability model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2013-01-01

    analysis. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. 90, 3356-PV systems. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. 47, 281-

  14. Cloud speed impact on solar variability scaling â?? Application to the wavelet variability model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2013-01-01

    achieved over a solar power plant due to decorrelationmodel (WVM) for solar PV power plants. Sustainable Energy,solar PV power production is mostly caused by the movement of clouds across the PV plant.

  15. Cloud speed impact on solar variability scaling â?? Application to the wavelet variability model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Solar Energy World Congress, Kassel, Germany. Perez, R. ,over the area of Germany. Solar Energy. 70, 513-518. Woyte,

  16. High-Speed Rail Comes to London

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sir Peter

    2001-01-01

    of a debate about high-speed rail transportation, spurred byfrom long-haul flight to high-speed rail feeder. Lufthansasecurity problems that high-speed rail travel might help

  17. Speeding Up Zeolite Evaluation for Carbon Capture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Speeding Up Zeolite Evaluation for Carbon Capture Speeding Up Zeolite Evaluation for Carbon Capture Zeolite.png Schematic of an important class of porous materials known as...

  18. Generalized Geometric Quantum Speed Limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diego Paiva Pires; Marco Cianciaruso; Lucas C. Céleri; Gerardo Adesso; Diogo O. Soares-Pinto

    2015-09-30

    The attempt to gain a theoretical understanding of the concept of time in quantum mechanics has triggered significant progress towards the search for faster and more efficient quantum technologies. One of such advances consists in the interpretation of the time-energy uncertainty relations as lower bounds for the minimal evolution time between two distinguishable states of a quantum system, also known as quantum speed limits. We investigate how the non uniqueness of a bona fide measure of distinguishability defined on the quantum state space affects the quantum speed limits and can be exploited in order to derive improved bounds. Specifically, we establish an infinite family of quantum speed limits valid for unitary and nonunitary evolutions, based on an elegant information geometric formalism. Our work unifies and generalizes existing results on quantum speed limits, and provides instances of novel bounds which are tighter than any established one based on the conventional quantum Fisher information. We illustrate our findings with relevant examples, clarifying the role of classical populations versus quantum coherences in the determination and saturation of the speed limits. Our results can find applications in the optimization and control of quantum technologies such as quantum computation and metrology, and might provide new insights in fundamental investigations of quantum thermodynamics.

  19. Cataclysmic Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Connon Smith

    2007-01-23

    Cataclysmic variables are binary stars in which a relatively normal star is transferring mass to its compact companion. This interaction gives rise to a rich range of behaviour, of which the most noticeable are the outbursts that give the class its name. Novae belong to the class, as do the less well known dwarf novae and magnetic systems. Novae draw their energy from nuclear reactions, while dwarf novae rely on gravity to power their smaller eruptions. All the different classes of cataclysmic variable can be accommodated within a single framework and this article will describe the framework, review the properties of the main types of system and discuss models of the outbursts and of the long-term evolution.

  20. Speeding chemical reactions by focusing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Lacasta; L. Ramirez-Piscina; J. M. Sancho; K. Lindenberg

    2012-12-13

    We present numerical results for a chemical reaction of colloidal particles which are transported by a laminar fluid and are focused by periodic obstacles in such a way that the two components are well mixed and consequently the chemical reaction is speeded up. The roles of the various system parameters (diffusion coefficients, reaction rate, obstacles sizes) are studied. We show that focusing speeds up the reaction from the diffusion limited rate (t to the power -1/2) to very close to the perfect mixing rate, (t to the power -1).

  1. Device for adapting continuously variable transmissions to infinitely variable transmissions with forward-neutral-reverse capabilities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkes, Donald F. (Albuquerque, NM); Purvis, James W. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, A. Keith (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    An infinitely variable transmission is capable of operating between a maximum speed in one direction and a minimum speed in an opposite direction, including a zero output angular velocity, while being supplied with energy at a constant angular velocity. Input energy is divided between a first power path carrying an orbital set of elements and a second path that includes a variable speed adjustment mechanism. The second power path also connects with the orbital set of elements in such a way as to vary the rate of angular rotation thereof. The combined effects of power from the first and second power paths are combined and delivered to an output element by the orbital element set. The transmission can be designed to operate over a preselected ratio of forward to reverse output speeds.

  2. Residential Air-Source Heat Pump Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: Beginning January 1, 2016, rebates will be reduced to $625 per single-head system and $625 per 12,000 BTU/hr for multi-head systems, with a maximum rebate of $2,500.

  3. Multicriteria high-speed rail route selection: application to Malaysia's high-speed rail corridor prioritization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    Multicriteria high-speed rail route selection: application to Malaysia's high-speed rail corridor on multicriteria decision analysis in transportation and provides a case study of high-speed rail (HSR) corridor. Keywords: high-speed rail; route selection; multicriteria analysis; Malaysia Introduction High-speed rail

  4. Music and Speed of Processing 1 BACKGROUND MUSIC AND SPEED OF PROCESSING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mutlu, Onur

    Music and Speed of Processing 1 BACKGROUND MUSIC AND SPEED OF PROCESSING Effects of the Type of Loud Background Music on Speed of Processing Onur Mutlu University of Michigan #12;Music and Speed of background music and task difficulty on the speed of processing in search tasks. Subjects completed four

  5. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tainzhen

    2010-01-01

    GSHP system is more energy efficient than the air-source VRFGSHP system is more energy efficient than the air-source VRVintended to be as energy efficient as required by current

  6. The Chilled Water and Hot Water Building Differential Pressure Setpoint Calculation - Chilled Water and Hot Water Pump Speed Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, W. D.; Bruner, H., Jr.; Claridge, D.; Liu, C.; Deng, S.

    2002-01-01

    Water and Hot Water Building Deferential Pressure Setpoint Calculation ? Chilled Water and Hot Water Pump Speed Control Chenggang Liu Research Associate Energy Systems Laboratory Texas A&M University College Station, TX Homer L. Bruner... of chilled water and hot water consumption with the leaking control valves on the cooling and heating coils. Variable speed pumps save cooling and heating energies. However, most of these advantages are lost when proper speed control is not maintained...

  7. Potential ecological impacts analysis of California high speed rail

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cameron, Dick; White, Mike; Stallcup, Jerre Ann; Penrod, Kristeen

    2005-01-01

    the proposed California High Speed Rail project as detailedquestion of choosing the high speed rail modal alternativeand was based on high speed rail alignment data, including

  8. Southeast high speed rail (SEHSR): a case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallagher, William

    2005-01-01

    transportation system. High speed rail service will provideof 100 – 500 miles. High speed rail in the Southeast willcoalition to develop a high speed rail network connecting

  9. High speed sampler and demultiplexer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-12-26

    A high speed sampling demultiplexer based on a plurality of sampler banks, each bank comprising a sample transmission line for transmitting an input signal, a strobe transmission line for transmitting a strobe signal, and a plurality of sampling gates at respective positions along the sample transmission line for sampling the input signal in response to the strobe signal. Strobe control circuitry is coupled to the plurality of banks, and supplies a sequence of bank strobe signals to the strobe transmission lines in each of the plurality of banks, and includes circuits for controlling the timing of the bank strobe signals among the banks of samplers. Input circuitry is included for supplying the input signal to be sampled to the plurality of sample transmission lines in the respective banks. The strobe control circuitry can repetitively strobe the plurality of banks of samplers such that the banks of samplers are cycled to create a long sample length. Second tier demultiplexing circuitry is coupled to each of the samplers in the plurality of banks. The second tier demultiplexing circuitry senses the sample taken by the corresponding sampler each time the bank in which the sampler is found is strobed. A plurality of such samples can be stored by the second tier demultiplexing circuitry for later processing. Repetitive sampling with the high speed transient sampler induces an effect known as ``strobe kickout``. The sample transmission lines include structures which reduce strobe kickout to acceptable levels, generally 60 dB below the signal, by absorbing the kickout pulses before the next sampling repetition. 16 figs.

  10. High speed sampler and demultiplexer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A high speed sampling demultiplexer based on a plurality of sampler banks, each bank comprising a sample transmission line for transmitting an input signal, a strobe transmission line for transmitting a strobe signal, and a plurality of sampling gates at respective positions along the sample transmission line for sampling the input signal in response to the strobe signal. Strobe control circuitry is coupled to the plurality of banks, and supplies a sequence of bank strobe signals to the strobe transmission lines in each of the plurality of banks, and includes circuits for controlling the timing of the bank strobe signals among the banks of samplers. Input circuitry is included for supplying the input signal to be sampled to the plurality of sample transmission lines in the respective banks. The strobe control circuitry can repetitively strobe the plurality of banks of samplers such that the banks of samplers are cycled to create a long sample length. Second tier demultiplexing circuitry is coupled to each of the samplers in the plurality of banks. The second tier demultiplexing circuitry senses the sample taken by the corresponding sampler each time the bank in which the sampler is found is strobed. A plurality of such samples can be stored by the second tier demultiplexing circuitry for later processing. Repetitive sampling with the high speed transient sampler induces an effect known as "strobe kickout". The sample transmission lines include structures which reduce strobe kickout to acceptable levels, generally 60 dB below the signal, by absorbing the kickout pulses before the next sampling repetition.

  11. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 12, NO. 1, JANUARY 1997 87 Fuzzy Logic Based Intelligent Control of a Variable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simões, Marcelo Godoy

    constant speed wind turbines (horizontal or vertical axis) that were coupled to squirrel cage induction gives robust speed control against wind gust and turbine oscillatory torque. The complete control system and control, the total energy capture in a variable speed wind turbine (VSWT) system is larger and, therefore

  12. Active control system for high speed windmills

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Avery, D.E.

    1988-01-12

    A pump stroke is matched to the operating speed of a high speed windmill. The windmill drives a hydraulic pump for a control. Changes in speed of a wind driven shaft open supply and exhaust valves to opposite ends of a hydraulic actuator to lengthen and shorten an oscillating arm thereby lengthening and shortening the stroke of an output pump. Diminishing wind to a stall speed causes the valves to operate the hydraulic cylinder to shorten the oscillating arm to zero. A pressure accumulator in the hydraulic system provides the force necessary to supply the hydraulic fluid under pressure to drive the actuator into and out of the zero position in response to the windmill shaft speed approaching and exceeding windmill stall speed. 4 figs.

  13. Active control system for high speed windmills

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Avery, Don E. (45-437 Akimala St., Honolulu, HI 96744)

    1988-01-01

    A pump stroke is matched to the operating speed of a high speed windmill. The windmill drives a hydraulic pump for a control. Changes in speed of a wind driven shaft open supply and exhaust valves to opposite ends of a hydraulic actuator to lengthen and shorten an oscillating arm thereby lengthening and shortening the stroke of an output pump. Diminishing wind to a stall speed causes the valves to operate the hydraulic cylinder to shorten the oscillating arm to zero. A pressure accumulator in the hydraulic system provides the force necessary to supply the hydraulic fluid under pressure to drive the actuator into and out of the zero position in response to the windmill shaft speed approaching and exceeding windmill stall speed.

  14. Impacts of a conspicuity treatment on speed limit compliance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garg, Roma

    2007-09-17

    In reduced speed zones, where no other cues indicate the need to slow down, drivers sometimes fail to notice the standard Speed Limit sign and may be speeding inadvertently. To help reduce inadvertent speeding, a red ...

  15. High speed imager test station

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yates, G.J.; Albright, K.L.; Turko, B.T.

    1995-11-14

    A test station enables the performance of a solid state imager (herein called a focal plane array or FPA) to be determined at high image frame rates. A programmable waveform generator is adapted to generate clock pulses at determinable rates for clock light-induced charges from a FPA. The FPA is mounted on an imager header board for placing the imager in operable proximity to level shifters for receiving the clock pulses and outputting pulses effective to clock charge from the pixels forming the FPA. Each of the clock level shifters is driven by leading and trailing edge portions of the clock pulses to reduce power dissipation in the FPA. Analog circuits receive output charge pulses clocked from the FPA pixels. The analog circuits condition the charge pulses to cancel noise in the pulses and to determine and hold a peak value of the charge for digitizing. A high speed digitizer receives the peak signal value and outputs a digital representation of each one of the charge pulses. A video system then displays an image associated with the digital representation of the output charge pulses clocked from the FPA. In one embodiment, the FPA image is formatted to a standard video format for display on conventional video equipment. 12 figs.

  16. High speed imager test station

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yates, George J. (Santa Fe, NM); Albright, Kevin L. (Los Alamos, NM); Turko, Bojan T. (Moraga, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A test station enables the performance of a solid state imager (herein called a focal plane array or FPA) to be determined at high image frame rates. A programmable waveform generator is adapted to generate clock pulses at determinable rates for clock light-induced charges from a FPA. The FPA is mounted on an imager header board for placing the imager in operable proximity to level shifters for receiving the clock pulses and outputting pulses effective to clock charge from the pixels forming the FPA. Each of the clock level shifters is driven by leading and trailing edge portions of the clock pulses to reduce power dissipation in the FPA. Analog circuits receive output charge pulses clocked from the FPA pixels. The analog circuits condition the charge pulses to cancel noise in the pulses and to determine and hold a peak value of the charge for digitizing. A high speed digitizer receives the peak signal value and outputs a digital representation of each one of the charge pulses. A video system then displays an image associated with the digital representation of the output charge pulses clocked from the FPA. In one embodiment, the FPA image is formatted to a standard video format for display on conventional video equipment.

  17. Effect on Speed Distribution due to Intrusive and Non-Intrusive Portable Speed Measurement Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jasrotia, Romika

    2011-06-02

    with pneumatic tubes, Smartsensor, Autoscope with camera trailer and Lidar gun were compared. Results showed that drivers did not react to pneumatic tubes and continued driving at the same speed; there was no significant difference in speeds at different...

  18. Discrimination of speed in 5-year-olds and adults: Are children up to speed?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maurer, Daphne M.

    Discrimination of speed in 5-year-olds and adults: Are children up to speed? I.J. Ahmed a , T-year-olds and adults for two reference speeds: 1.5 and 6° sÀ1 . Both adults and 5-year-olds were more sensitive to changes from the faster than from the slower reference speed. Five-year-olds were less

  19. Curving Dynamics in High Speed PUBLIC VERSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curving Dynamics in High Speed Trains PUBLIC VERSION Daniele Bigoni Kongens Lyngby 2011 IMM forces on the dynamics, due to the high speed spinning of the wheel sets, has been highlighted. The wheel-rail interaction is modeled using the Hertz's static contact theory, corrected with the Kalker

  20. Turbocharged Speed Scaling: Analysis and Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williamson, Carey

    Turbocharged Speed Scaling: Analysis and Evaluation Maryam Elahi Carey Williamson Philipp Woelfel-based turbocharging, applied in conjunction with Fair Sojourn Protocol (FSP) scheduling and job-count-based speed. The simulation results show that Turbocharged FSP (T­FSP) outperforms PS in response time, and often in energy

  1. Speed-line for 3D animation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Won Chan

    2007-04-25

    My thesis describes a tool which creates speed-lines automatically in 3D computer animations. Speed-lines are usually used in comic books to express fast motions in a still image. They are also used in 2D animations. Although animations don't need...

  2. Methodology and Analysis for Determination of Propagation Speed of High-Speed Propulsion Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Methodology and Analysis for Determination of Propagation Speed of High-Speed Propulsion Devices Joseph M. Powers and Keith A. Gonthier Abstract This study describes a methodology and gives an example the wave drag. For a fixed heat release greater than a critical value, two steady prop- agation speeds

  3. Variable ratio regenerative braking device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoppie, Lyle O. (Birmingham, MI)

    1981-12-15

    Disclosed is a regenerative braking device (10) for an automotive vehicle. The device includes an energy storage assembly (12) having a plurality of rubber rollers (26, 28) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (36) and an output shaft (42), clutches (38, 46) and brakes (40, 48) associated with each shaft, and a continuously variable transmission (22) connectable to a vehicle drivetrain and to the input and output shafts by the respective clutches. The rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy from the vehicle when the input shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the output shaft is applied, and are torsionally relaxed to deliver energy to the vehicle when the output shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the input shaft is applied. The transmission ratio is varied to control the rate of energy accumulation and delivery for a given rotational speed of the vehicle drivetrain.

  4. Variable Light-Cone Theory of Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. T. Drummond

    1999-08-20

    We show how to reformulate Variable Speed of Light Theories (VSLT) in a covariant fashion as Variable Light-Cone Theories (VLCT) by introducing two vierbein bundles each associated with a distinct metric. The basic gravitational action relates to one bundle while matter propagates relative to the other in a conventional way. The variability of the speed of light is represented by the variability of the matter light-cone relative to the gravitational light-cone. The two bundles are related locally by an element M, of SL(4,R). The dynamics of the field M is that of a SL(4,R)-sigma model gauged with respect to local (orthochronous) Lorentz transformations on each of the bundles. Only the ``massless'' version of the model with a single new coupling, F, that has the same dimensions as Newton's constant $G_N$, is considered in this paper. When F vanishes the theory reduces to standard General Relativity. We verify that the modified Bianchi identities of the model are consistent with the standard conservation law for the matter energy-momentum tensor in its own background metric. The implications of the model for some simple applications are examined, the Newtonian limit, the flat FRW universe and the spherically symmetric static solution.

  5. Fact #719: March 19, 2012 Nearly 14% of New Car Sales have Continuously Variable Transmissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Continuously variable transmissions (CVT) offer an infinite number of gear ratios that allow the engine to operate near peak efficiency throughout a wide range of vehicle speeds which improves fuel...

  6. Adjustable Speed Drive Part-Load Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (AC) motor to enable it to operate over a wide speed range. External sensors monitor flow, liquid levels, or pressure and then transmit a signal to a controller that adjusts the...

  7. High speed optical quantum random number generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinfurter, Harald

    High speed optical quantum random number generation Martin F¨urst1,2,, Henning Weier1,2, Sebastian/publicationFile/30276/ais20 pdf.pdf (1999). 2. "Fips 140-2, security requirements for cryptographic modules

  8. Wind Speed Forecasting for Power System Operation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Xinxin

    2013-07-22

    In order to support large-scale integration of wind power into current electric energy system, accurate wind speed forecasting is essential, because the high variation and limited predictability of wind pose profound challenges to the power system...

  9. The patterns speeds of NGC 6946

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toonen, Silvia; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Beckman, John; de Zeeuw, Tim

    2007-01-01

    We study the kinematics of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 6946 by investigating the velocity field from H-alpha Fabry-Perot observations, determined the pattern speed of the bar by using the Tremaine-Weinberg method, and find a main pattern speed of 21.7 (+4.0,-0.8) km/s/kpc. Our data clearly suggest the presence of an additional pattern with a pattern speed more than twice that of the large pattern in this galaxy. We use the epicycle approximation to deduce the location of the resonance radii and subsequently determine the pattern speed between the radii, and find that inside the Inner Inner Lindblad Resonance radius, a bar-like system has evolved.

  10. The pattern speeds of NGC 6946

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silvia Toonen; Kambiz Fathi; Jesús Falcón-Barroso; John Beckman; Tim de Zeeuw

    2008-01-18

    We study the kinematics of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 6946 by investigating the velocity field from H-alpha Fabry-Perot observations, determined the pattern speed of the bar by using the Tremaine-Weinberg method, and find a main pattern speed of 21.7 (+4.0,-0.8) km/s/kpc. Our data clearly suggest the presence of an additional pattern with a pattern speed more than twice that of the large pattern in this galaxy. We use the epicycle approximation to deduce the location of the resonance radii and subsequently determine the pattern speed between the radii, and find that inside the inner Inner Lindblad Resonance radius, a bar-like system has evolved.

  11. Speed estimation using single loop detector outputs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ye, Zhirui

    2009-05-15

    that speed estimation is a nonlinear system under various traffic conditions. Thus, a methodology of using Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) is first proposed for such a system. The UKF is a parametric filtering technique that is suitable for nonlinear problems...

  12. Displacement speeds in turbulent premixed flame simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Day, Marcus S.; Shepherd, Ian G.; Bell, J.; Grcar, Joseph F.; Lijewski, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    elds for reaction rate progress and ?uid velocity. Thefor the velocity ?elds and the scalar measure of reactionvelocity and the temperature. To evaluate the displacement speed we de?ne a reaction

  13. Quantifying hurricane wind speed with undersea sound

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Joshua David

    2006-01-01

    Hurricanes, powerful storms with wind speeds that can exceed 80 m/s, are one of the most destructive natural disasters known to man. While current satellite technology has made it possible to effectively detect and track ...

  14. A microprocessor-based control to improve the high speed performance of a permanent magnet brushless motor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becerra, Roger Carlos

    1986-01-01

    -state performance variables, each simulation is allowed to proceed until all of transient modes sufficiently decay. Rotor speed is held constant throughout each simulation. 120 ase e . 7Raase !Weg. Phase 361etL. 90 O 30 200 360 520 680 Speed (rpg) 840... rare earth mag- nets and advanced motor design and manufacturing techniques have stimulated a surge of interest in the development and applications of PM brushless motors. The implementation of a method of converter control to improve the high speed...

  15. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tainzhen

    2010-01-01

    type air-source VRF system and a GSHP system that uses single-stage scroll compressors and vertical ground loop heat exchanger (

  16. Reduction of Emissions from a High Speed Ferry | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions from a High Speed Ferry Reduction of Emissions from a High Speed Ferry 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: West Virginia University 2003deerthompson.pdf More Documents &...

  17. A Multivariate Analysis of Freeway Speed and Headway Data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zou, Yajie

    2013-11-11

    The knowledge of speed and headway distributions is essential in microscopic traffic flow studies because speed and headway are both fundamental microscopic characteristics of traffic flow. For microscopic ...

  18. Energy Department Announces $10 Million to Speed Enhanced Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Speed Enhanced Geothermal Systems into the Market Energy Department Announces 10 Million to Speed Enhanced Geothermal Systems into the Market February 24, 2014 - 11:46am...

  19. Fractional order PID controller for improvement of PMSM speed control in aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saraji, Ali Motalebi; Ghanbari, Mahmood

    2014-12-10

    Because of the benefits reduced size, cost and maintenance, noise, CO2 emissions and increased control flexibility and precision, to meet these expectations, electrical equipment increasingly utilize in modern aircraft systems and aerospace industry rather than conventional mechanic, hydraulic, and pneumatic power systems. Electric motor drives are capable of converting electrical power to drive actuators, pumps, compressors, and other subsystems at variable speeds. In the past decades, permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and brushless dc (BLDC) motor were investigated for aerospace applications such as aircraft actuators. In this paper, the fractional-order PID controller is used in the design of speed loop of PMSM speed control system. Having more parameters for tuning fractional order PID controller lead to good performance ratio to integer order. This good performance is shown by comparison fractional order PID controller with the conventional PI and tuned PID controller by Genetic algorithm in MATLAB soft wear.

  20. Laminar flame speeds of moist syngas mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Apurba K. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Kumar, Kamal; Sung, Chih-Jen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    This work experimentally investigates the effect of the presence of water vapor on the laminar flame speeds of moist syngas/air mixtures using the counterflow twin-flame configuration. The experimental results presented here are for fuel lean syngas mixtures with molar percentage of hydrogen in the hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixture varying from 5% to 100%, for an unburned mixture temperature of 323 K, and under atmospheric pressure. At a given equivalence ratio, the effect of varying amount of water vapor addition on the measured laminar flame speed is demonstrated. The experimental laminar flame speeds are also compared with computed values using chemical kinetic mechanisms reported in the literature. It is found that laminar flame speed varies non-monotonically with addition of water for the carbon monoxide rich mixtures. It first increases with increasing amount of water addition, reaches a maximum value, and then decreases. An integrated reaction path analysis is further conducted to understand the controlling mechanism responsible for the non-monotonic variation in laminar flame speed due to water addition. On the other hand, for higher values of H{sub 2}/CO ratio the laminar flame speed monotonically decreases with increasing water addition. It is shown that the competition between the chemical and thermal effects of water addition leads to the observed response. Furthermore, reaction rate sensitivity analysis as well as binary diffusion coefficient sensitivity analysis are conducted to identify the possible sources of discrepancy between the experimental and predicted values. The sensitivity results indicate that the reaction rate constant of H{sub 2}+OH = H{sub 2}O+H is worth revisiting and refinement of binary diffusion coefficient data of N{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O, N{sub 2}-H{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O pairs can be considered. (author)

  1. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Switch-Mode Continuously Variable Transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Ven, James D.

    -mode continuously variable transmission (CVT), which is the mechanical analog of a DC-DC power electronics converterAmerican Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Switch-Mode Continuously Variable Transmission speed flywheel to the drive train of the vehicle. The transmission for this application must

  2. Influence of Mean State on Climate Variability at Interannual and Decadal Time Scales 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Xiaojie

    2013-05-17

    for many phenomena associated with variables that are nonlinear by definition, such as the vertical wind shear and surface wind speed. In the first part of this dissertation, the influence of mean flow and anomalous flow on vertical wind shear variability...

  3. 2002-01-2729 Parameterization and Transient Validation of a Variable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    2002-01-2729 Parameterization and Transient Validation of a Variable Geometry Turbocharger for Mean of Automotive Engineers, Inc. ABSTRACT The parameterization of variable geometry turbochargers for mean. At low turbocharger speeds, and hence low airflows, the heat exchange via the turbocharger housing

  4. Ashtekar's variables without spin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schucker

    2009-06-26

    Ashtekar's variables are shown to arise naturally from a 3+1 split of general relativity in the Einstein-Cartan formulation. Thereby spinors are exorcised.

  5. High Speed Rail in America Thomas Ducharme, Matt Schena,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    High Speed Rail in America Thomas Ducharme, Matt Schena, and Dan Bellis #12;The US Current Situation of High Speed Rail · The US only has one high speed rail o Acela Which runs from Boston to Washington D.C. · A renewed interest in High Speed Rail Due to increased congestion Desire for cheaper

  6. At-Speed Path Delay Test 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakraborty, Swati

    2015-04-27

    This research describes an approach to test metastability of flip-flops with help of multiple at-speed capture cycles during delay test. K longest paths per flip-flop test patterns are generated, such that a long path on one clock cycle feeds a long...

  7. Detour : Los Angeles River Speed Cinema

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Weifeng Victoria

    2010-01-01

    We live in the culture of speed; everything is on its way to become a faster version of itself tomorrow if it is not already there today. Automobile and cinema are two inventions at the turn of the 20th Century that brought ...

  8. Predicting Wave Glider Speed from Environmental Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Ryan N.

    . This vehicle produces forward motion by harvesting abundant natural energy from ocean waves, and providesPredicting Wave Glider Speed from Environmental Measurements Ryan N. Smith, Jnaneshwar Das, Graham of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4000, Australia Email: ryan.smith@qut.edu.au Robotic Embedded Systems Laboratory

  9. THE MMRI CONNECTION Feeds and Speeds Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bone, Gary

    Machines First Reduce Cycle Times by: Improving Tool Performance Using Advanced Coatings Selecting Cutting Tools to Fully Utilize Machine Spindle RPM Select Speeds to Avoid Chatter and Vibration and Increase Depth of Cut ToolWear #12;HOW TO WORK WITH THE MMRI The MMRI supports research projects

  10. Potential for Energy Efficient Motors and Variable Speed Drives in the Petroleum and Chemical Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fendley, K. A.; Pillay, P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an in-depth survey of motors in a refinery and a chemical plant. The potential for energy and demand savings is then determined and hence the dollar savings using a sliding rate structure currently applicable to the petrochemical...

  11. Variable Speed Drive (VSD) Applications in Dual-Duct Constant Volume Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joo, I.; Liu, M.; Conger, K.; Wang, G.

    2002-01-01

    installed in a 68,000 ft2 (6,317 m2) office and classroom building. The measured static pressure variations and the energy savings agree with the model projected values. The VSD saves the fan power by as much as 35%, reduces the total airflow by 15...

  12. An Efficient Neumann-Series Based Algorithm for Thermoacoustic and Photoacoustic Tomography with Variable Sound Speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanov, Plamen

    An Efficient Neumann-Series Based Algorithm for Thermoacoustic and Photoacoustic Tomography present an efficient algorithm for reconstructing an unknown source in Thermoacoustic and Photoacoustic of the Neumann-series based algorithm. 1 Introduction Thermoacoustic (TAT) and Photoacoustic (PAT) Tomography

  13. Technology Solutions Case Study: Replacement of Variable-Speed Motors for Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-02-01

    In conjunction with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG), the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated the Concept 3™ replacement motors for residential furnaces in eight homes in Syracuse, NY. These brushless, permanent magnet (BPM) motors can use much less electricity than their PSC (permanent split capacitor) predecessors. This evaluation focuses on existing homes in the heating-dominated climate of upstate New York with the goals of characterizing field performance and cost-effectiveness. The results of this study are intended to be useful to home performance contractors, HVAC contractors, and home efficiency program stakeholders. Tests and monitoring was performed both before and after fan motors were replaced. Average fan power reductions were approximately 126 Watts during heating and 220 Watts during cooling operation. Over the course of entire heating and cooling seasons, these translated into average electric energy savings of 163 kWh, with average cost savings of $20 per year. Homes where the fan was used outside of heating and cooling mode saved an additional $42 per year on average. Results indicate that BPM replacement motors will be most cost-effective in HVAC systems with longer run times and relatively low duct static pressures. More dramatic savings are possible if occupants use the fan-only setting when there is no thermal load.

  14. Field monitoring of a variable-speed integrated heat pump/water heating appliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fanney, A.H.

    1993-06-01

    The report describes the residence, heat pump system, and monitoring equipment. Results are presented which include comparison of the total electrical energy consumption of the residence prior to and after installation of the heat pump system, the portion of energy used by each end use within the residence, a comparison of the heat pump's energy consumption using a conventional watthour meter and an electronic digital power analyzer, and the hourly electrical demands imposed on the utility. The thermal performance of the heat pump system is reported on a monthly, seasonal, and annual basis using conventional performance indicators in addition to using an index, proposed by NIST, which quantifies the overall system performance of integrated appliances.

  15. The Use of Variable Speed Drives to Retrofit Hydraulic Injection Molding Machines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ambs, L.; Frerker, M. M.

    1997-01-01

    Injection Molding is a common method of plastic processing in which thermoplastic materials can be molded into arbitrary complex shapes. Most injection molding machines use complicated hydraulic systems to perform the necessary work of the process...

  16. Robust Condition Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of Variable Speed Induction Motor Drives 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Seungdeog

    2012-02-14

    investigated under 1) potential motor feedback error; 2) noise interference to a diagnosis-relevant system; 3) ease of implementation; and 4) universal application of diagnostic scheme in industry. Low cost and flexible implementation strategies are also...

  17. A variable speed translating couch technique for total body irradiation Mario Chretien,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pouliot, Jean

    -oncologie, Pavillon L'Hotel-Dieu de Que´bec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Que´bec, Que´bec, Canada Rene´ Roy De´partement de physique, Universite´ Laval, Que´bec, Canada Jean Pouliotb) De´partement de radio-oncologie, Pavillon L'Hotel-Dieu de Que´bec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Que´bec, Que´bec, Canada and Centre

  18. A study of the effect of variable speed machining on regenerative chatter in end milling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dhayalan, Arun Kumar

    2000-01-01

    vertical machining center. The implementation of VSM on the machine is done with minimum hardware changes and minimum cost thus making it practically feasible. The cutting force data and the audible data where collected from the experiments and analyzed...

  19. Effects of mineral aerosols on the summertime climate of southwest Asia: Incorporating subgrid variability in a dust emission scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcella, Marc Pace

    [1] Improvements in modeling mineral aerosols over southwest Asia are made to the dust scheme in a regional climate model by representing subgrid variability of both wind speed and surface roughness length. The new module ...

  20. Abstract--this paper proposes a MIMO linear quadratic regulator (LQR) controller designed for a horizontal variable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    for a horizontal variable speed wind turbine with focus on the operating range referring to the above rated wind speeds. The operating conditions of wind turbines make them subject to fluctuating loads that create with the trade-off between the wind energy conversion maximization and the minimization of the fatigue

  1. Speed of the Earth : illusion and experience of speed and scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benoff, Mitchell

    1993-01-01

    The Speed of the Earth is a proposed sculpture dealing with light as pure experience within the context of short-lived rapid movement and large scale horizontal orientation within the environment. This will be accomplished ...

  2. High-speed massively parallel scanning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Decker, Derek E. (Byron, CA)

    2010-07-06

    A new technique for recording a series of images of a high-speed event (such as, but not limited to: ballistics, explosives, laser induced changes in materials, etc.) is presented. Such technique(s) makes use of a lenslet array to take image picture elements (pixels) and concentrate light from each pixel into a spot that is much smaller than the pixel. This array of spots illuminates a detector region (e.g., film, as one embodiment) which is scanned transverse to the light, creating tracks of exposed regions. Each track is a time history of the light intensity for a single pixel. By appropriately configuring the array of concentrated spots with respect to the scanning direction of the detection material, different tracks fit between pixels and sufficient lengths are possible which can be of interest in several high-speed imaging applications.

  3. High-speed CARIBU and Other Behemoths

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Question: Why did the caribou cross the road, at 76 million miles per hour? Answer: To catch up with the chicken. Visitors to the Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory won’t actually encounter any hyper-speed fowl, but they will see a high-speed CARIBU, which recently started to chase other exotic beasts in the particle zoo. Argonne’s CARIBU – which stands for Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade – is designed to study the inner part of an atom known as its nucleus. A nucleus consists of a collection of two types of particles, the proton, with a positive charge, and the neutron, with no charge, just mass. Those particles themselves are made of even smaller particles called quarks. CARIBU creates extra-heavy (neutron-rich) nuclei, and then spits them out of a nozzle for acceleration.

  4. Energy curable compositions having improved cure speeds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halm, Leo W. (Blaine, MN)

    1993-01-01

    A composition and method provide improved physical properties and cure speed of polyurethane precursors, with or without free radical polymerizable monomers or oligomers present, by use of a two component catalyst system. The resin blend can be activated with a latent organometallic catalyst combined with an organic peroxide which can be a hydroperoxide or an acyl peroxide to decrease the cure time while increasing the break energy and tangent modulus of the system.

  5. VXS, A High Speed Cu Switch Fabric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kepner, Jeremy

    interconnects ­ PCI-X chip to chip interconnect ­ PCI-X mezzanines ­ Point to point intra-connects ­ Point 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005-10 · 8X speed improvement · Backwards compatible · VITA 1.5 2eSST/PCI-X VMEbus 2eSST/PCI-X VMEbus · PCI-X Mezzanine Cards · PMCX & PrPMCX · 64b/133MHz based · VITA 39 PMCXPMCX

  6. Data Capture Technique for High Speed Signaling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrett, Wayne Melvin (Rochester, MN); Chen, Dong (Croton On Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul William (Yorktwon Heights, NY); Gara, Alan Gene (Mount Kisco, NY); Jackson, Rory (Eastchester, NY); Kopcsay, Gerard Vincent (Yorktown Hieghts, NY); Nathanson, Ben Jesse (Teaneck, NY); Vranas, Paylos Michael (Bedford Hills, NY); Takken, Todd E. (Brewster, NY)

    2008-08-26

    A data capture technique for high speed signaling to allow for optimal sampling of an asynchronous data stream. This technique allows for extremely high data rates and does not require that a clock be sent with the data as is done in source synchronous systems. The present invention also provides a hardware mechanism for automatically adjusting transmission delays for optimal two-bit simultaneous bi-directional (SiBiDi) signaling.

  7. Energy curable compositions having improved cure speeds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halm, L.W.

    1993-05-18

    The composition and method provide improved physical properties and cure speed of polyurethane precursors, with or without free radical polymerizable monomers or oligomers present, by use of a two component catalyst system. The resin blend can be activated with a latent organometallic catalyst combined with an organic peroxide which can be a hydroperoxide or an acyl peroxide to decrease the cure time while increasing the break energy and tangent modulus of the system.

  8. Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L. Kenney; William A. Smith; Garold L. Gresham; Tyler L. Westover

    2013-01-01

    If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions, and differing harvest, collection, and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture, and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

  9. Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L. Kenney; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; Tyler L. Westover

    2013-01-01

    If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per-ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that, due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions and differing harvest, collection and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

  10. Variable frequency photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Yang, Jing-Hai; Li, Hong; Chen, Wan-Jin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have firstly proposed a new one-dimensional variable frequency photonic crystals (VFPCs), and calculated the transmissivity and the electronic field distribution of VFPCs with and without defect layer, and considered the effect of defect layer and variable frequency function on the transmissivity and the electronic field distribution. We have obtained some new characteristics for the VFPCs, which should be help to design a new type optical devices.

  11. Stage effects on stalling and recovery of a high-speed 10-stage axial-flow compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copenhaver, W.W.

    1988-01-01

    Results of a high-speed 10-stage axial-flow compressor test involving overall compressor and individual stage performance while stalling and operating in quasi-steady rotating stall are described. Test procedures and data-acquisition methods used to obtain the dynamic stalling and quasi-steady in-stall data are explained. Unstalled and in-stall time-averaged data obtained from the compressor operating at five different shaft speeds and one off-schedule variable vane condition are presented. Effects of compressor speed and variable geometry on overall compressor in-stall pressure rise and hysteresis extent are illustrated through the use of quasi-steady-stage temperature rise and pressure-rise characteristics. Results indicate that individual stage performance during overall compressor rotating stall operation varies considerably throughout the length of the compressor. The measured high-speed 10-stage test compressor individual stage pressure and temperature characteristics were input into a stage-by-stage dynamic compressor performance model. Comparison of the model results and measured pressures provided the additional validation necessary to demonstrate the model's ability to predict high-speed multistage compressor stalling and in-stall performance.

  12. Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2011 Average Truck Speeds The Federal Highway Administration studies traffic volume and flow on major truck routes by tracking more than 500,000 trucks. The average speed of trucks...

  13. Low voltage amplifier architecture for high speed switched capacitor circuits 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shankar, Asit

    2001-01-01

    This work concentrates on circuit realization of high speed and low voltage switched capacitor circuits, with emphasis on the operational transconductance amplifier (OTA). An overview of switched capacitor circuits is given. Speed and voltage...

  14. Laminar Flame Speeds of Nano-Aluminum/Methane Hybrid Mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sikes, Travis

    2014-12-12

    An existing flame speed bomb, which uses optical techniques to measure laminar flame speed, was employed to study the fundamental phenomena of flame propagation through a uniformly dispersed aerosol. In a previous thesis ...

  15. Adjustable Speed AC Motor Drives-Applications Problems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enjeti, P.

    1997-01-01

    Adjustable speed AC drives have become the preferred choice in many industrial applications where controlled speed is required. At the same time, the maturing of the technology and the availability of fast and efficient ...

  16. Excitation and control of a high-speed induction generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Englebretson, Steven Carl

    2005-01-01

    This project investigates the use of a high speed, squirrel cage induction generator and power converter for producing DC electrical power onboard ships and submarines. Potential advantages of high speed induction generators ...

  17. Effect of shrink fits on threshold speeds of rotordynamic instability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mir, MD. Mofazzal Hossain

    2001-01-01

    An investigation of the effect of shrink fits on threshold speeds of rotordynamic instability has been performed. It is known that running rotors at supercritical speed can result in some rotordynamic problems (asynchronous ...

  18. ARE660 Wind Generator: Low Wind Speed Technology for Small Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert W. Preus; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2008-04-23

    This project is for the design of a wind turbine that can generate most or all of the net energy required for homes and small businesses in moderately windy areas. The purpose is to expand the current market for residential wind generators by providing cost effective power in a lower wind regime than current technology has made available, as well as reduce noise and improve reliability and safety. Robert W. Preus’ experience designing and/or maintaining residential wind generators of many configurations helped identify the need for an improved experience of safety for the consumer. Current small wind products have unreliable or no method of stopping the wind generator in fault or high wind conditions. Consumers and their neighbors do not want to hear their wind generators. In addition, with current technology, only sites with unusually high wind speeds provide payback times that are acceptable for the on-grid user. Abundant Renewable Energy’s (ARE) basic original concept for the ARE660 was a combination of a stall controlled variable speed small wind generator and automatic fail safe furling for shutdown. The stall control for a small wind generator is not novel, but has not been developed for a variable speed application with a permanent magnet alternator (PMA). The fail safe furling approach for shutdown has not been used to our knowledge.

  19. Micro helical polymeric structures produced by variable voltage direct electrospinning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. P. Shariatpanahi; A. Iraji zad; I. Abdollahzadeh; R. Shirsavar; D. Bonn; R. Ejtehadi

    2011-09-12

    Direct near field electrospinning is used to produce very long helical polystyrene microfibers in water. The pitch length of helices can be controlled by changing the applied voltage, allowing to produce both micro springs and microchannels. Using a novel high frequency variable voltage electrospinning method we found the helix formation speed and compared the experimental buckling frequency to theoretical expressions for viscous and elastic buckling. Finally we showed that the newmethod can be used to produce new periodic micro and nano structures.

  20. Adjustable Speed Pumping Applications - Pumping Systems Tip Sheet #11

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-01-01

    This two-page tip sheet provides practical tips on application of Adjustable Speed Drives in industrial settings.

  1. Speed Control in Industrial Refrigeration: Theory, Application & Case Studies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, M. H.

    1995-01-01

    -pressure regulators (BPRs) or liquid solenoids, and condensers cycle fans. Unfortunately, these control methods do not provide the maximum attainable reduction in brake horsepower (BHP) as refrigeration capacity is reduced. This paper will discuss... theory and case study, speed control of these components provides maximum flexibility, control and energy efficiency. SPEED CONTROL BACKGROUND In standard system design, electric motors are intended to operate at a fixed speed. This speed...

  2. The Access Almanac: Planning for High Speed Rail

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wachs, Martin

    2012-01-01

    ALMANAC Planning for High Speed Rail M A R T I N WA C H S CO R N O T T O build a high speed rail system and, if so, howWhy has planning for high speed rail in California been so

  3. High Speed Imaging Technology for the Microgravity Containerless Processing Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fossum, Eric R.

    Study on High Speed Imaging Technology for the Microgravity Containerless Processing Facility Dr September 15, 1992 #12;High Speed Imaging Technology Study page 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Glossary........................................................................................................................18 #12;High Speed Imaging Technology Study page 3 Glossary A/D analog-to-digital converter APS active

  4. Wind speed PDF classification using Dirichlet mixtures Rudy CALIF1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Wind speed PDF classification using Dirichlet mixtures Rudy CALIF1 , Richard EMILION2 , Ted'Orléans), UMR CNRS 6628 Université d'Orléans, France. Abstract: Wind energy production is very sensitive to instantaneous wind speed fluctuations. Thus rapid variation of wind speed due to changes in the local

  5. Estimation of Wind Speed in Connection to a Wind Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Estimation of Wind Speed in Connection to a Wind Turbine X. Ma #3; , N. K. Poulsen #3; , H. Bindner y December 20, 1995 Abstract The wind speed varies over the rotor plane of wind turbine making the wind speed on the rotor plane will be estimated by using a wind turbine as a wind measuring device

  6. The unstable behavior of low and high-speed compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day, I.J. . Whittle Lab.); Freeman, C. )

    1994-04-01

    By far the greater part of the understanding about stall and surge in axial compressors comes from work on low-speed laboratory machines. As a general rule, these machines do not model the compressibility effects present in high-speed compressors and therefore doubt has always existed about the application of low-speed results to high-speed machines. In recent years interest in active control has led to a number of studies of compressor stability in engine-type compressors. The instrumentation used in these experiments has been sufficiently detailed that, for the first time, adequate data are available to make direct comparisons between high-speed and low-speed compressors. This paper presents new data from an eight-stage fixed geometry engine compressor and compares then with low-speed laboratory data. The results show remarkable similarities in both the stalling and surging behavior of the two machines, particularly when the engine compressor is run at intermediate speeds. The engine results also show that, as in the laboratory tests, surge is precipitated by the onset of rotating stall. This is true even at very high speeds where it had previously been thought that surge might be the result of a blast wave moving through the compressor. This paper therefore contains new information about high-speed compressors and confirms that low-speed testing is an effective means of obtaining insight into the behavior of high-speed machines.

  7. Scientific Method, Statistical Method, and the Speed of Light.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldford, R.W.

    Scientific Method, Statistical Method, and the Speed of Light. R.J. Mackay and R.W. Oldford Working on the speed of light carried out by A.A. Michelson in 1879. Our answer to the second question is negative. To understand this a history on the speed of light up to the time of Michelson's study is presented. The larger

  8. Taiwan High Speed Rail Keeping passenger safety at the forefront

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taiwan High Speed Rail Keeping passenger safety at the forefront Overview The Need Taiwan High, high-speed travel in Taiwan." -- Ming-Der Lee, manager of Maintenance Management Information Systems, Taiwan High Speed Rail Corporation Like a few countries, life on the island nation of Taiwan is shaped

  9. Deadline Scheduling and Power Management for Speed Bounded Processors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Prudence W.H.

    deadline scheduling on a processor that can manage its energy usage by scaling the speed dynamically be scaled arbitrarily high (the infinite speed model), SOA can complete all jobs with reduced energy usage,15,23,24] enables a processor to vary the speed dynamically. Running a job slower reduces energy usage, but it takes

  10. Relationships between access and operating speed on suburban arterials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, Marcus Allen

    1999-01-01

    for tangent sections was posted speed limit. Because 85th percentile speed is frequently used to set the posted speed limit, one may expect that one value would be able to predict the other as is shown in this analysis. Another series of analyses were...

  11. Moving system with speeded-up evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. I. Shirokov

    2008-02-29

    In the classical (non-quantum) relativity theory the course of the moving clock is dilated as compared to the course of the clock at rest (the Einstein dilation). Any unstable system may be regarded as a clock. The time evolution (e.g., the decay) of a uniformly moving physical system is considered using the relativistic quantum theory. The example of a moving system is given whose evolution turns out to be speeded-up instead of being dilated. A discussion of this paradoxical result is presented.

  12. Signal Speed in Nanomagnetic Logic Chains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541 UnlimitedShift EndShutdown 2013SignalSignal Speed in

  13. Signal Speed in Nanomagnetic Logic Chains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541 UnlimitedShift EndShutdown 2013SignalSignal Speed

  14. Signal Speed in Nanomagnetic Logic Chains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541 UnlimitedShift EndShutdown 2013SignalSignal SpeedSignal

  15. Nuclear Speed-Dating | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEY UNIVERSE The 2014 survey includesScience ProgramsSpeed-Dating

  16. Signal Speed in Nanomagnetic Logic Chains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque|Sensitive Species3 Outlook for Gulf ofSifting ThroughSignal Speed

  17. Variable Refrigerant Flow HVAC 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, S.

    2013-01-01

    Variable refrigerant flow technology HVAC CATEE 2013 San Antonio, TX ESL-KT-13-12-33 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 What is the acronym VRF? ? Variable Refrigerant Flow Operates like a... heat pump utilizing VFD Inverter Compressors and LEV’s Unlike conventional commercial and residential HVAC systems in the USA The predominate method of cooling and heating in the world ESL-KT-13-12-33 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency...

  18. Generalized Transformation Design: metrics, speeds, and diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinsler, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We show that a unified and maximally generalized approach to spatial transformation design is possible, one that encompasses all second order waves, rays, or diffusion processes in anisotropic media. At the design step it is \\emph{not} necessary to specify the physical process for which a specific device will be -- or is intended to be -- built. The primary approximation required is that the effect of wave impedance is neglected, an attribute that plays no role in ray propagation, and therefore is not relevant for pure ray devices; another constraint is that spatial variation in material parameters may need to be sufficiently small. Device construction relies on how we can re-imagine the abstract mathematical notion of a metric on a manifold as a speed-squared matrix (or a diffusion matrix), a step which also specifies the means by which transformation devices will actually be built. Notably, we can conclude that a generalised ray theory that allows for anisotropic indexes (speeds) generates the same predicti...

  19. Lensless magneto-optic speed sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veeser, L.R.; Forman, P.R.; Rodriguez, P.J.

    1998-02-17

    Lensless magneto-optic speed sensor is disclosed. The construction of a viable Faraday sensor has been achieved. Multimode fiber bundles are used to collect the light. If coupled directly into a 100 or 200 {micro}m core fiber, light from a light emitting diode (LED) is sufficient to operate the sensor. In addition, LEDs ensure that no birefringence effects in the input fiber are possible, as the output from such light sources have random polarization. No lens is required since the large diameter optical fibers and thin crystals of materials having high Verdet constants (such as iron garnets) employed permit the collection of a substantial quantity of light. No coupler is required. The maximum amount of light which could reach a detector using a coupler is 25%, while the measured throughput of the fiber-optic bundle without a coupler is about 42%. All of the elements employed in the present sensor are planar, and no particular orientation of these elements is required. The present sensor operates over a wide range of distances from magnetic field sources, and observed signals are large. When a tone wheel is utilized, the signals are independent of wheel speed, and the modulation is observed to be about 75%. No sensitivity to bends in the input or output optical fiber leads was observed. Reliable operation was achieved down to zero frequency, or no wheel rotation. 5 figs.

  20. Lensless Magneto-optic speed sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veeser, Lynn R. (Los Alamos, NM); Forman, Peter R. (Los Alamos, NM); Rodriguez, Patrick J. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1998-01-01

    Lensless magneto-optic speed sensor. The construction of a viable Faraday sensor has been achieved. Multimode fiber bundles are used to collect the light. If coupled directly into a 100 or 200 .mu.m core fiber, light from a light emitting diode (LED) is sufficient to operate the sensor. In addition, LEDs ensure that no birefringence effects in the input fiber are possible, as the output from such light sources have random polarization. No lens is required since the large diameter optical fibers and thin crystals of materials having high Verdet constants (such as iron garnets) employed permit the collection of a substantial quantity of light. No coupler is required. The maximum amount of light which could reach a detector using a coupler is 25%, while the measured throughput of the fiber-optic bundle without a coupler is about 42%. All of the elements employed in the present sensor are planar, and no particular orientation of these elements is required. The present sensor operates over a wide range of distances from magnetic field sources, and observed signals are large. When a tone wheel is utilized, the signals are independent of wheel speed, and the modulation is observed to be about 75%. No sensitivity to bends in the input or output optical fiber leads was observed. Reliable operation was achieved down to zero frequency, or no wheel rotation.

  1. The Speed of Sound in Hadronic Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castorina, P; Miller, D E; Satz, H

    2009-01-01

    We calculate the speed of sound $c_s$ in an ideal gas of resonances whose mass spectrum is assumed to have the Hagedorn form $\\rho(m) \\sim m^{-a}\\exp{bm}$, which leads to singular behavior at the critical temperature $T_c = 1/b$. With $a = 4$ the pressure and the energy density remain finite at $T_c$, while the specific heat diverges there. As a function of the temperature the corresponding speed of sound initially increases similarly to that of an ideal pion gas until near $T_c$ where the resonance effects dominate causing $c_s$ to vanish as $(T_c - T)^{1/4}$. In order to compare this result to the physical resonance gas models, we introduce an upper cut-off M in the resonance mass integration. Although the truncated form still decreases somewhat in the region around $T_c$, the actual critical behavior in these models is no longer present.

  2. Variable thrust cartridge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-11-07

    The present invention is a variable thrust cartridge comprising a water-molten aluminum reaction chamber from which a slug is propelled. The cartridge comprises a firing system that initiates a controlled explosion from the reaction chamber. The explosive force provides a thrust to a slug, preferably contained within the cartridge.

  3. Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.K. Johnson

    2013-09-01

    A 4-ton Low Temperature Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor “boosted heat pump” technology. The Low Temperature Heat Pump system operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor temperature drops.

  4. Air-Source Heat Pump Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment| DepartmentAL/FAL

  5. Air-Source Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I Due Date Adv. FossilMethodsDepartment» Air Sealing

  6. SpeedBalance: Speed-Scaling-Aware Optimal Load Balancing for Green Cellular Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shihada, Basem

    at base stations (BSs) as they are the key source of heavy energy usage in cellular networks, reported and Bhaskar Krishnamachari Department of Electrical Engineering, Viterbi School of Engineering University for a flexible tradeoff between delay and energy, we first study how to adaptively vary the processing speed

  7. High-speed electrical motor evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-02-03

    Under this task, MTI conducted a general review of state-of-the-art high-speed motors. The purpose of this review was to assess the operating parameters, limitations and performance of existing motor designs, and to establish commercial sources for a motor compatible with the requirements of the Brayton-cycle system. After the motor requirements were established, a list of motor types, manufacturers and designs capable of achieving the requisite performance was compiled. This list was based on an in-house evaluation of designs. Following the establishment of these options, a technical evaluation of the designs selected was conducted. In parallel with their evaluations, MTI focused on the establishment of commercial sources.

  8. Merging of high speed argon plasma jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Case, A.; Messer, S.; Brockington, S.; Wu, L.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Elton, R.

    2013-01-15

    Formation of an imploding plasma liner for the plasma liner experiment (PLX) requires individual plasma jets to merge into a quasi-spherical shell of plasma converging on the origin. Understanding dynamics of the merging process requires knowledge of the plasma phenomena involved. We present results from the study of the merging of three plasma jets in three dimensional geometry. The experiments were performed using HyperV Technologies Corp. 1 cm Minirailguns with a preionized argon plasma armature. The vacuum chamber partially reproduces the port geometry of the PLX chamber. Diagnostics include fast imaging, spectroscopy, interferometry, fast pressure probes, B-dot probes, and high speed spatially resolved photodiodes, permitting measurements of plasma density, temperature, velocity, stagnation pressure, magnetic field, and density gradients. These experimental results are compared with simulation results from the LSP 3D hybrid PIC code.

  9. Solar wind suprathermal electron Stahl widths across high-speed stream structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skoug, Ruth M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steinberg, John T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goodrich, Katherine A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Brett R [DARTMUTH UNIV.

    2011-01-03

    Suprathermal electrons (100-1500 eV) observed in the solar wind typically show a strahl distribution, that is, a beam directed away from the Sun along the magnetic field direction. The strahl width observed at 1 AU is highly variable, ranging from 10-70 degrees. The obsenred finite width of the strahl results from the competition between beam focusing as the interplanetary magnetic field strength drops with distance from the Sun, and pitch-angle scattering as the beam interacts with the solar wind plasma in transit from the sun. Here we examine strahl width, observed with ACE SWEPAM across high-speed stream structures to investigate variations in electron scattering as a function of local plasma characteristics. We find that narrow strahls (less than 20 degrees wide), indicating reduced scattering, are observed within high-speed streams. Narrow strahls are also observed in both very low temperature solar wind, in association with ICMEs. Case studies of high-speed streams typically show the strahl narrowing at the leading edge of the stream. In some cases, the strahl narrows at the reverse shock or pressure wave, in other cases at the stream interface. The narrowing can either occur discontinuously or gradually over a period of hours. Within the high-speed wind, the strahl remains narrow for a period of hours to days, and then gradually broadens. The strahl width is roughly constant at all energies across these structures. For some fraction of high-speed streams, counterstreaming is associated with passage of the corotating interaction region. In these cases, we find the widths of the two counterstreaming beams frequently differ by more than 40 degrees. This dramatic difference in strahl width contrasts with observations in the solar wind as a whole, in which counterstreaming strahls typically differ in width by less than 20 degrees.

  10. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  11. High Speed Photometry of SDSS J013701.06-091234.9

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. L. Pretorius; P. A. Woudt; B. Warner; G. Bolt; J. Patterson; E. Armstrong

    2004-05-11

    We present high speed photometry of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey cataclysmic variable SDSS J013701.06-091234.9 in quiescence and during its 2003 December superoutburst. The orbital modulation at 79.71\\pm0.01 min is double humped; the superhump period is 81.702\\pm0.007 min. Towards the end of the outburst late superhumps with a period of 81.29\\pm0.01 min were observed. We argue that this is a system of very low mass transfer rate, and that it probably has a long outburst interval.

  12. Variable depth core sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourgeois, P.M.; Reger, R.J.

    1996-02-20

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus is described comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member. 7 figs.

  13. Variable laser attenuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foltyn, S.R.

    1987-05-29

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprising one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength. 9 figs.

  14. Variable depth core sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourgeois, Peter M. (Hamburg, NY); Reger, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY)

    1996-01-01

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member.

  15. High Speed Rail in Japan: A Review and Evaluation of the Shinkansen Train

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taniguchi, Mamoru

    1992-01-01

    ~High Speed R~l $~r~s High Speed Rail in Japan: A Review andorregulation. High Speed Rail in Japan: A Review andCA94720 CALIFORNIA HIGH SPEED RAIL SERIES Working Paper

  16. Approach to accurately measuring the speed of optical precursors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Chuanfeng; Zhou Zongquan; Guo Guangcan; Jeong, Heejeong

    2011-10-15

    Precursors can serve as a bound on the speed of information with dispersive medium. We propose a method to identify the speed of optical wave fronts using polarization-based interference in a solid-state device, which can bound the accuracy of the speed of wave fronts to less than 10{sup -4} with conventional experimental conditions. Our proposal may have important implications for optical communications and fast information processing.

  17. Wave Speed in the Macroscopic Extended Model for Ultrarelativistic Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Borghero; F. Demontis; S. Pennisi

    2010-12-07

    An exact macroscopic extended model for ultrarelativistic gases, with an arbitrary number of moments, is present in the literature. Here we exploit equations determining wave speeds for that model. We find interesting results; for example, the whole system for their determination can be divided into independent subsystems and some, but not all, wave speeds are expressed by rational numbers. Moreover, the extraordinary property that these wave speeds for the macroscopic model are the same of those in the kinetic model, is proved.

  18. CRYOPUMP MEASUREMENTS RELATING TO SAFETY, PUMPING SPEED, AND RADIATION OUTGASSING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, W.G.

    2011-01-01

    SPEED, AND RADIATION OUTGASSING* William G. Graham andspeeds, and to study outgassing such as might be produced byi w I C" Radiation Outgassing Rad:lation-induced outgassing

  19. High-Speed, Temperature Programmable Gas Chromatography Utilizing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-Speed, Temperature Programmable Gas Chromatography Utilizing a Microfabricated Chip with an Improved Carbon Nanotube Stationary Phase Citation Details In-Document Search...

  20. New simulation speed record set on Sequoia | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Laboratory and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) have set a high performance computing speed record that opens the way to the scientific exploration of complex...

  1. Regularizing future cosmological singularities with varying speed of light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Shojai; A. Shojai; M. Sanati

    2015-07-09

    Cosmological models may result in future singularities. We show that, in the framework of dynamical varying speed of light theories, it is possible to regularize those singularities.

  2. Topography of Extracellular Matrix Mediates Vascular Morphogenesis and Migration Speeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Yi

    Topography of Extracellular Matrix Mediates Vascular Morphogenesis and Migration Speeds Amy L Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 1 Corresponding author. Address: Theoretical Division

  3. Scalable, High-Speed Measurement-Based Quantum Computer Using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    measurement-based quantum computing with trapped ions. Measurement-based architectures offer a way to speed up operation of a quantum computer significantly by parallelizing the...

  4. Boosting the Next Wave of Accelerators: New Technique Speeds...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Boosting Accelerator Design Boosting the Next Wave of Accelerators New Technique Speeds Simulations by up to a Million-fold March 29, 2011 | Tags: Franklin, Nuclear Physics (NP)...

  5. Quantum speed-up transition in open system dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang Hao; Wenjiong Wu

    2015-10-20

    The rate of the trace distance is used to evaluate quantum speed-up for arbitrary mixed states. Compared with some present methods, the approach based on trace distance can provide an optimal bound to the speed of the evolution. The dynamical transition from no speed-up region to speed-up region takes on in the spontaneous decay of an two-level atom with detuning. The evolution is characteristic of the alternating behavior between quantum speed-up and speed-down in the strong system-reservoir coupling regime. Under the o?ff-resonance condition, the dynamical evolution can be accelerated for short previous times and then decelerated to a normal process either in the weak or strong coupling regime. From the time-energy uncertainty relation, we demonstrate that the potential capacity for quantum speed-up evolution is closely related to the energy flow-back from the reservoir to the system. The negative decay rate for short time intervals leads to the speed-up process where the photons previously emitted by the atom are reabsorbed at a later time. The values of the spontaneous decay rate becomes positive after a long enough time, which results in the normal evolution with no speed-up potential.

  6. New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conversion of Biomass to Fuels New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels Scientists made a major step forward recently towards transforming biomass-derived molecules into...

  7. High speed exhaust gas recirculation valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fensom, Rod (Peterborough, GB); Kidder, David J. (Peterborough, GB)

    2005-01-18

    In order to minimize pollutants such as Nox, internal combustion engines typically include an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve that can be used to redirect a portion of exhaust gases to an intake conduit, such as an intake manifold, so that the redirected exhaust gases will be recycled. It is desirable to have an EGR valve with fast-acting capabilities, and it is also desirable to have the EGR valve take up as little space as possible. An exhaust gas recirculation valve is provided that includes an exhaust passage tube, a valve element pivotally mounted within the exhaust passage tube, a linear actuator; and a gear train. The gear train includes a rack gear operatively connected to the linear actuator, and at least one rotatable gear meshing with the rack gear and operatively connected to the valve element to cause rotation of the valve element upon actuation of the linear actuator. The apparatus provides a highly compact package having a high-speed valve actuation capability.

  8. High speed point derivative microseismic detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uhl, J.E.; Warpinski, N.R.; Whetten, E.B.

    1998-06-30

    A high speed microseismic event detector constructed in accordance with the present invention uses a point derivative comb to quickly and accurately detect microseismic events. Compressional and shear waves impinging upon microseismic receiver stations disposed to collect waves are converted into digital data and analyzed using a point derivative comb including assurance of quiet periods prior to declaration of microseismic events. If a sufficient number of quiet periods have passed, the square of a two point derivative of the incoming digital signal is compared to a trip level threshold exceeding the determined noise level to declare a valid trial event. The squaring of the derivative emphasizes the differences between noise and signal, and the valid event is preferably declared when the trip threshold has been exceeded over a temporal comb width to realize a comb over a given time period. Once a trial event has been declared, the event is verified through a spatial comb, which applies the temporal event comb to additional stations. The detector according to the present invention quickly and accurately detects initial compressional waves indicative of a microseismic event which typically exceed the ambient cultural noise level by a small amount, and distinguishes the waves from subsequent larger amplitude shear waves. 9 figs.

  9. High speed point derivative microseismic detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uhl, James Eugene (Albuquerque, NM); Warpinski, Norman Raymond (Albuquerque, NM); Whetten, Ernest Blayne (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A high speed microseismic event detector constructed in accordance with the present invention uses a point derivative comb to quickly and accurately detect microseismic events. Compressional and shear waves impinging upon microseismic receiver stations disposed to collect waves are converted into digital data and analyzed using a point derivative comb including assurance of quiet periods prior to declaration of microseismic events. If a sufficient number of quiet periods have passed, the square of a two point derivative of the incoming digital signal is compared to a trip level threshold exceeding the determined noise level to declare a valid trial event. The squaring of the derivative emphasizes the differences between noise and signal, and the valid event is preferably declared when the trip threshold has been exceeded over a temporal comb width to realize a comb over a given time period. Once a trial event has been declared, the event is verified through a spatial comb, which applies the temporal event comb to additional stations. The detector according to the present invention quickly and accurately detects initial compressional waves indicative of a microseismic event which typically exceed the ambient cultural noise level by a small amount, and distinguishes the waves from subsequent larger amplitude shear waves.

  10. The Tremaine-Weinberg method for pattern speeds using H-alpha emission from ionized gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John E. Beckman; Kambiz Fathi; Núria Piñol; Silvia Toonen; Olivier Hernandez; Claude Carignan

    2008-01-18

    The Fabry-Perot interferometer FaNTOmM was used at the 3.6m Canada France Hawaii Telescope and the 1.6m Mont Megantic Telescope to obtain data cubes in H-alpha of 9 nearby spiral galaxies from which maps in integrated intensity, velocity, and velocity dispersion were derived. We then applied the Tremaine-Weinberg method, in which the pattern speed can be deduced from its velocity field, by finding the integrated value of the mean velocity along a slit parallel to the major axis weighted by the intensity and divided by the weighted mean distance of the velocity points from the tangent point measured along the slit. The measured variables can be used either to make separate calculations of the pattern speed and derive a mean, or in a plot of one against the other for all the points on all slits, from which a best fit value can be derived. Linear fits were found for all the galaxies in the sample. For two galaxies a clearly separate inner pattern speed with a higher value, was also identified and measured.

  11. The Tremaine-Weinberg method for pattern speeds using H-alpha emission from ionized gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckman, John E; Piñol, Núria; Toonen, Silvia; Hernandez, Olivier; Carignan, Claude

    2007-01-01

    The Fabry-Perot interferometer FaNTOmM was used at the 3.6m Canada France Hawaii Telescope and the 1.6m Mont Megantic Telescope to obtain data cubes in H-alpha of 9 nearby spiral galaxies from which maps in integrated intensity, velocity, and velocity dispersion were derived. We then applied the Tremaine-Weinberg method, in which the pattern speed can be deduced from its velocity field, by finding the integrated value of the mean velocity along a slit parallel to the major axis weighted by the intensity and divided by the weighted mean distance of the velocity points from the tangent point measured along the slit. The measured variables can be used either to make separate calculations of the pattern speed and derive a mean, or in a plot of one against the other for all the points on all slits, from which a best fit value can be derived. Linear fits were found for all the galaxies in the sample. For two galaxies a clearly separate inner pattern speed with a higher value, was also identified and measured.

  12. Generation of ultrahigh-speed tunable-rate optical pulses using strongly gain-coupled dual-wavelength DFB laser diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hui, Rongqing; Zhu, B.; Demarest, Kenneth; Allen, Christopher Thomas; Hong, Jin

    1999-05-01

    A novel and simple method to generate a variable-rate, ultrahigh-speed optical pulse train is demonstrated using a dual-wavelength, strongly gain-coupled distributed-feedback laser diode, The repetition rate of the optical pulse train...

  13. Mitigating the effects of intermittency and variability of wind and solar power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavaei, Javad

    farms are broken into two general categories: onshore and offshore. Onshore wind farms are built on land different characteristics. Wind speed is less variable for offshore farms than it is for onshore farms, while offshore farms are built over bodies of water. Though the operation of the turbines is identical

  14. Simulated PV Power Plant Variability: Impact of Utility-imposed Ramp Limitations in Puerto Rico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (Watts of installed capacity per m2 ), and (3) the daily cloud speed. The WVM uses t Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, 87123, USA Abstract -- The variability of solar PV power plants has led to some a 10% of capacity per minute limit on ramp rates produced by PV power plants in its minimum technical

  15. Variable Valve Actuation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Gutterman; A. J. Lasley

    2008-08-31

    Many approaches exist to enable advanced mode, low temperature combustion systems for diesel engines - such as premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI), Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) or other HCCI-like combustion modes. The fuel properties and the quantity, distribution and temperature profile of air, fuel and residual fraction in the cylinder can have a marked effect on the heat release rate and combustion phasing. Figure 1 shows that a systems approach is required for HCCI-like combustion. While the exact requirements remain unclear (and will vary depending on fuel, engine size and application), some form of substantially variable valve actuation is a likely element in such a system. Variable valve actuation, for both intake and exhaust valve events, is a potent tool for controlling the parameters that are critical to HCCI-like combustion and expanding its operational range. Additionally, VVA can be used to optimize the combustion process as well as exhaust temperatures and impact the after treatment system requirements and its associated cost. Delphi Corporation has major manufacturing and product development and applied R&D expertise in the valve train area. Historical R&D experience includes the development of fully variable electro-hydraulic valve train on research engines as well as several generations of mechanical VVA for gasoline systems. This experience has enabled us to evaluate various implementations and determine the strengths and weaknesses of each. While a fully variable electro-hydraulic valve train system might be the 'ideal' solution technically for maximum flexibility in the timing and control of the valve events, its complexity, associated costs, and high power consumption make its implementation on low cost high volume applications unlikely. Conversely, a simple mechanical system might be a low cost solution but not deliver the flexibility required for HCCI operation. After modeling more than 200 variations of the mechanism it was determined that the single cam design did not have enough flexibility to satisfy three critical OEM requirements simultaneously, (maximum valve lift variation, intake valve opening timing and valve closing duration), and a new approach would be necessary. After numerous internal design reviews including several with the OEM a dual cam design was developed that had the flexibility to meet all motion requirements. The second cam added complexity to the mechanism however the cost was offset by the deletion of the electric motor required in the previous design. New patent applications including detailed drawings and potential valve motion profiles were generated and alternate two cam designs were proposed and evaluated for function, cost, reliability and durability. Hardware was designed and built and testing of sample hardware was successfully completed on an engine test stand. The mechanism developed during the course of this investigation can be applied by Original Equipment Manufacturers, (OEM), to their advanced diesel engines with the ultimate goal of reducing emissions and improving fuel economy. The objectives are: (1) Develop an optimal, cost effective, variable valve actuation (VVA) system for advanced low temperature diesel combustion processes. (2) Design and model alternative mechanical approaches and down-select for optimum design. (3) Build and demonstrate a mechanism capable of application on running engines.

  16. High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sasaki, Dennis T. (Mountain View, CA); Van den Engh, Gerrit J. (Seattle, WA); Buckie, Anne-Marie (Margate, GB)

    1995-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

  17. Ris-R-Report LIDAR Wind Speed Measurements from a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø-R-Report LIDAR Wind Speed Measurements from a Rotating Spinner: "SpinnerEx 2009" Nikolas: LIDAR wind speed measurements from a rotating spinner (SpinnerEx 2009) Division: Wind Energy Division application of remote sensing techniques in wind energy, the feasibility of upwind observations via a spinner

  18. Structural vibration damping using lightweight, low-wave-speed media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verdirame, Justin Matthew, 1978-

    2007-01-01

    Incorporation of a low-density, low-wave-speed medium (LWSM) into a structure yields significant damping if the speed of wave propagation in the medium is low enough for standing waves to arise in it. In this thesis, we ...

  19. Wind Speed Modelling and Shortterm Predic tion using Wavelets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nason, Guy

    prediction of the wind regime at a proposed wind farm site. Suppose a small amount of wind speed data hasWind Speed Modelling and Short­term Predic­ tion using Wavelets Katherine Hunt and Guy P Nason@bristol.ac.uk Abstract The mathematical method of wavelets is explained and used to predict wind condi­ tions using short

  20. Speed Scaling to Manage Temperature Nikhil Bansal Kirk Pruhs y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bansal, Nikhil

    Speed Scaling to Manage Temperature Nikhil Bansal #3; Kirk Pruhs y Abstract We consider speed effects of removing the cooling fan from a modern processor, see http : ==www:cs:pitt:edu= #24; kirk Computer Science Department, University of Pittsburgh, kirk@cs.pitt.edu. Supported in part by NSF grants

  1. DoubleSpeed Safe Prime Generation David Naccache

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    prime generation is thus divided by two at the cost of generating primes of size k or k + 1 with equalDouble­Speed Safe Prime Generation David Naccache Gemplus Card International Applied Research method for doubling the speed of safe prime generation. The method is particularly suited to settings

  2. Double-Speed Safe Prime Generation David Naccache

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    at the cost of generating primes of size k or k + 1 with equal probability. The generation of RSA moduliDouble-Speed Safe Prime Generation David Naccache Gemplus Card International Applied Research method for doubling the speed of safe prime generation. The method is particularly suited to settings

  3. A HARDWARE ALGORITHM FOR HIGH SPEED MORPHEME EXTRACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A HARDWARE ALGORITHM FOR HIGH SPEED MORPHEME EXTRACTION AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION Toshikazu Fukushima- gorithms (Matsumoto, 1986) (Haas, 1987) (Ryt- ter, 1987) -(Fukushima, 1990b) have been pro- posed. However speed-up (Fukushima, 1989b) -(Fukushima, 1990a). This paper describes a new hardware algorithm for high

  4. Probability distributions of land surface wind speeds over North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Aiguo

    Probability distributions of land surface wind speeds over North America Yanping He,1 Adam Hugh of the probability distributions of surface wind speeds (SWS) is essential for surface flux estimation, wind power estimation, and wind risk assessments. The two-parameter Weibull distribution is the most widely used

  5. New AES software speed records Daniel J. Bernstein1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    New AES software speed records Daniel J. Bernstein1 and Peter Schwabe2 1 Department of Computer, Netherlands peter@cryptojedi.org Abstract. This paper presents new speed records for AES software, taking microarchitectures. Keywords: AES, software implementation 1 Introduction This paper describes a new AES software

  6. A Proposal for Data Collection: Establishing Pedestrian Walking Speeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    A Proposal for Data Collection: Establishing Pedestrian Walking Speeds Submitted to: Karen Aspelin on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) currently recommends that a normal pedestrian walking speed of 4 ft/sec be used to set the pedestrian clearance interval for a signalized intersection. The MUTCD

  7. Aalborg Universitet Switching speed limitations of high power IGBT modules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    of the total power loss. Therefore, by design, it is critical that switching losses are reduced to a minimumAalborg Universitet Switching speed limitations of high power IGBT modules Incau, Bogdan Ioan.aau.dk on: november 29, 2015 #12;Switching speed limitations of high power IGBT modules Bogdan Ioan Incau

  8. Sub-daily Statistical Downscaling of Meteorological Variables Using Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Jitendra [ORNL] [ORNL; Brooks, Bjørn-Gustaf J. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign] [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL] [ORNL; Dietze, Michael [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign] [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

    2012-01-01

    A new open source neural network temporal downscaling model is described and tested using CRU-NCEP reanal ysis and CCSM3 climate model output. We downscaled multiple meteorological variables in tandem from monthly to sub-daily time steps while also retaining consistent correlations between variables. We found that our feed forward, error backpropagation approach produced synthetic 6 hourly meteorology with biases no greater than 0.6% across all variables and variance that was accurate within 1% for all variables except atmospheric pressure, wind speed, and precipitation. Correlations between downscaled output and the expected (original) monthly means exceeded 0.99 for all variables, which indicates that this approach would work well for generating atmospheric forcing data consistent with mass and energy conserved GCM output. Our neural network approach performed well for variables that had correlations to other variables of about 0.3 and better and its skill was increased by downscaling multiple correlated variables together. Poor replication of precipitation intensity however required further post-processing in order to obtain the expected probability distribution. The concurrence of precipitation events with expected changes in sub ordinate variables (e.g., less incident shortwave radiation during precipitation events) were nearly as consistent in the downscaled data as in the training data with probabilities that differed by no more than 6%. Our downscaling approach requires training data at the target time step and relies on a weak assumption that climate variability in the extrapolated data is similar to variability in the training data.

  9. Abstract--This paper develops a static observer for estimating wind speed in order to control wind speed and angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollerbach, John M.

    Abstract--This paper develops a static observer for estimating wind speed in order to control wind speed and angle control at a user position in a submersive virtual environment. Addition of wind display Active Wind Tunnel (TPAWT). Experiments on a scaled model of the TPAWT show that headwind flow stream

  10. Engine control system having speed-based timing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willi, Martin L. (Dunlap, IL); Fiveland, Scott B. (Metamora, IL); Montgomery, David T. (Edelstein, IL); Gong, Weidong (Dunlap, IL)

    2012-02-14

    A control system for an engine having a cylinder is disclosed having an engine valve movable to regulate a fluid flow of the cylinder and an actuator associated with the engine valve. The control system also has a controller in communication with the actuator. The controller is configured to receive a signal indicative of engine speed and compare the engine speed signal with a desired engine speed. The controller is also configured to selectively regulate the actuator to adjust a timing of the engine valve to control an amount of air/fuel mixture delivered to the cylinder based on the comparison.

  11. Critical speed measurements in the Tevatron cold compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeGraff, B.; Bossert, R.; Martinez, A.; Soyars, W.M.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system utilizes high-speed centrifugal cold compressors, manufactured by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. (IHI), for high energy operations. Nominal operating range for these compressors is 43,000 to 85,000 rpm. Past foil bearing failures prompted investigation to determine if critical speeds for operating compressors fall within operating range. Data acquisition hardware and software settings will be discussed for measuring liftoff, first critical and second critical speeds. Several tests provided comparisons between an optical displacement probe and accelerometer measurements. Vibration data and analysis of the 20 Tevatron ring cold compressors will be presented.

  12. The interaction of high-speed turbulence with flames: Turbulent flame speed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poludnenko, A.Y.; Oran, E.S. [Laboratory for Computational Physics and Fluid Dynamics, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Direct numerical simulations of the interaction of a premixed flame with driven, subsonic, homogeneous, isotropic, Kolmogorov-type turbulence in an unconfined system are used to study the mechanisms determining the turbulent flame speed, S{sub T}, in the thin reaction zone regime. High intensity turbulence is considered with the r.m.s. velocity 35 times the laminar flame speed, S{sub L}, resulting in the Damkoehler number Da=0.05. The simulations were performed with Athena-RFX, a massively parallel, fully compressible, high-order, dimensionally unsplit, reactive-flow code. A simplified reaction-diffusion model, based on the one-step Arrhenius kinetics, represents a stoichiometric H{sub 2}-air mixture under the assumption of the Lewis number Le=1. Global properties and the internal structure of the flame were analyzed in an earlier paper, which showed that this system represents turbulent combustion in the thin reaction zone regime. This paper demonstrates that: (1) The flame brush has a complex internal structure, in which the isosurfaces of higher fuel mass fractions are folded on progressively smaller scales. (2) Global properties of the turbulent flame are best represented by the structure of the region of peak reaction rate, which defines the flame surface. (3) In the thin reaction zone regime, S{sub T} is predominantly determined by the increase of the flame surface area, A{sub T}, caused by turbulence. (4) The observed increase of S{sub T} relative to S{sub L} exceeds the corresponding increase of A{sub T} relative to the surface area of the planar laminar flame, on average, by {approx}14%, varying from only a few percent to as high as {approx}30%. (5) This exaggerated response is the result of tight flame packing by turbulence, which causes frequent flame collisions and formation of regions of high flame curvature >or similar 1/{delta}{sub L}, or ''cusps,'' where {delta}{sub L} is the thermal width of the laminar flame. (6) The local flame speed in the cusps substantially exceeds its laminar value, which results in a disproportionately large contribution of cusps to S{sub T} compared with the flame surface area in them. (7) A criterion is established for transition to the regime significantly influenced by cusp formation. In particular, at Karlovitz numbers Ka >or similar 20, flame collisions provide an important mechanism controlling S{sub T}, in addition to the increase of A{sub T} by large-scale motions and the potential enhancement of diffusive transport by small-scale turbulence. (author)

  13. High speed imaging of transient non-Newtonian fluid phenomena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallup, Benjamin H. (Benjamin Hodsdon), 1982-

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, I investigate the utility of high speed imaging for gaining scientific insight into the nature of short-duration transient fluid phenomena, specifically applied to the Kaye effect. The Kaye effect, noted ...

  14. Information Processing in Multiple Sclerosis: Accuracy versus Speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steiger, Katherine Anne

    2007-12-27

    Previous research has suggested that slowed speed of information processing is the primary cognitive impairment that occurs in multiple sclerosis (MS). The proposed study employed multiple cognitive measures to replicate these findings. Individuals...

  15. Information processing speed and attention in multiple sclerosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roth, Alexandra K.

    2013-05-31

    Information processing speed is frequently recognized as the primary cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent studies have also reported attention deficits in MS patients compared to healthy controls based on the Attention Network...

  16. Wave speeds in the macroscopic extended model for ultrarelativistic gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borghero, F.; Demontis, F.; Pennisi, S.

    2013-11-15

    Equations determining wave speeds for a model of ultrarelativistic gases are investigated. This model is already present in literature; it deals with an arbitrary number of moments and it was proposed in the context of exact macroscopic approaches in Extended Thermodynamics. We find these results: the whole system for the determination of the wave speeds can be divided into independent subsystems which are expressed by linear combinations, through scalar coefficients, of tensors all of the same order; some wave speeds, but not all of them, are expressed by square roots of rational numbers; finally, we prove that these wave speeds for the macroscopic model are the same of those furnished by the kinetic model.

  17. VHISPER: a high speed dual mode VLIW and Superscalar Processor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mellacheruvu, Rajesh Kumar

    1994-01-01

    Considerable effort has gone into streamlining the logic in pipelined processors. Further Increases in speed for a pipelined processor will probably come about from. either increasing the pipeline depth, superpipelining or increasing the width...

  18. Rotary-linear axes for high speed machining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liebman, Michael Kevin, 1974-

    2001-01-01

    This thesis presents the design, analysis, fabrication, and control of a rotary-linear axis; this axis is a key subsystem for high speed, 5-axis machine tools intended for fabricating centimeter-scale parts. The rotary-linear ...

  19. Atomization of a High Speed Jet Zhiliang Xu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

    in 2D. The high speed flow in the nozzle gives rise to cavitation, i.e. a mixed liquid-vapor region, i.e. jet breakup and spray formation, are a challenge to modern hydrodynamics. To predict jet

  20. The effect of rainfall on freeway travel speeds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holdener, Douglas Joseph

    1997-01-01

    Studies on the effect of rainfall on freeway capacity found that capacity during wet conditions was 8 percent to 24 percent lower than average capacity during dry conditions. Based on these findings, Greenshield's speed-flow model was calibrated...

  1. Speeding up Parallel Graph Coloring Assefaw H. Gebremedhin1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manne, Fredrik

    Speeding up Parallel Graph Coloring Assefaw H. Gebremedhin1, , Fredrik Manne2 , and Tom Woods2 1. Gebremedhin, Fredrik Manne, and Tom Woods However, in practice greedy sequential coloring heuristics have been

  2. Effect of shrink fits on threshold speeds of rotordynamic instability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Baz, Khalid A

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study the effect of shrink fits on the threshold speeds of rotor instability. Shrink or press fit components in built-up rotors are known sources of internal friction damping. The internal ...

  3. Time-dependent Hamiltonians with 100% evolution speed efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raam Uzdin; Uwe Guenther; Saar Rahav; Nimrod Moiseyev

    2012-07-23

    The evolution speed in projective Hilbert space is considered for Hermitian Hamiltonians and for non-Hermitian (NH) ones. Based on the Hilbert-Schmidt norm and the spectral norm of a Hamiltonian, resource-related upper bounds on the evolution speed are constructed. These bounds are valid also for NH Hamiltonians and they are illustrated for an optical NH Hamiltonian and for a non-Hermitian $\\mathcal{PT}-$symmetric matrix Hamiltonian. Furthermore, the concept of quantum speed efficiency is introduced as measure of the system resources directly spent on the motion in the projective Hilbert space. A recipe for the construction of time-dependent Hamiltonians which ensure 100% speed efficiency is given. Generally these efficient Hamiltonians are NH but there is a Hermitian efficient Hamiltonian as well. Finally, the extremal case of a non-Hermitian non-diagonalizable Hamiltonian with vanishing energy difference is shown to produce a 100% efficient evolution with minimal resources consumption.

  4. A high-speed hysteresis motor spindle for machining applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bayless, Jacob D. (Jacob Daniel)

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of suitable drive technologies for use in a new high-speed machining spindle was performed to determine critical research areas. The focus is on a hysteresis motor topology using a solid, inherently-balanced ...

  5. Adjustable Speed Drives as Applied to Centrifugal Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jarc, D. A.; Robechek, J. D.; Connors, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    of flow control is required. The traditional approach to flow control has used valves which increase system pressure and inherently waste energy and generally cause the pump to operate at reduced efficiencies. Adjustable speed drives can achieve reduced...

  6. High-Speed Network Enables Industrial Internet | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure to Connect Machines, Data and People at Light Speed to the Industrial Internet Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new...

  7. Optical system for high-speed Atomic Force Microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Kwang Yong, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents the design and development of an optical cantilever deflection sensor for a high speed Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). This optical sensing system is able to track a small cantilever while the X-Y scanner ...

  8. Method and system for determining induction motor speed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Bharadwaj, Raj M.

    2004-03-30

    A non-linear, semi-parametric neural network-based adaptive filter is utilized to determine the dynamic speed of a rotating rotor within an induction motor, without the explicit use of a speed sensor, such as a tachometer, is disclosed. The neural network-based filter is developed using actual motor current measurements, voltage measurements, and nameplate information. The neural network-based adaptive filter is trained using an estimated speed calculator derived from the actual current and voltage measurements. The neural network-based adaptive filter uses voltage and current measurements to determine the instantaneous speed of a rotating rotor. The neural network-based adaptive filter also includes an on-line adaptation scheme that permits the filter to be readily adapted for new operating conditions during operations.

  9. A simple hidden variable experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Neumaier

    2007-06-22

    An experiment is described which proves, using single photons only, that the standard hidden variables assumptions (commonly used to derive Bell inequalities) are inconsistent with quantum mechanics. The analysis is very simple and transparent. In particular, it demonstrates that a classical wave model for quantum mechanics is not ruled out by experiments demonstrating the violation of the traditional hidden variable assumptions.

  10. Control device of an infinitely variable transmission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, H.

    1987-01-27

    An automatic control system is described for a toric type infinitely variable transmission of a running vehicle, the speed of which is changed by varying a gear ratio corresponding to a running mode of the vehicle selected by a driver. The transmission comprises coaxially disposed input and output shafts with input and output disks having toroidal surfaces and respectively secured to the input and output shafts, a traction roller engaged with the toroidal surfaces of the disks, and a trunnion rotatably supporting the traction roller on a rotary shaft. The trunnion is linearly movable in the direction of a pivot axis which is perpendicular to the rotary shaft of the traction roller and is pivotable around the pivot axis so that the gear ratio between the input shaft and the output shaft may be changed. The control system comprises: a hydraulic cylinder receiving an axial end of the trunnion; and a hydraulic circuit connecting the hydraulic cylinder with a hydraulic source, the hydraulic circuit including a solenoid valve. The valve has means for repeatedly opening and closing the valve at predetermined intervals and controlling hydraulic supply to the hydraulic cylinder and thereby controlling the linear movement of the trunnion in the direction of the pivot axis so as to vary the gear ratio.

  11. Intercity Rail Ridership Forecasting and the Implementation of High-Speed Rail in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaca, Erin

    1993-01-01

    Taniguchi, M. 1992. High Speed Rail in Japan: A Review andOperate, Maintain, and Finance a High-Speed Rail Facility.Texas High-Speed Rail Authority, Austin, January. Thompson,

  12. High-Speed Rail in California: A Cost-Benefit Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara

    1994-01-01

    1 . Specific Aspects of High-Speed Rail in Connection with A993. The Development Effects of High-Speed Rail Stations and1 989. Texas Triangle High Speed Rail Study. Houston, TX:

  13. The Development Effects of High-Speed Rail Stations and Implications for California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, Brian D.

    1993-01-01

    In The Shinkansen High-Speed Rail Nettt~rk of Japan (the development of high-speed rail facilities, but a loss oflong-term success of a high-speed rail system. REFERENCES

  14. The effect of imbalance distribution and measurement locations on critical speeds in a turboprop engine rotor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marin, Manuel

    1996-01-01

    The critical speeds of a turbomachine can be defined as the speeds at which synchronous response to imbalance is maximum (Vance,1988). Identifying the proper placement of critical speeds is very important in the design process of turbomachinery...

  15. On-line implementation of an adaptive speed filter and its experimental demonstration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdul, Anis Mohamed

    2001-01-01

    previously developed neural network speed filter is implemented for on-line induction motor speed estimation. The speed filter is constructed using a combination of five neural networks. A neural networks framework developed in this work is used to construct...

  16. A coupled implicit method for chemical non-equilibrium flows at all speeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shuen, J.S.; Choi, Y. ); Chen, K.H. )

    1993-06-01

    A time-accurate, coupled solution procedure is described for the chemical nonequilibrium Navier-Stokes equations over a wide range of Mach numbers. This method employs the strong conservation form of the governing equations, but uses primitive variables (p[sub g], u, v, h, Y[sub i]) as unknowns. Real gas properties and nonequilibrium chemistry are considered. Numerical tests include steady convergent-divergent nozzle flows with air dissociation/recombination chemistry, dump combustor flows with n-pentan air chemistry, and nonreacting unsteady driven cavity flows. Numerical results for both the steady and unsteady flows demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the present algorithm for Mach numbers ranging from the incompressible limit to supersonic speeds. 26 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Variable rate CELP speech coding using widely variable parameter updates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moodie, Myron L.

    1995-01-01

    Code-excited, linear prediction (CELP) has become an accepted method for low bit rate, high quality coding of digital speech. The success of fixed rate CELP schemes has led to increased interest in variable rate techniques ...

  18. Method and system for controlling a rotational speed of a rotor of a turbogenerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahlhut, Ronnie Dean; Vuk, Carl Thomas

    2008-12-30

    A system and method controls a rotational speed of a rotor or shaft of a turbogenerator in accordance with a present voltage level on a direct current bus. A lower threshold and a higher threshold are established for a speed of a rotor or shaft of a turbogenerator. A speed sensor determines speed data or a speed signal for the rotor or shaft associated with a turbogenerator. A voltage regulator adjusts a voltage level associated with a direct current bus within a target voltage range if the speed data or speed signal indicates that the speed is above the higher threshold or below the lower threshold.

  19. Anyonic statistics with continuous variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jing Zhang; Changde Xie; Kunchi Peng; Peter van Loock

    2008-10-30

    We describe a continuous-variable scheme for simulating the Kitaev lattice model and for detecting statistics of abelian anyons. The corresponding quantum optical implementation is solely based upon Gaussian resource states and Gaussian operations, hence allowing for a highly efficient creation, manipulation, and detection of anyons. This approach extends our understanding of the control and application of anyons and it leads to the possibility for experimental proof-of-principle demonstrations of anyonic statistics using continuous-variable systems.

  20. Heat pump simulation model and optimal variable-speed control for a wide range of cooling conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zakula, Tea

    2010-01-01

    The steady-state air-to-air heat pump model presented in this thesis was developed from the first principles. The main objective was to develop a heat pump model that can be used as a part of larger simulation models, and ...

  1. Constant power speed range extension of surface mounted PM motors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawler, Jack Steward (Knoxville, TN); Bailey, John Milton (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A circuit and method for controlling a rotating machine (11) in the constant horsepower range above base speed uses an inverter (15) having SCR's (T1-T6) connected in series with the primary commutation switches (Q1-Q6) to control turn off of the primary commutation switches and to protect the primary commutation switches from faults. The primary commutation switches (Q1-Q6) are controlled by a controller (14), to fire in advance or after a time when the back emf equals the applied voltage, and then to turn off after a precise dwell time, such that suitable power is developed at speeds up to at least six times base speed.

  2. Explosive Products EOS: Adjustment for detonation speed and energy release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2014-09-05

    Propagating detonation waves exhibit a curvature effect in which the detonation speed decreases with increasing front curvature. The curvature effect is due to the width of the wave profile. Numerically, the wave profile depends on resolution. With coarse resolution, the wave width is too large and results in a curvature effect that is too large. Consequently, the detonation speed decreases as the cell size is increased. We propose a modification to the products equation of state (EOS) to compensate for the effect of numerical resolution; i.e., to increase the CJ pressure in order that a simulation propagates a detonation wave with a speed that is on average correct. The EOS modification also adjusts the release isentrope to correct the energy release.

  3. Pump suction specific speed: Is it a treacherous friend

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, R.E.

    1993-05-01

    As pump design has gone from an art to a science, the complexities of fluid dynamics have come into clearer focus, driven by field-application problem solving and advancing technology. The past two decades have seen: (1) verifiable state-of-the-art advances in hydraulic design; (2) much-improved knowledge of causes of pump failure, including those from recirculation; (3) the beginning of further refinement of the new suction-specific-speed guidelines - and interaction with design concepts; (4) differentiation between good and bad designs through empirical data, making use of suction specific speed; (5) and as discussed in this article an understanding that suction specific speed (S) alone is inadequate for establishing the differentiation. Although the S is important in understanding pump performance, look at the broad picture when applying the theory.

  4. How occasional backstepping can speed up a processive motor protein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Bier; F. J. Cao

    2008-04-13

    Fueled by the hydrolysis of ATP, the motor protein kinesin literally walks on two legs along the biopolymer microtubule. The number of accidental backsteps that kinesin takes appears to be much larger than what one would expect given the amount of free energy that ATP hydrolysis makes available. This is puzzling as more than a billion years of natural selection should have optimized the motor protein for its speed and efficiency. But more backstepping allows for the production of more entropy. Such entropy production will make free energy available. With this additional free energy, the catalytic cycle of the kinesin can be speeded up. We show how measured backstep percentages represent an optimum at which maximal net forward speed is achieved.

  5. Speed-up of combustion fronts in shear flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamel, Francois

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the analysis of speed-up of reaction-diffusion-advection traveling fronts in infinite cylinders with periodic boundary conditions. The advection is a shear flow with a large amplitude and the reaction is nonnegative, with either positive or zero ignition temperature. The unique or minimal speeds of the traveling fronts are proved to be asymptotically linear in the flow amplitude as the latter goes to infinity, solving an open problem from \\cite{b}. The asymptotic growth rate is characterized explicitly as the unique or minimal speed of traveling fronts for a limiting degenerate problem, and the convergence of the regular traveling fronts to the degenerate ones is proved for positive ignition temperatures under an additional H{\\"{o}}rmander-type condition on the flow.

  6. Harmonic mean, the Gamma factor and Speed of Light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandru Iyer

    2008-11-17

    The relationship between the harmonic mean and special relativity is concisely elucidated. The arguments in favor and against SRT are explored. It is shown that the ratio of the speed of light to the harmonic mean of the onward and return speeds of light in a moving frame under Newtonian mechanics, when equitably distributed between space and time as a correction, leads to the Lorentz transformation. This correction implies an apparent contraction of objects and time dilation. However, the symmetry of the onward and inverse transformations give a different meaning to the gamma factor

  7. High Speed, Low Power Current Comparators with Hysteresis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chasta, Neeraj K

    2012-01-01

    This paper, presents a novel idea for analog current comparison which compares input signal current and reference currents with high speed, low power and well controlled hysteresis. Proposed circuit is based on current mirror and voltage latching techniques which produces rail to rail output voltage as a result of current comparison. The same design can be extended to a simple current comparator without hysteresis (or very less hysteresis), where comparator gives high accuracy (less than 50nA) and speed at the cost of moderate power consumption. The comparators are designed optimally and studied at 180nm CMOS process technology for a supply voltage of 3V.

  8. Noise-cancelling quadrature magnetic position, speed and direction sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Preston, Mark A. (Niskayuna, NY); King, Robert D. (Schenectady, NY)

    1996-01-01

    An array of three magnetic sensors in a single package is employed with a single bias magnet for sensing shaft position, speed and direction of a motor in a high magnetic noise environment. Two of the three magnetic sensors are situated in an anti-phase relationship (i.e., 180.degree. out-of-phase) with respect to the relationship between the other of the two sensors and magnetically salient target, and the third magnetic sensor is situated between the anti-phase sensors. The result is quadrature sensing with noise immunity for accurate relative position, speed and direction measurements.

  9. Modular high speed counter employing edge-triggered code

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanstraelen, G.F.

    1993-06-29

    A high speed modular counter (100) utilizing a novel counting method in which the first bit changes with the frequency of the driving clock, and changes in the higher order bits are initiated one clock pulse after a 0'' to 1'' transition of the next lower order bit. This allows all carries to be known one clock period in advance of a bit change. The present counter is modular and utilizes two types of standard counter cells. A first counter cell determines the zero bit. The second counter cell determines any other higher order bit. Additional second counter cells are added to the counter to accommodate any count length without affecting speed.

  10. Modular high speed counter employing edge-triggered code

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanstraelen, Guy F. (DeSoto, TX)

    1993-06-29

    A high speed modular counter (100) utilizing a novel counting method in which the first bit changes with the frequency of the driving clock, and changes in the higher order bits are initiated one clock pulse after a "0" to "1" transition of the next lower order bit. This allows all carries to be known one clock period in advance of a bit change. The present counter is modular and utilizes two types of standard counter cells. A first counter cell determines the zero bit. The second counter cell determines any other higher order bit. Additional second counter cells are added to the counter to accommodate any count length without affecting speed.

  11. Getting the Lorentz transformations without requiring an invariant speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Pelissetto; M. Testa

    2015-04-08

    The structure of the Lorentz transformations follows purely from the absence of privileged inertial reference frames and the group structure (closure under composition) of the transformations---two assumptions that are simple and physically necessary. The existence of an invariant speed is \\textit{not} a necessary assumption, and in fact is a consequence of the principle of relativity (though the finite value of this speed must, of course, be obtained from experiment). Von Ignatowsky derived this result in 1911, but it is still not widely known and is absent from most textbooks. Here we present a completely elementary proof of the result, suitable for use in an introductory course in special relativity.

  12. Multiply-agile encryption in high speed communication networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierson, L.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Witzke, E.L. [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Different applications have different security requirements for data privacy, data integrity, and authentication. Encryption is one technique that addresses these requirements. Encryption hardware, designed for use in high-speed communications networks, can satisfy a wide variety of security requirements if that hardware is key-agile, robustness-agile and algorithm-agile. Hence, multiply-agile encryption provides enhanced solutions to the secrecy, interoperability and quality of service issues in high-speed networks. This paper defines these three types of agile encryption. Next, implementation issues are discussed. While single-algorithm, key-agile encryptors exist, robustness-agile and algorithm-agile encryptors are still research topics.

  13. Secondary Containment Design for a High Speed Centrifuge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, K.W.

    1999-03-01

    Secondary containment for high speed rotating machinery, such as a centrifuge, is extremely important for operating personnel safety. Containment techniques can be very costly, ungainly and time consuming to construct. A novel containment concept is introduced which is fabricated out of modular sections of polycarbonate glazed into a Unistrut metal frame. A containment study for a high speed centrifuge is performed which includes the development of parameters for secondary containment design. The Unistrut/polycarbonate shield framing concept is presented including design details and proof testing procedures. The economical fabrication and modularity of the design indicates a usefulness for this shielding system in a wide variety of containment scenarios.

  14. Development Impacts of high-speed rail : megalopolis formation and implications for Portugal's Lisbon-Porto High-Speed Rail Link

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melibaeva, Sevara (Sevara Mukhtarovna)

    2010-01-01

    High-speed rail (HSR) has been gaining acceptance worldwide with development of rail technology and rising concerns over climate change and congestion in airports and on roads. The implementation of high-speed rail lines ...

  15. Identification of High-Speed Rail Ballast Flight Risk Factors and Risk Mitigation Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    1 Identification of High-Speed Rail Ballast Flight Risk Factors and Risk Mitigation Strategies speed line, true high speed rail has seen an increasing success in those countries where such lines were speed rail (HSR) systems around the world during the past 50 years, one of the observed phenomena

  16. Taiwan High Speed Rail & Its Impact to Regional Development T. C. Kao, C. K. Lin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    Taiwan High Speed Rail & Its Impact to Regional Development T. C. Kao¹, C. K. Lin² ¹Taiwan High Speed Rail Vice President Ph.D., P.E. ²Taiwan High Speed Rail Project Engineer Abstract: Taiwan High.1 Project outline The Taiwan High Speed Rail Project was constructed and is now being operated by Taiwan

  17. The Probability Distribution of Land Surface Wind Speeds ADAM H. MONAHAN AND YANPING HE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Yanping

    , the Netherlands, and Los Alamos, New Mexico, demonstrate that lower-tropospheric wind speeds become moreThe Probability Distribution of Land Surface Wind Speeds ADAM H. MONAHAN AND YANPING HE School surface wind speeds is characterized using a global network of observations. Daytime surface wind speeds

  18. Mining Markov chain transition matrix from wind speed time series data Zhe Song a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    . Researches related with wind speed are quite extensive, includ- ing wind speed forecasting (Kusiak, Zheng, Essiarab, & Sayigh, 2004; Sahin & Sen, 2001) and so on. Wind speed forecasting and simulation could approaches, Markov chain is a popular tool to model, forecast and simulate the wind speed in a discrete

  19. On measurement of the isotropy of the speed of light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojtsekhowski, B. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Three experimental concepts investigating possible anisotropy of the speed of light are presented. They are based on i) beam deflection in a 180° magnetic arc, ii) narrow resonance production in an electron-positron collider, and iii) the ratio of magnetic moments of an electron and a positron moving in opposite directions.

  20. High Speed Rail in Greece : methods for evaluating economic impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radopoulou, Stefania Christina

    2010-01-01

    High Speed Rail is a mode that gains popularity every day. Many countries have such a network and others are on the way to adopting one. Greece, which is part of the European Union, is one of those countries that are looking ...

  1. SPEED LIGHTING TECHNOLOGY SHOWCASE AT UC SANTA BARBARA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    of the project are complete, the Rec Center's composite lighting power density will drop from 1.08 W/ft2 to 0SPEED LIGHTING TECHNOLOGY SHOWCASE AT UC SANTA BARBARA 12th Annual California Higher EducationMar Lighting & FSC Lighting · Parking Lot 10 NETWORKED PATHWAY LED Lumec EcoSwap with Lumewave Controls

  2. Light Properties Light travels at the speed of light `c'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    LIGHT!! #12;Light Properties Light travels at the speed of light `c' C = 3 x 108 m/s Or 190,000 miles/second!! Light could travel around the world about 8 times in one second #12;What is light?? Light is a "wave packet" A photon is a "light particle" #12;Electromagnetic Radiation and You Light is sometimes

  3. PHOTOACOUSTIC AND THERMOACOUSTIC TOMOGRAPHY WITH AN UNCERTAIN WAVE SPEED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uhlmann, Gunther

    PHOTOACOUSTIC AND THERMOACOUSTIC TOMOGRAPHY WITH AN UNCERTAIN WAVE SPEED LAURI OKSANEN AND GUNTHER UHLMANN Abstract. We consider the mathematical model of photoacoustic and thermoacoustic tomography. In Thermoacoustic tomography (TAT), see e.g. [8], low frequency microwaves, with wavelengths on the order of 1m

  4. Speeding up Ozone Profile Retrieval using Machine Learning Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emmerich, Michael

    Speeding up Ozone Profile Retrieval using Machine Learning Techniques L.M. Strijbosch April 25 to the process of ozone profile retrieval, a method for retrieving a global ozone distribution from satellite Machines are selected to replace the forward model, which is the slowest part of ozone profile retrieval

  5. Time, Clocks and the Speed of Light Vasco Guerra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerra, Vasco

    Time, Clocks and the Speed of Light Vasco Guerra and Rodrigo de Abreu Departamento de Física are a direct consequence of the fundamental notions of time and clocks. They can be obtained without any time, independently of the periodic physical phenomena they are built upon and of the machinery

  6. Optimal Pitch, Speed and Fuel Control at Sea Thomas Hellstrom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hellström, Thomas

    of a challenging research and development project for fuel saving and top-level control of a ship's performance, or unanticipated changes of the weather conditions. 3. Route planning. The fuel consumption for a ship dependsOptimal Pitch, Speed and Fuel Control at Sea Thomas Hellstr¨om Associate Professor, Department

  7. HIGH SPEED RAIL COSTS, BENEFITS, AND FINANCING RAYMOND H. ELLIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Incremental Capital Cost Capital Cost Year of (Billions (Billions Completion Expenditure Section 2010$) 2010$) of Section Capital Cost #12;CALIFORNIA HIGH SPEED RAIL PHASE 1 CAPITAL COSTS SECTION INCREMENTAL CAPITAL COSTS (BILLIONS $ 2010) CUMULATIVE CAPITAL COSTS (BILLIONS $ 2010) COMPLETION OF SECTION INCREMENTAL

  8. HISTORY High-Speed Network Monitoring and Falko Dressler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carle, Georg

    . The network monitoring and analysis environment makes it possible to collect information about network traffic off the big picture of a visionary environment for all challenges in network monitoring and analysisHISTORY ­ High-Speed Network Monitoring and Analysis Falko Dressler Autonomic Networking, Dept

  9. On measurement of the isotropy of the speed of light

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan B. [JLAB

    2014-11-01

    Three experimental concepts investigating possible anisotropy of the speed of light are presented. They are based on i) beam deflection in a 180 degree magnetic arc, ii) narrow resonance production in an electron-positron collider, and iii) the ratio of magnetic moments of an electron and a positron moving in opposite directions.

  10. University of Maryland Baltimore County High Speed Optical Networking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Aravind

    University of Maryland Baltimore County 1 High Speed Optical Networking Task 3: Progress Report are needed to see this picture. Sponsored Presented @ LTS, 27 June 2003 #12;University of Maryland Baltimore-Ideal) Assessment via Implementation Issues #12;University of Maryland Baltimore County 3 FEC Code Design: RCD Codes

  11. High speed photography and photonics applications: An underutilized technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.

    1996-10-01

    Snapshot: Paisley describes the development of high-speed photography including the role of streak cameras, fiber optics, and lasers. Progress in this field has created a powerful tool for viewing such ultrafast processes as hypersonic events and ballistics. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.} [1047-6938-96-10-9939-04

  12. Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. Mc in the context of wind power, where under- forecasting and overforecasting carry different financial penal- ties, calibrated and sharp probabilistic forecasts can help to make wind power a more financially competitive alter

  13. Standard practices for verification of speed for material testing machines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 These practices cover procedures and requirements for the calibration and verification of testing machine speed by means of standard calibration devices. This practice is not intended to be complete purchase specifications for testing machines. 1.2 These practices apply to the verification of the speed application and measuring systems associated with the testing machine, such as a scale, dial, marked or unmarked recorder chart, digital display, setting, etc. In all cases the buyer/owner/user must designate the speed-measuring system(s) to be verified. 1.3 These practices give guidance, recommendations, and examples, specific to electro-mechanical testing machines. The practice may also be used to verify actuator speed for hydraulic testing machines. 1.4 This standard cannot be used to verify cycle counting or frequency related to cyclic fatigue testing applications. 1.5 Since conversion factors are not required in this practice, either SI units (mm/min), or English [in/min], can be used as the standa...

  14. Sensor-bedazzled balloon catheter speeds up heart surgery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Sensor-bedazzled balloon catheter speeds up heart surgery By Janet Fang | Mar 7, 2011 | 0 Comments A little while ago, cardiologists improved open-heart surgery by using super thin, flexible balloon, says Rogers. Currently, heart surgeons map tissue using pointed catheters with electrodes, which

  15. A High Speed Pairing Coprocessor Using RNS and Lazy Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    A High Speed Pairing Coprocessor Using RNS and Lazy Reduction Gavin Xiaoxu Yao1 , Junfeng Fan2 using Residue Number System (RNS) and lazy reduction. We show that combining RNS, which are naturally pairing computation in 0.664 ms. Keywords: RNS, Moduli Selection, Hardware Implementation of Pairing, FPGA

  16. High-speed pulse-shape generator, pulse multiplexer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burkhart, Scott C. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    The invention combines arbitrary amplitude high-speed pulses for precision pulse shaping for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The circuitry combines arbitrary height pulses which are generated by replicating scaled versions of a trigger pulse and summing them delayed in time on a pulse line. The combined electrical pulses are connected to an electro-optic modulator which modulates a laser beam. The circuit can also be adapted to combine multiple channels of high speed data into a single train of electrical pulses which generates the optical pulses for very high speed optical communication. The invention has application in laser pulse shaping for inertial confinement fusion, in optical data links for computers, telecommunications, and in laser pulse shaping for atomic excitation studies. The invention can be used to effect at least a 10.times. increase in all fiber communication lines. It allows a greatly increased data transfer rate between high-performance computers. The invention is inexpensive enough to bring high-speed video and data services to homes through a super modem.

  17. A Synchronous Homopolar Machine for High-Speed Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Seth

    and energy storage densities suitable for power quality, uninterruptible power supply, or hybrid electric Sanders Department of Electrical Engineering University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94720 www-power. The performance goal is for power output of 30 kW at speeds from 50 kRPM to 100 kRPM. The machine features low

  18. Performance evaluation of wireless networks speed depending on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sztrik, János

    . At first, a wireless router was connected directly (USB 2.0) to hard disk and the file transfer speeds tested using a modern wireless router for home use. The number of clients was increased for further to the router with USB port. We set up the router smb share. The wireless settings 2.4 GHz band and b / g / n

  19. Ge#ng Started on HokieSpeed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawford, T. Daniel

    Ge#ng Started on HokieSpeed Advanced Research Computing #12;Advanced Research Compu:ng;Advanced Research Compu:ng Important Login Informa:on · Account sheets provide login Compu:ng Ge#ng Started Steps 1. Sheet distributed provides your training account

  20. On measurement of the isotropy of the speed of light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Wojtsekhowski

    2014-11-28

    Three experimental concepts investigating possible anisotropy of the speed of light are presented. They are based on i) beam deflection in a 180 degree magnetic arc, ii) narrow resonance production in an electron-positron collider, and iii) the ratio of magnetic moments of an electron and a positron moving in opposite directions.

  1. Compatibility Between GFCI Breakers and Household Adjustable Speed Drives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimball, Jonathan W.

    Compatibility Between GFCI Breakers and Household Adjustable Speed Drives Jonathan Kimball Senior circuit interrupter (GFCI) compatibility becomes crucial. As compared to industrial applications, the GFCI response of a commonly-used GFCI breaker is compared to the common-mode current of a commercially

  2. Increasing the High Speed Torque of Bipolar Stepper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Dennis

    the windings of the motor dictates the high speed torque. This application note shows that increasing the slew rates of the winding currents in a bipolar stepper motor pushes the motor to deliver more torque at high°) bipolar currents (Figure 1) energize the windings of a bipolar stepper motor. One step occurs at each

  3. A neuropeptide speeds circadian entrainment by reducing intercellular synchrony

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petzold, Linda R.

    A neuropeptide speeds circadian entrainment by reducing intercellular synchrony Sungwon Ana,1 local light­dark cycles. The mammalian supra- chiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generates and entrains daily predicted that phase tum- bling following brief VIP treatment would accelerate entrainment to shifted

  4. New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels February 7, 2013 Fuels synthesis insight forward recently towards transforming biomass-derived molecules into fuels. The team led by Los Alamos published the research. Trash to Treasure "Efficient conversion of non-food biomass into fuels and chemical

  5. On measurement of the isotropy of the speed of light

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wojtsekhowski, B.

    2014-10-22

    Three experimental concepts investigating possible anisotropy of the speed of light are presented. They are based on i) beam deflection in a 180° magnetic arc, ii) narrow resonance production in an electron-positron collider, and iii) the ratio of magnetic moments of an electron and a positron moving in opposite directions.

  6. REDUCTION OF EMISSIONS FROM A HIGH SPEED FERRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson,G.; Gautam, M; Clark, N; Lyons, D; Carder, D; Riddle, W; Barnett, R; Rapp, B; George, S

    2003-08-24

    Emissions from marine vessels are being scrutinized as a major contributor to the total particulate matter (TPM), oxides of sulfur (SOx) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) environmental loading. Fuel sulfur control is the key to SOx reduction. Significant reductions in the emissions from on-road vehicles have been achieved in the last decade and the emissions from these vehicles will be reduced by another order of magnitude in the next five years: these improvements have served to emphasize the need to reduce emissions from other mobile sources, including off road equipment, locomotives, and marine vessels. Diesel-powered vessels of interest include ocean going vessels with low- and medium-speed engines, as well as ferries with high speed engines, as discussed below. A recent study examined the use of intake water injection (WIS) and ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) to reduce the emissions from a high-speed passenger ferry in southern California. One of the four Detroit Diesel 12V92 two-stroke high speed engines that power the Waverider (operated by SCX, inc.) was instrumented to collect intake airflow, fuel flow, shaft torque, and shaft speed. Engine speed and shaft torque were uniquely linked for given vessel draft and prevailing wind and sea conditions. A raw exhaust gas sampling system was utilized to measure the concentration of NOx, carbon dioxide (CO2), and oxygen (O2) and a mini dilution tunnel sampling a slipstream from the raw exhaust was used to collect TPM on 70 mm filters. The emissions data were processed to yield brake-specific mass results. The system that was employed allowed for redundant data to be collected for quality assurance and quality control. To acquire the data, the Waverider was operated at five different steady state speeds. Three modes were in the open sea off Oceanside, CA, and idle and harbor modes were also used. Data have showed that the use of ULSD along with water injection (WIS) could significantly reduce the emissions of NOx and PM while not affecting fuel consumption or engine performance compared to the baseline marine diesel. The results showed that a nominal 40% reduction in TPM was realized when switching from the marine diesel to the ULSD. A small reduction in NOx was also shown between the marine fuel and the ULSD. The implementation of the WIS showed that NOx was reduced significantly by between 11% and 17%, depending upon the operating condition. With the WIS, the TPM was reduced by a few percentage points, which was close to the confidence in measurement.

  7. Variable focal length deformable mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Headley, Daniel (Albuquerque, NM); Ramsey, Marc (Albuquerque, NM); Schwarz, Jens (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-06-12

    A variable focal length deformable mirror has an inner ring and an outer ring that simply support and push axially on opposite sides of a mirror plate. The resulting variable clamping force deforms the mirror plate to provide a parabolic mirror shape. The rings are parallel planar sections of a single paraboloid and can provide an on-axis focus, if the rings are circular, or an off-axis focus, if the rings are elliptical. The focal length of the deformable mirror can be varied by changing the variable clamping force. The deformable mirror can generally be used in any application requiring the focusing or defocusing of light, including with both coherent and incoherent light sources.

  8. Adjustable speed drives: Applications and R&D needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefanovic, V.R.

    1995-09-01

    The largest opportunity for the growth of adjustable speed drives (ASDs) during the next 5-6 years is in pump, fan and compressor (PFC) applications where a constant, fixed speed operation is converted to adjustable speed in order to realize energy savings. Inverter supplied induction motors are and will continue to be predominately used in these applications. Over the long term (10-15 years), the greatest ASD growth is expected in large volume consumer applications: first in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs) and in residential heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC). Both induction and a variety of AC Permanent Magnet motors are expected to be the dominant technology in this new field. The traditional ASD applications in industries which require adjustable speed (such as machine tools, robotics, steel rolling, extruders, paper mill finishing lines, etc.) offer a relatively limited potential for above average ASD growth since most of these applications have already converted to electronic speed control. As a result, ASD growth in this sector will essentially track the growth of the corresponding industries. If realized, both short and long term ASD growth opportunities will result in significant advancements of ASD technology, which will then substantially affect all other, more fragmented, ASD applications. In fact, any single large volume ASD application will serve as a catalyst for improving ASD characteristics in all other ASD applications with the same voltage rating. ASD cost and reliability (defined in the context of application compatibility) are the two most important factors which will determine whether the ASD growth opportunities are realized. Conversely, any technological improvement which carries a cost increase will be restricted to niche applications, at best. Consequently, future R & D efforts should be directed to secure reduction in ASD cost and improvement in ASD reliability. A specific action plan is outlined in this report.

  9. A review of Hurricane Variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nadiga, Balasubramanya T. "Balu"

    A review of Hurricane Variability Balu Nadiga, COSIM, LANL, Jun 2006 #12;#12;Key Sources · Kerry Emanuel · Webster 2005 · Elsner 1996 · NASA, NOAA, NCAR · Others #12;Hurricanes, Typhoons, Tropical (because rotation important) #12;Hurricanes: A few Comments · Acts as a heat engine, but with crucial fluid

  10. Phenotypic variability: underlying mechanisms and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mencuccini, Maurizio

    constraints on growth allocation between tree parts, which affects both primary production (through allocation to transpiring foliage) and net ecosystem production (through allocation to short- lived, easily decomposed fine is reflected in the huge variability in tree form and function across scales. It has been suggested

  11. Operating Reserves and Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

    2011-08-01

    This report tries to first generalize the requirements of the power system as it relates to the needs of operating reserves. It also includes a survey of operating reserves and how they are managed internationally in system operations today and then how new studies and research are proposing they may be managed in the future with higher penetrations of variable generation.

  12. VARIABILITY OF SOUTHERN AND NORTHERN SKR PERIODICITIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer-Vernet, Nicole

    wind speed, its long-term fluctuations (months to years) were proposed to be triggered by Enceladus of Cassini continuous radio measurements are investigated, from 2004 (pre-equinox) to the end of 2010 (post-equinox to the fluctuations of the solar wind speed (while the SKR intensity is correlated to the solar wind dynamic pressure

  13. Design of a variable reluctance asymmetric stepping millimotor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GARCIA,ERNEST J.; GREENWOOD,WILLIAM H.; OLIVER,ANDREW D.

    2000-06-01

    This paper reports on the design, simulation, and preliminary testing of a three phase variable reluctance stepping motor. This motor is pancake-shaped with an overall outside diameter of 8 mm and a height of 3 mm. The outside diameter of the rotor is 4.7 mm. The rotor and stators occupy 2 mm of the height with the remaining 1 mm reserved for a 6:1 planetary gear reductor. The rotor and stators were constructed of Hyperco 50 using conventional miniature machining. The reductor was assembled using copper and PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) components that were constructed using the LIGA (Lithographic Galvanoformung Abformung) microfabrication process. The maximum measured stall torque of the motor without the reductor is 0.47mNm at 4W and the maximum speed is 2,400 rpm.

  14. High-speed synchronous reluctance machine with minimized rotor losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofmann, H.; Sanders, S.R.

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents a refined design of a high-speed synchronous reluctance machine with minimized eddy-current losses in the rotor. Design criteria are the ability of the rotor to withstand high speeds, ability to operate in vacuum, negligible zero-torque spinning losses, high reliability, high efficiency, and low manufacturing cost. The rotor of the synchronous reluctance machine consists of bonded sections of ferromagnetic and non-magnetic steels. Finite-element code, incorporating rotor rotation, has been developed in MATLAB that calculates steady-state eddy currents (and losses) in the rotor. A stator iron and stator winding have been designed to minimize rotor losses, and two such prototype machines have been fabricated. Experimental results show an efficiency of 91% at a 10-kW 10,000-r/min operating point, and rotor losses less than 0.5% of input power.

  15. The Limiting Speed of the Bacterial Flagellar Motor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nirody, Jasmine A; Oster, George

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments on the bacterial flagellar motor have shown that the structure of this nanomachine, which drives locomotion in a wide range of bacterial species, is more dynamic than previously believed. Specifically, the number of active torque-generating units (stators) was shown to vary across applied loads. This finding invalidates the experimental evidence reporting that limiting (zero-torque) speed is independent of the number of active stators. Here, we propose that, contrary to previous assumptions, the maximum speed of the motor is not universal, but rather increases as additional torque-generators are recruited. This result arises from our assumption that stators disengage from the motor for a significant portion of their mechanochemical cycles at low loads. We show that this assumption is consistent with current experimental evidence and consolidate our predictions with arguments that a processive motor must have a high duty ratio at high loads.

  16. Thermal Quantum Speed Limit for Classical-Driving Open Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenjiong Wu; Kai Yan; Xiang Hao

    2015-10-21

    Quantum speed limit (QSL) time for open systems driven by classical fields is studied in the presence of thermal bosonic environments. The decoherence process is quantitatively described by the time-convolutionless master equation. The evolution speed of an open system is related not only to the strength of driving classical field but also to the environmental temperature. The energy-state population plays a key role in the thermal QSL. Comparing with the zero-temperature reservoir, we predict that the structural reservoir at low temperatures may contribute to the acceleration of quantum decoherence. The manifest oscillation of QSL time takes on under the circumstance of classical driving fields. We also investigate the scaling property of QSL time for multi-particle noninteracting entangled systems. It is demonstrated that entanglement of open systems can be considered as one resource for improving the potential capacity of thermal quantum speedup.

  17. The Limiting Speed of the Bacterial Flagellar Motor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jasmine A. Nirody; Richard M. Berry; George Oster

    2015-05-22

    Recent experiments on the bacterial flagellar motor have shown that the structure of this nanomachine, which drives locomotion in a wide range of bacterial species, is more dynamic than previously believed. Specifically, the number of active torque-generating units (stators) was shown to vary across applied loads. This finding invalidates the experimental evidence reporting that limiting (zero-torque) speed is independent of the number of active stators. Here, we propose that, contrary to previous assumptions, the maximum speed of the motor is not universal, but rather increases as additional torque-generators are recruited. This result arises from our assumption that stators disengage from the motor for a significant portion of their mechanochemical cycles at low loads. We show that this assumption is consistent with current experimental evidence and consolidate our predictions with arguments that a processive motor must have a high duty ratio at high loads.

  18. Noise isolation system for high-speed circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNeilly, D.R.

    1983-12-29

    A noise isolation circuit is provided that consists of a dual function bypass which confines high-speed switching noise to the component or circuit which generates it and isolates the component or circuit from high-frequency noise transients which may be present on the ground and power supply busses. A local circuit ground is provided which is coupled to the system ground by sufficient impedance to force the dissipation of the noise signal in the local circuit or component generating the noise. The dual function bypass network couples high-frequency noise signals generated in the local component or circuit through a capacitor to the local ground while isolating the component or circuit from noise signals which may be present on the power supply busses or system ground. The network is an effective noise isolating system and is applicable to both high-speed analog and digital circuits.

  19. Noise isolation system for high-speed circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNeilly, David R. (Maryville, TN)

    1986-01-01

    A noise isolation circuit is provided that consists of a dual function bypass which confines high-speed switching noise to the component or circuit which generates it and isolates the component or circuit from high-frequency noise transients which may be present on the ground and power supply busses. A local circuit ground is provided which is coupled to the system ground by sufficient impedance to force the dissipation of the noise signal in the local circuit or component generating the noise. The dual function bypass network couples high-frequency noise signals generated in the local component or circuit through a capacitor to the local ground while isolating the component or circuit from noise signals which may be present on the power supply busses or system ground. The network is an effective noise isolating system and is applicable to both high-speed analog and digital circuits.

  20. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative High-Speed Shaft Calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, J.; McNiff, B.

    2014-09-01

    Instrumentation has been added to the high-speed shaft, pinion, and tapered roller bearing pair of the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative gearbox to measure loads and temperatures. The new shaft bending moment and torque instrumentation was calibrated and the purpose of this document is to describe this calibration process and results, such that the raw shaft bending and torque signals can be converted to the proper engineering units and coordinate system reference for comparison to design loads and simulation model predictions.

  1. Characterizing the speed and paths of shared bicycles in Lyon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jensen, Pablo; Ovtracht, Nicolas; Robardet, Céline; 10.1016/j.trd.2010.07.002

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to numerical data gathered by Lyon's shared bicycling system V\\'elo'v, we are able to analyze 11.6 millions bicycle trips, leading to the first robust characterization of urban bikers' behaviors. We show that bicycles outstrip cars in downtown Lyon, by combining high speed and short paths.These data also allows us to calculate V\\'elo'v fluxes on all streets, pointing to interesting locations for bike paths.

  2. Extended cage adjustable speed electric motors and drive packages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01

    The rotor cage of a motor is extended, a second stator is coupled to this extended rotor cage, and the windings have the same number of poles. The motor torque and speed can be controlled by either injecting energy into or extracting energy out from the rotor cage. The motor produces less harmonics than existing doubly-fed motors. Consequently, a new type of low cost, high efficiency drive is produced.

  3. Extended cage adjustable speed electric motors and drive packages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, J.S.

    1999-03-23

    The rotor cage of a motor is extended, a second stator is coupled to this extended rotor cage, and the windings have the same number of poles. The motor torque and speed can be controlled by either injecting energy into or extracting energy out from the rotor cage. The motor produces less harmonics than existing doubly-fed motors. Consequently, a new type of low cost, high efficiency drive is produced. 12 figs.

  4. Low pressure high speed Stirling air engine. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, M.A.

    1980-06-16

    The purpose of this project was to design, construct and test a simple, appropriate technology low pressure, high speed, wood-fired Stirling air engine of 100 W output. The final design was a concentric piston/displacer engine of 454 in. bore and 1 in. stroke with a rhombic drive mechanism. The project engine was ultimately completed and tested, using a propane burner for all tests as a matter of convenience. The 100 W aim was exceeded, at atmospheric pressure, over a wide range of engine speed with the maximum power being 112 W at 1150 rpm. A pressure can was constructed to permit pressurization; however the grant funds were running out, and the only pressurized power test attempted was unsuccessful due to seal difficulties. This was a disappointment because numerous tests on the 4 cubic inch engine suggested power would be more than doubled with pressurization at 25 psig. A manifold was designed and constructed to permit operation of the engine over a standard No. 40 pot bellied stove. The engine was run successfully, but at reduced speed and power, over this stove. The project engine started out being rather noisy in operation, but modifications ultimately resulted in a very quiet engine. Various other difficulties and their solutions also are discussed. (LCL)

  5. High-speed imaging of blood splatter patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, T.E.; Albright, K.A.; King, N.S.P.; Yates, G.J.; Levine, G.F.

    1993-05-01

    The interpretation of blood splatter patterns is an important element in reconstructing the events and circumstances of an accident or crime scene. Unfortunately, the interpretation of patterns and stains formed by blood droplets is not necessarily intuitive and study and analysis are required to arrive at a correct conclusion. A very useful tool in the study of blood splatter patterns is high-speed photography. Scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy (DOE), and Bureau of Forensic Services, State of California, have assembled a high-speed imaging system designed to image blood splatter patterns. The camera employs technology developed by Los Alamos for the underground nuclear testing program and has also been used in a military mine detection program. The camera uses a solid-state CCD sensor operating at approximately 650 frames per second (75 MPixels per second) with a microchannel plate image intensifier that can provide shuttering as short as 5 ns. The images are captured with a laboratory high-speed digitizer and transferred to an IBM compatible PC for display and hard copy output for analysis. The imaging system is described in this paper.

  6. High-speed imaging of blood splatter patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, T.E.; Albright, K.A.; King, N.S.P.; Yates, G.J. ); Levine, G.F. . Bureau of Forensic Services)

    1993-01-01

    The interpretation of blood splatter patterns is an important element in reconstructing the events and circumstances of an accident or crime scene. Unfortunately, the interpretation of patterns and stains formed by blood droplets is not necessarily intuitive and study and analysis are required to arrive at a correct conclusion. A very useful tool in the study of blood splatter patterns is high-speed photography. Scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Energy (DOE), and Bureau of Forensic Services, State of California, have assembled a high-speed imaging system designed to image blood splatter patterns. The camera employs technology developed by Los Alamos for the underground nuclear testing program and has also been used in a military mine detection program. The camera uses a solid-state CCD sensor operating at approximately 650 frames per second (75 MPixels per second) with a microchannel plate image intensifier that can provide shuttering as short as 5 ns. The images are captured with a laboratory high-speed digitizer and transferred to an IBM compatible PC for display and hard copy output for analysis. The imaging system is described in this paper.

  7. LIDAR Wind Speed Measurements of Evolving Wind Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simley, E.; Pao, L. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feedforward control systems designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. Past studies have assumed Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis, which implies that turbulence remains unchanged as it advects downwind at the mean wind speed. With Taylor's hypothesis applied, the only source of wind speed measurement error is distortion caused by the LIDAR. This study introduces wind evolution, characterized by the longitudinal coherence of the wind, to LIDAR measurement simulations to create a more realistic measurement model. A simple model of wind evolution is applied to a frozen wind field used in previous studies to investigate the effects of varying the intensity of wind evolution. LIDAR measurements are also evaluated with a large eddy simulation of a stable boundary layer provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Simulation results show the combined effects of LIDAR errors and wind evolution for realistic turbine-mounted LIDAR measurement scenarios.

  8. Variability Aware Network Utility Maximization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Vinay

    2011-01-01

    Network Utility Maximization (NUM) provides the key conceptual framework to study resource allocation amongst a collection of users/entities across disciplines as diverse as economics, law and engineering. In network engineering, this framework has been particularly insightful towards understanding how Internet protocols allocate bandwidth, and motivated diverse research on distributed mechanisms to maximize network utility while incorporating new relevant constraints, on energy/power, storage, stability, etc., for systems ranging from communication networks to the smart-grid. However when the available resources and/or users' utilities vary over time, a user's allocations will tend to vary, which in turn may have a detrimental impact on the users' utility or quality of experience. This paper introduces a generalized NUM framework which explicitly incorporates the detrimental impact of temporal variability in a user's allocated rewards. It explicitly incorporates tradeoffs amongst the mean and variability in ...

  9. Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Johnson, Arvid C. (Lake in the Hills, IL); Thigpen, Larry T. (Angier, NC)

    1999-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  10. Massive Variability Surveys from Venezuela

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cesar Briceno

    2003-04-03

    At the Venezuela National Astronomical Observatory we are carrying out variability surveys spanning many hundreds of square degrees near the celestial equator, using an 8k x 8k CCD Mosaic Camera optimized for drift-scanning on a 1m Schmidt telescope. Among the initial efforts was a project to obtain the first moderately deep, homogeneous sample of young stars over an area of ~180sqr.deg. encompassing the entire Orion OB1 association, one of the nearest and most active regions of star formation. The results show that variability is a powerful technique to identify pre-main sequence populations, specially in sparse areas devoid of gas and dust. We are currently developing a massive database, equipped with web-based data mining tools, that will make our data and results available to the astronomical community.

  11. Implications of Wide-Area Geographic Diversity for Short- Term Variability of Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-08-23

    Worldwide interest in the deployment of photovoltaic generation (PV) is rapidly increasing. Operating experience with large PV plants, however, demonstrates that large, rapid changes in the output of PV plants are possible. Early studies of PV grid impacts suggested that short-term variability could be a potential limiting factor in deploying PV. Many of these early studies, however, lacked high-quality data from multiple sites to assess the costs and impacts of increasing PV penetration. As is well known for wind, accounting for the potential for geographic diversity can significantly reduce the magnitude of extreme changes in aggregated PV output, the resources required to accommodate that variability, and the potential costs of managing variability. We use measured 1-min solar insolation for 23 time-synchronized sites in the Southern Great Plains network of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and wind speed data from 10 sites in the same network to characterize the variability of PV with different degrees of geographic diversity and to compare the variability of PV to the variability of similarly sited wind. The relative aggregate variability of PV plants sited in a dense 10 x 10 array with 20 km spacing is six times less than the variability of a single site for variability on time scales less than 15-min. We find in our analysis of wind and PV plants similarly sited in a 5 x 5 grid with 50 km spacing that the variability of PV is only slightly more than the variability of wind on time scales of 5-15 min. Over shorter and longer time scales the level of variability is nearly identical. Finally, we use a simple approximation method to estimate the cost of carrying additional reserves to manage sub-hourly variability. We conclude that the costs of managing the short-term variability of PV are dramatically reduced by geographic diversity and are not substantially different from the costs for managing the short-term variability of similarly sited wind in this region.

  12. Hazard avoidance for high-speed rough-terrain unmanned ground vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spenko, Matthew J. (Matthew Julius), 1976-

    2005-01-01

    High-speed unmanned ground vehicles have important applications in rough-terrain. In these applications unexpected and dangerous situations can occur that require rapid hazard avoidance maneuvers. At high speeds, there is ...

  13. On a nonlinear eigenvalue problem arising in the vibration analysis of high speed trains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    of rail tracks excited by high speed trains Finite element discretization leads to the palindromicOn a nonlinear eigenvalue problem arising in the vibration analysis of high speed trains Christian

  14. High-speed rail commuting in the United States : a case study in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasuya, Shuichi, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    High-speed rail (HSR) is primarily for intermediate distance intercity passenger travel. The concept of high-speed rail commuting is to provide short distance commuting transportation service on dedicated HSR, by sharing ...

  15. Ultrahigh-Speed Traveling-Wave Electroabsorption Modulator—Design and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Paul K.L.

    1999-01-01

    Electroabsorption Modulator—Design and Analysis G. L. Li,ULTRAHIGH-SPEED TW-EAM—DESIGN AND ANALYSIS Fig. 4. Effect ofSPEED TW-EAM—DESIGN AND ANALYSIS a discrete transmission

  16. Analog integrated circuit design techniques for high-speed signal processing in communications systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernandez Garduno, David

    2009-05-15

    This work presents design techniques for the implementation of high-speed analog integrated circuits for wireless and wireline communications systems. Limitations commonly found in high-speed switched-capacitor (SC) circuits used for intermediate...

  17. 54.5 MPG and Beyond: Speeding Up Development of Advanced Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    54.5 MPG and Beyond: Speeding Up Development of Advanced Combustion Engines 54.5 MPG and Beyond: Speeding Up Development of Advanced Combustion Engines December 10, 2012 - 1:00pm...

  18. Observed and CAM3 GCM Sea Surface Wind Speed Distributions: Characterization, Comparison, and Bias Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capps, Scott B; Zender, Charles S

    2008-01-01

    341–345. Yuan, X. , 2004: High-wind-speed evaluation in theCosca, 2004: Effects of wind speed and gas exchange param-dust emission caused by wind erosion. J. Geophys. Res. ,

  19. Fact #591: October 5, 2009 Consumer Reports Tests Vehicle Fuel Economy by Speed

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Seven vehicles were tested by Consumer Reports recently to determine the fuel economy of the vehicles at a given speed. For these vehicles, the decline in fuel economy from a speed of 55 miles per...

  20. United States- Land Based and Offshore Annual Average Wind Speed at 100 Meters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Full-size, high resolution version of the 100-meter land-based and offshore wind speed resource map.

  1. Definition of a Random Variable Distribution Functions Properties of Distribution Functions Random Variables and Distribution Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watkins, Joseph C.

    Definition of a Random Variable Distribution Functions Properties of Distribution Functions Topic 7 Random Variables and Distribution Functions Distribution Functions 1 / 11 #12;Definition of a Random Variable Distribution Functions Properties of Distribution Functions Outline Definition of a Random

  2. Network Coded Information Raining over High-Speed Rail through IEEE 802.16j

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valaee, Shahrokh

    Network Coded Information Raining over High-Speed Rail through IEEE 802.16j Christopher Sue, Sameh propose a two-hop wireless network architecture for high-speed rail employing 802.16j. Due to its backward in high-speed rail communications and better exploit relay diversity. We refer to our proposed scheme

  3. High-speed SiGe BiCMOS technologies for Ethernet communications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinreb, Sander

    High-speed SiGe BiCMOS technologies for Ethernet communications from 10Gb/s to 100Gb/s Pascal Characterization, Modeling, Design, ... involved in the development of High-Speed BiCMOS technologies Thanks-offs 43 · Reliability 46 Technology of high-speed HBTs · Architectures 50 · Competitors 66 · Device

  4. Predicting the arrival of high-speed solar wind streams at Earth using the STEREO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lockwood, Mike

    Predicting the arrival of high-speed solar wind streams at Earth using the STEREO Heliospheric of solar wind speed to predict the arrival of such streams at Earth, assuming they corotated with the Sun November 2011; accepted 11 December 2011; published 16 February 2012. [1] High-speed solar wind streams

  5. Wind speed influence on phytoplankton bloom dynamics in the Southern Ocean Marginal Ice Zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Keith

    Wind speed influence on phytoplankton bloom dynamics in the Southern Ocean Marginal Ice Zone Dillon; published 7 August 2007. [1] Analysis of satellite ocean color and wind speed data within the seasonal ice. Moore (2007), Wind speed influence on phytoplankton bloom dynamics in the Southern Ocean Marginal Ice

  6. Validation of and enhancements to an operating-speed-based geometric design consistency evaluation model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Kent Michael

    1995-01-01

    .05 significance level. Analysis of observed 85th percentile speeds revealed that the current speed-profile model fits the observed data reasonably well. Hypothesis tests of mean observed 85th percentile speeds on tangents resulted in the conclusion that the mean...

  7. Rain splash of dry sand revealed by high-speed imaging and sticky paper splash targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mudd, Simon Marius

    Rain splash of dry sand revealed by high-speed imaging and sticky paper splash targets David Jon by raindrop impacts. We use high-speed imaging of drop impacts on dry sand to describe the drop (2007), Rain splash of dry sand revealed by high-speed imaging and sticky paper splash targets, J

  8. A Robust STATCOM Control to Augment LVRT capability of Fixed Speed Wind Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    A Robust STATCOM Control to Augment LVRT capability of Fixed Speed Wind Turbines M. J. Hossain, H Compensator (STATCOM) to enhance the Low-Voltage Ride- Through (LVRT) capability of fixed-speed wind turbines cost and maintenance due to rugged brushless construction. Constant speed wind turbines equipped

  9. Examination of wind speed thresholds for vorticity-driven lateral fire spread

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Jason

    , to specifically consider the effect of wind speed in generating the fire-induced vorticity necessary to drive wind speed, below which the prevailing winds are too weak to drive the vorticity-generating interactionExamination of wind speed thresholds for vorticity-driven lateral fire spread J.J. Sharples a , C

  10. High speed, long distance, data transmission multiplexing circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mariotti, Razvan (Boulder, CO)

    1991-01-01

    A high speed serial data transmission multiplexing circuit, which is operable to accurately transmit data over long distances (up to 3 Km), and to multiplex, select and continuously display real time analog signals in a bandwidth from DC to 100 Khz. The circuit is made fault tolerant by use of a programmable flywheel algorithm, which enables the circuit to tolerate one transmission error before losing synchronization of the transmitted frames of data. A method of encoding and framing captured and transmitted data is used which has a low overhead and prevents some particular transmitted data patterns from locking an included detector/decoder circuit.

  11. Energy and Reliability Considerations For Adjustable Speed Driven Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casada, D.

    1999-01-01

    Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 12-13, 1999 all-static head system (H s = 100) to being greatest in the H s =0 system. o HXX) 2 3 Row rate (gpm) Figure 1. Example system head curves The power required to pump fluid through a system... Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 12-13, 1999 r--?---??-? o 1000 2speed (bhp =brake horsepower) The power...

  12. Probing Fukushima with cosmic rays should speed cleanup

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgramExemptions | National Nuclear SecurityRecordsProbingplantProbing

  13. Microorganisms to Speed Production of Biofuels - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on darkMicroorganisms to Speed Production of Biofuels Oak Ridge

  14. The Cloud Computing and Other Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borjon-Kubota, Martha Estela

    2011-01-01

    12. Fragments in Six 13. Cloud Computing 14. Phase 15.Note 48. Devoured vi Cloud Computing and other Variables I.CALIFORNIA RIVERSIDE Cloud Computing and Other Variables A

  15. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

    1994-06-14

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

  16. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  17. In many cases, tsunami waveheights and effects show a high variability along the coast. The possible causes are insecurities about the tectonic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    In many cases, tsunami waveheights and effects show a high variability along the coast area in propagation direction of a tsunami wave can produce largely amplified waves by near coast tsunami waveguiding, see [1]. The waveguiding is caused by the fact that different propagation speeds

  18. Residential Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps Sized to Heating Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Odukomaiya, Adewale; Gehl, Anthony C.

    2014-01-01

    Variable capacity heat pumps are an emerging technology offering significant energy savings potential and improved efficiency. With conventional single-speed systems, it is important to appropriately size heat pumps for the cooling load as over-sizing would result in cycling and insufficient latent capacity required for humidity control. These appropriately sized systems are often under-sized for the heating load and require inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat to meet the heating demand. Variable capacity heat pumps address these shortcomings by providing an opportunity to intentionally size systems for the dominant heating season load without adverse effects of cycling or insufficient dehumidification in the cooling season. This intentionally-sized system could result in significant energy savings in the heating season, as the need for inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat is drastically reduced. This is a continuation of a study evaluating the energy consumption of variable capacity heat pumps installed in two unoccupied research homes in Farragut, a suburb of Knoxville, Tennessee. In this particular study, space conditioning systems are intentionally sized for the heating season loads to provide an opportunity to understand and evaluate the impact this would have on electric resistance heat use and dehumidification. The results and conclusions drawn through this research are valid and specific for portions of the Southeastern and Midwestern United States falling in the mixed-humid climate zone. While other regions in the U.S. do not experience this type of climate, this work provides a basis for, and can help understand the implications of other climate zones on residential space conditioning energy consumption. The data presented here will provide a framework for fine tuning residential building EnergyPlus models that are being developed.

  19. Varying Speed of Light, Modified Chaplygin Gas and Accelerating Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anup Kumar Singha; Ujjal Debnath

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we have considered a model of modified Chaplygin gas in VSL theory with variable gravitational constant $G$. We have shown that the evolution of the universe starts from radiation era to phantom model. The whole evolution of the universe has been shown diagramatically by using statefinder parameters.

  20. Hi-Q Rotor - Low Wind Speed Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd E. Mills; Judy Tatum

    2010-01-11

    The project objective was to optimize the performance of the Hi-Q Rotor. Early research funded by the California Energy Commission indicated the design might be advantageous over state-of-the-art turbines for collecting wind energy in low wind conditions. The Hi-Q Rotor is a new kind of rotor targeted for harvesting wind in Class 2, 3, and 4 sites, and has application in areas that are closer to cities, or 'load centers.' An advantage of the Hi-Q Rotor is that the rotor has non-conventional blade tips, producing less turbulence, and is quieter than standard wind turbine blades which is critical to the low-wind populated urban sites. Unlike state-of-the-art propeller type blades, the Hi-Q Rotor has six blades connected by end caps. In this phase of the research funded by DOE's Inventions and Innovation Program, the goal was to improve the current design by building a series of theoretical and numeric models, and composite prototypes to determine a best of class device. Development of the rotor was performed by aeronautical engineering and design firm, DARcorporation. From this investigation, an optimized design was determined and an 8-foot diameter, full-scale rotor was built and mounted using a Bergey LX-1 generator and furling system which were adapted to support the rotor. The Hi-Q Rotor was then tested side-by-side against the state-of-the-art Bergey XL-1 at the Alternative Energy Institute's Wind Test Center at West Texas State University for six weeks, and real time measurements of power generated were collected and compared. Early wind tunnel testing showed that the cut-in-speed of the Hi-Q rotor is much lower than a conventional tested HAWT enabling the Hi-Q Wind Turbine to begin collecting energy before a conventional HAWT has started spinning. Also, torque at low wind speeds for the Hi-Q Wind Turbine is higher than the tested conventional HAWT and enabled the wind turbine to generate power at lower wind speeds. Based on the data collected, the results of our first full-scale prototype wind turbine proved that higher energy can be captured at lower wind speeds with the new Hi-Q Rotor. The Hi-Q Rotor is almost 15% more productive than the Bergey from 6 m/s to 8 m/s, making it ideal in Class 3, 4, and 5 wind sites and has application in the critical and heretofore untapped areas that are closer to cities, 'load centers,' and may even be used directly in urban areas. The additional advantage of the Hi-Q Rotor's non-conventional blade tips, which eliminates most air turbulence, is noise reduction which makes it doubly ideal for populated urban areas. Hi-Q Products recommends one final stage of development to take the Hi-Q Rotor through Technology Readiness Levels 8-9. During this stage of development, the rotor will be redesigned to further increase efficiency, match the rotor to a more suitable generator, and lower the cost of manufacturing by redesigning the structure to allow for production in larger quantities at lower cost. Before taking the rotor to market and commercialization, it is necessary to further optimize the performance by finding a better generator and autofurling system, ones more suitable for lower wind speeds and rpms should be used in all future testing. The potential impact of this fully developed technology will be the expansion and proliferation of energy renewal into the heretofore untapped Class 2, 3, 4, and 5 Wind Sites, or the large underutilized sites where the wind speed is broken by physical features such as mountains, buildings, and trees. Market estimates by 2011, if low wind speed technology can be developed are well above: 13 million homes, 675,000 commercial buildings, 250,000 public facilities. Estimated commercial exploitation of the Hi-Q Rotor show potential increase in U.S. energy gained through the clean, renewable wind energy found in low and very low wind speed sites. This new energy source would greatly impact greenhouse emissions as well as the public sector's growing energy demands.

  1. High-speed micro-electro-discharge machining.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandrasekar, Srinivasan Dr. (.School of Industrial Engineering, West Lafayette, IN); Moylan, Shawn P. (School of Industrial Engineering, West Lafayette, IN); Benavides, Gilbert Lawrence

    2005-09-01

    When two electrodes are in close proximity in a dielectric liquid, application of a voltage pulse can produce a spark discharge between them, resulting in a small amount of material removal from both electrodes. Pulsed application of the voltage at discharge energies in the range of micro-Joules results in the continuous material removal process known as micro-electro-discharge machining (micro-EDM). Spark erosion by micro-EDM provides significant opportunities for producing small features and micro-components such as nozzle holes, slots, shafts and gears in virtually any conductive material. If the speed and precision of micro-EDM processes can be significantly enhanced, then they have the potential to be used for a wide variety of micro-machining applications including fabrication of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) components. Toward this end, a better understanding of the impacts the various machining parameters have on material removal has been established through a single discharge study of micro-EDM and a parametric study of small hole making by micro-EDM. The main avenues for improving the speed and efficiency of the micro-EDM process are in the areas of more controlled pulse generation in the power supply and more controlled positioning of the tool electrode during the machining process. Further investigation of the micro-EDM process in three dimensions leads to important design rules, specifically the smallest feature size attainable by the process.

  2. On stress-dependent elastic moduli and wave speeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michel Destrade; Ray W. Ogden

    2013-02-19

    On the basis of the general nonlinear theory of a hyperelastic material with initial stress, initially without consideration of the origin of the initial stress, we determine explicit expressions for the stress-dependent tensor of incremental elastic moduli. In considering three special cases of initial stress within the general framework, namely hydrostatic stress, uniaxial stress and planar shear stress, we then elucidate in general form the dependence of various elastic moduli on the initial stress. In each case the effect of initial stress on the wave speed of homogeneous plane waves is studied and it is shown how various special theories from the earlier literature fit within the general framework. We then consider the situation in which the initial stress is a pre-stress associated with a finite deformation and, in particular, we discuss the specialization to the second-order theory of elasticity and highlight connections between several classical approaches to the topic, again with special reference to the influence of higher-order terms on the speed of homogeneous plane waves. Some discrepancies arising in the earlier literature are noted.

  3. Revenue and Ridership Potential for a High-Speed Rail Service in the San Francisco/Sacramento-Los Angeles Corridor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leavitt, Daniel; Vaca, Erin; Hall, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Potential for a High-Speed Rail Service in the Francisco/Scenario 4 4 High-Speed Rail Revenue Station Pair by 4 ’51992 levels ,, High-speed rail could divert approximately 12

  4. Advanced Ultra-High Speed Motor for Drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Impact Technologies LLC; University of Texas at Arlington

    2007-03-31

    Three (3) designs have been made for two sizes, 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) and 4.29 cm (1.69 inch) outer diameters, of a patented inverted configured Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSM) electric motor specifically for drilling at ultra-high rotational speeds (10,000 rpm) and that can utilize advanced drilling methods. Benefits of these motors are stackable power sections, full control (speed and direction) of downhole motors, flow hydraulics independent of motor operation, application of advanced drilling methods (water jetting and abrasive slurry jetting), and the ability of signal/power electric wires through motor(s). Key features of the final designed motors are: fixed non-rotating shaft with stator coils attached; rotating housing with permanent magnet (PM) rotor attached; bit attached to rotating housing; internal channel(s) in a nonrotating shaft; electric components that are hydrostatically isolated from high internal pressure circulating fluids ('muds') by static metal to metal seals; liquid filled motor with smoothed features for minimized turbulence in the motor during operation; and new inverted coated metal-metal hydrodynamic bearings and seals. PMSM, Induction and Switched Reluctance Machines (SRM), all pulse modulated, were considered, but PMSM were determined to provide the highest power density for the shortest motors. Both radial and axial electric PMSM driven motors were designed with axial designs deemed more rugged for ultra-high speed, drilling applications. The 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) OD axial inverted motor can generate 4.18KW (5.61 Hp) power at 10,000 rpm with a 4 Nm (2.95 ft-lbs) of torque for every 30.48 cm (12 inches) of power section. The 6.91 cm (2.72 inch) OD radial inverted motor can generate 5.03 KW (6.74 Hp) with 4.8 Nm (3.54 ft-lb) torque at 10,000 rpm for every 30.48 cm (12 inches) of power section. The 4.29 cm (1.69 inch) OD radial inverted motor can generate 2.56 KW (3.43 Hp) power with 2.44 Nm (1.8 ft-lb) torque at full speed 10,000 rpm for every 30.48 cm (12 inches) of power section. Operating conditions are 300 voltage AC at the motor leads. Power voltage losses in the cables/wirelines to the motor(s) are expected to be about 10% for 5000 feet carrying 2 amperes. Higher voltages and better insulators can lower these losses and carry more amperes. Cutting elements for such high tip velocities are currently not available, consequently these motors will not be built at this time. However, 7.62 cm (3 inch) OD, low speed, PMSM radial electric motors based on this project design are being built under a 2006 Oklahoma Center for the Advancement of Science and Technology 'proof of concept' grant.

  5. The Oklo Natural Reactor and the Time Variability of the Fundamental Constants of Nature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamoreaux, Steve (LANL) [LANL

    2005-11-07

    Natural nuclear reactors? Changes in the speed of light? If either of these concepts seem implausible to you now they certainly won't once Dr. Steve Lamoreaux (LANL) delivers his SLAC Colloquium lecture in the Panofsky Auditorium on November 7th at 4:15 pm entitled The Oklo Natural Reactor and the Time Variability of the Fundamental Constants of Nature. This lecture is a rare opportunity to learn not only about Oklo's incredible natural nuclear reactors but also to gain understanding about how the present-day study of these sites may alter our understanding of fundamental constants such as the speed of light. This event is a must-see for the curious!

  6. Influence of rotation speed on natural frequency: A short introduction and presentation of an imaginary 'antigravity' world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher G. Provatidis

    2011-04-28

    We present an instructive way to introduce the subject of resonance using a typical spring-mass system without damping. In contrast to the standard approach found in most textbooks, here we propose a way to extend the lectures from common translational systems to rotating ones. In the latter case, particular attention is paid to the role of the variable centripetal force. The students will find analytical solutions of the simplest possible ordinary differential equations of motion and see that the natural frequency strongly depends on the rotation speed, the latter being a simple vector sum. The analysis reveals that always the resultant ground force is harmonic. In order to depict the significance in the influence of rotation on natural frequency, we present an imaginary 'antigravity' world in which the aforementioned dependency is absent.

  7. Continuous Variable Quantum Information Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulrik L. Andersen; Gerd Leuchs; Christine Silberhorn

    2010-08-20

    Observables of quantum systems can posses either a discrete or a continuous spectrum. For example, upon measurements of the photon number of a light state, discrete outcomes will result whereas measurements of the light's quadrature amplitudes result in continuous outcomes. If one uses the continuous degree of freedom of a quantum system either for encoding, processing or detecting information, one enters the field of continuous variable (CV) quantum information processing. In this paper we review the basic principles of CV quantum information processing with main focus on recent developments in the field. We will be addressing the three main stages of a quantum informational system; the preparation stage where quantum information is encoded into CVs of coherent states and single photon states, the processing stage where CV information is manipulated to carry out a specified protocol and a detection stage where CV information is measured using homodyne detection or photon counting.

  8. Variable delivery, fixed displacement pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommars, Mark F. (Sparland, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A variable delivery, fixed displacement pump comprises a plurality of pistons reciprocated within corresponding cylinders in a cylinder block. The pistons are reciprocated by rotation of a fixed angle swash plate connected to the pistons. The pistons and cylinders cooperate to define a plurality of fluid compression chambers each have a delivery outlet. A vent port is provided from each fluid compression chamber to vent fluid therefrom during at least a portion of the reciprocal stroke of the piston. Each piston and cylinder combination cooperates to close the associated vent port during another portion of the reciprocal stroke so that fluid is then pumped through the associated delivery outlet. The delivery rate of the pump is varied by adjusting the axial position of the swash plate relative to the cylinder block, which varies the duration of the piston stroke during which the vent port is closed.

  9. Continuously variable focal length lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  10. Microlensing induced absorption line variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geraint F. Lewis; Rodrigo A. Ibata

    2002-12-02

    Gravitational microlensing has proven to be a powerful probe of both the structure at the heart of quasars and the mass function of compact objects in foreground lenses. This paper examines the potential of gravitational microlensing in probing the scale of structure in absorbing material within the lensing galaxy. We find that, in this high optical depth regime, significant variations in the equivalent width of absorption features can be induced, although the details of these are dependent upon the scale of structure of the absorbing material. The paper concludes with an examination of the absorption line variability observed in the gravitationally lensed quasar PKS1830-211, demonstrating how this may indicate the presence of small scale structure in the cold molecular gas present within the lensing galaxy.

  11. Technology Review: Angle Speeds Plastic Transistor http://www.technologyreview.com/articles/rnb_041304.asp 1 of 2 4/14/2004 8:24 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Technology Review: Angle Speeds Plastic Transistor http > COMPUTERS AND ELECTRONICS > SEMICONDUCTORS Angle Speeds Plastic Transistor Technology Research News April 13. #12;Technology Review: Angle Speeds Plastic Transistor http

  12. High-speed quantum memory with thermal motion of atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Tikhonov; T. Golubeva; Yu. Golubev

    2015-02-26

    We discuss the influence of atomic thermal motion on the efficiency of multimode quantum memory in two configurations: over the free expand of atoms cooled beforehand in a magneto-optical trap, and over complete mixing of atoms in a closed cell at room temperature. We consider the high-speed quantum memory, and assume that writing and retrieval are short enough, and the displacements of atoms during these stages are negligibly small. At the same time we take in account thermal motion during the storage time, which, as well known, must be much longer than durations of all the other memory processes for successful application of memory cell in communication and computation. We will analyze this influence in terms of eigenmodes of the full memory cycle and show that distortion of the eigenmodes, caused by thermal motion, leads to the efficiency reduction. We will demonstrate, that in the multimode memory this interconnection has complicated character.

  13. New patterns in high-speed granular flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Brodu; Renaud Delannay; Alexandre Valance; Patrick Richard

    2015-03-04

    We report on new patterns in high-speed flows of granular materials obtained by means of extensive numerical simulations. These patterns emerge from the destabilization of unidirectional flows upon increase of mass holdup and inclination angle, and are characterized by complex internal structures including secondary flows, heterogeneous particle volume fraction, symmetry breaking and dynamically maintained order. In particular, we evidenced steady and fully developed "supported" flows, which consist of a dense core surrounded by a highly energetic granular gas. Interestingly, despite their overall diversity, these regimes are shown to obey a scaling law for the mass flow rate as a function of the mass holdup. This unique set of 3D flow regimes raises new challenges for extending the scope of current granular rheological models.

  14. High speed two-dimensional optical beam position detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutten, Paul Edmond

    2011-07-15

    Disclosed is the design of a high speed two-dimensional optical beam position detector which outputs the X and Y displacement and total intensity linearly. The experimental detector measures the displacement from DC to 123 MHz and the intensity of an optical spot in a similar way as a conventional quadrant photodiode detector. The design uses four discrete photodiodes and simple dedicated optics for the position decomposition which enables higher spatial accuracy and faster electronic processing than conventional detectors. Measurements of the frequency response and the spatial sensitivity demonstrate high suitability for atomic force microscopy, scanning probe data storage applications, and wideband wavefront sensing. The operation principle allows for position measurements up to 20 GHz and more in bandwidth.

  15. High speed infrared radiation thermometer, system, and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Markham, James R. (Middlefield, CT)

    2002-01-01

    The high-speed radiation thermometer has an infrared measurement wavelength band that is matched to the infrared wavelength band of near-blackbody emittance of ceramic components and ceramic thermal barrier coatings used in turbine engines. It is comprised of a long wavelength infrared detector, a signal amplifier, an analog-to-digital converter, an optical system to collect radiation from the target, an optical filter, and an integral reference signal to maintain a calibrated response. A megahertz range electronic data acquisition system is connected to the radiation detector to operate on raw data obtained. Because the thermometer operates optimally at 8 to 12 .mu.m, where emittance is near-blackbody for ceramics, interferences to measurements performed in turbine engines are minimized. The method and apparatus are optimized to enable mapping of surface temperatures on fast moving ceramic elements, and the thermometer can provide microsecond response, with inherent self-diagnostic and calibration-correction features.

  16. How genealogies are affected by the speed of evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Éric Brunet; Bernard Derrida

    2011-07-12

    In a series of recent works it has been shown that a class of simple models of evolving populations under selection leads to genealogical trees whose statistics are given by the Bolthausen-Sznitman coalescent rather than by the well known Kingman coalescent in the case of neutral evolution. Here we show that when conditioning the genealogies on the speed of evolution, one finds a one parameter family of tree statistics which interpolates between the Bolthausen-Sznitman and Kingman's coalescents. This interpolation can be calculated explicitly for one specific version of the model, the exponential model. Numerical simulations of another version of the model and a phenomenological theory indicate that this one-parameter family of tree statistics could be universal. We compare this tree structure with those appearing in other contexts, in particular in the mean field theory of spin glasses.

  17. How genealogies are affected by the speed of evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunet, Éric

    2011-01-01

    In a series of recent works it has been shown that a class of simple models of evolving populations under selection leads to genealogical trees whose statistics are given by the Bolthausen-Sznitman coalescent rather than by the well known Kingman coalescent in the case of neutral evolution. Here we show that when conditioning the genealogies on the speed of evolution, one finds a one parameter family of tree statistics which interpolates between the Bolthausen-Sznitman and Kingman's coalescents. This interpolation can be calculated explicitly for one specific version of the model, the exponential model. Numerical simulations of another version of the model and a phenomenological theory indicate that this one-parameter family of tree statistics could be universal. We compare this tree structure with those appearing in other contexts, in particular in the mean field theory of spin glasses.

  18. Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Andrew A. (1034 Hillside Ave., Madison, WI 53705)

    1984-01-01

    A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine.

  19. Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, A.A.

    1984-07-10

    A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine. 4 figs.

  20. Variable path length spectrophotometric probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, Patrick E. (157 Greenwood Dr., Martiney, GA 30907); McCarty, Jerry E. (104 Recreation Dr., Aiken, SC 29803); Haggard, Ricky A. (1144 Thornwood Drive, North Augusta, SC 29891)

    1992-01-01

    A compact, variable pathlength, fiber optic probe for spectrophotometric measurements of fluids in situ. The probe comprises a probe body with a shaft having a polished end penetrating one side of the probe, a pair of optic fibers, parallel and coterminous, entering the probe opposite the reflecting shaft, and a collimating lens to direct light from one of the fibers to the reflecting surface of the shaft and to direct the reflected light to the second optic fiber. The probe body has an inlet and an outlet port to allow the liquid to enter the probe body and pass between the lens and the reflecting surface of the shaft. A linear stepper motor is connected to the shaft to cause the shaft to advance toward or away from the lens in increments so that absorption measurements can be made at each of the incremental steps. The shaft is sealed to the probe body by a bellows seal to allow freedom of movement of the shaft and yet avoid leakage from the interior of the probe.

  1. Eccentric crank variable compression ratio mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Keith Edward (Kobe, JP); Moser, William Elliott (Peoria, IL); Roozenboom, Stephan Donald (Washington, IL); Knox, Kevin Jay (Peoria, IL)

    2008-05-13

    A variable compression ratio mechanism for an internal combustion engine that has an engine block and a crankshaft is disclosed. The variable compression ratio mechanism has a plurality of eccentric disks configured to support the crankshaft. Each of the plurality of eccentric disks has at least one cylindrical portion annularly surrounded by the engine block. The variable compression ratio mechanism also has at least one actuator configured to rotate the plurality of eccentric disks.

  2. Variable-Period Undulators For Synchrotron Radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shenoy, Gopal (Naperville, IL); Lewellen, John (Plainfield, IL); Shu, Deming (Darien, IL); Vinokurov, Nikolai (Novosibirsk, RU)

    2005-02-22

    A new and improved undulator design is provided that enables a variable period length for the production of synchrotron radiation from both medium-energy and high-energy storage rings. The variable period length is achieved using a staggered array of pole pieces made up of high permeability material, permanent magnet material, or an electromagnetic structure. The pole pieces are separated by a variable width space. The sum of the variable width space and the pole width would therefore define the period of the undulator. Features and advantages of the invention include broad photon energy tunability, constant power operation and constant brilliance operation.

  3. Precision measurement of the speed of propagation of neutrinos using the MINOS detectors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Adamson, P.

    2015-09-17

    We report a two-detector measurement of the propagation speed of neutrinos over a baseline of 734 km. The measurement was made with the NuMI beam at Fermilab between the near and far MINOS detectors. Furthermore, the fractional difference between the neutrino speed and the speed of light is determined to be (v/c-1)=(1.0±1.1)×10-6, consistent with relativistic neutrinos.

  4. Further evidence that the sound-speed algorithm of Del Grosso is more accurate than that of Chen and Millero

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    the accuracy of the algorithms used to calculate the sound-speed profile. The sound-speed algorithms tested-speed profiles determined from simultaneously measured temperature and salinity profiles. These depths were calculate about the same sound-speed profile in the upper 1000 dbars, but Del Grosso's algorithm calculates

  5. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Mendler

    2011-03-15

    Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low the compression ratio can be raised (to as much as 18:1) providing high engine efficiency. It is important to recognize that for a well designed VCR engine cylinder pressure does not need to be higher than found in current production turbocharged engines. As such, there is no need for a stronger crankcase, bearings and other load bearing parts within the VCR engine. The Envera VCR mechanism uses an eccentric carrier approach to adjust engine compression ratio. The crankshaft main bearings are mounted in this eccentric carrier or 'crankshaft cradle' and pivoting the eccentric carrier 30 degrees adjusts compression ratio from 9:1 to 18:1. The eccentric carrier is made up of a casting that provides rigid support for the main bearings, and removable upper bearing caps. Oil feed to the main bearings transits through the bearing cap fastener sockets. The eccentric carrier design was chosen for its low cost and rigid support of the main bearings. A control shaft and connecting links are used to pivot the eccentric carrier. The control shaft mechanism features compression ratio lock-up at minimum and maximum compression ratio settings. The control shaft method of pivoting the eccentric carrier was selected due to its lock-up capability. The control shaft can be rotated by a hydraulic actuator or an electric motor. The engine shown in Figures 3 and 4 has a hydraulic actuator that was developed under the current program. In-line 4-cylinder engines are significantly less expensive than V engines because an entire cylinder head can be eliminated. The cost savings from eliminating cylinders and an entire cylinder head will notably offset the added cost of the VCR and supercharging. Replacing V6 and V8 engines with in-line VCR 4-cylinder engines will provide high fuel economy at low cost. Numerous enabling technologies exist which have the potential to increase engine efficiency. The greatest efficiency gains are realized when the right combination of advanced and new technologies are packaged together to provide the greatest gains at the least cost. Aggressive engine downsiz

  6. Range-Renewal Speed and Entropy for I.I.D Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xin-Xing Chen; Jian-Sheng Xie; Jiangang Ying

    2013-05-24

    In this note the relation between the range-renewal speed and entropy for i.i.d. models is discussed.

  7. Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankat; Plichta, Drew; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Camou, Alejandro; Aul, Christopher

    2013-09-30

    This final report documents the technical results of the 3-year project entitled, “Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels,” funded under the NETL of DOE. The research was conducted under six main tasks: 1) program management and planning; 2) turbulent flame speed measurements of syngas mixtures; 3) laminar flame speed measurements with diluents; 4) NOx mechanism validation experiments; 5) fundamental NOx kinetics; and 6) the effect of impurities on NOx kinetics. Experiments were performed using primary constant-volume vessels for laminar and turbulent flame speeds and shock tubes for ignition delay times and species concentrations. In addition to the existing shock- tube and flame speed facilities, a new capability in measuring turbulent flame speeds was developed under this grant. Other highlights include an improved NOx kinetics mechanism; a database on syngas blends for real fuel mixtures with and without impurities; an improved hydrogen sulfide mechanism; an improved ammonia kintics mechanism; laminar flame speed data at high pressures with water addition; and the development of an inexpensive absorption spectroscopy diagnostic for shock-tube measurements of OH time histories. The Project Results for this work can be divided into 13 major sections, which form the basis of this report. These 13 topics are divided into the five areas: 1) laminar flame speeds; 2) Nitrogen Oxide and Ammonia chemical kinetics; 3) syngas impurities chemical kinetics; 4) turbulent flame speeds; and 5) OH absorption measurements for chemical kinetics.

  8. Three DOE Labs Now Connected With Ultra-High Speed Network That...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    at unprecedented bandwidth speeds - at least ten times faster than commercial Internet providers - with a new network that connects thousands of researchers using three of...

  9. Speed And Power Control Of An Engine By Modulation Of The Load Torque

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziph, Benjamin (Ann Arbor, MI); Strodtman, Scott (Ypsilanti, MI); Rose, Thomas K (Chelsea, MI)

    1999-01-26

    A system and method of speed and power control for an engine in which speed and power of the engine is controlled by modulation of the load torque. The load torque is manipulated in order to cause engine speed, and hence power to be changed. To accomplish such control, the load torque undergoes a temporary excursion in the opposite direction of the desired speed and power change. The engine and the driven equipment will accelerate or decelerate accordingly as the load torque is decreased or increased, relative to the essentially fixed or constant engine torque. As the engine accelerates or decelerates, its power increases or decreases in proportion.

  10. Relationship Between Solar Wind Speed and Coronal Magnetic Field Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fujiki, Ken'ichi; Iju, Tomoya; Hakamada, Kazuyuki; Kojima, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the relationship between the solar-wind speed $[V]$ and the coronal magnetic-field properties (a flux expansion factor [$f$] and photospheric magnetic-field strength [$B_{\\mathrm{S}}$]) at all latitudes using data of interplanetary scintillation and solar magnetic field obtained for 24 years from 1986 to 2009. Using a cross-correlation analyses, we verified that $V$ is inversely proportional to $f$ and found that $V$ tends to increase with $B_{\\mathrm{S}}$ if $f$ is the same. As a consequence, we find that $V$ has extremely good linear correlation with $B_{\\mathrm{S}}/f$. However, this linear relation of $V$ and $B_{\\mathrm{S}}/f$ cannot be used for predicting the solar-wind velocity without information on the solar-wind mass flux. We discuss why the inverse relation between $V$ and $f$ has been successfully used for solar-wind velocity prediction, even though it does not explicitly include the mass flux and magnetic-field strength, which are important physical parameters for solar-wind accele...

  11. High speed flow cytometer droplet formation system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van den Engh, Ger (Seattle, WA)

    2000-01-01

    A droplet forming flow cytometer system allows high speed processing without the need for high oscillator drive powers through the inclusion of an oscillator or piezoelectric crystal such as within the nozzle volume or otherwise unidirectionally coupled to the sheath fluid. The nozzle container continuously converges so as to amplify unidirectional oscillations which are transmitted as pressure waves through the nozzle volume to the nozzle exit so as to form droplets from the fluid jet. The oscillator is directionally isolated so as to avoid moving the entire nozzle container so as to create only pressure waves within the sheath fluid. A variation in substance concentration is achieved through a movable substance introduction port which is positioned within a convergence zone to vary the relative concentration of substance to sheath fluid while still maintaining optimal laminar flow conditions. This variation may be automatically controlled through a sensor and controller configuration. A replaceable tip design is also provided whereby the ceramic nozzle tip is positioned within an edge insert in the nozzle body so as to smoothly transition from nozzle body to nozzle tip. The nozzle tip is sealed against its outer surface to the nozzle body so it may be removable for cleaning or replacement.

  12. Hardware demonstration of high-speed networks for satellite applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donaldson, Jonathon W.; Lee, David S.

    2008-09-01

    This report documents the implementation results of a hardware demonstration utilizing the Serial RapidIO{trademark} and SpaceWire protocols that was funded by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL's) Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) office. This demonstration was one of the activities in the Modeling and Design of High-Speed Networks for Satellite Applications LDRD. This effort has demonstrated the transport of application layer packets across both RapidIO and SpaceWire networks to a common downlink destination using small topologies comprised of commercial-off-the-shelf and custom devices. The RapidFET and NEX-SRIO debug and verification tools were instrumental in the successful implementation of the RapidIO hardware demonstration. The SpaceWire hardware demonstration successfully demonstrated the transfer and routing of application data packets between multiple nodes and also was able reprogram remote nodes using configuration bitfiles transmitted over the network, a key feature proposed in node-based architectures (NBAs). Although a much larger network (at least 18 to 27 nodes) would be required to fully verify the design for use in a real-world application, this demonstration has shown that both RapidIO and SpaceWire are capable of routing application packets across a network to a common downlink node, illustrating their potential use in real-world NBAs.

  13. SOLAR CYCLE VARIATION OF SOUND SPEED INSIDE THE SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullan, D. J.; MacDonald, J.; Rabello-Soares, M. C.

    2012-08-10

    Empirical radial profiles of the changes in sound speed inside the Sun between solar minimum and solar maximum have been extracted from Michelson Doppler Imager data by Baldner and Basu and Rabello-Soares. Here, we compare these results with the theoretical radial profiles predicted by a model of magnetic inhibition of convective onset: In the model, the degree of magnetic inhibition is characterized by a parameter {delta}, which is essentially the ratio of magnetic pressure to gas pressure. We find that the theoretical profiles overlap significantly with the empirical results in the outer half of the convection zone. But differences in the deeper layers indicate that the model needs to be modified there. The main result that emerges in the present comparison is that the value of {delta} must be larger near the surface than at great depth. A secondary result is that, in the course of the solar cycle, the magnetic field magnitude at the base of the convection zone may be out of phase with the field near the surface.

  14. Effects of Relativity Lead to"Warp Speed" Computations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vay, J.-L.

    2007-11-01

    A scientist at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has discovered that a previously unnoticed consequence of Einstein's special theory of relativity can lead to speedup of computer calculations by orders of magnitude when applied to the computer modeling of a certain class of physical systems. This new finding offers the possibility of tackling some problems in a much shorter time and with far more precision than was possible before, as well as studying some configurations in every detail for the first time. The basis of Einstein's theory is the principle of relativity, which states that the laws of physics are the same for all observers, whether the 'observer' is a turtle 'racing' with a rabbit, or a beam of particles moving at near light speed. From the invariance of the laws of physics, one may be tempted to infer that the complexity of a system is independent of the motion of the observer, and consequently, a computer simulation will require the same number of mathematical operations, independently of the reference frame that is used for the calculation. Length contraction and time dilation are well known consequences of the special theory of relativity which lead to very counterintuitive effects. An alien observing human activity through a telescope in a spaceship traveling in the Vicinity of the earth near the speed of light would see everything flattened in the direction of propagation of its spaceship (for him, the earth would have the shape of a pancake), while all motions on earth would appear extremely slow, slowed almost to a standstill. Conversely, a space scientist observing the alien through a telescope based on earth would see a flattened alien almost to a standstill in a flattened spaceship. Meanwhile, an astronaut sitting in a spaceship moving at some lower velocity than the alien spaceship with regard to earth might see both the alien spaceship and the earth flattened in the same proportion and the motion unfolding in each of them at the same speed. Let us now assume that each protagonist (the alien, the space scientist and the astronaut) is to run a computer simulation describing the motion of all of them in a single calculation. In order to model a physical system on a computer, scientists often divide space and time into small chunks. Since the computer must calculated some things for each chunk, having a large system containing numerous small chunks translates to long calculations requiring many computational steps on supercomputers. Let us assume that each protagonist of our intergalactic story uses the space and time slicing as described and chooses to perform the calculation in its own frame of reference. For the alien and the space scientist, the slicing of space and time results in an exceedingly large number of chunks, due to the wide disparity of spatial and time scales needed to describe both their own environment and motion together with the other extremely flattened environment and slowed motion. Since the disparity of scales is reduced for the astronaut, who is traveling at an intermediate velocity, the number of computer operations needed to complete the calculation in his frame of reference will be significantly lower, possibly by many orders of magnitude. Analogously, the new discovery at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory shows that there exists a frame of reference minimizing the number of computational operations needed for studying the interaction of beams of particles or light (lasers) interacting at, or near, light speed with other particles or with surrounding structures. Speedups ranging from ten to a million times or more are predicted for the modeling of beams interacting with electron clouds, such as those in the upcoming Large Hadron Collider 'atom smasher' accelerator at CERN (Switzerland), and in free electron lasers and tabletop laser wakefield accelerators. The discovery has surprised many physicists and was received initially with much skepticism. It sounded too much like a 'free lunch'. Yet, the demonstration of a speedup of a stunning one thousand times in a te

  15. The Taiwanese-American occultation survey project stellar variability. III. Detection of 58 new variable stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishioka, R.; Wang, S.-Y.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Lehner, M. J.; Cook, K. H.; King, S.-K.; Lee, T.; Marshall, S. L.; Schwamb, M. E.; Wang, J.-H.; Wen, C.-Y.; Alcock, C.; Protopapas, P.; Axelrod, T.; Bianco, F. B.; Byun, Y.-I.; Chen, W. P.; Ngeow, C.-C.; Kim, D.-W.; Rice, J. A.

    2014-04-01

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey project is designed for the detection of stellar occultations by small-size Kuiper Belt Objects, and it has monitored selected fields along the ecliptic plane by using four telescopes with a 3 deg{sup 2} field of view on the sky since 2005. We have analyzed data accumulated during 2005-2012 to detect variable stars. Sixteen fields with observations of more than 100 epochs were examined. We recovered 85 variables among a total of 158 known variable stars in these 16 fields. Most of the unrecovered variables are located in the fields observed less frequently. We also detected 58 variable stars which are not listed in the International Variable Star Index of the American Association of Variable Star Observers. These variable stars are classified as 3 RR Lyrae, 4 Cepheid, 1 ? Scuti, 5 Mira, 15 semi-regular, and 27 eclipsing binaries based on the periodicity and the profile of the light curves.

  16. Search for Variable Stars in the WTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinfield, David J.

    Search for Variable Stars in the WTS Database Hristo Stoev Laboratory of Stellar Astrophysics of January 2010 at LAEX in Madrid, Spain #12;WTS Survey Release 0.1 Search for variable stars in the FOV Narrow down my selection only to one of the detectors ­ 15000 light curves #12;WTS Survey Release 0

  17. Variable orifice using an iris shutter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beeman, Raymond (El Cerrito, CA); Brajkovich, Steven J. (Fremont, CA)

    1978-01-01

    A variable orifice forming mechanism utilizing an iris shutter arrangement adapted to control gas flow, conductance in vacuum systems, as a heat shield for furnace windows, as a beam shutter in sputtering operations, and in any other application requiring periodic or continuously-variable control of material, gas, or fluid flow.

  18. Boosting Search with Variable Elimination. ? Javier Larrosa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dechter, Rina

    Boosting Search with Variable Elimination. ? Javier Larrosa Dep. Llenguatges i Sistemes Inform#12ElimSearchS;k, a hybrid meta- algorithm that combines search and variable elimination. The param- eter S names from the constraint graph. We also provide experimental evidence that the hybrid algorithm can

  19. Boosting Search with Variable Elimination. ? Javier Larrosa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dechter, Rina

    Boosting Search with Variable Elimination. ? Javier Larrosa Dep. Llenguatges i Sistemes Inform of variables, reduces the search tree size. In this paper we introduce VarElimSearch(S;k), a hybrid meta the constraint graph. We also provide experimental evidence that the hybrid algorithm can outperform state

  20. Solar Dynamics Observatory/ Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Solar Dynamics Observatory/ EVE Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment Frequently Asked and model solar extreme ultraviolet irradiance variations due to solar flares, solar rotation, and solar and structure of the Sun. What is solar variability? Solar radiation varies on all time scales ranging from

  1. Property Variability Stochastic Multiscale Analysis and Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zabaras, Nicholas J.

    Property Variability Stochastic Multiscale Analysis and Design of Engine Disks N. Zabaras, B. Wen in nickel-based superalloy turbine disks. Issues: Property variability of turbine disk due to high-dimensional multiscale sources Rolls-Royce RB211- 535 turbofan Nickel-base superalloy turbine disk Superalloy

  2. 8) Stratospheric equatorial variability a) Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lott, Francois

    speed. Phase lines inclined eastward when altitude increases indicating upward propation Signal field) Westward phase propagation but eastward group propagation Phase lines inclined westward Signal;5 Satellites wind observations (UARS, Swinbak et Ortland 1997) The Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (low stratosphere

  3. WIND VARIABILITY IN BZ CAMELOPARDALIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honeycutt, R. K.; Kafka, S.; Robertson, J. W. E-mail: skafka@dtm.ciw.edu

    2013-02-01

    Sequences of spectra of the nova-like cataclysmic variable (CV) BZ Cam were acquired on nine nights in 2005-2006 in order to study the time development of episodes of wind activity known to occur frequently in this star. We confirm the results of Ringwald and Naylor that the P-Cygni absorption components of the lines mostly evolve from higher expansion velocity to lower velocity as an episode progresses. We also commonly find blueshifted emission components in the H{alpha} line profile, whose velocities and durations strongly suggest that they are also due to the wind. Curiously, Ringwald and Naylor reported common occurrences of redshifted H{alpha} emission components in their BZ Cam spectra. We have attributed these emission components in H{alpha} to occasions when gas concentrations in the bipolar wind (both front side and back side) become manifested as emission lines as they move beyond the disk's outer edge. We also suggest, based on changes in the P-Cygni profiles during an episode, that the progression from larger to smaller expansion velocities is due to the higher velocity portions of a wind concentration moving beyond the edge of the continuum light of the disk first, leaving a net redward shift of the remaining absorption profile. We derive a new orbital ephemeris for BZ Cam, using the radial velocity of the core of the He I {lambda}5876 line, finding P = 0.15353(4). Using this period, the wind episodes in BZ Cam are found to be concentrated near the inferior conjunction of the emission line source. This result helps confirm that the winds in nova-like CVs are often phase dependent, in spite of the puzzling implication that such winds lack axisymmetry. We argue that the radiation-driven wind in BZ Cam receives an initial boost by acting on gas that has been lifted above the disk by the interaction of the accretion stream with the disk, thereby imposing flickering timescales onto the wind events, as well as leading to an orbital modulation of the wind due to the non-axisymmetric nature of the stream/disk interaction. Simultaneous photometry and spectroscopy were acquired on three nights in order to test the possible connection between flickering continuum light and the strength of the front-side wind. We found strong agreement on one night, some agreement on another, and no agreement on the third. We suggest that some flickering events lead to only back-side winds which will not have associated P-Cygni profiles.

  4. Predicting the Speed of a Wave Glider Autonomous Surface Vehicle from Wave Model Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Ryan N.

    . In addition, when the features of interest are dynamic and move with oceanic currents, vehicle speed plays/or the speed and direction of the ocean currents [4], [5]. For such a system, the question is presented as: Can system design allows for more persis- tent oceanic tracking in smaller less intrusive formats, they forgo

  5. Probability distributions for offshore wind speeds Eugene C. Morgan a,*, Matthew Lackner b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogel, Richard M.

    Probability distributions for offshore wind speeds Eugene C. Morgan a,*, Matthew Lackner b Wind turbine energy output Weibull distribution Extreme wind a b s t r a c t In planning offshore wind farms, short-term wind speeds play a central role in estimating various engi- neering parameters

  6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION -Part I UH60A Rotor in High Speed Forward Flight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , typical of that found on a current generation army helicopter. It has a complex blade form that tends in this chapter is that of a UH-60A rotor in high speed forward flight condition. This case was chosen to test helicopter low speed descent flight. This particular flight condition is dominated by BVI phenomena

  7. '. stacking power MOSFETs for use in high speed instrumentation R. J. Baker and B. P. Johnson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, R. Jacob

    '. stacking power MOSFETs for use in high speed instrumentation R. J. Baker and B. P. Johnson of power MOSFETs in the design of instrumentation has been their hold off volt- age (the maximum voltage reportedl-3 for use in high speed instrumentation. These reported meth

  8. High Speed Architecture for Galois/Counter Mode of Operation (GCM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    High Speed Architecture for Galois/Counter Mode of Operation (GCM) Bo Yang, Sambit Mishra, Ramesh of the contribution to the high throughput is from the advanced fabrication technology. A fully pipelined AES pipelined high speed hardware architec- ture for Galois/Counter Mode of Operation (GCM) by analyzing

  9. Using Electronic Adjustable Speed Drives for Efficiency Improvement and Cost Reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, N. R.

    1989-01-01

    U.S. industry and utilities have been using ac adjustable speed drives (ASDs) for more than 50 years. ASDs utilize power electronics technology to control the flow of power to an ac motor, thereby controlling the motor’s speed and rate of energy...

  10. Quantitative Genetics of Locomotor Speed and Endurance in the Lizard Lacerta vivipara

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saltzman, Wendy

    -term demographic studies. We estimated the heritability of maximal sprirzt speed, treadmill endurance, and tail as body size (mass and snout-vent length), dam age, and length of time dams were held in captivity prior~kantfor speed but rel- atively highfor both endurance (0.46) and tail length (0.51). None of thepheno- typic

  11. Ground vibration due to a high-speed moving harmonic rectangular load on a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, Université de

    Ground vibration due to a high-speed moving harmonic rectangular load on a poroviscoelastic half'Avignon, Facult´e des Sciences, 33 rue Louis Pasteur, F-84000 Avignon, France RUNNING TITLE: Vibrations induced) #12;Abstract The transmission of vibrations in the ground, due to a high-speed moving vertical har

  12. Energy-Efficient Speed Scheduling for Real-Time Tasks under Thermal Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Shengquan

    Energy-Efficient Speed Scheduling for Real-Time Tasks under Thermal Constraints Shengquan Wang. We develop energy-efficient speed scheduling schemes for frame-based real-time tasks under thermal, Jian-Jia Chen, Zhenjun Shi, and Lothar Thiele Abstract Thermal constraints have limited

  13. Improved Method for Specifying Solar Wind Speed Near the Sun Charles N. Arge*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    much better than one derived previously, which is a function of fs only. We focus here on the solarImproved Method for Specifying Solar Wind Speed Near the Sun Charles N. Arge* , Dusan Odstrcil solar wind flow speed near the Sun (~0.1 AU) us- ing a set of three simple inter-linked coronal/solar

  14. Neural Networks 1 Running Head: NETWORKS AND SPEED-ACCURACY TRADEOFF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neural Networks 1 Running Head: NETWORKS AND SPEED-ACCURACY TRADEOFF Neural Networks Associated@columbia.edu (Y. Stern) #12;Neural Networks 2 Abstract This functional neuroimaging (fMRI) study examined the neural networks (spatial patterns of covarying neural activity) associated with the speed

  15. Quantum key distribution with high-speed superconducting single-photon detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quantum key distribution with high-speed superconducting single-photon detectors Robert H. Hadfield Abstract: We explore the potential of high-speed nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors, gating is essential to reduce the high dark count rate. Emerging superconducting detector technologies

  16. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling, including relativistic electron energization, during high-speed streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyons, Larry

    Solar-wind­ magnetosphere coupling, including relativistic electron energization, during high. If this inference is correct, and if it is chorus that energizes the relativistic electrons, then high-speed solar-speed solar wind streams, and fluxes of relativistic electrons observed at geosynchronous orbit enhance

  17. Ris-PhD-Report Accounting for the speed shear in wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø-PhD-Report Accounting for the speed shear in wind turbine power performance measurement Rozenn for the speed shear in wind turbine power performance measurement Division: Wind Energy Division Abstract: The power curve of a wind turbine is the primary char- acteristic of the machine as it is the basis

  18. Contributions of muscles to mediolateral ground reaction force over a range of walking speeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delp, Scott

    (Chockalingam et al., 2008). For elderly individuals, failure to control mediolateral motion can causeContributions of muscles to mediolateral ground reaction force over a range of walking speeds Chand transfer Simulation Mediolateral Walking speed a b s t r a c t Impaired control of mediolateral body motion

  19. High Speed Networks A FAST ARBITRATION SCHEME FOR TERABIT PACKET SWITCHES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao, Jonathan

    High Speed Networks A FAST ARBITRATION SCHEME FOR TERABIT PACKET SWITCHES H. Jonathan Chao, Cheuk H Abstract Input-output queued switches have been widely con- sidered as the most feasible solution for large capac- ity packet switches and IP routers. The challenge is to develop a high speed and cost

  20. Combined Effects of Wind Speed and Wind Direction on Received Signal Strength in Foliated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Combined Effects of Wind Speed and Wind Direction on Received Signal Strength in Foliated Broadband of the received signal strength (RSS) in foliated fixed wireless links resulting from the combined effects of wind speed, changes of wind direction and movement of foliage. The results of a long- term measurement