National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for variable frequency variable

  1. Variable Frequency Pump Drives 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karassik, I. J.; Petraccaro, L. L.; McGuire, J. T.

    1986-01-01

    variable flow operation, Fig. 2 variable system head, the objective of the latter being to maintain pump flow within an optimum range while accommodating a wide variation in system head. VARYING OPERATING CAPACITY OPERATING CAPACITY? N, RANGE HEAD...-rotor motors and variable speed devices have slip losses that significantly reduce the savings that accrue by operating pumps at variable speed. Steam turbine drives may not always be the most practical or economic solution. The variable frequency...

  2. Variable frequency photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Yang, Jing-Hai; Li, Hong; Chen, Wan-Jin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have firstly proposed a new one-dimensional variable frequency photonic crystals (VFPCs), and calculated the transmissivity and the electronic field distribution of VFPCs with and without defect layer, and considered the effect of defect layer and variable frequency function on the transmissivity and the electronic field distribution. We have obtained some new characteristics for the VFPCs, which should be help to design a new type optical devices.

  3. Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Johnson, Arvid C. (Lake in the Hills, IL); Thigpen, Larry T. (Angier, NC)

    1999-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  4. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

    1994-06-14

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

  5. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  6. Chapter 18: Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    An adjustable-speed drive (ASD) includes all devices that vary the speed of a rotating load, including those that vary the motor speed and linkage devices that allow constant motor speed while varying the load speed. The Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol presented here addresses evaluation issues for variable-frequency drives (VFDs) installed on commercial and industrial motor-driven centrifugal fans and pumps for which torque varies with speed. Constant torque load applications, such as those for positive displacement pumps, are not covered by this protocol. Other ASD devices, such as magnetic drive, eddy current drives, variable belt sheave drives, or direct current motor variable voltage drives, are also not addressed. The VFD is by far the most common type of ASD hardware. With VFD speed control on a centrifugal fan or pump motor, energy use follows the affinity laws, which state that the motor electricity demand is a cubic relationship to speed under ideal conditions. Therefore, if the motor runs at 75% speed, the motor demand will ideally be reduced to 42% of full load power; however, with other losses it is about 49% of full load power.

  7. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.; Fathi, Z.; Wei, J.

    1998-08-25

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy. 26 figs.

  8. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.; Fathi, Z.; Wei, J.

    1998-09-08

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy. 26 figs.

  9. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); McMillan, April D. (Knoxville, TN); Paulauskas, Felix L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fathi, Zakaryae (Cary, NC); Wei, Jianghua (Raleigh, NC)

    1998-01-01

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy.

  10. Wind spatial variability and topographic wave frequency Elad Shilo*1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashkenazy, Yossi "Yosef"

    Wind spatial variability and topographic wave frequency Elad Shilo*1 , Yosef Ashkenazy2 , Alon of topographic waves with wind action has been documented in several natural lakes throughout the world. However, the influence of the wind's spatial variability (wind stress curl) on the frequency of topographic waves has

  11. Present and Future Modes of Low Frequency Climate Variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cane, Mark A.

    2014-02-20

    This project addressed area (1) of the FOA, “Interaction of Climate Change and Low Frequency Modes of Natural Climate Variability”. Our overarching objective is to detect, describe and understand the changes in low frequency variability between model simulations of the preindustrial climate and simulations of a doubled CO2 climate. The deliverables are a set of papers providing a dynamical characterization of interannual, decadal, and multidecadal variability in coupled models with attention to the changes in this low frequency variability between pre-industrial concentrations of greenhouse gases and a doubling of atmospheric concentrations of CO2. The principle mode of analysis, singular vector decomposition, is designed to advance our physical, mechanistic understanding. This study will include external natural variability due to solar and volcanic aerosol variations as well as variability internal to the climate system. An important byproduct is a set of analysis tools for estimating global singular vector structures from the archived output of model simulations.

  12. Variable Frequency Drives: Energy Savings and Impact on Motor Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petro, D.

    1993-01-01

    Variable frequency drives (VFDs) have found widespread application in recent years. VFDs are valued for their potential to save energy and improve processes. Reliability has improved significantly, but there are still pitfalls to be addressed...

  13. Trapping and Frequency Variability in Electron Acoustic Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    Trapping and Frequency Variability in Electron Acoustic Waves C.F. Driscoll, F. Anderegg, D 92093 USA Abstract. Electron Acoustic Waves (EAWs) with a phase velocity less than twice the plasma. Keywords: add some here PACS: 52.27.Jt, 52.35.Fp, 52.35.Sb Electron Acoustic Waves (EAWs) are the low

  14. Method for curing polymers using variable-frequency microwave heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; Bible, D.W.; Paulauskas, F.L.

    1998-02-24

    A method for curing polymers incorporating a variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity is disclosed. By varying the frequency of the microwave signal, non-uniformities within the cavity are minimized, thereby achieving a more uniform cure throughout the workpiece. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. The furnace cavity may be adapted to be used to cure materials defining a continuous sheet or which require compressive forces during curing. 15 figs.

  15. Method for curing polymers using variable-frequency microwave heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Paulauskas, Felix L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A method for curing polymers (11) incorporating a variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34). By varying the frequency of the microwave signal, non-uniformities within the cavity (34) are minimized, thereby achieving a more uniform cure throughout the workpiece (36). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. The furnace cavity (34) may be adapted to be used to cure materials defining a continuous sheet or which require compressive forces during curing.

  16. Detection of variable frequency signals using a fast chirp transform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. A. Jenet; T. A. Prince

    2000-12-07

    The detection of signals with varying frequency is important in many areas of physics and astrophysics. The current work was motivated by a desire to detect gravitational waves from the binary inspiral of neutron stars and black holes, a topic of significant interest for the new generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors such as LIGO. However, this work has significant generality beyond gravitational wave signal detection. We define a Fast Chirp Transform (FCT) analogous to the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Use of the FCT provides a simple and powerful formalism for detection of signals with variable frequency just as Fourier transform techniques provide a formalism for the detection of signals of constant frequency. In particular, use of the FCT can alleviate the requirement of generating complicated families of filter functions typically required in the conventional matched filtering process. We briefly discuss the application of the FCT to several signal detection problems of current interest.

  17. Simulation of state-dependent high-frequency atmospheric variability associated with ENSO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, In-Sik

    Simulation of state-dependent high-frequency atmospheric variability associated with ENSO Jong Abstract High-frequency atmospheric variability depends on the phase of El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Recently, there is increasing evidence that state- dependent high-frequency atmospheric variability signifi

  18. Low frequency variability of Southern Ocean jets Andrew F. Thompson1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Andrew

    Low frequency variability of Southern Ocean jets Andrew F. Thompson1,2 and Kelvin J. Richards3 is concentrated in a large number (approximately 8 to 12) of narrow filamentary jets. It is shown here that coherent jets exhibit a range of low frequency variability, on timescales of months to years, that can lead

  19. Conserving Energy in Blast Freezers Using Variable Frequency Drives 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolbe, E.; Ling, Q.; Wheeler, G.

    2004-01-01

    ,280 cfm. This might fall by 25% in a fully loaded room. Fan motors were nominal 7-1/2 HP inverter-duty models manufactured by Baldor. Refrigeration System An engine roo m dedicated to freezing operations had a total capacity intended to meet... Baldor Model ID15H430-EO, rated for a 40 HP variable torque load. Other significant components were: - The enclosure; - A ?choke? or line reactor on the incoming line to the VFD. This serves two purposes: it protects the VFD electronics from...

  20. Analysis and Simulation of Mechanical Trains Driven by Variable Frequency Drive Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Xu

    2012-02-14

    Induction motors and Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) are widely used in industry to drive machinery trains. However, some mechanical trains driven by VFD-motor systems have encountered torsional vibration problems. This vibration can induce large...

  1. A study of wind variability in the lower troposphere through power spectrum analysis at mesoscale frequencies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cornett, John Sheldon

    1966-01-01

    A STUDY OF WIND VARIABILITY IN THE LOWER TROPOSPHERE THROUGH POWER SPECTRUM ANALYSIS AT MESOSCALE FREQUENCIES A Thesis By JOHN SHELDON CORNETT Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in Partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1966 Major Subject: Meteorology A STUDY OP WIND VARIABILITY IN THE LOWER TROPOSPHERE THROUGH POWER SPECTRUM ANALYSIS AT MESOSCALE FREQUENCIES A Thesis By JOHN SHELDON CORNETT Approved as to style...

  2. Low-frequency variability of the North Pacific Ocean: The roles of boundary-and wind-driven

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Bo

    Low-frequency variability of the North Pacific Ocean: The roles of boundary- and wind in determining the low-frequency large-scale variability of the ocean interior through Rossby waves generated. The variability in the ocean interior is primarily driven by wind with only a minor influence from the boundary

  3. Continuous-Variable Quantum Computing in Optical Time-Frequency Modes using Quantum Memories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter C. Humphreys; W. Steven Kolthammer; Joshua Nunn; Marco Barbieri; Animesh Datta; Ian A. Walmsley

    2014-11-21

    We develop a scheme for time-frequency encoded continuous-variable cluster-state quantum computing using quantum memories. In particular, we propose a method to produce, manipulate and measure 2D cluster states in a single spatial mode by exploiting the intrinsic time-frequency selectivity of Raman quantum memories. Time-frequency encoding enables the scheme to be extremely compact, requiring a number of memories that is a linear function of only the number of different frequencies in which the computational state is encoded, independent of its temporal duration. We therefore show that quantum memories can be a powerful component for scalable photonic quantum information processing architectures.

  4. Low-salinity pools at Barbados, West Indies: Their origin, frequency, and variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Low-salinity pools at Barbados, West Indies: Their origin, frequency, and variability Peter S-temperature recorders moored off the west coast of Barbados, West Indies, from May 1996 to November 1997 revealed radium 228/226 activity ratios of ~1, consistent with previous measurements in Barbados of water

  5. Observed low frequency variability of the Brazil Current front Gustavo Jorge Goni,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the Brazil Current front. Trends of eddy kinetic energy, sea height anomaly, sea surface temperature and windObserved low frequency variability of the Brazil Current front Gustavo Jorge Goni,1 Francis Bringas; published 29 October 2011. [1] The Brazil Current is a weak western boundary current, the southwest

  6. Wind Spatial Variability and Topographic Wave Frequency Department of Soil and Water Sciences, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashkenazy, Yossi "Yosef"

    Wind Spatial Variability and Topographic Wave Frequency ELAD SHILO Department of Soil and Water of topographic waves with wind action has been documented in several natural lakes throughout the world. However, the influence of the wind's spatial variability (wind stress curl) on the frequency of topographic waves has

  7. T Tauri variability in the context of the beat-frequency model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. W. Smith; G. F. Lewis; I. A. Bonnell

    1995-08-17

    We examine the implications of a beat frequency modulated model of T Tauri accretion. In particular we show that measurements of the variability of accretion generated lines can be used in conjunction with existing photometry to obtain a measurement of the underlying photospheric and disc flux. This provides an independent way of checking spectral energy distribution modelling. In addition, we show how spectroscopy of T Tauri stars can reveal the inclination angle between the magnetic axis and the plane of the disc.

  8. [A variable frequency microwave furnace]. CRADA final report for CRADA Number ORNL91-0055

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lauf, R.J.

    1994-12-08

    The goals of this CRADA were to: (1) development and demonstrate a highly frequency-agile microwave furnace; (2) explore applications of the furnace for materials processing; and (3) develop control systems and packaging that are robust, user-friendly, and suitable for sale as a turnkey system. Microwave Laboratories, Inc. (MLI) designed, built, and successfully brought to market a benchtop Variable Frequency Microwave Furnace (VFMF). The concept has demonstrated advantages in polymer curing, waste remediation, and diamond (CVD). Through experimentation and modeling, the VFMF approach has gained credibility within the technical community.

  9. Cataclysmic Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Connon Smith

    2007-01-23

    Cataclysmic variables are binary stars in which a relatively normal star is transferring mass to its compact companion. This interaction gives rise to a rich range of behaviour, of which the most noticeable are the outbursts that give the class its name. Novae belong to the class, as do the less well known dwarf novae and magnetic systems. Novae draw their energy from nuclear reactions, while dwarf novae rely on gravity to power their smaller eruptions. All the different classes of cataclysmic variable can be accommodated within a single framework and this article will describe the framework, review the properties of the main types of system and discuss models of the outbursts and of the long-term evolution.

  10. High Frequency Effects of Variable Frequency Drives (VFD) on Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP) Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozkentli, Esra

    2012-10-19

    is on the system with a VFD controlled motor through a long umbilical cable. A 36-pulse VFD is studied. Since multilevel VFDs have high frequency harmonics, high frequency modeling of the umbilical cable is used, and skin effect is also taken into consideration...

  11. Running time variability and resource allocation : a data-driven analysis of high-frequency bus operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sánchez-Martínez, Gabriel Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Running time variability is one of the most important factors determining service quality and operating cost of high-frequency bus transit. This research aims to improve performance analysis tools currently used in the bus ...

  12. Variable Frequency Operations of an Offshore Wind Power Plant with HVDC-VSC: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gevorgian, V.; Singh, M.; Muljadi, E.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a constant Volt/Hz operation applied to the Type 1 wind turbine generator. Various control aspects of Type 1 generators at the plant level and at the turbine level will be investigated. Based on DOE study, wind power generation may reach 330 GW by 2030 at the level of penetration of 20% of the total energy production. From this amount of wind power, 54 GW of wind power will be generated at offshore wind power plants. The deployment of offshore wind power plants requires power transmission from the plant to the load center inland. Since this power transmission requires submarine cable, there is a need to use High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission. Otherwise, if the power is transmitted via alternating current, the reactive power generated by the cable capacitance may cause an excessive over voltage in the middle of the transmission distance which requires unnecessary oversized cable voltage breakdown capability. The use of HVDC is usually required for transmission distance longer than 50 kilometers of submarine cables to be economical. The use of HVDC brings another advantage; it is capable of operating at variable frequency. The inland substation will be operated to 60 Hz synched with the grid, the offshore substation can be operated at variable frequency, thus allowing the wind power plant to be operated at constant Volt/Hz. In this paper, a constant Volt/Hz operation applied to the Type 1 wind turbine generator. Various control aspects of Type 1 generators at the plant level and at the turbine level will be investigated.

  13. The New Active Output Filter for Variable Speed Constant Frequency Aerospace Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alhuwaishel, Fahad

    2015-08-06

    capacitor filter. Moreover, the main square wave inverter has a capability to regulate the output voltage depending on the Load requirements providing a wide range of modulation index. The operation principle of the concept is demonstrated for Variable Speed...

  14. Comparing Two Types of Magnetically- Coupled Adjustable Speed Drives with Variable Frequency Drives in Pump and Fan Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, K. J.; Chvala, W. D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results from laboratory tests on MagnaDrive Corporations fixed-magnet magnetically-coupled adjustable speed drive (MC-ASD) and Coyote Electronics electromagnetic MC-ASD as compared to a typical variable frequency drive (VFD...

  15. Abstract--Time-frequency analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) makes it easier to evaluate how the balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvalho, João Luiz

    Abstract--Time-frequency analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) makes it easier to evaluate how-regressive model can be used to calculate the Power Spectrum Density of HRV and to create an auto of optimal orders for different interpolation rates of the HRV signal are presented. Keywords--AR model order

  16. Field Verification of Energy and Demand Savings of Two Injection Molding Machines Retrofitted with Variable Frequency Drives 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, S. P.; Aguiar, D.

    1999-01-01

    Detailed field measurements of energy consumption (kWh) and demand (kW) are conducted on two injection molding machines (IMMs) used in a typical plastic manufacturing facility in the San Francisco Bay Area, with/without Variable Frequency Drives...

  17. The bi-variate frequency distribution of two concurrent climatic variables: a study of temperature and dew point 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeitler, Jon William

    1991-01-01

    Study of Temperature and Dew Point (December 1991). Jon William Zeitler, B. S. , iowa State University Chair of Advisory Comminee; Prof. John F. Griffiths The bi-variate normal distribution was fitted for the mid-season months of January, April, July... as to style and content by: Jo F. Griffnhs "' (Chair of Committee) Robert C. Runnels (Member) J. ' e (Mem r) Edward J. ser (Head of Department) December 1991 ABSTRACT The Bi-Variate Frequency Distribution of Two Concurrent Climatic Variables: A...

  18. Use of Frequency Response Metrics to Assess the Planning and Operating Requirements for Reliable Integration of Variable Renewable Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Undrill, John; Mackin, Peter; Daschmans, Ron; Williams, Ben; Haney, Brian; Hunt, Randall; Ellis, Jeff; Illian, Howard; Martinez, Carlos; O'Malley, Mark; Coughlin, Katie; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi

    2010-12-20

    An interconnected electric power system is a complex system that must be operated within a safe frequency range in order to reliably maintain the instantaneous balance between generation and load. This is accomplished by ensuring that adequate resources are available to respond to expected and unexpected imbalances and restoring frequency to its scheduled value in order to ensure uninterrupted electric service to customers. Electrical systems must be flexible enough to reliably operate under a variety of"change" scenarios. System planners and operators must understand how other parts of the system change in response to the initial change, and need tools to manage such changes to ensure reliable operation within the scheduled frequency range. This report presents a systematic approach to identifying metrics that are useful for operating and planning a reliable system with increased amounts of variable renewable generation which builds on existing industry practices for frequency control after unexpected loss of a large amount of generation. The report introduces a set of metrics or tools for measuring the adequacy of frequency response within an interconnection. Based on the concept of the frequency nadir, these metrics take advantage of new information gathering and processing capabilities that system operators are developing for wide-area situational awareness. Primary frequency response is the leading metric that will be used by this report to assess the adequacy of primary frequency control reserves necessary to ensure reliable operation. It measures what is needed to arrest frequency decline (i.e., to establish frequency nadir) at a frequency higher than the highest set point for under-frequency load shedding within an interconnection. These metrics can be used to guide the reliable operation of an interconnection under changing circumstances.

  19. The millimetre variability of M81* -- Multi-epoch dual frequency mm-observations of the nucleus of M81

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Schoedel; M. Krips; S. Markoff; R. Neri; A. Eckart

    2006-11-28

    There are still many open questions as to the physical mechanisms at work in Low Luminosity AGN that accrete in the extreme sub-Eddington regime. Simultaneous multi-wavelength studies have been very successful in constraining the properties of SgrA*, the extremely sub-Eddington black hole at the centre of our Milky Way. M81*, the nucleus of the nearby spiral galaxy M81, is an ideal source to extend the insights obtained on SgrA* toward higher luminosity AGN. Here we present observations at 3 and 1 mm that were obtained within the framework of a coordinated,multi-wavelength campaign on M81*. The continuum emission from M81* was observed during three epochs with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer simultaneously at wavelengths of 3 and 1 mm. We present the first flux measurements of M81* at wavelengths around 1 mm. We find that M81* is a continuously variable source with the higher variability observed at the shorter wavelength. Also, the variability at 3 and 1 mm appears to be correlated. Like SgrA*, M81* appears to display the strongest flux density and variability in the mm-to-submm regime. There remains still some ambiguity concerning the exact location of the turnover frequency from optically thick to optically thin emission. The observed variability time scales point to an upper size limit of the emitting region of the order 25 Schwarzschild radii. The data show that M81* is indeed a system with very similar physical properties to SgrA* and an ideal bridge toward high luminosity AGN. The data obtained clearly demonstrate the usefulness and, above all, the necessity of simultaneous multi-wavelength observations of LLAGN.

  20. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 28, NO. 9, PAGES 1755-1758, MAY 1, 2001 Aliasing of high-frequency variability by altimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griesel, Alexa

    GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 28, NO. 9, PAGES 1755-1758, MAY 1, 2001 Aliasing of high-frequency at 10-day intervals are likely to alias substantial amounts of unresolved high-frequency vari- ability modeling studies have found sig- nificant high-frequency surface pressure variability, partic- ularly

  1. Use of Frequency Response Metrics to Assess the Planning and Operating Requirements for Reliable Integration of Variable Renewable Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eto, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01

    Integration of Variable Renewable Generation The report isISO (CAISO). 2007. Integration of Renewable Resources.recommendations for integrating renewable resources on the

  2. Ashtekar's variables without spin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schucker

    2009-06-26

    Ashtekar's variables are shown to arise naturally from a 3+1 split of general relativity in the Einstein-Cartan formulation. Thereby spinors are exorcised.

  3. Temporal Variability of Waves at the Proton Cyclotron Frequency Upstream from Mars: Implications for Mars Distant Hydrogen Exosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertucci, Cesar; Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Gomez, Daniel; Mazelle, Christian; Delva, Magda; Modolo, Ronan; Gonzalez-Galindo, Francisco; Brain, David Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We report on the temporal variability of the occurrence of waves at the local proton cyclotron frequency upstream from the Martian bow shock from Mars Global Surveyor observations during the first aerobraking and science phasing orbit periods. Observations at high southern latitudes during minimum-to-mean solar activity show that the wave occurrence rate is significantly higher around perihelion southern summer solstice and lower around the same hemisphere's spring and autumn equinoxes. A similar trend is observed in the hydrogen (H) exospheric density profiles over the Martian South Pole obtained from a model including UV thermospheric heating effects. In spite of the complexity in the ion pick-up and plasma wave generation and evolution processes, these results support the idea that variations in the occurrence of waves could be used to study the temporal evolution of the distant Martian H corona and its coupling with the thermosphere at altitudes currently inaccessible to direct measurements.

  4. Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L. Kenney; William A. Smith; Garold L. Gresham; Tyler L. Westover

    2013-01-01

    If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions, and differing harvest, collection, and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture, and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

  5. Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L. Kenney; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; Tyler L. Westover

    2013-01-01

    If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per-ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that, due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions and differing harvest, collection and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

  6. Variable Frequency Drives

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentric viewingValidatingRoadmapVannevar Bush andCSV

  7. Variable Refrigerant Flow HVAC 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, S.

    2013-01-01

    Variable refrigerant flow technology HVAC CATEE 2013 San Antonio, TX ESL-KT-13-12-33 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 What is the acronym VRF? ? Variable Refrigerant Flow Operates like a... heat pump utilizing VFD Inverter Compressors and LEV’s Unlike conventional commercial and residential HVAC systems in the USA The predominate method of cooling and heating in the world ESL-KT-13-12-33 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency...

  8. Variable thrust cartridge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-11-07

    The present invention is a variable thrust cartridge comprising a water-molten aluminum reaction chamber from which a slug is propelled. The cartridge comprises a firing system that initiates a controlled explosion from the reaction chamber. The explosive force provides a thrust to a slug, preferably contained within the cartridge.

  9. Variable depth core sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourgeois, P.M.; Reger, R.J.

    1996-02-20

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus is described comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member. 7 figs.

  10. Variable laser attenuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foltyn, S.R.

    1987-05-29

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprising one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength. 9 figs.

  11. Variable depth core sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourgeois, Peter M. (Hamburg, NY); Reger, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY)

    1996-01-01

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member.

  12. Variable Speed Pumping for Level Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasel, M.

    1982-01-01

    analysis, and a brief discussion of variable frequency drive design considerations. Energy savings figures are based upon actual electricity costs at the plant involved. Process duty cycle and energy requirement levels were verified by a wattmeter...

  13. Use of Frequency Response Metrics to Assess the Planning and Operating Requirements for Reliable Integration of Variable Renewable Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eto, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01

    plants to frequency response during disturbances. Use ofkey event during a disturbance when the frequency stabilizesrestore frequency to normal following a disturbance and is

  14. Variable Valve Actuation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Gutterman; A. J. Lasley

    2008-08-31

    Many approaches exist to enable advanced mode, low temperature combustion systems for diesel engines - such as premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI), Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) or other HCCI-like combustion modes. The fuel properties and the quantity, distribution and temperature profile of air, fuel and residual fraction in the cylinder can have a marked effect on the heat release rate and combustion phasing. Figure 1 shows that a systems approach is required for HCCI-like combustion. While the exact requirements remain unclear (and will vary depending on fuel, engine size and application), some form of substantially variable valve actuation is a likely element in such a system. Variable valve actuation, for both intake and exhaust valve events, is a potent tool for controlling the parameters that are critical to HCCI-like combustion and expanding its operational range. Additionally, VVA can be used to optimize the combustion process as well as exhaust temperatures and impact the after treatment system requirements and its associated cost. Delphi Corporation has major manufacturing and product development and applied R&D expertise in the valve train area. Historical R&D experience includes the development of fully variable electro-hydraulic valve train on research engines as well as several generations of mechanical VVA for gasoline systems. This experience has enabled us to evaluate various implementations and determine the strengths and weaknesses of each. While a fully variable electro-hydraulic valve train system might be the 'ideal' solution technically for maximum flexibility in the timing and control of the valve events, its complexity, associated costs, and high power consumption make its implementation on low cost high volume applications unlikely. Conversely, a simple mechanical system might be a low cost solution but not deliver the flexibility required for HCCI operation. After modeling more than 200 variations of the mechanism it was determined that the single cam design did not have enough flexibility to satisfy three critical OEM requirements simultaneously, (maximum valve lift variation, intake valve opening timing and valve closing duration), and a new approach would be necessary. After numerous internal design reviews including several with the OEM a dual cam design was developed that had the flexibility to meet all motion requirements. The second cam added complexity to the mechanism however the cost was offset by the deletion of the electric motor required in the previous design. New patent applications including detailed drawings and potential valve motion profiles were generated and alternate two cam designs were proposed and evaluated for function, cost, reliability and durability. Hardware was designed and built and testing of sample hardware was successfully completed on an engine test stand. The mechanism developed during the course of this investigation can be applied by Original Equipment Manufacturers, (OEM), to their advanced diesel engines with the ultimate goal of reducing emissions and improving fuel economy. The objectives are: (1) Develop an optimal, cost effective, variable valve actuation (VVA) system for advanced low temperature diesel combustion processes. (2) Design and model alternative mechanical approaches and down-select for optimum design. (3) Build and demonstrate a mechanism capable of application on running engines.

  15. Use of Frequency Response Metrics to Assess the Planning and Operating Requirements for Reliable Integration of Variable Renewable Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eto, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01

    and energy storage. Use of Frequency Response Metrics toand energy storage. xxix Use of Frequency Response Metricsfrequency control such as demand response and energy storage.

  16. Use of Frequency Response Metrics to Assess the Planning and Operating Requirements for Reliable Integration of Variable Renewable Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eto, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01

    wind Time (Seconds) Figure 5-3. The Power Delivered by Primary Frequency Control Actions via Generator

  17. Collaborative Research: Process-Resolving Decomposition of the Global Temperature Response to Modes of Low Frequency Variability in a Changing Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Yi

    2014-11-24

    DOE-GTRC-05596 11/24/2104 Collaborative Research: Process-Resolving Decomposition of the Global Temperature Response to Modes of Low Frequency Variability in a Changing Climate PI: Dr. Yi Deng (PI) School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Georgia Institute of Technology 404-385-1821, yi.deng@eas.gatech.edu El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Annular Modes (AMs) represent respectively the most important modes of low frequency variability in the tropical and extratropical circulations. The projection of future changes in the ENSO and AM variability, however, remains highly uncertain with the state-of-the-science climate models. This project conducted a process-resolving, quantitative evaluations of the ENSO and AM variability in the modern reanalysis observations and in climate model simulations. The goal is to identify and understand the sources of uncertainty and biases in models’ representation of ENSO and AM variability. Using a feedback analysis method originally formulated by one of the collaborative PIs, we partitioned the 3D atmospheric temperature anomalies and surface temperature anomalies associated with ENSO and AM variability into components linked to 1) radiation-related thermodynamic processes such as cloud and water vapor feedbacks, 2) local dynamical processes including convection and turbulent/diffusive energy transfer and 3) non-local dynamical processes such as the horizontal energy transport in the oceans and atmosphere. In the past 4 years, the research conducted at Georgia Tech under the support of this project has led to 15 peer-reviewed publications and 9 conference/workshop presentations. Two graduate students and one postdoctoral fellow also received research training through participating the project activities. This final technical report summarizes key scientific discoveries we made and provides also a list of all publications and conference presentations resulted from research activities at Georgia Tech. The main findings include: 1) the distinctly different roles played by atmospheric dynamical processes in establishing surface temperature response to ENSO at tropics and extratropics (i.e., atmospheric dynamics disperses energy out of tropics during ENSO warm events and modulate surface temperature at mid-, high-latitudes through controlling downward longwave radiation); 2) the representations of ENSO-related temperature response in climate models fail to converge at the process-level particularly over extratropics (i.e., models produce the right temperature responses to ENSO but with wrong reasons); 3) water vapor feedback contributes substantially to the temperature anomalies found over U.S. during different phases of the Northern Annular Mode (NAM), which adds new insight to the traditional picture that cold/warm advective processes are the main drivers of local temperature responses to the NAM; 4) the overall land surface temperature biases in the latest NCAR model (CESM1) are caused by biases in surface albedo while the surface temperature biases over ocean are related to multiple factors including biases in model albedo, cloud and oceanic dynamics, and the temperature biases over different ocean basins are also induced by different process biases. These results provide a detailed guidance for process-level model turning and improvement, and thus contribute directly to the overall goal of reducing model uncertainty in projecting future changes in the Earth’s climate system, especially in the ENSO and AM variability.

  18. Use of Frequency Response Metrics to Assess the Planning and Operating Requirements for Reliable Integration of Variable Renewable Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eto, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01

    load shedding is greater than the amount of generation that was lost, frequency will quickly rise and exceed the scheduled value.

  19. A simple hidden variable experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Neumaier

    2007-06-22

    An experiment is described which proves, using single photons only, that the standard hidden variables assumptions (commonly used to derive Bell inequalities) are inconsistent with quantum mechanics. The analysis is very simple and transparent. In particular, it demonstrates that a classical wave model for quantum mechanics is not ruled out by experiments demonstrating the violation of the traditional hidden variable assumptions.

  20. PV output variability modeling using satellite imagery.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Reno, Matthew J.

    2010-11-01

    High frequency irradiance variability measured on the ground is caused by the formation, dissipation, and passage of clouds in the sky. If we can identify and associate different cloud types/patterns from satellite imagery, we may be able to predict irradiance variability in areas lacking sensors. With satellite imagery covering the entire U.S., this allows for more accurate integration planning and power flow modeling over wide areas. Satellite imagery from southern Nevada was analyzed at 15 minute intervals over a year. Methods for image stabilization, cloud detection, and textural classification of clouds were developed and tested. High Performance Computing parallel processing algorithms were also investigated and tested. Artificial Neural Networks using imagery as inputs were trained on ground-based measurements of irradiance to model the variability and were tested to show some promise as a means for predicting irradiance variability.

  1. Variable rate CELP speech coding using widely variable parameter updates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moodie, Myron L.

    1995-01-01

    Code-excited, linear prediction (CELP) has become an accepted method for low bit rate, high quality coding of digital speech. The success of fixed rate CELP schemes has led to increased interest in variable rate techniques ...

  2. Nonparametric estimation of econometric models with categorical variables 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ouyang, Desheng

    2006-10-30

    shows that regression model with only discrete vari- ables differs significantly from the mixed discrete and continuous variables case. In the mixed variable case with at least one relevant continuous regressor, the irrele- vant variables can be smoothed... CV-based estimator has a high probability of smoothing out the irrele- vant variable, hence it leads to a more efficient (in finite samples) estimation result than the frequency estimator. It is interesting to observe that our nonparametric CV...

  3. Anyonic statistics with continuous variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jing Zhang; Changde Xie; Kunchi Peng; Peter van Loock

    2008-10-30

    We describe a continuous-variable scheme for simulating the Kitaev lattice model and for detecting statistics of abelian anyons. The corresponding quantum optical implementation is solely based upon Gaussian resource states and Gaussian operations, hence allowing for a highly efficient creation, manipulation, and detection of anyons. This approach extends our understanding of the control and application of anyons and it leads to the possibility for experimental proof-of-principle demonstrations of anyonic statistics using continuous-variable systems.

  4. Variable focal length deformable mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Headley, Daniel (Albuquerque, NM); Ramsey, Marc (Albuquerque, NM); Schwarz, Jens (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-06-12

    A variable focal length deformable mirror has an inner ring and an outer ring that simply support and push axially on opposite sides of a mirror plate. The resulting variable clamping force deforms the mirror plate to provide a parabolic mirror shape. The rings are parallel planar sections of a single paraboloid and can provide an on-axis focus, if the rings are circular, or an off-axis focus, if the rings are elliptical. The focal length of the deformable mirror can be varied by changing the variable clamping force. The deformable mirror can generally be used in any application requiring the focusing or defocusing of light, including with both coherent and incoherent light sources.

  5. A review of Hurricane Variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nadiga, Balasubramanya T. "Balu"

    A review of Hurricane Variability Balu Nadiga, COSIM, LANL, Jun 2006 #12;#12;Key Sources · Kerry Emanuel · Webster 2005 · Elsner 1996 · NASA, NOAA, NCAR · Others #12;Hurricanes, Typhoons, Tropical (because rotation important) #12;Hurricanes: A few Comments · Acts as a heat engine, but with crucial fluid

  6. Phenotypic variability: underlying mechanisms and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mencuccini, Maurizio

    constraints on growth allocation between tree parts, which affects both primary production (through allocation to transpiring foliage) and net ecosystem production (through allocation to short- lived, easily decomposed fine is reflected in the huge variability in tree form and function across scales. It has been suggested

  7. Operating Reserves and Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

    2011-08-01

    This report tries to first generalize the requirements of the power system as it relates to the needs of operating reserves. It also includes a survey of operating reserves and how they are managed internationally in system operations today and then how new studies and research are proposing they may be managed in the future with higher penetrations of variable generation.

  8. Variability Aware Network Utility Maximization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Vinay

    2011-01-01

    Network Utility Maximization (NUM) provides the key conceptual framework to study resource allocation amongst a collection of users/entities across disciplines as diverse as economics, law and engineering. In network engineering, this framework has been particularly insightful towards understanding how Internet protocols allocate bandwidth, and motivated diverse research on distributed mechanisms to maximize network utility while incorporating new relevant constraints, on energy/power, storage, stability, etc., for systems ranging from communication networks to the smart-grid. However when the available resources and/or users' utilities vary over time, a user's allocations will tend to vary, which in turn may have a detrimental impact on the users' utility or quality of experience. This paper introduces a generalized NUM framework which explicitly incorporates the detrimental impact of temporal variability in a user's allocated rewards. It explicitly incorporates tradeoffs amongst the mean and variability in ...

  9. Massive Variability Surveys from Venezuela

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cesar Briceno

    2003-04-03

    At the Venezuela National Astronomical Observatory we are carrying out variability surveys spanning many hundreds of square degrees near the celestial equator, using an 8k x 8k CCD Mosaic Camera optimized for drift-scanning on a 1m Schmidt telescope. Among the initial efforts was a project to obtain the first moderately deep, homogeneous sample of young stars over an area of ~180sqr.deg. encompassing the entire Orion OB1 association, one of the nearest and most active regions of star formation. The results show that variability is a powerful technique to identify pre-main sequence populations, specially in sparse areas devoid of gas and dust. We are currently developing a massive database, equipped with web-based data mining tools, that will make our data and results available to the astronomical community.

  10. Definition of a Random Variable Distribution Functions Properties of Distribution Functions Random Variables and Distribution Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watkins, Joseph C.

    Definition of a Random Variable Distribution Functions Properties of Distribution Functions Topic 7 Random Variables and Distribution Functions Distribution Functions 1 / 11 #12;Definition of a Random Variable Distribution Functions Properties of Distribution Functions Outline Definition of a Random

  11. The Cloud Computing and Other Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borjon-Kubota, Martha Estela

    2011-01-01

    12. Fragments in Six 13. Cloud Computing 14. Phase 15.Note 48. Devoured vi Cloud Computing and other Variables I.CALIFORNIA RIVERSIDE Cloud Computing and Other Variables A

  12. Thermoacoustic and Photoacoustic Tomography with a variable ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plamen Stefanov

    2010-11-09

    ... a joint work with. Jianliang Qian, Gunther Uhlmann and Hongkai Zhao. Plamen Stefanov (Purdue University ). Thermoacoustic Tomography, Variable Speed.

  13. Long-Term Wind Power Variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Y. H.

    2012-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory started collecting wind power data from large commercial wind power plants (WPPs) in southwest Minnesota with dedicated dataloggers and communication links in the spring of 2000. Over the years, additional WPPs in other areas were added to and removed from the data collection effort. The longest data stream of actual wind plant output is more than 10 years. The resulting data have been used to analyze wind power fluctuations, frequency distribution of changes, the effects of spatial diversity, and wind power ancillary services. This report uses the multi-year wind power data to examine long-term wind power variability.

  14. Continuous Variable Quantum Information Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulrik L. Andersen; Gerd Leuchs; Christine Silberhorn

    2010-08-20

    Observables of quantum systems can posses either a discrete or a continuous spectrum. For example, upon measurements of the photon number of a light state, discrete outcomes will result whereas measurements of the light's quadrature amplitudes result in continuous outcomes. If one uses the continuous degree of freedom of a quantum system either for encoding, processing or detecting information, one enters the field of continuous variable (CV) quantum information processing. In this paper we review the basic principles of CV quantum information processing with main focus on recent developments in the field. We will be addressing the three main stages of a quantum informational system; the preparation stage where quantum information is encoded into CVs of coherent states and single photon states, the processing stage where CV information is manipulated to carry out a specified protocol and a detection stage where CV information is measured using homodyne detection or photon counting.

  15. Variable delivery, fixed displacement pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommars, Mark F. (Sparland, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A variable delivery, fixed displacement pump comprises a plurality of pistons reciprocated within corresponding cylinders in a cylinder block. The pistons are reciprocated by rotation of a fixed angle swash plate connected to the pistons. The pistons and cylinders cooperate to define a plurality of fluid compression chambers each have a delivery outlet. A vent port is provided from each fluid compression chamber to vent fluid therefrom during at least a portion of the reciprocal stroke of the piston. Each piston and cylinder combination cooperates to close the associated vent port during another portion of the reciprocal stroke so that fluid is then pumped through the associated delivery outlet. The delivery rate of the pump is varied by adjusting the axial position of the swash plate relative to the cylinder block, which varies the duration of the piston stroke during which the vent port is closed.

  16. Continuously variable focal length lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  17. Microlensing induced absorption line variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geraint F. Lewis; Rodrigo A. Ibata

    2002-12-02

    Gravitational microlensing has proven to be a powerful probe of both the structure at the heart of quasars and the mass function of compact objects in foreground lenses. This paper examines the potential of gravitational microlensing in probing the scale of structure in absorbing material within the lensing galaxy. We find that, in this high optical depth regime, significant variations in the equivalent width of absorption features can be induced, although the details of these are dependent upon the scale of structure of the absorbing material. The paper concludes with an examination of the absorption line variability observed in the gravitationally lensed quasar PKS1830-211, demonstrating how this may indicate the presence of small scale structure in the cold molecular gas present within the lensing galaxy.

  18. Variable ratio regenerative braking device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoppie, Lyle O. (Birmingham, MI)

    1981-12-15

    Disclosed is a regenerative braking device (10) for an automotive vehicle. The device includes an energy storage assembly (12) having a plurality of rubber rollers (26, 28) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (36) and an output shaft (42), clutches (38, 46) and brakes (40, 48) associated with each shaft, and a continuously variable transmission (22) connectable to a vehicle drivetrain and to the input and output shafts by the respective clutches. The rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy from the vehicle when the input shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the output shaft is applied, and are torsionally relaxed to deliver energy to the vehicle when the output shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the input shaft is applied. The transmission ratio is varied to control the rate of energy accumulation and delivery for a given rotational speed of the vehicle drivetrain.

  19. Variable path length spectrophotometric probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, Patrick E. (157 Greenwood Dr., Martiney, GA 30907); McCarty, Jerry E. (104 Recreation Dr., Aiken, SC 29803); Haggard, Ricky A. (1144 Thornwood Drive, North Augusta, SC 29891)

    1992-01-01

    A compact, variable pathlength, fiber optic probe for spectrophotometric measurements of fluids in situ. The probe comprises a probe body with a shaft having a polished end penetrating one side of the probe, a pair of optic fibers, parallel and coterminous, entering the probe opposite the reflecting shaft, and a collimating lens to direct light from one of the fibers to the reflecting surface of the shaft and to direct the reflected light to the second optic fiber. The probe body has an inlet and an outlet port to allow the liquid to enter the probe body and pass between the lens and the reflecting surface of the shaft. A linear stepper motor is connected to the shaft to cause the shaft to advance toward or away from the lens in increments so that absorption measurements can be made at each of the incremental steps. The shaft is sealed to the probe body by a bellows seal to allow freedom of movement of the shaft and yet avoid leakage from the interior of the probe.

  20. Eccentric crank variable compression ratio mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Keith Edward (Kobe, JP); Moser, William Elliott (Peoria, IL); Roozenboom, Stephan Donald (Washington, IL); Knox, Kevin Jay (Peoria, IL)

    2008-05-13

    A variable compression ratio mechanism for an internal combustion engine that has an engine block and a crankshaft is disclosed. The variable compression ratio mechanism has a plurality of eccentric disks configured to support the crankshaft. Each of the plurality of eccentric disks has at least one cylindrical portion annularly surrounded by the engine block. The variable compression ratio mechanism also has at least one actuator configured to rotate the plurality of eccentric disks.

  1. Variable-Period Undulators For Synchrotron Radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shenoy, Gopal (Naperville, IL); Lewellen, John (Plainfield, IL); Shu, Deming (Darien, IL); Vinokurov, Nikolai (Novosibirsk, RU)

    2005-02-22

    A new and improved undulator design is provided that enables a variable period length for the production of synchrotron radiation from both medium-energy and high-energy storage rings. The variable period length is achieved using a staggered array of pole pieces made up of high permeability material, permanent magnet material, or an electromagnetic structure. The pole pieces are separated by a variable width space. The sum of the variable width space and the pole width would therefore define the period of the undulator. Features and advantages of the invention include broad photon energy tunability, constant power operation and constant brilliance operation.

  2. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Mendler

    2011-03-15

    Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low the compression ratio can be raised (to as much as 18:1) providing high engine efficiency. It is important to recognize that for a well designed VCR engine cylinder pressure does not need to be higher than found in current production turbocharged engines. As such, there is no need for a stronger crankcase, bearings and other load bearing parts within the VCR engine. The Envera VCR mechanism uses an eccentric carrier approach to adjust engine compression ratio. The crankshaft main bearings are mounted in this eccentric carrier or 'crankshaft cradle' and pivoting the eccentric carrier 30 degrees adjusts compression ratio from 9:1 to 18:1. The eccentric carrier is made up of a casting that provides rigid support for the main bearings, and removable upper bearing caps. Oil feed to the main bearings transits through the bearing cap fastener sockets. The eccentric carrier design was chosen for its low cost and rigid support of the main bearings. A control shaft and connecting links are used to pivot the eccentric carrier. The control shaft mechanism features compression ratio lock-up at minimum and maximum compression ratio settings. The control shaft method of pivoting the eccentric carrier was selected due to its lock-up capability. The control shaft can be rotated by a hydraulic actuator or an electric motor. The engine shown in Figures 3 and 4 has a hydraulic actuator that was developed under the current program. In-line 4-cylinder engines are significantly less expensive than V engines because an entire cylinder head can be eliminated. The cost savings from eliminating cylinders and an entire cylinder head will notably offset the added cost of the VCR and supercharging. Replacing V6 and V8 engines with in-line VCR 4-cylinder engines will provide high fuel economy at low cost. Numerous enabling technologies exist which have the potential to increase engine efficiency. The greatest efficiency gains are realized when the right combination of advanced and new technologies are packaged together to provide the greatest gains at the least cost. Aggressive engine downsiz

  3. Optical and Radio Variability of BL Lacertae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaur, Haritma; Bachev, R; Strigachev, A; Semkov, E; Wiita, Paul J; Volvach, A E; Gu, Minfeng; Agarwal, A; Agudo, I; Aller, M F; Aller, H D; Kurtanidze, O M; Kurtanidze, S O; Lahteenmaki, A; Peneva, S; Nikolashvili, M G; Sigua, L A; Tornikoski, M; Volvach, L N

    2015-01-01

    We observed the prototype blazar, BL Lacertae, extensively in optical and radio bands during an active phase in the period 2010--2013 when the source showed several prominent outbursts. We searched for possible correlations and time lags between the optical and radio band flux variations using multifrequency data to learn about the mechanisms producing variability. During an active phase of BL Lacertae, we searched for possible correlations and time lags between multifrequency light curves of several optical and radio bands. We tried to estimate any possible variability timescales and inter-band lags in these bands. We performed optical observations in B, V, R and I bands from seven telescopes in Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece and India and obtained radio data at 36.8, 22.2, 14.5, 8 and 4.8 GHz frequencies from three telescopes in Ukraine, Finland and USA. Significant cross-correlations between optical and radio bands are found in our observations with a delay of cm-fluxes with respect to optical ones of ~250 days...

  4. WECC Variable Generation Planning Reference Book: Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Du, Pengwei; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Vyakaranam, Bharat

    2013-05-13

    The document titled “WECC Variable Generation Planning Reference Book”. This book is divided into two volumes; one is the main document (volume 1)and the other is appendices (volume 2). The main document is a collection of the best practices and the information regarding the application and impact of variables generation on power system planning. This volume (appendices) has additional information on the following topics: Probabilistic load flow problems. 2. Additional useful indices. 3. high-impact low-frequency (HILF) events. 4. Examples of wide-area nomograms. 5. Transmission line ratings, types of dynamic rating methods. 6. Relative costs per MW-km of different electric power transmission technologies. 7. Ultra-high voltage (UHV) transmission. 8.High voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC). 9. HVDC. 10. Rewiring of existing transmission lines. 11. High-temperature low sag (HTLS) conductors. 12. The direct method and energy functions for transient stability analysis in power systems. 13.Blackouts caused by voltage instability. 14. Algorithm for parameter continuation predictor-corrector methods. 15. Approximation techniques available for security regions. 16. Impacts of wind power on power system small signals stability. 17. FIDVR. 18. FACTS. 19. European planning standard and practices. 20. International experience in wind and solar energy sources. 21. Western Renewable Energy Zones (WREZ). 22. various energy storage technologies. 23. demand response. 24. BA consolidation and cooperation options. 25. generator power management requirements and 26. European planning guidelines.

  5. The Taiwanese-American occultation survey project stellar variability. III. Detection of 58 new variable stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishioka, R.; Wang, S.-Y.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Lehner, M. J.; Cook, K. H.; King, S.-K.; Lee, T.; Marshall, S. L.; Schwamb, M. E.; Wang, J.-H.; Wen, C.-Y.; Alcock, C.; Protopapas, P.; Axelrod, T.; Bianco, F. B.; Byun, Y.-I.; Chen, W. P.; Ngeow, C.-C.; Kim, D.-W.; Rice, J. A.

    2014-04-01

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey project is designed for the detection of stellar occultations by small-size Kuiper Belt Objects, and it has monitored selected fields along the ecliptic plane by using four telescopes with a 3 deg{sup 2} field of view on the sky since 2005. We have analyzed data accumulated during 2005-2012 to detect variable stars. Sixteen fields with observations of more than 100 epochs were examined. We recovered 85 variables among a total of 158 known variable stars in these 16 fields. Most of the unrecovered variables are located in the fields observed less frequently. We also detected 58 variable stars which are not listed in the International Variable Star Index of the American Association of Variable Star Observers. These variable stars are classified as 3 RR Lyrae, 4 Cepheid, 1 ? Scuti, 5 Mira, 15 semi-regular, and 27 eclipsing binaries based on the periodicity and the profile of the light curves.

  6. Search for Variable Stars in the WTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinfield, David J.

    Search for Variable Stars in the WTS Database Hristo Stoev Laboratory of Stellar Astrophysics of January 2010 at LAEX in Madrid, Spain #12;WTS Survey Release 0.1 Search for variable stars in the FOV Narrow down my selection only to one of the detectors ­ 15000 light curves #12;WTS Survey Release 0

  7. Variable orifice using an iris shutter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beeman, Raymond (El Cerrito, CA); Brajkovich, Steven J. (Fremont, CA)

    1978-01-01

    A variable orifice forming mechanism utilizing an iris shutter arrangement adapted to control gas flow, conductance in vacuum systems, as a heat shield for furnace windows, as a beam shutter in sputtering operations, and in any other application requiring periodic or continuously-variable control of material, gas, or fluid flow.

  8. Boosting Search with Variable Elimination. ? Javier Larrosa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dechter, Rina

    Boosting Search with Variable Elimination. ? Javier Larrosa Dep. Llenguatges i Sistemes Inform#12ElimSearchS;k, a hybrid meta- algorithm that combines search and variable elimination. The param- eter S names from the constraint graph. We also provide experimental evidence that the hybrid algorithm can

  9. Boosting Search with Variable Elimination. ? Javier Larrosa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dechter, Rina

    Boosting Search with Variable Elimination. ? Javier Larrosa Dep. Llenguatges i Sistemes Inform of variables, reduces the search tree size. In this paper we introduce VarElimSearch(S;k), a hybrid meta the constraint graph. We also provide experimental evidence that the hybrid algorithm can outperform state

  10. Solar Dynamics Observatory/ Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Solar Dynamics Observatory/ EVE Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment Frequently Asked and model solar extreme ultraviolet irradiance variations due to solar flares, solar rotation, and solar and structure of the Sun. What is solar variability? Solar radiation varies on all time scales ranging from

  11. Property Variability Stochastic Multiscale Analysis and Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zabaras, Nicholas J.

    Property Variability Stochastic Multiscale Analysis and Design of Engine Disks N. Zabaras, B. Wen in nickel-based superalloy turbine disks. Issues: Property variability of turbine disk due to high-dimensional multiscale sources Rolls-Royce RB211- 535 turbofan Nickel-base superalloy turbine disk Superalloy

  12. WIND VARIABILITY IN BZ CAMELOPARDALIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honeycutt, R. K.; Kafka, S.; Robertson, J. W. E-mail: skafka@dtm.ciw.edu

    2013-02-01

    Sequences of spectra of the nova-like cataclysmic variable (CV) BZ Cam were acquired on nine nights in 2005-2006 in order to study the time development of episodes of wind activity known to occur frequently in this star. We confirm the results of Ringwald and Naylor that the P-Cygni absorption components of the lines mostly evolve from higher expansion velocity to lower velocity as an episode progresses. We also commonly find blueshifted emission components in the H{alpha} line profile, whose velocities and durations strongly suggest that they are also due to the wind. Curiously, Ringwald and Naylor reported common occurrences of redshifted H{alpha} emission components in their BZ Cam spectra. We have attributed these emission components in H{alpha} to occasions when gas concentrations in the bipolar wind (both front side and back side) become manifested as emission lines as they move beyond the disk's outer edge. We also suggest, based on changes in the P-Cygni profiles during an episode, that the progression from larger to smaller expansion velocities is due to the higher velocity portions of a wind concentration moving beyond the edge of the continuum light of the disk first, leaving a net redward shift of the remaining absorption profile. We derive a new orbital ephemeris for BZ Cam, using the radial velocity of the core of the He I {lambda}5876 line, finding P = 0.15353(4). Using this period, the wind episodes in BZ Cam are found to be concentrated near the inferior conjunction of the emission line source. This result helps confirm that the winds in nova-like CVs are often phase dependent, in spite of the puzzling implication that such winds lack axisymmetry. We argue that the radiation-driven wind in BZ Cam receives an initial boost by acting on gas that has been lifted above the disk by the interaction of the accretion stream with the disk, thereby imposing flickering timescales onto the wind events, as well as leading to an orbital modulation of the wind due to the non-axisymmetric nature of the stream/disk interaction. Simultaneous photometry and spectroscopy were acquired on three nights in order to test the possible connection between flickering continuum light and the strength of the front-side wind. We found strong agreement on one night, some agreement on another, and no agreement on the third. We suggest that some flickering events lead to only back-side winds which will not have associated P-Cygni profiles.

  13. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Hemker, T. Hoff, Short-term irradiance variability: StationLorenzo, D. Alvira, E. Izco, From irradiance to output power46 High Frequency Irradiance Fluctuations and Geographic

  14. CONTRIBUTED Variability Effects in Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , which form a critical issue in examining the feasibility of graphene devices for large-scale production has shown its potential in wafer-scale radio- frequency analog circuits [16]­[23], broadband photo

  15. Blazar Variability and Evolution in the GeV Regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsujimoto, S; Nishijima, K; Kodani, K

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important problem of the blazar astrophysics is to understand the physical origin of the blazar sequence. In this study, we focus on the GeV gamma-ray variability of blazars and evolution perspective we search the relation between the redshift and the variability amplitude of blazars for each blazar subclass. We analyzed the Fermi-LAT data of the TeV blazars and the bright AGNs (flux $\\geq$ 4$\\times10^{-9}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$) selected from the 2LAC (the 2nd LAT AGN catalog) data base. As a result, we found a hint of the correlation between the redshift and the variability amplitude in the FSRQs. Furthermore the BL Lacs which have relatively lower peak frequency of the synchrotron radiation and relatively lower redshift, have a tendency to have a smaller variability amplitude.

  16. Radial Velocity Variability of Field Brown Dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prato, L; Rice, E L; McLean, I S; Kirkpatrick, J D; Burgasser, A J; Kim, S S

    2015-01-01

    We present paper six of the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey, an analysis of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R~20,000) spectra of 25 field dwarf systems (3 late-type M dwarfs, 16 L dwarfs, and 6 T dwarfs) taken with the NIRSPEC infrared spectrograph at the W. M. Keck Observatory. With a radial velocity precision of ~2 km/s, we are sensitive to brown dwarf companions in orbits with periods of a few years or less given a mass ratio of 0.5 or greater. We do not detect any spectroscopic binary brown dwarfs in the sample. Given our target properties, and the frequency and cadence of observations, we use a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the detection probability of our sample. Even with a null detection result, our 1 sigma upper limit for very low mass binary frequency is 18%. Our targets included 7 known, wide brown dwarf binary systems. No significant radial velocity variability was measured in our multi-epoch observations of these systems, even for those pairs for which our data spanned a significant ...

  17. The "mean king's problem" with continuous variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso Botero; Yakir Aharonov

    2007-10-16

    We present the solution to the "mean king's problem" in the continuous variable setting. We show that in this setting, the outcome of a randomly-selected projective measurement of any linear combination of the canonical variables x and p can be ascertained with arbitrary precision. Moreover, we show that the solution is in turn a solution to an associated "conjunctive" version of the problem, unique to continuous variables, where the inference task is to ascertain all the joint outcomes of a simultaneous measurement of any number of linear combinations of x and p.

  18. Numerical study of variable lung ventilation strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yadav, Reena; Hiremath, Kirankumar; Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation is used for patients with a variety of lung diseases. Traditionally, ventilators have been designed to monotonously deliver equal sized breaths. While it may seem intuitive that lungs may benefit from unvarying and stable ventilation pressure strategy, recently it has been reported that variable lung ventilation is advantageous. In this study, we analyze the mean tidal volume in response to different `variable ventilation pressure' strategies. We found that uniformly distributed variability in pressure gives the best tidal volume as compared to that of normal, scale- free, log normal and linear distributions.

  19. Analysis of two basic variables of timeout 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zella, William Francis

    1974-01-01

    ANALYSIS OF TWO BASIC VARIABLES OF TIMEOUT A Thesis WILLIAM FRANCIS ZELLA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AaM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August l974 Major Subjects... Psychology ANALYSI QF TWQ BASIC VARIABLES CF TINEQU '. A Thesis V/ILLIAM FRANCIS ZELLA Approved as to s+yle and content bye Chairman of Commi, ee Head of De artment) (Membe Member) Member ABSTRACT Analysis of Two Basic Variables of Timeout. (August...

  20. Micro helical polymeric structures produced by variable voltage direct electrospinning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. P. Shariatpanahi; A. Iraji zad; I. Abdollahzadeh; R. Shirsavar; D. Bonn; R. Ejtehadi

    2011-09-12

    Direct near field electrospinning is used to produce very long helical polystyrene microfibers in water. The pitch length of helices can be controlled by changing the applied voltage, allowing to produce both micro springs and microchannels. Using a novel high frequency variable voltage electrospinning method we found the helix formation speed and compared the experimental buckling frequency to theoretical expressions for viscous and elastic buckling. Finally we showed that the newmethod can be used to produce new periodic micro and nano structures.

  1. Variable reality : interacting with the virtual book

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Hye Soo

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents Variable Reality, a wearable augmented reality-based system focused on creating a unique on-the-go reading experience that combines the readily accessible nature of digital books with the favorable ...

  2. Variable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ang-Olson, Jeffrey; Wachs, Martin; Taylor, Brian D.

    2000-01-01

    J Bradshaw, "SLate ’F~es’ Gasoline Tax So ~t Wdl Rise," TheVarlable-Rate State Gasoline Taxers Jeffrey Ang-Olson MartinVariable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes Jeffrey Ang-Olson

  3. Inserting Group Variables into Fluid Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Jackiw

    2004-10-28

    A fluid, like a quark-gluon plasma, may possess degrees of freedom indexed by a group variable, which retains its identity even in the fluid/continuum description. Conventional Eulerian fluid mechanics is extended to encompass this possibility.

  4. Continuously-Variable Series-Elastic Actuator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mooney, Luke M.

    Actuator efficiency is an important factor in the design of powered leg prostheses, orthoses, exoskeletons, and legged robots. A continuously-variable series-elastic actuator (CV-SEA) is presented as an efficient actuator ...

  5. Investigation of Variables Associated with Vaccine Acceptance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Lora L.

    2011-12-31

    Abstract The current study investigated the relationship between the Health Belief Model (HBM) framework, social variables, personality factors, and H1N1 flu vaccine acceptance. Four hundred thirty two undergraduate students completed online...

  6. Exploiting Variable Stiffness in Explosive Movement Tasks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vijayakumar, Sethu

    with variable physical compliance, our methodology is able to exploit the energy storage capabilities of existing actuators (e.g., by exploiting the energy storage capabilities of such devices) [5]. Due

  7. Variable volume architecture : expanding the boundary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saheba, Asheshh (Asheshh Mohit), 1972-

    2001-01-01

    Research into the creation of a Variable Volume Architecture is explored through a series of proposals and projects. An argument is established to develop the means and methods of achieving an architecture of transformation. ...

  8. Bit Commitment with Quantum Continuous Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallette, Bruno

    protocol -Basic Unit 9 A B 1,0 1,0 B Unveil Phase 1,0 A 1,0 B 1,0 A 0 0 22' 1,0 22' 1,0 CommitBit Commitment with Quantum Continuous Variables Aikaterini Mandilara* 1 Paris 11 Paris 7 #12;Bit Commitment with Quantum Continuous Variables (a) with entanglement (b) or without 2 (a) A. Mandilara and N

  9. Cloud speed impact on solar variability scaling â?? Application to the wavelet variability model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2013-01-01

    index: Analysis and statistics. Solar Energy. 81, 195-206.Proc. of International Solar Energy World Congress, Kassel,irradiance variability. Solar Energy. 85, 1343-1353. Perez,

  10. Cloud speed impact on solar variability scaling â?? Application to the wavelet variability model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Kleissl, J. , 2013. Deriving cloud velocity from an array ofCloud Speed Impact on Solar Variability Scaling -this work, we determine from cloud speeds. Cloud simulator

  11. Software Enabled Virtually Variable Displacement Pumps -Theoretical and Experimental Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    Software Enabled Virtually Variable Displacement Pumps - Theoretical and Experimental Studies the functional equivalent of a variable displacement pump. This approach combines a fixed displacement pump valve control, without many of the shortcomings of commercially available variable displacement pumps

  12. Arc Reversals in Hybrid Bayesian Networks with Deterministic Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cinicioglu, Esma N.; Shenoy, Prakash P.

    2009-05-01

    This article discusses arc reversals in hybrid Bayesian networks with deterministic variables. Hybrid Bayesian networks contain a mix of discrete and continuous chance variables. In a Bayesian network representation, a continuous chance variable...

  13. The use of 'race' as a variable in biomedical research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Efstathiou, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    be used as a variable in biomedical research but mainly toRace’ as a Variable in Biomedical Research A dissertationRace’ as a Variable in Biomedical Research…………. Manifest,

  14. Production-Intent Lost-Motion Variable Valve Actuation Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production-Intent Lost-Motion Variable Valve Actuation Systems Production-Intent Lost-Motion Variable Valve Actuation Systems Variable valve actuation with onoff IEGR pre-bump is...

  15. Kepler and the long-period variables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartig, Erich; Lebzelter, Thomas [University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Cash, Jennifer [Department of Biological and Physical Sciences, South Carolina State University, P.O. Box 7024, Orangeburg, SC 29117 (United States); Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Mighell, Kenneth J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Walter, Donald K., E-mail: erich.hartig@univie.ac.at, E-mail: thomas.lebzelter@univie.ac.at, E-mail: jcash@physics.scsu.edu, E-mail: hinkle@noao.edu, E-mail: mighell@noao.edu, E-mail: dkw@physics.scsu.edu [Department of Biological and Physical Sciences, South Carolina State University, P.O. Box 7296, Orangeburg, SC 29117 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    High-precision Kepler photometry is used to explore the details of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) light curves. Since AGB variability has a typical timescale on the order of a year, we discuss at length the removal of long-term trends and quarterly changes in Kepler data. Photometry for a small sample of nine semi-regular (SR) AGB stars is examined using a 30 minute cadence over a period of 45 months. While undergoing long-period variations of many magnitudes, the light curves are shown to be smooth at the millimagnitude level over much shorter time intervals. No flares or other rapid events were detected on a sub-day timescale. The shortest AGB period detected is on the order of 100 days. All the SR variables in our sample are shown to have multiple modes. This is always the first overtone, typically combined with the fundamental. A second common characteristic of SR variables is shown to be the simultaneous excitation of multiple closely separated periods for the same overtone mode. Approximately half the sample had a much longer variation in the light curve, likely a long secondary period (LSP). The light curves were all well represented by a combination of sinusoids. However, the properties of the sinusoids are time variable, with irregular variations present at low levels. No non-radial pulsations were detected. It is argued that the LSP variation seen in many SR variables is intrinsic to the star and linked to multiple mode pulsation.

  16. Compressional wave character in gassy, near-surface sediments in southern Louisiana determined from variable frequency cross-well, borehole logging, and surface seismic measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, L.D.; Wilkey, P.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Fasnacht, T. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Velocity and attenuation data were used to test theoretical equations describing the frequency dependence of compressional wave velocity and attenuation through gas-rich sediments in coastal Louisiana. The cross-well data were augmented with velocities derived from a nearby seismic refraction station using a low-frequency source. Energy at 1 and 3 kHz was successfully transmitted over distances from 3.69 to 30 m; the 5 and 7-kHz data were obtained only at distances up to 20 m. Velocity tomograms were constructed for one borehole pair and covered a depth interval of 10--50 m. Results from the tomographic modeling indicate that gas-induced low velocities are present to depths of greater than 40 m. Analysis of the velocity dispersion suggests that gas-bubble resonance must be greater than 7 kHz, which is above the range of frequencies used in the experiment. Washout of the boreholes at depths above 15 m resulted in a degassed zone containing velocities higher than those indicated in both nearby refraction and reflection surveys. Velocity and attenuation information were obtained for a low-velocity zone centered at a depth of approximately 18 m. Measured attenuations of 1.57, 2.95, and 3.24 dB/m for the 3-, 5-, and 7-kHz signals, respectively, were modeled along with the velocity data using a silt-clay sediment type. Density and porosity data for the model were obtained from the geophysical logs; the bulk and shear moduli were estimated from published relationships. Modeling results indicate that gas bubbles measuring 1 mm in diameter occupy at least 25% to 35% of the pore space.

  17. Atomic filtering for hybrid continuous-variable/discrete-variable quantum optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joanna A. Zieli?ska; Federica A. Beduini; Vito Giovanni Lucivero; Morgan W. Mitchell

    2014-09-04

    We demonstrate atomic filtering of frequency-degenerate photon pairs from a sub-threshold optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The filter, a modified Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF), achieves 70% peak transmission simultaneous with 57 dB out-of-band rejection and a 445 MHz transmission bandwidth. When applied to the OPO output, only the degenerate mode, containing one-mode squeezed vacuum, falls in the filter pass-band; all other modes are strongly suppressed. The high transmission preserves non-classical continuous-variable features, e.g. squeezing or non-gaussianity, while the high spectral purity allows reliable discrete-variable detection and heralding. Correlation and atomic absorption measurements indicate a spectral purity of 96% for the individual photons, and 98% for the photon pairs. These capabilities will enable generation of atom-resonant hybrid states, e.g. "Schr\\"odinger kittens" obtained by photon subtraction from squeezed vacuum, making these exotic states available for quantum networking and atomic quantum metrology applications.

  18. Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various Electric Water Heating Options Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various...

  19. Control Strategies for Centrifugal Pumps with Variable Flow Rate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Control Strategies for Centrifugal Pumps with Variable Flow Rate Requirements Control Strategies for Centrifugal Pumps with Variable Flow Rate Requirements This tip sheet discusses...

  20. Radiograph and passive data analysis using mixed variable optimization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Radiograph and passive data analysis using mixed variable optimization Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Radiograph and passive data analysis using mixed variable...

  1. Demonstration of a Variable Phase Turbine Power System for Low...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstration of a Variable Phase Turbine Power System for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources Demonstration of a Variable Phase Turbine Power System for Low Temperature...

  2. Ocean color and atmospheric dimethyl sulfide: On their mesoscale variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matrai, Patricia A; Balch, William M; Cooper, David J; Saltzman, Eric S

    1993-01-01

    periods of' time, covering mesoscale Campbell, J. W. and W.Dimethyl Sulfide' On Their Mesoscale Variability PATRICIA A.Miami, Miami, Florida The mesoscale variability of dimethyl

  3. Compact, electro-hydraulic, variable valve actuation system providing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compact, electro-hydraulic, variable valve actuation system providing variable lift, timing and duration to enable high efficiency engine combustion control Compact,...

  4. Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing Fracture Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing Fracture SNL has 40+ years...

  5. Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013 Peer Review Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for...

  6. Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump with Variable-Speed Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump with Variable-Speed Technology Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump with Variable-Speed Technology Purdue prototype system Purdue prototype system...

  7. Simulation of the intraseasonal variability over the Eastern...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Simulation of the intraseasonal variability over the Eastern Pacific ITCZ in climate models Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simulation of the intraseasonal variability...

  8. AUTOMATIC VARIABLE VENTILATION CONTROL SYSTEMS BASED ON AIR QUALITY DETECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turiel, Isaac

    2011-01-01

    U"'"'''"'" - e "'~saon Automatic Variable Ventilation1979) LBL~8893 EEB Vent 79-3 Automatic variable ventilationmeasurement capabilities o Automatic operation o Low

  9. Variable energy constant current accelerator structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, O.A.

    1988-07-13

    A variable energy, constant current ion beam accelerator structure is disclosed comprising an ion source capable of providing the desired ions, a pre-accelerator for establishing an initial energy level, a matching/pumping module having means for focusing means for maintaining the beam current, and at least one main accelerator module for continuing beam focus, with means capable of variably imparting acceleration to the beam so that a constant beam output current is maintained independent of the variable output energy. In a preferred embodiment, quadrupole electrodes are provided in both the matching/pumping module and the one or more accelerator modules, and are formed using four opposing cylinder electrodes which extend parallel to the beam axis and are spaced around the beam at 90/degree/ intervals with opposing electrodes maintained at the same potential. 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Pearle's Hidden-Variable Model Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard D. Gill

    2015-05-19

    Pearle (1970) gave an example of a local hidden variables model which exactly reproduced the singlet correlations of quantum theory, through the device of data-rejection: particles can fail to be detected in a way which depends on the hidden variables carried by the particles and on the measurement settings. If the experimenter computes correlations between measurement outcomes of particle pairs for which both particles are detected, he is actually looking at a subsample of particle pairs, determined by interaction involving both measurement settings and the hidden variables carried in the particles. We correct a mistake in Pearle's formulas (a normalization error) and more importantly show that the model is more simple than first appears. We illustrate with visualisations of the model and with a small simulation experiment, with code in the statistical programming language R included in the paper. Open problems are discussed.

  11. Measuring spatial variability in soil characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Svoboda, John M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sawyer, J. Wayne (Hampton, VA); Hess, John R. (Ashton, ID); Hess, J. Richard (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides systems and methods for measuring a load force associated with pulling a farm implement through soil that is used to generate a spatially variable map that represents the spatial variability of the physical characteristics of the soil. An instrumented hitch pin configured to measure a load force is provided that measures the load force generated by a farm implement when the farm implement is connected with a tractor and pulled through or across soil. Each time a load force is measured, a global positioning system identifies the location of the measurement. This data is stored and analyzed to generate a spatially variable map of the soil. This map is representative of the physical characteristics of the soil, which are inferred from the magnitude of the load force.

  12. Variable pressure power cycle and control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsberry, Fred L. (Spring, TX)

    1984-11-27

    A variable pressure power cycle and control system that is adjustable to a variable heat source is disclosed. The power cycle adjusts itself to the heat source so that a minimal temperature difference is maintained between the heat source fluid and the power cycle working fluid, thereby substantially matching the thermodynamic envelope of the power cycle to the thermodynamic envelope of the heat source. Adjustments are made by sensing the inlet temperature of the heat source fluid and then setting a superheated vapor temperature and pressure to achieve a minimum temperature difference between the heat source fluid and the working fluid.

  13. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy: Challenges and Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Milligan, M.; Lew, D.

    2013-09-01

    In the U.S., a number of utilities are adopting higher penetrations of renewables, driven in part by state policies. While power systems have been designed to handle the variable nature of loads, the additional supply-side variability and uncertainty can pose new challenges for utilities and system operators. However, a variety of operational and technical solutions exist to help integrate higher penetrations of wind and solar generation. This paper explores renewable energy integration challenges and mitigation strategies that have been implemented in the U.S. and internationally, including forecasting, demand response, flexible generation, larger balancing areas or balancing area cooperation, and operational practices such as fast scheduling and dispatch.

  14. Group Work: Global warming & natural variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allan, Richard P.

    Group Work: Global warming & natural variability Left: Global annual temperature departure from://skepticalscience.com/foster-and-rahmstorf-measure-global-warming-signal.html 2013 2012 2011 #12;: 1963-1964, 1982-83, 1991-93 1. How do these events affect the global annual temperature and can you

  15. Variable Light-Cone Theory of Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. T. Drummond

    1999-08-20

    We show how to reformulate Variable Speed of Light Theories (VSLT) in a covariant fashion as Variable Light-Cone Theories (VLCT) by introducing two vierbein bundles each associated with a distinct metric. The basic gravitational action relates to one bundle while matter propagates relative to the other in a conventional way. The variability of the speed of light is represented by the variability of the matter light-cone relative to the gravitational light-cone. The two bundles are related locally by an element M, of SL(4,R). The dynamics of the field M is that of a SL(4,R)-sigma model gauged with respect to local (orthochronous) Lorentz transformations on each of the bundles. Only the ``massless'' version of the model with a single new coupling, F, that has the same dimensions as Newton's constant $G_N$, is considered in this paper. When F vanishes the theory reduces to standard General Relativity. We verify that the modified Bianchi identities of the model are consistent with the standard conservation law for the matter energy-momentum tensor in its own background metric. The implications of the model for some simple applications are examined, the Newtonian limit, the flat FRW universe and the spherically symmetric static solution.

  16. TimeVariable Photo-Evaporation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Throop, Henry

    TimeVariable Photo-Evaporation of Protoplanetary Disks Henry Throop (SwRI) John Bally (U. Colorado) #12;Takeaway: Photo-evaporation alters the disk structure in essentially unpredictable ways, because for disks formed at the same time in the same cluster. #12;30 Doradus: 100+ O/B stars Photo

  17. TimeVariable Photo-Evaporation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Throop, Henry

    TimeVariable Photo-Evaporation of Protoplanetary Disks Henry Throop (PSI) DDA Meeting Mt. Hood clusters. #12;Work we have done involves ... ­ UV photo-evaporation from massive stars ­ Interaction; Moeckel & Throop 2009; Throop & Bally 2010; Pichardo et al 2010; Throop 2011. #12;Photo

  18. The variable sky of deep synoptic surveys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridgway, Stephen T.; Matheson, Thomas; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Olsen, Knut A. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85725 (United States); Howell, Steve B., E-mail: ridgway@noao.edu [NASA Ames Research Center, P.O. Box 1, M/S 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    The discovery of variable and transient sources is an essential product of synoptic surveys. The alert stream will require filtering for personalized criteria—a process managed by a functionality commonly described as a Broker. In order to understand quantitatively the magnitude of the alert generation and Broker tasks, we have undertaken an analysis of the most numerous types of variable targets in the sky—Galactic stars, quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and asteroids. It is found that the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be capable of discovering ?10{sup 5} high latitude (|b| > 20°) variable stars per night at the beginning of the survey. (The corresponding number for |b| < 20° is orders of magnitude larger, but subject to caveats concerning extinction and crowding.) However, the number of new discoveries may well drop below 100 per night within less than one year. The same analysis applied to GAIA clarifies the complementarity of the GAIA and LSST surveys. Discovery of AGNs and QSOs are each predicted to begin at ?3000 per night and decrease by 50 times over four years. Supernovae are expected at ?1100 per night, and after several survey years will dominate the new variable discovery rate. LSST asteroid discoveries will start at >10{sup 5} per night, and if orbital determination has a 50% success rate per epoch, they will drop below 1000 per night within two years.

  19. EXPERIMENTAL CONTROL OF VARIABLE CAM TIMING ACTUATORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . This dilution of the mixture in the cylinder re- duces HC and NOx feedgas emissions. Neverthe- less, retarding al., 1998). Table 1 illus- trates the sought after NOx emission reduction when the Variable Cam conditions (1500rpm, 30Nm). NOx pollutant emissions are lowered by retarding the cam timing. ically

  20. Model solution State variable model: differential equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limburg, Karin E.

    2/26/2014 1 Model solution State variable model: differential equation Models a rate of change equation General solution: the antiderivative Particular solution: require initial and boundary conditions up the general solution to a differential equation in a book Solve for initial and boundary

  1. CLIMATE VARIABILITY, CLIMATE CHANGE, AND WESTERN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeton, William S.

    CHAPTER 13 CLIMATE VARIABILITY, CLIMATE CHANGE, AND WESTERN WILDFIRE WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR THE URBAN­WILDLAND INTERFACE William S. Keeton, Philip W. Mote and Jerry F. Franklin ABSTRACT Climate change hazards by the warmer, drier summers projected for much of the western U.S. by climate models would

  2. Galactic Variable Sky with EGRET and GLAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Digel, S.W.; /SLAC

    2006-11-28

    The characteristics of the largely-unidentified Galactic sources of gamma rays that were detected by EGRET are reviewed. Proposed source populations that may have the correct spatial, spectral, luminosity, and variability properties to be the origins of the EGRET sources are also presented. Finally, the prospects for studying Galactic gamma-ray sources with the GLAST LAT are reviewed.

  3. Photometric Stellar Variability in the Galactic Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Rafelski; A. M. Ghez; S. D. Hornstein; J. R. Lu; M. Morris

    2007-01-04

    We report the results of a diffraction-limited, photometric variability study of the central 5"x5" of the Galaxy conducted over the past 10 years using speckle imaging techniques on the W. M. Keck I 10 m telescope. Within our limiting magnitude of mK < 16 mag for images made from a single night of data, we find a minimum of 15 K[2.2 micron]-band variable stars out of 131 monitored stars. The only periodic source in our sample is the previously identified variable IRS 16SW, for which we measure an orbital period of 19.448 +- 0.002 days. In contrast to recent results, our data on IRS 16SW show an asymmetric phased light curve with a much steeper fall-time than rise-time, which may be due to tidal deformations caused by the proximity of the stars in their orbits. We also identify a possible wind colliding binary (IRS 29N) based on its photometric variation over a few year time-scale which is likely due to episodic dust production. None of the 4 LBV candidates in our sample show the characteristic large increase or decrease in luminosity, however, our time baseline is too short to rule them out as LBVs. Among the remaining variable stars, the majority are early-type stars and three are possibly variable due to line of sight extinction variations. For the 7 OB stars at the center of our field of view that have well-determined 3-dimensional orbits, we see no evidence of flares or dimming of their light, which limits the possibility of a cold, geometrically-thin inactive accretion disk around the supermassive black hole, Sgr A*.

  4. Impact of Variable Valve Timing on Low Temperature Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Documents effects of variable valve actuation in implementing low temperature combustion in production engine platform.

  5. Continuous variable entanglement on a chip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genta Masada; Kazunori Miyata; Alberto Politi; Toshikazu Hashimoto; Jeremy L. O'Brien; Akira Furusawa

    2015-05-29

    Encoding quantum information in continuous variables (CV)---as the quadrature of electromagnetic fields---is a powerful approach to quantum information science and technology. CV entanglement---light beams in Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) states---is a key resource for quantum information protocols; and enables hybridisation between CV and single photon discrete variable (DV) qubit systems. However, CV systems are currently limited by their implementation in free-space optical networks: increased complexity, low loss, high-precision alignment and stability, as well as hybridisation, demand an alternative approach. Here we show an integrated photonic implementation of the key capabilities for CV quantum technologies---generation and characterisation of EPR beams in a photonic chip. Combined with integrated squeezing and non-Gaussian operation, these results open the way to universal quantum information processing with light.

  6. Review of Variable Generation Integration Charges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, K.; Fink, S.; Buckley, M.; Rogers, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2013-03-01

    The growth of wind and solar generation in the United States, and the expectation of continued growth of these technologies, dictates that the future power system will be operated in a somewhat different manner because of increased variability and uncertainty. A small number of balancing authorities have attempted to determine an 'integration cost' to account for these changes to their current operating practices. Some balancing authorities directly charge wind and solar generators for integration charges, whereas others add integration charges to projected costs of wind and solar in integrated resource plans or in competitive solicitations for generation. This report reviews the balancing authorities that have calculated variable generation integration charges and broadly compares and contrasts the methodologies they used to determine their specific integration charges. The report also profiles each balancing authority and how they derived wind and solar integration charges.

  7. Thermodynamics in variable speed of light theories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Racker, Juan [CONICET, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Avenida Bustillo 9500 (8400), San Carlos De Bariloche (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N (1900), La Plata (Argentina); Sisterna, Pablo [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350 (7600), Mar del Plata (Argentina); Vucetich, Hector [Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N (1900), La Plata (Argentina)

    2009-10-15

    The perfect fluid in the context of a covariant variable speed of light theory proposed by J. Magueijo is studied. On the one hand the modified first law of thermodynamics together with a recipe to obtain equations of state are obtained. On the other hand the Newtonian limit is performed to obtain the nonrelativistic hydrostatic equilibrium equation for the theory. The results obtained are used to determine the time variation of the radius of Mercury induced by the variability of the speed of light (c), and the scalar contribution to the luminosity of white dwarfs. Using a bound for the change of that radius and combining it with an upper limit for the variation of the fine structure constant, a bound on the time variation of c is set. An independent bound is obtained from luminosity estimates for Stein 2015B.

  8. Thermodynamics in variable speed of light theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juan Racker; Pablo Sisterna; Hector Vucetich

    2009-11-30

    The perfect fluid in the context of a covariant variable speed of light theory proposed by J. Magueijo is studied. On the one hand the modified first law of thermodynamics together with a recipe to obtain equations of state are obtained. On the other hand the Newtonian limit is performed to obtain the nonrelativistic hydrostatic equilibrium equation for the theory. The results obtained are used to determine the time variation of the radius of Mercury induced by the variability of the speed of light ($c$), and the scalar contribution to the luminosity of white dwarfs. Using a bound for the change of that radius and combining it with an upper limit for the variation of the fine structure constant, a bound on the time variation of $c$ is set. An independent bound is obtained from luminosity estimates for Stein 2015B.

  9. Teleportation using continuous variable quantum cloning machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Satyabrata Adhikari

    2008-02-15

    We show that an unknown quantum state in phase space can be teleported via three-mode entanglement generated by continuous variable quantum cloning machine (transformation). Further, proceeding with our teleportation protocol we are able to improve the fidelity of teleportation obtained by Loock et.al. [Phys.Rev.Lett. 84, 3482(2000)]. Also we study here the entanglement between the two output copies from cloning machine.

  10. Thermoacoustic tomography with variable sound speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plamen Stefanov; Gunther Uhlmann

    2009-05-30

    We study the mathematical model of thermoacoustic tomography in media with a variable speed for a fixed time interval, greater than the diameter of the domain. In case of measurements on the whole boundary, we give an explicit solution in terms of a Neumann series expansion. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for uniqueness and stability when the measurements are taken on a part of the boundary.

  11. Thermoacoustic tomography with variable sound speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanov, Plamen

    2009-01-01

    We study the mathematical model of thermoacoustic tomography in media with a variable speed for a fixed time interval, greater than the diameter of the domain. In case of measurements on the whole boundary, we give an explicit solution in terms of a Neumann series expansion. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for uniqueness and stability when the measurements are taken on a part of the boundary.

  12. Intensive Variables & Nanostructuring in Magnetostructural Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Laura

    2014-08-13

    Over the course of this project, fundamental inquiry was carried out to investigate, understand and predict the effects of intensive variables, including the structural scale, on magnetostructural phase transitions in the model system of equiatomic FeRh. These transitions comprise simultaneous magnetic and structural phase changes that have their origins in very strong orbital-lattice coupling and thus may be driven by a plurality of effects.

  13. Variable Compression Ratio Engine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And Statistics » USAJobs Search USAJobs SearchWater-SavingofCode |DepartmentVampire PowerVariable

  14. Variability of QSOs with variable regions in broad absorption troughs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Zhi-Cheng; Jiang, Xiao-Lei; Ge, Xue

    2015-01-01

    The variability of broad absorption lines is investigated for a sample of 188 broad-absorption-line (BAL) quasars (QSOs) ($z > 1.7$) with at least two-epoch observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7), covering a time-scale of about 0.001 -- 3 years in the rest frame. Considering only the longest time-scale between epochs for each QSO, 73 variable regions in the \\civ BAL troughs are detected for 43 BAL QSOs. The proportion of BAL QSOs showing variable regions increases with longer time-interval than about 1 year in the rest frame. The velocity width of variable regions is narrow compared to the BAL-trough outflow velocity. For 43 BAL QSOs with variable regions, it is found that there is a medium strong correlation between the variation of the continuum luminosity at 1500 \\AA\\ and the variation of the spectral index. With respect to the total 188 QSOs, larger proportion of BAL QSOs with variable regions appears bluer during their brighter phases, which implies that the origin of BA...

  15. Role of Climate Variability in Modulating the Surface Water and Groundwater Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arumugam, Sankar

    levels with El Niño/ Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index, NINO3.4, shows that interannual variability between JAS groundwater levels and JAS NINO3.4 is not statistically significant. Precipitation forecasts exists on the association between low-frequency climatic variability [e.g., El Niño/Southern Oscillation

  16. Variability in continuous traffic monitoring data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, T.; Hu, P.S.; Young, J.

    1996-07-01

    Each state in the United States can be viewed as a universe of road segments. For each road segment in each state, it is desired to know various traffic characteristics based on count data, classification count data, and weigh-in-motion data. These data are absolutely essential for highway design, maintenance, safety, and planning. Given no cost constraints, each road segment would be continuously monitored every day of the year. However, in practice, a few road segments are monitored continuously every day of the year to produce annual characteristics of traffic flow. The remaining road segments are monitored for one or two days each year, and this resulting data are `adjusted` (using factors based on data collected from the continuously monitored road segments) to produce estimates of annual characteristics. With this general approach, each state strives to provide estimates of annual characteristics for each road segment within its jurisdiction. In 1985, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) published the Traffic Monitoring Guide to assist states in achieving this end. As with almost any data collection effort, the monitoring data suffers from errors from many sources. In this paper, we report some empirical findings in a research project sponsored by the FHWA. This research project studied the variability in the traffic data from the continuously monitored road segments from state(s) and, the extent to which this variability is transferred to and affects the precision of the data produced from the road segments which are monitored only one or two days each year. The ultimate hope is that states will eventually be able to not only publish an estimate of a characteristic such as Average Annual Daily Traffic (AADT) for each road segment, but also that each estimate will be accompanied by a statement expressing how good the estimate is in terms of its estimated variability or precision, which will likely be expressed as a coefficient of variation.

  17. Time-resolved photometry of cataclysmic variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Papadaki; H. M. J. Boffin; J. Cuypers; V. Stanishev; Z. Kraicheva; V. Genkov

    2003-12-18

    We present time-resolved photometry of two cataclysmic variables whose CCD photometric observations were obtained with the 1m telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory in October 2002 and August 2003 and with the 1m telescope at Hoher List in Germany. Concerning MCT 2347-3144 we detect for the first time a period of 6.65h. For V1193 Ori the 3.96 h periodicity has for the first time been confirmed through time-resolved photometry.

  18. Crystal diffraction lens with variable focal length

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for altering the focal length of a focusing element o one of a plurality of pre-determined focal lengths by changing heat transfer within selected portions of the element by controlled quantities. Control over heat transfer is accomplished by manipulating one or more of a number of variables, including: the amount of heat or cold applied to surfaces; type of fluids pumped through channels for heating and cooling; temperatures, directions of flow and rates of flow of fluids; and placement of channels.

  19. Crystal diffraction lens with variable focal length

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, R.K.

    1991-04-02

    A method and apparatus for altering the focal length of a focusing element of one of a plurality of pre-determined focal lengths by changing heat transfer within selected portions of the element by controlled quantities is disclosed. Control over heat transfer is accomplished by manipulating one or more of a number of variables, including: the amount of heat or cold applied to surfaces; type of fluids pumped through channels for heating and cooling; temperatures, directions of flow and rates of flow of fluids; and placement of channels. 19 figures.

  20. OPTIMUM DUCT DESIGN FOR VARIABLE AIR VOLUME SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OPTIMUM DUCT DESIGN FOR VARIABLE AIR VOLUME SYSTEMS By TAECHEOL KIM Master of Science Oklahoma May, 2001 #12;ii OPTIMUM DUCT DESIGN FOR VARIABLE AIR VOLUME SYSTEMS Thesis Approved Volume Systems ............................................. 5 1.2.2. Duct Design Methods

  1. 15 Internal Regulatory Variables and the Design of Human Motivation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cosmides, Leda

    251 15 Internal Regulatory Variables and the Design of Human Motivation: A Computational The Next Cognitive Revolution: The Adaptationist Integration of Motivation and Cognition ............252 Internal Regulatory Variables and Motivation

  2. Role of Smarter Grids in Variable Renewable Resource Integration (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, M.

    2012-07-01

    This presentation discusses the role of smarter grids in variable renewable resource integration and references material from a forthcoming ISGAN issue paper: Smart Grid Contributions to Variable Renewable Resource Integration, co-written by the presenter and currently in review.

  3. Benchmarking Variable Cost Performance in an Industrial Power Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kane, J. F.; Bailey, W. F.

    1998-01-01

    One of the most perplexing problems for industrial power plants committed to improving competitiveness is measuring variable cost performance over time. Because variable costs like fuel and electricity represent the overwhelming majority of power...

  4. Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Advanced variable-speed Air Source Integrated Heat Pump prototype system and field test site near Knoxville, TN Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Advanced variable-speed Air Source...

  5. Snowpack spatial variability: towards understanding its effect on remote sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, Hans-Peter

    Snowpack spatial variability: towards understanding its effect on remote sensing measurements spatial variability: towards understanding its effect on remote sensing mea- surements and snow slope large errors in these basin estimates. Remote sensing measurements offer a promising alternative, due

  6. Wave spectral energy variability in the northeast Peter D. Bromirski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bromirski, Peter D.

    Wave spectral energy variability in the northeast Pacific Peter D. Bromirski Integrative January 2005; published 8 March 2005. [1] The dominant characteristics of wave energy variability] s wave spectral energy components are considered separately. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analyses

  7. Long run changes in driver behavior due to variable tolls 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konduru, Karun K.

    2004-09-30

    As many variable pricing projects are still in the implementation stage, long-run driver responses to the variable tolls are largely unknown. This research examined the long-run changes in driver behavior in an existing ...

  8. Variably insulating portable heater/cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, T.F.

    1998-09-29

    A compact vacuum insulation panel is described comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning ``on`` and ``off`` the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls. 25 figs.

  9. Variable temperature seat climate control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karunasiri, Tissa R. (Van Nuys, CA); Gallup, David F. (Pasadena, CA); Noles, David R. (Glendale, CA); Gregory, Christian T. (Alhambra, CA)

    1997-05-06

    A temperature climate control system comprises a variable temperature seat, at least one heat pump, at least one heat pump temperature sensor, and a controller. Each heat pump comprises a number of Peltier thermoelectric modules for temperature conditioning the air in a main heat exchanger and a main exchanger fan for passing the conditioned air from the main exchanger to the variable temperature seat. The Peltier modules and each main fan may be manually adjusted via a control switch or a control signal. Additionally, the temperature climate control system may comprise a number of additional temperature sensors to monitor the temperature of the ambient air surrounding the occupant as well as the temperature of the conditioned air directed to the occupant. The controller is configured to automatically regulate the operation of the Peltier modules and/or each main fan according to a temperature climate control logic designed both to maximize occupant comfort during normal operation, and minimize possible equipment damage, occupant discomfort, or occupant injury in the event of a heat pump malfunction.

  10. Variably insulating portable heater/cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A compact vacuum insulation panel comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning "on" and "off" the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls.

  11. USING CLOUD CLASSIFICATION TO MODEL SOLAR VARIABILITY Matthew J. Reno

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    With increasing amounts of solar energy on the electric grid, understanding the solar variability for different applications for predicting variability or ramp rates at locations with PV plants. For example, if the cloud dispatch could be controlled based on the expected variability and ramp rates from solar power plants

  12. Managing Variable Energy Resources to Increase Renewable Electricity's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Managing Variable Energy Resources to Increase Renewable Electricity's Contribution to the Grid P o Contribution of Renewable Energy to Total Electricity Generation? 15 ManaGInG VaRIablE EnERGy REsouRCEs 16 What to Better Respond to Variability? 19 How Can the Siting of Renewable Energy Projects Be Improved? 20 What

  13. Fine density/design variable Computational Science and Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    1400 1600 FE Analysis Optimization Initialization Buildings designed to minimize seismic or wind·Fine density/design variable mesh Computational Science and Engineering 2013 Annual Meeting.01 Fine design variable mesh Fine density variable mesh Comparison of forced vibration results 1

  14. GLOBAL PATTERN OF MESOSCALE VARIABILITY IN SEA SURFACE HEIGHT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaplan, Alexey

    GLOBAL PATTERN OF MESOSCALE VARIABILITY IN SEA SURFACE HEIGHT AND ITS DYNAMICAL CAUSES Alexey separate the mesoscale variability of sea surface heights into its spatial and temporal components of mesoscale variability in different areas to dynamical causes. Major portion of it can be explained

  15. Exploiting Passive Dynamics with Variable Stiffness Actuation in Robot Brachiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vijayakumar, Sethu

    Exploiting Passive Dynamics with Variable Stiffness Actuation in Robot Brachiation Jun Nakanishi.nakanishi@ed.ac.uk, sethu.vijayakumar@ed.ac.uk Abstract--This paper explores a passive control strategy with variable present our passive control strategy considering a pendulum with variable stiffness actuation. Then, we

  16. Continuously Controlled K-Theory with Variable Coefficients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Continuously Controlled K-Theory with Variable Coefficients Douglas R. Anderson and Hans J modules with bounded control and variable coefficients to construct a homology theory on a certain control at infinity and variable coefficients, it has been less clear whether such a theory would have any

  17. SLUDGE BATCH VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 418

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2010-11-29

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) initiated processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) in the summer of 2010. In support of processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 418 to process SB6. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB6 available at the time from the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) and SRNL (using a model-based approach). To support qualification of SB6, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB6. The durability models were assessed over the expected Frit 418-SB6 composition range. Seventeen glasses were selected for the variability study based on the sludge projections used in the frit recommendation. Five of the glasses are based on the centroid of the compositional region, spanning a waste loading (WL) range of 32 to 40%. The remaining twelve glasses are extreme vertices (EVs) of the sludge region of interest for SB6 combined with Frit 418 and are all at 36% WL. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). After initiating the SB6 variability study, the measured composition of the SB6 Tank 51 qualification glass produced at the SRNL Shielded Cells Facility indicated that thorium was present in the glass at an appreciable concentration (1.03 wt%), which made it a reportable element for SB6. This concentration of ThO{sub 2} resulted in a second phase of experimental studies. Five glasses were formulated that were based on the centroid of the new sludge compositional region combined with Frit 418, spanning a WL range of 32 to 40%. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis and the PCT. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses (with and without thorium) were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass regardless of thermal history. All of the normalized boron releases were less than 1 g/L. While all of the targeted glass compositions were predictable with respect to the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models for durability, a small number of the measured glass compositions were located outside of the lower prediction limit indicating poorer durability than what was actually measured. These unpredictable glasses were in the same lithium metaborate (LM) preparation block during the chemical analyses, which resulted in measured compositions that were not representative of the target compositions. A review of the data did not indicate a clear cause for the problem. Re-digestion and re-measurement of three glasses from this preparation block yielded glass compositions closer to the target values and predicted PCT responses within the PCCS model uncertainty. Therefore, it is believed that the glasses were correctly fabricated and the targeted compositions are closer representations of the true compositions. Per the requirements of the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, the PCCS durability models have been shown to be applicable for the SB6/Frit 418 glass system. PCT results from the glasses fabricated as part of the variability study were shown to be predictable and/or acceptable with respect to the DWPF PCCS models. In addition, the inclusion of ThO{sub 2} was shown to have minimal impact on the acceptability and predictability of the variability study glasses.

  18. Variability of modal parameters measured on the Alamosa Canyon Bridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C.R.; Doebling, S.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Cornwell, P.J.; Straser, E.G. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). J.A. Blume Earthquake Engineering Center

    1996-12-31

    A significant amount of work has been reported in technical literature regarding the use of changes in modal parameters to identify the location and extent of damage in structures. Curiously absent, and critically important to the practical implementation of this work, is an accurate characterization of the natural variability of these modal parameters caused by effects other than damage. To examine this issue, a two-lane, seven-span, composite slab-on-girder bridge near the town of Truth or Consequences in southern New Mexico was tested several times over a period of nine months. Environmental effects common to this location that could potentially produce changes in the measured modal properties include changes in temperature, high winds, and changes to the supporting soil medium. In addition to environmental effects, variabilities in modal testing procedures and data reduction can also cause changes in the identified dynamic properties of the structure. In this paper the natural variability of the frequencies and mode shapes of the Alamosa Canyon bridge that result from changes in time of day when the test was performed, amount of traffic, and environmental conditions will be discussed. Because this bridge has not been in active use throughout the testing period, it is assumed that any change in the observed modal properties are the result of the factors listed above rather than deterioration of the structure itself.

  19. Long term variability of the blazar PKS 2155-304

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chevalier, Jill; Rieger, Frank; Maurin, Gilles; Lenain, Jean-Philippe; Lamanna, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Time variability of the photon flux is a known feature of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and in particular of blazars. The high frequency peaked BL Lac (HBL) object PKS 2155-304 is one of the brightest sources in the TeV band and has been monitored regularly with different instruments and in particular with the H.E.S.S. experiment above 200 GeV for more than 11 years. These data together with the observations of other instruments and monitoring programs like SMARTS (optical), Swift-XRT/RXTE/XMM-Newton (X-ray) and Fermi-LAT (100 MeV energy range. Variability studies are made by looking at the lognormality of the light curves and at the fractional root mean square (rms) variability Fvar in several energy bands. Lognormality is found in every energy range and the evolution of Fvar with the energy shows a similar increase both in X-rays and in TeV bands.

  20. Classification of birth weights based on dichotomous variables 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perry, Lynn McIver

    1980-01-01

    . Multinomial Models With Three Pred1ctor Var1ables . 12. M1sclassif1cation Probabilities . 13. Models With Four Predictor Variables ? SMOK, OH, NS, OA 10 13 15 17 29 30 36 37 40 45 14. Models With Four Predictor Variables ? SNOK, OH, NS, CYCR.... . . 46 15. Models With Four Pred1ctor Variables ? SMOK, OH, OA, CYCR. . . 47 16. Models With Four Predictor Variables ? SMOK, OH, WH, CYCR. . . 48 17. Models With Four Predictor Variables ? SMOK, NEDU, NS, OA. . . 49 18. Models With Four Predictor...

  1. What measures climate? A variety of variables including their variability and extreme values determine climate for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allan, Richard P.

    climate zones? The sun is the ultimate power source for the climate "machine". The uneven distribution conditions. Typical variables to consider are temperature (maximum, miniumum), precipitation (includes rain, sleet, snow, hail, etc), sunlight/cloudiness, wind, humidity, ice cover, sea temperature, etc... Many

  2. Dark matter interacts with variable vacuum energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iván E. Sánchez G

    2014-09-21

    We investigate a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) scenario with two interacting components, dark matter and variable vacuum energy (VVE) densities, plus two decoupled components, one is a baryon term while the other behaves as a radiation component. We consider a linear interaction in the derivative dark component density. We apply the $\\chi^2$ method to the observational Hubble data for constraining the cosmological parameters and analyze the amount of dark energy in the radiation era for the model. It turns out that our model fulfills the severe bound of $\\Omega_{x}(z\\simeq 1100)energy at early times, and fulfills the stringent bound $\\Omega_{x}(z\\simeq 10^{10})today.

  3. Variable-Temperature Critical-Current Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. F. Goodrich; T. C. Stauffer

    2009-05-19

    This is the final report of a three year contract that covered 09/19/2005 to 07/14/2008. We requested and received a no cost time extension for the third year, 07/15/2007 to 07/14/2008, to allow DoE to send us funds if they became available during that year. It turned out that we did not receive any funding for the third year. The following paper covers our variable-temperature critical-current measurements. We made transport critical-current (Ic) measurements on commercial multifilamentary Nb3Sn strands at temperatures (T) from 4 to 17 K and magnetic fields (H) from 0 to 14 T. One of the unique features of our measurements is that we can cover a wide range of critical currents from less than 0.1 A to over 700 A.

  4. WECC Variable Generation Planning Reference Book

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Du, Pengwei; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Vyakaranam, Bharat

    2013-05-14

    This planning reference book is a document reflecting a Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) effort to put together multiple sources of information and provide a clear, systemic, comprehensive outline of the problems, both existing and anticipated; their impacts on the system; currently used and proposed solutions by the industry and research community; planning practices; new technologies, equipment, and standards; and expected future trends. This living (periodically updated) document could help WECC and other practicing engineers, especially the younger generation of engineers joining the workforce, to get familiar with a large variety of information related to the integration of variable resources into the WECC system, bypassing in part the need for time-consuming information gathering and learning processes from more experienced engineers or from the literature.

  5. Primordial cosmic fluctuations for variable gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetterich, C

    2015-01-01

    The observation of primordial cosmic fluctuations does not need a geometric horizon $H^{-1}$, which is exceeded temporarily by the wavelength of fluctuations. The primordial information can be protected against later thermal washout even if all relevant wavelengths remain smaller than $H^{-1}$. This is demonstrated by formulating the equations governing the cosmic fluctuations in a form that is manifestly invariant under conformal field transformations of the metric. Beyond the field equations this holds for the defining equation for the correlation function, as expressed by the inverse of the second functional derivative of the quantum effective action. An almost scale invariant spectrum does not need an expanding geometry. For a variable Planck mass it can even arise in flat Minkowski space.

  6. Variable Speed Wind Turbine Generator with Zero-sequence Filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muljadi, Eduard (Golden, CO)

    1998-08-25

    A variable speed wind turbine generator system to convert mechanical power into electrical power or energy and to recover the electrical power or energy in the form of three phase alternating current and return the power or energy to a utility or other load with single phase sinusoidal waveform at sixty (60) hertz and unity power factor includes an excitation controller for generating three phase commanded current, a generator, and a zero sequence filter. Each commanded current signal includes two components: a positive sequence variable frequency current signal to provide the balanced three phase excitation currents required in the stator windings of the generator to generate the rotating magnetic field needed to recover an optimum level of real power from the generator; and a zero frequency sixty (60) hertz current signal to allow the real power generated by the generator to be supplied to the utility. The positive sequence current signals are balanced three phase signals and are prevented from entering the utility by the zero sequence filter. The zero sequence current signals have zero phase displacement from each other and are prevented from entering the generator by the star connected stator windings. The zero sequence filter allows the zero sequence current signals to pass through to deliver power to the utility.

  7. Variable speed wind turbine generator with zero-sequence filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muljadi, Eduard (Golden, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A variable speed wind turbine generator system to convert mechanical power into electrical power or energy and to recover the electrical power or energy in the form of three phase alternating current and return the power or energy to a utility or other load with single phase sinusoidal waveform at sixty (60) hertz and unity power factor includes an excitation controller for generating three phase commanded current, a generator, and a zero sequence filter. Each commanded current signal includes two components: a positive sequence variable frequency current signal to provide the balanced three phase excitation currents required in the stator windings of the generator to generate the rotating magnetic field needed to recover an optimum level of real power from the generator; and a zero frequency sixty (60) hertz current signal to allow the real power generated by the generator to be supplied to the utility. The positive sequence current signals are balanced three phase signals and are prevented from entering the utility by the zero sequence filter. The zero sequence current signals have zero phase displacement from each other and are prevented from entering the generator by the star connected stator windings. The zero sequence filter allows the zero sequence current signals to pass through to deliver power to the utility.

  8. Variable speed wind turbine generator with zero-sequence filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muljadi, E.

    1998-08-25

    A variable speed wind turbine generator system to convert mechanical power into electrical power or energy and to recover the electrical power or energy in the form of three phase alternating current and return the power or energy to a utility or other load with single phase sinusoidal waveform at sixty (60) hertz and unity power factor includes an excitation controller for generating three phase commanded current, a generator, and a zero sequence filter. Each commanded current signal includes two components: a positive sequence variable frequency current signal to provide the balanced three phase excitation currents required in the stator windings of the generator to generate the rotating magnetic field needed to recover an optimum level of real power from the generator; and a zero frequency sixty (60) hertz current signal to allow the real power generated by the generator to be supplied to the utility. The positive sequence current signals are balanced three phase signals and are prevented from entering the utility by the zero sequence filter. The zero sequence current signals have zero phase displacement from each other and are prevented from entering the generator by the star connected stator windings. The zero sequence filter allows the zero sequence current signals to pass through to deliver power to the utility. 14 figs.

  9. Standing litter as a driver of interannual CO 2 exchange variability in a freshwater marsh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocha, A. V.; Potts, D. L.; Goulden, M. L.

    2008-01-01

    driving inter- annual NEP variability, Ph.D. dissertation,Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) variability at the SJFM. Weshown that the interannual NEP variability at the SJFM is

  10. Device for adapting continuously variable transmissions to infinitely variable transmissions with forward-neutral-reverse capabilities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkes, Donald F. (Albuquerque, NM); Purvis, James W. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, A. Keith (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    An infinitely variable transmission is capable of operating between a maximum speed in one direction and a minimum speed in an opposite direction, including a zero output angular velocity, while being supplied with energy at a constant angular velocity. Input energy is divided between a first power path carrying an orbital set of elements and a second path that includes a variable speed adjustment mechanism. The second power path also connects with the orbital set of elements in such a way as to vary the rate of angular rotation thereof. The combined effects of power from the first and second power paths are combined and delivered to an output element by the orbital element set. The transmission can be designed to operate over a preselected ratio of forward to reverse output speeds.

  11. Linear rank inequalities on five or more variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Randall; Zeger, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ranks of subspaces of vector spaces satisfy all linear inequalities satisfied by entropies (including the standard Shannon inequalities) and an additional inequality due to Ingleton. It is known that the Shannon and Ingleton inequalities generate all such linear rank inequalities on up to four variables, but it has been an open question whether additional inequalities hold for the case of five or more variables. Here we give a list of 24 inequalities which, together with the Shannon and Ingleton inequalities, generate all linear rank inequalities on five variables. We also give a partial list of linear rank inequalities on six variables and general results which produce such inequalities on an arbitrary number of variables; we prove that there are essentially new inequalities at each number of variables beyond four (a result also proved recently by Kinser).

  12. Control device of an infinitely variable transmission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, H.

    1987-01-27

    An automatic control system is described for a toric type infinitely variable transmission of a running vehicle, the speed of which is changed by varying a gear ratio corresponding to a running mode of the vehicle selected by a driver. The transmission comprises coaxially disposed input and output shafts with input and output disks having toroidal surfaces and respectively secured to the input and output shafts, a traction roller engaged with the toroidal surfaces of the disks, and a trunnion rotatably supporting the traction roller on a rotary shaft. The trunnion is linearly movable in the direction of a pivot axis which is perpendicular to the rotary shaft of the traction roller and is pivotable around the pivot axis so that the gear ratio between the input shaft and the output shaft may be changed. The control system comprises: a hydraulic cylinder receiving an axial end of the trunnion; and a hydraulic circuit connecting the hydraulic cylinder with a hydraulic source, the hydraulic circuit including a solenoid valve. The valve has means for repeatedly opening and closing the valve at predetermined intervals and controlling hydraulic supply to the hydraulic cylinder and thereby controlling the linear movement of the trunnion in the direction of the pivot axis so as to vary the gear ratio.

  13. The Effect of Variable Quality Fuels on Cogeneration Plant Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahner, D. J.; Oliva, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    OF VARIABLE QUALITY FUELS ON COGENERATION PLANT PERFORMANCE David J. Ahner and Joseph J. Oliva General Electric Company Schenectady, New York FUEL VARIABILITY ABSTAAcr The variable energy characteristics of solid wastes, biomass and other low grade... fuels, when utilized in cogeneration applications, introduce several addi tional plant design considerations. The effects of longer term heating value and/or quantity variabil ity of these energy sources, beyond that which can be a=olT1Jl...

  14. Control Strategies for Centrifugal Pumps with Variable Flow Rate...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This tip sheet discusses control strategies for centrifugal pumps with variable flow rate requirements in pumping systems and includes installation considerations. PUMPING SYSTEMS...

  15. Control Strategies for Centrifugal Pumps with Variable Flow Rate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    pumping applications with variable flow rate requirements, adjustable speed drives (ASDs) are an efficient control alternative to throttling or bypass methods. ASDs save energy by...

  16. Variable Valve Actuation for Advanced Mode Diesel Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Valve Actuation for Advanced Mode Diesel Combustion Variable Valve Actuation for Advanced Mode Diesel Combustion Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies...

  17. Variable Crustal Thickness In The Western Great Basin- A Compilation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    php?titleVariableCrustalThicknessInTheWesternGreatBasin-ACompilationOfOldAndNewRefractionData&oldid793047" Categories: Missing Required Information Reference...

  18. Host Lipid and Temperature as Important Screening Variables for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Temperature as Important Screening Variables for Crystallizing Integral Membrane Proteins in Lipidic Mesophases. Trials with Diacylglycerol Kinase Citation Details In-Document...

  19. 18.440 Probability and Random Variables, Spring 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, Scott

    This course introduces students to probability and random variables. Topics include distribution functions, binomial, geometric, hypergeometric, and Poisson distributions. The other topics covered are uniform, exponential, ...

  20. Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Overview * Electric Water Heating Options - Conventional Electric Water Heaters - Heat Pump Water Heaters * Air-Source * Ground-Source - Solar Thermal Water Heater * Variable...

  1. Process for applying control variables having fractal structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bullock, IV, Jonathan S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lawson, Roger L. (Oliver Springs, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A process and apparatus for the application of a control variable having a fractal structure to a body or process. The process of the present invention comprises the steps of generating a control variable having a fractal structure and applying the control variable to a body or process reacting in accordance with the control variable. The process is applicable to electroforming where first, second and successive pulsed-currents are applied to cause the deposition of material onto a substrate, such that the first pulsed-current, the second pulsed-current, and successive pulsed currents form a fractal pulsed-current waveform.

  2. Process for applying control variables having fractal structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bullock, J.S. IV; Lawson, R.L.

    1996-01-23

    A process and apparatus are disclosed for the application of a control variable having a fractal structure to a body or process. The process of the present invention comprises the steps of generating a control variable having a fractal structure and applying the control variable to a body or process reacting in accordance with the control variable. The process is applicable to electroforming where first, second and successive pulsed-currents are applied to cause the deposition of material onto a substrate, such that the first pulsed-current, the second pulsed-current, and successive pulsed currents form a fractal pulsed-current waveform. 3 figs.

  3. Multiscale modeling of spatially variable water and energy balance processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Famiglietti, J. S; Wood, E. F

    1994-01-01

    MULTISCALE WATER AND ENERGY BALANCE MODELING Wood, E. F. ,spatially variable water and energy balance processes J. S.modeling. Water and energy balance models are developed at

  4. A review of instrumental variable estimators for Mendelian randomization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burgess, Stephen; Small, Dylan S.; Thompson, Simon G.

    2015-07-13

    .pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 A review of instrumental variable estimators for Mendelian randomization Stephen Burgess 1,? Dylan S. Small 2 Simon G. Thompson 1 1 Department of Public Health and Primary Care University of Cambridge, UK 2... as instrumental variables in observational data has been termed ‘Mendelian randomization’ [6, 7]. Many reviews exist on the use of instrumental variables, in particular on the as- sumptions necessary to be an instrumental variable [8, 9], assessing the validity...

  5. Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change: A Guidance Manual...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change: A Guidance Manual for Development Planning Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Adaptation to Climate...

  6. 18.440 Probability and Random Variables, Spring 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dudley, Richard

    This course introduces students to probability and random variables. Topics include distribution functions, binomial, geometric, hypergeometric, and Poisson distributions. The other topics covered are uniform, exponential, ...

  7. Promising Technology: Variable-Air-Volume Ventilation System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Variable-air-volume (VAV) ventilation saves energy compared to a constant-air-volume (CAV) ventilation system, mainly by reducing energy consumption associated with fans.

  8. A Variational Pro jection Operator for Mapping of Internal Variables...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pro jection Operator for Mapping of Internal Variables. Authors: Mota, Alejandro ; Sun, WaiChing ; Ostien, Jakob ; Foulk, James W., III ; Long, Kevin Nicholas 1 + Show...

  9. Adaptive PCCI with Variable Orifice Injector for Low Cost High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PCCI A Micro-Variable Circular Orifice (MVCO) Fuel Injector for Zoned Low Temperature Combustion Advanced High Efficiency Clean Diesel Combustion with Low Cost for Hybrid Engines...

  10. Enabling High Efficiency Clean Combustion with Micro-Variable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (MVCO) Fuel Injector and Adaptive PCCI Key characteristics of variable orifice fuel injector are described that will extend the operation maps of early PCCI combustion...

  11. Initial testing of a variable-stroke Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thieme, L.G.

    1985-02-01

    In support of the US Department of Energy's Stirling Engine Highway Vehicle Systems Program, NASA Lewis Research Center is evaluating variable-stroke control for Stirling engines. The engine being tested is the Advenco Stirling engine; this engine was manufactured by Philips Research Laboratories of the Netherlands and uses a variable-angle swash-plate drive to achieve variable stroke operation. This report describes the engine, presents initial steady-state test data taken at Lewis, and describes a major drive system failure and subsequent modifications. Computer simulation results are presented to show potential part-load efficiency gains with variable-stroke control.

  12. Estimation and Control of Diesel Engine Processes Utilizing Variable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Valve Actuation Air handling system model for multi-cylinder variable geometry turbocharged diesel engine with cooled EGR and flexible intake valve actuation developed to...

  13. First-Principles Investigation of Nanopore Sequencing Using Variable...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    First-Principles Investigation of Nanopore Sequencing Using Variable Voltage Bias on Graphene-Based Nanoribbons Citation Details In-Document Search Title: First-Principles...

  14. ASSESSMENT OF VARIABLE EFFECTS OF SYSTEMS WITH DEMAND RESPONSE RESOURCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    ASSESSMENT OF VARIABLE EFFECTS OF SYSTEMS WITH DEMAND RESPONSE RESOURCES BY ANUPAMA SUNIL KOWLI B of consumers - called demand response resources (DRRs) - whose role has become increasingly important

  15. Multiscale modeling of spatially variable water and energy balance processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Famiglietti, J. S; Wood, E. F

    1994-01-01

    AND WOOD: MULTISCALE WATER AND ENERGY BALANCE MODELING Wood,of spatially variable water and energy balance processes J.hydrological modeling. Water and energy balance models are

  16. Sub-daily Statistical Downscaling of Meteorological Variables...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and variance that was accurate within 1% for all variables except atmospheric pressure, wind speed, and precipitation. Correlations between downscaled output and the expected...

  17. Single photon continuous variable quantum key distribution based on energy-time uncertainty relation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bing Qi

    2006-02-20

    In previous quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, information is encoded on either the discrete-variable of single-photon signal or continuous-variables of multi-photon signal. Here, we propose a new QKD protocol by encoding information on continuous-variables of a single photon. In this protocol, Alice randomly encodes her information on either the central frequency of a narrow-band single photon pulse or the time-delay of a broadband single photon pulse, while Bob randomly chooses to do either frequency measurement or time measurement. The security of this protocol rests on the energy-time uncertainty relation, which prevents Eve from simultaneously determining both frequency and time information with arbitrarily high resolution. In practice, this scheme may be more robust against various channel noises, such as polarization and phase fluctuations.

  18. Climate dynamics and fluid mechanics: Natural variability and related uncertainties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Ghil; Mickaël D. Chekroun; Eric Simonnet

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this review-and-research paper is twofold: (i) to review the role played in climate dynamics by fluid-dynamical models; and (ii) to contribute to the understanding and reduction of the uncertainties in future climate-change projections. To illustrate the first point, we focus on the large-scale, wind-driven flow of the mid-latitude oceans which contribute in a crucial way to Earth's climate, and to changes therein. We study the low-frequency variability (LFV) of the wind-driven, double-gyre circulation in mid-latitude ocean basins, via the bifurcation sequence that leads from steady states through periodic solutions and on to the chaotic, irregular flows documented in the observations. This sequence involves local, pitchfork and Hopf bifurcations, as well as global, homoclinic ones. The natural climate variability induced by the LFV of the ocean circulation is but one of the causes of uncertainties in climate projections. Another major cause of such uncertainties could reside in the structural instability in the topological sense, of the equations governing climate dynamics, including but not restricted to those of atmospheric and ocean dynamics. We propose a novel approach to understand, and possibly reduce, these uncertainties, based on the concepts and methods of random dynamical systems theory. As a very first step, we study the effect of noise on the topological classes of the Arnol'd family of circle maps, a paradigmatic model of frequency locking as occurring in the nonlinear interactions between the El Nino-Southern Oscillations (ENSO) and the seasonal cycle. It is shown that the maps' fine-grained resonant landscape is smoothed by the noise, thus permitting their coarse-grained classification. This result is consistent with stabilizing effects of stochastic parametrization obtained in modeling of ENSO phenomenon via some general circulation models.

  19. VARIABLE RISK POLICY SEARCH FOR DYNAMIC ROBOT CONTROL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    VARIABLE RISK POLICY SEARCH FOR DYNAMIC ROBOT CONTROL A Dissertation Presented by SCOTT ROBERT Copyright by Scott Robert Kuindersma 2012 All Rights Reserved #12;VARIABLE RISK POLICY SEARCH FOR DYNAMIC close col- laborators and good friends: George Konidaris and Dirk Ruiken. As the experiments

  20. Bottleneck Links, Variable Demand, and the Tragedy of the Commons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roughgarden, Tim

    Bottleneck Links, Variable Demand, and the Tragedy of the Commons Richard Cole Yevgeniy Dodis Tim of anarchy with endogenous traffic rates (and under any p path cost) is no larger than that in fixed-demand; shortest-path protocols 1 Introduction 1.1 The Price of Anarchy and Variable Demand The price of anarchy

  1. Variability in Automated Responses of Commercial Buildings and Industrial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-5129E Variability in Automated Responses of Commercial Buildings and Industrial Facilities;Variability in Automated Responses of Commercial Buildings and Industrial Facilities to Dynamic Electricity consumption of commercial buildings and industrial facilities (C&I facilities) during Demand Response (DR

  2. Instrumental Variables and the Search for Identification: From Supply and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    and demand for flaxseed, the source of linseed oil.2 Wright noted the difficulty of obtaining estimatesInstrumental Variables and the Search for Identification: From Supply and Demand to Natural variables involved attempts to estimate demand and supply curves.1 Economists such as P.G. Wright, Henry

  3. Density regulation in annual plant communities under variable resource levels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novoplansky, Ariel

    Density regulation in annual plant communities under variable resource levels Hagit Shilo. E. and Turkington, R. 2005. Density regulation in annual plant communities under variable resource levels. Á/ Oikos 108: 241Á/252. Density regulation is assumed to be common, but is very rarely tested

  4. WIND SPEED VARIABILITY AND ADAPTATION STRATEGIES IN COASTAL AREAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohfeld, Karen

    WIND SPEED VARIABILITY AND ADAPTATION STRATEGIES IN COASTAL AREAS OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST of Thesis: Wind Speed Variability and Adaptation Strategies in Coastal Areas of the Pacific Northwest/Approved: ___________________________________________ #12;iii ABSTRACT Overall, previous wind speed studies in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) present

  5. Promising Technology: Magnetic Bearing Variable-Speed Centrifugal Chillers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Magnetic bearing variable speed centrifugal chillers save energy compared to conventional chillers by eliminating friction with the magnetic bearings and by improving efficiency at partial loads with the variable speed drive. In addition to saving energy, the magnetic bearings eliminate the maintenance costs associated with lubricating conventional metal bearings.

  6. MATLAB SOFTWARE FOR DETRENDED FLUCTUATION ANALYSIS OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvalho, João Luiz

    , Heart rate variability, HRV. Abstract: The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) is an important tool for the assessment of the autonomic regulation of circulatory function. HRV analysis is usually performed using stress tests. This paper presents a Matlab tool for detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) of HRV signals

  7. Simulation and characterization of the Adriatic Sea mesoscale variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cushman-Roisin, Benoit

    Simulation and characterization of the Adriatic Sea mesoscale variability Benoit Cushman-Roisin,1 resolve the mesoscale variability because the grid size falls below the first baroclinic deformation in two larger-scale models. The present simulations demonstrate that the DieCAST model allows mesoscale

  8. High-Resolution Residential Feeder Load Characterization and Variability Modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    data. Ideally the method should be validated or updated with 1- second load data from the region-15-minute variability estimates for modeling dynamic load profiles. An autoregressive, AR(1) functionHigh-Resolution Residential Feeder Load Characterization and Variability Modelling Andrew Pohl, Jay

  9. A Second Luminous Blue Variable in the Quintuplet Cluster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    closely match those of the Pistol Star, a luminous blue variable and one of the most luminous stars known, and similarities to the Pistol Star, we conclude that FMM#362 is a luminous blue variable. Subject headings: stars & Moorwood (1994), and now known as the Pistol Star, has a luminosity of ¸ 10 7 L fi , making it one

  10. ORIGINAL PAPER Differential effects of temperature variability on the transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poulin, Robert

    , but was substantially increased in the heat wave treatment. Transmission success was highest and comparableORIGINAL PAPER Differential effects of temperature variability on the transmission of a marine the effects of temperature variability on the transmission of the intertidal trematode Maritrema

  11. A Variable Cell Model for Simulating Gas Condensate Reservoir Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Majed, Abdulaziz Abdullah

    , SPE-~~~ SPE 21428 A Variable Cell Model for Simulating Gas Condensate Reservoir Performance A of depletion performance of gas condensate reservoirs report the existence of a A variable cell model for simulating gas relatively high, near-constant, oil saturation in condensate reeervoir performance has been

  12. SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES IN FIELD SOILS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borchers, Brian

    SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES IN FIELD SOILS J.M.H. Hendrickx, B. Borchers and J detection sensors are affected by soil properties such as water content, temperature, electrical measurements in the Netherlands, Panama, and New Mexico on spatial variability of soil water content. We also

  13. Using Process Data for Finding Self-optimizing Controlled Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Using Process Data for Finding Self-optimizing Controlled Variables Johannes J¨aschke and Sigurd the process gain. It does not require a model which is optimized off-line to find the controlled variable. Keywords: Process Optimization, Control, Partial least squares, Empirical modelling, Self-optimizing

  14. Scattered Data Interpolation in Three or More Variables Peter Alfeld

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfeld, Peter

    that can be used for any number of variables as well as schemes specifically designed for three variables at the end of this paper): 1. Gravitational Field of the Earth [53]. Earth's gravitational field constitutes. The data then serve as Design Handles. 4. Oil exploration. In exploratory oil drilling an abundance of data

  15. Spatial variability of magnetic soil properties Remke L. van Dama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borchers, Brian

    sensors for land mine detection. In this paper we aim to study the spatial variability of iron oxides. Keywords: land mine detection, UXO detection, iron oxides, magnetic soils, spatial variability 1 of magnetic iron oxides in the soil can seriously hamper the performance of electromagnetic sensors

  16. Managing Variable Energy Resources to Increase Renewable Electricity's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to Better Respond to Variability? 19 How Can the Siting of Renewable Energy Projects Be Improved? 20 WhatManaging Variable Energy Resources to Increase Renewable Electricity's Contribution to the Grid P o accurately assessing and preparing for the operational effects of renewable generation. DEVElopMEnt anD DIss

  17. Control of Variable Geometry Turbocharged Diesel Engines for Reduced Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Control of Variable Geometry Turbocharged Diesel Engines for Reduced Emissions A.G. Stefanopoulouz Introduction In this paper we consider an automotive control problem for a variable geometry turbocharged (VGT torque output as compared to (non-turbocharged) naturally aspirated engines 13]. The power generated

  18. Ground surface temperatures in Canada: Spatial and temporal variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    show that the ground has warmed about 0.7 K in the last 100 years. Spatial variability is significant temperatures in Canada: Spatial and temporal variability, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(10), 1499, doi:10.1029/2003GL inferred from geothermal data have shown that the study of perturbations to the Earth's energy balance

  19. Exploring Multiwavelength AGN Variability with Swift Archival Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelbord, Jonathan; Grupe, Dirk; Berk, Dan Vanden; Wu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    We are conducting an archival Swift program to measure multiwavelength variability in active galactic nuclei (AGN). This variability information will provide constraints on the geometry, physical conditions and processes of the structures around the central black holes that emit and reprocess the observed flux. Among our goals are: (1) to produce a catalog of type 1 AGN with time-resolved multi-wavelength data; (2) to characterize variability in the optical, UV and X-ay bands as well as changes in spectral slope; (3) to quantify the impact of variability on multi-wavelength properties; and (4) to measure correlated variability between bands. Our initial efforts have revealed a UVOT calibration issue that can cause a few percent of measured UV fluxes to be anomalously low, by up to 30%.

  20. Autonomic effects of refractory epilepsy on heart rate variability in children: influence of intermittent vagus nerve stimulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HRV Heart rate variability LFnu Low-frequency normalized units SWS Slow-wave sleep VNS Vagus nerve to be responsible for the therapeutic effect of VNS. Heart rate variability (HRV) is defined as the fluctuation there is still a relatively large influence of the sympathetic branch on HRV. In typically developing individuals

  1. Market Designs for High Levels of Variable Generation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Orths, A.; Lynch, M.; Soder, L.

    2014-10-01

    Variable renewable generation is increasing in penetration in modern power systems, leading to higher variability in the supply and price of electricity as well as lower average spot prices. This raises new challenges, particularly in ensuring sufficient capacity and flexibility from conventional technologies. Because the fixed costs and lifetimes of electricity generation investments are significant, designing markets and regulations that ensure the efficient integration of renewable generation is a significant challenge. This papers reviews the state of play of market designs for high levels of variable generation in the United States and Europe and considers new developments in both regions.

  2. The Chern-Simons Number as a Dynamical Variable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tye, S -H Henry

    2016-01-01

    In the standard electroweak theory that describes nature, the Chern-Simons number associated with the vacua as well as the unstable sphaleron solutions play a crucial role in the baryon number violating processes. We recall why the Chern-Simons number should be generalized from a set of discrete values to a dynamical (quantum) variable. Via the construction of an appropriate Hopf invariant and the winding number, we discuss how the geometric information in the gauge fields is also captured in the Higgs field. We then discuss the choice of the Hopf variable in relation to the Chern-Simons variable.

  3. Turbo-generator control with variable valve actuation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vuk, Carl T. (Denver, IA)

    2011-02-22

    An internal combustion engine incorporating a turbo-generator and one or more variably activated exhaust valves. The exhaust valves are adapted to variably release exhaust gases from a combustion cylinder during a combustion cycle to an exhaust system. The turbo-generator is adapted to receive exhaust gases from the exhaust system and rotationally harness energy therefrom to produce electrical power. A controller is adapted to command the exhaust valve to variably open in response to a desired output for the turbo-generator.

  4. A CO(3-2) Survey of Nearby Mira Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Young

    1995-01-09

    A survey of CO(3-2) emission from optically visible oxygen-rich Mira variable stars within 500 pc of the sun was conducted. A molecular envelope was detected surrounding 36 of the 66 stars examined. Some of these stars have lower outflow velocities than any Miras previously detected in CO. The average terminal velocity of the ejected material was 7.0 km/sec, about half the value found in Miras selected by infrared criteria. None of the stars with spectral types earlier than M 5.5 were detected. The terminal velocity increases as the temperature of the stellar photosphere decreases, as would be expected for a radiation driven wind. Mass loss rates for the detected objects were calculated, and it was found that there is no correlation between the infrared color of a Mira variable, and its mass loss rate. The mass loss rate is correlated with the far infrared luminosity, although a few stars appear to have extensive dust envelopes without any detectable molecular wind. A power-law relationship is found to hold between the mass loss rate and the terminal velocity of the ejected material. This relationship indicates that the dust envelope should be optically thick in the near infrared and visible regions of the spectrum when the outflow velocity is > 17 km/sec. At the low end of the range of outflow velocities seen, the dust drift velocity may be high enough to lead to the destruction of the grains via sputtering. Half of the stars which were detected were re-observed in the CO(4-3) transition. A comparison of the outflow velocities obtained from these observations with those obtained by other investigators at lower frequencies shows no evidence for gradual acceleration of the outer molecular envelope.

  5. The variability of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The variability of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India* A.L. Ganesan of methane, nitrous oxide and sulfur hexafluoride in Northeast India A. L. Ganesan1, A. Chatterjee2, R. G-frequency atmospheric measurements of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and sulfur hexafluo- ride (SF6) from Darjeeling

  6. Tuning the Fluorescence Emission Spectra of a Single Molecule with a Variable Optical Subwavelength Metal Microcavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enderlein, Jörg

    Tuning the Fluorescence Emission Spectra of a Single Molecule with a Variable Optical Subwavelength on changing the fluorescence emission spectrum of a single molecule by embedding it within a tunable planar and coupling are both frequency dependent, this leads to a renormalization of the emission spectrum

  7. Variable temperature Raman microscopy as a nanometrology tool for graphene layers and graphene-based devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Variable temperature Raman microscopy as a nanometrology tool for graphene layers and graphene; accepted 24 July 2007; published online 15 August 2007 Raman microscopy of graphene was carried out over-band frequencies extracted from Raman spectra of the single-layer graphene are - 1.6±0.2 10-2 cm-1 /K and - 3

  8. Energetics of wind-driven barotropic variability in the Southern Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griesel, Alexa

    Energetics of wind-driven barotropic variability in the Southern Ocean by Wilbert Weijer1-frequency wind forcing. A constant-density, multi-layer model is forced with a band of stochastically varying wind stress. The focus is on the interplay between the surface layer and the interior circulation

  9. Patterns and Scales of Phytoplankton Variability in EstuarineCoastal Ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    next steps of comparative analysis: large year-to-year variability is a response to disturbance from-specific relative importance of disturbance, annual climatology, and nutrient enrichment. Keywords Estuaries, and it is strongly shaped (and biased) by the frequency, duration, and geographic regions of our obser- vations

  10. SYNTHESIS Disturbance-driven changes in the variability of ecological patterns and processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraterrigo, Jennifer

    by considering disturbance extent, frequency and intensity, as well as ecosystem recovery, and thereby capturesREVIEW AND SYNTHESIS Disturbance-driven changes in the variability of ecological patterns Understanding how disturbance shapes the dynamics of ecological systems is of fundamental importance in ecology

  11. The Interannual Variability of Tropical Precipitation and Interhemispheric Energy Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donohoe, Aaron

    The interannual variability of the location of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) is strongly (R = 0.75) correlated with the atmospheric heat transport across the equator (AHTEQ) over the satellite era (1979–2009). ...

  12. Quasar Variability Measurements With SDSS Repeated Imaging and POSS Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z Ivezic; R. H. Lupton; M. Juric; S. Anderson; P. B. Hall; G. T. Richards; C. M. Rockosi; D. E. Vanden Berk; E. L. Turner; G. R. Knapp; J. E. Gunn; D. Schlegel; M. A. Strauss; D. P. Schneider

    2004-04-26

    We analyze the properties of quasar variability using repeated SDSS imaging data in five UV-to-far red photometric bands, accurate to 0.02 mag, for 13,000 spectroscopically confirmed quasars. The observed time lags span the range from 3 hours to over 3 years, and constrain the quasar variability for rest-frame time lags of up to two years, and at rest-frame wavelengths from 1000 Ang. to 6000 Ang. We demonstrate that 66,000 SDSS measurements of magnitude differences can be described within the measurement noise by a simple function of only three free parameters. The addition of POSS data constrains the long-term behavior of quasar variability and provides evidence for a turn-over in the structure function. This turn-over indicates that the characteristic time scale for optical variability of quasars is of the order 1 year.

  13. Market Design Simulations with Variable Energy Resources (VERs) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ela, E.

    2011-06-01

    Presented at the FERC Technical Conference, 29 June 2011, Washington, D.C. This presentation describes NREL research regarding variable generation resources, operating reserves, unit commitment, economic dispatch, and introduces a new and novel modeling tool called 'FESTIV.'

  14. Effects of variable wind stress on ocean heat content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klima, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Ocean heat content change (ocean heat uptake) has an important role in variability of the Earth's heat balance. The understanding of which methods and physical processes control ocean heat uptake needs improvement in order ...

  15. Linking Siberian Snow Cover to Precursors of Stratospheric Variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Judah

    Previous research has linked wintertime Arctic Oscillation (AO) variability to indices of Siberian snow cover and upward wave activity flux in the preceding fall season. Here, daily data are used to examine the surface and ...

  16. A Topography-Preserving Latent Variable Model with Learning Metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaski, Samuel

    A Topography-Preserving Latent Variable Model with Learning Metrics Samuel Kaski and Janne grid to the input spa- ce. The mapping preserves the topography but measures local distances in terms

  17. Variable speed pumping: A guide to successful applications - Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2004-05-01

    This document is the result of a collaboration between the Hydraulic Institute, Europump, and the U.S. DOE Industrial Technologies Program, and describes the cost and energy savings potential of pumping applications with variable duty requirements.

  18. Production-Intent Lost-Motion Variable Valve Actuation Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Variable valve actuation with on/off IEGR pre-bump is an enabling technology for HCCI, PCCI, LTC and other advanced combustion techniques, and designs for production-intent equipment have been developed

  19. Multi-variable optimization of pressurized oxy-coal combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zebian, Hussam

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous multi-variable gradient-based optimization with multi-start is performed on a 300 MWe wet-recycling pressurized oxy-coal combustion process with carbon capture and sequestration. The model accounts for realistic ...

  20. The variability of warm absorbers in Active Galactic Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson, Robert R. (Robert Ross)

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents three studies of warm (photoionized) absorber variability in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) using high-resolution X-ray spectra provided by the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG). The first ...

  1. Reduction of tropical land region precipitation variability via transpiration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jung-Eun

    Tropical rainforests are known to exhibit low intraseasonal precipitation variability compared with oceanic areas with similar mean precipitation in observations and models. In the present study, the potential role of ...

  2. Impact of geometric variability on compressor repeating-stage performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent, Antoine, 1979-

    2003-01-01

    The impact of geometric variability on compressor performance is investigated using a compressor repeating-stage model based on well-known correlations for profile losses, endwall blockage, deviation, and the onset of ...

  3. An investigation to determine appropriate abbreviations for variable message signs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hustad, Marc William

    1998-01-01

    New Jersey transportation agencies currently display messages with abbreviations because of limited line capacities on variable message signs (VMSs). Abbreviations, however, are generally less understood than words and there was a need to evaluate...

  4. Outline for Linear Equations and Inequalities of 2 variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    charlotb

    2010-04-15

    Outline for Linear Equations and Inequalities of 2 variables. A. 1. Substitute any value for x in the equation and solve for y. This results in a point (x, y). OR.

  5. The Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit for space habitation and exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Rebecca (Rebecca Ann)

    2014-01-01

    The Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) is a countermeasure suit for sensorimotor adaptation and musculoskeletal deconditioning in microgravity. The V2suit will consist of modules containing arrays of control ...

  6. Experimental Evaluation of Latent Variable Models for Dimensionality Reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carreira-Perpinan, Miguel A; Renals, Steve

    1998-01-01

    We use electropalatographic (EPG) data as a test bed for dimensionality reduction methods based in latent variable modelling, in which an underlying lower dimension representation is inferred directly from the data. Several ...

  7. Studies of climate variability in a simple coupled model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abiven, Claude

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms of variability of a coupled atmosphere-ocean model are investigated through the study of two coupled configurations: an aquaplanet in which gyres are absent, and an aquaplanet in which a ridge extending from ...

  8. Quantifying the Variable Effects of Systems with Demand Response Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    Quantifying the Variable Effects of Systems with Demand Response Resources Anupama Kowli and George in the electricity industry. In particular, there is a new class of consumers, called demand response resources (DRRs

  9. Precipitation Research at UMN: Multiscale variability and Uncertainty in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    Precipitation Research at UMN: Multiscale variability and Uncertainty in Rainfall Estimation Developing nonparametric schemes for merging multisensor precipitation products Gupta, R., V. Venugopal and E. Foufoula-Georgiou, A methodology for merging multisensor precipitation estimates based on expectation

  10. On a possible approach to the variable-mass problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilhelm I. Fushchych; Ivan Yu. Krivsky

    2002-06-11

    The mass operator M is introduced as an independent dynamical variable which is taken as the translation generator P_4 of the inhomogenous De Sitter group. The classification of representations of the algebra P(1,4) of this group is performed and the corresponding P(1,4) invariant equations for variable-mass particles are written out. In this way we have succeeded, in particular, in uniting the ``external'' and ``internal'' (SU_2) symmetries in a non-trivial fashion.

  11. Cepheid Variables in M33 and the Extragalactic Distance Scale 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradshaw, Andrew K.

    2010-01-16

    , they can be used to determine distances to nearby galaxies and calibrate secondary distance indicators, such as type Ia supernovae. A detailed study of Cepheids in nearby galaxies is required in order to properly characterize their properties and variations... be related to other more fundamental quantities. The name ?variable star? can refer to a wide variety of objects, including supernovae, eclipsing binary stars, or even transiting planets. However, this thesis will be focused on a speci c type of variable star...

  12. Coefficient quantization effects in block state variable digital filters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kab Joo

    1991-01-01

    COEFFICIENT QUANTIZATION EFFECTS IN BLOCK STATE VARIABLE DIGITAL FILTERS A Thesis by KAB JOO LEE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1991 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering COEFFICIENT QIJANTIZATIOU EFFECTS IN l3LOCI~ STATE VARIABLE DIGITAL FILTERS A Thesis hs IiAB JOO LEE Approved as to style and content by: WVilliam G. )3liss (Chair of Comnaittee) Norman C...

  13. A renewed search for water maser emission from Mira variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. M. Lewis

    1997-06-20

    There is an approximately 60% detection rate for 1612 MHz masers in association with red, color-selected IRAS sources, though few are detected from the bluer circumstellar shells of Mira variables. On the other hand and complementarily, past, pre-IRAS 22 GHz surveys detected many water masers in association with Mira variables. This paper reports on a 22 GHz survey of blue, color-selected Miras at Haystack, wherein 18 new detections are found from 238 searched objects.

  14. Variable Renewable Energy: a Regulatory Roadmap (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    There is not a one-size-fits-all approach to the regulation of variable renewable energy (VRE), but international experience reveals many approaches that are proving successful. Drawing upon research and experiences from various international contexts, the 21st Century Power Partnership in conjunction with the Clean Energy Solutions Center and Clean Energy Regulators Initiative identified key issues and ideas that have emerged as variable deployment has grown. The Power Partnership research, published in 2014, identified four broad categories of regulatory issues.

  15. An examination of internally generated variability in long climate simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, E.K.; Kinter, J.L. III [Inst. of Global Environment and Society, Calverton, MD (United States)

    1994-09-01

    General circulation model experiments designed to estimate the magnitude and structure of internally generated variability and to help understand the mechanisms underlying this variability are described. The experiments consist of three multi-century integrations of a rhomboidal 15, 9 level, version of the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies atmospheric general circulation model: a run with fixed sea surface temperatures and equinox solar radiation, a run with seasonally varying climatological sea surface temperatures and seasonally varying solar forcing, and a run with seasonally varying solar forcing in which the state of the ocean is predicted by a 3{degree} by 3{degree}, 16 vertical level, nearly global domain version of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Modular Ocean Model. No flux correction is used in the coupled model integration. Selected surface fields of the three runs are compared to each other as well as to the observed climate. Statistical properties of variability on interannual time scales are compared between the runs. Evidence is presented that climate time scale variability in the simulations is produced by random weather time scale forcing due to the integrating effect of elements of the system with long memories. The importance of ocean variability for land climate variability is demonstrated and attributed to both the memory effect and coupled atmosphere-ocean instability. 40 refs., 23 figs.

  16. VARIABILITY OF OPTICAL COUNTERPARTS IN THE CHANDRA GALACTIC BULGE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britt, C. T.; Hynes, R. I.; Johnson, C. B.; Baldwin, A.; Collazzi, A.; Gossen, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Jonker, P. G.; Torres, M. A. P. [SRON, Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Nelemans, G. [Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Maccarone, T. [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Box 41051, Science Building, Lubbock, TX 79409-1051 (United States); Steeghs, D.; Greiss, S. [Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Heinke, C. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-183, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Bassa, C. G. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Villar, A. [Department of Physics, Massachussettes Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Gabb, M. [Department of Physics, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431-0991 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We present optical light curves of variable stars consistent with the positions of X-ray sources identified with the Chandra X-ray Observatory for the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS). Using data from the Mosaic-II instrument on the Blanco 4 m Telescope at CTIO, we gathered time-resolved photometric data on timescales from ?2 hr to 8 days over the 3/4 of the X-ray survey containing sources from the initial GBS catalog. Among the light curve morphologies we identify are flickering in interacting binaries, eclipsing sources, dwarf nova outbursts, ellipsoidal variations, long period variables, spotted stars, and flare stars. Eighty-seven percent of X-ray sources have at least one potential optical counterpart. Twenty-seven percent of these candidate counterparts are detectably variable; a much greater fraction than expected for randomly selected field stars, which suggests that most of these variables are real counterparts. We discuss individual sources of interest, provide variability information on candidate counterparts, and discuss the characteristics of the variable population.

  17. Quantifying the source of reentrant line variability and the effects of processes standardization on tool availability variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peavey, Milo Camp

    2007-01-01

    This thesis quantifies the sensitivity of tool availability variability with respect to product throughput and examines how Intel's High Precision Maintenance initiative can be used to minimize these effects. Tools with ...

  18. Variable current speed controller for eddy current motors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerth, H.L.; Bailey, J.M.; Casstevens, J.M.; Dixon, J.H.; Griffith, B.O.; Igou, R.E.

    1982-03-12

    A speed control system for eddy current motors is provided in which the current to the motor from a constant frequency power source is varied by comparing the actual motor speed signal with a setpoint speed signal to control the motor speed according to the selected setpoint speed. A three-phase variable voltage autotransformer is provided for controlling the voltage from a three-phase power supply. A corresponding plurality of current control resistors is provided in series with each phase of the autotransformer output connected to inputs of a three-phase motor. Each resistor is connected in parallel with a set of normally closed contacts of plurality of relays which are operated by control logic. A logic circuit compares the selected speed with the actual motor speed obtained from a digital tachometer monitoring the motor spindle speed and operated the relays to add or substract resistance equally in each phase of the motor input to vary the motor current to control the motor at the selected speed.

  19. Estimating the age of alleles by use of intraallelic variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slatkin, M.; Rannala, B.

    1997-02-01

    A method is presented for estimating the age of an allele by use of its frequency and the extent of variation among different copies. The method uses the joint distribution of the number of copies in a population sample and the coalescence times of the intraallelic gene genealogy conditioned on the number of copies. The linear birth-death process is used to approximate the dynamics of a rare allele in a finite population. A maximum-likelihood estimate of the age of the allele is obtained by Monte Carlo integration over the coalescence times. The method is applied to two alleles at the cystic fibrosis (CFTR) locus, {Delta}F508 and G542X, for which intraallelic variability at three intronic microsatellite loci has been examined. Our results indicate that G542X is somewhat older than {Delta}F508. Although absolute estimates depend on the mutation rates at the microsatellite loci, our results support the hypothesis that {Delta}F508 arose <500 generations ({approx}10,000 years) ago. 32 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Term Variability of Solar Power. , 2010. [20] A. Mills, M.Term Variability of Solar Power, LBNL Report No. 3884E, (Term Variability of Solar Power. , 2010. [7] R. Perez, S.

  1. A PHOTOMETRICALLY AND MORPHOLOGICALLY VARIABLE INFRARED NEBULA IN L483

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connelley, Michael S. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Hodapp, Klaus W. [University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy, 640 N. Aohoku Pl., Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Fuller, Gary A. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    We present narrow and broad K-band observations of the Class 0/I source IRAS 18148-0440 that span 17 years. The infrared nebula associated with this protostar in the L483 dark cloud is both morphologically and photometrically variable on a timescale of only a few months. This nebula appears to be an infrared analog to other well known optically visible variable nebulae associated with young stars, such as Hubble's Variable Nebula. Along with Cepheus A, this is one of the first large variable nebulae to be found that is only visible in the infrared. The variability of this nebula is most likely due to changing illumination of the cloud rather than any motion of the structure in the nebula. Both morphological and photometric changes are observed on a timescale only a few times longer than the light crossing time of the nebula, suggesting very rapid intrinsic changes in the illumination of the nebula. Our narrowband observations also found that H{sub 2} knots are found nearly twice as far to the east of the source as to its west, and that H{sub 2} emission extends farther east of the source than the previously known CO outflow.

  2. H\\alpha\\ Emission Variability in Active M Dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Keaton J; Davenport, James R A; Hawley, Suzanne L; West, Andrew A; Rogel, Allen B

    2011-01-01

    We use ~12,000 spectra of ~3,500 magnetically active M0-M9 dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey taken at 10-15 minute intervals, together with ~300 spectra of ~60 M0-M8 stars obtained hourly with the Hydra multi-object spectrometer, to probe H\\alpha\\ variability on timescales of minutes to weeks. With multiple observations for every star examined, we are able to characterize fluctuations in H\\alpha emission as a function of activity strength and spectral type. Stars with greater magnetic activity (as quantified by L_H\\alpha/L_bol) are found to be less variable at all spectral types. We attribute this result to the stronger level of persistent emission in the high activity stars, requiring a larger heating event in order to produce measurable variability. We also construct H\\alpha\\ structure functions to constrain the timescale of variability. The more active objects with lower variability exhibit a characteristic timescale longer than an hour, likely due to larger, longer lasting heating events, while the...

  3. Superconducting fault current-limiter with variable shunt impedance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Llambes, Juan Carlos H; Xiong, Xuming

    2013-11-19

    A superconducting fault current-limiter is provided, including a superconducting element configured to resistively or inductively limit a fault current, and one or more variable-impedance shunts electrically coupled in parallel with the superconducting element. The variable-impedance shunt(s) is configured to present a first impedance during a superconducting state of the superconducting element and a second impedance during a normal resistive state of the superconducting element. The superconducting element transitions from the superconducting state to the normal resistive state responsive to the fault current, and responsive thereto, the variable-impedance shunt(s) transitions from the first to the second impedance. The second impedance of the variable-impedance shunt(s) is a lower impedance than the first impedance, which facilitates current flow through the variable-impedance shunt(s) during a recovery transition of the superconducting element from the normal resistive state to the superconducting state, and thus, facilitates recovery of the superconducting element under load.

  4. Control of entity interactions in a hierarchical variable resolution simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, D.R.

    1997-08-01

    There has long been interest in variable resolution modeling to support military analysis for a broad range of interest areas. Despite the ever-present desire for models of greater fidelity at the expense of analysis and computation resources, models of moderate to low fidelity are still required at many levels of decision-making. Problems can arise due to the issue of consistency among the family of models used for analysis. To address this and other problems, models of variable resolution have been suggested. However, such variable resolution architectures inherently carry their own set of issues which must be resolved in order to be useful. First, what are the structural requirements for a variable resolution model; and second, how are interactions between entities governed, especially when the entities have different resolutions? This paper addresses these issues and discusses key mechanisms needed to develop a variable resolution combat simulation that meets several core requirements for such models: seamless aggregation/disaggregation, appropriate interactions between entities of differing resolution, and control of the aggregation/disaggregation process.

  5. Control of entity interactions in a hierarchical variable resolution simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, D.R.

    1997-10-01

    There has long been interest in variable resolution modeling to support military analysis for a broad range of interest areas. Despite the ever-present desire for models of greater fidelity at the expense of analysis and computation resources, models of moderate to low fidelity are still required at many levels of decision-making. Problems can arise due to the issue of consistency among the family of models used for analysis. To address this and other problems, models of variable resolution have been suggested. However, such variable resolution architectures inherently carry their own set of issues which must be resolved in order to be useful. First, what are the structural requirements for a variable resolution model; and second, how are interactions between entities governed, especially when the entities have different resolutions? This paper addresses these issues and discusses key mechanisms needed to develop a variable resolution combat simulation that meets several core requirements for such models: seamless aggregation/disaggregation, appropriate interactions between entities of differing resolution, and control of the aggregation/disaggregation process.

  6. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tainzhen

    2010-01-01

    Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigeranttheir superior energy efficiency. The variable refrigerantfew studies reporting the energy efficiency of VRF systems

  7. Effect of ocean mesoscale variability on the mean state of tropical Atlantic climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, H; Jochum, M; Murtugudde, R; Miller, A J

    2006-01-01

    Effect of Ocean Mesoscale Variability on the Mean State ofthe effect of oceanic mesoscale features on the mean climatemodel, resolving oceanic mesoscale variability leads to a

  8. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of Distributed PV, American Solar Energy Society,Simulating the Reduction in PV Powerplant Variability due to8] T. Hoff, R. Perez, Modeling PV Fleet Output Variability,

  9. Characterization and analysis of process variability in deeply-scaled MOSFETs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balakrishnan, Karthik, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Variability characterization and analysis in advanced technologies are needed to ensure robust performance as well as improved process capability. This thesis presents a framework for device variability characterization ...

  10. Quantum simulation of quantum field theory using continuous variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kevin Marshall; Raphael Pooser; George Siopsis; Christian Weedbrook

    2015-03-27

    Much progress has been made in the field of quantum computing using continuous variables over the last couple of years. This includes the generation of extremely large entangled cluster states (10,000 modes, in fact) as well as a fault tolerant architecture. This has led to the point that continuous-variable quantum computing can indeed be thought of as a viable alternative for universal quantum computing. With that in mind, we present a new algorithm for continuous-variable quantum computers which gives an exponential speedup over the best known classical methods. Specifically, this relates to efficiently calculating the scattering amplitudes in scalar bosonic quantum field theory, a problem that is believed to be hard using a classical computer. Building on this, we give an experimental implementation based on cluster states that is feasible with today's technology.

  11. Delaunay variables approach to the elimination of the perigee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Lara; Juan F. San-Juan; Luis M. López-Ochoa

    2015-03-11

    Analytical integration in Artificial Satellite Theory may benefit from different canonical simplification techniques, like the elimination of the parallax, the relegation of the nodes, or the elimination of the perigee. These techniques were originally devised in polar-nodal variables, an approach that requires expressing the geopotential as a Pfaffian function in certain invariants of the Kepler problem. However, it has been recently shown that such sophisticated mathematics are not needed if implementing both the relegation of the nodes and the parallax elimination directly in Delaunay variables. Proceeding analogously, it is shown here how the elimination of the perigee can be carried out also in Delaunay variables. In this way the construction of the simplification algorithm becomes elementary, on one hand, and the computation of the transformation series is achieved with considerable savings, on the other, reducing the total number of terms of the elimination of the perigee to about one third of the number of terms required in the classical approach.

  12. Integration of Variable Generation and Cost-Causation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Variable renewable energy generation sources, such as wind and solar energy, provide benefits such as reduced environmental impact, zero fuel consumption, and low and stable costs. Advances in both technologies can reduce capital costs and provide significant control capabilities. However, their variability and uncertainty - which change with weather conditions, time of day, and season - can cause an increase in power system operating costs compared to a fully controllable power plant. Although a number of studies have assessed integration costs, calculating them correctly is challenging because it is difficult to accurately develop a baseline scenario without variable generation that properly accounts for the energy value. It is also difficult to appropriately allocate costs given the complex, nonlinear interactions between resources and loads.

  13. The role of an accretion disk in AGN variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Czerny

    2004-09-10

    Optically thick accretion disks are considered to be important ingredients of luminous AGN. The claim of their existence is well supported by observations and recent years brought some progress in understanding of their dynamics. However, the role of accretion disks in optical/UV/X-ray variability of AGN is not quite clear. Most probably, in short timescales the disk reprocesses the variable X-ray flux but at longer timescales the variations of the disk structure lead directly to optical/UV variations as well as affect, or even create, the X-ray variability pattern. We urgently need a considerable progress in time-dependent disk models to close the gap between the theory and the stream of data coming from the AGN monitoring.

  14. A simple model for 1/f spectra in heart rate variability James P. Gleesona and Aneta Stefanovskab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gleeson, James P.

    , Lancaster, LA1 4YB, UK. ABSTRACT Heart rate variability (HRV) measures cycle-to-cycle correlations of a sum of uncoupled sinusoidal oscillators with slightly different frequencies, has a HRV spectrum with a 1/f scaling over a range of frequencies. This implies that the appearance of 1/f HRV spectra

  15. 882 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 47, NO. 6, JUNE 1999 State-Variable-Based Transient Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    , circuit transient analysis, convolution, nonlinear circuits, solitons, state variables. I. INTRODUCTION TRANSIENT analysis of distributed microwave circuits is complicated by the inability of frequency, the linear part of a microwave circuit is described in the frequency domain by network parameters, especially

  16. Analysis of MERCATOR data Part I: variable B stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. De Cat; M. Briquet; C. Aerts; K. Goossens; S. Saesen; J. Cuypers; K. Yakut; R. Scuflaire; M. -A. Dupret; many observers

    2005-11-08

    We re-classified 31 variable B stars which were observed more than 50 times in the Geneva photometric system with the P7 photometer attached to the MERCATOR telescope (La Palma) during its first 3 years of scientific observations. HD89688 is a possible beta Cephei/slowly pulsating B star hybrid and the main mode of the COROT target HD180642 shows non-linear effects. The Maia candidates are re-classified as either ellipsoidal variables or spotted stars. Although the mode identification is still ongoing, all the well-identified modes so far have a degree l = 0, 1 or 2.

  17. Anisotropic Cosmological Model with Variable G and Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. K. Tripathy; D. Behera; T. R. Routray

    2015-01-12

    Anisotropic Bianchi-III cosmological model is investigated with variable gravitational and cosmological constants in the framework of Einstein's general relativity. The shear scalar is considered to be proportional to the expansion scalar. The dynamics of the anisotropic universe with variable G and Lambda are discussed. Without assuming any specific forms for Lambda and the metric potentials, we have tried to extract the time variation of G and Lambda from the anisotropic model. The extracted G and Lambda are in conformity with the present day observation. Basing upon the observational limits, the behaviour and range of the effective equation of state parameter are discussed.

  18. Efficient Classical Simulation of Continuous Variable Quantum Information Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen D. Bartlett; Barry C. Sanders; Samuel L. Braunstein; Kae Nemoto

    2002-02-18

    We obtain sufficient conditions for the efficient simulation of a continuous variable quantum algorithm or process on a classical computer. The resulting theorem is an extension of the Gottesman-Knill theorem to continuous variable quantum information. For a collection of harmonic oscillators, any quantum process that begins with unentangled Gaussian states, performs only transformations generated by Hamiltonians that are quadratic in the canonical operators, and involves only measurements of canonical operators (including finite losses) and suitable operations conditioned on these measurements can be simulated efficiently on a classical computer.

  19. Optical and X-ray Variability of Blazars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, A C

    2015-01-01

    Here we report our recent results of variability studies in optical and X-ray bands of three blazars namely 3C 273, PKS 2155 - 304 and BL Lacertae with XMM-Newton. We found large amplitude optical to X-rays variability in 3C 273, and PKS 2155 - 304 on year time scale. In 3C 273, we noticed that synchrotron cooling and particle acceleration are at work at different epoch of observations. In PKS 2155 - 304, spectral energy distribution from optical to X-ray is fitted with LPPL (log parabolic + power law) model. In BL Lacertae, optical flux and degree of polarization were anti-correlated.

  20. NREL Variability and Reserves Analysis for the Western Interconnect (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; King, J.

    2011-10-01

    Additional variability and uncertainty increase reserve requirements. In this light, this presentation discusses how use of generation reserves can be optimized for managing variability and uncertainty. Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Provided a method for calculating additional reserve requirements due to wind and solar production; (2) Method is based on statistical analysis of historical time series data; (3) Reserves are dynamic, produced for each hour; (4) Reserve time series are calculated from and synchronized to simulation data; (5) PROMOD can not model directly, but workarounds exist for regulation and spin; and (6) Other production modeling packages have varying capability for reserves modeling.

  1. Periodic Photometric Variability in the Becklin-Neugebauer Object

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynne A. Hillenbrand; John M. Carpenter; M. F. Skrutskie

    2000-10-24

    The Becklin-Neugebauer (BN) object in the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) is a well-studied optically invisible, infrared-bright young stellar object, thought to be an intermediate-mass protostar. We report here that BN exhibited nearly-sinusoidal periodic variability at the near-infrared H- and Ks-bands during a one month observing campaign in 2000 March/April. The period was 8.28 days and the peak-to-peak amplitude ~0.2 mag. Plausible mechanisms for producing the observed variability characteristics are explored.

  2. Thermoelectric power generator for variable thermal power source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2015-04-14

    Traditional power generation systems using thermoelectric power generators are designed to operate most efficiently for a single operating condition. The present invention provides a power generation system in which the characteristics of the thermoelectrics, the flow of the thermal power, and the operational characteristics of the power generator are monitored and controlled such that higher operation efficiencies and/or higher output powers can be maintained with variably thermal power input. Such a system is particularly beneficial in variable thermal power source systems, such as recovering power from the waste heat generated in the exhaust of combustion engines.

  3. Using the bootstrap to analyze variable stars data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunlap, Mickey Paul

    2005-02-17

    -1 USING THE BOOTSTRAP TO ANALYZE VARIABLE STARS DATA A Dissertation by MICKEY P. DUNLAP Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfifllment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2004... Major Subject: Statistics USING THE BOOTSTRAP TO ANALYZE VARIABLE STARS DATA A Dissertation by MICKEY P. DUNLAP Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfifllment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved as to style...

  4. The Impact of Soil Sampling Errors on Variable Rate Fertilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. L. Hoskinson; R C. Rope; L G. Blackwood; R D. Lee; R K. Fink

    2004-07-01

    Variable rate fertilization of an agricultural field is done taking into account spatial variability in the soil’s characteristics. Most often, spatial variability in the soil’s fertility is the primary characteristic used to determine the differences in fertilizers applied from one point to the next. For several years the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been developing a Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) to determine the economically optimum recipe of various fertilizers to apply at each site in a field, based on existing soil fertility at the site, predicted yield of the crop that would result (and a predicted harvest-time market price), and the current costs and compositions of the fertilizers to be applied. Typically, soil is sampled at selected points within a field, the soil samples are analyzed in a lab, and the lab-measured soil fertility of the point samples is used for spatial interpolation, in some statistical manner, to determine the soil fertility at all other points in the field. Then a decision tool determines the fertilizers to apply at each point. Our research was conducted to measure the impact on the variable rate fertilization recipe caused by variability in the measurement of the soil’s fertility at the sampling points. The variability could be laboratory analytical errors or errors from variation in the sample collection method. The results show that for many of the fertility parameters, laboratory measurement error variance exceeds the estimated variability of the fertility measure across grid locations. These errors resulted in DSS4Ag fertilizer recipe recommended application rates that differed by up to 138 pounds of urea per acre, with half the field differing by more than 57 pounds of urea per acre. For potash the difference in application rate was up to 895 pounds per acre and over half the field differed by more than 242 pounds of potash per acre. Urea and potash differences accounted for almost 87% of the cost difference. The sum of these differences could result in a $34 per acre cost difference for the fertilization. Because of these differences, better analysis or better sampling methods may need to be done, or more samples collected, to ensure that the soil measurements are truly representative of the field’s spatial variability.

  5. Implementing the DC Mode in Cosmological Simulations with Supercomoving Variables

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y; Kravtsov, Andrey V; Rudd, Douglas H

    2011-06-02

    As emphasized by previous studies, proper treatment of the density fluctuation on the fundamental scale of a cosmological simulation volume - the 'DC mode' - is critical for accurate modeling of spatial correlations on scales ~> 10% of simulation box size. We provide further illustration of the effects of the DC mode on the abundance of halos in small boxes and show that it is straightforward to incorporate this mode in cosmological codes that use the 'supercomoving' variables. The equations governing evolution of dark matter and baryons recast with these variables are particularly simple and include the expansion factor, andmore »hence the effect of the DC mode, explicitly only in the Poisson equation.« less

  6. Concerning the variability of beta-decay measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. A. Sturrock; E. Fischbach; A. Parkhomov; J. D. Scargle; G. Steinitz

    2015-10-20

    Many experiments have been carried out to study the beta-decay rates of a variety of nuclides, and many - but not all - of these experiments yield evidence of variability of these rates. While there is as yet no accepted theory to explain patterns in the results, a number of conjectures have been proposed. We discuss three prominent conjectures (which are not mutually exclusive) - that variability of beta-decay rates may be due to (a) environmental influences, (b) solar neutrinos, and (c) cosmic neutrinos. We find evidence in support of each of these conjectures.

  7. OS45G-07SHALLOW AND DEEP CURRENT VARIABILITY IN THE KUROSHIO EXTENSIONSHALLOW AND DEEP CURRENT VARIABILITY IN THE KUROSHIO EXTENSIONSHALLOW AND DEEP CURRENT VARIABILITY IN THE KUROSHIO EXTENSION Karen L. Tracey*, D. Randolph Watts, Kathleen A. Donohue and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    OS45G-07SHALLOW AND DEEP CURRENT VARIABILITY IN THE KUROSHIO EXTENSIONSHALLOW AND DEEP CURRENT VARIABILITY IN THE KUROSHIO EXTENSIONSHALLOW AND DEEP CURRENT VARIABILITY IN THE KUROSHIO EXTENSION Karen L by measured deep currents. Bottom pressures are leveled using time-mean near-bottom currents. Upper

  8. On Efficient Bandwidth Allocation for Traffic Variability in Datacenters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lui, John C.S.

    On Efficient Bandwidth Allocation for Traffic Variability in Datacenters Jian Guo1 Fangming Liu1 of Hong Kong. Abstract--Datacenter networks suffer unpredictable perfor- mance due to a lack dynamic traffic in datacenter networks. In this paper, we consider the effects of large numbers of short

  9. Isotonic Regression for Multiple Independent Variables Quentin F. Stout

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stout, Quentin F.

    Isotonic Regression for Multiple Independent Variables Quentin F. Stout Computer Science for determining isotonic regressions for weighted data at a set of points P in multidimensional space isotonic regression with unweighted data. L isotonic regression is not unique, and algorithms are given

  10. Discrete Scale Relativity And SX Phoenicis Variable Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. L. Oldershaw

    2009-06-18

    Discrete Scale Relativity proposes a new symmetry principle called discrete cosmological self-similarity which relates each class of systems and phenomena on a given Scale of nature's discrete cosmological hierarchy to the equivalent class of analogue systems and phenomena on any other Scale. The new symmetry principle can be understood in terms of discrete scale invariance involving the spatial, temporal and dynamic parameters of all systems and phenomena. This new paradigm predicts a rigorous discrete self-similarity between Stellar Scale variable stars and Atomic Scale excited atoms undergoing energy-level transitions and sub-threshold oscillations. Previously, methods for demonstrating and testing the proposed symmetry principle have been applied to RR Lyrae, Delta Scuti and ZZ Ceti variable stars. In the present paper we apply the same analytical methods and diagnostic tests to a new class of variable stars: SX Phoenicis variables. Double-mode pulsators are shown to provide an especially useful means of testing the uniqueness and rigor of the conceptual principles and discrete self-similar scaling of Discrete Scale Relativity.

  11. Internet Traffic Modeling Using the Index of Variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kansas, University of

    traffic models: the Two-State Markov Modulated Poisson Process (MMPP) and the renewal process1 Internet Traffic Modeling Using the Index of Variability Georgios Y. Lazarou, Xiangdong Xia and is analytically tractable for many popular traffic models. Using this proposed measure, we then analyzed two

  12. Bottleneck Links, Variable Demand, and the Tragedy of the Commons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dodis, Yevgeniy

    Bottleneck Links, Variable Demand, and the Tragedy of the Commons Richard Cole #3; Yevgeniy Dodis y a fixed demand to resources whose performance degrades with increasing congestion. While fundamental of a resource and the demand for that resource. This coupling motivates allowing demand to vary with congestion

  13. NREL Sheds Light on Integration Costs of Variable Generation and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , such as wind and solar energy, provide benefits such as reduced environmental impact, lack of fuel consumptionNREL Sheds Light on Integration Costs of Variable Generation and Cost-Causation Integration costs are generally manageable, but calculating costs is challenging. Renewable energy generation sources

  14. Offshore Series Wind Turbine Variable Hub heights & rotor diameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    3.6MW Offshore Series Wind Turbine GE Energy #12;Feature Variable Hub heights & rotor diameters-savings feature, considering the rigors of offshore power generation. The 3.6 MW offshore wind turbine also, for both on and offshore use. Special features include... As the world's first commercially available wind

  15. Geometric Characterization of Series-Parallel Variable Resistor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tygar, Doug

    simultaneously by an algorithm of complexity O(nk). Key Words: Worst case analysis, linear circuits, series-parallel networks, projective geometry. 1. Introduction The task of worst case circuit analysis [7] involves a method for performing a worst case analysis of a variable linear resistor network by casting

  16. Pacific Decadal Variability: Paced by Rossby Basin Modes? WILBERT WEIJER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weijer, Wilbert

    Laboratory, and New Mexico Consortium, Los Alamos, New Mexico ERNESTO MUN~ OZ* New Mexico Consortium, Los Alamos, New Mexico NIKLAS SCHNEIDER University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii FRANC¸ OIS PRIMEAU of the ocean cir- culation to synoptic variability of the atmosphere. Both stochastic heat flux and wind stress

  17. Reduction of tropical land region precipitation variability via transpiration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gentine, Pierre

    plants through open stomata: this process (transpiration) cools the plant and facilitates transportReduction of tropical land region precipitation variability via transpiration Jung-Eun Lee,1 in observations and models. In the present study, the potential role of transpiration for this difference

  18. Constraining FeLoBAL outflows from absorption line variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGraw, S M; Hamann, F W; Capellupo, D M; Gallagher, S C; Brandt, W N

    2015-01-01

    FeLoBALs are a rare class of quasar outflows with low-ionization broad absorption lines (BALs), large column densities, and potentially large kinetic energies that might be important for `feedback' to galaxy evolution. In order to probe the physical properties of these outflows, we conducted a multiple-epoch, absorption line variability study of 12 FeLoBAL quasars spanning a redshift range between 0.7 and 1.9 over rest frame time-scales of approximately 10 d to 7.6 yr. We detect absorption line variability with greater than 8 sigma confidence in 3 out of the 12 sources in our sample over time-scales of 0.6 to 7.6 yr. Variable wavelength intervals are associated with ground and excited state Fe II multiplets, the Mg II 2796, 2803 doublet, Mg I 2852, and excited state Ni II multiplets. The observed variability along with evidence of saturation in the absorption lines favors transverse motions of gas across the line of sight (LOS) as the preferred scenario, and allows us to constrain the outflow distance from th...

  19. Optimal combined wind power forecasts using exogeneous variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optimal combined wind power forecasts using exogeneous variables Fannar ¨Orn Thordarson Kongens to the Klim wind farm using three WPPT forecasts based on different weather forecasting systems. It is shown of the thesis is combined wind power forecasts using informations from meteorological forecasts. Lyngby, January

  20. Hybrid coupled models of the tropical Pacific: I interannual variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Youmin

    Y. Tang Hybrid coupled models of the tropical Pacific: I interannual variability Received: 20 Two hybrid coupled models (HCMs), an intermediate complexity dynamical ocean model cou- pled to either), hybrid models (e.g., Barnett et al. 1993; Balmaseda et al. 1994,1995), and fully coupled general

  1. Data Assimilation in Variable Dimension Dispersion Models using Particle Filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Tarunraj

    Data Assimilation in Variable Dimension Dispersion Models using Particle Filters K. V. Umamaheswara at Buffalo Buffalo, NY, U.S.A. peter@buffalo.edu Abstract-- Data assimilation in the context of puff based models usually lead to high dimensional space-gridded state space models. In the case of puff based

  2. A LOGIC PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE WITH LAMBDA-ABSTRACTION, FUNCTION VARIABLES,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Dale

    A LOGIC PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE WITH LAMBDA-ABSTRACTION, FUNCTION VARIABLES, AND SIMPLE UNIFICATION University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA 19104­6389 USA 1. Introduction A meta programming language must. Although the data types available in most computer programming languages are rich enough to represent all

  3. Offshore Series Wind Turbine Variable Hub heights & rotor diameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    3.6MW Offshore Series Wind Turbine GE Energy #12;Feature Variable Hub heights & rotor diameters and providing longer turbine life GE's unique electronics provide transmission efficiencies and enable harmonious function within the local grid Allows wind turbines to stay on line generating power, even during

  4. ASSESSMENT OF THE INTEGRATION OF ADVERTISING AND VARIABLE MESSAGE SIGNS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ASSESSMENT OF THE INTEGRATION OF ADVERTISING AND VARIABLE MESSAGE SIGNS FOR FUNDING PURPOSES in the use and costs of VMSs. One option is to advertise commercially on VMSs, using either dynamic messages, it is possible that advertising will make drivers more aware of the signs. The objective of this paper is to make

  5. Investigation of the Brazil Current front variability from altimeter data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Investigation of the Brazil Current front variability from altimeter data Gustavo J. Goni Atlantic, Brazil Abstract. The southwestern Atlantic Ocean is characterized by the confluence of the Brazil in conjunction with a two-layer dynamical ocean scheme to monitor the Brazil Current front and to investigate its

  6. Irrational Dynamical Variables and the Measurement Problem in Quantum Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher Engelhardt

    2015-07-08

    The quantum mechanical measurement process is considered. A hypothetical concept of irrational dynamical variables is proposed. A possible definition of measurement is discussed along with a mathematical method to calculate experimental result probabilities. The postulates of quantum mechanics are analyzed and modified. Thought experiments and implications are considered.

  7. Methodology for testing metal detectors using variables test data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, D.D.; Murray, D.W.

    1993-08-01

    By extracting and analyzing measurement (variables) data from portal metal detectors whenever possible instead of the more typical ``alarm``/``no-alarm`` (attributes or binomial) data, we can be more informed about metal detector health with fewer tests. This testing methodology discussed in this report is an alternative to the typical binomial testing and in many ways is far superior.

  8. Variability in Color Discrimination Data Explained by a Generic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alleysson, David

    on adapting backgrounds, using matching lights that varied both in chromaticity and luminance. First, weVariability in Color Discrimination Data Explained by a Generic Model with Nonlinear and Adaptive: A generic model of color discrimination is pre- sented. It involves adaptive nonlinearities at photoreceptor

  9. Behavioral/ Systems/ Cognitive Neural Variability, Detection Thresholds, and Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chacron, Maurice

    Behavioral/ Systems/ Cognitive Neural Variability, Detection Thresholds, and Information. The vestibular system provides information about head mo- tion relative to space that is necessary Transmission in the Vestibular System Soroush G. Sadeghi,1* Maurice J. Chacron,1* Michael C. Taylor,1

  10. X-ray spectral variability of type 2 Seyfert galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernández-García, L; González-Martín, O; Márquez, I

    2015-01-01

    Variability across the electromagnetic spectrum is a property of AGN that can help constraining the physical properties of these galaxies. This is the third of a serie of papers with the aim of studying the X-ray variability of different families of AGN. The main purpose of this work is to investigate the variability pattern in a sample of optically selected type 2 Seyfert galaxies. We use the 26 Seyferts in the Veron-Cetty and Veron catalogue with data available from Chandra and/or XMM-Newton public archives at different epochs, with timescales ranging from a few hours to years. All the spectra of the same source are simultaneously fitted and we let different parameters to vary in the model. Whenever possible, short-term variations and/or long-term UV flux variations are studied. We divide the sample in Compton-thick, Compton-thin, and changing-look candidates. Short-term variability at X-rays is not found. From the 25 analyzed sources, 11 show long-term variations; eight (out of 11) are Compton-thin, one (o...

  11. Hydrologic Variability of Small, Northern Michigan Lakes Measured

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Notre Dame, University of

    different forms and units, they all require some measure of the input of water from the watershed. The hydraulic residence time is difficult to mea- sure directly and is usually inferred from other measurementsHydrologic Variability of Small, Northern Michigan Lakes Measured by the Addition of Tracers

  12. Errors-in-variables problems in transient electromagnetic mineral exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braslavsky, Julio H.

    Errors-in-variables problems in transient electromagnetic mineral exploration K. Lau, J. H in transient electromagnetic mineral exploration. A specific sub-problem of interest in this area geological surveys, dia- mond drilling, and airborne mineral exploration. Our interest here is with ground

  13. NEWS AND VIEWS Alternative splicing variability: exactly how similar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ares Jr., Manny

    NEWS AND VIEWS Alternative splicing variability: exactly how similar are two identical cells and provide the first direct view of alternative splicing at the single cell level. Early hints that alternative splicing might vary within an isogenic cell population came from studies using clever dual

  14. 68 CEREAL CHEMISTRY Variability in Starch Acetylation Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    68 CEREAL CHEMISTRY Variability in Starch Acetylation Efficiency from Commercial Waxy Corn Hybrids procedure. To evaluate reaction efficiency, reaction rate, acetyl content, pH, and amount of NaOH used were acetylation protocol, reaction efficiencies were observed at 47­73%. Reaction efficiencies were significantly

  15. Total Solar Irradiance Variability and the Solar Activity Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Probhas Raychaudhuri

    2006-05-06

    It is suggested that the solar variability is due to the perturbed nature of the solar core and this variability is provided by the variability of the solar neutrino flux from the solar neutrino detectors i.e., Homestake, Superkamiokande, SAGE and GALLEX-GNO. The solar neutrino flux in the standard solar model (SSM) was calculated on the assumption of L_nu (neutrino luminosity) = L_gamma (optical luminosity) which implies that if there is a change in optical luminosity then solar neutrino flux data will also be changed. An internal dynamo due to the cyclic variation of nuclear energy generation inside the core of the sun is responsible for the solar activity cycle was suggested and thus the internal magnetic field is also variable. Again the changes in the nuclear energy generation induce structural changes that result in variations of the global solar parameters i.e., luminosity, radius and temperatures etc. From the analysis of total solar irradiance (TSI) data during the year from 1970 to 2003 we have found five phases within the solar activity cycle. The first phase (I) starts before two years from the sunspot minimum. The second phase (II) starts at the time of sunspot minimum and phase (III) starts before 2/3 years from sunspot maximum whereas phase (IV) starts at sunspot maximum and fifth phase (V) starts at after 2-3 years from sunspot maximum.

  16. Adaptive Calculation of Variable Coefficients Elliptic Differential Equations via Wavelets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Averbuch, Amir

    Adaptive Calculation of Variable Coefficients Elliptic Differential Equations via Wavelets Amir in numerical solution of differential and integral equations. Classical methods for discretization lead-based multiplication is af- fected by different input parameters for the algorithm. We integrated a sparse

  17. PROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL Optimal Selection of Controlled Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    PROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL Optimal Selection of Controlled Variables Ivar J. Halvorsen, Sigurd with constant setpoints ("self-optimizing control"). From a second-order Taylor approximation around the optimal of its control system. Obviously, from a purely math- ematical point of view, it would be optimal to use

  18. Observed climate variability and change of relevance to the biosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Aiguo

    . Karl, and Kevin P. Gallo1 NOAA National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, North Carolina David AObserved climate variability and change of relevance to the biosphere David R. Easterling, Thomas R the current instrumental evidence regarding climate variations and change during the 20th century emphasizing

  19. Variable structure motifs for transcription factor binding sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, John E.; Evans, Kenneth J.; Dyer, Nigel; Wernisch, Lorenz; Ott, Sascha

    2010-01-14

    in the legends of the ROC curves. TRANSFAC Gapped Ungapped MEME GLAM2 RISOTTO We experimented with RISOTTO [4] (a development of RISO [5]) as it is one of the few methods to allow a variable gap between or within motifs. This method defines parts of motifs...

  20. Economic plantwide control: Automated controlled variable selection for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Economic plantwide control: Automated controlled variable selection for a reactor an optimal control structure for a complete chemical plant based on steady state plant economics, also known as economic plantwide control. In this work, we automated a key step of this procedure, which is the selection

  1. Pointers and Structures in C Variables that hold memory addresses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Pointers and Structures in C Chapter 4 2 Overview · Pointers · Variables that hold memory addresses · Using pointers to do "call-by-reference" in C · Struct · Multiple values grouped together · Dereferencing to access individual elements #12;3 Exercise: Write a swap function void swap(int x, int y

  2. Capturing Variability in Business Process Models: The Provop Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulm, Universität

    Capturing Variability in Business Process Models: The Provop Approach Alena Hallerbach1 , Thomas be transferred to cross-organizational business processes as well [4]. A business process model captures models there exists a multitude of tools like ARIS Business Architect [5], ADONIS [6], and Web

  3. RESEARCH ARTICLE Empirical assessment of short-term variability from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with a total installed capacity of 195MW (AC); it is based on minute-averaged data from each plantRESEARCH ARTICLE Empirical assessment of short-term variability from utility-scale solar PV plants 10027, USA 2 First Solar, Inc., 350 West Washington Street, Suite 600, Tempe, AZ 85281, USA ABSTRACT

  4. Solar Variability and Forecasting Using Remote Sensing Shahrouz Alimohammadi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandwell, David T.

    subjects for the Department Of Energy (DOE). One of the primary obstacles to overcome in solar power% #12;Solar Irradiance Data For Solar Variability Modeling Solar Irradiance Data Satellite Data L. Nonnenmacher et al. 2014 SUNY model R. Perez 2010 Ground Station Data NREL Hawaii #12;State of California Solar

  5. Modeling a Snap-Action, Variable-Delay Switch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, 2, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America When exposed to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or TNFModeling a Snap-Action, Variable-Delay Switch Controlling Extrinsic Cell Death John G. Albeck1

  6. Separation of variables for the classical and quantum Neumann model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Babelon; M. Talon

    1992-01-16

    The method of separation of variables is shown to apply to both the classical and quantum Neumann model. In the classical case this nicely yields the linearization of the flow on the Jacobian of the spectral curve. In the quantum case the Schr\\"odinger equation separates into one--dimensional equations belonging to the class of generalized Lam\\'e differential equations.

  7. How many Hipparcos Variability-Induced Movers are genuine binaries?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pourbaix, D; Detournay, S; Jorissen, A; Knapp, G; Makarov, V V

    2003-01-01

    Hipparcos observations of some variable stars, and especially of long-period (e.g. Mira) variables, reveal a motion of the photocenter correlated with the brightness variation ({variability-induced mover -- VIM), suggesting the presence of a binary companion. A re-analysis of the Hipparcos photometric and astrometric data does not confirm the VIM solution for 62 among the 288 VIM objects (21%) in the Hipparcos catalogue. Most of these 288 VIMs are long-period (e.g. Mira) variables (LPV). The effect of a revised chromaticity correction, which accounts for the color variations along the light cycle, was then investigated. It is based on `instantaneous' $V-I$ color indices derived from Hipparcos and Tycho-2 epoch photometry. Among the 188 LPVs flagged as VIM in the Hipparcos catalogue, 89 (47%) are not confirmed as VIM after this improved chromaticity correction is applied. This dramatic decrease in the number of VIM solutions is not surprising, since the chromaticity correction applied by the Hipparcos reductio...

  8. Cartel Pricing Dynamics with Cost Variability and Endogenous Buyer Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niebur, Ernst

    Cartel Pricing Dynamics with Cost Variability and Endogenous Buyer Detection Joseph E. Harrington to cost shocks. During the stationary phase, price responds to cost but is much less sensitive than under of cost shocks. It is also shown that the cartel price path may overshoot its long-run level so that price

  9. SELECTION OF VARIABLES FOR REGULATORY CONTROL USING POLE DIRECTIONS.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    SELECTION OF VARIABLES FOR REGULATORY CONTROL USING POLE DIRECTIONS. K. Havre1 and S. Skogestad 2 of a stabilizing control structure, using the in- formation given in the pole directions. It is shown how the input/output pole directions are related to the minimum input energy needed to stabilize a given unstable mode. 1

  10. SELECTION OF VARIABLES FOR REGULATORY CONTROL USING POLE VECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    SELECTION OF VARIABLES FOR REGULATORY CONTROL USING POLE VECTORS Kjetil Havre 1 Sigurd Skogestad 2: This paper consider control structure design using the information given in the pole vectors. It is shown how the input and output pole vectors are related to the minimum input energy needed to stabilize a given

  11. SELECTION OF VARIABLES FOR REGULATORY CONTROL USING POLE VECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    SELECTION OF VARIABLES FOR REGULATORY CONTROL USING POLE VECTORS Kjetil Havre1 Sigurd Skogestad 2: This paper consider control structure design using the information given in the pole vectors. It is shown how the input and output pole vectors are related to the minimum input energy needed to stabilize a given

  12. SELECTION OF VARIABLES FOR REGULATORY CONTROL USING POLE DIRECTIONS.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    SELECTION OF VARIABLES FOR REGULATORY CONTROL USING POLE DIRECTIONS. K. Havre 1 and S. Skogestad 2 of a stabilizing control structure, using the in­ formation given in the pole directions. It is shown how the input/output pole directions are related to the minimum input energy needed to stabilize a given unstable mode. 1

  13. Thermoelectric Properties of Superlattice Materials with Variably Spaced Layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, D. Greg

    Thermoelectric Properties of Superlattice Materials with Variably Spaced Layers T.D. Musho of electronic level alignment. We have investigated the thermoelectric proper- ties of VSSL structures using leads to enhancement of thermoelectric properties. This presumption is based on electrical studies

  14. Variable-speed wind power system with improved energy capture via multilevel conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, Robert W.; Al-Naseem, Osama A.; Fingersh, Lee Jay

    2005-05-31

    A system and method for efficiently capturing electrical energy from a variable-speed generator are disclosed. The system includes a matrix converter using full-bridge, multilevel switch cells, in which semiconductor devices are clamped to a known constant DC voltage of a capacitor. The multilevel matrix converter is capable of generating multilevel voltage wave waveform of arbitrary magnitude and frequencies. The matrix converter can be controlled by using space vector modulation.

  15. HEART RATE AND BLOOD PRESSURE VARIABILITY UNDER MOON, MARS AND ZERO GRAVITY CONDITIONS DURING PARABOLIC FLIGHTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    via the heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV). HRV and BPV were assessed in this study to assess the heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pres- sure variability (BPV). Due to gravity between the HRV and BPV, and the gravity level. In studies from the Laboratory Experi- mental Cardiology

  16. Interannual variability of primary production and dissolved organic nitrogen storage in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrizio, Mary C.

    production, and mesoscale variability in vertical velocity was identified as a major contributing factor

  17. Sparse Bayesian Variable Selection for the Identification of Antigenic Variability in the Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaski, Samuel

    of Glasgow, UK v.davies.1@research.gla.ac.uk Boyd Orr Centre for Population and Ecosystem Health model using spike and slab priors which is able to predict antigenic variability and identify sites of new virus strains, the need to produce effective vaccines has become ever more vital. Predicting where

  18. The role of water vapor feedback in unperturbed climate variability and global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, A.; Manabe, Syukuro

    1999-08-01

    To understand the role of water vapor feedback in unperturbed surface temperature variability, a version of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory coupled ocean-atmosphere model is integrated for 1,000 yr in two configurations, one with water vapor feedback and one without. To understand the role of water vapor feedback in global warming, two 500-yr integrations were also performed in which CO{sub 2} was doubled in both model configurations. The final surface global warming in the model with water vapor feedback is 3.38 C, while in the one without it is only 1.05 C. However, the model`s water vapor feedback has a larger impact on surface warming in response to a doubling of CO{sub 2} than it does on internally generated, low-frequency, global-mean surface temperature anomalies. Water vapor feedback`s strength therefore depends on the type of temperature anomaly it affects. Finally, the authors compare the local and global-mean surface temperature time series from both unperturbed variability experiments to the observed record. The experiment without water vapor feedback does not have enough global-scale variability to reproduce the magnitude of the variability in the observed global-mean record, whether or not one removes the warming trend observed over the past century. In contrast, the amount of variability in the experiment with water vapor feedback is comparable to that of the global-mean record, provided the observed warming trend is removed. Thus, the authors are unable to simulate the observed levels of variability without water vapor feedback.

  19. THE OPTICAL GRAVITATIONAL LENSING EXPERIMENT. THE CATALOG OF PERIODIC VARIABLE STARS IN THE GALACTIC BULGE. I. PERIODIC VARIABLES IN THE CENTER OF THE BAADE'S WINDOW.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. UDALSKI; M. KUBIAK; M. SZYMANSKI; J. KALUZNY; M. MATEO; W. KRZEMINSKI

    1995-01-09

    This paper is the first part of the Catalog of Periodic Variable Stars in the Galactic bulge. The Catalog is based on observations collected during the OGLE microlensing search. 213 periodic variable stars brighter than I=18 mag: 31 pulsating, 116 eclipsing and 66 miscellaneous type variables from the Baade's Window BWC field are presented. Periodic variable stars from remaining 20 fields will be presented in similar form in the next parts of the Catalog. The Catalog as well as observations of all periodic variable objects are available to astronomical community over the Internet network.

  20. Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution with a Noisy Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian S. Jacobsen; Tobias Gehring; Ulrik L. Andersen

    2015-07-06

    Existing experimental implementations of continuous-variable quantum key distribution require shot-noise limited operation, achieved with shot-noise limited lasers. However, loosening this requirement on the laser source would allow for cheaper, potentially integrated systems. Here, we implement a theoretically proposed prepare-and-measure continuous-variable protocol and experimentally demonstrate the robustness of it against preparation noise stemming for instance from technical laser noise. Provided that direct reconciliation techniques are used in the post-processing we show that for small distances large amounts of preparation noise can be tolerated in contrast to reverse reconciliation where the key rate quickly drops to zero. Our experiment thereby demonstrates that quantum key distribution with non-shot-noise limited laser diodes might be feasible.

  1. Climate variability according to triple saros gravity cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William R. Livingston

    2013-06-03

    I describe a climate model which corresponds directly to eclipse cycles. The theory is based upon a similarity between the 54 year triple saros eclipse period and the periodicity of drought. I argue that eclipse shadows are an indication of gravity cycles, and that variable lunar gravitation is the most significant aspect of the eclipse process. I reinforce the idea that lunar gravitational forcing has a profound effect on the water vapor in Earth's atmosphere, and can affect the density and location of clouds. I explore the possibility that decadal variability of ocean surface levels may be explained by triple saros gravity cycles. I point out that lunar gravitation was excluded from the most significant climate report of 2007, and that climate data contradictions have been overlooked by researchers. I focus on the value of data that has not been aggregated into global averages. I touch upon the history of global warming, and I offer predictions based upon 54 year climate periodicity.

  2. Regular graphs maximize the variability of random neural networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilles Wainrib; Mathieu Galtier

    2014-12-17

    In this work we study the dynamics of systems composed of numerous interacting elements interconnected through a random weighted directed graph, such as models of random neural networks. We develop an original theoretical approach based on a combination of a classical mean-field theory originally developed in the context of dynamical spin-glass models, and the heterogeneous mean-field theory developed to study epidemic propagation on graphs. Our main result is that, surprisingly, increasing the variance of the in-degree distribution does not result in a more variable dynamical behavior, but on the contrary that the most variable behaviors are obtained in the regular graph setting. We further study how the dynamical complexity of the attractors is influenced by the statistical properties of the in-degree distribution.

  3. Continuous-Variable Protocols in the Noisy-Storage Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabian Furrer; Christian Schaffner; Stephanie Wehner

    2015-09-30

    We present the first protocol for oblivious transfer that can be implemented with an optical continuous-variable system, and prove its security in the noisy-storage model. This model allows security to be achieved by sending more quantum signals than an attacker can reliably store at one specific point during the protocol. Concretely, we determine how many signals need to be sent in order to achieve security by establishing a trade-off between quantum uncertainty generated in the protocol and the classical capacity of the memory channel. As our main technical tool, we study and derive new uncertainty relations for continuous-variable systems. Finally, we provide explicit security parameters for realistic memory models.

  4. Heralded processes on continuous-variable spaces as quantum maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franck Ferreyrol; Nicolò Spagnolo; Rémi Blandino; Marco Barbieri; Rosa Tualle-Brouri

    2012-07-06

    Conditional evolution is crucial for generating non-Gaussian resources for quantum information tasks in the continuous variable scenario. However, tools are lacking for a convenient representation of heralded process in terms of quantum maps for continuous variable states, in the same way as Wigner functions are able to give a compact description of the quantum state. Here we propose and study such a representation, based on the introduction of a suitable transfer function to describe the action of a quantum operation on the Wigner function. We also reconstruct the maps of two relevant examples of conditional process, that is, noiseless amplification and photon addition, by combining experimental data and a detailed physical model. This analysis allows to fully characterize the effect of experimental imperfections in their implementations.

  5. Continuous-variable quantum teleportation with non-Gaussian resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dell'Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Albano, L.; Illuminati, F.

    2007-08-15

    We investigate continuous variable quantum teleportation using non-Gaussian states of the radiation field as entangled resources. We compare the performance of different classes of degaussified resources, including two-mode photon-added and two-mode photon-subtracted squeezed states. We then introduce a class of two-mode squeezed Bell-like states with one-parameter dependence for optimization. These states interpolate between and include as subcases different classes of degaussified resources. We show that optimized squeezed Bell-like resources yield a remarkable improvement in the fidelity of teleportation both for coherent and nonclassical input states. The investigation reveals that the optimal non-Gaussian resources for continuous variable teleportation are those that most closely realize the simultaneous maximization of the content of entanglement, the degree of affinity with the two-mode squeezed vacuum, and the, suitably measured, amount of non-Gaussianity.

  6. Diagnostic for two-mode variable valve activation device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fedewa, Andrew M

    2014-01-07

    A method is provided for diagnosing a multi-mode valve train device which selectively provides high lift and low lift to a combustion valve of an internal combustion engine having a camshaft phaser actuated by an electric motor. The method includes applying a variable electric current to the electric motor to achieve a desired camshaft phaser operational mode and commanding the multi-mode valve train device to a desired valve train device operational mode selected from a high lift mode and a low lift mode. The method also includes monitoring the variable electric current and calculating a first characteristic of the parameter. The method also includes comparing the calculated first characteristic against a predetermined value of the first characteristic measured when the multi-mode valve train device is known to be in the desired valve train device operational mode.

  7. Cataclysmic Variables from SDSS III. The Third Year

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paula Szkody; Arne Henden; Oliver Fraser; Nicole Silvestri; John Bochanski; Michael A. Wolfe; Marcel Agüeros; Brian Warner; Patrick Woudt; Jonica Tramposch; Lee Homer; Gary Schmidt; Gillian R. Knapp; Scott F. Anderson; Kevin Covey; Hugh Harris; Suzanne Hawley; Donald P. Schneider; Wolfgang Voges; J. Brinkmann

    2004-07-08

    This paper continues the series that identifies new cataclysmic variables found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We present 36 cataclysmic variables and one possible symbiotic star from Sloan spectra obtained during 2002, of which 34 are new discoveries, 2 are known dwarf novae (BC UMa, KS UMa) and one is a known CV identified from the 2dF survey. The positions, colors and spectra of all 37 systems are presented, along with follow-up spectroscopic/photometric observations of 10 systems. As in the past 2 years of data, the new SDSS systems show a large variety of characteristics based on their inclination and magnetic fields, including 3 eclipsing systems, 4 with prominent He II emission, and 15 systems showing features of the underlying stars.

  8. Spectral Type and Radial Velocity Variations in Three SRC Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moncrieff, Kathleen E; Short, C Ian; Bennett, Philip D; Balam, David D; Griffin, Roger F

    2011-01-01

    SRC variables are M supergiants, precursors to Type II supernovae, that vary in brightness with moderately regular periods of order 100-1000 days. Although identified as pulsating stars that obey their own period-luminosity relation, few have been examined in enough detail to follow the temperature and spectral changes that they undergo during their long cycles. The present study examines such changes for several SRC variables revealed by CCD spectra obtained at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) during 2005-2009, as well as by archival spectra from the DAO (and elsewhere) for some stars from the 1960s to 1980s, and Cambridge radial velocity spectrometer measures for Betelgeuse. Described here is our classification procedure and information on the spectral type and radial velocity changes in three of the stars. The results provide insights into the pulsation mechanism in M supergiants.

  9. h-Holomorphic Functions of Double Variable and their Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitry Pavlov; Sergey Kokarev

    2015-01-03

    The paper studies the complex differentiable functions of double argument and their properties, which are similar to the properties of the holomorphic functions of complex variable: the Cauchy formula, the hyperbolic harmonicity, the properties of general $h$-conformal mappings and the properties of the mappings, which are hyperbolic analogues of complex elementary functions. We discuss the utility of $h$-conformal mappings to solving 2-dimensional hyperbolic problems of Mathematical Physics.

  10. Anonymous broadcasting with a continuous-variable topological quantum code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas C. Menicucci; Tommaso F. Demarie; Gavin K. Brennen

    2015-03-02

    Broadcasting information anonymously becomes more difficult as surveillance technology improves, but remarkably, quantum protocols exist that enable provably traceless broadcasting. The difficulty is making scalable entangled resource states that are robust to errors. We propose an anonymous broadcasting protocol that uses a continuous-variable toric-code state, which can be produced using current technology. High squeezing enables large transmission bandwidth and strong anonymity, and the topological nature of the state enables local error correction.

  11. Nonlinear acoustic waves in channels with variable cross sections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimir F. Kovalev; Oleg V. Rudenko

    2012-11-02

    The point symmetry group is studied for the generalized Webster-type equation describing non-linear acoustic waves in lossy channels with variable cross sections. It is shown that, for certain types of cross section profiles, the admitted symmetry group is extended and the invariant solutions corresponding to these profiles are obtained. Approximate analytic solutions to the generalized Webster equation are derived for channels with smoothly varying cross sections and arbitrary initial conditions.

  12. Cepheid Variables and their Application to the Cosmological Distance Scale 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffmann, Samantha L

    2013-05-02

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 3. DIFFERENCE IMAGING ANALYSIS OF TYPE IA SUPERNOVA HOST NGC 5584 FOR CEPHEID VARIABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 3.1 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 3.2 Observations and Data Reduction... and type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). This cosmological distance scale started with a geometric distance measurement of Cepheids, such as parallaxes by [5]. The Cepheid Period-Luminosity relation was characterized by [79] for use as a primary distance...

  13. Free piston variable-stroke linear-alternator generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, C.M.

    1998-12-15

    A free-piston variable stroke linear-alternator AC power generator for a combustion engine is described. An alternator mechanism and oscillator system generates AC current. The oscillation system includes two oscillation devices each having a combustion cylinder and a flying turnbuckle. The flying turnbuckle moves in accordance with the oscillation device. The alternator system is a linear alternator coupled between the two oscillation devices by a slotted connecting rod. 8 figs.

  14. Free piston variable-stroke linear-alternator generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, Carsten M. (Dadeville, AL)

    1998-01-01

    A free-piston variable stroke linear-alternator AC power generator for a combustion engine. An alternator mechanism and oscillator system generates AC current. The oscillation system includes two oscillation devices each having a combustion cylinder and a flying turnbuckle. The flying turnbuckle moves in accordance with the oscillation device. The alternator system is a linear alternator coupled between the two oscillation devices by a slotted connecting rod.

  15. Simulating solar power plant variability : a review of current methods.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lave, Matthew; Ellis, Abraham; Stein, Joshua S.

    2013-06-01

    It is important to be able to accurately simulate the variability of solar PV power plants for grid integration studies. We aim to inform integration studies of the ease of implementation and application-specific accuracy of current PV power plant output simulation methods. This report reviews methods for producing simulated high-resolution (sub-hour or even sub-minute) PV power plant output profiles for variability studies and describes their implementation. Two steps are involved in the simulations: estimation of average irradiance over the footprint of a PV plant and conversion of average irradiance to plant power output. Six models are described for simulating plant-average irradiance based on inputs of ground-measured irradiance, satellite-derived irradiance, or proxy plant measurements. The steps for converting plant-average irradiance to plant power output are detailed to understand the contributions to plant variability. A forthcoming report will quantify the accuracy of each method using application-specific validation metrics.

  16. Optimal Control Theory for Continuous Variable Quantum Gates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebing Wu; Raj Chakrabarti; Herschel Rabitz

    2007-08-16

    We apply the methodology of optimal control theory to the problem of implementing quantum gates in continuous variable systems with quadratic Hamiltonians. We demonstrate that it is possible to define a fidelity measure for continuous variable (CV) gate optimization that is devoid of traps, such that the search for optimal control fields using local algorithms will not be hindered. The optimal control of several quantum computing gates, as well as that of algorithms composed of these primitives, is investigated using several typical physical models and compared for discrete and continuous quantum systems. Numerical simulations indicate that the optimization of generic CV quantum gates is inherently more expensive than that of generic discrete variable quantum gates, and that the exact-time controllability of CV systems plays an important role in determining the maximum achievable gate fidelity. The resulting optimal control fields typically display more complicated Fourier spectra that suggest a richer variety of possible control mechanisms. Moreover, the ability to control interactions between qunits is important for delimiting the total control fluence. The comparative ability of current experimental protocols to implement such time-dependent controls may help determine which physical incarnations of CV quantum information processing will be the easiest to implement with optimal fidelity.

  17. Variability in Measured Space Temperatures in 60 Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, D.; Lay, K.

    2013-03-01

    This report discusses the observed variability in indoor space temperature in a set of 60 homes located in Florida, New York, Oregon, and Washington. Temperature data were collected at 15-minute intervals for an entire year, including living room, master bedroom, and outdoor air temperature (Arena, et. al). The data were examined to establish the average living room temperature for the set of homes for the heating and cooling seasons, the variability of living room temperature depending on climate, and the variability of indoor space temperature within the homes. The accuracy of software-based energy analysis depends on the accuracy of input values. Thermostat set point is one of the most influential inputs for building energy simulation. Several industry standards exist that recommend differing default thermostat settings for heating and cooling seasons. These standards were compared to the values calculated for this analysis. The data examined for this report show that there is a definite difference between the climates and that the data do not agree well with any particular standard.

  18. The unusual photometric variability of the PMS star GM Cep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semkov, E; Peneva, S; Milanov, T; Stoyanov, K; Stateva, I; Kjurkchieva, D; Dimitrov, D; Radeva, V

    2015-01-01

    Results from UBVRI photometric observations of the pre-main sequence star GM Cep obtained in the period April 2011 - August 2014 are reported in the paper. Presented data are a continuation of our photometric monitoring of the star started in 2008. GM Cep is located in the field of the young open cluster Trumpler 37 and over the past years it has been an object of intense photometric and spectral studies. The star shows a strong photometric variability interpreted as a possible outburst from EXor type in previous studies. Our photometric data for a period of over six years show a large amplitude variability (Delta V ~ 2.3 mag.) and several deep minimums in brightness are observed. The analysis of the collected multicolor photometric data shows the typical of UX Ori variables a color reversal during the minimums in brightness. The observed decreases in brightness have a different shape, and evidences of periodicity are not detected. At the same time, high amplitude rapid variations in brightness typical for th...

  19. Bright six-partite continuous variable entanglement using cascaded four-wave mixing processes in a four-level atomic system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guangqiang He; Xufei Wu; Yi Gu

    2011-09-10

    We theoretically show that bright six-partite continuous-variable entanglement can be generated using cascaded four-wave mixing effects of third-order nonlinearity atomic systems above threshold. The six-partite continuous-variable entanglement among the six cavity fields with different frequencies is analyzed by applying optimized inseparability criteria proposed by Van Loock and Furusawa.

  20. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 40, NO. 2, MARCH/APRIL 2004 565 Modeling and Control of a Variable-Speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    and Control of a Variable-Speed Constant-Frequency Synchronous Generator With Brushless Exciter Chunting Mi. The main generator is a doubly fed induction machine which is operated as a synchronous generator-magnet exciter, synchronous generator excitation, synchronous generators, variable-speed constant

  1. Potential Reductions in Variability with Alternative Approaches to Balancing Area Cooperation with High Penetrations of Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Beuning, S.

    2010-08-01

    The work described in this report was performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and funded by the Office of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (EERE DOE). This project is a joint project with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report evaluates the physical characteristics that improve the ability of the power system to absorb variable generation. It then uses evidence from electricity markets in the Eastern Interconnection of the United States to show how large, fast energy markets can help with integration. The concept of Virtual Balancing Area is introduced, a concept that covers a broad range of cooperative measures that can be undertaken by balancing areas to help manage variability.

  2. GEOCHEMICAL MODELING OF F AREA SEEPAGE BASIN COMPOSITION AND VARIABILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Millings, M.; Denham, M.; Looney, B.

    2012-05-08

    From the 1950s through 1989, the F Area Seepage Basins at the Savannah River Site (SRS) received low level radioactive wastes resulting from processing nuclear materials. Discharges of process wastes to the F Area Seepage Basins followed by subsequent mixing processes within the basins and eventual infiltration into the subsurface resulted in contamination of the underlying vadose zone and downgradient groundwater. For simulating contaminant behavior and subsurface transport, a quantitative understanding of the interrelated discharge-mixing-infiltration system along with the resulting chemistry of fluids entering the subsurface is needed. An example of this need emerged as the F Area Seepage Basins was selected as a key case study demonstration site for the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM) Program. This modeling evaluation explored the importance of the wide variability in bulk wastewater chemistry as it propagated through the basins. The results are intended to generally improve and refine the conceptualization of infiltration of chemical wastes from seepage basins receiving variable waste streams and to specifically support the ASCEM case study model for the F Area Seepage Basins. Specific goals of this work included: (1) develop a technically-based 'charge-balanced' nominal source term chemistry for water infiltrating into the subsurface during basin operations, (2) estimate the nature of short term and long term variability in infiltrating water to support scenario development for uncertainty quantification (i.e., UQ analysis), (3) identify key geochemical factors that control overall basin water chemistry and the projected variability/stability, and (4) link wastewater chemistry to the subsurface based on monitoring well data. Results from this study provide data and understanding that can be used in further modeling efforts of the F Area groundwater plume. As identified in this study, key geochemical factors affecting basin chemistry and variability included: (1) the nature or chemistry of the waste streams, (2) the open system of the basins, and (3) duration of discharge of the waste stream types. Mixing models of the archetype waste streams indicated that the overall basin system would likely remain acidic much of the time. Only an extended periods of predominantly alkaline waste discharge (e.g., >70% alkaline waste) would dramatically alter the average pH of wastewater entering the basins. Short term and long term variability were evaluated by performing multiple stepwise modeling runs to calculate the oscillation of bulk chemistry in the basins in response to short term variations in waste stream chemistry. Short term (1/2 month and 1 month) oscillations in the waste stream types only affected the chemistry in Basin 1; little variation was observed in Basin 2 and 3. As the largest basin, Basin 3 is considered the primary source to the groundwater. Modeling showed that the fluctuation in chemistry of the waste streams is not directly representative of the source term to the groundwater (i.e. Basin 3). The sequence of receiving basins and the large volume of water in Basin 3 'smooth' or nullify the short term variability in waste stream composition. As part of this study, a technically-based 'charge-balanced' nominal source term chemistry was developed for Basin 3 for a narrow range of pH (2.7 to 3.4). An example is also provided of how these data could be used to quantify uncertainty over the long term variations in waste stream chemistry and hence, Basin 3 chemistry.

  3. Survey of Variable Generation Forecasting in the West: August 2011 - June 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, K.; Rogers, J.

    2012-04-01

    This report surveyed Western Interconnection Balancing Authorities regarding their implementation of variable generation forecasting, the lessons learned to date, and recommendations they would offer to other Balancing Authorities who are considering variable generation forecasting. Our survey found that variable generation forecasting is at an early implementation stage in the West. Eight of the eleven Balancing Authorities interviewed began forecasting in 2008 or later. It also appears that less than one-half of the Balancing Authorities in the West are currently utilizing variable generation forecasting, suggesting that more Balancing Authorities in the West will engage in variable generation forecasting should more variable generation capacity be added.

  4. Analysis of Biomass Feedstock Availability and Variability for the Peace River Region of Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen, Jamie [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Kloeck, T. [Alberta Agriculture; Townley-Smith, Lawrence [AAFC; Stumborg, Mark [AAFC

    2009-11-01

    Biorefineries or other biomass-dependent facilities require a predictable, dependable feedstock supplied over many years to justify capital investments. Determining inter-year variability in biomass availability is essential to quantifying the feedstock supply risk. Using a geographic information system (GIS) and historic crop yield data, average production was estimated for 10 sites in the Peace River region of Alberta, Canada. Four high-yielding potential sites were investigated for variability over a 20 year time-frame (1980 2000). The range of availability was large, from double the average in maximum years to nothing in minimum years. Biomass availability is a function of grain yield, the biomass to grain ratio, the cropping frequency, and residue retention rate to ensure future crop productivity. Storage strategies must be implemented and alternate feedstock sources identified to supply biomass processing facilities in low-yield years.

  5. Conservation Theory Process Control Using Variable Frequency Drives 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, N. S.

    1980-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-80-04-104.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 12263 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-80-04-104.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 CONSERVATION... staffs of most companies to evaluate the energy consumption and effi ciency of new and existing facilities. Some of the energy conserving equipment which seemed too costly or complex a few short years ago are now becoming the engineer's strongest...

  6. Variable Frequency AC Drives for Cooling Tower Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corey, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    speed and AF drive conversion to adjustable speed. ~I.,.. '~'Fixed r--'T'~Speed ,_0t.11T ~ ! AUTO ~uAL Figure 3 - Fixed &~djustable Speed sJstems I The AF control .unit is placed in the user's motor control center or inl a weather protected..., this ov~r simplified analysis does put this project in a very likely position for budget approval by the Texas Company p~ant management. 5.0 SUMMARY Traditionally, capita~ expense for eqUipment has been submitted for management approval...

  7. Variable Frequency Motor Drives: Harmonics, Power Factor, and Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massey, G. W.

    1997-01-01

    harmonics and power factor. NOTE: The views expressed in this paper do not necessarily represent the views of the United States of America, the U.S. Department of Justice, or the Federal Bureau of Prisons....

  8. HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 4 VARIABILITY STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P

    2006-10-02

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing for vitrification of High Level Waste (HLW) Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) in early FY2007. To support this process, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 503 for vitrifying this sludge batch, based on the composition projection provided by the Liquid Waste Organization on June 22, 2006. Frit 418 was also recommended for possible use during the transition from SB3 to SB4. A critical step in the SB4 qualification process is to demonstrate the applicability of the durability models, which are used as part of the DWPF's process control strategy, to the glass system of interest via a variability study. A variability study is an experimentally-driven assessment of the predictability and acceptability of the quality of the vitrified waste product that is anticipated from the processing of a sludge batch. At the DWPF, the durability of the vitrified waste product is not directly measured. Instead, the durability is predicted using a set of models that relate the Product Consistency Test (PCT) response of a glass to the chemical composition of that glass. In addition, a glass sample is taken during the processing of that sludge batch, the sample is transmitted to SRNL, and the durability is measured to confirm acceptance. The objective of a variability study is to demonstrate that these models are applicable to the glass composition region anticipated during the processing of the sludge batch - in this case the Frit 503 - SB4 compositional region. The success of this demonstration allows the DWPF to confidently rely on the predictions of the durability/composition models as they are used in the control of the DWPF process.

  9. Residential Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps Sized to Heating Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Odukomaiya, Adewale; Gehl, Anthony C.

    2014-01-01

    Variable capacity heat pumps are an emerging technology offering significant energy savings potential and improved efficiency. With conventional single-speed systems, it is important to appropriately size heat pumps for the cooling load as over-sizing would result in cycling and insufficient latent capacity required for humidity control. These appropriately sized systems are often under-sized for the heating load and require inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat to meet the heating demand. Variable capacity heat pumps address these shortcomings by providing an opportunity to intentionally size systems for the dominant heating season load without adverse effects of cycling or insufficient dehumidification in the cooling season. This intentionally-sized system could result in significant energy savings in the heating season, as the need for inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat is drastically reduced. This is a continuation of a study evaluating the energy consumption of variable capacity heat pumps installed in two unoccupied research homes in Farragut, a suburb of Knoxville, Tennessee. In this particular study, space conditioning systems are intentionally sized for the heating season loads to provide an opportunity to understand and evaluate the impact this would have on electric resistance heat use and dehumidification. The results and conclusions drawn through this research are valid and specific for portions of the Southeastern and Midwestern United States falling in the mixed-humid climate zone. While other regions in the U.S. do not experience this type of climate, this work provides a basis for, and can help understand the implications of other climate zones on residential space conditioning energy consumption. The data presented here will provide a framework for fine tuning residential building EnergyPlus models that are being developed.

  10. Extension of latin hypercube samples with correlated variables.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hora, Stephen Curtis; Helton, Jon Craig; Sallaberry, Cedric J. PhD.

    2006-11-01

    A procedure for extending the size of a Latin hypercube sample (LHS) with rank correlated variables is described and illustrated. The extension procedure starts with an LHS of size m and associated rank correlation matrix C and constructs a new LHS of size 2m that contains the elements of the original LHS and has a rank correlation matrix that is close to the original rank correlation matrix C. The procedure is intended for use in conjunction with uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of computationally demanding models in which it is important to make efficient use of a necessarily limited number of model evaluations.

  11. Robust Shot Noise Measurement for Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sébastien Kunz-Jacques; Paul Jouguet

    2015-01-17

    We study a practical method to measure the shot noise in real time in Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution (CVQKD) systems. The amount of secret key that can be extracted from the raw statistics depends strongly on this quantity since it affects in particular the computation of the excess noise (i.e. noise in excess of the shot noise) added by an eavesdropper on the quantum channel. Some powerful quantum hacking attacks relying on faking the estimated value of the shot noise to hide an intercept and resend strategy were proposed. Here, we provide experimental evidence that our method can defeat the saturation attack and the wavelength attack.

  12. Variable temperature electrochemical strain microscopy of Sm-doped ceria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jesse, Stephen; Morozovska, A. N.; Kalinin, Sergei V; Eliseev, E. A.; Yang, Nan; Doria, Sandra; Tebano, Antonello

    2013-01-01

    Variable temperature electrochemical strain microscopy has been used to study the electrochemical activity of Sm-doped ceria as a function of temperature and bias. The electrochemical strain microscopy hysteresis loops have been collected across the surface at different temperatures and the relative activity at different temperatures has been compared. The relaxation behavior of the signal at different temperatures has been also evaluated to relate kinetic process during bias induced electrochemical reactions with temperature and two different kinetic regimes have been identified. The strongly non-monotonic dependence of relaxation behavior on temperature is interpreted as evidence for water-mediated mechanisms.

  13. Large Distance Continuous Variables Communication with Concatenated Swaps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muhammad Asjad; Stefano Zippilli; Paolo Tombesi; David Vitali

    2015-04-01

    The radiation-pressure interaction between electromagnetic fields and mechanical resonators can be used to efficiently entangle two light fields which couple to a single mechanical mode. We analyze the performance of this process under realistic optomechanical conditions, and we determine the effectiveness of the resulting entanglement as a resource for quantum teleportation of continuous-variable light signals, over large distances, mediated by concatenated swap operations. We study the sensitiveness of the protocol to the quality factor of the mechanical systems, and its performance in non-ideal situations in which losses and reduced detection efficiencies are taken into account.

  14. Forecasting Economic and Financial Variables with Global VARs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pesaran, M Hashem; Schuermann, Til; Smith, L Vanessa

    , was the price of crude oil. In the second version of the GVAR (DdPS) the money supply variable was dropped due to lack of a consistent measure across all countries, and a long-term interest rate was added to allow for simple yield curve relationships. Indeed... City, June 24-27, 2007 and at the Bank of England Research Workshop on Dynamic Factor Models held at the Bank of England, 8-10 October 2007. We are grateful for comments by the discussants James Stock and Domenico Giannone as well as to Frank Diebold...

  15. Deconstructed Transverse Mass Variables (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing BacteriaConnect Collidertransfer (Journalbio-surveillanceTransverse Mass Variables

  16. Abstract--The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) signals is an important tool for studying the autonomic nervous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvalho, João Luiz

    Abstract-- The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) signals is an important tool for studying and parasympathetic influences on heart rhythm. Time-frequency analysis of HRV makes it easier to evaluate how (HRV) developed in Matlab 6.5 Three techniques are available: Short- Time Fourier Transform, Continuous

  17. Tropical climate variability from the last glacial maximum to the present

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dahl, Kristina Ariel

    2005-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the nature and magnitude of tropical climate variability from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present. The temporal variability of two specific tropical climate phenomena is examined. The first is the ...

  18. Flexible Pipelining Design for Recursive Variable Expansion Zubair Nawaz, Thomas Marconi, Koen Bertels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertels, Koen

    Flexible Pipelining Design for Recursive Variable Expansion Zubair Nawaz, Thomas Marconi, Koen area by doing loops parallelization with extensive use of pipelining. This paper presents an automated flexible pipeline design algorithm for our unique acceleration technique called Recursive Variable

  19. Variability of the polar stratospheric vortex and its impact on surface climate patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheshadri, Aditi

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates various aspects of the variability of the stratospheric polar vortex and the effect of this variability on tropospheric weather and climate patterns on various timescales. In the first part of this ...

  20. A latent-variable modelling approach to the acoustic-to-articulatory mapping problem. I 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carreira-Perpinan, Miguel A; Renals, Steve

    1999-01-01

    We present a latent variable approach to the acoustic-to-articulatory mapping problem, where different vocal tract configurations can give rise to the same acoustics. In latent variable modelling, the combined acoustic and ...

  1. Aero III/IV Complex Variable Theory Handout 1 A. G. Walton Derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walton, Andrew G

    Aero III/IV Complex Variable Theory Handout 1 A. G. Walton Derivatives If i+}, is single the coefficients dn are unique. #12;Aero III/IV Complex Variable Theory Handout 2 A. G. Walton Residues

  2. Reliably Diagnosing Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Declines in a Variable World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reliably Diagnosing Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Declines in a Variable World by Faye d diagnosing Fraser River sockeye salmon declines in a variable world Report No.: 564 Examining Committee

  3. Variable-Speed, Low-Cost Motor for Residential HVAC Systems ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HVAC Systems Variable-Speed, Low-Cost Motor for Residential HVAC Systems Lower-Cost, Variable-Speed Electric Motor Improves Energy Efficiency In 2011, the U.S. industrial,...

  4. On the Impossibility of Covariant Nonlocal "hidden" Variables in Quantum Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Gisin

    2010-02-06

    Local variables can't describe the quantum correlations observed in tests of Bell inequalities. Likewise, we show that nonlocal variables can't describe quantum correlations in a relativistic time-order invariant way.

  5. Quantifying Variability in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Inventories of Alternative Middle Distillate Transportation Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stratton, Russell William

    The presence of variability in life cycle analysis (LCA) is inherent due to both inexact LCA procedures and variation of numerical inputs. Variability in LCA needs to be clearly distinguished from uncertainty. This paper ...

  6. Variability in the Initial Costs of Care and One-Year Outcomes of Observation Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbass, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Variability in the initial costs of care across theVariability in the Initial Costs of Care and One-Yearis associated with lower costs and comparable level of care

  7. Decadal Variability in the Formation of the North Pacific Subtropical Mode Water: Oceanic versus Atmospheric Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Bo

    , during which time high regional eddy variability infuses high-PV KE water into the recirculation gyre

  8. Shear Layer Instabilities and Mixing in Variable Density Transverse Jet Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Getsinger, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    of the Jet in Crossflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .The Variable Density Jet in Crossflow . . . . . . . . .The Single-Phase Jet in Crossflow . . . . . . .

  9. IMPROVED VARIABLE STAR SEARCH IN LARGE PHOTOMETRIC DATA SETS: NEW VARIABLES IN CoRoT FIELD LRa02 DETECTED BY BEST II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fruth, T.; Cabrera, J.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Eigmueller, P.; Erikson, A.; Kirste, S.; Pasternacki, T.; Rauer, H.; Titz-Weider, R.; Kabath, P.; Chini, R.; Lemke, R.; Murphy, M.

    2012-06-15

    The CoRoT field LRa02 has been observed with the Berlin Exoplanet Search Telescope II (BEST II) during the southern summer 2007/2008. A first analysis of stellar variability led to the publication of 345 newly discovered variable stars. Now, a deeper analysis of this data set was used to optimize the variability search procedure. Several methods and parameters have been tested in order to improve the selection process compared to the widely used J index for variability ranking. This paper describes an empirical approach to treat systematic trends in photometric data based upon the analysis of variance statistics that can significantly decrease the rate of false detections. Finally, the process of reanalysis and method improvement has virtually doubled the number of variable stars compared to the first analysis by Kabath et al. A supplementary catalog of 272 previously unknown periodic variables plus 52 stars with suspected variability is presented. Improved ephemerides are given for 19 known variables in the field. In addition, the BEST II results are compared with CoRoT data and its automatic variability classification.

  10. Compact, electro-hydraulic, variable valve actuation system providing variable lift, timing and duration to enable high efficiency engine combustion control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses development of advanced variable valve actuation system to enable high efficiency combustion highlighting advances to improving system packaging while reducing cost

  11. A Machian Version of Einstein's Variable Speed of Light Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Unzicker; Jan Preuss

    2015-03-28

    It is a little known fact that while he was developing his theory of general relativity, Einstein's initial idea was a variable speed of light theory. Indeed space-time curvature can be mimicked by a speed of light $c(r)$ that depends on the distribution of masses. Einstein's 1911 theory was considerably improved by Robert Dicke in 1957, but only recently has the equivalence of the variable speed of light approach to the conventional formalism been demonstrated (Broekaert, 2008). Using Green's functions, we show that Einstein's 1911 idea can be expressed in an analytic form, similar to the Poisson equation. Using heuristic arguments, we derive a simple formula that directly relates curvature $w$ to the local speed of light, $w= -c^2 \\Delta \\frac{1}{c^2}$. In contrast to the conventional formulation, this allows for a Machian interpretation of general relativity and the gravitational constant $G$. Gravity, though described by local equations, has its origin in all other masses in the universe.

  12. Uncovering the intrinsic variability of gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golkhou, Vahid Z.; Butler, Nathaniel R., E-mail: vgolkhou@asu.edu, E-mail: natbutler@asu.edu [Cosmology Initiative, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA. (United States)

    2014-05-20

    We develop a robust technique to determine the minimum variability timescale for gamma-ray burst (GRB) light curves, utilizing Haar wavelets. Our approach averages over the data for a given GRB, providing an aggregate measure of signal variation while also retaining sensitivity to narrow pulses within complicated time series. In contrast to previous studies using wavelets, which simply define the minimum timescale in reference to the measurement noise floor, our approach identifies the signature of temporally smooth features in the wavelet scaleogram and then additionally identifies a break in the scaleogram on longer timescales as a signature of a true, temporally unsmooth light curve feature or features. We apply our technique to the large sample of Swift GRB gamma-ray light curves and for the first time—due to the presence of a large number of GRBs with measured redshift—determine the distribution of minimum variability timescales in the source frame. We find a median minimum timescale for long-duration GRBs in the source frame of ?t {sub min} = 0.5 s, with the shortest timescale found being on the order of 10 ms. This short timescale suggests a compact central engine (3 × 10{sup 3} km). We discuss further implications for the GRB fireball model and present a tantalizing correlation between the minimum timescale and redshift, which may in part be due to cosmological time dilation.

  13. Multivariate characterization of hydrogen Balmer emission in cataclysmic variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon E. Sarty; Kinwah Wu

    2006-08-18

    The ratios of hydrogen Balmer emission line intensities in cataclysmic variables are signatures of the physical processes that produce them. To quantify those signatures relative to classifications of cataclysmic variable types, we applied the multivariate statistical analysis methods of principal components analysis and discriminant function analysis to the spectroscopic emission data set of Williams (1983). The two analysis methods reveal two different sources of variation in the ratios of the emission lines. The source of variation seen in the principal components analysis was shown to be correlated with the binary orbital period. The source of variation seen in the discriminant function analysis was shown to be correlated with the equivalent width of the H$\\beta$ line. Comparison of the data scatterplot with scatterplots of theoretical models shows that Balmer line emission from T CrB systems is consistent with the photoionization of a surrounding nebula. Otherwise, models that we considered do not reproduce the wide range of Balmer decrements, including "inverted" decrements, seen in the data.

  14. Multi-band optical variability studies of BL Lacertae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agarwal, Aditi

    2015-01-01

    We monitored BL Lacertae for 13 nights in optical B, V, R, and I bands during October and November 2014 including quasi-simultaneous observations in V and R bands using two optical telescopes in India. We have studied multi-band optical flux variations, colour variation and spectral changes in this blazar. Source was found to be active during the whole monitoring period and showed significant intraday variability on 3 nights in V and R filters while displayed hints of variability on 6 other dates in R passband and on 2 nights in V filter. From the colour-magnitude analysis of the source we found that the spectra of the target gets flatter as it becomes brighter on intra-night timescale. Using discrete correlation technique, we found that intraday light curves in both V and R filters are almost consistent and well correlated with each other. We also generated spectral energy distribution (SED) of the target using the B, V, R, and I data sets for all 13 nights which could help us investigate the physical proces...

  15. The RR Lyrae Variable Population in the Phoenix Dwarf Galaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ordoñez, Antonio J; Sarajedini, Ata

    2014-01-01

    We present the first detailed study of the RR Lyrae variable population in the Local Group dSph/dIrr transition galaxy, Phoenix, using previously obtained HST/WFPC2 observations of the galaxy. We utilize template light curve fitting routines to obtain best fit light curves for RR Lyrae variables in Phoenix. Our technique has identified 78 highly probable RR Lyrae stars (54 ab-type; 24 c-type) with about 40 additional candidates. We find mean periods for the two populations of $\\langle P_{ab}\\rangle = 0.60 \\pm 0.03$ days and $\\langle P_{c}\\rangle = 0.353 \\pm 0.002$ days. We use the properties of these light curves to extract, among other things, a metallicity distribution function for ab-type RR Lyrae. Our analysis yields a mean metallicity of $\\langle [Fe/H]\\rangle = -1.68 \\pm 0.06$ dex for the RRab stars. From the mean period and metallicity calculated from the ab-type RR Lyrae, we conclude that Phoenix is more likely of intermediate Oosterhoff type; however the morphology of the Bailey diagram for Phoenix R...

  16. Global Sensitivity Analysis for the Short-term Prediction of System Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    . These system variables include unit dispatch levels, line flows, and line congestion. Short-term predictions1 Global Sensitivity Analysis for the Short-term Prediction of System Variables Qun Zhou, Student--Short-term prediction of system variables with re- spect to load levels is highly important for market operations

  17. Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty in Hourly NOx Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    1 Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty in Hourly NOx Emissions from Coal-Fired Power to quantify variability and uncertainty for NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants. Data for hourly NOx Uncertainty, Variability, Emission Factors, Coal-Fired Power Plants, NOx emissions, Regression Models

  18. Fish use of turbulence around wood in winter: physical experiments on hydraulic variability and habitat selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    Fish use of turbulence around wood in winter: physical experiments on hydraulic variability-introduction of large wood for expanding hydraulic variability is an increasingly common prac- tice, yet it is not yet on flow strength, depth, distance to wood, or based on temporal or spatial variability of the flow field

  19. Short-term irradiance variability: Preliminary estimation of station pair correlation as a function of distance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Review Short-term irradiance variability: Preliminary estimation of station pair correlation the irradiance variability observed at two neighboring sites as a function of their distance of the considered time scale. Ó 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Irradiance; Variability; High

  20. Interisland Variability of Dune Plant Community Structure on Virginia's Barrier Islands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Deborah

    Interisland Variability of Dune Plant Community Structure on Virginia's Barrier Islands by Justin VARIABILITY OF DUNE PLANT COMMUNITY STRUCTURE ON VIRGINIA'S BARRIER ISLANDS Justin K. Shafer Old Dominion provide an opportunity to study interisland variability of dune plant communities. My research focused

  1. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Variable Transpiration Cooling: A New Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Variable Transpiration Cooling: A New Solution, and investigates the cooling effectiveness of variable fluid injection into the hypersonic laminar boundary layer. The variable transpiration is obtained choosing selected distributions for the coolant (air) velocity

  2. EFFECT OF PITCH CONTROL AND POWER CONDITIONING ON POWER QUALITY OF VARIABLE SPEED WIND TURBINE GENERATORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EFFECT OF PITCH CONTROL AND POWER CONDITIONING ON POWER QUALITY OF VARIABLE SPEED WIND TURBINE), Curtin University of Technology, WA Abstract: Variable speed wind turbine generators provide the opportunity to capture more power than fixed speed turbines. However the variable speed machine output can

  3. Biomechanical variables related to walking performance 6-months following post-stroke rehabilitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biomechanical variables related to walking performance 6-months following post no biomechanical variables are known to be related to those who will either continue to improve or regress of this study was to identify those biomechanical variables that are associated with subjects who continue (or

  4. Complex hydraulic and substrate variables limit freshwater mussel species richness and abundance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaughn, Caryn

    Complex hydraulic and substrate variables limit freshwater mussel species richness and abundance. We examined how substrate and complex hydraulic variables limit the distribution of freshwater mussels. We sampled mussels and measured substrate and hydraulic variables (at low and high flows) at 6

  5. HEART RATE AND BLOOD PRESSURE VARIABILITY UNDER MOON, MARS AND ZERO GRAVITY CONDITIONS DURING PARABOLIC FLIGHTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HEART RATE AND BLOOD PRESSURE VARIABILITY UNDER MOON, MARS AND ZERO GRAVITY CONDITIONS DURING), studied via the heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV). HRV and BPV were predominant during reduced gravity. For the mean heart rate, a non-monotonic relation was found, which can

  6. Long-term climate variability and abrupt climate change Instructor: Dr. Igor Kamenkovich, associate professor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Long-term climate variability and abrupt climate change Instructor: Dr. Igor Kamenkovich, associate students to learn about existing theories of abrupt climate changes and climate variability on time scales of long-term climate variability and abrupt climate change. This course compliments current MPO courses

  7. A Prospective Study of Management and Litter Variables Associated with Cellulitis in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Randall

    A Prospective Study of Management and Litter Variables Associated with Cellulitis in California. Litter variables measured included E. coli and total gram-negative bacteria load (colony forming units/g dry matter), water activity, and pH. Management variables such as clean out, the number of flocks

  8. Zonal Jet Structure and the Leading Mode of Variability SCOTT J. EICHELBERGER AND DENNIS L. HARTMANN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartmann, Dennis

    Zonal Jet Structure and the Leading Mode of Variability SCOTT J. EICHELBERGER AND DENNIS L the effects of the zonal jet structure on the leading mode of variability in the Northern Hemisphere. Model-driven and subtropical jets. When the jets are well separated, the leading mode of variability describes latitudinal

  9. A knearest-neighbor simulator for daily precipitation and other weather variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balaji, Rajagopalan

    A k­nearest-neighbor simulator for daily precipitation and other weather variables Balaji simulation method is provided to generate random sequences of daily weather variables that "honor" the statistical properties of the historical data of the same weather variables at the site. A vector of weather

  10. Strategy for the Operation of Cooling Towers with variable Speed Fans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iñigo-Golfín, J

    2001-01-01

    Within the SPS Cooling Water Project at CERN aimed at the reduction of water consumption, this primary open cooling loop will be closed and all the primary cooling circuit components will be upgraded to the new required duty and brought to the necessary safety and operability standards. In particular the tower fans will be fitted with variable frequency drives to replace the existing two speed motors. This paper presents a study to optimize the operation of SPS cooling towers taking into account outdoor conditions (wet and dry bulb temperatures) and the entirety of the primary circuit in which they will operate.

  11. Variability-aware system-level design and analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandra, Saumya

    2009-01-01

    Voltage-Frequency Island Systems,” in Proc. Int. Conf.in multi-voltage island systems) have different frequency-Frequency Island Latency-Constrained Systems,” IEEE Trans.

  12. Models of the Time Variability of BHC: Light Curves, PSD, Lags

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demosthenes Kazanas

    2000-01-13

    We present a model for the aperiodic variablity of accreting Black Hole Candidates (BHC) along with model light curves. According to the model this variability is the combined outcome of random (Poisson) injection of soft photons near the center of an extended {\\sl inhomogeneous} distribution of hot electrons (similar to those advocated by the ADAF or ADIOS flows) and the stochastic nature of Compton scattering which converts these soft photons into the observed high energy radiation. Thus, the timing properties (PSD, lags, coherence) of the BHC light curves reflect, to a large extent, the properties of the scattering medium (which in this approximation acts as a combination of a {\\sl linear} amplifier/filter) and they can be used to probe its structure, most notably the density profile of the scattering medium. The model accounts well for the observed PSDs and lags and also the reduction in the RMS variability and the increase in the characteristic PSD frequencies with increasing source luminosity. The electron density profiles obtained to date are consistent mainly with those of ADIOS but also with pure ADAF flows.

  13. Variability-aware system-level design and analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandra, Saumya

    2009-01-01

    Voltage-Frequency Island Systems,” in Proc. Int. Conf.in multi-voltage island systems) have different frequency-

  14. 1M. Panahi, S. Skogestad ' Controlled Variables Selection for a Natural Gas to Liquids (GTL) process' Controlled Variables Selection for a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    1M. Panahi, S. Skogestad ' Controlled Variables Selection for a Natural Gas to Liquids (GTL) process' Controlled Variables Selection for a Natural Gas to Liquids (GTL) process Mehdi Panahi Sigurd for a Natural Gas to Liquids (GTL) process' Skogestad plantwide control procedure* I Top Down · Step 1: Identify

  15. Ph.D. Qualifying Examination. Basic Mathematics Questions (1) (7 pts.) By suitably transforming the variables x and y to another pair of variables, calculate the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    the variables x and y to another pair of variables, calculate the integral ( ) - - ++ 5 22 2 1 yx dxdyx (2) (3 pts.) Find the general solution of the second order differential equation xy dx dy dx yd 2 2 2 cos244 =++ (b) (4 pts.) Solve the differential equation ( ) ( )5 131 +=-+ xy dx dy x , given that 2/3=y

  16. Sub-daily Statistical Downscaling of Meteorological Variables Using Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Jitendra [ORNL] [ORNL; Brooks, Bjørn-Gustaf J. [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign] [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL] [ORNL; Dietze, Michael [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign] [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

    2012-01-01

    A new open source neural network temporal downscaling model is described and tested using CRU-NCEP reanal ysis and CCSM3 climate model output. We downscaled multiple meteorological variables in tandem from monthly to sub-daily time steps while also retaining consistent correlations between variables. We found that our feed forward, error backpropagation approach produced synthetic 6 hourly meteorology with biases no greater than 0.6% across all variables and variance that was accurate within 1% for all variables except atmospheric pressure, wind speed, and precipitation. Correlations between downscaled output and the expected (original) monthly means exceeded 0.99 for all variables, which indicates that this approach would work well for generating atmospheric forcing data consistent with mass and energy conserved GCM output. Our neural network approach performed well for variables that had correlations to other variables of about 0.3 and better and its skill was increased by downscaling multiple correlated variables together. Poor replication of precipitation intensity however required further post-processing in order to obtain the expected probability distribution. The concurrence of precipitation events with expected changes in sub ordinate variables (e.g., less incident shortwave radiation during precipitation events) were nearly as consistent in the downscaled data as in the training data with probabilities that differed by no more than 6%. Our downscaling approach requires training data at the target time step and relies on a weak assumption that climate variability in the extrapolated data is similar to variability in the training data.

  17. Multiwavelength Observations of GX 339-4 in 1996. II. Rapid X-ray Variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. A. Smith; E. P. Liang

    1998-12-08

    As part of our multiwavelength campaign of GX 339-4 observations in 1996 we present the rapid X-ray variability observed July 26 using the RXTE when the source was in a hard state (= soft X-ray low state). We found that the source was extremely variable, with many bright flares. The flares have relatively symmetric time profiles. There are a few time intervals where the flux rises steadily and then drops suddenly, sometimes to a level lower than the average before the increase. Hardness ratios showed that the source was slightly softer when the flux was brighter. The power density spectra (PDS) were also complicated and we found that broken power laws do not provide adequate fits to any of them. Instead a pair of zero-centered Lorentzians gives a good general description of the shape of the PDS. We found several quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO), including some that are harmonically spaced with the most stable frequency at 0.35 Hz. While the overall rms variability of the source was close to being constant throughout the observation (29% integrating between 0.01 and 50 Hz), there is a small but significant change in the PDS shape with time. More importantly, we show that the soft 2-5 keV band is more variable than the harder 5-10 and 10-40 keV bands, which is unusual for this source and for other black hole candidates. Cross correlation functions (CCF) between these bands show that the light curve for the 10-40 keV band lags that of the 2-5 keV band by 5 msec.

  18. Optimal continuous variable quantum teleportation protocol for realistic settings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. S. Luiz; Gustavo Rigolin

    2015-02-04

    We show the optimal setup that allows Alice to teleport coherent states to Bob giving the greatest fidelity (efficiency) when one takes into account two realistic assumptions. The first one says that in any actual implementation of the continuous variable teleportation protocol (CVTP) Alice and Bob necessarily share non-maximally entangled states (two-mode finitely squeezed states). The second one assumes that Alice's pool of possible coherent states to be teleported to Bob does not cover the whole complex plane. The optimal strategy is achieved by tuning three parameters in the original CVTP, namely, the beam splitter transmittance and the displacements in position and momentum implemented on the teleported state. These slight changes in the protocol are currently easy to be implemented and, as we show, give considerable gain in perfomance for a variety of possible pool of input states with Alice.

  19. "Weather" Variability Of Close-in Extrasolar Giant Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kristen Menou; James Y-K. Cho; Sara Seager; Brad Hansen

    2003-03-12

    Shallow-water numerical simulations show that the atmospheric circulation of the close-in extrasolar giant planet (EGP) HD 209458b is characterized by moving circumpolar vortices and few bands/jets (in contrast with ~10 bands/jets and absence of polar vortices on cloud-top Jupiter and Saturn). The large spatial scales of moving circulation structures on HD 209458b may generate detectable variability of the planet's atmospheric signatures. In this Letter, we generalize these results to other close-in EGPs, by noting that shallow-water dynamics is essentially specified by the values of the Rossby (Ro) and Burger (Bu) dimensionless numbers. The range of likely values of Ro (~ 0.01 - 10) and Bu (~ 1 - 200) for the atmospheric flow of known close-in EGPs indicates that their circulation should be qualitatively similar to that of HD 209458b. This results mostly from the slow rotation of these tidally-synchronized planets.

  20. Utility-Based Wireless Resource Allocation for Variable Rate Transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xiaolu; Ng, Chun Sum

    2007-01-01

    For most wireless services with variable rate transmission, both average rate and rate oscillation are important performance metrics. The traditional performance criterion, utility of average transmission rate, boosts the average rate but also results in high rate oscillations. We introduce a utility function of instantaneous transmission rates. It is capable of facilitating the resource allocation with flexible combinations of average rate and rate oscillation. Based on the new utility, we consider the time and power allocation in a time-shared wireless network. Two adaptation policies are developed, namely, time sharing (TS) and joint time sharing and power control (JTPC). An extension to quantized time sharing with limited channel feedback (QTSL) for practical systems is also discussed. Simulation results show that by controlling the concavity of the utility function, a tradeoff between the average rate and rate oscillation can be easily made.

  1. Method and apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pokrywka, Robert J. (North Huntingdon, PA)

    2005-01-18

    A calibration apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) having an armature positioned in au LVDT armature orifice, and the armature able to move along an axis of movement. The calibration apparatus includes a heating mechanism with an internal chamber, a temperature measuring mechanism for measuring the temperature of the LVDT, a fixture mechanism with an internal chamber for at least partially accepting the LVDT and for securing the LVDT within the heating mechanism internal chamber, a moving mechanism for moving the armature, a position measurement mechanism for measuring the position of the armature, and an output voltage measurement mechanism. A method for calibrating an LVDT, including the steps of: powering the LVDT; heating the LVDT to a desired temperature; measuring the position of the armature with respect to the armature orifice; and measuring the output voltage of the LVDT.

  2. Reduction in Energy Consumption & Variability in Steel Foundry Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Peters

    2005-05-04

    This project worked to improve the efficiency of the steel casting industry by reducing the variability that occurs because of process and product variation. The project focused on the post shakeout operations since roughly half of the production costs are in this area. These improvements will reduce the amount of variability, making it easier to manage the operation and improve the competitiveness. The reduction in variability will also reduce the need for many rework operations, which will result in a direct reduction of energy usage, particularly by the reduction of repeated heat treatment operations. Further energy savings will be realized from the reduction of scrap and reduced handling. Field studies were conducted at ten steel foundries that represented the U.S. steel casting industry, for a total of over 100 weeks of production observation. These studies quantified the amount of variability, and looked toward determining the source. A focus of the data collected was the grinding operations since this is a major effort in the cleaning room, and it represents the overall casting quality. The grinding was divided into two categories, expected and unexpected. Expected grinding is that in which the location of the effort is known prior to making the casting, such as smoothing parting lines, gates, and riser contacts. Unexpected grinding, which was approximately 80% of the effort, was done to improve the surfaces at weld repair locations, to rectify burnt on sand, and other surface anomalies at random locations. Unexpected grinding represents about 80% of the grinding effort. By quantifying this effort, the project raised awareness within the industry and the industry is continuing to make improvements. The field studies showed that the amount of variation of grinding operations (normalized because of the diverse set of parts studied) was very consistent across the industry. The field studies identified several specific sources that individually contributed to large process variation. This indicates the need for ongoing monitoring of the process and system to quantify the effort being expended. A system to measure the grinding effort was investigated but did not prove to be successful. A weld wire counting system was shown to be very successful in tracking casting quality by monitoring the quantity of weld wire being expended on a per casting basis. Further use of such systems is highly recommended. The field studies showed that the visual inspection process for the casting surface was a potentially large source of process variation. Measurement system analysis studies were conducted at three steel casting producers. The tests measured the consistency of the inspectors in identifying the same surface anomalies. The repeatability (variation of the same operator inspecting the same casting) was found to be relatively consistent across the companies at about 60-70%. However, this is still are very large amount of variation. Reproducibility (variation of different operators inspecting the same casting) was worse, ranging between 20 to 80% at the three locations. This large amount of variation shows that there is a great opportunity for improvement. Falsely identifying anomalies for reworking will cause increased expense and energy consumption. This is particularly true if a weld repair and repeated heat treatment is required. However, not identifying an anomaly could also result in future rework processing, a customer return, or scrap. To help alleviate this problem, casting surface comparator plates were developed and distributed to the industry. These plates are very inexpensive which enables them to be provided to all those involved with casting surface quality, such as operators, inspectors, sales, and management.

  3. Design of a variable reluctance asymmetric stepping millimotor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GARCIA,ERNEST J.; GREENWOOD,WILLIAM H.; OLIVER,ANDREW D.

    2000-06-01

    This paper reports on the design, simulation, and preliminary testing of a three phase variable reluctance stepping motor. This motor is pancake-shaped with an overall outside diameter of 8 mm and a height of 3 mm. The outside diameter of the rotor is 4.7 mm. The rotor and stators occupy 2 mm of the height with the remaining 1 mm reserved for a 6:1 planetary gear reductor. The rotor and stators were constructed of Hyperco 50 using conventional miniature machining. The reductor was assembled using copper and PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) components that were constructed using the LIGA (Lithographic Galvanoformung Abformung) microfabrication process. The maximum measured stall torque of the motor without the reductor is 0.47mNm at 4W and the maximum speed is 2,400 rpm.

  4. Cataclysmic variables in the SUPERBLINK proper motion survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, Julie N.; Thorstensen, John R.; Lépine, Sébastien

    2014-12-01

    We have discovered a new high proper motion cataclysmic variable (CV) in the SUPERBLINK proper motion survey, which is sensitive to stars with proper motions greater than 40 mas yr{sup ?1}. This CV was selected for follow-up observations as part of a larger search for CVs selected based on proper motions and their near-UV?V and V?K{sub s} colors. We present spectroscopic observations from the 2.4 m Hiltner Telescope at MDM Observatory. The new CV's orbital period is near 96 minutes, its spectrum shows the double-peaked Balmer emission lines characteristic of quiescent dwarf novae, and its V magnitude is near 18.2. Additionally, we present a full list of known CVs in the SUPERBLINK catalog.

  5. System and method of modulating electrical signals using photoconductive wide bandgap semiconductors as variable resistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, John Richardson; Caporaso, George J; Sampayan, Stephen E

    2013-10-22

    A system and method for producing modulated electrical signals. The system uses a variable resistor having a photoconductive wide bandgap semiconductor material construction whose conduction response to changes in amplitude of incident radiation is substantially linear throughout a non-saturation region to enable operation in non-avalanche mode. The system also includes a modulated radiation source, such as a modulated laser, for producing amplitude-modulated radiation with which to direct upon the variable resistor and modulate its conduction response. A voltage source and an output port, are both operably connected to the variable resistor so that an electrical signal may be produced at the output port by way of the variable resistor, either generated by activation of the variable resistor or propagating through the variable resistor. In this manner, the electrical signal is modulated by the variable resistor so as to have a waveform substantially similar to the amplitude-modulated radiation.

  6. NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Brett C.

    2010-01-01

    Singer, B.  C.  2006.  Natural Gas Variability in Report.   Singer, B.  C.  2007.  Natural Gas Variability in Sullivan.  2009.  Natural Gas  Variability in California: 

  7. Soft X-ray spectral variability of AM Herculis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Beuermann; E. El Kholy; K. Reinsch

    2008-02-19

    Polars (AM Herculis binaries) are a prominent class of bright soft X-ray sources, many of which were discovered with ROSAT. We present a homogenous analysis of all the pointed ROSAT PSPC observations of polars subdivided into two papers that discuss the prototype polar AM Her in detail and summarize the class properties of all other polars. We derive the high-state soft X-ray flux and short-term spectral variability of AM Her using a new detector response matrix and a confirmed flux calibration of the ROSAT PSPC below 0.28 keV. The best-fit mean single-blackbody temperature and integrated bright-phase energy flux of AM Her in its April 1991 high state are 27.2 +/- 1.0 eV and (2.6 +/- 0.6) x 10^-9 erg cm^-2s^-1, respectively. The total blackbody flux of a multi-temperature model that fits both the soft X-ray and the fluctuating far-ultraviolet components is Fbb = (4.5 +/- 1.5) x 10^-9 erg cm^-2s^-1. The total accretion luminosity at a distance of 80 pc, Lbb = (2.1 +/- 0.7) x 10^33 erg s-1, implies an accretion rate of Mdot = (2.4 +/- 0.8) x 10^-10 Msun yr^-1 for an 0.78 Msun white dwarf. The soft X-ray flux displays significant variability on time scales down to 200 ms. Correlated spectral and count-rate variations are seen in flares on time scales down to 1 s, demonstrating the heating and cooling associated with individual accretion events. Our spectral and temporal analysis provides direct evidence for the blobby accretion model and suggests a connection between the soft X-ray and the fluctuating far-ultraviolet components.

  8. Variable-metric diffraction crystals for x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smither, R.K.; Fernandez, P.B. )

    1992-02-01

    A variable-metric (VM) crystal is one in which the spacing between the crystalline planes changes with position in the crystal. This variation can be either parallel to the crystalline planes or perpendicular to the crystalline planes of interest and can be produced by either introducing a thermal gradient in the crystal or by growing a crystal made of two or more elements and changing the relative percentages of the two elements as the crystal is grown. A series of experiments were performed in the laboratory to demonstrate the principle of the variable-metric crystal and its potential use in synchrotron beam lines. One of the most useful applications of the VM crystal is to increase the number of photons per unit bandwidth in a diffracted beam without losing any of the overall intensity. In a normal synchrotron beam line that uses a two-crystal monochromator, the bandwidth of the diffracted photon beam is determined by the vertical opening angle of the beam which is typically 0.10--0.30 mrad or 20--60 arcsec. When the VM crystal approach is applied, the bandwidth of the beam can be made as narrow as the rocking curve of the diffracting crystal, which is typically 0.005--0.050 mrad or 1--10 arcsec. Thus a very large increase of photons per unit bandwidth (or per unit energy) can be achieved through the use of VM crystals. When the VM principle is used with bent crystals, new kinds of x-ray optical elements can be generated that can focus and defocus x-ray beams much like simple lenses where the focal length of the lens can be changed to match its application. Thus both large magnifications and large demagnifications can be achieved as well as parallel beams with narrow bandwidths.

  9. THE ENIGMATIC YOUNG, LOW-MASS VARIABLE TWA 30

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looper, Dagny L.; Rayner, John; Pitts, Mark A.; Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Bochanski, John J.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Herczeg, Gregory J.; West, Andrew A.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy

    2010-05-01

    TWA 30 is a remarkable young (7 {+-} 3 Myr), low-mass (0.12 {+-} 0.04 M{sub sun}), late-type star (M5 {+-} 1) residing 42 {+-} 2 pc away from the Sun in the TW Hydrae Association (TWA). It shows strong outflow spectral signatures such as [S II], [O I], [O II], [O III], and Mg I], while exhibiting weak H{alpha} emission (-6.8 {+-} 1.2 A). Emission lines of [S II] and [O I] are common to T Tauri stars still residing in their natal molecular clouds, while [O III] and Mg I] emission lines are incredibly rare in this same population; in the case of TWA 30, these latter lines may arise from new outflow material colliding into older outflow fronts. The weak H{alpha} emission and small radial velocity shifts of line emission relative to the stellar frame of rest (generally {approx_lt}10 km s{sup -1}) suggest that the disk is viewed close to edge-on and that the stellar axis may be inclined to the disk, similar to the AA Tau system, based on its temporal changes in emission/absorption line strengths/profiles and variable reddening (A{sub V} = 1.5-9.0). The strong Li absorption (0.61 {+-} 0.13 A) and common kinematics with members of the TWA confirm its age and membership to the association. Given the properties of this system such as its proximity, low mass, remarkable outflow signatures, variability, and edge-on configuration, this system is a unique case study at a critical time in disk evolution and planet-building processes.

  10. A High Temperature Hermetic Primer and a Variable Spring Tester

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begeal, D.R.

    1994-05-01

    Percussion primers are used at Sandia to ignite energetic components such as pyrotechnic actuators and thermal batteries. This report describes a High Temperature Hermetic Primer (HTHP) that was developed to replace a previous G16 Percussion Primer Subassembly (Gl6PPS). The ignition mix in these primers is the same as in the discontinued Remington 44G16 (KC1O{sub 3}, SbS{sub 3}, and Ca{sub 2}Si). The HTHP has nearly the same sensitivity as the 44G16 and a significantly lower sensitivity than the G16PPS. In parallel with the HTHP development, we also designed a Variable Spring Tester (VST) to determine percussion primer ignition sensitivity with firing pins that have the same mass as those used in field applications. The tester is capable of accelerating firing pins over a velocity range of 100 to 600 inches per second for pins weighing up to 6 grams. The desired impulse can be preselected with an accuracy of better than {plus_minus}1%. The actual impulse is measured on every shot. The VST was characterized using the WW42Cl primer, as well as with the G16PPS and the HTHP. Compared to data from conventional ball drop testers, we found that ignition sensitivities were lower and there was less scatter in the sensitivity data. Our experiments indicate that ignition sensitivity is not strictly energy dependent, but also depends on the rate of deposition, or firing pin velocity in this case. Development results for the HTHP and Variable Spring Tester are discussed and design details are shown.

  11. The RR Lyrae variable population in the Phoenix dwarf galaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ordoñez, Antonio J.; Sarajedini, Ata [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Yang, Soung-Chul, E-mail: a.ordonez@ufl.edu, E-mail: ata@astro.ufl.edu, E-mail: sczoo@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-10

    We present the first detailed study of the RR Lyrae variable population in the Local Group dSph/dIrr transition galaxy, Phoenix, using previously obtained HST/WFPC2 observations of the galaxy. We utilize template light curve fitting routines to obtain best fit light curves for RR Lyrae variables in Phoenix. Our technique has identified 78 highly probable RR Lyrae stars (54 ab-type; 24 c-type) with about 40 additional candidates. We find mean periods for the two populations of (P {sub ab}) = 0.60 ± 0.03 days and (P{sub c} ) = 0.353 ± 0.002 days. We use the properties of these light curves to extract, among other things, a metallicity distribution function for ab-type RR Lyrae. Our analysis yields a mean metallicity of ([Fe/H]) = –1.68 ± 0.06 dex for the RRab stars. From the mean period and metallicity calculated from the ab-type RR Lyrae, we conclude that Phoenix is more likely of intermediate Oosterhoff type; however the morphology of the Bailey diagram for Phoenix RR Lyraes appears similar to that of an Oosterhoff type I system. Using the RRab stars, we also study the chemical enrichment law for Phoenix. We find that our metallicity distribution is reasonably well fitted by a closed-box model. The parameters of this model are compatible with the findings of Hidalgo et al., further supporting the idea that Phoenix appears to have been chemically enriched as a closed-box-like system during the early stage of its formation and evolution.

  12. Fixed-Speed and Variable-Slip Wind Turbines Providing Spinning Reserves to the Grid: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.

    2012-11-01

    As the level of wind penetration increases, wind turbine technology must move from merely generating power from wind to taking a role in supporting the bulk power system. Wind turbines should have the capability to provide inertial response and primary frequency (governor) response so they can support the frequency stability of the grid. To provide governor response, wind turbines should be able to generate less power than the available wind power and hold the rest in reserve, ready to be accessed as needed. This paper explores several ways to control wind turbine output to enable reserve-holding capability. This paper focuses on fixed-speed (also known as Type 1) and variable-slip (also known as Type 2) turbines.

  13. Variable Renewable Generation can Provide Balancing Control to the Electric Power System (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-09-01

    As wind and solar plants become more common in the electric power system, they may be called on to provide grid support services to help maintain system reliability. For example, through the use of inertial response, primary frequency response, and automatic generation control (also called secondary frequency response), wind power can provide assistance in balancing the generation and load on the system. These active power (i.e., real power) control services have the potential to assist the electric power system in times of disturbances and during normal conditions while also potentially providing economic value to consumers and variable renewable generation owners. This one-page, two-sided fact sheet discusses the grid-friendly support and benefits renewables can provide to the electric power system.

  14. VARIABILITY OF KD VALUES IN CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS AND SEDIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almond, P.; Kaplan, D.; Shine, E.

    2012-02-02

    Measured distribution coefficients (K{sub d} values) for environmental contaminants provide input data for performance assessments (PA) that evaluate physical and chemical phenomena for release of radionuclides from wasteforms, degradation of engineered components and subsequent transport of radionuclides through environmental media. Research efforts at SRNL to study the effects of formulation and curing variability on the physiochemical properties of the saltstone wasteform produced at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) are ongoing and provide information for the PA and Saltstone Operations. Furthermore, the range and distribution of plutonium K{sub d} values in soils is not known. Knowledge of these parameters is needed to provide guidance for stochastic modeling in the PA. Under the current SRS liquid waste processing system, supernate from F & H Tank Farm tanks is processed to remove actinides and fission products, resulting in a low-curie Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS). At the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF), DSS is mixed with premix, comprised of blast furnace slag (BFS), Class F fly ash (FA), and portland cement (OPC) to form a grout mixture. The fresh grout is subsequently placed in SDF vaults where it cures through hydration reactions to produce saltstone, a hardened monolithic waste form. Variation in saltstone composition and cure conditions of grout can affect the saltstone's physiochemical properties. Variations in properties may originate from variables in DSS, premix, and water to premix ratio, grout mixing, placing, and curing conditions including time and temperature (Harbour et al. 2007; Harbour et al. 2009). There are no previous studies reported in the literature regarding the range and distribution of K{sub d} values in cementitious materials. Presently, the Savannah River Site (SRS) estimate ranges and distributions of K{sub d} values based on measurements of K{sub d} values made in sandy SRS sediments (Kaplan 2010). The actual cementitious material K{sub d} values and solubility values differ from the sandy sediments. The K{sub d} value range and distribution currently used in the PA are estimated to range between 0.25*K{sub d} and 1.75*K{sub d}, where the minimum and maximum values of the ranges reflect the 95% confidence level for the mean K{sub d} value (Kaplan 2010). The objective of the research with cementitious materials was to measure the range and distribution of a monovalent (Cs) and I{sup -} (anion), divalent (Sr), and trivalent (Eu) ions for a variety of laboratory-prepared saltstone surrogate samples to establish a K{sub d} range other than that which is presently used in the PA. It has been observed in laboratory samples that cure temperature profiles can affect properties such as heat of hydration, permeability, porosity, compressive strength, and set time (Harbour et al. 2009). The intent was to identify a range and distribution that could be used by stochastic modelers for the PA. Furthermore, the intent was to replace the arbitrarily selected distributions based on geological sandy sediments and to base it on actual cementitious materials. The scope of this study did not include understanding saltstone sorption mechanisms responsible for increasing or decreasing sorption. Similar to the work with cementitious materials, the purpose of the Pu sediment K{sub d} dataset was not to attempt to understand through statistics how to better understand Pu sorption to sediments or to lower Pu K{sub d} variance. The sediment Pu K{sub d} data is included in this study because it is a key risk driver for the PAs on the SRS, and there is presently no direct studies of Pu variability in SRS soils. Instead the distribution of Pu sediment K{sub d} values was assumed to be similar to other cations, as presented by Kaplan (2010).

  15. Performance assessment of variable gain controlled optical storage drives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in face of disturbances 1. Low-frequency shocks 2. High-frequency noise Solutions: 1. Feedforward: Acc for Convergence 3. Frequency domain condition: and , _ 0 #12;15 for a periodic disturbance of period time T Under disturbance (200 Hz): , #12;17 Closed-loop Response: Frequency Domain #12;18 What is Performance? What does

  16. Variability of GRB Afterglows Due to Interstellar Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiaohu Wang; Abraham Loeb

    1999-10-26

    Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) afterglows are commonly interpreted as synchrotron emission from a relativistic blast wave produced by a point explosion in an ambient medium, plausibly the interstellar medium of galaxies. We calculate the amplitude of flux fluctuations in the lightcurve of afterglows due to inhomogeneities in the surrounding medium. Such inhomogeneities are an inevitable consequence of interstellar turbulence, but could also be generated by variability and anisotropy in a precursor wind from the GRB progenitor. Detection of their properties could provide important clues about the environments of GRB sources. We apply our calculations to GRB990510, where an rms scatter of 2% was observed for the optical flux fluctuations on the 0.1--2 hour timescale during the first day of the afterglow, consistent with it being entirely due to photometric noise (Stanek et al. 1999). The resulting upper limits on the density fluctuations on scales of 20-200 AU around the source of GRB990510, are lower than the inferred fluctuation amplitude on similar scales in the Galactic interstellar medium. Hourly monitoring of future optical afterglows might therefore reveal fractional flux fluctuations at the level of a few percent.

  17. Feasibility of wavelet expansion methods to treat the energy variable

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Rooijen, W. F. G.

    2012-07-01

    This paper discusses the use of the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) to implement a functional expansion of the energy variable in neutron transport. The motivation of the work is to investigate the possibility of adapting the expansion level of the neutron flux in a material region to the complexity of the cross section in that region. If such an adaptive treatment is possible, 'simple' material regions (e.g., moderator regions) require little effort, while a detailed treatment is used for 'complex' regions (e.g., fuel regions). Our investigations show that in fact adaptivity cannot be achieved. The most fundamental reason is that in a multi-region system, the energy dependence of the cross section in a material region does not imply that the neutron flux in that region has a similar energy dependence. If it is chosen to sacrifice adaptivity, then the DWT method can be very accurate, but the complexity of such a method is higher than that of an equivalent hyper-fine group calculation. The conclusion is thus that, unfortunately, the DWT approach is not very practical. (authors)

  18. OBSERVATIONS OF THERMAL FLARE PLASMA WITH THE EUV VARIABILITY EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Harry P.; Doschek, George A. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Mariska, John T. [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    One of the defining characteristics of a solar flare is the impulsive formation of very high temperature plasma. The properties of the thermal emission are not well understood, however, and the analysis of solar flare observations is often predicated on the assumption that the flare plasma is isothermal. The EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory provides spectrally resolved observations of emission lines that span a wide range of temperatures (e.g., Fe XV-Fe XXIV) and allow for thermal flare plasma to be studied in detail. In this paper we describe a method for computing the differential emission measure distribution in a flare using EVE observations and apply it to several representative events. We find that in all phases of the flare the differential emission measure distribution is broad. Comparisons of EVE spectra with calculations based on parameters derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites soft X-ray fluxes indicate that the isothermal approximation is generally a poor representation of the thermal structure of a flare.

  19. Spectroscopic variability and magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubrig, S; Ilyin, I; Korhonen, H; Savanov, I S; Dall, T; Schoeller, M; Cowley, C R; Briquet, M; Arlt, R

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of exotic abundances, chemical inhomogeneities, and weak magnetic fields on the surface of late B-type primaries in spectroscopic binaries has important implications not only for our understanding of the formation mechanisms of stars with Hg and Mn peculiarities themselves, but also for the general understanding of B-type star formation in binary systems. The origin of the abundance anomalies observed in late B-type stars with HgMn peculiarity is still poorly understood. The connection between HgMn peculiarity and membership in binary and multiple systems is supported by our observations during the last decade. The important result achieved in our studies of a large sample of HgMn stars is the finding that most HgMn stars exhibit spectral variability of various chemical elements, proving that the presence of an inhomogeneous distribution on the surface of these stars is a rather common characteristic and not a rare phenomenon. Further, in the studied systems, we found that all components are che...

  20. Observed Variability of the Solar Mg II h Spectral Line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmit, Donald; De Pontieu, Bart; McIntosh, Scott; Leenaarts, Jorrit; Carlsson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    The Mg II h&k doublet are two of the primary spectral lines observed by the Sun-pointing Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). These lines are tracers of the magnetic and thermal environment that spans from the photosphere to the upper chromosphere. We use a double gaussian model to fit the Mg II h profile for a full-Sun mosaic dataset taken 24-Aug-2014. We use the ensemble of high-quality profile fits to conduct a statistical study on the variability of the line profile as it relates the magnetic structure, dynamics, and center-to-limb viewing angle. The average internetwork profile contains a deeply reversed core and is weakly asymmetric at h2. In the internetwork, we find a strong correlation between h3 wavelength and profile asymmetry as well h1 width and h2 width. The average reversal depth of the h3 core is inversely related to the magnetic field. Plage and sunspots exhibit many profiles which do not contain a reversal. These profiles also occur infrequently in the internetwork. We see indic...

  1. Multiwave imaging in an enclosure with variable wave speed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebastian Acosta; Carlos Montalto

    2015-04-10

    In this paper we consider the mathematical model of thermo- and photo-acoustic tomography for the recovery of the initial condition of a wave field from knowledge of its boundary values. Unlike the free-space setting, we consider the wave problem in a region enclosed by a surface where an impedance boundary condition is imposed. This condition models the presence of physical boundaries such as interfaces or acoustic mirrors which reflect some of the wave energy back into the enclosed domain. By recognizing that the inverse problem is equivalent to a statement of boundary observability, we use control operators to prove the unique and stable recovery of the initial wave profile from knowledge of boundary measurements. Since our proof is constructive, we explicitly derive a solvable equation for the unknown initial condition. This equation can be solved numerically using the conjugate gradient method. We also propose an alternative approach based on the stabilization of waves. This leads to an exponentially and uniformly convergent Neumann series reconstruction when the impedance coefficient is not identically zero. In both cases, if well-known geometrical conditions are satisfied, our approaches are naturally suited for variable wave speed and for measurements on a subset of the boundary.

  2. Time variability of AGN and heating of cooling flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlo Nipoti; James Binney

    2005-05-03

    There is increasing evidence that AGN mechanical feedback is important in the energetics of cooling flows in galaxies and galaxy clusters. We investigate the implications of the variability of AGN mechanical luminosity L_m on observations of cooling flows and radio galaxies in general. It is natural to assume that l=ln(L_m/L_x) is a Gaussian process. Then L_m will be log-normally distributed at fixed cooling luminosity L_x, and the variance in a measure of L_m will increase with the time-resolution of the measure. We test the consistency of these predictions with existing data. These tests hinge on the power spectrum of l(t). Monitoring of Seyfert galaxies combined with estimates of the duty cycle of quasars imply flicker noise spectra, similar to those of microquasars. We combine a sample of sources in cooling flows that have cavities with the assumption that the average mechanical luminosity of the AGN equals L_x. Given that the mechanical luminosities are characterized by flicker noise, we find that their spectral amplitudes lie between the estimated amplitudes of quasars and the measured values for the radio luminosities of microquasars. The model together with the observation that powerful radio galaxies lie within a narrow range in optical luminosity, predicts the luminosity function of radio galaxies, in agreement with observations. Forthcoming radio surveys will test the prediction that the luminosity function turns over at about the smallest luminosities so far probed. [Abridged

  3. Electromagnetic variable degrees of freedom actuator systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montesanti, Richard C. (Pleasanton, CA); Trumper, David L. (Plaistow, NH); Kirtley, Jr., James L. (Brookline, MA)

    2009-02-17

    The present invention provides a variable reluctance actuator system and method that can be adapted for simultaneous rotation and translation of a moving element by applying a normal-direction magnetic flux on the moving element. In a beneficial example arrangement, the moving element includes a swing arm that carries a cutting tool at a set radius from an axis of rotation so as to produce a rotary fast tool servo that provides a tool motion in a direction substantially parallel to the surface-normal of a workpiece at the point of contact between the cutting tool and workpiece. An actuator rotates a swing arm such that a cutting tool moves toward and away from a mounted rotating workpiece in a controlled manner in order to machine the workpiece. Position sensors provide rotation and displacement information for a swing arm to a control system. A control system commands and coordinates motion of the fast tool servo with the motion of a spindle, rotating table, cross-feed slide, and in feed slide of a precision lathe.

  4. Correlated X-ray/Ultraviolet/Optical Variability in NGC 6814

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Troyer, Jon; Cackett, Edward; Bentz, Misty; Goad, Michael; Horne, Keith; Seals, James

    2015-01-01

    We present results of a 3-month combined X-ray/UV/optical monitoring campaign of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 6814. The object was monitored by Swift from June through August 2012 in the X-ray and UV bands and by the Liverpool Telescope from May through July 2012 in B and V. The light curves are variable and significantly correlated between wavebands. Using cross-correlation analysis, we compute the time lag between the X-ray and lower energy bands. These lags are thought to be associated with the light travel time between the central X-ray emitting region and areas further out on the accretion disc. The computed lags support a thermal reprocessing scenario in which X-ray photons heat the disc and are reprocessed into lower energy photons. Additionally, we fit the lightcurves using CREAM, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo code for a standard disc. The best-fitting standard disc model yields unreasonably high super-Eddington accretion rates. Assuming more reasonable accretion rates would result in significantly under-pre...

  5. Chemical composition and origin of nebulae around Luminous Blue Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lamers, Henny J G L M; Panagia, N; Smith, L J; Langer, N; Lamers, Henny J.G.L.M.; Nota, Antonella; Panagia, Nino; Smith, Linda J.; Langer, Norbert

    2001-01-01

    We use the analysis of the heavy element abundances (C, N, O, S) in circumstellar nebulae around Luminous Blue Variables to infer the evolutionary phase in which the material has been ejected. (1) We discuss the different effects that may have changed the gas composition of the nebula since it was ejected (2) We calculate the expected abundance changes at the stellar surface due to envelope convection in the red supergiant phase. If the observed LBV nebulae are ejected during the RSG phase, the abundances of the LBV nebulae require a significantly smaller amount of mass to be lost than assumed in evolutionary models. (3) We calculate the changes in the surface composition during the main sequence phase by rotation induced mixing. If the nebulae are ejected at the end of the MS-phase, the abundances in LBV nebulae are compatible with mixing times between 5 x 10^6 and 1 x 10^7 years. The existence of ON stars supports this scenario. (4) The predicted He/H ratio in the nebulae are significantly smaller than the ...

  6. Method and apparatus for controlling continuously variable transmission for vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osanai, A.; Niwa, T.; Gono, T.

    1987-04-14

    A method is described of controlling a speed ratio of a continuously variable transmission for a vehicle for transmitting a rotary motion of an engine of the vehicle to drive wheels of the vehicle with a stepless speed change. The speed ratio of the transmission is regulated such that an actual speed of the engine coincides with a target engine speed. The method comprises: determining a first target speed of the engine based on a predetermined currently required output of the engine and according to a predetermined relation between the first target speed of the engine and the required output of the engine. The first target speed of the engine is normally used as the target engine speed to regulate the speed ratio of the transmission; detecting a running speed of the vehicle; and determining a second target speed of the engine based on a predetermined transmission efficiency of the transmission and on the first target speed of the engine. The second target speed of the engine is lower than the first target speed.

  7. Optical variability properties of high luminosity AGN classes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. S. Stalin; Gopal-Krishna; Ram Sagar; Paul J. Wiita

    2003-06-19

    We present the results of a comparative study of the intra-night optical variability (INOV) characteristics of radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, which involves a systematic intra-night optical monitoring of seven sets of high luminosity AGNs covering the redshift range {\\it z} $\\simeq 0.2$ to {\\it z} $\\simeq 2.2$. The sample, matched in the optical luminosity -- redshift (M$_B$ -- z) plane, consists of seven radio-quiet quasars (RQQs), eight radio lobe-dominated quasars (LDQs), six radio core-dominated quasars (CDQs) and five BL Lac objects (BLs). Systematic CCD observations, aided by a careful data analysis procedure, have allowed us to detect INOV with amplitudes as low as 1%. Present observations cover a total of 113 nights (720 hours) with only a single quasar monitored as continuously as possible on a night. Considering cases of only unambiguous detections of INOV we have estimated duty cycles (DCs) of 17%, 12%, 20% and 72% respectively for RQQs, LDQs, CDQs, and BLs. The low amplitude and low DC of INOV shown by RQQs compared to BLs can be understood in terms of their having optical synchrotron jets which are modestly misdirected from us. From our fairly extensive dataset, no unambiguous general trend of a correlation between the INOV amplitude and the apparent optical brightness of the quasar is noticed.

  8. Detecting the Violation of Factorial Invariance with an Unknown Reference Variable 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Eunju

    2014-08-04

    DETECTING THE VIOLATION OF FACTORIAL INVARIANCE WITH AN UNKNOWN REFERENCE VARIABLE A Dissertation by EUNJU JUNG Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... Factor Analysis PFI Partial Factorial Invariance PMI Partial Metric Invariance PSI Partial Scalar Invariance ST-IM Standardization Identification Method RV Reference Variable RV-IM Reference Variable Identification Method VRV-IM Variation...

  9. Impact of small-scale variability on airsea CO2 fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    °, used when estimating the global fluxes smooth out small-scale variability in wind and pCO2 fields of this small-scale variability on global CO2 fluxes utilizing a high- resolution wind product, and estimatesImpact of small-scale variability on air­sea CO2 fluxes R. Wanninkhof1 , G.-H. Park1,2 , D. B

  10. A Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump Computer Model in EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raustad, Richard A. [Florida Solar Energy Center

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the variable refrigerant flow heat pump computer model included with the Department of Energy's EnergyPlusTM whole-building energy simulation software. The mathematical model for a variable refrigerant flow heat pump operating in cooling or heating mode, and a detailed model for the variable refrigerant flow direct-expansion (DX) cooling coil are described in detail.

  11. Variable Charge Motion for 2007-2010 Heavy Duty Diesel Engines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Charge Motion for 2007-2010 Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Variable Charge Motion for 2007-2010 Heavy Duty Diesel Engines 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: AVL Powertrain Engineering...

  12. The optical variability of the narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy IRAS 13224-3809

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. J. Young; C. S. Crawford; A. C. Fabian; W. N. Brandt; P. T. O'Brien

    1999-03-09

    We report on a short optical monitoring programme of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 Galaxy IRAS 13224-3809. Previous X-ray observations of this object have shown persistent giant variability. The degree of variability at other wavelengths may then be used to constrain the conditions and emission processes within the nucleus. Optical variability is expected if the electron population responsible for the soft X-ray emission is changing rapidly and Compton-upscattering infrared photons in the nucleus, or if the mechanism responsible for X-ray emission causes all the emission processes to vary together. We find that there is no significant optical variability with a firm upper limit of 2 per cent and conclude that the primary soft X-ray emission region produces little of the observed optical emission. The X-ray and optical emission regions must be physically distinct and any reprocessing of X-rays into the optical waveband occurs some distance from the nucleus. The lack of optical variability indicates that the energy density of infrared radiation in the nucleus is at most equal to that of the ultraviolet radiation since little is upscattered into the optical waveband. The extremely large X-ray variability of IRAS 13224-3809 may be explained by relativistic boosting of more modest variations. Although such boosting enhances X-ray variability over optical variability, this only partially explains the lack of optical variability.

  13. Variability in free 25(OH) vitamin D levels in clinical populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    SA, et al. Bioavailable vitamin D is more tightly linkedmetabolism than total vitamin D in incident hemodialysisVariability in Free 25-OH Vitamin D Levels in Clinical

  14. Market Characteristics for Efficient Integration of Variable Generation in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

    2010-08-01

    The overriding purpose of this report is to establish the physical requirements of a power system that can accommodate high levels of variable generation.

  15. The use of historical range and variability (HRV) in landscape management Robert E. Keane a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallin, David O.

    Review The use of historical range and variability (HRV) in landscape management Robert E. Keane a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1026 2. Quantifying HRV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1028 3. Applying HRV

  16. Characterization of soil water content variability and soil texture using GPR groundwave techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grote, K.

    2010-01-01

    of soil moisture: Adv. Water Resourc. , 17, Fageria, N.K. ,SGP97) Hydrology Experiment: Water Resources Research, 35(6)variability across scales: Water Resources Research, 44,

  17. Research Papers Seasonal variability of chlorophyll a in the Mid-Atlantic Bight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    presumably replenishes nutrients to the surface waters on the MAB shelf. Thermal stratification re). In temperate seas, seasonal phytoplankton variability has been related to stratification, destratification

  18. Seasonal and interannual oxygen variability on the Washington and Oregon continental shelves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    oxygen variability on the Washington and Oregon continentalin Juan de Fuca Canyon, Washington, Geophys. Res. Lett. ,oxygen ?uxes on the Washington shelf and slope: A comparison

  19. A Wavelet-Based Variability Model (WVM) for Solar PV Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan; Stein, Joshua S

    2013-01-01

    Power characteristics of PV ensembles: experiences from theproduction of 100 grid connected PV systems distributed overHoff and R. Perez, "Modeling PV Fleet Output Variability,"

  20. Session 3: Impact on U.S. Ancillary Services Markets from Variable Renewable Energy (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.

    2013-05-01

    The presentation provides an overview of how increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy on the electricity grid are impacting ancillary services markets in the United States.

  1. One of These Homes is Not Like the Other: Residential Energy Consumption Variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelsven, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    the total annual energy consumption. The behavior patternsin total residential energy consumption per home, even whenthe variability in energy consumption can vary by factors of

  2. Mass Market Demand Response and Variable Generation Integration Issues: A Scoping Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappers, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Goldman, G. (2009) Retail demand response in Southwest PowerCoordination of retail demand response with Midwest ISO2010. 110 pages. Demand Response and Variable Generation

  3. Mass Market Demand Response and Variable Generation Integration Issues: A Scoping Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cappers, Peter

    2012-01-01

    T. (2005) Variability of wind power and other renewables:with large amounts of wind power. Final report, IEA WINDto increase acceptable wind power generation. Wind Energy.

  4. Implications of Wide-Area Geographic Diversity for Short- Term Variability of Solar Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Unit Reserve Costs of Variable Generation . . . A.2 Reservewill increase the generation cost of the repositioned PV.on the costs and impacts of intermittent generation on the

  5. Advanced variable speed air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced variable speed air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Field test system IHP concept - all HVACWH integrated into one...

  6. Main-sequence variable stars in young open cluster NGC 1893

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lata, Sneh; Pandey, A K; Richichi, Andrea; Eswaraiah, C; Kumar, Brajesh; Kappelmann, Norbert; Sharma, Saurabh

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present time series photometry of 104 variable stars in the cluster region NGC 1893. The association of the present variable candidates to the cluster NGC 1893 has been determined by using $(U-B)/(B-V)$ and $(J-H)/(H-K)$ two colour diagrams, and $V/(V-I)$ colour magnitude diagram. Forty five stars are found to be main-sequence variables and these could be B-type variable stars associated with the cluster. We classified these objects as $\\beta$ Cep, slowly pulsating B stars and new class variables as discussed by Mowlavi et al. (2013). These variable candidates show $\\sim$0.005 to $\\sim$0.02 mag brightness variations with periods of $<$ 1.0 d. Seventeen new class variables are located in the $H-R$ diagram between the slowly pulsating B stars and $\\delta$ Scuti variables. Pulsation could be one of the causes for periodic brightness variations in these stars. The X-ray emission of present main-sequence variables associated with the cluster lies in the saturated region of X-ray luminosity vers...

  7. Modelling credit risk of small and medium sized enterprises using transactional, accounting and market variables 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Yigui

    2012-06-26

    This thesis comprehensively explores the credit risk of Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) using transactional characteristics, financial variables and market information. It contributes SMEs credit risk modelling ...

  8. Modeling Variability and Uncertainty of Photovoltaic Generation: A Hidden State Spatial Statistical Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tabone, Michaelangelo D; Callaway, Duncan S

    2015-01-01

    for grid-connected photovoltaic system based on advancedof many photovoltaic power generation systems dis- persed inSYSTEMS Modeling Variability and Uncertainty of Photovoltaic

  9. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Distributed PV, American Solar Energy Society, Denver, CO,of distance, Submitted to Solar Energy, (2011). [8] T. Hoff,Variability, Submitted to Solar Energy, (2011). [9] J.

  10. Characterizing the Effects of Driver Variability on Real-World Vehicle Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holmén, Britt; Niemeier, Debbie

    1998-01-01

    D. H. (1995) On-road vehicle emissions: regulations, costs,L. (1996) Motor vehicle emissions variability. Journal ofections on controlling vehicle emissions. Science 261, 37±

  11. Effects of Weather Variables on Pedestrian Volumes in Alameda County, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attaset, Vanvisa; Schneider, Robert J.; Arnold, Lindsay S.; Ragland, David R

    2010-01-01

    Telegraph Avenue  Weather Station  Oakland Foothills Oakland Foothills  Several weather variables were derivedCombined Pedestrian Count and Weather Condition Database The

  12. Accounting for sub-pixel variability of clouds and/or unresolved spectral variability, as needed, with generalized radiative transfer theory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Davis, Anthony B.; Xu, Feng; Collins, William D.

    2015-03-01

    Atmospheric hyperspectral VNIR sensing struggles with sub-pixel variability of clouds and limited spectral resolution mixing molecular lines. Our generalized radiative transfer model addresses both issues with new propagation kernels characterized by power-law decay in space.

  13. Internal variability of the tropical Pacific ocean Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jochum, Markus

    Internal variability of the tropical Pacific ocean M. Jochum Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary model of the tropical Pacific ocean is analyzed to quantify the interannual variability caused by internal variability of ocean dynamics. It is found that along the Pacific cold tongue internal variability

  14. Luminous blue variables and superluminous supernovae from binary mergers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Justham, Stephen; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Vink, Jorick S. E-mail: podsi@astro.ox.ac.uk

    2014-12-01

    Evidence suggests that the direct progenitor stars of some core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are luminous blue variables (LBVs), perhaps including some Type II 'superluminous supernovae' (SLSNe). We examine models in which massive stars gain mass soon after the end of core hydrogen burning. These are mainly intended to represent mergers following a brief contact phase during early Case B mass transfer, but may also represent stars which gain mass in the Hertzsprung Gap or extremely late during the main-sequence phase for other reasons. The post-accretion stars spend their core helium-burning phase as blue supergiants (BSGs), and many examples are consistent with being LBVs at the time of core collapse. Other examples are yellow supergiants at explosion. We also investigate whether such post-accretion stars may explode successfully after core collapse. The final core properties of post-accretion models are broadly similar to those of single stars with the same initial mass as the pre-merger primary star. More surprisingly, when early Case B accretion does affect the final core properties, the effect appears likely to favor a successful SN explosion, i.e., to make the core properties more like those of a lower-mass single star. However, the detailed structures of these cores sometimes display qualitative differences to any single-star model we have calculated. The rate of appropriate binary mergers may match the rate of SNe with immediate LBV progenitors; for moderately optimistic assumptions we estimate that the progenitor birthrate is ?1% of the CCSN rate.

  15. High Temperature Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarau, Calin; Walker, Kara L.; Anderson, William G.

    2009-03-16

    In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling converter provides this cooling. If the Stirling engine stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) is under development to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling engine. The status of the ongoing effort in developing this technology is presented in this paper. An earlier, preliminary design had a radiator outside the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) casing, used NaK as the working fluid, and had the reservoir located on the cold side adapter flange. The revised design has an internal radiator inside the casing, with the reservoir embedded inside the insulation. A large set of advantages are offered by this new design. In addition to reducing the overall size and mass of the VCHP, simplicity, compactness and easiness in assembling the VCHP with the ASRG are significantly enhanced. Also, the permanently elevated temperatures of the entire VCHP allows the change of the working fluid from a binary compound (NaK) to single compound (Na). The latter, by its properties, allows higher performance and further mass reduction of the system. Preliminary design and analysis shows an acceptable peak temperature of the ASRG case of 140 deg. C while the heat losses caused by the addition of the VCHP are 1.8 W.

  16. Response of South American ecosystems to precipitation variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL; Erickson III, David J [ORNL; Bras, Rafael L [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    The Ecosystem Demography Model 2 is a dynamic ecosystem model and land surface energy balance model. ED2 discretizes landscapes of particular terrain and meteorology into fractional areas of unique disturbance history. Each fraction, defined by a shared vertical soil column and canopy air space, contains a stratum of plant groups unique in functional type, size and number density. The result is a vertically distributed representation of energy transfer and plant dynamics (mortality, productivity, recruitment, disturbance, resource competition, etc) that successfully approximates the behaviour of individual-based vegetation models. In previous exercises simulating Amazonian land surface dynamics with ED2, it was observed that when using grid averaged precipitation as an external forcing the resulting water balance typically over-estimated leaf interception and leaf evaporation while under estimating through-fall and transpiration. To investigate this result, two scenario were conducted in which land surface biophysics and ecosystem demography over the Northern portion of South America are simulated over {approx}200 years: (1) ED2 is forced with grid averaged values taken from the ERA40 reanalysis meteorological dataset; (2) ED2 is forced with ERA40 reanalysis, but with its precipitation re-sampled to reflect statistical qualities of point precipitation found at rain gauge stations in the region. The findings in this study suggest that the equilibrium moisture states and vegetation demography are co-dependent and show sensitivity to temporal variability in precipitation. These sensitivities will need to be accounted for in future projections of coupled climate-ecosystem changes in South America.

  17. Magnetic floods: a scenario for the variability of the microquasar GRS 1915+105

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michel Tagger; Peggy Varniere; Jerome Rodriguez; Rene Pellat

    2004-01-26

    We present a scenario for the variability of the microquasar GRS 1915+105. This starts from previous works, leading to the tentative identification of the Accretion-Ejection Instability as the source of the low-frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillation of microquasars and other accreting sources. We follow the physics of this instability: its conditions (the magnetic field and geometry adapted to MHD jet models), its instability criterion, and its consequences (cooling down of the disk, heating and excitation of the corona). Comparing them to the observed properties of the source, in particular the detailed properties of its spectral states, we first derive a model for the $\\sim$ 30 minutes cycles often exhibited by GRS 1915+105. In our model this is a limit cycle determined by the advection of poloidal magnetic flux to the inner region of the disk, and its destruction by reconnection (leading to relativistic ejections) with the magnetic flux trapped in the vicinity of the central source. We show how it leads to natural explanations for observed behaviors of GRS 1915+105, including the three basic states of Belloni et al (2000). We then discuss how this could be extrapolated further to understand the longer-term variability of this and other microquasars.

  18. XMM-Newton reveals ~100 new LMXBs in M31 from variability studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Barnard; L. Shaw Greening; C. Tonkin; U. Kolb; J. P. Osborne

    2005-09-19

    We have conducted a survey of X-ray sources in XMM-Newton observations of M31, examining their power density spectra (PDS) and spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Our automated source detection yielded 535 good X-ray sources; to date, we have studied 225 of them. In particular, we examined the PDS because low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) exhibit two distinctive types of PDS. At low accretion rates, the PDS is characterised by a broken power law, with the spectral index changing from ~0 to ~1 at some frequency in the range \\~0.01--1 Hz; we refer to such PDS as Type A. At higher accretion rates, the PDS is described by a simple power law; we call these PDS Type B. Of the 225 sources studied to date, 75 exhibit Type A variability, and are almost certainly LMXBs, while 6 show Type B but not Type A, and are likely LMXBs. Of these 81 candidate LMXBs, 71 are newly identified in this survey; furthermore, they are mostly found near the centre of M31. Furthermore, most of the X-ray population in the disc are associated with the spiral arms, making them likely high mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). In general these HMXBs do not exhibit Type A variability, while many central X-ray sources (LMXBs) in the same luminosity range do. Hence the PDS may distinguish between LMXBs and HMXBs in this luminosity range.

  19. Lack of uniform trends but increasing spatial variability in observed Indian rainfall extremes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosh, Subimal [ORNL; Das, Debasish [ORNL; Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies disagree on how rainfall extremes over India have changed in space and time over the past half century, as well as on whether the changes observed are due to global warming or regional urbanization. Although a uniform and consistent decrease in moderate rainfall has been reported, a lack of agreement about trends in heavy rainfall may be due in part to differences in the characterization and spatial averaging of extremes. Here we use extreme value theory to examine trends in Indian rainfall over the past half century in the context of long-term, low-frequency variability.We show that when generalized extreme value theory is applied to annual maximum rainfall over India, no statistically significant spatially uniform trends are observed, in agreement with previous studies using different approaches. Furthermore, our space time regression analysis of the return levels points to increasing spatial variability of rainfall extremes over India. Our findings highlight the need for systematic examination of global versus regional drivers of trends in Indian rainfall extremes, and may help to inform flood hazard preparedness and water resource management in the region.

  20. Implications of Wide-Area Geographic Diversity for Short- Term Variability of Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-08-23

    Worldwide interest in the deployment of photovoltaic generation (PV) is rapidly increasing. Operating experience with large PV plants, however, demonstrates that large, rapid changes in the output of PV plants are possible. Early studies of PV grid impacts suggested that short-term variability could be a potential limiting factor in deploying PV. Many of these early studies, however, lacked high-quality data from multiple sites to assess the costs and impacts of increasing PV penetration. As is well known for wind, accounting for the potential for geographic diversity can significantly reduce the magnitude of extreme changes in aggregated PV output, the resources required to accommodate that variability, and the potential costs of managing variability. We use measured 1-min solar insolation for 23 time-synchronized sites in the Southern Great Plains network of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and wind speed data from 10 sites in the same network to characterize the variability of PV with different degrees of geographic diversity and to compare the variability of PV to the variability of similarly sited wind. The relative aggregate variability of PV plants sited in a dense 10 x 10 array with 20 km spacing is six times less than the variability of a single site for variability on time scales less than 15-min. We find in our analysis of wind and PV plants similarly sited in a 5 x 5 grid with 50 km spacing that the variability of PV is only slightly more than the variability of wind on time scales of 5-15 min. Over shorter and longer time scales the level of variability is nearly identical. Finally, we use a simple approximation method to estimate the cost of carrying additional reserves to manage sub-hourly variability. We conclude that the costs of managing the short-term variability of PV are dramatically reduced by geographic diversity and are not substantially different from the costs for managing the short-term variability of similarly sited wind in this region.