Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor transport deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Chemical vapor deposition sciences  

SciTech Connect

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a widely used method for depositing thin films of a variety of materials. Applications of CVD range from the fabrication of microelectronic devices to the deposition of protective coatings. New CVD processes are increasingly complex, with stringent requirements that make it more difficult to commercialize them in a timely fashion. However, a clear understanding of the fundamental science underlying a CVD process, as expressed through computer models, can substantially shorten the time required for reactor and process development. Research scientists at Sandia use a wide range of experimental and theoretical techniques for investigating the science of CVD. Experimental tools include optical probes for gas-phase and surface processes, a range of surface analytic techniques, molecular beam methods for gas/surface kinetics, flow visualization techniques and state-of-the-art crystal growth reactors. The theoretical strategy uses a structured approach to describe the coupled gas-phase and gas-surface chemistry, fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer of a CVD process. The software used to describe chemical reaction mechanisms is easily adapted to codes that model a variety of reactor geometries. Carefully chosen experiments provide critical information on the chemical species, gas temperatures and flows that are necessary for model development and validation. This brochure provides basic information on Sandia`s capabilities in the physical and chemical sciences of CVD and related materials processing technologies. It contains a brief description of the major scientific and technical capabilities of the CVD staff and facilities, and a brief discussion of the approach that the staff uses to advance the scientific understanding of CVD processes.

NONE

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

2

Forced convection and transport effects during hyperbaric laser chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

This work explores mass transport processes during HP-LCYD, including the transverse forced-flow of precursor gases through a nozzle to enhance fiber growth rates. The use of laser trapping and suspension of nano-scale particles in the precursor flow is also described, providing insights into the nature of the gas flow, including jetting from the fiber tip and thermodiffusion processes near the reaction zone. The effects of differing molecular-weight buffer gases is also explored in conjunction with the Soret effect, and it is found that nucleation at the deposit surface (and homogeneous nucleation in the gas phase) can be enhanced/ retarded, depending on the buffer gas molecular weight. To demonstrate that extensive microstructures can be grown simultaneously, three-dimensional fiber arrays are also grown in-parallel using diffractive optics--without delatory effects from neighboring reaction sites.

Maxwell, James L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chavez, Craig A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Espinoza, Miguel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Black, Marcie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maskaly, Karlene [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boman, Mats [UPPSALA UNIV

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Vapor deposition of hardened niobium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

Blocher, Jr., John M. (Columbus, OH); Veigel, Neil D. (Columbus, OH); Landrigan, Richard B. (Columbus, OH)

1983-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

4

Vacuum vapor deposition gun assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vapor deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, a hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

Zeren, Joseph D. (Boulder, CO)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Vapor deposition of tantalum and tantalum compounds  

SciTech Connect

Tantalum, and many of its compounds, can be deposited as coatings with techniques ranging from pure, thermal chemical vapor deposition to pure physical vapor deposition. This review concentrates on chemical vapor deposition techniques. The paper takes a historical approach. The authors review classical, metal halide-based techniques and current techniques for tantalum chemical vapor deposition. The advantages and limitations of the techniques will be compared. The need for new lower temperature processes and hence new precursor chemicals will be examined and explained. In the last section, they add some speculation as to possible new, low-temperature precursors for tantalum chemical vapor deposition.

Trkula, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran polymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis develops a platform for deposition of polymer thin films that can be further tailored by chemical surface modification. First, we explore chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran films using ...

Olsson, Ylva Kristina

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A single chamber continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor is described for depositing continuously on flat substrates, for example, epitaxial layers of semiconductor materials. The single chamber reactor is formed into three separate zones by baffles or tubes carrying chemical source material and a carrier gas in one gas stream and hydrogen gas in the other stream without interaction while the wafers are heated to deposition temperature. Diffusion of the two gas streams on heated wafers effects the epitaxial deposition in the intermediate zone and the wafers are cooled in the final zone by coolant gases. A CVD reactor for batch processing is also described embodying the deposition principles of the continuous reactor.

Berkman, Samuel (Florham Park, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Chemical vapor deposition of group IIIB metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coatings of Group IIIB metals and compounds thereof are formed by chemical vapor deposition, in which a heat decomposable organometallic compound of the formula given in the patent where M is a Group IIIB metal, such as lanthanum or yttrium and R is a lower alkyl or alkenyl radical containing from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms, with a heated substrate which is above the decomposition temperature of the organometallic compound. The pure metal is obtained when the compound of the formula 1 is the sole heat decomposable compound present and deposition is carried out under nonoxidizing conditions. Intermetallic compounds such as lanthanum telluride can be deposited from a lanthanum compound of formula 1 and a heat decomposable tellurium compound under nonoxidizing conditions.

Erbil, A.

1989-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

9

All graphene electromechanical switch fabricated by chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate an electromechanical switch comprising two polycrystalline graphene films; each deposited using ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition. The top film is pulled into electrical contact with the bottom film ...

Milaninia, Kaveh M.

10

Laser techniques for studying chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is widely used to produce thin films for microelectronics, protective coatings and other materials processing applications. Despite the large number of applications, however, little is known about the fundamental chemistry and physics of most CVD processes. CVD recipes have generally been determined empirically, but as process requirements become more stringent, a more basic understanding will be needed to improve reactor design and speed process optimization. In situ measurements of the reacting gas are important steps toward gaining such an understanding, both from the standpoint of characterizing the reactor and testing models of a CVD process. Our work, a coordinated program of experimental and theoretical research in the fundamental mechanisms of CVD, illustrates the application of laser techniques to the understanding of a CVD system. We have used a number of laser-based techniques to probe CVD systems and have compared our measurements with predictions from computer models, primarily for the silane CVD system. The silane CVD model solves the two-dimensional, steady-state boundary layer equations of fluid flow coupled to 26 elementary chemical reactions describing the thermal decomposition of silane and the subsequent reactions of intermediate species that result in the deposition of a silicon film.

Ho, P.; Breiland, W.G.; Coltrin, M.E.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Initiated chemical vapor deposition of functional polyacrylic thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) was explored as a novel method for synthesis of functional polyacrylic thin films. The process introduces a peroxide initiator, which can be decomposed at low temperatures (<200?C) ...

Mao, Yu, 1975-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Enabling integration of vapor-deposited polymer thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) is a versatile, one-step process for synthesizing conformal and functional polymer thin films on a variety of substrates. This thesis emphasizes the development of tools to further ...

Petruczok, Christy D. (Christy Danielle)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Parallel Reacting Flow Calculations for Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactor Design 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM 87185­1111 (To be published in Proceedings of the International at the synthesis of two important research areas: 3D flow and transport modeling of reactors and the simulationParallel Reacting Flow Calculations for Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactor Design 1 Andrew G

Devine, Karen

14

Charged impurity-induced scatterings in chemical vapor deposited graphene  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the effects of defect scatterings on the electric transport properties of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene by measuring the carrier density dependence of the magneto-conductivity. To clarify the dominant scattering mechanism, we perform extensive measurements on large-area samples with different mobility to exclude the edge effect. We analyze our data with the major scattering mechanisms such as short-range static scatters, short-range screened Coulomb disorders, and weak-localization (WL). We establish that the charged impurities are the predominant scatters because there is a strong correlation between the mobility and the charge impurity density. Near the charge neutral point (CNP), the electron-hole puddles that are induced by the charged impurities enhance the inter-valley scattering, which is favorable for WL observations. Away from the CNP, the charged-impurity-induced scattering is weak because of the effective screening by the charge carriers. As a result, the local static structural defects govern the charge transport. Our findings provide compelling evidence for understanding the scattering mechanisms in graphene and pave the way for the improvement of fabrication techniques to achieve high-quality CVD graphene.

Li, Ming-Yang; Tang, Chiu-Chun [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Ling, D. C. [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui Dist., New Taipei 25137, Taiwan (China); Li, L. J. [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Sciences of Matters, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

15

Chemical vapor deposition of amorphous semiconductor films. Final subcontract report  

SciTech Connect

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from higher order silanes has been studied for fabricating amorphous hydrogenated silicon thin-film solar cells. Intrinsic and doped a-Si:H films were deposited in a reduced-pressure, tubular-flow reactor, using disilane feed-gas. Conditions for depositing intrinsic films at growth rates up to 10 A/s were identified. Electrical and optical properties, including dark conductivity, photoconductivity, activation energy, optical absorption, band-gap and sub-band-gap absorption properties of CVD intrinsic material were characterized. Parameter space for depositing intrinsic and doped films, suitable for device analysis, was identified.

Rocheleau, R.E.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

1988-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

18

Chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An aluminum oxide film is deposited on a heated substrate by CVD from one or more alkylaluminum alkoxide compounds having composition R.sub.n Al.sub.2 (OR').sub.6-n, wherein R and R' are alkyl groups and n is in the range of 1 to 5.

Gordon, Roy (Cambridge, MA); Kramer, Keith (Cleveland, OH); Liu, Xinye (Cambridge, MA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

The chemical vapor deposition of zirconium carbide onto ceramic substrates  

SciTech Connect

Zirconium carbide is an attractive ceramic material due to its unique properties such as high melting point, good thermal conductivity, and chemical resistance. The controlled preparation of zirconium carbide films of superstoichiometric, stoichiometric, and substoichiometric compositions has been achieved utilizing zirconium tetrachloride and methane precursor gases in an atmospheric pressure high temperature chemical vapor deposition system.

Glass, John A, Jr.; Palmisiano, Nick, Jr.; Welsh, R. Edward

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of carbon-free ZnO using...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of carbon-free ZnO using the bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato)zinc precursor. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of carbon-free...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor transport deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic vapor deposited Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Articles Surfactant-Catalyzed Chemical Vapor Deposition of Copper Thin Films Eui Seong Hwang... and demonstrated for deposition of copper thin films from ... Source:...

22

Chemical vapor deposition of boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon  

SciTech Connect

Deposition conditions and film properties for a variety of boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon films and silicon-carbon films produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are discussed. Deposition gases include monosilane, disilane, trisilane, and acetylene. Two types of optically wide band-gap p layers are obtained. One of these window p layers (without carbon) has been extensively tested in photovoltaic devices. Remarkably, this p layer can be deposited between about 200 to 300 /sup 0/C. A typical open circuit voltage in an all CVD p-i-n device is 0.70--0.72 V, and in a hybrid device where the i and n layers are deposited by glow discharge, 0.8--0.83 V.

Ellis F.B. Jr.; Delahoy, A.E.

1985-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

23

Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems  

SciTech Connect

The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

24

Selective deposition of silicon and silicon-germanium alloys by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

Selective deposition of SiGe alloys by rapid thermal deposition has been studied using a commercially available Rapid Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (RTCVD) cluster tool. The precursors used in this work were dichlorosilane and germane diluted in either hydrogen or argon. An initial characterization was performed to find the appropriate temperature and GeH{sub 4} flow ranges to deposit epitaxial layers with low surface roughness. For layers with higher germanium concentration lower deposition temperatures are required to minimize surface roughness. The effects of the dilutant gas on the deposition were examined. An H{sub 2} dilutant affects the deposition by consuming chlorine released by the SiCl{sub 2}H{sub 2} and forming HCl. When Ar is used as the dilutant, more chlorine is available for other reactions that can result in etching of the silicon surface. Finally, the effects of pre-deposition treatment were determined. When compared to a wet HF dip, a gas/vapor phase HF/methanol native oxide removal treatment appears to increase the initiation time for the epitaxial deposition reaction. This is most likely due to increased fluorine termination of the surface. When a wet HF or HF/methanol native oxide removal is followed by a UV-Cl{sub 2} process, the deposition reaction initiation time is reduced. The UV-Cl{sub 2} process was also found to etch silicon through the native oxide.

Grant, J.M.; Ang, M.; Allen, L.R. [Sharp Microelectronics Technology, Inc., Camas, WA (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Initiated chemical vapor deposition of polymeric thin films : mechanism and applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a novel technique for depositing polymeric thin films. It is able to deposit thin films of application-specific polymers in one step without using any solvents. Its uniqueness ...

Chan, Kelvin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

Norton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Unusual thermopower of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

We report on thermopower (TEP) and resistance measurements of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Unlike the conventional resistance of pristine graphene, the gate-dependent TEP shows a large electron-hole asymmetry. This can be accounted for by inhomogeneity of the CVD-graphene where individual graphene regions contribute with different TEPs. At the high magnetic field and low temperature, the TEP has large fluctuations near the Dirac point associated with the disorder in the CVD-graphene. TEP measurements reveal additional characteristics of CVD-graphene, which are difficult to obtain from the measurement of resistance alone.

Nam, Youngwoo, E-mail: youngwoo.nam@chalmers.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Sun, Jie; Lindvall, Niclas; Yurgens, August [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Jae Yang, Seung; Rae Park, Chong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Woo Park, Yung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

28

High rate deposition of microcrystalline silicon films by high-pressure radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (?c-Si:H) thin films were prepared by high-pressure radio-frequency (13.56 MHz) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf-PECVD) with a screened plasma. The deposition ra...

BingQing Zhou; MeiFang Zhu; FengZhen Liu…

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Chemical vapor deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon from disilane  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films deposited at growth rates of 1 to 30 A/s by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from disilane source gas at 24 torr total pressure in a tubular reactor. The effects of substrate temperature and gas holding time (flow rate) on film growth rate and effluent gas composition were measured at temperatures ranging from 360{sup 0} to 485{sup 0}C and gas holding times from 3 to 62s. Effluent gases determined by gas chromatography included silane, disilane and other higher order silanes. A chemical reaction engineering model, based on a silylene (SiH/sub 2/) insertion gas phase reaction network and film growth from both SiH/sub 2/ and high molecular weight silicon species, Si/sub n/H/sub 2n/, was developed. The model predictions were in good agreement with experimentally determined growth rates and effluent gas compositions.

Bogaert, R.J.; Russell, T.W.F.; Klein, M.T. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Rocheleau, R.E.; Baron, B.N. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (USA). Inst. of Energy Conversion)

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Role of gas phase reactions in subatmospheric chemical-vapor deposition ozone/TEOS processes for oxide deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-vapor deposition. Our results for oxide deposition show optimum process window around 200 Torr for producing films a po- tentially optimum process window in which film properties, deposition rates, film uniformity requires high quality dielectric films that can be deposited rapidly and conformally on high aspect ratio

Rubloff, Gary W.

31

Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetic Nanowires Prepared by Chemical Vapor Deposition.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Various metal silicide and germanide magnetic nanowires were synthesized using a home-built CVD [chemical vapor deposition] system. The morphology, composition, and magnetic properties of the… (more)

Tang, Siwei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Oxidative chemical vapor deposition of conductive polymers for use in novel photovoltaic device architectures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), (PEDOT), deposited via oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) has been investigated for use in organic electronic devices. The oCVD process as well as the ...

Howden, Rachel M. (Rachel Mary)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition on Living Substrates: Development, Characterization, and Biological Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation proposed the idea of “plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on living substrates (PECVD on living substrates)” to bridge the gap between the thin film deposition technology and the biological and living substrates. This study...

Tsai, Tsung-Chan 1982-

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

34

Strain relaxation in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

The growth of single layer graphene by chemical vapor deposition on polycrystalline Cu substrates induces large internal biaxial compressive strain due to thermal expansion mismatch. Raman backscattering spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to study the strain relaxation during and after the transfer process from Cu foil to SiO{sub 2}. Interestingly, the growth of graphene results in a pronounced ripple structure on the Cu substrate that is indicative of strain relaxation of about 0.76% during the cooling from the growth temperature. Removing graphene from the Cu substrates and transferring it to SiO{sub 2} results in a shift of the 2D phonon line by 27?cm{sup ?1} to lower frequencies. This translates into additional strain relaxation. The influence of the processing steps, used etching solution and solvents on strain, is investigated.

Troppenz, Gerald V., E-mail: gerald.troppenz@helmholtz-berlin.de; Gluba, Marc A.; Kraft, Marco; Rappich, Jörg; Nickel, Norbert H. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Institut für Silizium Photovoltaik, Kekuléstr. 5, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

2013-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

35

Field emission properties of chemical vapor deposited individual graphene  

SciTech Connect

Here, we report field emission (FE) properties of a chemical vapor deposited individual graphene investigated by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. Free-standing bilayer graphene is mounted on a cathode microprobe and FE processes are investigated varying the vacuum gap of cathode and anode. The threshold field for 10?nA current were found to be 515, 610, and 870?V/?m for vacuum gap of 400, 300, and 200?nm, respectively. It is observed that the structural stability of a high quality bilayer graphene is considerably stable during emission process. By contacting the nanoprobe with graphene and applying a bias voltage, structural deformation and buckling are observed with significant rise in temperature owing to Joule heating effect. The finding can be significant for practical application of graphene related materials in emitter based devices as well as understanding the contact resistance influence and heating effect.

Zamri Yusop, Mohd [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, 466-8555 Nagoya (Japan); Department of Materials, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, 466-8555 Nagoya (Japan); Center for Fostering Young and Innovative Researchers, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, 466-8555 Nagoya (Japan); Yaakob, Yazid; Takahashi, Chisato; Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, 466-8555 Nagoya (Japan)

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

36

Researchers develop electrodeposition process to deposit coatings on substrates, eliminate the expensive physical vapor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the expensive physical vapor deposition step, and improve device quality. CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) solar cells have composition was adjusted by physical vapor deposition method. At present, we are fabricating CIGS-based solar). 2 R. N. Bhattacharya, W. Batchelor, J. F. Hiltner, and J. R. Sites, Appl. Phys. Lett., 75, 1431

37

Nickel catalyst faceting in plasma-enhanced direct current chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanofibers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Nickel catalyst faceting in plasma-enhanced direct current chemical vapor deposition of carbon vapor deposition with Ni catalysts on the top of nanofibers. Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the morphology and crystallography of Ni catalysts, which are essential for the nucleation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

38

Tunneling characteristics in chemical vapor deposited graphene hexagonal boron nitride graphene junctions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Tunneling characteristics in chemical vapor deposited graphene ­ hexagonal boron nitride ­ graphene junctions T. Roy1 , L. Liu2 , S. de la Barrera,3 B. Chakrabarti1,4 , Z. R. Hesabi1 , C. A. Joiner1 Abstract: Large area chemical vapor deposited graphene and hexagonal boron nitride was used to fabricate

Feenstra, Randall

39

Computational Analysis and Optimization of a Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactor with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Computational Analysis and Optimization of a Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactor with Large and optimization of a three- dimensional model of a horizontal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor used National Laboratories February 9, 2004 Abstract A computational analysis and optimization is presented

40

OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A HIGH PRESSURE ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION REACTOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A HIGH PRESSURE ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION REACTOR K.J. BACHMANN of computer simulations as an optimal design tool which lessens the costs in time and effort in experimental vapor deposition (HPOMCVD) reactor for use in thin film crystal growth. The advantages of such a reactor

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor transport deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

On the optimization of a dc arcjet diamond chemical vapor deposition reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On the optimization of a dc arcjet diamond chemical vapor deposition reactor S. W. Reevea) and W. A precursor in our dc arcjet reactor.1 Based on conclusions drawn from that work, an optimization strategy diamond film growth in a dc arcjet chemical vapor deposition reactor has been developed. Introducing

Dandy, David

42

Chemical vapor deposition of amorphous silicon films from disilane  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous silicon films for fabrication of solar cells have been deposited by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from disilane (Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/) using a tubular flow reactor. A mathematical description for the CVD reactor was developed and solved by a numerical procedure. The proposed chemical reaction network for the model is based on silylene (SiH/sub 2/) insertion in the gas phase and film growth from SiH/sub 2/ and silicon polymers (Si/sub n/N/sub 2n/, n approx. 10). Estimates of the rate constants have been obtained for trisilane decomposition, silicon polymer formation, and polymer dehydrogenation. The silane unimolecular decomposition rate constants were corrected for pressure effects. The model behavior is compared to the experimental results over the range of conditions: reactor temperature (360 to 485/sup 0/C), pressures (2 to 48 torr), and gas holding time (1 to 70 s). Within the above range of conditions, film growth rate varies from 0.01 to 30 A/s. Results indicate that silicon polymers are the main film precursors for gas holding times greater than 3 s. Film growth by silylene only becomes important at short holding times, large inert gas dilution, and positions near the beginning of the reactor hot zone.

Bogaert, R.J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Plasma and Ion Assistance in Physical Vapor Deposition: AHistorical Perspective  

SciTech Connect

Deposition of films using plasma or plasma-assist can betraced back surprisingly far, namely to the 18th century for arcs and tothe 19th century for sputtering. However, only since the 1960s thecoatings community considered other processes than evaporation for largescale commercial use. Ion Plating was perhaps the first importantprocess, introducing vapor ionization and substrate bias to generate abeam of ions arriving on the surface of the growing film. Ratherindependently, cathodic arc deposition was established as an energeticcondensation process, first in the former Soviet Union in the 1970s, andin the 1980s in the Western Hemisphere. About a dozen various ion-basedcoating technologies evolved in the last decades, all characterized byspecific plasma or ion generation processes. Gridded and gridless ionsources were taken from space propulsion and applied to thin filmdeposition. Modeling and simulation have helped to make plasma and ionseffects to be reasonably well understood. Yet--due to the complex, oftennon-linear and non-equilibrium nature of plasma and surfaceinteractions--there is still a place for the experience plasma"sourcerer."

Anders, Andre

2007-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

44

Vapor phase transport at a hillside landfill  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ambient density gradients. Post-landfill gas input reverses the direction of...landfill may explain observations of landfill gas found at depth. Post-landfill...of gas generation. Transport of landfill gas is shown to be dominated by diffusion...

P. H. Stauffer; N. D. Rosenberg

45

The growth characteristics of microcrystalline Si thin film deposited by atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Microcrystalline silicon thin film was grown by atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (AP-PECVD) ... with a cylindrical rotary electrode supplied with 150 MHz very-high-frequency power. T...

Jung-Dae Kwon

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Growth of graphene underlayers by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

We present a simple and very convincing approach to visualizing that subsequent layers of graphene grow between the existing monolayer graphene and the copper catalyst in chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Graphene samples were grown by CVD and then transferred onto glass substrates by the bubbling method in two ways, either direct-transfer (DT) to yield poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/graphene/glass or (2) inverted transfer (IT) to yield graphene/PMMA/glass. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to reveal surface features for both the DT and IT samples. The results from FE-SEM and AFM topographic analyses of the surfaces revealed the underlayer growth of subsequent layers. The subsequent layers in the IT samples are visualized as 3D structures, where the smaller graphene layers lie above the larger layers stacked in a concentric manner. The results support the formation of the so-called “inverted wedding cake” stacking in multilayer graphene growth.

Fabiane, Mopeli; Khamlich, Saleh; Bello, Abdulhakeem; Dangbegnon, Julien; Momodu, Damilola; Manyala, Ncholu, E-mail: ncholu.manyala@up.ac.za [Department of Physics, Institute of Applied Materials, SARChI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028 (South Africa)] [Department of Physics, Institute of Applied Materials, SARChI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028 (South Africa); Charlie Johnson, A. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

47

Patterned growth of single-walled carbon nanotube arrays from a vapor-deposited Fe catalyst  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Patterned growth of single-walled carbon nanotube arrays from a vapor-deposited Fe catalyst H. B deposition using low-coverage vacuum-deposited iron as a catalyst. Ordered arrays of suspended nanotubes constructed directly on contacting metal electrodes of Pt/Cr patterned with catalysts. Patterning with solid

Golovchenko, Jene A.

48

Atmospheric pressure plasma chemical vapor deposition system for high-rate deposition of functional materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The atmospheric pressure plasmachemical vapor deposition(CVD) system has been developed to fabricate functional thin films at very high deposition rate. The atmospheric pressure plasma in which high-density radicals are created has been effectively used to depositthin films. Combination of the newly designed rotary electrode and the 150 MHz very high frequency power supply makes it possible not only to generate the high-density atmospheric pressure plasma but also to avoid ion bombardment against the film. By virtue of these noble characteristics of the system high quality films can be fabricated at an unprecedented high deposition rate. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the atmospheric pressure plasmaCVD system hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a- Si:H ) films were prepared in gas mixtures containing He H 2 and SiH 4 . The results showed that homogeneous a- Si:H films grew when substrates were heated at 200?°C. Extremely high deposition rate which was more than 100 times faster than that of the conventional low-pressure plasma CVD technique was realized.

Y. Mori; K. Yoshii; H. Kakiuchi; K. Yasutake

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Iron (III) Chloride doping of large-area chemical vapor deposition graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical doping is an effective method of reducing the sheet resistance of graphene. This thesis aims to develop an effective method of doping large area Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) graphene using Iron (III) Chloride ...

Song, Yi, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

CO-CATALYTIC ABSORPTION LAYERS FOR CONTROLLED LASER-INDUCED CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF CARBON NANOTUBES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The concept of co-catalytic layer structures for controlled laser-induced chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes is established, in which a thin Ta support layer chemically aids the initial Fe catalyst reduction. This enables a significant...

Michaelis, F.B.; Weatherup, R.S.; Bayer, B.C.; Bock, M.C.D; Sugime, H.; Caneva, S.; Robertson, J.; Baumberg, J.J.; Hofmann, S.

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

51

Single- and few-layer graphene by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition on nickel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) process is used to fabricate graphene based films consisting of one to several graphene layers across their area. Polycrystalline Ni thin films are used and the graphene ...

Reina Ceeco, Alfonso

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Understanding the Nanotube Growth Mechanism: A Strategy to Control Nanotube Chirality during Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

during chemical vapor deposition synthesis must focus on controlling the structure of the nucleated nanotube seeds. DFT and RMD simulations demonstrate the viability of using the structures of catalyst particles over which nanotube growth proceeds...

Gomez Gualdron, Diego Armando 1983-

2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

53

Bilayer graphene growth by low pressure chemical vapor deposition on copper foil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Successfully integrating graphene in standard processes for applications in electronics relies on the synthesis of high-quality films. In this work we study Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) growth of bilayer ...

Fang, Wenjing, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of TiN from tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium and ammonia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pressure chemical vapor deposition. Experiments were conducted in a belt furnace; static experiments, in particular, is used for tool coating, solar-control films, and micro- electronic applications. Optically

55

Properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon prepared by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films were prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from mixtures of silane, disilane, trisilane, and higher polysilanes in hydrogen carrier gas at 1 atm total pressure, at substrate temperatures from 420--530 /sup 0/C. Experimental parameters are explained and properties as a function of these parameters are shown. The measurements include hydrogen content (by IR), optical, electrical, and photovoltaic properties of the material. In most respects, the CVD material closely resembles the a-Si:H usually prepared by glow discharge. The following differences have been noted: (1) the CVD a-Si:H shows no IR absorption at 840--850 cm/sup -1/, which is consistent with the expected better thermal stability of the CVD material because of the much higher substrate temperatures in the CVD process than in the glow discharge process. (2) The band gap of CVD a-Si:H is lower by about 0.1 eV than glow discharge a-Si:H of the same hydrogen content. Thus, the band gap of CVD a-Si:H is better matched to the solar spectrum than is glow discharge a-Si:H. (3) All three IR absorption bands due to hydrogen are about 20% narrower in the CVD a-Si:H, suggesting a simpler structure. (4) The temperature dependence of the dark conductivity of CVD a-Si:H fits a curve for a single activation energy, in contrast to the more complicated temperature dependence often found in glow discharge a-Si:H, in which two different activation energies are seen at high and low temperatures. This suggests that the conduction mechanism is also simpler in the CVD a-Si:H.

Ellis, F.B. Jr.; Gordon, R.G.; Paul, W.; Yacobi, B.G.

1984-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

56

Optimization of the chemical vapor deposition process for carbon nanotubes fabrication  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization of the chemical vapor deposition process for carbon nanotubes fabrication M. Grujicica-phase chemistry and surface chemistry model is developed to analyze, at the reactor length scale, chemical vapor (carrier gas) in the presence of cobalt catalytic particles in a cylindrical reactor. The model allows

Grujicic, Mica

57

Preparation of membranes using solvent-less vapor deposition followed by in-situ polymerization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system of fabricating a composite membrane from a membrane substrate using solvent-less vapor deposition followed by in-situ polymerization. A first monomer and a second monomer are directed into a mixing chamber in a deposition chamber. The first monomer and the second monomer are mixed in the mixing chamber providing a mixed first monomer and second monomer. The mixed first monomer and second monomer are solvent-less vapor deposited onto the membrane substrate in the deposition chamber. The membrane substrate and the mixed first monomer and second monomer are heated to produce in-situ polymerization and provide the composite membrane.

O'Brien, Kevin C. (San Ramon, CA); Letts, Stephan A. (San Ramon, CA); Spadaccini, Christopher M. (Oakland, CA); Morse, Jeffrey C. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Buckley, Steven R. (Modesto, CA); Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); Wilson, Keith B. (San Ramon, CA)

2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

58

Solar-induced chemical vapor deposition of diamond-type carbon films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved chemical vapor deposition method for depositing transparent continuous coatings of sp[sup 3]-bonded diamond-type carbon films, comprises: (a) providing a volatile hydrocarbon gas/H[sub 2] reactant mixture in a cold wall vacuum/chemical vapor deposition chamber containing a suitable substrate for said films, at pressure of about 1 to 50 Torr; and (b) directing a concentrated solar flux of from about 40 to about 60 watts/cm[sup 2] through said reactant mixture to produce substrate temperatures of about 750 C to about 950 C to activate deposition of the film on said substrate. 11 figs.

Pitts, J.R.; Tracy, C.E.; King, D.E.; Stanley, J.T.

1994-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

59

Solar-induced chemical vapor deposition of diamond-type carbon films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved chemical vapor deposition method for depositing transparent continuous coatings of sp.sup.3 -bonded diamond-type carbon films, comprising: a) providing a volatile hydrocarbon gas/H.sub.2 reactant mixture in a cold wall vacuum/chemical vapor deposition chamber containing a suitable substrate for said films, at pressure of about 1 to 50 Torr; and b) directing a concentrated solar flux of from about 40 to about 60 watts/cm.sup.2 through said reactant mixture to produce substrate temperatures of about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. to activate deposition of the film on said substrate.

Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); King, David E. (Lakewood, CO); Stanley, James T. (Beaverton, OR)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

As-deposited low-strain LPCVD (low-pressure, chemical-vapor-deposition) polysilicon  

SciTech Connect

As-deposited polysilicon films with very low residual strain (lower than 5 x 10/sup -5/) are obtained by a low-pressure, chemical-vapor-deposition (LPCVD) process. Straight polysilicon bridges 300 ..mu..m long, 1.2 ..mu..m thick, and 2 to 20 ..mu..m wide, made using this process. No buckling has been observed in any of the nearly one thousand bridges of this type made in two separate process runs. In addition, no problems of sticking between the bridges and the substrate were encountered with these structures. The polysilicon films from which the beams were fabricated were deposited by pyrolyzing silane at 605/degree/C on a phosphosilicate-glass (PSG) layer (8 wt % P). The PSG layer serves as a sacrificial layer to be subsequently etched away to free the bridge. Our research is aimed at obtaining an understanding of these relationships through consideration of the role of interfacial stresses and the kinetics of initial crystalline nucleation. The technique for producing these low-strain films is significant, however, because no high-temperature annealing steps are required to produce them. 4 refs., 4 figs.

Fan, L.S.; Muller, R.S.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor transport deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

investigating the source, transport, and isotope fractionation of water vapor in the atmospheric boundary layer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

investigating the source, transport, and isotope fractionation of water vapor in the atmospheric cospectral similarity for temperature and water vapor isotope fluxes. mixing ratio generator Routine field use in water vapor isotope research. The unit generates a stable water vapor mixing ratio by measuring

Minnesota, University of

62

Pulsed plasma-Used injection sources for remote plasma activated chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pulsed plasma- Used injection sources for remote plasma activated chemical vapor deposition Mark J, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (Received 21 October 1992; accepted for publication 12 January 1993) Remote plasma the substrate is immersed in the plasma. This selectivity can be compromised if the deposition gases, which

Kushner, Mark

63

Low temperature junction growth using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and a process for forming a semi-conductor device, and solar cells (10) formed thereby. The process includes preparing a substrate (12) for deposition of a junction layer (14); forming the junction layer (14) on the substrate (12) using hot wire chemical vapor deposition; and, finishing the semi-conductor device.

Wang, Qi; Page, Matthew; Iwaniczko, Eugene; Wang, Tihu; Yan, Yanfa

2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

64

Chemical vapor deposition of W-Si-N and W-B-N  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of depositing a ternary, refractory based thin film on a substrate by chemical vapor deposition employing precursor sources of tungsten comprising WF[sub 6], either silicon or boron, and nitrogen. The result is a W-Si-N or W-B-N thin film useful for diffusion barrier and micromachining applications. 10 figs.

Fleming, J.G.; Roherty-Osmun, E.L.; Smith, P.M.; Custer, J.S.; Jones, R.V.; Nicolet, M.; Madar, R.; Bernard, C.

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

65

Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures of organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides,e.g., transition metal carbonyl, such as nickel carbonyl and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit. 1 fig.

Mullendore, A.W.

1988-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

66

Chemical-vapor deposition of complex oxides: materials and process development  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a six-month, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) part of the Advanced Materials Laboratory (AML). The demand for higher performance and lower cost in electronics is driving the need for advanced materials and consequent process integration. Ceramic thin-film technology is becoming more important in the manufacture of microelectronic devices, photovoltaics, optoelectronics, magneto-optics, sensors, microwave, and radio frequency communication devices, and high-Tc superconducting tapes. A flexible processing approach for potential large-scale manufacturing of novel electronic ceramic thin films is desirable. Current thin- film deposition technologies based on physical vapor-deposition techniques are limited in scale potential and have limited control of processing parameters. The lack of control over multiple process parameters inhibits the versatility and reproducibility of the physical vapor deposition processes applied to complex oxides. Chemical vapor deposition is emerging as a viable approach for large- scale manufacturing of electronic materials. Specifically, the ability to control more processing parameters with chemical vapor deposition than with other processing techniques provides the reliability and material property reproducibility required by manufacturing. This project sought to investigate the chemical vapor deposition of complex oxides.

Muenchausen, R.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Improved process for the preparation of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites by chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A specially designed apparatus provides a steep thermal gradient across the thickness of fibrous preform. A flow of gaseous ceramic matrix material is directed into the fibrous preform at the cold surface. The deposition of the matrix occurs progressively from the hot surface of the fibrous preform toward the cold surface. Such deposition prevents the surface of the fibrous preform from becoming plugged. As a result thereof, the flow of reactant matrix gases into the uninfiltrated (undeposited) portion of the fibrous preform occurs throughout the deposition process. The progressive and continuous deposition of ceramic matrix within the fibrous preform provides for a significant reduction in process time over known chemical vapor deposition processes.

Lackey, W.J. Jr.; Caputo, A.J.

1984-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

68

System and Method for Sealing a Vapor Deposition Source - Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

costs and minimizes system downtime for cleaning Applications and Industries Thin film solar Deposition of any thin film Patents and Patent Applications ID Number Title and...

69

Thermal Decomposition of Molecules Relevant to Combustion and Chemical Vapor Deposition by Flash Pyrolysis Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Small Molecules by Flash Pyrolysis, University ofwas performed using flash pyrolysis vacuum-ultraviolet time-Vapor Deposition by Flash Pyrolysis Time-of-Flight Mass

Lemieux, Jessy Mario

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Room-temperature high radio-frequency source power effects on silicon nitride films deposited by using a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Silicon nitride films were deposited at room temperature using a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. In this study, the effects of radio frequency (RF) source power ranging from 200 W to ... charact...

Byungwhan Kim; Suyeon Kim

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Simple method for preparing hydrogenated amorphous silicon films by chemical vapor deposition at atmospheric pressure  

SciTech Connect

An inexpensive one-step method is presented for fabricating hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films with good photovoltaic properties using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from a mixture of silane, disilane, trisilane, and higher polysilanes in hydrogen at one atmosphere total pressure. The gas mixture is generated by the action of dilute acid on magnesium silicide and used immediately in the CVD process. Thus, elaborate techniques for handling, transporting or storing the pyrophoric polysilanes are avoided. In addition, the method requires no expensive vacuum or electrical equipment. The conditions necessary for high (approx. =10%) hydrogen incorporation and very high deposition rates (50-100 A/sec) are explained. Experimental parameters are explained and properties as a function of these parameters are shown. The measurements include hydrogen content, optical, electrical and photovoltaic properties of the a-Si:H films. A chemical kinetic model is presented for this and other silane and polysilane CVD systems between about 400 and 600/sup 0/C. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions are considered. The model is derived from homogeneous gas-phase silane and polysilane chemistry and predicts, in agreement with our experiments, that the homogeneous gas-phase chemistry determines the a-Si:H film growth rate under a variety of conditions. The model is sufficiently predictive to be useful in determining appropriate experimental conditions. Stable solar cells are proposed for a-Si:H and fluorine doped tin oxide which can be produced by CVD at very high deposition rates. The unstable a-Si:H/tin oxide interface is eliminated by a very thin layer of titanium nitride and oxide between the a-Si:H and tin oxide.

Ellis, F.B. Jr.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Desalination-of water by vapor-phase transport through hydrophobic nanopores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a new approach to desalination of water whereby a pressure difference across a vapor-trapping nanopore induces selective transport of water by isothermal evaporation and condensation across the pore. Transport ...

Lee, Jongho

73

Direct chemical vapor deposition of graphene on dielectric surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A substrate is provided that has a metallic layer on a substrate surface of a substrate. A film made of a two dimensional (2-D) material, such as graphene, is deposited on a metallic surface of the metallic layer. The metallic layer is dewet and/or removed to provide the film on the substrate surface.

Zhang, Yuegang; Ismach, Ariel

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

74

Influence of gas composition on wafer temperature in a tungsten chemical vapor deposition reactor: Experimental measurements, model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Influence of gas composition on wafer temperature in a tungsten chemical vapor deposition reactor-wafer, lamp-heated chemical vapor deposition system were used to study the wafer temperature response to gas composition. A physically based simulation procedure for the process gas and wafer temperature was developed

Rubloff, Gary W.

75

CRYSTALLINE SILICON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS FROM THE POROUS SILICON PROCESS APPLYING CONVECTION ASSISTED CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CRYSTALLINE SILICON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS FROM THE POROUS SILICON PROCESS APPLYING CONVECTION ASSISTED CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION Barbara Terheiden,1* Thomas Kunz,2 Ingo Burkert2 , Renate Horbelt,1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany ABSTRACT: Convection assisted chemical vapor deposition (CoCVD) is applied

76

Cobalt Ultrathin Film Catalyzed Ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cobalt Ultrathin Film Catalyzed Ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) using a cobalt ultrathin film (1 nm) as the catalyst and ethanol as carbon feedstock flow during the growth. The trace amount of self-contained water (0.2-5 wt %) in ethanol may act

Hone, James

77

Epitaxial graphene prepared by chemical vapor deposition on single crystal thin iridium films on sapphire  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Epitaxial graphene prepared by chemical vapor deposition on single crystal thin iridium films Cedex 9, France (Dated: 15 March 2011) Uniform single layer graphene was grown on single-crystal Ir. These graphene layers have a single crystallographic orientation and a very low density of defects, as shown

Boyer, Edmond

78

An atomic-scale analysis of catalytically-assisted chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An atomic-scale analysis of catalytically-assisted chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes M Growth of carbon nanotubes during transition-metal particles catalytically-assisted thermal decomposition of various nanotube surface and edge reactions (e.g. adsorption of hydrocarbons and hydrogen onto the surface

Grujicic, Mica

79

High-rate chemical vapor deposition of nanocrystalline silicon carbide films by radio frequency thermal plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-rate chemical vapor deposition of nanocrystalline silicon carbide films by radio frequency Semiconductor, Eden Prairie, MN, USA Received 10 July 2002; accepted 14 July 2002 Abstract Silicon carbide films; Nanomaterials; Silicon carbide; Thermal plasmas; Thin films; Si tetrachlorine precursor Silicon carbide has

Zachariah, Michael R.

80

Initiated chemical vapor deposition of fluoropolymer coatings for the surface modification of complex geometries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a one-step, soventless process that can be used to produce polymeric thin films. The iCVD technique has been used to polymerize a wide variety of vinyl monomers such as glycidyl ...

Gupta, Malancha, 1980-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor transport deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Z .Thin Solid Films 392 2001 231 235 Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of electrochromic tungsten oxide films Roy G. Gordona,U , Sean Barryb , Jeffrey T. Bartona , Randy N.R. Broomhall oxide, WO , is a coloring layer commonly used in electrochromic windows and displays. Successful: Chemical vapor deposition; Tungsten; Oxides; Electrochromism 1. Introduction Tungsten oxide is a key

82

Ionized physical vapor deposition of integrated circuit interconnects* J. Hopwood,a)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

alloy silicide gate level and several metal-SiO2 interlayer dielectric ILD levels joined together metal layers. By the year 2007 it is predicted that logic circuits will use 6 to 7 interconnected metal physical vapor deposition I-PVD . The technique economically creates a unidirectional flux of metal which

83

Formation of Nickel Silicide from Direct-Liquid-Injection Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Nickel Nitride Films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Published April 28, 2010. Metal silicides such as TiSi2 and CoSi2 have been commonly used as the contactsFormation of Nickel Silicide from Direct-Liquid-Injection Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Nickel Nitride as the intermediate for subsequent conversion into nickel silicide NiSi , which is a key material for source, drain

84

Vapor Deposition of Ruthenium from an Amidinate Precursor Huazhi Li,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vapor Deposition of Ruthenium from an Amidinate Precursor Huazhi Li,a Damon B. Farmer,b Roy G School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA October 11, 2007. Thin films of ruthenium have many current and potential appli- cations. They can be used

85

Vapor Deposition of Ruthenium from an Amidinate Precursor Huazhi Li,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vapor Deposition of Ruthenium from an Amidinate Precursor Huazhi Li,a Damon B. Farmer,b Roy G. Gordon* ,a Youbo Lin,b Joost Vlassakb a Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology and b School and potential applications. They can be used as electrodes for capacitors, in which their high work function

86

Chemical Vapor Deposition-Derived Graphene with Electrical Performance of Exfoliated Graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical Vapor Deposition-Derived Graphene with Electrical Performance of Exfoliated Graphene a scalable method to produce large-area graphene, CVD-grown graphene has heretofore exhibited inferior of CVD-grown graphene in which two important sources of disorder, namely grain boundaries and processing

Hone, James

87

Compensator Control For Chemical Vapor Deposition Film Growth Using Reduced Order Design Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a high pressure chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) reactor that in­ cludes multiple species and controls optoelectronic integrated circuits. This can sometimes be addressed, in part, through open­loop optimization [7 reactor with real­time sensing and control as an innovative feature of this proto­ type reactor. Previous

88

Self-Limiting Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of Monolayer Graphene from Ethanol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbide,8 to chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of hydrocarbon precursors on transition metals,9-13 economic up to wafer scale,14,15 nickel and copper are the two most commonly used metal substrates. DueC) restricts the growth of graphene to the metal surface.12,17 The uniformity and high quality of the resultant

Maruyama, Shigeo

89

Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition Route to GaN Nanowires with Triangular  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition Route to GaN Nanowires with Triangular Cross Sections Tevye widths of 15-200 nm. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the wires were single as a carrier gas, was percolated through the TMG precursor and coupled with a second nitrogen line to give

Yang, Peidong

90

In situ mass spectrometric study of pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) thin film deposition with metallorganic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

Pyrite, FeS{sub 2}, thin films have been prepared by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition using tert-butyl disulfide (TBDS) and iron(III) acetylacetonate [Fe(acac){sub 3}] as the precursors and H{sub 2} as co-reactant. The reaction mechanism is studied with in situ mass spectrometry. The thermal decomposition of TBDS and Fe(acac){sub 3} has been investigated, as well as the synthesis of FeS{sub 2}. A complicated gas-phase reaction chain occurs in the deposition reaction. In the first 1--2 cm of the deposition zone, thick rough films are formed, but further downstream in the reactor a smooth FeS{sub 2} film is deposited. This remarkable change in morphology is accounted for in the proposed reaction mechanism.

Reijnen, L.; Meester, B.; Goossens, A.; Schoonman, J.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Progress Toward Meeting NIF Specifications for Vapor Deposited Polyimide Ablator Coatings  

SciTech Connect

We are developing an evaporative coating technique for deposition of thick polyimide (PI) ablator layers on ICF targets. The PI coating technique utilizes stoichiometrically controlled fluxes from two Knudsen cell evaporators containing a dianhydride and a diamine to deposit a polyamic acid (PAA) coating. Heating the PAA coating to 300 deg. C converts the PAA coating to a polyimide. Coated shells are rough due to particles on the substrate mandrels and from damage to the coating caused by the agitation used to achieve a uniform coating. We have developed a smoothing process that exposes an initially rough PAA coated shell to solvent vapor using gas levitation. We found that after smoothing the coatings developed a number of wide (low-mode) defects. We have identified two major contributors to low-mode roughness: surface hydrolysis, and deformation during drying/curing. By minimizing air exposure prior to vapor smoothing, avoiding excess solvent sorption during vapor smoothing, and using slow drying we are able to deposit and vapor smooth coatings 160 {mu}m thick with a surface roughness less than 20 nm RMS.

Letts, Stephan A.; Anthamatten, Mitchell; Buckley, Steven R.; Fearon, Evelyn; Nissen, April E.H.; Cook, Robert C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States)

2004-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

92

Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said substrate.

Ott, K.C.; Kodas, T.T.

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

93

Growth of Fe3N films via chemical vapor deposition of iron acetylacetonate and anhydrous ammonia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Polycrystalline Fe3N films have been grown via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on 50-?m thick polycrystalline Ti substrates using iron acetylacetonate (IAA) and anhydrous ammonia (NH3) in a cold-wall vertical pancake-style reactor. X-ray diffraction data indicated that single phase Fe3N was present in films deposited at and above 600°C; below this temperature no deposition occurred. The composition of the Fe3N films did not vary with changes in the deposition temperature, the NH3 flow rate or the deposition rate at a constant deposition pressure of 100 Torr. The surface macrostructure of the as-deposited films was independent of the deposition temperature and was very similar to that of the uncoated Ti substrate. The microstructure of the films was porous with a thickness variation of ?1 ?m across the surface of the films. Larger grains were produced at 600 and 800°C, while smaller and more uniform grains were produced at 700°C. Energy dispersive X-ray data indicated that films deposited at and above 600°C contained low levels of both carbon and oxygen.

S.L. Roberson; D. Finello; A.D. Banks; R.F. Davis

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon films produced by chemical vapor deposition: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is a technologically important semiconductor, well-suited for solar photovoltaic energy conversion and thin film device applications. While the glow discharge technique is widely used for the deposition of a-Si:H films, this work is focused on the use of the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique, i.e., the thermal decomposition of disilane and higher silanes, for the deposition of a-Si:H films. A simple technique for the preparation of disilane and higher silanes by using an electric discharge in monosilane under atmospheric pressure has been developed, and the discharge product can be used directly for the deposition process. The important parameters of the CVD process including the substrate temperature, the composition and flow rate of the reaction mixture, and the nature of the diluent gas for disilane, have also been investigated. The deposition rate of a-Si:H films in a helium atmosphere is considerably higher than that in a hydrogen atmosphere, and the CVD process in a helium atmosphere is well-suited for the deposition of thick a-Si:H films. The a-Si:H films deposited under various conditions have been characterized by the photoconductivity, dissolution rate, optical absorption, mechanical stress, gap state density, minority carrier diffusion length, and stability measurements. On the basis of these measurements, a-Si:H films deposited by the thermal decomposition of disilane in a helium atmosphere exhibit better structural and electronic properties than those deposited in a hydrogen atmosphere.

Not Available

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Investigations of chemical vapor deposition of GaN using synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect

The authors apply synchrotron x-ray analysis techniques to probe the surface structure of GaN films during synthesis by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Their approach is to observe the evolution of surface structure and morphology in real time using grazing incidence x-ray scattering (GIXS). This technique combines the ability of x-rays to penetrate the chemical vapor deposition environment for in situ measurements, with the sensitivity of GIXS to atomic scale structure. In this paper they present examples from some of their studies of growth modes and surface evolution as a function of process conditions that illustrate the capabilities of synchrotron x-ray analysis during MOCVD growth. They focus on studies of the homoepitaxial growth mode, island coarsening dynamics, and effects of impurities.

Thompson, C.; Stephenson, G. B.; Eastman, J. A.; Munkholm, A.; Auciello, O.; Murty, M. V. R.; Fini, P.; DenBaars, S. P.; Speck, J. S.

2000-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

96

Continuous growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a chemical vapor deposition process for the continuous growth of a carbon single-wall nanotube where a carbon-containing gas composition is contacted with a porous membrane and decomposed in the presence of a catalyst to grow single-wall carbon nanotube material. A pressure differential exists across the porous membrane such that the pressure on one side of the membrane is less than that on the other side of the membrane. The single-wall carbon nanotube growth may occur predominately on the low-pressure side of the membrane or, in a different embodiment of the invention, may occur predominately in between the catalyst and the membrane. The invention also relates to an apparatus used with the carbon vapor deposition process.

Grigorian, Leonid (Raymond, OH); Hornyak, Louis (Evergreen, CO); Dillon, Anne C (Boulder, CO); Heben, Michael J (Denver, CO)

2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

97

Development of Nb{sub 3}Sn Cavity Vapor Diffusion Deposition System  

SciTech Connect

Nb{sub 3}Sn is a BCS superconductors with the superconducting critical temperature higher than that of niobium, so theoretically it surpasses the limitations of niobium in RF fields. The feasibility of technology has been demonstrated at 1.5 GHz with Nb{sub 3}Sn vapor deposition technique at Wuppertal University. The benefit at these frequencies is more pronounced at 4.2 K, where Nb{sub 3}Sn coated cavities show RF resistances an order of magnitude lower than that of niobium. At Jefferson Lab we started the development of Nb{sub 3}Sn vapor diffusion deposition system within an R\\&D development program towards compact light sources. Here we present the current progress of the system development.

Eremeev, Grigory V.; Macha, Kurt M.; Clemens, William A.; Park, HyeKyoung; Williams, R. Scott

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Continuous growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a chemical vapor deposition process for the continuous growth of a carbon single-wall nanotube where a carbon-containing gas composition is contacted with a porous membrane and decomposed in the presence of a catalyst to grow single-wall carbon nanotube material. A pressure differential exists across the porous membrane such that the pressure on one side of the membrane is less than that on the other side of the membrane. The single-wall carbon nanotube growth may occur predominately on the low-pressure side of the membrane or, in a different embodiment of the invention, may occur predominately in between the catalyst and the membrane. The invention also relates to an apparatus used with the carbon vapor deposition process.

Grigorian, Leonid; Hornyak, Louis; Dillon, Anne C; Heben, Michael J

2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

99

Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications  

SciTech Connect

Diamond was studied as a possible radiation hard technology for use in future high radiation environments. With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2010, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2015, all LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is installed and operational in all LHC experiments. As a result, this material is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the super-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications.

Rainer Wallny

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

100

Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications  

SciTech Connect

Diamond was studied as a possible radiation hard technology for use in future high radiation environments. With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2009, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2013, all LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is installed in all LHC experiments. As a result, this material is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the super-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications.

Harris Kagan; K.K. Gan; Richard Kass

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor transport deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Electrochromic properties of iron oxide thin films prepared by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

Iron oxide thin films were prepared by chemical vapor deposition. The source material was iron (III) acetylacetonate. The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were produced at a substrate temperature above 200 C. The films deposited at a substrate temperature above 300 C were polycrystalline {beta}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Reduction and oxidation of the amorphous films in a 0.3 M LiClO{sub 4} propylene carbonate solution caused desirable changes in optical absorption. Coulometry indicated that the coloration efficiency was 6.0 to 6.5 cm{sup 2}/C.

Maruyama, Toshiro; Kanagawa, Tetsuya [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Metal organic chemical vapor deposition of 111-v compounds on silicon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Expitaxial composite comprising thin films of a Group III-V compound semiconductor such as gallium arsenide (GaAs) or gallium aluminum arsenide (GaAlAs) on single crystal silicon substrates are disclosed. Also disclosed is a process for manufacturing, by chemical deposition from the vapor phase, epitaxial composites as above described, and to semiconductor devices based on such epitaxial composites. The composites have particular utility for use in making light sensitive solid state solar cells.

Vernon, Stanley M. (Wellesley, MA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

The influence of convective heat transfer on flow stability in rotating disk chemical vapor deposition reactors  

SciTech Connect

Flow and heat transfer of NH{sub 3} and He were studied in a rotating disk system with applications to chemical vapor deposition reactors. Flow field and disk heat flux were obtained over a range of operating conditions. Comparisons of disk convective heat transfer were made to infinite rotating disk results to appraise uniformity of transport to the disk. Important operating variables include disk spin rate, disk and enclosure temperatures, flow rate, composition, pressure, and gas mixture temperature at the reactor inlet. These variables were studied over ranges of the spin Reynolds number, Re{omega}; disk mixed convection parameter, MCP{sub w}; and wall mixed convection parameter, MCP{sub w}. Results obtained for NH{sub 3} show that increasing Re{omega} from 314.5 to 3145 increases the uniformity of rotating disk heat flux and results in thinner thermal boundary layers at the disk surface. At Re{omega}=314.5, increasing MCP{sub d} to 15 leads to significant departure from the infinite disk result with nonuniform disk heat fluxes and recirculating flow patterns; flow becomes increasingly complex at larger values of MCP{sub d}. At Re{omega} of 3145, results are closer to the infinite disk for MCP{sub d} up to 15. For large negative (hot walls) and positive (cold walls) values of MCP{sub w}, flow recirculates and there is significant deviation from the infinite disk result; nonuniformities occur at both values of Re{omega}. The influence of MCP{sub w} on flow stability is increased at larger MCP{sub d} and lower Re{omega}. To determine the influence of viscosity and thermal conductivity variation with temperature, calculations were made with He and NH{sub 3}; He transport property variation is low relative to NH{sub 3}. Results show that the flow of NH{sub 3} is less stable than that of He as MCP{sub d} is increased for MCP{sub w}=0 and Re{omega}=314.5. 16 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Winters, W.S.; Evans, G.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Grief, R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Characterization of Chemically Vapor Deposited Silicon Nitride Films from Disilane and Ammonia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Amorphous silicon nitride films a:SiNx were prepared by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) from disilane ( Si2H6) and ammonia ( NH3). Most of the depositions were performed at 600° C with various NH3/Si2H6 gas ratios ranging from 4 to 50. Different deposits with composition (x= N/Si) ranging from silicon-rich to stoichiometric silicon nitride were characterized by means of infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ellipsometry, electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and their structure analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Transmission infrared measurements showed low hydrogen content (x= N/Si) and density of the films were correlated with their refractive index and discussed.

Redhouane Henda; Larbi Laanab; Emmanuel Scheid; Robert Fourmeaux

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of graphene on copper substrates  

SciTech Connect

A plasma enhanced vapor deposition process is used to synthesize graphene from a hydrogen/methane gas mixture on copper samples. The graphene samples were transferred onto SiO{sub 2} substrates and characterized by Raman spectroscopic mapping and atomic force microscope topographical mapping. Analysis of the Raman bands shows that the deposited graphene is clearly SLG and that the sheets are deposited on large areas of several mm{sup 2}. The defect density in the graphene sheets is calculated using Raman measurements and the influence of the process pressure on the defect density is measured. Furthermore the origin of these defects is discussed with respect to the process parameters and hence the plasma environment.

Woehrl, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.woehrl@uni-due.de; Schulz, Stephan [Faculty of Chemistry and CENIDE, University Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)] [Faculty of Chemistry and CENIDE, University Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Ochedowski, Oliver; Gottlieb, Steven [Faculty of Physics and CENIDE, University Duisburg Essen, Lotharstraße 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)] [Faculty of Physics and CENIDE, University Duisburg Essen, Lotharstraße 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Shibasaki, Kosuke [Institute of Materials Science, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)] [Institute of Materials Science, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

106

Vapor-deposited non-crystalline phase vs ordinary glasses and supercooled liquids: evidence for significant thermodynamic and kinetic differences  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vapor deposition of molecules on a substrate often results in glassy materials of high kinetic stability and low enthalpy. The extraordinary properties of such glasses are attributed to high rates of surface diffusion during sample deposition, which makes it possible for constituents to find a configuration of much lower energy on a typical laboratory time scale1,2,7. The exact structure of the resulting phase is often assumed to be identical to that obtained by aging of ordinary glass over exceedingly long times. Using Fast Scanning Calorimetry technique, we show that out-of-equilibrium relaxation kinetics and possibly the enthalpy of vapor-deposited films of toluene, an archetypical fragile glass former, are distinct from those of ordinary supercooled phase even when the deposition takes place at temperatures above the glass softening. These observations provide support to the conjecture that the vapor-deposition may result in formation of non-crystalline phase of unique structural, thermodynamic, and kinetic properties.

Deepanjan Bhattacharya; Vlad Sadtchenko

2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

107

Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Aerosol Transport and Deposition Mechanisms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, various aerosol particle transport and deposition mechanisms were studied through the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, including inertial impaction, gravitational effect, lift force, interception, and turbophoresis, within...

Tang, Yingjie

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

108

Chemical vapor deposition of amorphous semiconductor films. Semiannual report, 1 May 1984-31 October 1984  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of research done by the Institute of Energy Conversion for the Solar Energy Research Institute in 1984 on high-efficiency, stable, amorphous silicon solar cells, fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from disilane at high growth rates. The kinetics of CVD with higher order silanes were modelled for a tubular reactor with static substrates. A gas-phase reaction network was adopted, based on published silylene insertion and decomposition pathways. Mass balances for hydrogen and all saturated silanes through octasilane were derived. Boron-doped a-Si:H p-layers were deposited by CVD at 200/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/C. Band gap and conductivity depended strongly on the diborane fraction in the feed gas, independent of substrate temperature. The effects of intrinsic layer deposition temperature and growth rate on material properties and device performance were studied. Cell parameters of p-i-n cells were correlated with i-layer deposition temperature and growth rate. Fill factor and short-circuit current depended on deposition conditions, while open-circuit voltage did not. Effects of diborane additions to the feed gas during i-layer deposition were studied. Experimental evidence and calculations indicate high resistance at the back contact.

Baron, B.N.; Rocheleau, R.E.; Hegedus, S.S.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Tunable carbon nanotube-tungsten carbide nanoparticles heterostructures by vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

A simple, versatile route for the synthesis of carbon nanotube (CNT)-tungsten carbide nanoparticles heterostructures was set up via vapor deposition process. For the first time, amorphous CNTs (?-CNTs) were used to immobilized tungsten carbide nanoparticles. By adjusting the synthesis and annealing temperature, ?-CNTs/amorphous tungsten carbide, ?-CNTs/W{sub 2}C, and CNTs/W{sub 2}C/WC heterostructures were prepared. This approach provides an efficient method to attach other metal carbides and other nanoparticles to carbon nanotubes with tunable properties.

Xia, Min; Guo, Hongyan; Ge, Changchun [Institute of Special Ceramics and Powder Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing (China); Institute of Powder Metallurgy and Advanced Ceramics, Southwest Jiaotong University, 111, 1st Section, Northern 2nd Ring Road, Chengdu (China); Yan, Qingzhi, E-mail: qzyan@ustb.edu.cn; Lang, Shaoting [Institute of Special Ceramics and Powder Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing (China)

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

110

Tunneling characteristics in chemical vapor deposited graphene–hexagonal boron nitride–graphene junctions  

SciTech Connect

Large area chemical vapor deposited graphene and hexagonal boron nitride was used to fabricate graphene–hexagonal boron nitride–graphene symmetric field effect transistors. Gate control of the tunneling characteristics is observed similar to previously reported results for exfoliated graphene–hexagonal boron nitride–graphene devices. Density-of-states features are observed in the tunneling characteristics of the devices, although without large resonant peaks that would arise from lateral momentum conservation. The lack of distinct resonant behavior is attributed to disorder in the devices, and a possible source of the disorder is discussed.

Roy, T.; Hesabi, Z. R.; Joiner, C. A.; Vogel, E. M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Liu, L.; Gu, G. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Tennessee, 1520 Middle Drive, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Barrera, S. de la; Feenstra, R. M. [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Chakrabarti, B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Rd., Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

111

Selective charge doping of chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene by interface modification  

SciTech Connect

The doping and scattering effect of substrate on the electronic properties of chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene are revealed. Wet etching the underlying SiO{sub 2} of graphene and depositing self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of organosilane between graphene and SiO{sub 2} are used to modify various substrates for CVD graphene transistors. Comparing with the bare SiO{sub 2} substrate, the carrier mobility of CVD graphene on modified substrate is enhanced by almost 5-fold; consistently the residual carrier concentration is reduced down to 10{sup 11}?cm{sup ?2}. Moreover, scalable and reliable p- and n-type graphene and graphene p-n junction are achieved on various silane SAMs with different functional groups.

Wang, Shengnan, E-mail: wang.shengnan@lab.ntt.co.jp; Suzuki, Satoru; Furukawa, Kazuaki; Orofeo, Carlo M.; Takamura, Makoto; Hibino, Hiroki [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)] [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

112

Photochemical vapor deposition of amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices. Semiannual subcontract report, 1 May 1985-31 October 1985  

SciTech Connect

Intrinsic, p-type, and n-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin-films have been deposited by mercury-sensitized photochemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD) from disilane. The photochemical reactor design includes two chambers separated by a movable uv-transparent Teflon curtain to eliminate deposition on the reactor window. Glass/TCO/p-i-n/metal photovoltaic devices were fabricated by photo-CVD. The efficiency at 87.5 MW/cm/sup 2/(ELH) was 5.1%.

Baron, B.N.; Rocheleau, R.E.; Hegedus, S.S.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Photochemical vapor deposition of undoped and n-type amorphous silicon films produced from disilane  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon films have been deposited by mercury photosensitized decomposition (photochemical vapor deposition: photo-CVD) of disilane at a substrate temperature below 300 /sup 0/C. The structural and optical properties of undoped films are very similar to those of films deposited by rf glow discharge decomposition. The electronic property measurement shows that the conductivity strongly depends on the substrate temperature during deposition. The photoconductivity reaches 5.7 x 10/sup -3/ (..cap omega.. cm)/sup -1/ (AM1,100 mW/cm/sup 2/) at a substrate temperature of 200 /sup 0/C. The dark conductivity is 10/sup -6/--10/sup -8/ (..cap omega.. cm)/sup -1/ and the Fermi level is located near the middle of the gap. n-type doping has been also achieved by adding phosphine as an impurity to disilane. Furthermore, a p-i-n a-Si solar cell was fabricated using photo-CVD undoped and P-doped films. The initial cell showed a conversion efficiency of 4.39% under AM1 insolation.

Inoue, T.; Konagai, M.; Takahashi, K.

1983-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

114

Characterization and tribological application of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films prepared by radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) technique  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were successfully prepared on glass substrates and surfaces of selenium drums via radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method. The...

Ning Cao; Zhen-yi Fei; Yong-xin Qi; Wen-wen Chen…

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Vapor-deposited /sup 235/UO/sub 2/ layers for an ultra-high-sensitivity fission counter  

SciTech Connect

After evaluating the properties of uranium oxide coatings prepared by electrodeposition, painting and physical vapor deposition, the vapor deposition method was selected as being preferable for preparing coatings on aluminum electrodes having a total area of 5 m/sup 2/. The electrodes were used in an experimental fission chamber designed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use as a neutron flux monitor the Clinch River Breeder Reactor. Initial testing of the Ultra-High Sensitivity Fission Counter (UHSFC) indicated that a tenfold increase in sensitivity was achieved as compared to commercially available fission counters. Techniques used in vapor coating and characterizing the /sup 235/UO/sub 2/ deposits on the large-area curved substrates are described.

Adair, H.L.; Byrum, B.L.; Dailey, J.M.; Gibson, J.R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Chemical vapor deposition of refractory ternary nitrides for advanced diffusion barriers  

SciTech Connect

Refractory ternary nitride films for diffusion barriers in microelectronics have been grown using chemical vapor deposition. Thin films of titanium-silicon-nitride, tungsten-boron-nitride, and tungsten-silicon-nitride of various compositions have been deposited on 150 mm Si wafers. The microstructure of the films are either fully amorphous for the tungsten based films, or nauocrystalline TiN in an amorphous matrix for titanium-silicon-nitride. All films exhibit step coverages suitable for use in future microelectronics generations. Selected films have been tested as diffusion barriers between copper and silicon, and generally perform extremely weH. These fiIms are promising candidates for advanced diffusion barriers for microelectronics applications. The manufacturing of silicon wafers into integrated circuits uses many different process and materials. The manufacturing process is usually divided into two parts: the front end of line (FEOL) and the back end of line (BEOL). In the FEOL the individual transistors that are the heart of an integrated circuit are made on the silicon wafer. The responsibility of the BEOL is to wire all the transistors together to make a complete circuit. The transistors are fabricated in the silicon itself. The wiring is made out of metal, currently aluminum and tungsten, insulated by silicon dioxide, see Figure 1. Unfortunately, silicon will diffuse into aluminum, causing aluminum spiking of junctions, killing transistors. Similarly, during chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of tungsten from ~fj, the reactivity of the fluorine can cause "worn-holes" in the silicon, also destroying transistors. The solution to these problems is a so-called diffusion barrier, which will allow current to pass from the transistors to the wiring, but will prevent reactions between silicon and the metal.

Custer, Jonathan S.; Fleming, James G.; Roherty-Osmun, Elizabeth; Smith, Paul Martin

1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

117

Study of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films and the application to p-channel thin film transistor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The material and process characteristics of boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (PECVD) have been studied. The goal is to apply the high quality films...

Nominanda, Helinda

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

118

Water Vapor Transport and Moisture Budget over Eastern China: Remote Forcing from the Two Types of El Niño  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The water vapor transport and moisture budget over eastern China remotely forced by the cold-tongue (CT) and warm-pool (WP) El Niño show striking differences throughout their lifetime. The water vapor transport response is weak in the developing ...

Xiuzhen Li; Wen Zhou; Deliang Chen; Chongyin Li; Jie Song

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

X-ray-induced phase transformation in congruent and vapor-transport-equilibrated lithium tantalate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

X-ray-induced phase transformation in congruent and vapor-transport-equilibrated lithium tantalate an effect of a partially reversible x-ray-induced increase of diffuse x-ray scattering in both congruent been attributed to x-ray-induced decay of the ferroelectric phase at room temperature. The x-ray

Byer, Robert L.

120

Gas-phase silicon atom densities in the chemical vapor deposition of silicon from silane  

SciTech Connect

Silicon atom number density profiles have been measured using laser-induced fluorescence during the chemical vapor deposition of silicon from silane. Measurements were obtained in a rotating-disk reactor as a function of silane partial pressure and the amount of hydrogen added to the carrier gas. Absolute number densities were obtained using an atomic absorption technique. Results were compared with calculated density profiles from a model of the coupled fluid flow, gas-phase and surface chemistry for an infinite-radius rotating disk. An analysis of the reaction mechanism showed that the unimolecular decomposition of SiH{sub 2} is not the dominant source of Si atoms. Profile shapes and positions, and all experimental trends are well matched by the calculations. However, the calculated number density is up to 100 times smaller than measured.

Coltrin, M.E.; Breiland, W.G.; Ho, P.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor transport deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Disilane: A new silicon doping source in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of GaAs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Disilane (Si2H6) is presented as a new silicon doping source in the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of GaAs together with comparison results obtained using the conventional silane (SiH4) doping source. The dopingcharacteristics of disilane were studied over a wide range of growth conditions: temperature gas phase stoichiometry and disilane concentration in the growth ambient. Silicon incorporation by means of disilane pyrolysis showed no temperature dependence in sharp contrast to the strong temperature activated dependence found when employing silane. The decomposition reaction of disilane proved to be very efficient reducing the amount of dopant gas required by about two orders of magnitude at the lower growth temperatures. Electrical measurements on disilane?doped GaAs yield the same high mobilities as obtained in silane?doped GaAs films indicative of low compensation.

T. F. Kuech; B. S. Meyerson; E. Veuhoff

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

In situ nitrogen-doped graphene grown from polydimethylsiloxane by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

Due to its unique electronic properties and wide spectrum of promising applications, graphene has attracted much attention from scientists in various fields. Control and engineering of graphene’s semiconducting properties is considered to be the key of its applications in electronic devices. Here, we report a novel method to prepare in situ nitrogen-doped graphene by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) as a solid carbon source. Based on this approach, the concentration of nitrogen-doping can be easily controlled via the flow rate of nitrogen during the CVD process. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the nitrogen atoms doped into graphene lattice were mainly in the forms of pyridinic and pyrrolic structures. Moreover, first-principles calculations show that the incorporated nitrogen atoms can lead to p-type doping of graphene. This in situ approach provides a promising strategy to prepare graphene with controlled electronic properties.

Wang, Chundong; Zhou, Yungang; He, Lifang; Ng, Tsz-Wai; Hong, Guo; Wu, Qi-Hui; Gao, Fei; Lee, Chun-Sing; Zhang, Wenjun

2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

123

Structure control of carbon nanotubes using radio-frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon nanotube structures such as tube diameter, growth site, and formation density are controlled using radio-frequency (RF, 13.56 MHz) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) method. We have produced uniformly well-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) grown over the large scale area and linearly arrayed \\{MWNTs\\} grown in a selected area without any highly-sophisticated patterning process. In our RF-PECVD experiment, furthermore, individually grown single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) or their thin bundles are synthesized for the first time within the scope of the PECVD methods. These results indicate that PECVD method provides the high potential for the further development of nano-technology.

T. Kato; G.-H. Jeong; T. Hirata; R. Hatakeyama

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Life cycle cost study for coated conductor manufacture by metal organic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to calculate the cost of producing high temperature superconducting wire by the Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) process. The technology status is reviewed from the literature and a plant conceptual design is assumed for the cost calculation. The critical issues discussed are the high cost of the metal organic precursors, the material utilization efficiency and the capability of the final product as measured by the critical current density achieved. Capital, operating and material costs are estimated and summed as the basis for calculating the cost per unit length of wire. Sensitivity analyses of key assumptions are examined to determine their effects on the final wire cost. Additionally, the cost of wire on the basis of cost per kiloampere per meter is calculated for operation at lower temperatures than the liquid nitrogen boiling temperature. It is concluded that this process should not be ruled out on the basis of high cost of precursors alone.

Chapman, J.N.

1999-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

125

Electrochemistry of chemical vapor deposited tungsten films with relevance to chemical mechanical polishing  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical behavior of chemically vapor deposited tungsten films in solutions of interest to tungsten chemical mechanical polishing has been investigated using dc potentiodynamic polarization, linear polarization, and Tafel methods. It was found that in the absence of an oxidizer, the tungsten surface was passivated most effectively at acidic pH values. At pH 2 or 4, a WO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3} duplex oxide layer of less than 50 A thickness was detected over the tungsten layer by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The oxide layer formed at pH 2 was much thicker, and had better passivity compared to the oxide formed at pH 4. Addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at pH 2 or 4 resulted in a dramatic increase in tungsten dissolution.

Kneer, E.A.; Raghunath, C.; Raghavan, S. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Jeon, J.S. [Advanced Micro Devices Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Transport and sorption of volatile organic compounds and water vapor in porous media  

SciTech Connect

To gain insight on the controlling mechanisms for VOC transport in porous media, the relations among sorbent properties, sorption equilibrium and intraparticle diffusion processes were studied at the level of individual sorbent particles and laboratory columns for soil and activated carbon systems. Transport and sorption of VOCs and water vapor were first elucidated within individual dry soil mineral grains. Soil properties, sorption capacity, and sorption rates were measured for 3 test soils; results suggest that the soil grains are porous, while the sorption isotherms are nonlinear and adsorption-desorption rates are slow and asymmetric. An intragranular pore diffusion model coupled with the nonlinear Freundlich isotherm was developed to describe the sorption kinetic curves. Transport of benzene and water vapor within peat was studied; partitioning and sorption kinetics were determined with an electrobalance. A dual diffusion model was developed. Transport of benzene in dry and moist soil columns was studied, followed by gaseous transport and sorption in activated carbon. The pore diffusion model provides good fits to sorption kinetics for VOCs to soil and VOC to granular activated carbon and activated carbon fibers. Results of this research indicate that: Intraparticle diffusion along with a nonlinea sorption isotherm are responsible for the slow, asymmetric sorption-desorption. Diffusion models are able to describe results for soil and activated carbon systems; when combined with mass transfer equations, they predict column breakthrough curves for several systems. Although the conditions are simplified, the mechanisms should provide insight on complex systems involving transport and sorption of vapors in porous media.

Lin, Tsair-Fuh

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Growth of crystalline X-Sic on Si at reduced temperatures by chemical vapor deposition from `silacycllobutane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and TPS resulted in single crystal layer" on Si ( 111) only up to a thickness of 2000 h;. Highly orientedGrowth of crystalline X-Sic on Si at reduced temperatures by chemical vapor deposition from grown by SCB at a temperature of 800 "C. The progress of SiC/Si heterojunction devices has been C3HsSiH2

Steckl, Andrew J.

128

Gas jet assisted vapor deposition of yttria stabilized zirconia D. D. Hass and H. N. G. Wadleya  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas jet assisted vapor deposition of yttria stabilized zirconia D. D. Hass and H. N. G. Wadleya February 2009 A gas jet assisted electron beam evaporation process for synthesizing yttria stabilized zirconia YSZ coatings has recently been reported. The process uses a rarefied inert gas jet to entrain

Wadley, Haydn

129

Step-edge-induced resistance anisotropy in quasi-free-standing bilayer chemical vapor deposition graphene on SiC  

SciTech Connect

The transport properties of quasi-free-standing (QFS) bilayer graphene on SiC depend on a range of scattering mechanisms. Most of them are isotropic in nature. However, the SiC substrate morphology marked by a distinctive pattern of the terraces gives rise to an anisotropy in graphene's sheet resistance, which may be considered an additional scattering mechanism. At a technological level, the growth-preceding in situ etching of the SiC surface promotes step bunching which results in macro steps ?10?nm in height. In this report, we study the qualitative and quantitative effects of SiC steps edges on the resistance of epitaxial graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. We experimentally determine the value of step edge resistivity in hydrogen-intercalated QFS-bilayer graphene to be ?190???m for step height h{sub S}?=?10?nm and provide proof that it cannot originate from mechanical deformation of graphene but is likely to arise from lowered carrier concentration in the step area. Our results are confronted with the previously reported values of the step edge resistivity in monolayer graphene over SiC atomic steps. In our analysis, we focus on large-scale, statistical properties to foster the scalable technology of industrial graphene for electronics and sensor applications.

Ciuk, Tymoteusz [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Cakmakyapan, Semih; Ozbay, Ekmel [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Department of Physics, Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, 06800 Bilkent, Ankara (Turkey); Caban, Piotr; Grodecki, Kacper; Pasternak, Iwona; Strupinski, Wlodek, E-mail: wlodek.strupinski@itme.edu.pl [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Krajewska, Aleksandra [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Gen. S. Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Szmidt, Jan [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland)

2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

130

Reactor design for uniform chemical vapor deposition-grown films without substrate rotation  

SciTech Connect

A reactor vessel is described for chemical vapor deposition of a uniform semiconductor film on a substrate, comprising: a generally cylindrical reaction chamber for receiving a substrate and a flow of reaction gas capable of depositing a film on the substrate under the conditions of the chamber, the chamber having upper and lower portion and being oriented about a vertical axis; a supporting means having a substrate support surface generally perpendicular to the vertical axis for carrying the substrate within the lower portion of the reaction chamber in a predetermined relative position with respect to the upper portion of the reaction chamber, the upper portion including a cylindrically shaped confinement chamber. The confinement chamber has a smaller diameter than the lower portion of the reaction chamber and is positioned above the substrate support surface; and a means for introducing a reaction gas into the confinement chamber in a nonaxial direction so as to direct the reaction gas into the lower portion of the reaction chamber with a non-axial flow having a rotational component with respect to the vertical axis. In this way the reaction gas defines an inward vortex flow pattern with respect to the substrate surface.

Wanlass, M.

1987-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

131

Photochemical vapor deposition of amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices: Annual subcontract report, 1 May 1985-30 April 1986  

SciTech Connect

Intrinsic, p-type, and n-type a-Si:H and p-type a-SiC:H thin-films have been deposited by Hg-sensitized photochemical vapor depositions (photo-CVD) from disilane. The photochemical reactor design includes two chambers separated by a movable uv-transparent Teflon curtain, which eliminates deposition on the reactor window. Photovoltaic devices of the type glass/TCO/p-i-n/metal were fabricated by photo-CVD. The device efficiency obtained at 87.5 mW/cm/sup 2/ and ELH illumination was 6.4%.

Baron, B.N.; Rocheleau, R.E.; Hegedus, S.S.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Optical coatings of variable refractive index and high laser-resistance from physical-vapor-deposited perfluorinated amorphous polymer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Variable index optical single-layers, optical multilayer, and laser-resistant coatings were made from a perfluorinated amorphous polymer material by physical vapor deposition. This was accomplished by physically vapor depositing a polymer material, such as bulk Teflon AF2400, for example, to form thin layers that have a very low refractive index (.about.1.10-1.31) and are highly transparent from the ultra-violet through the near infrared regime, and maintain the low refractive index of the bulk material. The refractive index can be varied by simply varying one process parameter, either the deposition rate or the substrate temperature. The thus forming coatings may be utilized in anti-reflectors and graded anti-reflection coatings, as well as in optical layers for laser-resistant coatings at optical wavelengths of less than about 2000 nm.

Chow, Robert (Livermore, CA); Loomis, Gary E. (Livermore, CA); Thomas, Ian M. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Optical coatings of variable refractive index and high laser-resistance from physical-vapor-deposited perfluorinated amorphous polymer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Variable index optical single-layers, optical multilayer, and laser-resistant coatings were made from a perfluorinated amorphous polymer material by physical vapor deposition. This was accomplished by physically vapor depositing a polymer material, such as bulk Teflon AF2400, for example, to form thin layers that have a very low refractive index (ca. 1.10--1.31) and are highly transparent from the ultra-violet through the near infrared regime, and maintain the low refractive index of the bulk material. The refractive index can be varied by simply varying one process parameter, either the deposition rate or the substrate temperature. The thus forming coatings may be utilized in anti-reflectors and graded anti-reflection coatings, as well as in optical layers for laser-resistant coatings at optical wavelengths of less than about 2000 nm. 2 figs.

Chow, R.; Loomis, G.E.; Thomas, I.M.

1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

134

Modeling atmospheric deposition using a stochastic transport model  

SciTech Connect

An advanced stochastic transport model has been modified to include the removal mechanisms of dry and wet deposition. Time-dependent wind and turbulence fields are generated with a prognostic mesoscale numerical model and are used to advect and disperse individually released particles that are each assigned a mass. These particles are subjected to mass reduction in two ways depending on their physical location. Particles near the surface experience a decrease in mass using the concept of a dry deposition velocity, while the mass of particles located within areas of precipitation are depleted using a scavenging coefficient. Two levels of complexity are incorporated into the particle model. The simple case assumes constant values of dry deposition velocity and scavenging coefficient, while the more complex case varies the values according to meteorology, surface conditions, release material, and precipitation intensity. Instantaneous and cumulative dry and wet deposition are determined from the mass loss due to these physical mechanisms. A useful means of validating the model results is with data available from a recent accidental release of Cesium-137 from a steel-processing furnace in Algeciras, Spain in May, 1998. This paper describes the deposition modeling technique, as well as a comparison of simulated concentration and deposition with measurements taken for the Algeciras release.

Buckley, R.L.

1999-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

135

The Impact of Thermal Conductivity and Diffusion Rates on Water Vapor Transport through Gas Diffusion Layers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water management in a hydrogen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is critical for performance. The impact of thermal conductivity and water vapor diffusion coefficients in a gas diffusion layer (GDL) has been studied by a mathematical model. The fraction of product water that is removed in the vapour phase through the GDL as a function of GDL properties and operating conditions has been calculated and discussed. Furthermore, the current model enables identification of conditions when condensation occurs in each GDL component and calculation of temperature gradient across the interface between different layers, providing insight into the overall mechanism of water transport in a given cell design. Water transport mode and condensation conditions in the GDL components depend on the combination of water vapor diffusion coefficients and thermal conductivities of the GDL components. Different types of GDL and water removal scenarios have been identified and related to experimentally-determined GDL proper...

Burlatsky, S F; Gummallaa, M; Condita, D; Liua, F

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Formation of Nickel Silicide from Direct-liquid-injection Chemical-vapor-deposited Nickel Nitride Films  

SciTech Connect

Smooth, continuous, and highly conformal nickel nitride (NiN{sub x}) films were deposited by direct liquid injection (DLI)-chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using a solution of bis(N,N{prime}-di-tert-butylacetamidinato)nickel(II) in tetrahydronaphthalene as the nickel (Ni) source and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the coreactant gas. The DLI-CVD NiNx films grown on HF-last (100) silicon and on highly doped polysilicon substrates served as the intermediate for subsequent conversion into nickel silicide (NiSi), which is a key material for source, drain, and gate contacts in microelectronic devices. Rapid thermal annealing in the forming gas of DLI-CVD NiNx films formed continuous NiSi films at temperatures above 400 C. The resistivity of the NiSi films was 15{mu}{Omega} cm, close to the value for bulk crystals. The NiSi films have remarkably smooth and sharp interfaces with underlying Si substrates, thereby producing contacts for transistors with a higher drive current and a lower junction leakage. Resistivity and synchrotron X-ray diffraction in real-time during annealing of NiNx films showed the formation of a NiSi film at about 440 C, which is morphologically stable up to about 650 C. These NiSi films could find applications in future nanoscale complementary metal oxide semiconductor devices or three-dimensional metal-oxide-semiconductor devices such as Fin-type field effect transistors for the 22 nm technology node and beyond.

Li, Z.; Gordon, R; Li, H; Shenai, D; Lavoie, C

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Gas-phase reaction study of disilane pyrolysis: Applications to low pressure chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

The gas-phase thermal reactions during disilane decomposition at low pressure chemical vapor deposition conditions were studied from 300 to 1,000 K using resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and multiphoton ionization (MPI). REMPI of gas-phase Si, mass 28, was detected from 640 to 840 K and 1 to 10 Torr, with a maximum signal intensity between 700 to 720 K. During disilane decomposition, no SiH (427.8 nm), SiH[sub 2] (494-515 nm), or SiH[sub 3] (419.0 nm) was detected. MPI of higher silanes, silenes, and silylenes were detected through mass fragments 2, 32, and 60; these species reached a maximum signal intensity 20 degrees prior to the mass-28 maximum. Modeling studies that included a detailed low pressure gas-phase kinetic scheme predict relative gas-phase partial pressures generated during disilane pyrolysis. The model predicted experimental trends in the Si partial pressure and the higher silane, silene, and silylene partial pressures.

Johannes, J.E.; Ekerdt, J.G. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Cooperative Island Growth of Large Area Single-Crystal Graphene by Chemical Vapor Deposition on Cu  

SciTech Connect

We describe a two-step approach for suppressing nucleation of graphene on Cu using chemical vapor deposition. In the first step, as received Cu foils are oxidized in air at temperatures up to 500 C to remove surface impurities and to induce the regrowth of Cu grains during subsequent annealing in H2 flow at 1040 C prior to graphene growth. In the second step, transient reactant cooling is performed by using a brief Ar pulse at the onset of growth to induce collisional deactivation of the carbon growth species. The combination of these two steps results in a three orders of magnitude reduction in the graphene nucleation density, enabling the growth of millimeter-size single crystal graphene grains. A kinetic model shows that suppressing nucleation promotes a cooperative island growth mode that favors the formation of large area single crystal graphene, and it is accompanied by a roughly 3 orders of magnitude increase in the reactive sticking probability of methane compared to that in random nucleation growth.

Regmi, Murari [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rouleau, Christopher [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Chen, Jihua [ORNL; Eastman, Jeffrey [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Eres, Gyula [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Effect of e-beam irradiation on graphene layer grown by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

We have grown graphene by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and transferred it onto Si/SiO{sub 2} substrates to make tens of micron scale devices for Raman spectroscopy study. The effect of electron beam (e-beam) irradiation of various doses (600 to 12 000 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}) on CVD grown graphene has been examined by using Raman spectroscopy. It is found that the radiation exposures result in the appearance of the strong disorder D band attributed the damage to the lattice. The evolution of peak frequencies, intensities, and widths of the main Raman bands of CVD graphene is analyzed as a function of defect created by e-beam irradiation. Especially, the D and G peak evolution with increasing radiation dose follows the amorphization trajectory, which suggests transformation of graphene to the nanocrystalline and then to amorphous form. We have also estimated the strain induced by e-beam irradiation in CVD graphene. These results obtained for CVD graphene are in line with previous findings reported for the mechanically exfoliated graphene [D. Teweldebrhan and A. A. Balandin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 013101 (2009)]. The results have important implications for CVD graphene characterization and device fabrication, which rely on the electron microscopy.

Iqbal, M. Z.; Kumar Singh, Arun; Iqbal, M. W.; Seo, Sunae; Eom, Jonghwa [Department of Physics and Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

140

High-temperature stress measurement on chemical-vapor-deposited tungsten silicide and tungsten films  

SciTech Connect

Stresses in chemical-vapor-deposited tungsten silicide and tungsten films at high temperatures were measured. Tungsten silicide films were formed from WF/sub 6/ and SiH/sub 4/ or Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/. Tungsten films were formed from WF/sub 6/ and H/sub 2/. The stress in tungsten silicide films is tensile and in the order of 10/sup 9/--10/sup 10/ dynes/cm/sup 2/. For a composition ratio of Si/Wless than or equal to2.6, the stress of a film of more than 1000 A has a maximum at about 500 /sup 0/C. On the other hand, for a composition Si/W>2.9, the stress has no maximum. The maximum of the stress is caused by crystallization of the film. The stress has two components. One component is related to the difference of the thermal expansion coefficients between the film and the Si substrate. Another is related to the film crystallization. It was found that the stress concentrates in the portion of the film nearest the substrate. The stress in tungsten films also reaches a maximum at 550 /sup 0/C, similar to the tungsten silicide films. However, the cause of this behavior is not clear.

Shioya, Y.; Ikegami, K.; Maeda, M.; Yanagida, K.

1987-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor transport deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Delta-doping of boron atoms by photoexcited chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

Boron delta-doped structures in Si crystals were fabricated by means of photoexcited chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Core electronic excitation with high-energy photons ranging from vacuum ultraviolet to soft x rays decomposes B{sub 2}H{sub 6} molecules into fragments. Combined with in situ monitoring by spectroscopic ellipsometry, limited number of boron hydrides can be delivered onto a Si(100) surface by using the incubation period before the formation of a solid boron film. The boron-covered surface is subsequently embedded in a Si cap layer by Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} photo-excited CVD. The crystallinity of the Si cap layer depended on its thickness and the substrate temperature. The evaluation of the boron depth profile by secondary ion mass spectroscopy revealed that boron atoms were confined within the delta-doped layer at a concentration of 2.5 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} with a full width at half maximum of less than 9 nm, while the epitaxial growth of a 130-nm-thick Si cap layer was sustained at 420 deg. C.

Akazawa, Housei [NTT Microsystem Integration Laboratories, 3-1 Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

Silicon nucleation and film evolution on silicon dioxide using disilane: Rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition of very smooth silicon at high deposition rates  

SciTech Connect

An investigation of Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} and H{sub 2} for rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) of silicon on SiO{sub 2} has been performed at temperatures ranging from 590 to 900 C and pressures ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 Torr. Deposition at 590 C yields amorphous silicon films with the corresponding ultrasmooth surface with a deposition rate of 68 nm/min. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy of a sample deposited at 625 C and 1 Torr reveals a bilayer structure which is amorphous at the growth surface and crystallized at the oxide interface. Higher temperatures yield polycrystalline films where the surface roughness depends strongly on both deposition pressure and temperature. Silane-based amorphous silicon deposition in conventional systems yields the expected ultrasmooth surfaces, but at greatly reduced deposition rates unsuitable for single-wafer processing. However, disilane, over the process window considered here, yields growth rates high enough to be appropriate for single-wafer manufacturing, thus providing a viable means for deposition of very smooth silicon films on SiO{sub 2} in a single-wafer environment.

Violette, K.E.; Oeztuerk, M.C.; Christensen, K.N.; Maher, D.M. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

On-line coating of glass with tin oxide by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of tin oxide is a very important manufacturing technique used in the production of low-emissivity glass. It is also the primary method used to provide wear-resistant coatings on glass containers. The complexity of these systems, which involve chemical reactions in both the gas phase and on the deposition surface, as well as complex fluid dynamics, makes process optimization and design of new coating reactors a very difficult task. In 2001 the U.S. Dept. of Energy Industrial Technologies Program Glass Industry of the Future Team funded a project to address the need for more accurate data concerning the tin oxide APCVD process. This report presents a case study of on-line APCVD using organometallic precursors, which are the primary reactants used in industrial coating processes. Research staff at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA, and the PPG Industries Glass Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA collaborated to produce this work. In this report, we describe a detailed investigation of the factors controlling the growth of tin oxide films. The report begins with a discussion of the basic elements of the deposition chemistry, including gas-phase thermochemistry of tin species and mechanisms of chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of tin precursors. These results provide the basis for experimental investigations in which tin oxide growth rates were measured as a function of all major process variables. The experiments focused on growth from monobutyltintrichloride (MBTC) since this is one of the two primary precursors used industrially. There are almost no reliable growth-rate data available for this precursor. Robust models describing the growth rate as a function of these variables are derived from modeling of these data. Finally, the results are used to conduct computational fluid dynamic simulations of both pilot- and full-scale coating reactors. As a result, general conclusions are reached concerning the factors affecting the growth rate in on-line APCVD reactors. In addition, a substantial body of data was generated that can be used to model many different industrial tin oxide coating processes. These data include the most extensive compilation of thermochemistry for gas-phase tin-containing species as well as kinetic expressions describing tin oxide growth rates over a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and reactant concentrations.

Allendorf, Mark D.; Sopko, J.F. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); Houf, William G.; Chae, Yong Kee; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Li, M. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); McCamy, J.W. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA)

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Towards improved spinnability of chemical vapor deposition generated multi-walled carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

P. J. F. 1999 Carbon nanotubes and related structures: newof vapor grown carbon nanotubes and single wall nanotubes, Eto Carbon Materials in Carbon Nanotubes: Preparation and

McKee, Gregg Sturdivant Burke

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Current induced annealing and electrical characterization of single layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition for future interconnects in VLSI circuits  

SciTech Connect

Single layer graphene (SLG) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been investigated for its prospective application as horizontal interconnects in very large scale integrated circuits. However, the major bottleneck for its successful application is its degraded electronic transport properties due to the resist residual trapped in the grain boundaries and on the surface of the polycrystalline CVD graphene during multi-step lithographic processes, leading to increase in its sheet resistance up to 5 M?/sq. To overcome this problem, current induced annealing has been employed, which helps to bring down the sheet resistance to 10?k?/sq (of the order of its initial value). Moreover, the maximum current density of ?1.2?×?10{sup 7?}A/cm{sup 2} has been obtained for SLG (1?×?2.5??m{sup 2}) on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate, which is about an order higher than that of conventionally used copper interconnects.

Prasad, Neetu, E-mail: neetu.prasad@south.du.ac.in, E-mail: neetu23686@gmail.com; Kumari, Anita; Bhatnagar, P. K.; Mathur, P. C. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India); Bhatia, C. S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

146

Energy deposition in t in films calculated using ellectron transport theory Theodore Biewer and Peter Rez  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy deposition in t in films calculated using ellectron transport theory Theodore Biewer damage which can be related to the energy deposited in the specimen. We derive an expression for the energy deposition using the electron transport equation and give results for beam energies of l-10 k

Biewer, Theodore

147

Low-Temperature Chemical-Vapor-Deposition of Silicon-Nitride Film from Hexachloro-Disilane and Hydrazine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have successfully deposited SiNx:H films at temperatures as low as 350°C by the chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) method using hexachloro-disilane (Si2Cl6) and hydrazine (N2H4). The atomic ratio (N/Si) of the film deposited at 400°C was 1.26 with a total hydrogen content of about 30 at.%. The breakdown-field strength was 5.3 MV/cm at a leakage-current density of 1 µA/cm2, and the low-field resistivity was more than 1015 ?cm. Amorphous-silicon thin-film transistors equipped with this film as the gate dielectric showed clear transfer characteristics.

Wen-Chang Yeh; Ryoichi Ishihara; Shunsuke Morishita; Masakiyo Matsumura

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method of forming vanadium oxide films and vanadium oxide thin-films prepared thereby  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed of forming a vanadium oxide film on a substrate utilizing plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The method includes positioning a substrate within a plasma reaction chamber and then forming a precursor gas comprised of a vanadium-containing chloride gas in an inert carrier gas. This precursor gas is then mixed with selected amounts of hydrogen and oxygen and directed into the reaction chamber. The amounts of precursor gas, oxygen and hydrogen are selected to optimize the final properties of the vanadium oxide film An rf plasma is generated within the reaction chamber to chemically react the precursor gas with the hydrogen and the oxygen to cause deposition of a vanadium oxide film on the substrate while the chamber deposition pressure is maintained at about one torr or less. Finally, the byproduct gases are removed from the plasma reaction chamber.

Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Turner, John A. (Littleton, CO); Liu, Ping (Lakewood, CO)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Method and apparatus for removing and preventing window deposition during photochemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD) processes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Unwanted build-up of the film deposited on the transparent light-transmitting window of a photochemical vacuum deposition (photo-CVD) chamber is eliminated by flowing an etchant into the part of the photolysis region in the chamber immediately adjacent the window and remote from the substrate and from the process gas inlet. The respective flows of the etchant and the process gas are balanced to confine the etchant reaction to the part of the photolysis region proximate to the window and remote from the substrate. The etchant is preferably one that etches film deposit on the window, does not etch or affect the window itself, and does not produce reaction by-products that are deleterious to either the desired film deposited on the substrate or to the photolysis reaction adjacent the substrate. 3 figs.

Tsuo, S.; Langford, A.A.

1989-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

150

Method and apparatus for removing and preventing window deposition during photochemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD) processes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Unwanted build-up of the film deposited on the transparent light-transmitting window of a photochemical vacuum deposition (photo-CVD) chamber is eliminated by flowing an etchant into the part of the photolysis region in the chamber immediately adjacent the window and remote from the substrate and from the process gas inlet. The respective flows of the etchant and the process gas are balanced to confine the etchant reaction to the part of the photolysis region proximate to the window and remote from the substrate. The etchant is preferably one that etches film deposit on the window, does not etch or affect the window itself, and does not produce reaction by-products that are deleterious to either the desired film deposited on the substrate or to the photolysis reaction adjacent the substrate.

Tsuo, Simon (Lakewood, CO); Langford, Alison A. (Boulder, CO)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

GaN nanorod light emitting diodes with suspended graphene transparent electrodes grown by rapid chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

Ordered and dense GaN light emitting nanorods are studied with polycrystalline graphene grown by rapid chemical vapor deposition as suspended transparent electrodes. As the substitute of indium tin oxide, the graphene avoids complex processing to fill up the gaps between nanorods and subsequent surface flattening and offers high conductivity to improve the carrier injection. The as-fabricated devices have 32% improvement in light output power compared to conventional planar GaN-graphene diodes. The suspended graphene remains electrically stable up to 300?°C in air. The graphene can be obtained at low cost and high efficiency, indicating its high potential in future applications.

Xu, Kun; Xu, Chen, E-mail: xuchen58@bjut.edu.cn; Deng, Jun; Zhu, Yanxu; Guo, Weiling; Mao, Mingming; Xun, Meng; Chen, Maoxing; Zheng, Lei [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronics Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100124 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronics Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100124 (China); Xie, Yiyang [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductor, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductor, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Sun, Jie, E-mail: jie.sun@chalmers.se [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronics Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100124 (China) [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronics Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100124 (China); Mikroteknologi och Nanovetenskap, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola AB, Göteborg 41296 (Sweden)

2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

152

Improving chemical vapor deposition graphene conductivity using molybdenum trioxide: An in-situ field effect transistor study  

SciTech Connect

By using in situ field effect transistor characterization integrated with molecular beam epitaxy technique, we demonstrate the strong surface transfer p-type doping effect of single layer chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, through the surface functionalization of molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) layer. After doping, both the hole and electron mobility of CVD graphene are nearly retained, resulting in significant enhancement of graphene conductivity. With coating of 10 nm MoO{sub 3}, the conductivity of CVD graphene can be increased by about 7 times, showing promising application for graphene based electronics and transparent, conducting, and flexible electrodes.

Han, Cheng [Department of Physics and Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, 999 Xue Fu Da Dao, Nanchang (China) [Department of Physics and Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, 999 Xue Fu Da Dao, Nanchang (China); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Lin, Jiadan; Xiang, Du [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)] [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Wang, Chaocheng; Wang, Li [Department of Physics and Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, 999 Xue Fu Da Dao, Nanchang (China)] [Department of Physics and Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, 999 Xue Fu Da Dao, Nanchang (China); Chen, Wei [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore) [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543 and Graphene Research Centre, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

153

Pressure dependence of phonons and excitons in InSe films prepared by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The pressure dependence of the Raman spectra of phase-pure InSe thin films prepared by the low-pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition technique has been studied using a diamond-anvil high-pressure cell. Enhancement in the intensities of the Raman modes has been observed as a result of pressure-induced “tuning” of the energy of the M1-type hyperbolic exciton in InSe at ?2.54 eV through discrete incident laser photon energies. The pressure coefficients of the phonon modes and of the hyperbolic exciton in InSe have been determined.

In-Hwan Choi and Peter Y. Yu

2003-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

154

The growth of CdTe/GaAs heteroepitaxial films by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A process for the growth of CdTe/GaAs heteroepitaxialfilms using metal–organic chemical vapor deposition(MOCVD) has been developed. The initial results of the determination of the deposition mechanism are reported. A pilot production demonstration using experimentally determined operating conditions has been completed. This is the first reported pilot production of CdTe/GaAs using 2 in. diam GaAs substrates in a multiple slice commercially manufactured MOCVD system. The results reported therein demonstrate that MOCVD is a reliable reproducible production worthy process for preparation of CdTe/GaAs heterostructures. These results are applicable to a wide variety of CdTe based device technologies including IR detection fiber optics solar cells and others.

Philip L. Anderson

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Distributed Porosity as a Control Parameter for Oxide Thermal Barriers Made by Physical Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Anthony G. Evans* Materials Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 Thermal barrier and generating new thermal resistance solutions, as appropri- ate. A continuum heat flow analysis is usedDistributed Porosity as a Control Parameter for Oxide Thermal Barriers Made by Physical Vapor

Wadley, Haydn

156

Semi-insulating crystalline silicon formed by oxygen doping during low-temperature chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Semi-insulating crystalline silicon formed by oxygen doping during low-temperature chemical vapor) In this letter we demonstrate the use of oxygen as a dopant in silicon to create semi-insulating, crystalline of the films exhibit classical characteristics of space-charge-limited current associated with insulators

157

The Transport and Deposition of Dioxin to Lake Michigan: A Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Transport and Deposition of Dioxin to Lake Michigan: A Case Study Dr. Mark Cohen NOAA Air and Deposition of Dioxin to Lake Michigan: A Case Study Presentation Outline Ã?Ã? Policy Making Context Need to Know It? Ã?Ã? Atmospheric Deposition of Dioxin to Lake Michigan Ã?Ã? Uncertainty Analysis Ã?Ã?

158

Vapor-transport growth of high optical quality WSe{sub 2} monolayers  

SciTech Connect

Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides are atomically thin direct-gap semiconductors that show a variety of novel electronic and optical properties with an optically accessible valley degree of freedom. While they are ideal materials for developing optical-driven valleytronics, the restrictions of exfoliated samples have limited exploration of their potential. Here, we present a physical vapor transport growth method for triangular WSe{sub 2} sheets of up to 30 ?m in edge length on insulating SiO{sub 2} substrates. Characterization using atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy reveals that they are uniform, monolayer crystals. Low temperature photoluminescence shows well resolved and electrically tunable excitonic features similar to those in exfoliated samples, with substantial valley polarization and valley coherence. The monolayers grown using this method are therefore of high enough optical quality for routine use in the investigation of optoelectronics and valleytronics.

Clark, Genevieve [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Wu, Sanfeng; Rivera, Pasqual; Finney, Joseph; Nguyen, Paul; Cobden, David H. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Xu, Xiaodong, E-mail: xuxd@uw.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Laser photochemical growth of amorphous silicon at low temperatures and comparison with thermal chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

Pulsed ArF (193 nm) excimer laser radiation has been used to dissociate disilane (Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/, resulting in photochemically controlled deposition of amorphous Si thin films. A high stability HeNe (6328 A) laser was used for precise in situ monitoring of film deposition rates, under varying deposition conditions. A helium window purge nearly eliminated Si film deposition on the chamber windows. With the excimer laser beam parallel to the substrate, deposition of amorphous Si can be controlled entirely by the photon fluence (negligible background thermal growth) at temperatures from room temperature up to /approximately/400/degree/C. Reasonable photolytic deposition rate (>1 A/sec) are combined with 'digital' control of film thickness (/approx gt/0.02 A/laser pulse). Activation energies of 1.50 (+-0.1) eV and 0.09 (+-0.02) eV were found for pyrolytic and photolytic deposition, respectively. 15 refs., 3 figs.

Eres, D.; Lowndes, D.H.; Geohegan, D.B.; Mashburn, D.N.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Solar-Grade Silicon from Metallurgical-Grade Silicon Via Iodine Chemical Vapor Transport Purification: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This conference paper describes the atmospheric-pressure in an ''open'' reactor, SiI2 transfers from a hot (>1100C) Si source to a cooler (>750C) Si substrate and decomposes easily via 2SiI2 Si+ SiI4 with up to 5?m/min deposition rate. SiI4 returns to cyclically transport more Si. When the source is metallurgical-grade Si, impurities can be effectively removed by three mechanisms: (1) differing free energies of formation in forming silicon and impurity iodides; (2) distillation; and (3) differing standard free energies of formation during deposition. Distillation has been previously reported. Here, we focused on mechanisms (1) and (3). We made feedstock, analyzed the impurity levels, grew Czochralski single crystals, and evaluated crystal and photovoltaic properties. Cell efficiencies of 9.5% were obtained. Incorporating distillation (step 2) should increase this to a viable level.

Ciszek, T. F.; Wang, T. H.; Page, M. R.; Bauer, R. E.; Landry, M. D.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor transport deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Si deposition rates in a two-dimensional CVD (chemical vapor deposition) reactor and comparisons with model calculations  

SciTech Connect

Deposition rates are presented for silicon from silane in a helium carrier gas using a tubular CVD reactor with a two-dimensional flow geometry. Measured surface-temperature profiles, inlet gas velocities, total pressures, and silane/helium concentrations are reported, providing exact boundary conditions that can be used in a two-dimensional numerical CVD model. Comparisons are made between this data and two variations of a model by Coltrin, Kee, and Miller in which different empirical expressions for the silane and disilane reactive sticking coefficient are used.

Breiland, W.G.; Coltrin, M.E.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Atomic-level investigation of the growth of Si/Ge by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

Si and Ge films can be prepared under ultrahigh vacuum conditions by chemical vapor deposition using disilane and digermane as source gases. These gases offer a high sticking probability, and are suitable for atomic layer epitaxy. Using synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy, we have examined the surface processes associated with the heteroepitaxial growth of Ge/Si. The measured surface-induced shifts and chemical shifts of the Si 2p and Ge 3d core levels allow us to identify the surface species and to determine the surface chemical composition, and this information is correlated with the atomic features observed by scanning tunneling microscopy. Issues related to precursor dissociation, attachment to dangling bonds, diffusion, surface segregation, growth morphology, and pyrolytic reaction pathways will be discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Vacuum Society.}

Lin, D. [Institute of Physics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, Republic of (China)] [Institute of Physics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, Republic of (China); Miller, T.; Chiang, T. [Department of Physics and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Epitaxial growth of CdTe thin film on cube-textured Ni by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

CdTe thin film has been grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on Ni(100) substrate. Using x-ray pole figure measurements we observed the epitaxial relationship of {111}CdTe// {001}Ni with [110]CdTe//[010]Ni and [112] CdTe//[100]Ni. The 12 diffraction peaks in the (111) pole figure of CdTe film and their relative positions with respect to the four peak positions in the (111) pole figure of Ni substrate are consistent with four equivalent orientational domains of CdTe with three to four superlattice match of about 0.7% in the [110] direction of CdTe and the [010] direction of Ni. The electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) images show that the CdTe domains are 30 degrees orientated from each other.

GIARE, C [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); RAO, S [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); RILEY, M [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); CHEN, L [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Goyal, Amit [ORNL; BHAT, I [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); LU, T [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); WANG, G [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Photoluminescence microscopy of carbon nanotubes grown by chemical vapor deposition: Influence of external dielectric screening on optical transition energies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Photoluminescence (PL) laser microscopy was applied to determine optical transition energies E11 and E22 of individual semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) suspended on top of carbon nanotube “forests,” grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on silicon substrates. A uniform increase of E11 and E22 energies by 40–55 and 24–48meV, respectively, was found for 19 different (n,m) nanotube species suspended in air or a vacuum—relative to SWNTs in a reference water-surfactant dispersion. CVD-grown SWNTs embedded in paraffin oil and 1-methylnaphthalene show nearly the same PL peak positions as SWNTs in aqueous dispersion, indicating similar dielectric screening of excitons in SWNTs in these media.

Oliver Kiowski; Sergei Lebedkin; Frank Hennrich; Sharali Malik; Harald Rösner; Katharina Arnold; Christoph Sürgers; Manfred M. Kappes

2007-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

165

Amorphous-Silicon Thin-Film Transistors Using Chemical Vapor Deposition of Disilane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Amorphous silicon layers have been deposited by low pressure chemical vapour deposition at 450°C using disilane as the only source gas. Simple inverted staggered thin-film transistors were made with thermal silicon dioxide as the gate insulator. Field-effect mobilities for electrons and holes were 1.4 cm2/V s and 0.1 cm2/V s, respectively. In order to obtain these high mobilities the transistor structures were carefully annealed in a hydrogen-radical rich ambient.

Paul A. Breddels; Hiroshi Kanoh; Osamu Sugiura; Masakiyo Matsumura

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Designing Turbine Endwalls for Deposition Resistance with 1,400 °C Combustor Exit Temperatures and Syngas Water Vapor Levels„The Ohio State University  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Designing Turbine Endwalls for Designing Turbine Endwalls for Deposition Resistance with 1,400 °C Combustor Exit Temperatures and Syngas Water Vapor Levels-The Ohio State University Background This University Turbine Systems Research (UTSR) project will explore a critical need for innovative turbine endwall designs that could increase turbine durability and mitigate the adverse effects of residue deposition from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). The Ohio State University (OSU), in cooperation with Brigham Young University (BYU),

167

Performance and analysis of amorphous silicon p-i-n solar cells made by chemical-vapor deposition from disilane  

SciTech Connect

The photovoltaic performance of amorphous silicon p-i-n solar cells made by chemical-vapor deposition (CVD) from disilane is reported and analyzed. Intrinsic layers were deposited at rates from 0.2 to 50 A/s at temperatures from 380 to 460 /sup 0/C with and without boron doping. Device performance was insensitive to substantial differences in disilane purity. A cell efficiency of 4% was achieved. The primary limitation to higher efficiency was low fill factor (<50%) due to high series resistance (>18 ..cap omega.. cm/sup 2/). Analysis of the series resistance indicated a contact-related resistance of 4--12 ..cap omega.. cm/sup 2/ and a photoconductive resistance composed of intrinsic layer thickness-independent (10 ..cap omega.. cm/sup 2/) and thickness-dependent terms. Analysis of the voltage dependence of the current collection indicated a fill factor of 60% would be expected in the absence of series resistance. The maximum short-circuit current of 12.5 mA/cm/sup 2/ (normalized to 100 mW/cm/sup 2/) resulted with a boron-doped i layer deposited at 440 /sup 0/C at 3.3 A/s. Modeling of the collection efficiency indicated collection widths up to 0.33 ..mu..m for boron-doped and 0.24 ..mu..m for undoped p-i-n devices. In order to achieve high-efficiency cells using CVD from disilane, the limitations imposed by low photoconductivity, a high density of states, and restricted cell design imposed by the high deposition temperatures would have to be overcome.

Hegedus, S.S.; Rocheleau, R.E.; Buchanan, W.; Baron, B.N.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Pulsed chemical vapor deposition of Cu{sub 2}S into a porous TiO{sub 2} matrix  

SciTech Connect

Chalcocite (Cu{sub 2}S) has been deposited via pulsed chemical vapor deposition (PCVD) into a porous TiO{sub 2} matrix using hydrogen sulfide and a metal-organic precursor. The precursor used is similar to the more common Cu(hfac)(tmvs) precursor, but it is fluorine free and exhibits increased thermal stability. The simultaneous exposure of the substrate to the copper precursor and hydrogen sulfide resulted in nonuniform Cu{sub 2}S films with a temperature independent deposition rate implying gas phase reaction kinetics. The exposure of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} and planar ZnO to alternating cycles of the copper precursor and hydrogen sulfide resulted in a PCVD film that penetrated fully into the porous TiO{sub 2} layer with a constant deposition rate of 0.08 nm/cycle over a temperature range of 150-400 deg. C The chalcocite (Cu{sub 2}S) stoichiometry was confirmed with extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements (EXAFS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Calculations of the EXAFS spectrum for different Cu{sub x}S phases show that EXAFS is sensitive to the different phase stoichiometries. Optical absorption measurements of CVD thin films using photothermal deflection spectroscopy show the presence of a metallic copper-poor phase for gas phase nucleated films less than 100 nm thick and a copper-rich semiconducting phase for thicknesses greater than 100 nm with a direct band gap of 1.8 eV and an indirect bandgap of 1.2 eV.

Carbone, I.; Zhou, Q.; Vollbrecht, B.; Yang, L.; Medling, S.; Bezryadina, A.; Bridges, F.; Alers, G. B.; Norman, J. T.; Kinmen, T. [Department of Physics, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Air Products Inc., 1969 Palomar Oaks Way, Carlsbad, California 92011 (United States); Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

169

Thermal Stability and Substitutional Carbon Incorporation far above Solid-Solubility in Si1-xCx and Si1-x-yGexCy Layers Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cx and Si1-x-yGexCy Layers Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition using Disilane M. S. Carroll*, J. C. Sturm on (100) silicon substrates by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) with disilane source gas and disilane is known to produce higher silicon epitaxial growth rates for similar partial

170

The Progress on Low-Cost, High-Quality, High-Temperature Superconducting Tapes Deposited by the Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition Process  

SciTech Connect

The innovative Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition (CCVD) process is a non-vacuum technique that is being investigated to enable next generation products in several application areas including high-temperature superconductors (HTS). In combination with the Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrate (RABiTS) technology, the CCVD process has significant promise to provide low-cost, high-quality lengths of YBCO coated conductor. Over 100 meter lengths of both Ni and Ni-W (3 at. Wt.%) substrates with a surface roughness of 12-18 nm were produced. The CCVD technology has been used to deposit both buffer layer coatings as well as YBCO superconducting layers. Buffer layer architecture of strontium titanate (SrTiO{sub 3}) and ceria (CeO{sub 2}) have been deposited by CCVD on textured nickel substrates and optimized to appropriate thicknesses and microstructures to provide templates for growing PLD YBCO with a J{sub c} of 1.1 MA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K and self-field. The CCVD buffer layers have been scaled to meter plus lengths with good epitaxial uniformity along the length. A short sample cut from one of the lengths enabled high critical current density PLD YBCO. Films of CCVD YBCO superconductors have been grown on single crystal substrates with critical current densities over 1 MA/cm{sup 2}. In addition, superconducting YBCO films with an I{sub c} of 60 A/cm-width (J{sub c} = 1.5 MA/cm{sup 2}) were grown on ORNL RABiTS (CeO{sub 2}/YSZ/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ni/Ni-3W) using CCVD process.

Shoup, S.S.; White, M.K.; Krebs, S.L.; Darnell, N.; King, A.C.; Mattox, D.S.; Campbell, I.H.; Marken, K.R.; Hong, S.; Czabaj, B.; Paranthaman, M.; Christen, H.M.; Zhai, H.-Y. Specht, E.

2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

171

Implications of the toxicity of tetramethyltin, dimethyl tin dichloride, and tin tetrachloride in selecting a suitable tin precursor in the chemical vapor deposition of tin oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Potential health hazards in the chemical vapor deposition of tin oxide films from tetramethylin dimethylin dichloride and tin tetrachloride have to be balanced against the benefits to solar cell fabrication. Concerns regarding the toxicity costs and physical properties of and the quality of the tin oxide films produced with these tin precursors are outlined. (AIP)

Roy G. Gordon; James W. Prescia

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Surface roughening in low-pressure chemical vapor deposition Jason T. Drotar, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Surface roughening in low-pressure chemical vapor deposition Jason T. Drotar, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu September 2001 We examine, using (2 1)-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations, the roughening behavior roughens logarithmically with time and that the scaling exponents are, for most sets of conditions, close

Wang, Gwo-Ching

173

Optimization of the Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesis of Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes on FeCo(Ni)/SiO2 Aerogel Catalysts by Statistical Design of Experiments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on optimizing the catalytic chemical vapor deposition synthesis of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) from ethene over supported transition metal SiO2 nanocomposite aerogels using the statistical design of experiments (DOE) approach. ... The NIST/SEMATECH e-Handbook of Statistical Methods, http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/ is acknowledged for DoE-related information. ...

László Vanyorek; Danilo Loche; Hajnalka Katona; Maria Francesca Casula; Anna Corrias; Zoltán Kónya; Ákos Kukovecz; Imre Kiricsi

2011-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

174

Chemical vapor deposition of amorphous semiconductor films. Semiannual report, 1 May 1983-31 October 1984  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an analysis of intrinsic and phosphorus-doped n-type amorphous silicon films deposited by LPCVD from disilane in a laminar flow tubular reactor. These films were analyzed using SIMs, ESR measurements, optical absorption, and conductivity in light and dark. CVD deposited i layers were used to make platinum Schottky barrier devices and hybrid cells utilizing glow discharge deposited layers in both the ITO/nip/Mo and ITO/pin/Mo configurations. The highest efficiency of hybrid cells with the ITO/ni(CVD)/p(GD)/Mo structure was approximately 1.5%. The highest efficiencies were obtained with thin i layers. The highest efficiency for the ITO/p(GD)/in(CVD)/Mo configuration was 4.0%. A chemical model was developed describing the gas phase reactions and film growth; the model quantitatively describes the effluent composition when the measured growth rate is input. Kinetic rate expressions and constants for growth from higher silanes are being determined for a wide range of reaction conditions.

Not Available

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

The Vapor Deposition and Oxidation of Platinum-and Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Multilayers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rates by disrupting thermal transport processes. Novel metal­ceramic multilayer's combining thin metal layers with low thermal conductivity oxide ceramics offer a potential approach for impeding both­200-mm-thick low thermal conductivity ceramic outer layer (the top coat), a 10­20-mm-thick, aluminum

Wadley, Haydn

176

The Transport and Deposition of Dioxin to Lake Michigan: A Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are the consequences of this exposure? An analysis and discussion of the effects of dioxin contamination in LakeThe Transport and Deposition of Dioxin to Lake Michigan: A Case Study Mark Cohen NOAA Air Resources, data on the atmospheric deposition of dioxin to Lake Michigan are presented and discussed. Included

177

Step-coverage simulation for tetraethoxysilane and ozone atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

A simulation model for atmospheric pressure (AP) CVD has bee developed using one-dimensional diffusion and mass conservation equations. The model was applied to trench step-coverage of the tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and O[sub 3] CVD, in which it was not necessary to consider lateral diffusion because of narrow (and deep) trenches. For nondoped silicate glass (NSG), the step-coverage of a 4.5 aspect ratio trench showed a good fit if a sticking probability of 0.0039 was assumed for the 0.6% ozone (in oxygen) deposition and of 0.0026 for the 6% ozone deposition (both 400 C). The reaction rate constant was compared with the diffusion mass-transfer coefficient, and the reaction proved to be limited by diffusion of the reactant, TEOS, which directly participated in the CVD reaction. For the 2 m/o phosphosilicate glass (PSG) step-coverage, which had a slight overhang, the model matched the obtained results well only when an active growth species with a high sticking probability of 1.0 was added to the growth species of nondoped oxide. This analytical simulation method satisfactorily explains the experimental data.

Fujino, K. (Semiconductor Process Lab., Toyko (Japan)); Egashira, Y.; Shimogaki, Y.; Komiyama, H. (Univ. of Tokyo, (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Ten Years of Measurements of Tropical Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor by MOZAIC. Part I: Climatology, Variability, Transport, and Relation to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). 1. Introduction Water vapor is the key atmosphericTen Years of Measurements of Tropical Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor by MOZAIC. Part I: Climatology, Variability, Transport, and Relation to Deep Convection ZHENGZHAO LUO, DIETER KLEY,* AND RICHARD H. JOHNSON

Lombardi, John R.

179

SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION IN THE OK TEDI-FLY RIVER SYSTEM, PAPUA NEW GUINEA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION IN THE OK TEDI-FLY RIVER SYSTEM, PAPUA NEW GUINEA: THE MODELING. This sediment flows from the Ok Tedi to the Fly River, eventually reaching the Gulf of Papua. This document River. The second author of this report has been served as the sediment transport consultant for Ok Tedi

Parker, Gary

180

Identifying eroding and depositional reaches of valley by analysis of suspended sediment transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Identifying eroding and depositional reaches of valley by analysis of suspended sediment transport in suspended sediment transport and storage along the Sacramento River were assessed by evaluating the suspended sediment budget for the main channel accounting for all tributaries and diversions. Time series

Singer, Michael

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor transport deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Diameter and wall number control of carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the relationship between the average wall number (N) and the diameter (d) for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) grown by chemical vapour deposition. It is found that N depends linearly on d for diameters in the range of 2.5–10?nm, while single wall nanotubes predominate for diameters under about 2.1?nm. The linear relationship is found to depend somewhat on the growth conditions. It is also verified that the mean diameter depends on the diameter of the originating catalyst nanoparticle, and thus on the initial catalyst thickness where a thin film catalyst is used. This simplifies the characterisation of CNTs by electron microscopy. We also find a linear relationship between nanotube diameter and initial catalyst film thickness.

Xie, Rongsi; Zhong, Guofang, E-mail: gz222@cam.ac.uk; Zhang, Can; Chen, Bingan; Santiago Esconjauregui, C.; Robertson, John [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

182

Plasma-enriched chemical vapor deposition of silicon nitride on silicon carbide fibers  

SciTech Connect

Near stoichiometric Si:N coatings were deposited by means of PECVD on SCS-6 SiC fibers which contained a carbon-rich coating. Weight loss associated with oxidation of the outer carbon-rich coating of the as-received SiC fibers was greatly reduced for the Si:N coated SiC fibers even after 10 h heat-treatment in oxygen at 800{degrees}C. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) was used to obtain elemental compositions of the as-received and Si:N coated SiC fibers after heat-treatment. Negligible amounts of oxygen were found at the carbon-rich coating of the heat-treated Si:N coated SiC fiber. These results clearly prove the effectiveness of PECVD silicon nitride coating as an oxygen diffusion barrier.

Stinespring, C.D.; Collazos, D.F.; Gupta, R.K. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

183

In-situ observations during chemical vapor deposition of hexagonal boron nitride on polycrystalline copper  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-characterised the Cu catalyst exposed to ammonia (NH3, i.e. a nitrogen and hydrogen source without B) instead of borazine under similar pressures. For this ammonia exposure no expansion in the Cu lattice constant is found. As ammonia is known to dissociate on Cu... 1s (Figure 5a,b,c) and valence band (Supporting Figure S4) regions.12 We find that before CVD the as loaded Cu foil surface is heavily oxidized due to storage and transportation in ambient air (before step 1).12 Following an anneal (step 2) in H2...

Kidambi, Piran R.; Blume, Raoul; Kling, Jens; Wagner, Jakob B.; Baehtz, Carsten; Weatherup, Robert S.; Schlögl, Robert; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Hofmann, Stephan

2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

184

The Experimental Study on the Wax-Deposit Law in High-Pour-Point Crude Oi1 Transportation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High pour point properties of crude oil are generally due to the high wax content, so the study of the laws and the characteristics of wax deposition are significant for taking steps to save energy and transport safely. For the wax deposition of high ... Keywords: pipeline transportation, high-pour-point waxy crude, wax deposition law, DSC, experimental study

Wang Zhihua; Si Minglin; Wang Jinxiu; Li Jungang

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Laser-induced fluorescence measurements and kinetic analysis of Si atom formation in a rotating disk chemical vapor deposition reactor  

SciTech Connect

An extensive set of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements of Si atoms during the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of silicon from silane and disilane in a research rotating disk reactor are presented. The experimental results are compared in detail with predictions from a numerical model of CVD from silane and disilane that treats the fluid flow coupled to gas-phase and gas-surface chemistry. The comparisons showed that the unimolecular decomposition of SiH[sub 2] could not account for the observed gas-phase Si atom density profiles. The H[sub 3]SiSiH [leftrightarrow] Si + SiH[sub 4] and H[sub 3]SiSiH + SiH[sub 2] [leftrightarrow] Si + Si[sub 2]H[sub 6] reactions are proposed as the primary Si atom production routes. The model is in good agreement with the measured shapes of the Si atom profiles and the trends in Si atom density with susceptor temperature, pressure, and reactant gas mixture. 33 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

Ho, P.; Coltrin, M.E.; Breiland, W.G. (Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1994-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

186

The Effect of High Temperature Annealing on the Grain Characteristics of a Thin Chemical Vapor Deposition Silicon Carbide Layer.  

SciTech Connect

The unique combination of thermo-mechanical and physiochemical properties of silicon carbide (SiC) provides interest and opportunity for its use in nuclear applications. One of the applications of SiC is as a very thin layer in the TRi-ISOtropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles for high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs). This SiC layer, produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), is designed to withstand the pressures of fission and transmutation product gases in a high temperature, radiation environment. Various researchers have demonstrated that macroscopic properties can be affected by changes in the distribution of grain boundary plane orientations and misorientations [1 - 3]. Additionally, various researchers have attributed the release behavior of Ag through the SiC layer as a grain boundary diffusion phenomenon [4 - 6]; further highlighting the importance of understanding the actual grain characteristics of the SiC layer. Both historic HTGR fission product release studies and recent experiments at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) [7] have shown that the release of Ag-110m is strongly temperature dependent. Although the maximum normal operating fuel temperature of a HTGR design is in the range of 1000-1250°C, the temperature may reach 1600°C under postulated accident conditions. The aim of this specific study is therefore to determine the magnitude of temperature dependence on SiC grain characteristics, expanding upon initial studies by Van Rooyen et al, [8; 9].

Isabella J van Rooyen; Philippus M van Rooyen; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Thermal treatment induced change of diluted oxygen doped ZnTe films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper the authors report the growth of diluted oxygen doped ZnTe films (ZnTe:O) by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The effect of a post thermal annealing on the properties of the highly mismatched films has been investigated. It is found that the in-situ doping leads to an effective incorporation of oxygen into ZnTe films with different occupation configurations either on Zn or on Te site. The subsequent annealing process in a vacuum ambient leads to an enhancement of the oxygen incorporation into the ZnTe:O films due to the diffusion of the residual oxygen while the annealing with the same as-grown sample covered on top of the surface (denoted as “face-to-face” annealing in the text) is beneficial to the improvement of the film quality with manifest intermediate band emission at around 1.9?eV as revealed by the low-temperature photoluminescence. This study indicates that the mass-productive MOCVD technique may be suitable for the growth of highly mismatched ZnTe:O films for the application of the intermediate band solar cell.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Activity and Evolution of Vapor Deposited Pt-Pd Oxygen Reduction Catalysts for Solid Acid Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

The performance of hydrogen fuel cells based on the crystalline solid proton conductor CsH2PO4 is circumscribed by the mass activity of platinum oxygen reduction catalysts in the cathode. Here we report on the first application of an alloy catalyst in a solid acid fuel cell, and demonstrate an activity 4.5 times greater than Pt at 0.8 V. These activity enhancements were obtained with platinum-palladium alloys that were vapor-deposited directly on CsH2PO4 at 210 C. Catalyst mass activity peaks at a composition of 84 at% Pd, though smaller activity enhancements are observed for catalyst compositions exceeding 50 at% Pd. Prior to fuel cell testing, Pd-rich catalysts display lattice parameter expansions of up to 2% due to the presence of interstitial carbon. After fuel cell testing, a Pt-Pd solid solution absent of lattice dilatation and depleted in carbon is recovered. The structural evolution of the catalysts is correlated with catalyst de-activation.

Papandrew, Alexander B [ORNL; Chisholm, Calum R [ORNL; Zecevic, strahinja [LiOx, Inc., Pasadena, California 91106, United States; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Zawodzinski, Thomas A [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices prepared by chemical and photochemical vapor deposition of higher order silanes. Technical progress report, 1 September 1984-28 February 1985  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the preparation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films and photovoltaic devices by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from higher order silanes, and the properties of such films and devices. The research is directed at exploring new, improved deposition techniques to produce a-Si:H. The improvement could stem from ease of deposition (lower cost and/or better reproducibility), from material improvement (higher efficiency and/or better stability under illumination), or from innovative materials that improve device performance. Research efforts have focused, therefore, on photo-CVD techniques; thermal CVD has been emphasized. This report summarizes the properties of the experimental thermal CVD films and the reasons for terminating the research in this area. In addition, the results for deposition by mercury-sensitized decomposition of disilane are presented. These results indicate that this technique is a very promising alternative to the glow-discharge method.

Delahoy, A.E.; Ellis, F.B. Jr.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices prepared by chemical and photochemical vapor deposition of higher order silanes. Annual subcontract progress report, 1 September 1984-31 August 1985  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the preparation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films and photovoltaic devices by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from higher order silanes and the properties of such films and devices. The research explored new deposition techniques that could produce a-Si:H superior to that achieved by the glow-discharge method. For example, the improvement could stem from ease of deposition (lower cost and/or better reproducibility), from material improvement (higher efficiency and/or better stability under illumination), or from innovative materials that improve device performance. Research focused on photo-CVD techniques; thermal CVD deemphasized. This report presents results for deposition by mercury-sensitized decomposition of disilane. These results indicate that this technique is a very promising alternative to the glow-discharge method.

Delahoy, A.E.; Ellis, F.B. Jr.

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Low-pressure chemical vapor deposition of amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices. Annual technical progress report, 1 May 1984-30 April 1985  

SciTech Connect

Intrinsic and doped a-Si:H films were deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for disilane. Intrinsic layers were deposited at growth rates as high as 50 A/s. A chemical reaction engineering model that quantitatively describes the CVD reactor behavior has been developed. CVD intrinsic material was characterized by measurements of impurities, optical band gap, photoconductivity, activation energy, diffusion length, and density of states. Photovoltaic cells of the p-i-n type with efficiencies of 4% and 3.6% were fabricated using CVD intrinsic layers deposited at 1 A/s and 9 A/s, respectively. A maximum short-circuit current of 11 mA/cm/sup 2/ under 87.5 MW/cm/sup 2/ ELH illumination was obtained with boron-compensated CVD intrinsic material. Efficiency-limiting mechanisms in CVD cells were quantitatively analyzed and related to fundamental properties.

Baron, B.N.; Rocheleau, R.E.; Hegedus, S.S.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Properties of chemical vapor deposited tungsten silicide films using reaction of WF/sub 6/ and Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/  

SciTech Connect

Tungsten silicide films were formed by the chemical vapor deposition method using the reaction WF/sub 6/ and Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/. The deposition rate, resistivity, composition, stress, crystal structure, and content of impurities were studied and compared with tungsten silicide films deposited by reaction of WF/sub 6/ and SiH/sub 4/. The tungsten silicide films made using Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/ have a higher deposition rate and higher Si concentration than those made by using SiH/sub 4/ at the same substrate temperature. For these reasons, the tungsten silicide films made by using Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/ were found to have a resistivity that is a little higher and, after annealing, a stress that is smaller than that made by SiH/sub 4/.

Shioya, Y.; Ikegami, K.; Kobayashi, I.; Maeda, M.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Shapes and surface textures of quartz sand grains from glacial deposits: effects of source and transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the degree MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1987 Major Subject: Geology SHAPES AND SURFACE TERTURES OF QUARTZ SAND GRAINS FROM GLACIAL DEPOSITS: EFFECTS OF SOURCE AND TRANSPORT A Thesis by CHRISTINE RITTER Approved as to style and content by; James zzullo... (Chairman of Committee) Thomas T. Tieh (Member) Louis E. Garrison (Member) Gail M. Ashley (Member) ohn H. Spa (He d of Department) December 1987 ABSTRACT Shapes and Surface Textures of Quartz Sand Grains From Glacial Deposits: Effects of Source...

Ritter, Christine

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

194

Calibrated vapor generator source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

1995-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

195

Epitaxial growth of Si1 ? xGex alloys and Ge on Si(100) by electron-cyclotron-resonance Ar plasma chemical vapor deposition without substrate heating  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract By using electron-cyclotron-resonance (ECR) Ar-plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) without substrate heating, the epitaxial growth process of Si1 ? xGex alloy and Ge films deposited directly on dilute-HF-treated Si(100) was investigated. From the reflection high energy electron diffraction patterns of the deposited Si1 ? xGex alloy (x = 0.50, 0.75) and Ge films on Si(100), it is confirmed that epitaxial growth can be realized without substrate heating, and that crystallinity degradation at larger film thickness is observed. The X-ray diffraction peak of the epitaxial films reveals the existence of large compressive strain, which is induced by lattice matching with the Si(100) substrate at smaller film thicknesses, as well as strain relaxation behavior at larger film thicknesses. The Ge fraction of Si1 ? xGex thin film is in good agreement with the normalized GeH4 partial pressure. The Si1 ? xGex deposition rate increases with an increase of GeH4 partial pressure. The GeH4 partial pressure dependence of partial deposition rates [(Si or Ge fraction) × (Si1 ? xGex thickness) / (deposition time)] shows that the Si partial deposition rate is slightly enhanced by the existence of Ge. From these results, it is proposed that the ECR-plasma CVD process can be utilized for Ge fraction control in highly-strained heterostructure formation of group IV semiconductors.

Naofumi Ueno; Masao Sakuraba; Junichi Murota; Shigeo Sato

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Hydrothermal transport and deposition of the rare earth elements by fluorine-bearing aqueous liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ARTICLE Hydrothermal transport and deposition of the rare earth elements by fluorine environmental concerns, have created a great demand for the rare earth elements (REE), and focused considerable Hydrothermal concentration of the rare earth elements (REE) to economic and potentially economic levels has

197

Mass-transport deposits on the Algerian margin (Algiers area): morphology, lithology and sedimentary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: On 21st May 2003, a damaging earthquake of Mw: 6.9 struck the region of Boumerdès 40 km east. Keywords: Algeria, mass-transport deposit, morphology, triggering mechanism. 1. Introduction The Algerian-25Mar2010 Author manuscript, published in "4th International Symposium, Austin : United States (2009

Boyer, Edmond

198

An in situ investigation of Si[sub x]Ge[sub 1-x] chemical vapor deposition by differential reflectance  

SciTech Connect

An investigation of the surface kinetic processes of low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) of Si, Ge, and Si[sub x]Ge[sub 1[minus]x] was carried out using time-resolved differential reflectance measurements. The source gas (disilane, digermane, or mixtures of these two diluted in a helium carrier) was delivered to a heated substrate by a fast-acting modulated molecular jet valve. Thin film growth was studied in the range of 400-500[degrees]C on Si and Ge (001) substrates. The kinetics of chemisorption and of by-product desorption were determined from the surface differential reflectance signal obtained using p-polarized, high-stability HeNe probe laser. Both chemisorption and by-product desorption were fond to obey first-order kinetics. Chemisorption of the parent molecules was found to be relatively efficient and weakly temperature dependent. For pure Si and Ge, by-product desorption occurred through a single first-order reaction. Two first-order desorption steps were inferred for the Si[sub x]Ge[sub 1[minus]x] alloy surfaces. These reactions are believed to be H[sub 2] desorption from Si-like and Ge-like surface sites. However, the activation energy of the more rapid of these two steps actually decreases as the Si content of the film increases. Generally, the films were of high crystalline quality and were very well aligned with the substrate. Preferential incorporation of digermane into the film produced an alloy composition that was Ge-rich relative to the gas composition. The primary accomplishment of this work is the demonstration that the active surface layer of the Si[sub x]Ge[sub 1[minus]x] system can be monitored in situ by an optical probe under typical LPCVD conditions. The results indicate that the rate-limiting step in Si or Ge LPCVD obeys simple first-order kinetics. Further work is needed to understand fully the rate-limiting surface reaction in Si[sub x]Ge[sub 1[minus]x] LPCVD.

Sharp, J.W.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Development of nanodiamond foils for H- stripping to Support the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) using hot filament chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

Thin diamond foils are needed in many particle accelerator experiments regarding nuclear and atomic physics, as well as in some interdisciplinary research. Particularly, nanodiamond texture is attractive for this purpose as it possesses a unique combination of diamond properties such as high thermal conductivity, mechanical strength and high radiation hardness; therefore, it is a potential material for energetic ion beam stripper foils. At the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), the installed set of foils must be able to survive a nominal five-month operation period, without the need for unscheduled costly shutdowns and repairs. Thus, a small foil about the size of a postage stamp is critical to the operation of SNS and similar sources in U.S. laboratories and around the world. We are investigating nanocrystalline, polycrystalline and their admixture films fabricated using a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system for H- stripping to support the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Here we discuss optimization of process variables such as substrate temperature, process gas ratio of H2/Ar/CH4, substrate to filament distance, filament temperature, carburization conditions, and filament geometry to achieve high purity diamond foils on patterned silicon substrates with manageable intrinsic and thermal stresses so that they can be released as free standing foils without curling. An in situ laser reflectance interferometry tool (LRI) is used for monitoring the growth characteristics of the diamond thin film materials. The optimization process has yielded free standing foils with no pinholes. The sp3/sp2 bonds are controlled to optimize electrical resistivity to reduce the possibility of surface charging of the foils. The integrated LRI and HFCVD process provides real time information on the growth of films and can quickly illustrate growth features and control film thickness. The results are discussed in the light of development of nanodiamond foils that will be able to withstand a few MW proton beam and hopefully will be able to be used after possible future upgrades to the SNS to greater than a 3MW beam.

Vispute, R D [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Ermer, Henry K [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Sinsky, Phillip [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Seiser, Andrew [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Shaw, Robert W [ORNL; Wilson, Leslie L [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 612 2000 Materials Research Society VOLATILE LIQUID PRECURSORS FOR THE CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. These tungsten oxide films can be used as part of electrochromic windows, mirrors or displays. Physical in microelectronics.5 CVD using both W(CO)6 vapor and oxygen gas, O2, has produced electrochromic films of tungsten

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor transport deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

The optimization of interfaces in InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattices grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

We have prepared InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattice (SLS) semiconductors by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) under a variety of conditions. Presence of an InGaAsSb interface layer is indicated by x-ray diffraction patterns. Optimized growth conditions involved the use of low pressure, short purge times, and no reactant flow during the purges. MOCVD was used to prepare an optically pumped, single heterostructure InAsSb/InGaAs SLS/InPSb laser which emitted at 3.9 {mu}m with a maximum operating temperature of approximately 100 K.

Biefeld, R.M.; Baucom, K.C.; Kurtz, S.R.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

202

Stress induced phase transition in Gd2O3 films by ion beam assisted reactive electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The structural evolution of thick polycrystalline gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) films deposited by reactive electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) is investigated. High deposition rates (> 5 Å/s) lead to the growth of mixed phase films which are of the cubic phase near the film/substrate interface before forming monoclinic phase as distance from the interface increases. By decreasing the deposition rate to phase. The growth of the thermodynamically stable cubic phase under these conditions is attributed to both higher surface mobility of the adatoms during growth and to increased tensile stress within the film. Ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) was then performed to introduce compressive stress into the film resulting in the formation of the monoclinic phase. Wafer curvature, X-ray diffraction, confocal Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy are utilized to characterize the film and present evidence for the existence of a stress-induced phase transition in the Gd2O3 films.

Daniel A. Grave; Michael P. Schmitt; Joshua A. Robinson; Douglas E. Wolfe

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

The relationship between structural evolution and electrical percolation of the initial stages of tungsten chemical vapor deposition on polycrystalline TiN  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents experimental results and a geometric model of the evolution of sheet resistance and surface morphology during the transition from nucleation to percolation of tungsten chemical vapor deposition over ultrathin polycrystalline titanium nitride (TiN). We observed two mechanisms of reduction in sheet resistance. At deposition temperatures higher than 310 deg. C, percolation effect is formed at {approx}35% of surface coverage, {theta}, and characterized with a sharp drop in resistance. At temperature below 310 deg. C, a reduction in resistance occurs in two steps. The first step occurs when {theta} = 35% and the second step at {theta} = 85%. We suggest a geometric model in which the electrical percolation pass is modulated by the thickness threshold of the islands at the instant of collision.

Rozenblat, A. [Micron Semiconductors Israel Ltd., Qiryat-Gat 82109 (Israel); Department of Physical Electronics, Electrical Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Haimson, S. [Material Science Program, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Shacham-Diamand, Y. [Department of Physical Electronics, Electrical Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Horvitz, D. [Micron Semiconductors Israel Ltd., Qiryat-Gat 82109 (Israel)

2012-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

204

Low-band-gap, amorphous-silicon-based alloys by chemical vapor deposition: Annual subcontract report, 1 October 1985-31 January 1986  

SciTech Connect

This research was conducted to determine the potential of photochemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD) for producing high-quality, low-band-gap amorphous silicon germanium alloys for use in high-efficiency, multijunction, thin-film photovoltaic solar cells. A photo-CVD reactor for mercury-sensitized photolysis of silane-germane and disilane-germane mixtures was developed. Alloy thin films of undoped a-Si/sub 1-x/Ge/sub x/:H were deposited using mercury vapor mixed with SiH/sub 4/ or Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/, GeH/sub 4/, and diluent gas of Ar, He, or H/sub 2/. Materials properties were characterized by measurements of Ge content, optical transmission and reflection, and dark and photo-conductivity. Opto-electronic properties of photo-CVD a-Si/sub 1-x/Ge/sub x/:H were found to be comparable to glow discharge and sputtered materials. Moreover, p-i-n solar cells with low-band-gap i-layers were able to be fabricated by photo-CVD.

Baron, B.N.; Jackson, S.C.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Synthesis of carbon nanotubes on diamond-like carbon by the hot filament plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by laser ablation of carbon rods, direct current arc-discharge between electrodes, or by chemical vapor emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high resolution transmission scanning electron micro- scopy natural oxide. The synthesis of the DLC films was carried out using 13.56 MHz RF-PECVD. Prior to the DLC

Hong, Byungyou

206

Diode-laser-based atomic absorption monitor using frequency-modulation spectroscopy for physical vapor deposition process control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diode-laser-based atomic absorption monitor using frequency-modulation spectroscopy for physical, and the dynamic events occur- ring as vapors condense on a substrate. Atomic absorption AA spectroscopy also been measured by means of the Doppler frequency shifts of the atomic absorption with respect

Fejer, Martin M.

207

Use of SiBN and SiBON films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition from borazine as interconnection dielectrics  

SciTech Connect

Thin films of silicon boron nitride (SiBN) of typical composition Si{sub 0.09}B{sub 0.39}N{sub 0.51} and silicon boron oxynitride (SiBON) of typical composition Si{sub 0.16}B{sub 0.29}O{sub 0.41}N{sub 0.14} were prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and the properties of these films were evaluated with respect to their suitability as interconnection dielectrics in microelectronic fabrication. Films were deposited on 125 mm silicon substrates in a parallel-plate reactor at a substrate temperature of 400 C and a plasma power of 0.5 W/cm{sup 2}. Boron nitride, for comparison of electrical properties, was deposited from borazine (B{sub 3}N{sub 3}H{sub 6}); silicon boron nitride was deposited from borazine, disilane (Si{sub 2}H{sub 6}), and ammonia (NH{sub 3}); silicon boron oxynitride was deposited from borazine, disilane, ammonia, and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). Metal-insulator-metal capacitors were fabricated and electrical measurements indicated that all three films had excellent dielectric properties with dielectric constants of 4.1, 4.7, and 3.9 for BN, SiBN, and SiBON, respectively. Tests of conformality indicated that deposition into trenches with an aspect ratio of 4:1 gave conformality greater than 70%. Silicon boron oxynitride was shown to be an excellent barrier to the diffusion of copper. A planar, single level metal-insulator structure was constructed using a SiBN/SiBON insulator with copper metallization.

Kane, W.F.; Cohen, S.A.; Hummel, J.P.; Luther, B. [IBM Research Div., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). T.J. Watson Research Center; Beach, D.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Div.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Temporal evolution of pore geometry, fluid flow, and solute transport resulting from colloid deposition  

SciTech Connect

Deposition of colloidal particles is one of many processes that lead to the evolution of the structure of natural porous media in groundwater aquifers, oil reservoirs, and sediment beds. Understanding of the mechanisms and effects of this type of structural evolution has been limited by a lack of direct observations of pore structure. Here, synchrotron X-ray difference microtomography (XDMT) was used to resolve the temporal evolution of pore structure and the distribution of colloidal deposits within a granular porous medium. Column filtration experiments were performed to observe the deposition of relatively high concentrations of colloidal zirconia (200 mg/l of particles having diameter {approx}1 {micro}m) in a packed bed of glass beads (diameters 210-300 {micro}m). Noninvasive XDMT imaging of the pore structure was performed three separate times during each column experiment. The structural information observed at each time was used to define internal boundary conditions for three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann (LB) simulations that show how the evolving pore structure affects pore fluid flow and solute transport. While the total deposit mass increased continuously over time, colloid deposition was observed to be highly heterogeneous and local colloid detachment was observed at some locations in a low ionic strength medium. LB simulations indicated that particle accumulation greatly reduced the permeability of the porous medium while increasing the tortuosity. The colloidal deposits also increased the spatial variability in pore water velocities, leading to higher dispersion coefficients. Anomalous dispersion behavior was investigated by simulation at the scale of the experimental system: weak tailing was found in the clean bed case, and the extent of tailing greatly increased following colloid deposition because of the development of extensive no-flow regions. As a result of this coupling between pore fluid flow, colloid accumulation, and the pore geometry, colloid deposition is expected to strongly influence long-term solute dynamics in cases where solute transport is either accompanied by high colloid influx or where the passage of the solute front mobilizes and then redistributes material from the porous matrix.

Chen, Cheng; Lau, Boris L.; Gaillard, J.-F.; Packman, A.I.; (NWU)

2010-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

209

Low-band-gap, amorphous-silicon-based alloys by photochemical vapor deposition: Final report, 1 October 1985--30 November 1986  

SciTech Connect

Thin films of hydrogenated amorphous silicon-germanium alloys were deposited by mercury-sensitized photochemical vapor deposition using a novel photo-CVD reactor. Thin films of a-Si/sub 1-x/Ge/sub x/:H with 0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 1 and 1.0 less than E/sub g/ less than 1.8 eV were deposited from mixtures of silane and disilane with germane and inert gas diluents at substrate temperatures from 160/degree/ to 200/degree/C. Alloy films were characterized by measurements of photo- and dark conductivity, electron mobility-lifetime product, sub-band-gap absorption, and density of states. Dilution with hydrogen increased the photoconductivity to 10/sup /minus/5/ Scm and mobility-lifetime product to 6 /times/ 10/sup /minus/8/ cm/sup 2/V for alloys having a band gap of 1.4 eV.

Baron, B.N.; Hegedus, S.S.; Jackson, S.C.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Numerical modeling of mixed sediment resuspension, transport, and deposition during the March 1998 episodic events in southern Lake  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Numerical modeling of mixed sediment resuspension, transport, and deposition during the March 1998 2006; published 17 February 2007. [1] A two-dimensional sediment transport model capable of simulating sediment resuspension of mixed (cohesive plus noncohesive) sediment is developed and applied

211

Direct growth of few-layer graphene on 6H-SiC and 3C-SiC/Si via propane chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

We propose to grow graphene on SiC by a direct carbon feeding through propane flow in a chemical vapor deposition reactor. X-ray photoemission and low energy electron diffraction show that propane allows to grow few-layer graphene (FLG) on 6H-SiC(0001). Surprisingly, FLG grown on (0001) face presents a rotational disorder similar to that observed for FLG obtained by annealing on (000-1) face. Thanks to a reduced growth temperature with respect to the classical SiC annealing method, we have also grown FLG/3C-SiC/Si(111) in a single growth sequence. This opens the way for large-scale production of graphene-based devices on silicon substrate.

Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Portail, M. [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Ouerghi, A. [CNRS-LPN, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T. [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)

2010-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

212

Optimization of InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattice growth by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition for use in infrared emitters  

SciTech Connect

We have prepared InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattices (SLSs) by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition using a variety of growth conditions. Presence of an InGaAsSb interface layer was indicated by x-ray diffraction. This interface effect was minimized by optimizing the purge times, reactant flows, and growth conditions. The optimized growth conditions involved the use of low pressure, short purge times between the growth of the layers, and no reactant flow during the purges. Electron diffraction indicates that CuPt-type compositional ordering occurs in InAs{sub 1{minus}x}Sb{sub x} alloys and SLSs which explains an observed bandgap reduction from previously accepted alloy values.

Biefeld, R.M.; Baucom, K.C.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Kurtz, S.R.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Growth of High Aspect Ratio Nanometer-Scale Magnets with Chemical Vapor Deposition and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...50 pA). A contamination coating around a denser Fig. 4...deposit with the contamination coating is thus stable against oxidation...of nanoscale filaments and thin film nucleation and growth theory...Instruments-ARIS 5100 UHV-STM. 13. An optical microscope provides a view...

Andrew D. Kent; Thomas M. Shaw; Stephan von Molnár; David D. Awschalom

1993-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

214

The Growth of InGaAsN for High Efficiency Solar Cells by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition  

SciTech Connect

InGaAsN alloys are a promising material for increasing the efficiency of multi-junction solar cells now used for satellite power systems. However, the growth of these dilute N containing alloys has been challenging with further improvements in material quality needed before the solar cell higher efficiencies are realized. Nitrogen/V ratios exceeding 0.981 resulted in lower N incorporation and poor surface morphologies. The growth rate was found to depend on not only the total group III transport for a fixed N/V ratio but also on the N/V ratio. Carbon tetrachloride and dimethylzinc were effective for p-type doping. Disilane was not an effective n-type dopant while SiCl4 did result in n-type material but only a narrow range of electron concentrations (2-5e17cm{sup -3}) were achieved.

ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.; BANKS,JAMES C.; GEE,JAMES M.; JONES,ERIC D.; KURTZ,STEVEN R.

1999-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

215

Rapid assessment of mid-infrared refractive index anisotropy using a prism coupler: chemical vapor deposited ZnS  

SciTech Connect

A state-of-the-art mid-infrared prism coupler was used to study the refractive index properties of forward-looking-infrared (FLIR) grade zinc sulfide samples prepared with unique planar grain orientations and locations with respect to the CVD growth axis. This study was motivated by prior photoluminescence and x-ray diffraction measurements that suggested refractive index may vary according to grain orientation. Measurements were conducted to provide optical dispersion and thermal index (dn/dT) data at discrete laser wavelengths between 0.633 and 10.591 {mu}m at two temperature set points (30 C and 90 C). Refractive index measurements between samples exhibited an average standard deviation comparable to the uncertainty of the prism coupler measurement (0.0004 refractive index units), suggesting that the variation in refractive index as a function of planar grain orientation and CVD deposition time is negligible, and should have no impact on subsequent optical designs. Measured dispersion data at mid-infrared wavelengths was found to agree well with prior published measurements.

Qiao, Hong (Amy) [Amy; Lipschultz, Kristen A.; Anheier, Norman C.; McCloy, John S.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of GaN on Si(111): Stress control and application to field-effect transistors  

SciTech Connect

Two schemes of nucleation and growth of gallium nitride on Si(111) substrates are investigated and the structural and electrical properties of the resulting films are reported. Gallium nitride films grown using a 10{endash}500 nm-thick AlN buffer layer deposited at high temperature ({similar_to}1050{degree}C) are found to be under 260{endash}530 MPa of tensile stress and exhibit cracking, the origin of which is discussed. The threading dislocation density in these films increases with increasing AlN thickness, covering a range of 1.1 to {gt}5.8{times}10{sup 9}cm{sup {minus}2}. Films grown using a thick, AlN-to-GaN graded buffer layer are found to be under compressive stress and are completely crack free. Heterojunction field effect transistors fabricated on such films result in well-defined saturation and pinch-off behavior with a saturated current of {similar_to}525 mA/mm and a transconductance of {similar_to}100 mS/mm in dc operation. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Marchand, H.; Zhao, L.; Zhang, N.; Moran, B.; Coffie, R.; Mishra, U. K.; Speck, J. S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Freitas, J. A.

2001-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

217

Raman and electron microscopic studies of Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} alloy nanowires grown by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} alloy nanowires (SiGeNWs) were grown by Au-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition and studied by Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in TEM (TEM-EDS). The relationship between the growth parameters and the structure of the SiGeNWs was clarified by systematically changing the growth conditions over a wide range. Raman and TEM-EDS results demonstrated that the SiGeNWs consist of a lower Ge composition core and a higher Ge composition shell epitaxially grown on the surface of the core. The effects of oxidation on the structure of the SiGeNWs were studied. It was found that oxidation leads to segregation of the Ge atoms at the interface between the SiGeNWs and SiO{sub 2}, which in turn results in a large inhomogeneity in Ge composition. Oxidation at a very low rate in a diluted oxygen gas atmosphere is required to avoid the formation of Ge particles and minimize the inhomogeneity.

Kawashima, Takahiro; Imamura, Goh; Fujii, Minoru; Hayashi, Shinji; Saitoh, Tohru; Komori, Kazunori [Advanced Devices Development Center, Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd., 3-1-1 Yagumo-Nakamachi, Moriguchi, Osaka 570-8501 (Japan); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Image Devices Development Center, Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd., 3-1-1 Yagumo-Nakamachi, Moriguchi, Osaka 570-8501 (Japan)

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

218

Nanocrystalline-Si-dot multi-layers fabrication by chemical vapor deposition with H-plasma surface treatment and evaluation of structure and quantum confinement effects  

SciTech Connect

100-nm-thick nanocrystalline silicon (nano-Si)-dot multi-layers on a Si substrate were fabricated by the sequential repetition of H-plasma surface treatment, chemical vapor deposition, and surface oxidation, for over 120 times. The diameter of the nano-Si dots was 5–6 nm, as confirmed by both the transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The annealing process was important to improve the crystallinity of the nano-Si dot. We investigated quantum confinement effects by Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Based on the experimental results, we simulated the Raman spectrum using a phenomenological model. Consequently, the strain induced in the nano-Si dots was estimated by comparing the experimental and simulated results. Taking the estimated strain value into consideration, the band gap modulation was measured, and the diameter of the nano-Si dots was calculated to be 5.6 nm by using PL. The relaxation of the q ? 0 selection rule model for the nano-Si dots is believed to be important to explain both the phenomena of peak broadening on the low-wavenumber side observed in Raman spectra and the blue shift observed in PL measurements.

Kosemura, Daisuke, E-mail: d-kose@isc.meiji.ac.jp; Mizukami, Yuki; Takei, Munehisa; Numasawa, Yohichiroh; Ogura, Atsushi [School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan)] [School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan); Ohshita, Yoshio [Toyota Technological Institute, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)] [Toyota Technological Institute, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

219

Effects of pressure, temperature, and hydrogen during graphene growth on SiC(0001) using propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

Graphene growth from a propane flow in a hydrogen environment (propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition (CVD)) on SiC differentiates from other growth methods in that it offers the possibility to obtain various graphene structures on the Si-face depending on growth conditions. The different structures include the (6{radical}3 Multiplication-Sign 6{radical}3)-R30 Degree-Sign reconstruction of the graphene/SiC interface, which is commonly observed on the Si-face, but also the rotational disorder which is generally observed on the C-face. In this work, growth mechanisms leading to the formation of the different structures are studied and discussed. For that purpose, we have grown graphene on SiC(0001) (Si-face) using propane-hydrogen CVD at various pressure and temperature and studied these samples extensively by means of low energy electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Pressure and temperature conditions leading to the formation of the different structures are identified and plotted in a pressure-temperature diagram. This diagram, together with other characterizations (X-ray photoemission and scanning tunneling microscopy), is the basis of further discussions on the carbon supply mechanisms and on the kinetics effects. The entire work underlines the important role of hydrogen during growth and its effects on the final graphene structure.

Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Roudon, E.; Lefebvre, D.; Portail, M. [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France)] [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T. [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)] [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

220

Issues associated with the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of ScGaN and YGaN alloys.  

SciTech Connect

The most energy efficient solid state white light source will likely be a combination of individually efficient red, green, and blue LED. For any multi-color approach to be successful the efficiency of deep green LEDs must be significantly improved. While traditional approaches to improve InGaN materials have yielded incremental success, we proposed a novel approach using group IIIA and IIIB nitride semiconductors to produce efficient green and high wavelength LEDs. To obtain longer wavelength LEDs in the nitrides, we attempted to combine scandium (Sc) and yttrium (Y) with gallium (Ga) to produce ScGaN and YGaN for the quantum well (QW) active regions. Based on linear extrapolation of the proposed bandgaps of ScN (2.15 eV), YN (0.8 eV) and GaN (3.4 eV), we expected that LEDs could be fabricated from the UV (410 nm) to the IR (1600 nm), and therefore cover all visible wavelengths. The growth of these novel alloys potentially provided several advantages over the more traditional InGaN QW regions including: higher growth temperatures more compatible with GaN growth, closer lattice matching to GaN, and reduced phase separation than is commonly observed in InGaN growth. One drawback to using ScGaN and YGaN films as the active regions in LEDs is that little research has been conducted on their growth, specifically, are there metalorganic precursors that are suitable for growth, are the bandgaps direct or indirect, can the materials be grown directly on GaN with a minimal defect formation, as well as other issues related to growth. The major impediment to the growth of ScGaN and YGaN alloys was the low volatility of metalorganic precursors. Despite this impediment some progress was made in incorporation of Sc and Y into GaN which is detailed in this report. Primarily, we were able to incorporate up to 5 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} Y atoms into a GaN film, which are far below the alloy concentrations needed to evaluate the YGaN optical properties. After a no-cost extension was granted on this program, an additional more 'liquid-like' Sc precursor was evaluated and the nitridation of Sc metals on GaN were investigated. Using the Sc precursor, dopant level quantities of Sc were incorporated into GaN, thereby concluding the growth of ScGaN and YGaN films. Our remaining time during the no-cost extension was focused on pulsed laser deposition of Sc metal films on GaN, followed by nitridation in the MOCVD reactor to form ScN. Finally, GaN films were deposited on the ScN thin films in order to study possible GaN dislocation reduction.

Koleske, Daniel David; Knapp, James Arthur; Lee, Stephen Roger; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Creighton, James Randall; Cross, Karen Charlene; Thaler, Gerald

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor transport deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Energy balance in laser-irradiated vaporizing droplets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The interactions of vaporizing aerosols with a high energy laser beam are analyzed in the diffusive vaporization regime. This is the regime in which diffusive mass transport and...

Zardecki, Andrew; Armstrong, Robert L

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Quantitative determination of energy enhanced interlayer transport in pulsed laser deposition of SrTiO3  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We show that the analysis of single-shot surface x-ray diffraction transients in terms of time-dependent coverages allows quantitative determination of interlayer transport in pulsed-laser deposition of SrTiO3. The fast interlayer transport during and immediately after the arrival of the laser plume and before crystallization represents the dominant mechanism for redistribution of the deposited material that is completed on a ?s-range or faster time scale. Following crystallization interlayer transport is more than four orders of magnitude slower because it is driven only by sluggish thermally activated processes, which represent a small fraction of total interlayer transport that decreases with increasing laser repetition rate. The analysis of growth kinetics shows that it is fast interlayer transport driven by hyperthermal energy species and not thermal annealing that governs layer completion that determines the growth mode and the formation of atomically sharp interfaces in pulsed-laser deposition of epitaxial oxide films and similar energy-enhanced growth processes.

Gyula Eres; J. Z. Tischler; C. M. Rouleau; P. Zschack; H. M. Christen; B. C. Larson

2011-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

223

URANIUM-SERIES CONSTRAINTS ON RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT AND GROUNDWATER FLOW AT NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT, SIERRA PENA BLANCA, MEXICO  

SciTech Connect

Uranium-series data for groundwater samples from the vicinity of the Nopal I uranium ore deposit are used to place constraints on radionuclide transport and hydrologic processes at this site, and also, by analogy, at Yucca Mountain. Decreasing uranium concentrations for wells drilled in 2003 suggest that groundwater flow rates are low (< 10 m/yr). Field tests, well productivity, and uranium isotopic constraints also suggest that groundwater flow and mixing is limited at this site. The uranium isotopic systematics for water collected in the mine adit are consistent with longer rock-water interaction times and higher uranium dissolution rates at the front of the adit where the deposit is located. Short-lived nuclide data for groundwater wells are used to calculate retardation factors that are on the order of 1,000 for radium and 10,000 to 10,000,000 for lead and polonium. Radium has enhanced mobility in adit water and fractures near the deposit.

S. J. Goldstein, S. Luo, T. L. Ku, and M. T. Murrell

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Characterization of photoluminescent (Y{sub 1{minus}x}Eu{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3} thin-films prepared by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

Europium doped yttrium oxide, (Y{sub 1{minus}x}Eu{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3}, thin-films were deposited on silicon and sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The films were grown in a MOCVD chamber reacting yttrium and europium tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5,-heptanedionates) precursors in an oxygen atmosphere at low pressures (5 Torr) and low substrate temperatures (500--700 C). The films deposited at 500 C were flat and composed of nanocrystalline regions of cubic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, grown in a textured [100] or [110] orientation to the substrate surface. Films deposited at 600 C developed from the flat, nanocrystalline morphology into a plate-like growth morphology oriented in the [111] with increasing deposition time. Monoclinic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} was observed in x-ray diffraction for deposition temperatures {ge}600 C on both (111) Si and (001) sapphire substrates. This was also confirmed by the photoluminescent emission spectra.

McKittrick, J.; Bacalski, C.F.; Hirata, G.A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Hubbard, K.M.; Pattillo, S.G.; Salazar, K.V.; Trkula, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

The pneumoimpulsive system for deposit repair on inner surfaces of pneumatic-transport pipelines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Results of tests of the technology for preventing deposit formation through periodic pneumoimpulsive actions, which was developed at the Institute of Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Siberian Division, Russi...

V. I. Zvegintsev; V. F. Chirkashenko; S. I. Shpac…

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Assessing Seasonal Transport and Deposition of Agricultural Emissions in Eastern North Carolina, U.S.A.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the variability and uncertainty in the regional pollutant transport. Key words: Air pollution, atmospheric values obtained using an air pollution transport and dispersion model. This mesoscale information Carolina. Results show that highly variable seasonal and diurnal atmospheric circulations characterize

Raman, Sethu

227

Reliable Growth of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays by Chemical Vapor Deposition and In-situ Measurement of Fundamental Growth Kinetics in Oxygen-free Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for deposition. Electric resistance is widely used as a heatsilicon susceptor as an electric resistance placed inside a

IN, JUNG BIN

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Environmental Research 95 (2004) 247265 Modeling the atmospheric transport and deposition of mercury  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, atmospheric deposition is now believed to be a more significant loading pathway for these lakes. Mass balance calculations for Lake Michigan (Mason and Sullivan, 1997) and Lake Superior (Dolan et al., 1993) indicate

229

Modeling and simulation of oil transport and transformation for studying piston deposits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The formation of carbonaceous engine deposits is a long standing and well documented phenomenon limiting the lifetime of diesel engines. Carbon remnants coat the surfaces of the combustion chamber, piston, and valves. As ...

Grimley, Thomas Patrick

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

MODELLING THE OVERLAND TRANSPORT OF LEAD DEPOSITED FROM THE ATMOSPHERE IN THE ELBE CATCHMENT OVER FOUR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

unknown. Despite decreasing atmospheric pollution, soil and freshwater systems still indicate high lead on minimizing atmospheric emissions, but also on minimizing soil erosion. Keywords: atmospheric pollution, direct atmospheric deposition, direct runoff, Elbe catchment, erosion, soil pollution, lead, long

Costa-Cabral, Mariza

231

Germania-glass-core silica-glass-cladding modified chemical-vapor deposition optical fibers: optical losses, photorefractivity, and Raman amplification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Germania-glass-core silica-glass-cladding single-mode fibers (?n as great as 0.143) with a minimum loss of 20 dB/km at 1.85 µm were fabricated by modified chemical-vapor...

Mashinsky, V M; Neustruev, V B; Dvoyrin, V V; Vasiliev, S A; Medvedkov, O I; Bufetov, I A; Shubin, A V; Dianov, E M; Guryanov, A N; Khopin, V F; Salgansky, M Yu

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Epitaxial growth of B-doped Si on Si(100) by electron-cyclotron-resonance Ar plasma chemical vapor deposition in a SiH4–B2H6–H2 gas mixture without substrate heating  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Characteristics of B-doped Si epitaxial growth on Si(100) by using electron-cyclotron-resonance Ar plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition without substrate heating in a SiH4–B2H6–H2–Ar gas mixture were investigated. B concentration in the deposited films increases with decreasing microwave power for plasma generation. At the microwave power of 125 W, the B concentration increases up to 5 × 1021 cm? 3. Deposition rate of the B-doped Si tends to be enhanced at the higher B2H6 partial pressure. Resistivity of the B-doped Si film tends to increase with decreasing the microwave power. Referring Irvin curve, in the case of 200 W, the carrier concentration is estimated to be at least about 1017 cm? 3 at the B concentration of 1021 cm? 3. After heat treatment in N2 atmosphere at 200 °C and 300 °C for 2 h, the resistivity drastically decreases to the value which corresponds to carrier concentration of around 1019 cm? 3. From Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurement, it is found that hydrogen incorporated in the as-deposited film desorbed by the heat treatment.

Yusuke Abe; Masao Sakuraba; Junichi Murota

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Organic-vapor-liquid-solid deposition with an impinging gas jet Daniel W. Shaw, Kevin Bufkin, Alexandr A. Baronov, Brad L. Johnson, and David L. Patrick  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and David L. Patrick1,a) 1 Department of Chemistry, Western Washington University, 516 High St., Bellingham tetracene were deposited by sublimation into a flow of argon carrier gas directed at an indium

Patrick, David L.

234

In-situ deposition of high-k dielectrics on III-V compound semiconductor in MOCVD system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In situ deposition of high-k materials to passivate the GaAs in metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system was well demonstrated. Both atomic layer deposition (ALD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods ...

Cheng, Cheng-Wei, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Fabrication and electrical transport properties of binary Co-Si nanostructures prepared by focused electron beam-induced deposition  

SciTech Connect

CoSi-C binary alloys have been fabricated by focused electron beam-induced deposition by the simultaneous use of dicobaltoctacarbonyl, Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}, and neopentasilane, Si{sub 5}H{sub 12}, as precursor gases. By varying the relative flux of the precursors, alloys with variable chemical composition are obtained, as shown by energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Room temperature electrical resistivity measurements strongly indicate the formation of cobalt silicide and cobalt disilicide nanoclusters embedded in a carbonaceous matrix. Temperature-dependent electrical conductivity measurements show that the transport properties are governed by electron tunneling between neighboring CoSi or CoSi{sub 2} nanoclusters. In particular, by varying the metal content of the alloy, the electrical conductivity can be finely tuned from the insulating regime into the quasi-metallic tunneling coupling regime.

Porrati, F.; Huth, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Kaempken, B.; Terfort, A. [Institut fr Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Str. 7, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2013-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

236

Manufacture of Thin-Film Solar Cells:? Modeling and Control of Cu(InGa)Se2 Physical Vapor Deposition onto a Moving Substrate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It was developed at ITN Energy Systems in Littleton, CO, and Global Solar Energy in Tucson, AZ;3 the experimental deposition system described in this paper does not have an XRF sensor installed. ... The main advantage of the finite difference approach is that it is a continuous technique and, therefore, is better suited for including mass transfer or reaction kinetics. ... Because the decoupled deposition process is only single-input?single-output with simple constraints (flow rates cannot be negative), internal model control can potentially combine the advantages of unconstrained MPC, but avoid its disadvantages. ...

S. Tobias Junker; Robert W. Birkmire; Francis J. Doyle; III

2003-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

237

Process sensing and metrology in gate oxide growth by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition from SiH4 and N2O  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SiO2 film. An optimal process window had been previously identified at a total pressure of 5 Torr, but also quantitative metrology for the film deposition process. © 1999 American Vacuum Society. S0734-211X the wafer. Radiative heating of the wafer was achieved through a quartz window by an array of halogen lamps

Rubloff, Gary W.

238

Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration Title Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 1995 Authors Hunt, Arlon J., Michael R. Ayers, and Wanqing Cao Journal Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids Volume 185 Pagination 227-232 Abstract A new method to produce novel composite materials based on the use of aerogels as a starting material is described. Using chemical vapor infiltration, a variety of solid materials were thermally deposited into the open pore structure of aerogel. The resulting materials possess new and unusual properties including photoluminescence, magnetism and altered optical properties. An important characteristic of this preparation process is the very small size of the deposits that gives rise to new behaviors. Silicon deposits exhibit photoluminescence, indicating quantum confinement. Two or more phases may be deposited simultaneously and one or both chemically or thermally reacted to produce new structures.

239

Numerical modeling of mixed sediment resuspension, transport, and deposition during the March 1998 episodic events in southern Lake Michigan  

SciTech Connect

A two-dimensional sediment transport model capable of simulating sediment resuspension of mixed (cohesive+noncohesive) sediment is developed and applied to quantitatively simulate the March 1998 resuspension events in southern Lake Michigan. Some characteristics of the model are the capability to incorporate several floc size classes, a physically-based settling velocity formula, bed armoring, and sediment availability limitation. Important resuspension parameters were estimated from field and laboratory measurement data. The model reproduced the resuspension plume (observed by the SeaWIFS satellite and field instruments) and recently measured sedimentation rate distribution (using radiotracer techniques) fairly well. Model results were verified with field measurements of suspended sediment concentration and settling flux (by ADCPs and sediment traps). Both wave conditions and sediment bed properties (critical shear stress, fine sediment fraction, and limited sediment availability or source) are the critical factors that determine the concentration distribution and width of the resuspension plume. The modeled sedimentation pattern shows preferential accumulation of sediment on the eastern side of the lake, which agrees with the observed sedimentation pattern despite a predominance of particle sources from the western shoreline. The main physical mechanisms determining the sedimentation pattern are 1) the two counter-rotating circulation gyres producing offshore mass transport along the southeastern coast during northerly wind and 2) the settling velocity of sediment flocs which controls the deposition location.

Lee, Cheegwan; Schwab, David J.; Beletsky, Dmitry; Stroud, Jonathan; Lesht, B. M.

2007-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

240

Numerical modeling of mixed sediment resuspension, transport, and deposition during the March 1998 episodic events in southern Lake Michigan.  

SciTech Connect

A two-dimensional sediment transport model capable of simulating sediment resuspension of mixed (cohesive plus noncohesive) sediment is developed and applied to quantitatively simulate the March 1998 resuspension events in southern Lake Michigan. Some characteristics of the model are the capability to incorporate several floc size classes, a physically based settling velocity formula, bed armoring, and sediment availability limitation. Important resuspension parameters were estimated from field and laboratory measurement data. The model reproduced the resuspension plume (observed by the SeaWIFS satellite and field instruments) and recently measured sedimentation rate distribution (using radiotracer techniques) fairly well. Model results were verified with field measurements of suspended sediment concentration and settling flux (by ADCPs and sediment traps). Both wave conditions and sediment bed properties (critical shear stress, fine sediment fraction, and limited sediment availability or source) are the critical factors that determine the concentration distribution and width of the resuspension plume. The modeled sedimentation pattern shows preferential accumulation of sediment on the eastern side of the lake, which agrees with the observed sedimentation pattern despite a predominance of particle sources from the western shoreline. The main physical mechanisms determining the sedimentation pattern are (1) the two counter-rotating circulation gyres producing offshore mass transport along the southeastern coast during northerly wind and (2) the settling velocity of sediment flocs which controls the deposition location.

Lee, C.; Schwab, D. J.; Beletsky, D.; Stroud, J.; Lesht, B.; PNNL; NOAA; Univ. of Michigan; Univ. of Pennsylvania

2007-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor transport deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Chemistry, phase formation, and catalytic activity of thin palladium-containing oxide films synthesized by plasma-assisted physical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

The chemistry, microstructure, and catalytic activity of thin films incorporating palladium were studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopies, X-ray diffraction, spectrophotometry, 4-point probe and catalytic tests. The films were synthesized using pulsed filtered cathodic arc and magnetron sputter deposition, i.e. techniques far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Catalytic particles were formed by thermally cycling thin films of the Pd-Pt-O system. The evolution and phase formation in such films as a function of temperature were discussed in terms of the stability of PdO and PtO2 in air. The catalytic efficiency was found to be strongly affected by the chemical composition, with oxidized palladium definitely playing a major role in the combustion of methane. Reactive sputter deposition of thin films in the Pd-Zr-Y-O system allowed us forming microstructures ranging from nanocrystalline zirconia to palladium nanoparticles embedded in a (Zr,Y)4Pd2O matrix. The sequence of phase formation is put in relation to simple thermodynamic considerations.

Anders, Andre

2010-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

242

Reduced Order Model Compensator Control of Species Transport in a CVD Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reduced Order Model Compensator Control of Species Transport in a CVD Reactor G.M. Kepler, H for computation of feedback controls and compensators in a high pressure chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) reactor, through open­loop optimization [6, 21, 34]. However, because of process variability and the in­ creasing

243

{open_quotes}Local texture, current flow, and superconductive transport properties of Tl1223 deposits on practical substrates{close_quotes}  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative investigations of the crystal grain orientations and electrical transport properties of high temperature superconducting (HTS)TiBa{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 8+x} (Tl1223) deposits on polycrystalline substrates show that current flow comprises percolative networks of strongly-coupled material. Superconductive transport properties on different samples, on the same samples at different widths, and on samples with artificially-induced strong flux pinning defects confirm the nature of current flow, and suggest that these materials may be useful as a new class of HTS conductors.

Christen, D.K.; Specht, E.D.; Goyal, A. [and others

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transportation Transportation Transportation of Depleted Uranium Materials in Support of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Program Issues associated with transport of depleted UF6 cylinders and conversion products. Conversion Plan Transportation Requirements The DOE has prepared two Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) for the proposal to build and operate depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6) conversion facilities at its Portsmouth and Paducah gaseous diffusion plant sites, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The proposed action calls for transporting the cylinder at ETTP to Portsmouth for conversion. The transportation of depleted UF6 cylinders and of the depleted uranium conversion products following conversion was addressed in the EISs.

245

Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Carbon Coatings on LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 for Li-Ion Battery Composite Cathodes  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we report results of a novel synthesis method of thin film conductive carbon coatings on LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} cathode active material powders for lithium-ion batteries. Thin layers of graphitic carbon were produced from a solid organic precursor, anthracene, by a one-step microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) method. The structure and morphology of the carbon coatings were examined using SEM, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy. The composite LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} electrodes were electrochemically tested in lithium half coin cells. The composite cathodes made of the carbon-coated LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} powder showed superior electrochemical performance and increased capacity compared to standard composite LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} electrodes.

Doeff, M.M.; Kostecki, R.; Marcinek, M.; Wilcoc, J.D.

2008-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

246

Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Health Risks » Transportation Health Risks » Transportation DUF6 Health Risks line line Accidents Storage Conversion Manufacturing Disposal Transportation Transportation A discussion of health risks associated with transport of depleted UF6. Transport Regulations and Requirements In the future, it is likely that depleted uranium hexafluoride cylinders will be transported to a conversion facility. For example, it is currently anticipated that the cylinders at the ETTP Site in Oak Ridge, TN, will be transported to the Portsmouth Site, OH, for conversion. Uranium hexafluoride has been shipped safely in the United States for over 40 years by both truck and rail. Shipments of depleted UF6 would be made in accordance with all applicable transportation regulations. Shipment of depleted UF6 is regulated by the

247

Iodine transport analysis in the ESBWR.  

SciTech Connect

A simplified ESBWR MELCOR model was developed to track the transport of iodine released from damaged reactor fuel in a hypothesized core damage accident. To account for the effects of iodine pool chemistry, radiolysis of air and cable insulation, and surface coatings (i.e., paint) the iodine pool model in MELCOR was activated. Modifications were made to MELCOR to add sodium pentaborate as a buffer in the iodine pool chemistry model. An issue of specific interest was whether iodine vapor removed from the drywell vapor space by the PCCS heat exchangers would be sequestered in water pools or if it would be rereleased as vapor back into the drywell. As iodine vapor is not included in the deposition models for diffusiophoresis or thermophoresis in current version of MELCOR, a parametric study was conducted to evaluate the impact of a range of iodine removal coefficients in the PCCS heat exchangers. The study found that higher removal coefficients resulted in a lower mass of iodine vapor in the drywell vapor space.

Kalinich, Donald A.; Gauntt, Randall O.; Young, Michael Francis; Longmire, Pamela

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

VAPORIZATION OF TUNGSTEN-METAL IN STEAM AT HIGH TEMPERATURES.  

SciTech Connect

The vaporization of tungsten from the APT spallation target dominates the radiological source term for unmitigated target overheating accidents. Chemical reactions of tungsten with steam which persist to tungsten temperatures as low as 800 C result in the formation of a hydrated tungsten-oxide which has a high vapor pressure and is readily convected in a flowing atmosphere. This low-temperature vaporization reaction essentially removes the oxide film that forms on the tungsten-metal surface as soon as it forms, leaving behind a fresh metallic surface for continued oxidation and vaporization. Experiments were conducted to measure the oxidative vaporization rates of tungsten in steam as part of the effort to quantify the MT radiological source term for severe target accidents. Tests were conducted with tungsten rods (1/8 inch diameter, six inches long) heated to temperatures from approximately 700 C to 1350 C in flowing steam which was superheated to 140 C. A total of 19 experiments was conducted. Fifteen tests were conducted by RF induction heating of single tungsten rods held vertical in a quartz glass retort. Four tests were conducted in a vertically-mounted tube furnace for the low temperature range of the test series. The aerosol which was generated and transported downstream from the tungsten rods was collected by passing the discharged steam through a condenser. This procedure insured total collection of the steam along with the aerosol from the vaporization of the rods. The results of these experiments revealed a threshold temperature for tungsten vaporization in steam. For the two tests at the lowest temperatures which were tested, approximately 700 C, the tungsten rods were observed to oxidize without vaporization. The remainder of the tests was conducted over the temperature range of 800 C to 1350 C. In these tests, the rods were found to have lost weight due to vaporization of the tungsten and the missing weight was collected in the downstream condensate system. The aerosol formed a fine white smoke of tungsten-oxide which was visible to the eye as it condensed in the laminar boundary layer of steam which flowed along the surface of the rod. The aerosol continued to flow as a smoke tube downstream of the rod, flowing coaxially along the centerline axis of the quartz glass tube and depositing by impaction along the outside of a bend and at sudden area contractions in the piping. The vaporization rate data from the 17 experiments which exceeded the vaporization threshold temperature are shown in Figure 5 in the form of vaporization rates (g/cm{sup 2} s) vs. inverse temperature (K{sup {minus}1}). Two correlations to the present data are presented and compared to a published correlation by Kilpatrick and Lott. The differences are discussed.

GREENE,G.A.; FINFROCK,C.C.

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Aircraft Emissions Deposited in the Stratosphere and Within the Arctic Polar Vortex. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an analysis of the quantity of emissions (water vapor, NO(x)) projected to be deposited directly within the Arctic polar vortex by projected fleets of Mach 2.4 high speed civil transports (HSCT`s). It also evaluates the amount of emissions from subsonic aircraft which are emitted into the lower stratosphere using aircraft emission inventories developed earlier for May 1990 as representative of the annual average.

Baughcum, S.L.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Vapor spill pipe monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

1983-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

251

Charge transport properties of p-CdTe/n-CdTe/n{sup +}-Si diode-type nuclear radiation detectors based on metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy-grown epilayers  

SciTech Connect

Charge transport properties of p-CdTe/n-CdTe/n{sup +}-Si diode-type nuclear radiation detectors, fabricated by growing p-and n-type CdTe epilayers on (211) n{sup +}-Si substrates using metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE), were studied by analyzing current-voltage characteristics measured at various temperatures. The diode fabricated shows good rectification properties, however, both forward and reverse biased currents deviate from their ideal behavior. The forward current exhibits typical feature of multi-step tunneling at lower biases; however, becomes space charge limited type when the bias is increased. On the other hand, the reverse current exhibits thermally activated tunneling-type current. It was found that trapping centers at the p-CdTe/n-CdTe junction, which were formed due to the growth induced defects, determine the currents of this diode, and hence limit the performance of the nuclear radiation detectors developed.

Niraula, M.; Yasuda, K.; Wajima, Y.; Yamashita, H.; Tsukamoto, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Matsumoto, M.; Takai, N.; Tsukamoto, Y.; Agata, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

2013-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

252

Transportation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The romantic rides in Sandburg’s “eagle-car” changed society. On the one hand, motor vehicle transportation is an integral thread of society’s fabric. On the other hand, excess mobility fractures old neighborh...

David Hafemeister

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Measurement and modeling of Ar ? H 2 ? C H 4 arc jet discharge chemical vapor deposition reactors II: Modeling of the spatial dependence of expanded plasma parameters and species number densities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Detailed methodology and results are presented for a two-dimensional ( r z ) computer model applicable to dc arc jet reactors operating on argon/hydrogen/hydrocarbon gas mixtures and used for chemical vapor deposition of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond and diamondlike carbon films. The model incorporates gas activation expansion into the low pressure reactor chamber and the chemistry of the neutral and charged species. It predicts the spatial variation of temperature flow velocities and number densities of 25 neutral and 14 charged species and the dependence of these parameters on the operating conditions of the reactor such as flows of H 2 and C H 4 and input power. Selected outcomes of the model are compared with experimental data in the accompanying paper [C. J. Rennick et al. J. Appl. Phys.102 063309 (2007)]. Two-dimensional spatial maps of the number densities of key radical and molecular species in the reactor derived from the model provide a summary of the complicated chemical processing that occurs. In the vortex region beyond the plume the key transformations are C H 4 ? C H 3 ? C 2 H 2 ? large hydrocarbons; in the plume or the transition zone to the cooler regions the chemical processing involves C 2 H x ? ( C H y and C H z ) C 3 H x ? ( C H y and C 2 H z ) ( C 2 H y and C 2 H z ) ? C 4 H x ? ( C H y and C 3 H z ) . Depending on the local gas temperature T g and the H ? H 2 ratio the equilibria of H-shifting reactions favor C CH and C 2 species (in the hot H-rich axial region of the plume) or C H 2 C 2 H and C 2 H 2 species (at the outer boundary of the transition zone). Deductions are drawn about the most abundant C-containing radical species incident on the growing diamond surface (C atoms and CH radicals) within this reactor and the importance of chemistry involving charged species is discussed. Modifications to the boundary conditions and model reactor geometry allow its application to a lower power arc jet reactor operated and extensively studied by Jeffries and co-workers at SRI International and comparisons are drawn with the reported laser induced fluorescence data from these studies.

Yu. A. Mankelevich; M. N. R. Ashfold; A. J. Orr-Ewing

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

ARM Water Vapor IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ARM Water Vapor IOP The SGP CART site will host the third ARM water vapor IOP on September 18-October 8, 2000. The CART site is home to a powerful array of instruments capable of...

255

MSIV leakage airborne iodine transport  

SciTech Connect

Gaseous iodine deposits on surfaces exposed to vapors. Basic chemical and physical principles predict this behavior, and several laboratory and in-plant measurements demonstrate the characteristic. An empirical model was developed that describes the deposition, resuspension, and transformation of airborne radioiodine molecular species as a stream containing these forms moves along its pathway. The model uses a data base of measured values of deposition and resuspension rates in its application and describes the conversion of the more reactive inorganic iodine species I[sub 2] to the less reactive organic species CH[sub 3]I as the iodine deposits and resuspends along the path. It also considers radioactive decay and chemical surface bonding during residence on surfaces. For the 8-day [sup 131]I, decay during the airborne portion of the transport is negligible. Verification of the model included measurement tests of long gaseous-activity sampling lines of different diameters, operated at different flow rates and stream temperatures. The model was applied to the streams at a boiling water reactor nuclear power plant to describe the transport through leaking main steam isolation valves (MSIVs), following a loss-of-coolant accident.

Cline, J.E. (Cline Associates Inc., Rockville, MD (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Arsenic, and Fine Particulate Matter From Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kevin crist Kevin crist Principal Investigator Ohio University Research and Technology Center Athens, OH 45701 740-593-4751 cristk@ohiou.edu Environmental and Water Resources Evaluation of thE Emission, transport, and dEposition of mErcury, arsEnic, and finE particulatE mattEr from coal-BasEd powEr plants in thE ohio rivEr vallEy rEgion Background The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has established an aggressive research initiative to address the technical and scientific issues surrounding the impact of coal-based power systems on ambient levels of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), nitrogen oxides (NO X ), mercury/air toxics, and acid gases. Regulatory drivers such as the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the 1997 revised National Ambient Air Quality Standards, and the 2005 Clean Air

257

Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Due to limited parking, all visitors are strongly encouraged to: Due to limited parking, all visitors are strongly encouraged to: 1) car-pool, 2) take the Lab's special conference shuttle service, or 3) take the regular off-site shuttle. If you choose to use the regular off-site shuttle bus, you will need an authorized bus pass, which can be obtained by contacting Eric Essman in advance. Transportation & Visitor Information Location and Directions to the Lab: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is located in Berkeley, on the hillside directly above the campus of University of California at Berkeley. The address is One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720. For comprehensive directions to the lab, please refer to: http://www.lbl.gov/Workplace/Transportation.html Maps and Parking Information: On Thursday and Friday, a limited number (15) of barricaded reserved parking spaces will be available for NON-LBNL Staff SNAP Collaboration Meeting participants in parking lot K1, in front of building 54 (cafeteria). On Saturday, plenty of parking spaces will be available everywhere, as it is a non-work day.

258

Vapor spill monitoring method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

Bianchini, Gregory M. (Livermore, CA); McRae, Thomas G. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

ARM - Water Vapor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Vapor Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global...

260

EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION  

SciTech Connect

Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

Kevin Crist

2005-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor transport deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION  

SciTech Connect

Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley Region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley Region.

Kevin Crist

2003-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

262

Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region  

SciTech Connect

As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by the USEPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

Kevin Crist

2006-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

263

EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION  

SciTech Connect

Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

Kevin Crist

2004-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

264

Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region  

SciTech Connect

Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

Kevin Crist

2005-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

265

EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION  

SciTech Connect

Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal-fired power plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley Region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

Kevin Crist

2004-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

266

Model for the transport of airborne radioiodine  

SciTech Connect

Gaseous iodine deposits on surfaces exposed to the vapors. The industry has observed gaseous iodine transport behavior for years, and groups have proposed models describing the phenomena with limited success. The transport models attempt to describe the complicated chemical processes in terms of empirical rate constants. The current model, also empirical, treats deposition, conversion, and resuspension along a path of short segments where the assumption of instantaneous and homogeneous mixing is adequate, passing on the results as input to the next segment. The number of segments depends on line and flow parameters and can be as many as 100,000 for a long, large-diameter pipe with low flow. It includes a chemical bonding reaction rate to iodine deposited on the surface. The model has five compartments in each segment: concentrations of the three airborne iodine species, surface activity available for resuspension, and reacted surface iodine that is fixed on the surface. All iodine in the segment undergoes radioactive decay. The calculation divides the time period into small time division, typically 100, where the assumption of instantaneous equilibrium is applicable. The model initially developed by Science Applications International describes deposition, resuspension, and conversion of iodine in four differential equations that describe, respectively, airborne elemental, HOI and organic, and surface activities.

Cline, J.E.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Gasoline vapor recovery  

SciTech Connect

In a gasoline distribution network wherein gasoline is drawn from a gasoline storage tank and pumped into individual vehicles and wherein the gasoline storage tank is refilled periodically from a gasoline tanker truck, a method of recovering liquid gasoline from gasoline vapor that collects in the headspace of the gasoline storage tank as the liquid gasoline is drawn therefrom, said method comprising the steps of: (a) providing a source of inert gas; (b) introducing inert gas into the gasoline storage tank as liquid gasoline is drawn therefrom so that liquid gasoline drawn from the tank is displaced by inert gas and gasoline vapor mixes with the inert gas in the headspace of the tank; (c) collecting the inert gas/gasoline vapor mixture from the headspace of the gasoline storage tank as the tank is refilled from a gasoline tanker truck; (d) cooling the inert gas/gasoline vapor mixture to a temperature sufficient to condense the gasoline vapor in the mixture to liquid gasoline but not sufficient to liquify the inert gas in the mixture; (e) separating the condensed liquid gasoline from the inert gas; and delivering the condensed liquid gasoline to a remote location for subsequent use.

Lievens, G.; Tiberi, T.P.

1993-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

268

Electrolyte vapor condenser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

1983-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

269

Electrolyte vapor condenser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well.

Sederquist, Richard A. (Newington, CT); Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Sawyer, Richard D. (Canton, CT)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Deposition of Plasma Polymer Films by an Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is a proven ... . The application of non-thermal low pressure plasmas containing organic compounds for thin film deposition by plasma polymerization is well known1.... Th...

Rüdiger Foest; Florian Sigeneger; Martin Schmidt

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Vacuum arc deposition devices  

SciTech Connect

The vacuum arc is a high-current, low-voltage electrical discharge which produces a plasma consisting of vaporized and ionized electrode material. In the most common cathodic arc deposition systems, the arc concentrates at minute cathode spots on the cathode surface and the plasma is emitted as a hypersonic jet, with some degree of contamination by molten droplets [known as macroparticles (MPs)] of the cathode material. In vacuum arc deposition systems, the location and motion of the cathode spots are confined to desired surfaces by an applied magnetic field and shields around undesired surfaces. Substrates are mounted on a holder so that they intercept some portion of the plasma jet. The substrate often provides for negative bias to control the energy of depositing ions and heating or cooling to control the substrate temperature. In some systems, a magnetic field is used to guide the plasma around an obstacle which blocks the MPs. These elements are integrated with a deposition chamber, cooling, vacuum gauges and pumps, and power supplies to produce a vacuum arc deposition system.

Boxman, R.L.; Zhitomirsky, V.N. [Electrical Discharge and Plasma Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, P.O. Box 39040, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

272

Organic vapor jet printing system  

SciTech Connect

An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

Forrest, Stephen R

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

273

Method for deposition of a conductor in integrated circuits  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for fabricating integrated semiconductor circuits and, more particularly, for the selective deposition of a conductor onto a substrate employing a chemical vapor deposition process. By way of example, tungsten can be selectively deposited onto a silicon substrate. At the onset of loss of selectivity of deposition of tungsten onto the silicon substrate, the deposition process is interrupted and unwanted tungsten which has deposited on a mask layer with the silicon substrate can be removed employing a halogen etchant. Thereafter, a plurality of deposition/etch back cycles can be carried out to achieve a predetermined thickness of tungsten.

Creighton, J. Randall (Albuquerque, NM); Dominguez, Frank (Albuquerque, NM); Johnson, A. Wayne (Albuquerque, NM); Omstead, Thomas R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor Mercury Vapor Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Mercury Vapor Details Activities (23) Areas (23) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Lab Analysis Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Fluid Lab Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Fluid Lab Analysis Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Anomalously high concentrations can indicate high permeability or conduit for fluid flow Hydrological: Field wide soil sampling can generate a geometrical approximation of fluid circulation Thermal: High concentration in soils can be indicative of active hydrothermal activity Dictionary.png Mercury Vapor: Mercury is discharged as a highly volatile vapor during hydrothermal

275

Stratified vapor generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A stratified vapor generator (110) comprises a first heating section (H.sub.1) and a second heating section (H.sub.2). The first and second heating sections (H.sub.1, H.sub.2) are arranged so that the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2) is operatively associated with the outlet of the first heating section (H.sub.1). A moisture separator (126) having a vapor outlet (164) and a liquid outlet (144) is operatively associated with the outlet (124) of the second heating section (H.sub.2). A cooling section (C.sub.1) is operatively associated with the liquid outlet (144) of the moisture separator (126) and includes an outlet that is operatively associated with the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2).

Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Hassani, Vahab (Golden, CO)

2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

276

Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

277

Growth of manganese filled carbon nanofibers in the vapor phase  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report the vapor phase growth of partially filled graphitic fibers, 20-30 nm in diameter and up to a micron in length, during a manganese catalyzed carbon electric arc discharge. The fiber morphology resembles that of catalytic chemical vapor deposited carbon filaments but the inside hollow contains intermittent precipitates and continuous filling of Mn that at times occupy >50% of fiber lengths. Transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss line spectra show that the fillings form as solid cores and may correspond to pure metal.

P. M. Ajayan; C. Colliex; J. M. Lambert; P. Bernier; L. Barbedette; M. Tence; O. Stephan

1994-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

278

Solid–Liquid–Vapor Equilibrium Models for Cryogenic Biogas Upgrading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In cryogenic upgrading processes involving dry ice formation, accurate predictions of solid–liquid, solid–vapor, and solid–liquid–vapor equilibria are fundamental for a correct design of the heat exchanger surface in order to achieve the desired biomethane purity. ... Moreover, the liquefied biogas production process, particularly interesting for cryogenic upgrading processes due to the low temperature of the obtained biomethane, requires an accurate knowledge of carbon dioxide solubility in liquid methane to avoid solid deposition. ... For some applications demanding a high energy content gas, namely vehicle fuels and injection in the natural gas grid, the biogas has to be upgraded into biomethane. ...

Mauro Riva; Marco Campestrini; Joseph Toubassy; Denis Clodic; Paolo Stringari

2014-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

279

Fatigue Resistance of Asphalt Mixtures Affected by Water Vapor Movement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation has two key objectives: the first objective is to develop a method of predicting and quantifying the amount of water that can enter into a pavement system by vapor transport; the second objective is to identify to which extent...

Tong, Yunwei

2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

280

Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Home Air Sealing for New Home Construction Insulation Types of Insulation Insulation and Air Sealing Products and Services External Resources Find a Local AirVapor Barrier...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor transport deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Hydrogen Cars and Water Vapor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. This cycle is currently under way with hydrogen fuel cells. As fuel cell cars are suggested as a solutionHydrogen Cars and Water Vapor D.W.KEITHANDA.E.FARRELL'S POLICY FORUM "Rethinking hydrogen cars" (18 misidentified as "zero-emissions vehicles." Fuel cell vehicles emit water vapor. A global fleet could have

Colorado at Boulder, University of

282

Phase effects for electrons in liquid water and water vapor  

SciTech Connect

The objective of these studies is to compare transport, energy loss, and other phenomena for electrons in water in the liquid and vapor phases. Understanding the differences and similarities is an interesting physics problem in its own right. It is also important for applying the relatively large body of experimental data available for the vapor to the liquid, which is of greater relevance in radiobiology. This paper presents a summary of results from a series of collaborative studies carried out by the authors at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung (GSF). 14 figs.

Turner, J.E.; Paretzke, H.G.; Wright, H.A.; Hamm, R.N.; Ritchie, R.H.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Fuel vapor control device  

SciTech Connect

A fuel vapor control device is described having a valve opening and closing a passage connecting a carburetor and a charcoal canister according to a predetermined temperature. A first coil spring formed by a ''shape memory effect'' alloy is provided to urge the valve to open the passage when the temperature is high. A second coil spring urges the valve to close the passage. A solenoid is provided to urge an armature against the valve to close the passage against the force of the first coil spring when the engine is running. The solenoid heats the first coil spring to generate a spring force therein when the engine is running. When the engine is turned off, the solenoid is deactivated, and the force of the first spring overcomes the force of the second spring to open the passage until such time as the temperature of the first spring drops below the predetermined temperature.

Ota, I.; Nishimura, Y.; Nishio, S.; Yogo, K.

1987-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

284

The Dust Settles on Water Vapor Feedback  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...To understand water vapor feedback...shifts in the atmospheric circulation...caused a positive water vapor feedback...temperature. Condensation, evaporation...shifts in the atmospheric circulation...caused a positive water vapor feedback...temperature. Condensation, evaporation...

Anthony D. Del Genio

2002-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

285

Vapor deposited samarium zirconate thermal barrier coatings Hengbei Zhao a,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal barrier coatings The rare earth zirconates (M2Zr2O7, M=LaGd) have a low intrinsic thermal conductivity and high temperature phase stability making them attractive candidates for thermal barrier coating conditions and the coating composition, structure, texture, pore morphology, and thermal conductivity

Wadley, Haydn

286

Noncatalytic synthesis of carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

A new method is proposed to obtain uniform arrays of multiwall carbon nanotubes without catalysts. Nanotubes have been formed by carbon condensation from a hydrogen-methane gas mixture activated by a dc discharge. Structural and morphological investigations of the obtained material were performed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. It is shown that the obtained nanotubes contain no impurities that could act as catalysts. Based on these experimental data, it is concluded that the nanotube synthesis under study is noncatalytic. Possible mechanisms of this synthesis are considered.

Ismagilov, R. R., E-mail: ismagil@polly.phys.msu.ru; Shvets, P. V.; Kharin, A. Yu.; Obraztsov, A. N. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

287

Micro Chemical Vapor Deposition for the Synthesis of Nanomaterials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

image in Figure 2.17(c) (FLIR® A320 Camera, the emissivitysame from the IR camera (FLIR® A320) and the thermal couple.thermal cameras (for example, FLIR® systems). However, the

Zhou, Qin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Graphene growth with giant domains using chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

N. Martensson, Controlling graphene corrugation on lattice-in patterned epitaxial graphene, Science, 2006, 312(5777), 92009, 4(6), 17 A. K. Geim, Graphene: Status and Prospects,

Yong, Virginia; Hahn, H. Thomas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Air-gap sacrificial materials by initiated chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

P(neopentyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) copolymer, abbreviated as P(npMAco-EGDA), was selected as the potential air-gap sacrificial material among possible combination of twenty monomers and four ...

Lee, Long Hua

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process involving vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials for creating high aspect ratio (i.e., length much greater than diameter), isolated cylindrical holes in dielectric materials that have been exposed to high-energy atomic particles. The process includes cleaning the surface of the tracked material and exposing the cleaned surface to a vapor of a suitable etchant. Independent control of the temperatures of the vapor and the tracked materials provide the means to vary separately the etch rates for the latent track region and the non-tracked material. As a rule, the tracked regions etch at a greater rate than the non-tracked regions. In addition, the vapor-etched holes can be enlarged and smoothed by subsequent dipping in a liquid etchant. The 20-1000 nm diameter holes resulting from the vapor etching process can be useful as molds for electroplating nanometer-sized filaments, etching gate cavities for deposition of nano-cones, developing high-aspect ratio holes in trackable resists, and as filters for a variety of molecular-sized particles in virtually any liquid or gas by selecting the dielectric material that is compatible with the liquid or gas of interest.

Musket, Ronald G. (Danville, CA); Porter, John D. (Berkeley, CA); Yoshiyama, James M. (Fremont, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Atmospheric Transport of Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of atmospheric transport and diffusion calculations is to provide estimates of concentration and surface deposition from routine and accidental releases of pollutants to the atmosphere. This paper discusses this topic.

Crawford, T.V.

2003-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

292

Category:Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Mercury Vapor page? For detailed information on Mercury Vapor as exploration techniques,...

293

Aeolian depositional landforms of the south eastern Mojave Desert, California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Remote sensing and photo interpretation techniques are used to describe and map aeolian deposits found along two sediment transport corridors in the south eastern Mojave Desert. The first pathway and associated sand deposits extend eastward from...

Alvis, William Thomas

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Ion-beam-induced epitaxial vapor-phase growth: A molecular-dynamics study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Low-energy ions which bombard a vapor-deposited film of low adatom mobility during growth mobilize surface atoms in the vicinity of the ion impact, causing a modification in the evolving microstructure. In a two-dimensional molecular-dynamics simulation where inert-gas ions strike a growing film of Lennard-Jones particles, it is demonstrated that ion bombardment during growth causes the filling of voids quenched in during vapor condensation and induces homoepitaxial growth. The dependence of film density and degree of homoepitaxial growth on the ion-to-vapor arrival rate ratio and ion energy is studied in detail.

Karl-Heinz Müller

1987-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

Atmospheric plasma deposition of diamond-like carbon coatings Angela M. Ladwig a,b,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric plasma deposition of diamond-like carbon coatings Angela M. Ladwig a,b, , Ronald D Available online xxxx Keywords: Atmospheric pressure plasma Diamond-like carbon deposition DLC PECVD The atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of diamond-like carbon (DLC) has been

Hicks, Robert F.

296

Electrical transport and structural study of CuCr1 ? xMgxO2 delafossite thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The growth and properties of delafossites CuCr1 ? xMgxO2 thin films are examined. These films are grown by pulsed laser deposition. As a class of materials delafossites have received recent interest since some members show p-type behavior. While not considered true wide-bandgap materials due to a narrow indirect bandgap that fails to adsorb light due to a forbidden same parity transition, optical transparencies greater than 40% in the visible can be observed. In order to be useful for transparent device applications, CuCr1 ? xMgxO2 films are needed with low resistivity and high optical transparency. Epitaxial films of CuCr1 ? xMgxO2 were grown on c-sapphire, examining the effects of oxygen pressure and growth temperature on film properties. Films were realized with resistivity of ~ 0.02 ?-cm and optical transparency of 40% in the visible. The formation of a problematic secondary minority spinel phase of (Cu,Mg)Cr2O4 is discussed. While conductivity increases substantially with Mg doping, the incidence of the spinel phase increases as well.

P.W. Sadik; M. Ivill; V. Craciun; D.P. Norton

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Process and Hardware for Deposition of Complex Thin-film Alloys...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

For example, a ternary alloy of Cd1-xMgxTe can be made by feeding Mg vapor to a CdTe CSS deposition source. Many other material combinations are possible for growth of thin...

298

The Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Some Primary Amines of Pharmaceutical Importance by Correlation Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by Correlation Gas Chromatography Chase Gobble, Nigam Rath, and James Chickos* Department of Chemistry Information ABSTRACT: Vapor pressures, vaporization, and sublimation enthalpies of several pharmaceuticals and boiling temperatures when available. Sublimation enthalpies and vapor pressures are also evaluated for 1

Chickos, James S.

299

Nanostructured Silicon Membranes for Control of Molecular Transport  

SciTech Connect

A membrane that allows selective transport of molecular species requires precise engineering on the nanoscale. Membrane permeability can be tuned by controlling the physical structure of the pores. Here, a combination of electron-beam and optical lithography, along with cryogenic deep reactive ion etching, has been used to fabricate silicon membranes that are physically robust, have uniform pore-sizes, and are directly integrated into a microfluidic network. Additional reductions in pore size were achieved using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon dioxide to coat membrane surfaces. Cross sectioning of the membranes using focused ion beam milling was used to determine the physical shape of the membrane pores before and after coating.

Srijanto, Bernadeta R [ORNL] [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL] [ORNL; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson [ORNL] [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Deposition Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pulsed Plasma Processing Pulsed Plasma Processing NEW: Downloadable: Invited Talk "Pulsed Metal Plasmas," presented at the 2006 AVS Meeting, San Francisco, California, November 15, 2006. (PDF, file size 8 MB). Plasma Sources for Window Coatings Deposition processes for low-emittance and solar control coatings can be improved through the use of advanced plasma technology developed at LBNL. A new type of constricted glow-discharge plasma source was selected for the 1997 R&D 100 Award. Invented by LBNL researchers Andre Anders, Mike Rubin, and Mike Dickinson, the source was designed to be compatible with industrial vacuum deposition equipment and practice. Construction is simple, rugged and inexpensive. It can operate indefinitely over a wide range of chamber pressure without any consumable parts such as filaments or grids. Several different gases including Argon, Oxygen and Nitrogen have been tested successfully.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor transport deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

VAPORIZATION THERMODYNAMICS OF KCl. COMBINING VAPOR PRESSURE AND GRAVIMETRIC DATA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.B. Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119899, Russia Bonnell D.W., Hastie J.W. National temperature chemistry situations, vapor pressures are typically less than 100 kPa. The molar volume is p = 101325 Pa). The subscript trs denotes that the changeisfor a transition, typically sublimation

Rudnyi, Evgenii B.

302

Deposition of dopant impurities and pulsed energy drive-in  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor doping process which enhances the dopant incorporation achievable using the Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) technique. The enhanced doping is achieved by first depositing a thin layer of dopant atoms on a semiconductor surface followed by exposure to one or more pulses from either a laser or an ion-beam which melt a portion of the semiconductor to a desired depth, thus causing the dopant atoms to be incorporated into the molten region. After the molten region recrystallizes the dopant atoms are electrically active. The dopant atoms are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or other known deposition techniques.

Wickboldt, Paul (Walnut Creek, CA); Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Jose, CA); Ellingboe, Albert R. (Malahide, IE)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Deposition of dopant impurities and pulsed energy drive-in  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor doping process which enhances the dopant incorporation achievable using the Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) technique. The enhanced doping is achieved by first depositing a thin layer of dopant atoms on a semiconductor surface followed by exposure to one or more pulses from either a laser or an ion-beam which melt a portion of the semiconductor to a desired depth, thus causing the dopant atoms to be incorporated into the molten region. After the molten region recrystallizes the dopant atoms are electrically active. The dopant atoms are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or other known deposition techniques.

Wickboldt, Paul (Walnut Creek, CA); Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA); Ellingboe, Albert R. (Fremont, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Pulsed Laser Deposition | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pulsed Laser Deposition Pulsed Laser Deposition EMSL's pulsed laser deposition (PLD) system is designed for epitaxial growth of oxide, ceramic, or synthetic mineral thin films and...

305

Chemical deposition methods using supercritical fluid solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for depositing a film of a desired material on a substrate comprises dissolving at least one reagent in a supercritical fluid comprising at least one solvent. Either the reagent is capable of reacting with or is a precursor of a compound capable of reacting with the solvent to form the desired product, or at least one additional reagent is included in the supercritical solution and is capable of reacting with or is a precursor of a compound capable of reacting with the first reagent or with a compound derived from the first reagent to form the desired material. The supercritical solution is expanded to produce a vapor or aerosol and a chemical reaction is induced in the vapor or aerosol so that a film of the desired material resulting from the chemical reaction is deposited on the substrate surface. In an alternate embodiment, the supercritical solution containing at least one reagent is expanded to produce a vapor or aerosol which is then mixed with a gas containing at least one additional reagent. A chemical reaction is induced in the resulting mixture so that a film of the desired material is deposited.

Sievers, Robert E. (Boulder, CO); Hansen, Brian N. (Boulder, CO)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

LNG Vaporizer Utilizing Vacuum Steam Condensing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This report concerns the field test results of a new type of peak-shaving LNG vaporizer (VSV) whose heat source is ... heat of vacuum steam to vaporize and superheat LNG within heat transfer tubes. Prior to the.....

Y. Miyata; M. Hanamure; H. Kujirai; Y. Sato…

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Running-Film Vaporizer for LNG  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Advances in welding technology and steel fabrication techniques have permitted the development of a new concept in cryogenic vaporizers—the running-film plate vaporizer. Although similar in heat transfer philosop...

H. H. West; G. L. Puckett

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Vapor Retarder Classification- Building America Top Innovation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This Building America Innovations profile describes research in vapor retarders. Since 2006 the IRC has permitted Class III vapor retarders like latex paint (see list above) in all climate zones under certain conditions thanks to research by Building America teams.

309

Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Volatilized metal compounds retard vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

Warren, Barbara K. (Charleston, WV)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Molybdenum enhanced low-temperature deposition of crystalline silicon nitride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for chemical vapor deposition of crystalline silicon nitride is described which comprises the steps of: introducing a mixture of a silicon source, a molybdenum source, a nitrogen source, and a hydrogen source into a vessel containing a suitable substrate; and thermally decomposing the mixture to deposit onto the substrate a coating comprising crystalline silicon nitride containing a dispersion of molybdenum silicide. 5 figures.

Lowden, R.A.

1994-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

311

TULSA UNIVERSITY PARAFFIN DEPOSITION PROJECTS  

SciTech Connect

As oil and gas production moves to deeper and colder water, subsea multiphase production systems become critical for economic feasibility. It will also become increasingly imperative to adequately identify the conditions for paraffin precipitation and predict paraffin deposition rates to optimize the design and operation of these multiphase production systems. Although several oil companies have paraffin deposition predictive capabilities for single-phase oil flow, these predictive capabilities are not suitable for the multiphase flow conditions encountered in most flowlines and wellbores. For deepwater applications in the Gulf of Mexico, it is likely that multiphase production streams consisting of crude oil, produced water and gas will be transported in a single multiphase pipeline to minimize capital cost and complexity at the mudline. Existing single-phase (crude oil) paraffin deposition predictive tools are clearly inadequate to accurately design these pipelines because they do not account for the second and third phases, namely, produced water and gas. The objective of this program is to utilize the current test facilities at The University of Tulsa, as well as member company expertise, to accomplish the following: enhance our understanding of paraffin deposition in single and two-phase (gas-oil) flows; conduct focused experiments to better understand various aspects of deposition physics; and, utilize knowledge gained from experimental modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for predicting paraffin deposition in single and two-phase flow environments. These refined computer models will then be tested against field data from member company pipelines. The following deliverables are scheduled during the first three projects of the program: (1) Single-Phase Studies, with three different black oils, which will yield an enhanced computer code for predicting paraffin deposition in deepwater and surface pipelines. (2) Two-Phase Studies, with a focus on heat transfer and paraffin deposition at various pipe inclinations, which will be used to enhance the paraffin deposition code for gas-liquid flow in pipes. (3) Deposition Physics and Water Impact Studies, which will address the aging process, improve our ability to characterize paraffin deposits and enhance our understanding of the role water plays in paraffin deposition in deepwater pipelines. As in the previous two studies, knowledge gained in this suite of studies will be integrated into a state-of-the-art three-phase paraffin deposition computer program.

Michael Volk; Cem Sarica

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Vapor Pressures and Heats of Vaporization of Primary Coal Tars  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

/ PC92544-18 / PC92544-18 VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS FINAL REPORT Grant Dates: August, 1992 - November, 1996 Principal Authors: Eric M. Suuberg (PI) and Vahur Oja Report Submitted: April, 1997 Revised: July, 1997 Grant Number: DE-FG22-92PC92544 Report Submitted by: ERIC M. SUUBERG DIVISION OF ENGINEERING BROWN UNIVERSITY PROVIDENCE, RI 02912 TEL. (401) 863-1420 Prepared For: U. S. DEPT. OF ENERGY FEDERAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CENTER P.O. BOX 10940 PITTSBURGH, PA 15236 DR. KAMALENDU DAS, FETC, MORGANTOWN , WV TECHNICAL PROJECT OFFICER "US/DOE Patent Clearance is not required prior to the publication of this document" ii United States Government Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any

313

Means and method for vapor generation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid, in heat transfer contact with a surface heated to a temperature well above the vaporization temperature of the liquid, will undergo a multiphase (liquid-vapor) transformation from 0% vapor to 100% vapor. During this transition, the temperature driving force or heat flux and the coefficients of heat transfer across the fluid-solid interface, and the vapor percentage influence the type of heating of the fluid--starting as "feedwater" heating where no vapors are present, progressing to "nucleate" heating where vaporization begins and some vapors are present, and concluding with "film" heating where only vapors are present. Unstable heating between nucleate and film heating can occur, accompanied by possibly large and rapid temperature shifts in the structures. This invention provides for injecting into the region of potential unstable heating and proximate the heated surface superheated vapors in sufficient quantities operable to rapidly increase the vapor percentage of the multiphase mixture by perhaps 10-30% and thereby effectively shift the multiphase mixture beyond the unstable heating region and up to the stable film heating region.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Analysis of emitter material transport in thermionic converter  

SciTech Connect

Output power and efficiency of a thermionic converter depend on temperatures, cesiated work functions, and emissivities of electrodes as well as the interelectrode gap size. Operation lifetime of a thermionic converter is directly related to the values as well as the stability of these parameters, which can be seriously altered by the transport of emitter material to the collector during operation. Loss rate of tungsten, a preferred emitter material, by sublimation at typical operating temperatures is small (about 3{times}10{sup 7} atom/cm{sup 2}sec at 2000 K). The loss rate, however, can be several orders of magnitude higher in the presence of gaseous contaminants. Accelerated transport of emitter material to collector surface changes the effective emissivity and work functions of the electrodes, resulting in performance degradation. A phenomenological model was developed to simulate emitter material transport to the collector in the presence of oxygen, water vapor, and carbon oxide contaminants. The model accounts for interaction of these contaminants with both emitter and collector. Model results were in agreement with experimental data and theoretical results of other investigators. An analysis was performed to determine steady-state chemical composition of deposited material onto the collector surface in the presence of H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} gaseous contaminants. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Paramonov, D.V.; El-Genk, M.S. [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Ambipolar silicon nanowire FETs with stenciled-deposited metal gate Davide Sacchetto  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ambipolar silicon nanowire FETs with stenciled-deposited metal gate Davide Sacchetto , Veronica Keywords: Schottky barrier Ambipolarity Si nanowire Stencil lithography FET Silicide a b s t r a c t We chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) of amorphous Si (a-Si) and SiO2 layers as well as metal gate patterning

De Micheli, Giovanni

316

Low energy ion beam assisted deposition of a spin valve J. J. Quan,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low energy ion beam assisted deposition of a spin valve J. J. Quan,a S. A. Wolf, and H. N. G. Wadley Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science interfacial structures can be created using low energy, ion assisted vapor deposition techniques with ion

Wadley, Haydn

317

3708 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 47, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2009 Retrieval of Atmospheric Water Vapor Density With  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3708 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 47, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2009 Retrieval, remote sensing, water vapor. Manuscript received November 1, 2008; revised May 2, 2009 and August 8, 2009 the latent heat of vaporization is a principal mechanism for the transport of energy from the equatorial

Reising, Steven C.

318

Atomic absorption monitor for deposition process control of aluminum at 394 nm using frequency-doubled diode laser  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atomic absorption monitor for deposition process control of aluminum at 394 nm using frequency November 1995 A monitor for Al vapor density based on atomic absorption AA using a frequency of atomic absorption AA as a monitor for thickness and composition control in physical vapor deposi- tion

Fejer, Martin M.

319

Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated. 8 figs.

Jankowski, A.F.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Rambach, G.D.; Randich, E.

1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

320

Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.

Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Rambach, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Randich, Erik (Endinboro, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor transport deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.

Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Rambach, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Randich, Erik (Endinboro, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Desalination of water by vapor transport through hydrophobic nanopores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although Reverse osmosis (RO) is the state-of-the-art desalination technology, it still suffers from persistent drawbacks including low permeate flux, low selectivity for non-ionic species, and lack of resistance to chlorine. ...

Lee, Jongho, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Wick for metal vapor laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved wick for a metal vapor laser is made of a refractory metal cylinder, preferably molybdenum or tungsten for a copper laser, which provides the wicking surface. Alternately, the inside surface of the ceramic laser tube can be metalized to form the wicking surface. Capillary action is enhanced by using wire screen, porous foam metal, or grooved surfaces. Graphite or carbon, in the form of chunks, strips, fibers or particles, is placed on the inside surface of the wick to reduce water, reduce metal oxides and form metal carbides.

Duncan, David B. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Non-Vapor Compression HVAC Technologies Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

While vapor-compression technologies have served heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) needs very effectively, and have been the dominant HVAC technology for close to 100 years, the conventional refrigerants used in vapor-compression equipment contribute to global climate change when released to the atmosphere. The Building Technologies Office is evaluating low-global warming potential (GWP) alternatives to vapor-compression technologies.

325

Ash aerosol formation from oxy-coal combustion and its relation to ash deposit chemistry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Ash aerosol and ash deposit formation during oxy-coal combustion were explored through experiments in a self-sustained 100 kW rated down-fired oxy-fuel combustor. Inlet oxidant conditions consisted of 50% inlet oxygen with CO2 (hereafter denoted as OXY50 conditions). A Berner low pressure impactor (BLPI), a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) were used to obtain size segregated ash aerosol samples and to determine the particle size distributions (PSD). A novel surface temperature controlled ash deposition probe system that allowed inside and outside deposits to be separated was used to collect the ash deposits. The ash aerosol \\{PSDs\\} given by the BLPI and those produced by SMPS/APS were consistent with each other. Data suggested that oxy-coal combustion under these conditions did not change the formation mechanisms controlling the bulk ash aerosol composition, but it did increase the formation of ultra-fine particles initially formed through metal vaporization, due to increased vaporization of silicon at the higher combustion temperature. The smaller particles contained within the deposits had higher Si and lower Na and S concentrations under OXY50 conditions than for air combustion. Moreover, the ash aerosol composition for particle sizes less than 2.4 ?m was related to the composition of the inside deposits. A higher Na in the ash aerosol resulted in higher Na in inside deposits with comparable absolute Na concentrations in both those aerosol particles and those inside deposits particles. The contribution of S and Si to the inside deposits showed that S in the vaporization modes together with Si in the ultrafine vaporization mode, contributed significantly to the composition of the inside deposits. These results provided direct evidence that prediction of the chemistry of the initial deposit layer (but not of the bulk deposits) required knowledge of the size segregated chemistry of the ash aerosol.

Zhonghua Zhan; Andrew Fry; Yanwei Zhang; Jost O.L. Wendt

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) Exploration Activity Details Location Unspecified Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Surface soil-mercury surveys are an inexpensive and useful exploration tool for geothermal resources. ---- Surface geochemical surveys for mercury were conducted in 16 areas in 1979-1981 by ARCO Oil and Gas Company as part of its geothermal evaluation program. Three techniques used together have proved satisfactory in evaluating surface mercury data. These are contouring, histograms and cumulative frequency plots of the data. Contouring geochemical data and constructing histograms are standard

327

Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Volatilized metal compounds are described which are capable of retarding vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

Warren, B.K.

1991-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

328

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

SciTech Connect

A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

Novick, Vincent J.; Johnson, Stanley A.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

1999-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

330

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

Novick, Vincent J. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product  

SciTech Connect

The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) value-added product (VAP) computes precipitable water vapor using neural network techniques from data measured by the GVR. The GVR reports time-series measurements of brightness temperatures for four channels located at 183.3 ± 1, 3, 7, and 14 GHz.

Koontz, A; Cadeddu, M

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

332

Observation of photoluminescence from Al1 xInxN heteroepitaxial films grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Observation of photoluminescence from Al1 xInxN heteroepitaxial films grown by metalorganic vapor have observed photoluminescence of Al1 xInxN films. The films were grown on GaN by atmospheric pressure-temperature deposited AlN buffer layer. Photoluminescence, absorption, and x-ray diffraction measurements have shown

Wetzel, Christian M.

333

Quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler for sampling semi-volatile organic gases and particulate components. A semi-volatile organic reversible gas sorbent macroreticular resin agglomerates of randomly packed microspheres with the continuous porous structure of particles ranging in size between 0.05-10 .mu.m for use in an integrated diffusion vapor-particle sampler.

Gundel, Lara (Berkeley, CA); Daisey, Joan M. (Walnut Creek, CA); Stevens, Robert K. (Cary, NC)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

LNG fire and vapor control system technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Demonstration of a vapor density monitoring system using UV radiation generated from quasi-phasematched SHG waveguide devices  

SciTech Connect

Many industrial applications require non-intrusive diagnostics for process monitoring and control. One example is the physical vapor deposition of titanium alloys. In this paper we present a system based on laser absorption spectroscopy for monitoring titanium vapor. Appropriate transitions for monitoring high rate vaporization of titanium require extension of available IR diode technology to the UV. The heart of this vapor density monitoring system is the 390nm radiation generated from quasi-phase matched interactions within periodically poled waveguides. In this paper, key system components of a UV laser absorption spectroscopy based system specific for titanium density monitoring are described. Analysis is presented showing the minimum power levels necessary from the ultraviolet laser source. Performance data for prototype systems using second harmonic generation (SHG) waveguide technology is presented. Application of this technology to other alloy density monitoring systems is discussed.

Galanti, S.A.; Berzins, L.V.; Brown, J.B.; Tamosaitis, R.S.; Bortz, M.L.; Day, T.; Fejer, M.M.; Wang, W.

1996-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

336

TULSA UNIVERSITY PARAFFIN DEPOSITION PROJECTS  

SciTech Connect

As oil and gas production moves to deeper and colder water, subsea multiphase production systems become critical for economic feasibility. It will also become increasingly imperative to adequately identify the conditions for paraffin precipitation and predict paraffin deposition rates to optimize the design and operation of these multi-phase production systems. Although several oil companies have paraffin deposition predictive capabilities for single-phase oil flow, these predictive capabilities are not suitable for the multiphase flow conditions encountered in most flowlines and wellbores. For deepwater applications in the Gulf of Mexico, it is likely that multiphase production streams consisting of crude oil, produced water and gas will be transported in a single multiphase pipeline to minimize capital cost and complexity at the mudline. Existing single-phase (crude oil) paraffin deposition predictive tools are clearly inadequate to accurately design these pipelines, because they do not account for the second and third phases, namely, produced water and gas. The objective of this program is to utilize the current test facilities at The University of Tulsa, as well as member company expertise, to accomplish the following: enhance our understanding of paraffin deposition in single and two-phase (gas-oil) flows; conduct focused experiments to better understand various aspects of deposition physics; and, utilize knowledge gained from experimental modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for predicting paraffin deposition in single and two-phase flow environments. These refined computer models will then be tested against field data from member company pipelines.

Cem Sarica; Michael Volk

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Molecular Layer Deposition on Carbon Nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

They were fabricated by compressing a CNT aerogel produced as an output from a chemical vapor deposition furnace. ... The CNT3 specimens may be harder in general to coat due to their smaller diameter in comparison to the other materials. ... (1) Data tables for mechanical test results parallel and perpendicular to the CNT sheet orientation; (2) additional SEM and TEM images of coated CNT materials; (3) additional EDS spectra of MLD coatings on CNTs, and comparison to Al2O3 ALD coating on CNTs. ...

Joseph J. Brown; Robert A. Hall; Paul E. Kladitis; Steven M. George; Victor M. Bright

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

338

ARM - Field Campaign - Water Vapor IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Water Vapor IOP 2000.09.18 - 2000.10.08 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb Data Availability Yes For data sets, see below. Description Scientific hypothesis: 1. Microwave radiometer (MWR) observations of the 22 GHz water vapor line can accurately constrain the total column amount of water vapor (assuming a calibration accuracy of 0.5 degC or better, which translates into 0.35 mm PWV). 2. Continuous profiling by Raman lidar provides a stable reference for handling sampling problems and observes a fixed column directly above the site only requiring a single height- independent calibration factor. 3. Agreement between the salt-bath calibrated in-situ probes, chilled

339

Disilane- and siloxane-bridged biphenyl and bithiophene derivatives as electron-transporting materials in \\{OLEDs\\}  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Optical, electrochemical, and electron-transporting properties of disilane- and siloxane-bridged biphenyl and bithiophene derivatives were investigated, in comparison with those of the monosilane-bridged analogues (siloles). The UV spectra and cyclic voltammograms indicated that elongation of the silicon bridge suppresses the ?-conjugation, in accordance with the results of DFT calculations. The DFT calculations indicated also that the disilane-bridged biphenyl and siloxane-bridged bithiophene should have the low-lying \\{HOMOs\\} and LUMOs. The electron-transporting properties were evaluated by the performance of triple-layered \\{OLEDs\\} having vapor-deposited films of the Si-bridged compound, Alq3, and TPD, as the electron-transport, emitter, and hole-transport, respectively. Of these, the device with a disilane-bridged biphenyl exhibited the high performance with the maximum current density of 590 mA/cm2 at the applied electric field of 12 × 107 V/m (applied bias voltage = 13 V) and the maximum luminance of 22 000 cd/m2 at 13 × 107 V/m.

Hiroyuki Kai; Joji Ohshita; Sayaka Ohara; Naohiro Nakayama; Atsutaka Kunai; In-Sook Lee; Young-Woo Kwak

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Ground Gravity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor transport deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymers for Chemical Vapor Sensing. | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Acidic Polymers for Chemical Vapor Sensing. Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymers for Chemical Vapor Sensing. Abstract: A review with 171 references. Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers for...

342

Ash & Pulverized Coal Deposition in Combustors & Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

Further progress in achieving the objectives of the project was made in the period of October 1 to December 31, 1996. In particular, the sublayer model for evaluating the particle deposition in turbulent flows was extended to include the effect of particle rebound. A new more advance flow model for the near wall vortices is also used in these analysis. The computational model for simulating particle transport in turbulent flows was used to analyze the dispersion and deposition of particles in a recirculating flow region. The predictions of the particle resuspension model is compared with the experimental data. It is shown that when the effects of the near wall flow structure, as we as the surface roughness are included the model agrees with the available experimental data. Considerable progress was also made in the direct numerical simulation of particle removal process in turbulent gas flows. Experimental data for transport and deposition of glass fiber in the aerosol wind tunnel was also obtained.

Goodarz Ahmadi

1998-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

343

RAMAN AND IR STUDY OF NARROW BANDGAP A-SIGE AND C-SIGE FILMS DEPOSITED USING DIFFERENT HYDROGEN DILUTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) with a fixed germane to disilane ratio of 0.72 and a wide range], cathode deposition [2], and using disilane- germane mixture without H dilution [3] in PECVD process. A gas mixture of disilane, germane and hydrogen was used with a fixed germane to disilane ratio of 0

Deng, Xunming

344

Oxygen-assisted room-temperature deposition of CoPt3 films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen-assisted room-temperature deposition of CoPt3 films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy B Jolla, California 92093 Received 23 July 2002; accepted 30 September 2002 Trace amounts of oxygen CoPt3 grown by vapor deposition at or slightly above room temperature. Oxygen is known to act

Hellman, Frances

345

Posters Toward an Operational Water Vapor Remote Sensing System Using the Global Positioning System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 Posters Toward an Operational Water Vapor Remote Sensing System Using the Global Positioning System S. I. Gutman, (a) R. B. Chadwick, (b) and D. W. Wolf (c) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado A. Simon Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science Boulder, Colorado T. Van Hove and C. Rocken University Navstar Consortium Boulder, Colorado Background Water vapor is one of the most important constituents of the free atmosphere since it is the principal mechanism by which moisture and latent heat are transported and cause "weather." The measurement of atmospheric water vapor is essential for weather and climate research as well as for operational weather forecasting. An important goal in modern weather prediction is to improve the accuracy of short-term

346

Recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing vapors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Values are recovered from a hydrocarbon-containing vapor by contacting the vapor with quench liquid consisting essentially of hydrocarbons to form a condensate and a vapor residue, the condensate and quench fluid forming a combined liquid stream. The combined liquid stream is mixed with a viscosity-lowering liquid to form a mixed liquid having a viscosity lower than the viscosity of the combined liquid stream to permit easy handling of the combined liquid stream. The quench liquid is a cooled portion of the mixed liquid. Viscosity-lowering liquid is separated from a portion of the mixed liquid and cycled to form additional mixed liquid.

Mirza, Zia I. (La Verne, CA); Knell, Everett W. (Los Alamitos, CA); Winter, Bruce L. (Danville, CA)

1980-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

347

Sandy Depositional Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Why is the study of sandy depositional systems central to the understanding of sand and sandstone? From earliest times geologists have wanted to know where and under what conditions a sandstone was deposited—t...

F. J. Pettijohn; Paul Edwin Potter; Raymond Siever

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Chemical vapor detection using nanomechanical platform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For high sensitive and multiplexed chemical analysis, an opto-mechanical detection platform has been built. To check the performance of the platform, we performed water vapor response measurements for ... sensors...

S. H. Lim

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Water Management in A PEMFC: Water Transport Mechanism and Material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Management in A PEMFC: Water Transport Mechanism and Material Degradation in Gas Diffusion on the water management of the PEMFC, namely the transport of product water (both liquid and vapor its water management performance and func- tion as indicators of the degradation of GDL material

Kandlikar, Satish

350

Vapor Power Systems MAE 4263 Final Exam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vapor Power Systems MAE 4263 Final Exam Wednesday, May 5, 2004 Prof. P.M. Moretti Key Instructions, then think, then write! 1. What is the dewpoint of the exhaust of your car, if the gasoline consists2 so that the mole fraction of water vapor is yH2 O = 9 9 + 8 + 47 = 0:14063 pH2 O = 0:14063 14

351

Optical monitor for water vapor concentration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma. 5 figs.

Kebabian, P.

1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

352

Optical monitor for water vapor concentration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma.

Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

S-shaped magnetic macroparticle filter for cathodic arc deposition  

SciTech Connect

A new magnetic macroparticle filter design consisting of two 90{sup o} filters forming an S-shape is described. Transport properties of this S-filter are investigated using Langmuir and deposition probes. It is shown that filter efficiency is product of the efficiencies of two 90{sup o} filters and the deposition rate is still acceptably high to perform thin film deposition. Films of amorphous hard carbon have been deposited using a 90{sup o} filter and the S-filter, and macroparticle content of the films are compared.

Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.; Brown, I.G.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Transportation Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transportation Services Transporting nuclear materials within the United States and throughout the world is a complicated and sometimes highly controversial effort requiring...

355

Local Transportation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Local Transportation. Transportation from the Airport to Hotel. There are two types of taxi companies that operate at the airport: special and regular taxis (

356

Vapor Pressures and Vaporization, Sublimation, and Fusion Enthalpies of Some Fatty Acids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vapor Pressures and Vaporization, Sublimation, and Fusion Enthalpies of Some Fatty Acids Joe A. Wilson and James S. Chickos* Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of MissouriSt. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63121, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Sublimation enthalpies

Chickos, James S.

357

Vapor Pressures and Vaporization Enthalpies of a Series of Dialkyl Phthalates by Correlation Gas Chromatography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chromatography Chase Gobble and James Chickos* Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis Missouri 63121, United States Sergey P. Verevkin Department of Physical Chemistry: Experimental vapor pressures, vaporization, fusion and sublimation enthalpies of a number of dialkyl

Chickos, James S.

358

Environmentally focused patterning and processing of polymer thin films by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) and oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The new millennium has brought fourth many technological innovations made possible by the advancement of high speed integrated circuits. The materials and energy requirements for a microchip is orders of magnitude higher ...

Trujillo, Nathan J. (Nathan Jeffrey)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Chamber transport  

SciTech Connect

Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system.

OLSON,CRAIG L.

2000-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

360

direct_deposit_111609  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PROTECT YOUR BANKING INFORMATION: PROTECT YOUR BANKING INFORMATION: DO NOT complete this form until you are ready to submit it to the Payroll Department. DIRECT DEPOSIT REQUEST Directions: 1. Provide required information neatly, legibly; 2. If Checking Account Direct Deposit, include a voided check. a. DO NOT submit a deposit slip! 3. If Savings Account Direct Deposit, include a copy of savings card. 4. Sign this form; 5. Inter-office mail it to Craft Payroll at "P238." DIRECT DEPOSITION AUTHORIZATION I hereby authorize Los Alamos National Laboratory, hereinafter called The Laboratory, to initiate credit entries and, if necessary, debit entries and adjustments for any credit entries in error to my account listed on this form. If deposit is for:

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor transport deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

ARM - Field Campaign - Water Vapor IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Water Vapor IOP 1996.09.10 - 1996.09.30 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb For data sets, see below. Summary SCHEDULE This IOP will be conducted from September 10 - 30, 1996 (coincident with the Fall ARM-UAV IOP). Instruments that do not require supervision will be operated continuously during this period. Instruments that do require supervision are presently planned to be operated for 8-hour periods each day. Because it is necessary to cover as broad a range of environmental conditions as possible, the daily 8-hour period will be shifted across the diurnal cycle as deemed appropriate during the IOP (but will be maintained as a contiguous 8-hour block).

362

atmospheric water vapor | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

atmospheric water vapor atmospheric water vapor Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. Source NREL Date Released July 31st, 2006 (8 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords atmospheric water vapor Carribean Islands Central America DNI GIS Mexico NREL GEF solar SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 247.8 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 370.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review

363

atmoshperic water vapor | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

atmoshperic water vapor atmoshperic water vapor Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude for China. Source NREL Date Released April 12th, 2005 (9 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords atmoshperic water vapor China GEF GIS NREL solar SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 625.6 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 704.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 01/01/1985 - 12/31/1991 License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL) Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote Usefulness of the dataset Average vote Your vote Ease of access

364

Spores from Devonian Deposits  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... IN a well-illustrated paper on "Spores from Devonian Deposits, Mimerdalen, Spitsbergen" (Norsk. Polarinstitutt Skrifter, No. 132, 1964), Jorunn Os Vigran deals with the dispersed ...

1965-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

365

EMSL - ion deposition  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

deposition en Physical Properties of Ambient and Laboratory-Generated Secondary Organic Aerosol. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsphysical-properties-ambient-and-labora...

366

EMSL - Deposition and Microfabrication  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ion beam for nanolithography and deposition and manipulation of structures at the nano scale* Microfabrication suite for designing and etching complex patterns into varied...

367

Vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103  

SciTech Connect

The Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program has developed, in cooperation with Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory, the equipment and expertise to characterize gases and vapors in the high-level radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in south central Washington State. This capability has been demonstrated by the characterization of the tank 241-C-103 headspace. This tank headspace is the first, and for many reasons is expected to be the most problematic, that will be characterized (Osborne 1992). Results from the most recent and comprehensive sampling event, sample job 7B, are presented for the purpose of providing scientific bases for resolution of vapor issues associated with tank 241-C-103. This report is based on the work of Clauss et al. 1994, Jenkins et al. 1994, Ligotke et al. 1994, Mahon et al. 1994, and Rasmussen and Einfeld 1994. No attempt has been made in this report to evaluate the implications of the data presented, such as the potential impact of headspace gases and vapors to tank farm workers health. That and other issues will be addressed elsewhere. Key to the resolution of worker health issues is the quantitation of compounds of toxicological concern. The Toxicology Review Panel, a panel of Pacific Northwest Laboratory experts in various areas, of toxicology, has chosen 19 previously identified compounds as being of potential toxicological concern. During sample job 7B, the sampling and analytical methodology was validated for this preliminary list of compounds of toxicological concern. Validation was performed according to guidance provided by the Tank Vapor Conference Committee, a group of analytical chemists from academic institutions and national laboratories assembled and commissioned by the Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program.

Huckaby, J.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Story, M.S. [Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc. Richland, WA (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Apparatus for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas.

Flynn, Paul L. (Fairview, PA); Giammarise, Anthony W. (Erie, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Apparatus for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice`s interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas. 2 figs.

Flynn, P.L.; Giammarise, A.W.

1995-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

370

Process for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance toerosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas.

Flynn, Paul L. (5139 Fox Park Dr., Fairview, PA 16415); Giammarise, Anthony W. (527 Lincoln Ave., Erie, PA 16505)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Deposition of WNxCy thin films for diffusion barrier application using the dimethylhydrazido (2-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thickness to the barrier scheme as well as an additional processing step. Binary transition metal compounds 13 April 2009 Available online xxxx Keywords: Chemical vapor deposition Metallization Tungsten nitride carbide Diffusion barrier X-ray diffraction Auger electron spectroscopy Tungsten nitride carbide

Anderson, Timothy J.

372

Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself. 4 figs.

Alger, T.

1988-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

373

Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Dawson, Jay W. (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA)

2006-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

374

Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Dawson, Jay W. (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA)

2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

375

ENERGY TRANSPORT IN STOCHASTICALLY PERTURBED LATTICE DYNAMICS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the energy when initially deposited close to the origin. If #12; = 0, the energy spreading is ballisticENERGY TRANSPORT IN STOCHASTICALLY PERTURBED LATTICE DYNAMICS GIADA BASILE, STEFANO OLLA according to a linear transport equation describing inelastic collisions. For an energy and momentum

Recanati, Catherine

376

Ash & Pulverized Coal Deposition in Combustors & Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

Further progress in achieving the objectives of the project was made in the period of January I to March 31, 1998. The direct numerical simulation of particle removal process in turbulent gas flows was completed. Variations of particle trajectories are studied. It is shown that the near wall vortices profoundly affect the particle removal process in turbulent boundary layer flows. Experimental data for transport and deposition of fibrous particles in the aerosol wind tunnel was obtained. The measured deposition velocity for irregular fibrous particles is compared with the empirical correlation and the available data for glass fibers and discussed. Additional progress on the sublayer model for evaluating the particle deposition and resuspension in turbulent flows was made.

Goodarz Ahmadi

1998-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

377

Solution deposition assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and devices are provided for improved deposition systems. In one embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system is provided for use with a solution and a substrate. The system comprises of a solution deposition apparatus; at least one heating chamber, at least one assembly for holding a solution over the substrate; and a substrate curling apparatus for curling at least one edge of the substrate to define a zone capable of containing a volume of the solution over the substrate. In another embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system for use with a substrate, the system comprising a solution deposition apparatus; at heating chamber; and at least assembly for holding solution over the substrate to allow for a depth of at least about 0.5 microns to 10 mm.

Roussillon, Yann; Scholz, Jeremy H; Shelton, Addison; Green, Geoff T; Utthachoo, Piyaphant

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

378

Environmental Chemistry at Vapor/Water Interfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Environmental Chemistry at Vapor/Water Interfaces: Insights from Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy Aaron M. Jubb, Wei Hua, and Heather C. Allen Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State/0505-0107$20.00 Keywords salts, lipids, atmospheric chemistry, ion binding, oxidation Abstract The chemistry that occurs

379

Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

Atkinson, David

2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

380

Program performs vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations  

SciTech Connect

A program designed for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV or 41C calculators solves basic vapor-liquid equilibrium problems, including figuring the dewpoint, bubblepoint, and equilibrium flash. The algorithm uses W.C. Edmister's method for predicting ideal-solution K values.

Rice, V.L.

1982-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor transport deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Synchroton X-Ray Studies of Liquid-Vapor Interfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The variation of density across the liquid-vapor interface from essentially zero density far out in the vapor phase to a homogeneous density deep in the liquid phase can be determined by X-ray reflectivity mea...

J. Als-Nielsen

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Vapor intrusion modeling : limitations, improvements, and value of information analyses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vapor intrusion is the migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a subsurface source into the indoor air of an overlying building. Vapor intrusion models, including the Johnson and Ettinger (J&E) model, can be ...

Friscia, Jessica M. (Jessica Marie)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Estimating the Atmospheric Water Vapor Content from Sun Photometer Measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The differential absorption technique for estimating columnar water vapor values from the analysis of sunphotometric measurements with wide- and narrowband interferential filters centered near 0.94 ?m is discussed and adapted. Water vapor line ...

Artemio Plana-Fattori; Michel Legrand; Didier Tanré; Claude Devaux; Anne Vermeulen; Philippe Dubuisson

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

OPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

given by U.S. Department of Energy, Geothermal Division. #12;vii Table of Contents ABSTRACTOPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS CONSIDERING ADSORPTION governing the behavior of vapor- dominated geothermal reservoirs. These mechanisms affect both

Stanford University

385

Pulsed laser deposited Si on multilayer graphene as anode material for lithium ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pulsed laser deposition and chemical vapor deposition were used to deposit very thin silicon on multilayer graphene (MLG) on a nickel foam substrate for application as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The as-grown material was directly fabricated into an anode without a binder and tested in a half-cell configuration. Even under stressful voltage limits that accelerate degradation the Si-MLG films displayed higher stability than Si-only electrodes. Post-cycling images of the anodes reveal the differences between the two material systems and emphasize the role of the graphene layers in improving adhesion and electrochemical stability of the Si.

Gouri Radhakrishnan; Brendan Foran; Michael V. Quinzio; Miles J. Brodie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Apparent Temperature Dependence on Localized Atmospheric Water Vapor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Apparent Temperature Dependence on Localized Atmospheric Water Vapor Matthew Montanaroa, Carl), hence water vapor is the primary constituent of concern. The tower generates a localized water vapor, Office B108, Aiken, SC, USA ABSTRACT The atmosphere is a critical factor in remote sensing. Radiance from

Salvaggio, Carl

387

Fundamental studies of the mechanisms of slag deposit formation: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of ash deposition on utility boilers have been studied. A heated tube furnace system was used in the study. Areas of consideration in the deposition mechanics were: close space knowledge of chemical composition and distribution of inorganic constituents in coal, transformations and reactions of the inorganic constituents in the flame, ash transport mechanisms, initial adhesion of ash particles to heat transfer surfaces and subsequently to each other to form a deposit, and further interactions of the deposited ash to grow a strong deposit. Interactions of deposited ash that cause changes in physical and chemical properties in an aged deposit are due to processes such as sintering, chemical reactions, and melting. The degree of these changes increases as the deposit grows from the heat transfer surfaces where it forms. All of these changes during the deposit formation process are coal-specific and are strongly dependent on the boiler configuration and operating conditions. 18 refs., 55 figs., 42 tabs.

Austin, L.G.; Benson, S.; Rabinovich, A.; Tangsathitkulchai, M.; Schobert H.H.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Perspectives on Deposition Velocity  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Deposition Deposition Velocity ... Going down the rabbit hole to explain that sinking feeling Brian DiNunno, Ph.D. Project Enhancement Corporation June 6 th , 2012 Discussion Framework ï‚— Development of the HSS Deposition Velocity Safety Bulletin ï‚— Broader discussion of appropriate conservatism within dispersion modeling and DOE-STD-3009 DOE-STD-3009 Dose Comparison "General discussion is provided for source term calculation and dose estimation, as well as prescriptive guidance for the latter. The intent is that calculations be based on reasonably conservative estimates of the various input parameters." - DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A.3 DOE-STD-3009 Dispersion

389

Thermal Energy Transport in Nanostructured Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermal Energy Transport in Nanostructured Materials Thermal Energy Transport in Nanostructured Materials Speaker(s): Ravi Prasher Date: August 25, 2008 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Ashok Gadgil World energy demand is expected to reach ~30 TW by 2050 from the current demand of ~13 TW. This requires substantial technological innovation. Thermal energy transport and conversion play a very significant role in more than 90% of energy technologies. All four modes of thermal energy transport, conduction, convection, radiation, and phase change (e.g. evaporation/boiling) are important in various energy technologies such as vapor compression power plants, refrigeration, internal combustion engines and building heating/cooling. Similarly thermal transport play a critical role in electronics cooling as the performance and reliability of

390

Advanced Membrane Systems: Recovering Wasteful and Hazardous Fuel Vapors at the Gasoline Tank  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Case study covering Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. and its membrane vapor processor that recovers fuel vapors from gasoline refueling.

391

EMSL: Capabilities: Deposition and Microfabrication  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deposition and Microfabrication Deposition and Microfabrication Additional Information Meet the Deposition and Microfabrication Experts Related EMSL User Projects Deposition and Microfabrication Tools are Applied to all Science Themes Deposition and Microfabrication brochure Designed to augment research important to a variety of disciplines, EMSL's Deposition and Microfabrication Capability tackles serious scientific challenges from a microscopic perspective. From deposition instruments that emphasize oxide films and interfaces to a state-of-the-art microfabrication suite, EMSL has equipment to tailor surfaces, as diverse as single-crystal thin films or nanostructures, or create the microenvironments needed for direct experimentation at micron scales. Users benefit from coupling deposition and microfabrication applications

392

Electrophoretic deposition of biomaterials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Wilson 2003). The use of citric acid as a dispersant allowed the deposition of thin...poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles embedded...stent for local drug delivery. Polyacrylic acid was used as surfactant because...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Water, Vapor, and Salt Dynamics in a Hot Repository  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a new model study examining the high temperature nuclear waste disposal concept at Yucca Mountain using MULTIFLUX, an integrated in-drift- and mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic model. The results show that a large amount of vapor flow into the drift is expected during the period of above-boiling temperatures. This phenomenon makes the emplacement drift a water/moisture attractor during the above-boiling temperature operation. The evaporation of the percolation water into the drift gives rise to salt accumulation in the rock wall, especially in the crown of the drift for about 1500 years in the example. The deposited salts over the drift footprint, almost entirely present in the fractures, may enter the drift either by rock fall or by water drippage. During the high temperature operation mode, the barometric pressure variation creates fluctuating relative humidity in the emplacement drift with a time period of approximately 10 days. Potentially wet and dry conditions and condensation on salt-laden drift wall sections may adversely affect the storage environment. Salt accumulations during the above-boiling temperature operation must be sufficiently addressed to fully understand the waste package environment during the thermal period. Until the questions are resolved, a below-boiling repository design is favored where the Alloy-22 will be less susceptible to localized corrosion. (authors)

Bahrami, Davood; Danko, George [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, 1664 N. Virginia St., Reno, NV, 89557 (United States); Walton, John [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University, El Paso, TX, 79968 (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Characterization of the Thermal Transport Through a Temporally-Varying Ash Layer.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ash deposits in commercial coal-fired boilers frequently pose serious maintenance challenges and decrease thermal efficiency. A better understanding of fundamental thermal transport properties in ash… (more)

Cundick,Darron Palmer 1979-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Precision micro drilling with copper vapor lasers  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed a copper vapor laser based micro machining system using advanced beam quality control and precision wavefront tilting technologies. Micro drilling has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratio up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled on a variety of metals with good quality. For precision trepanned holes, the hole-to-hole size variation is typically within 1% of its diameter. Hole entrance and exit are both well defined with dimension error less than a few microns. Materialography of sectioned holes shows little (sub-micron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone with surface roughness within 1--2 microns.

Chang, J.J.; Martinez, M.W.; Warner, B.E.; Dragon, E.P.; Huete, G.; Solarski, M.E.

1994-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

396

Studies of wax deposition in the Trans Alaska pipeline  

SciTech Connect

The crude oil being pumped into the Trans Alaska pipeline experiences considerable cooling during its 800-mile (1,287 km) journey from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez. The conditions during the initial flow period were favorable especially for the deposition of the waxy constituents of the crude on the pipeline wall. As time passed and the crude oil flow rate increased, segments of the pipeline warmed up to temperatures greater than that at which wax deposition occurs. This study investigated mechanisms of wax deposition and determined the expected nature and thickness of deposits in the pipeline as a function of time and distance. Results indicate that deposition during start-up is a consequence of 3 separate mechanisms which transport both dissolved and precipitated waxy residue laterally. 31 references.

Burger, E.D.; Perkins, T.K.; Striegler, J.H.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment.

Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA); Moses, Edward I. (Castro Valley, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Transportation Demand  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

page intentionally left blank page intentionally left blank 69 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Transportation Demand Module The NEMS Transportation Demand Module estimates transportation energy consumption across the nine Census Divisions (see Figure 5) and over ten fuel types. Each fuel type is modeled according to fuel-specific technology attributes applicable by transportation mode. Total transportation energy consumption is the sum of energy use in eight transport modes: light-duty vehicles (cars and light trucks), commercial light trucks (8,501-10,000 lbs gross vehicle weight), freight trucks (>10,000 lbs gross vehicle weight), buses, freight and passenger aircraft, freight and passenger rail, freight shipping, and miscellaneous

399

Instrument Series: Deposition and Microfabrication  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deposition and Microfabrication Deposition and Microfabrication Sputter Deposition System Only available at EMSL, the Discovery ® Deposition System has been customized to be a fully automated multi-functional "hybrid" instrument with several modes for thin film processing, including multi-target sputtering, effusion cell deposition, electron beam deposition, and in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) materials characterization. Unlike most systems, the Discovery ® Deposition System's unique configuration offers operational flexibility, efficiency, and control, allowing a range of applications and materials to be processed simultaneously. Because it is software controlled, users can provide their own "recipes" and have a complete log of what happens throughout the

400

Deposition of thin silicon layers on transferred large area graphene  

SciTech Connect

Physical vapor deposition of Si onto transferred graphene is investigated. At elevated temperatures, Si nucleates preferably on wrinkles and multilayer graphene islands. In some cases, however, Si can be quasi-selectively grown only on the monolayer graphene regions while the multilayer islands remain uncovered. Experimental insights and ab initio calculations show that variations in the removal efficiency of carbon residuals after the transfer process can be responsible for this behavior. Low-temperature Si seed layer results in improved wetting and enables homogeneous growth. This is an important step towards realization of electronic devices in which graphene is embedded between two Si layers.

Lupina, Grzegorz, E-mail: lupina@ihp-microelectronics.com; Kitzmann, Julia; Lukosius, Mindaugas; Dabrowski, Jarek; Wolff, Andre; Mehr, Wolfgang [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany)] [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany)

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor transport deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

WIPP Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transuranic Waste Transportation Container Documents Documents related to transuranic waste containers and packages. CBFO Tribal Program Information about WIPP shipments across...

402

Transportation Security  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Preliminary Draft - For Review Only 1 Transportation Security Draft Annotated Bibliography Review July 2007 Preliminary Draft - For Review Only 2 Work Plan Task * TEC STG Work...

403

Porous GaN nanowires synthesized using thermal chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Seo a , Jeunghee Park a,*, Hyunik Yang b , Bongsoo Kim c a Department of Chemistry, Korea University-791, Republic of Korea c Department of Chemistry, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon nanotube-confined reaction [4], arc discharge [5], laser ablation [6], sublimation [7], pyrolysis [8

Kim, Bongsoo

404

Unsteady mixed convection in horizontal ducts with applications to chemical vapor deposition processes  

SciTech Connect

Mixed convection in a horizontal rectangular duct of aspect ratio 4 heated from below with cold side walls was studied numerically for a non-Boussinesq fluid. Results are presented for a reduced temperature of 2.33 and a Rayleigh number of 130,700. The resulting flow field at Re = 25 consisted of four steady longitudinal vortices, symmetric about the duct centerline, with a leading transverse roll cell. A reduction to Re = 10 resulted in the introduction of traveling transverse waves. A further reduction Re = 5 resulted in a loss of symmetry about the duct centerline plane. Further work is underway to verify the Re = 5 results.

Spall, R.E. [Univ. of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering] [Univ. of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Ultrahigh growth rate of epitaxial silicon by chemical vapor deposition at low temperature with neopentasilane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- iane SiH4 to disilane Si2H6 , to trisilane, Si3H8 2 leads to increased epitaxy growth rates at the same growth rate was 0.6 nm/min, and the disilane growth rate was 8 nm/min. In this work, we explored the use

406

Light-emitting nanocrystalline silicon by low-pressure chemical-vapor deposition of disilane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Porous silicon is an attractive material for silicon optoelectronics. The great advantage of porous silicon lies on the simple way of production which makes silicon nanostructures easily available. After sever...

C. Manfredotti; F. Fizzotti; G. Amato

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Chemical Vapor Deposition Epitaxy of Silicon-based Materials using Neopentasilane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of dichlorosilane, silane, disilane, and neopentasilane vs. inverse temperature observed in our lab on Si(100 dichlorosilane is not observable, and that for silane and disilane were 0.6 and 8 ECS Transactions, 16 (10) 799 sources of dichlorosilane (DCS), silane, disilane and neopentasilane (NPS) precursor on (100) silicon

408

Highly Efficient Field Emission from Carbon Nanotube?Nanohorn Hybrids Prepared by Chemical Vapor Deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

§ Research and Development Department, NEC Lighting, Ltd., 3-1 Nichiden, Minakuchi, Koga, 528-8501, Japan ... However, the poor dispersibility of CNTs in solutions due to entanglement and bundling results in inhomogeneous distribution of CNTs in the electrodes, leading to patchy light emission. ... (25, 26) Their potential applications as catalyst supports,(25, 26) capacitor electrodes,(27) and drug carriers(28, 29) in medical fields have also been studied. ...

Ryota Yuge; Jin Miyawaki; Toshinari Ichihashi; Sadanori Kuroshima; Tsutomu Yoshitake; Tetsuya Ohkawa; Yasushi Aoki; Sumio Iijima; Masako Yudasaka

2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

409

Oxidative and initiated chemical vapor deposition for application to organic electronics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the first discovery of polymeric conductors in 1977, the research area of "organic electronics" has grown dramatically. However, methods for forming thin films comprised solely of conductive polymers are limited by ...

Im, Sung Gap

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

A kinetic model of diamond nucleation and silicon carbide interlayer formation during chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A kinetic model of diamond nucleation and silicon carbide interlayer formation during chemical February 2005 Available online 7 April 2005 Abstract The presence of thin silicon carbide intermediate of carbon atoms into the silicon carbide layer and the morphology and orientation of the diamond film

Dandy, David

411

Real-time optical diagnostics of graphene growth induced by pulsed chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics and mechanisms of graphene growth on Ni films at 720 -880 C have been measured using fast pulses of acetylene and real-time optical diagnostics. In situ UV-Raman spectroscopy was used to unambiguously detect isothermal graphene growth at high temperatures, measure the growth kinetics with ~ 1s temporal resolution, and estimate the fractional precipitation upon cooldown for the first time. Optical reflectivity and videography provided much faster temporal resolution. Both the growth kinetics and the fractional isothermal precipitation were found to be governed by the C2H2 partial pressure in the CVD pulse for a given film thickness and temperature, with up to ~ 94% of graphene growth occurring isothermally within 1 second at 800 C at high partial pressures. At lower partial pressures, isothermal graphene growth is shown to continue 10 seconds after the gas pulse. These flux-dependent growth kinetics are described in the context of a dissolution/precipitation model, where carbon rapidly dissolves into the Ni film and later precipitates driven by gradients in the chemical potential. The combination of pulsed-CVD and real-time optical diagnostics opens new opportunities to understand and control the fast, sub-second growth of graphene on various substrates at high temperatures.

Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL; Regmi, Murari [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Thonnard, Norbert [ORNL; Eres, Gyula [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Graphene-on-Insulator Transistors Made Using C on Ni Chemical-Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Graphene transistors are made by transferring a thin graphene film grown on Ni onto an insulating SiO[subscript 2] substrate. The properties and integration of these graphene-on-insulator transistors are presented and ...

Keast, Craig L.

413

Volatilities of Actinide and Lanthanide N,NDimethylaminodiboranate Chemical Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Supercomputing Institute, and Chemical Theory Center, University of Minnesota, 207 Pleasant Street SE, Switzerland § The School of Chemical Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews for technological applications such as capacitors, field effect transistors, displays, thermoelectric devices, light

Girolami, Gregory S.

414

Current Issues and Problems in the Chemical Vapor Deposition of Diamond  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...FOR DIAMOND COATINGS, JOURNAL...TO DIAMOND COATINGS, THIN SOLID...SAVVIDES, N, OPTICAL-CONSTANTS...DIAMOND CERAMIC COATING OF THE FUTURE...AND THEIR APPLICATION AS OVERCOATS ON THIN-FILM MEDIA FOR...EFFECT IN THE CVD GROWTH OF...

Walter A. Yarbrough; Russell Messier

1990-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

415

Low Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition of Zirconium Nitride in a Fluidized Bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thick) on uranium-molybdenum (UMo) particulate fuel. Plate-type fuel with U-xMo (x = 3 to 10 wt.%) particle fuel dispersed in an aluminum matrix is under development at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test...

Arrieta, Marie

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

416

Oxidative chemical vapor deposition of semiconducting polymers and their use In organic photovoltaics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have received significant interest for their potential low cost, high mechanical flexibility, and unique functionalities. OPVs employing semiconducting polymers in the photoactive layer have ...

Borrelli, David Christopher

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Growing carbon nanotubes by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

observed from multiwalled carbon nanotubes produced by arc discharge.6 Recent experimental studies have of nanocarbon on large scales ever since it was first observed at the cathode in an electric arc evaporation experi- ment where the anode had been consumed.1 In addition to the refinement of the arc discharge

Qin, Lu-Chang

418

Towards improved spinnability of chemical vapor deposition generated multi-walled carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for electric fields, such as those present in arc- dischargeelectric field during synthesis, such as that present in the arc-discharge

McKee, Gregg Sturdivant Burke

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Electrical optimization of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition chamber cleaning plasmas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fluorinated gas discharges are widely used by the semiconductor industry in etching and chamber cleaning applications but the performance of these discharges varies in unpredictable ways for unknown reasons believed to be electrical in origin. To investigate possible mechanisms for this behavior we have measured the electrical characteristics of NF 3 /Ar CF 4 /O 2 /Ar and C 2 F 6 /O 2 /Ar chamber cleaning plasmas at 6.7–267 Pa in a 13.56 MHz capacitively coupled parallel-plate reactor using radio-frequency current and voltage probes and optical emission spectroscopy. From the measurements power losses in the external circuitry surrounding the discharge were determined. Furthermore using the measurements and equivalent circuit models the mechanisms by which power was absorbed within the discharge itself were investigated. Power was absorbed most efficiently at particular values of the discharge impedance. These optimal impedances occur in the middle of a transition from capacitive impedances at low pressures to resistive impedances at high pressures. These results illustrate that the plasma impedance is a useful parameter for monitoring and optimizing plasma processes in highly electronegative gases.

M. A. Sobolewski; J. G. Langan; B. S. Felker

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Chemical vapor deposition of conjugated polymeric thin films for photonic and electronic applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) Conjugated polymers have delocalized electrons along the backbone, facilitating electrical conductivity. As thin films, they are integral to organic semiconductor devices emerging in the marketplace, such as flexible ...

Lock, John P

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor transport deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Unique Magnetic Properties of Single Crystal ?-Fe2O3 Nanowires Synthesized by Flame Vapor Deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Portions of this research were carried out at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, a Directorate of SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and an Office of Science User Facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science by Stanford University. ... by application of an external permanent magnet; no metal leaching from the catalyst is found, and the spent catalyst could be recycled for the aerobic oxidn. of benzyl alc. ... Understanding the correlation between magnetic properties and nanostructure involves collaborative efforts between chemists, physicists, and materials scientists to study both fundamental properties and potential applications. ...

Pratap M. Rao; Xiaolin Zheng

2011-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

422

Chem. Mater. 1994, 6, 2279-2287 2279 Chemical Vapor Deposition of Zinc from Diallyl Zinc  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-containingmaterials such as the 11-VI compound semiconductors used in the manufac- ture of light emitting diodes and solar cell. The organic byproducts generated under CVD conditions are 1,5- hexadiene (76 mol %), 2-methyl-1,Cpentadiene (14 mol %), and propene (10 mol %); except for the pentadiene product, analogous hydrocarbons

Girolami, Gregory S.

423

Evaluating the In Vitro Corrosion Behavior and Cytotoxicity of Vapor Deposited Magnesium Alloys.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Magnesium alloys are emerging as a promising class of bioabsorbable implant materials due to magnesium’s biocompatibility and propensity for corrosion. These alloys are useful for… (more)

Petrilli, John

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Low Temperature Direct Growth of Graphene Films on Transparent Substrates by Chemical Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

graphene in fields like electronics and optoelectronics.useful for electronics, optoelectronics and photovoltaic

Antoine, Geoffrey Sandosh Jeffy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Prevention of biofouling in seawater desalination via initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biofouling, the undesirable settlement and growth of organisms, occurs immediately when a clean surface is immersed in natural seawater. It is a universal problem and the bottleneck for seawater desalination, which reduces ...

Yang, Rong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Reactor design for uniform chemical vapor deposition-grown films without substrate rotation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A quartz reactor vessel for growth of uniform semiconductor films includes a vertical, cylindrical reaction chamber in which a substrate-supporting pedestal provides a horizontal substrate-supporting surface spaced on its perimeter from the chamber wall. A cylindrical confinement chamber of smaller diameter is disposed coaxially above the reaction chamber and receives reaction gas injected at a tangent to the inside chamber wall, forming a helical gas stream that descends into the reaction chamber. In the reaction chamber, the edge of the substrate-supporting pedestal is a separation point for the helical flow, diverting part of the flow over the horizontal surface of the substrate in an inwardly spiraling vortex.

Wanlass, Mark (Golden, CO)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Reactor design for uniform chemical vapor deposition-grown films without substrate rotation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A quartz reactor vessel for growth of uniform semiconductor films includes a vertical, cylindrical reaction chamber in which a substrate-supporting pedestal provides a horizontal substrate-supporting surface spaced on its perimeter from the chamber wall. A cylindrical confinement chamber of smaller diameter is disposed coaxially above the reaction chamber and receives reaction gas injected at a tangent to the inside chamber wall, forming a helical gas stream that descends into the reaction chamber. In the reaction chamber, the edge of the substrate-supporting pedestal is a separation point for the helical flow, diverting part of the flow over the horizontal surface of the substrate in an inwardly spiraling vortex.

Wanlass, M.

1985-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

428

Lithium manganese oxide films fabricated by electron beam directed vapor deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

material for high energy den- sity battery applications.7,8 Lithium­transition metal oxide films can.2. After annealing in air at 700 °C, thin films grown with a low jet speed had a cubic spinel structure Li/Li-ion batteries. © 2008 American Vacuum Society. DOI: 10.1116/1.2823488 I. INTRODUCTION Thin film

Wadley, Haydn

429

Epitaxial growth of aligned AlGalnN nanowires by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Highly ordered and aligned epitaxy of III-Nitride nanowires is demonstrated in this work. <1010> M-axis is identified as a preferential nanowire growth direction through a detailed study of GaN/AlN trunk/branch nanostructures by transmission electron microscopy. Crystallographic selectivity can be used to achieve spatial and orientational control of nanowire growth. Vertically aligned (Al)GaN nanowires are prepared on M-plane AlN substrates. Horizontally ordered nanowires, extending from the M-plane sidewalls of GaN hexagonal mesas or islands demonstrate new opportunities for self-aligned nanowire devices, interconnects, and networks.

Han, Jung (Woodbridge, CT); Su, Jie (New Haven, CT)

2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

430

Growth of magnesium oxide thin lms using single molecular precursors by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Growth of magnesium oxide thin ®lms using single molecular precursors by metal±organic chemical precursors; Silicon; Sapphire 1. Introduction Magnesium oxide (MgO) thin ®lms have attracted much attention MgO ®lms on Si(100) above 6508C by thermal CVD. Murayama and Shionoya [12] used magnesium 2

Boo, Jin-Hyo

431

Plasma and Ion Assistance in Physical Vapor Deposition: A Historical Perspective  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for energetic ion surface engineering. Ionized gases hadions. The development is far from being concluded given the increasing need of surface engineering

Anders, Andre

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Formation of Polycyanoacrylate?Silica Nanocomposites by Chemical Vapor Deposition of Cyanoacrylates on Aerogels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

While an improvement over untreated aerogels was observed, it is likely that the low molecular weights of the polycyanoacrylate making up the coating limited improvement in mechanical strength relative to the unmodified aerogel. ... Sol?gel preparations, CVD apparatus, NMR spectrum of solid state CVD coated aerogel, and data table of results from coatings (PDF). ...

Dylan J. Boday; Kimberly A. DeFriend; Kennard V. Wilson, Jr.; David Coder; Douglas A. Loy

2008-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

433

Current Issues and Problems in the Chemical Vapor Deposition of Diamond  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...SEMICONDUCTORS DIAMOND, GALLIUM NITRIDE AND SILICON-CARBIDE...FROM METHANE HYDROGEN WATER MIXED GAS-USING A MICROWAVE...diamond and cubic boron nitride (c-BN; Bora-zon...be related to a high solubility or mobility for C on...

Walter A. Yarbrough; Russell Messier

1990-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

434

Selective Chemical Vapor Deposition of Manganese Self-Aligned Capping Layer for Cu Interconnections  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

could not be broken apart. This Mn-enhanced binding strength of Cu to insulators is observed for all and nitrides. An adhesive tape is usually sufficient to remove copper films from these surfaces. Quantitative reliability because cobalt on the dielectric can increase leakage and lower the breakdown voltage.4 Cobalt

435

Direct Spinning of Carbon Nanotube Fibers from Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...types of fiber and to the spin coating of rotating objects in general...high-purity nanotubes to form an aerogel (19) in the furnace hot zone...macroscopic objects by spin coating differently shaped formers...nanotubes and the thickness of the coatings can be reasonably controlled...

Ya-Li Li; Ian A. Kinloch; Alan H. Windle

2004-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

436

Titanium Diboride Thin Films by Low-Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition from the Single Source Precursor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

metallic ceramic whose properties surpass those of transition metal nitride and carbide counterparts:1, and excellent corrosion resistance toward molten metals. In addition, it has a low electrical resistivity of 6 µ

Girolami, Gregory S.

437

Hydraulic fracturing slurry transport in horizontal pipes  

SciTech Connect

Horizontal-well activity has increased throughout the industry in the past few years. To design a successful hydraulic fracturing treatment for horizontal wells, accurate information on the transport properties of slurry in horizontal pipe is required. Limited information exists that can be used to estimate critical deposition and resuspension velocities when proppants are transported in horizontal wells with non-Newtonian fracturing gels. This paper presents a study of transport properties of various hydraulic fracturing slurries in horizontal pipes. Flow data are gathered in three transparent horizontal pipes with different diameters. Linear and crosslinked fracturing gels were studied, and the effects of variables--e.g., pipe size; polymer-gelling-agent concentration; fluid rheological properties; crosslinking effects; proppant size, density, and concentrations; fluid density; and slurry pump rate--on critical deposition and resuspension velocities were investigated. Also, equations to estimate the critical deposition and resuspension velocities of fracturing gels are provided.

Shah, S.N.; Lord, D.L. (Halliburton Services (US))

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 85, 061201 (2012) Temperature-difference-driven mass transfer through the vapor from a cold to a warm liquid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.1103/PhysRevE.85.061201 PACS number(s): 05.70.Np, 05.70.Ln, 64.70.fm I. INTRODUCTION ConditionsPHYSICAL REVIEW E 85, 061201 (2012) Temperature-difference-driven mass transfer through the vapor. The interfacial jumps allow unexpected transport phenomena, such as the inverted temperature profile [Pao, Phys

Struchtrup, Henning

439

Cathodic Arc Plasma Deposition  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Cathodic Arc Plasma Deposition Cathodic Arc Plasma Deposition André Anders Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, 1 Cyclotron Road, Mailstop 53, Berkeley, California 94720 aanders@lbl.gov Abstract Cathodic arc plasma deposition is one of oldest coatings technologies. Over the last two decades it has become the technology of choice for hard, wear resistant coatings on cutting and forming tools, corrosion resistant and decorative coatings on door knobs, shower heads, jewelry, and many other substrates. The history, basic physics of cathodic arc operation, the infamous macroparticle problem and common filter solutions are reviewed. Cathodic arc plasmas stand out due to their high degree of ionization, with important consequences for film nucleation, growth, and efficient utilization of substrate bias. The

440

Toxic oxide deposits from the combustion of landfill gas and biogas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oxide deposits found in combustion systems of landfill gas fired power stations contain relatively high concentrations ... They are selectively transported as part of the landfill gas into the gas-burning devices...

Dietmar Glindemann; Peter Morgenstern…

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor transport deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Atmospheric distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and deposition to Galveston Bay, Texas, USA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Estimates of the atmospheric deposition to Galveston Bay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are made using precipitation and meteorological data that were collected continuously from 2 February 1995 to 6 August 1996 at Seabrook, TX, USA. Particulate and vapor phase \\{PAHs\\} in ambient air and particulate and dissolved phases in rain samples were collected and analyzed. More than 95% of atmospheric \\{PAHs\\} were in the vapor phase and about 73% of \\{PAHs\\} in the rain were in the dissolved phase. Phenanthrene and napthalene were the dominant compounds in air vapor and rain dissolved phases, respectively, while 5 and 6 ring PAH were predominant in the particulate phase of both air and rain samples. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 4 to 161 ng m?3 in air samples and from 50 to 312 ng l?1 in rain samples. Temporal variability in total PAH air concentrations were observed, with lower concentrations in the spring and fall (4–34 ng m ?3) compared to the summer and winter (37–161 ng m?3). \\{PAHs\\} in the air near Galveston Bay are derived from both combustion and petroleum vaporization. Gas exchange from the atmosphere to the surface water is estimated to be the major deposition process for \\{PAHs\\} (1211 ?g m? 2 yr? 1), relative to wet deposition (130 ?g m?2 yr? 1) and dry deposition (99 ?g m?2 yr? 1). Annual deposition of \\{PAHs\\} directly to Galveston Bay from the atmosphere is estimated as 2  t yr?1.

June-Soo Park; Terry L. Wade; Stephen Sweet

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Thermally induced dispersion mechanisms for aluminum-based plate-type fuels under rapid transient energy deposition  

SciTech Connect

A thermally induced dispersion model was developed to analyze for dispersive potential and determine onset of fuel plate dispersion for Al-based research and test reactor fuels. Effect of rapid energy deposition in a fuel plate was simulated. Several data types for Al-based fuels tested in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor in Japan and in the Transient Reactor Test in Idaho were reviewed. Analyses of experiments show that onset of fuel dispersion is linked to a sharp rise in predicted strain rate, which futher coincides with onset of Al vaporization. Analysis also shows that Al oxidation and exothermal chemical reaction between the fuel and Al can significantly affect the energy deposition characteristics, and therefore dispersion onset connected with Al vaporization, and affect onset of vaporization.

Georgevich, V.; Taleyarkham, R.P.; Navarro-Valenti, S.; Kim, S.H.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

443

Raman spectroscopic study of carbon nanotubes prepared using Fe/ZnO-palm olein-chemical vapour deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized using Fe/ZnO catalyst by a dual-furnace thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method at 800-1000°C using nitrogen gas with a constant flow rate of 150 sccm/min as a gas carrier. Palm olein ...

Syazwan Afif Mohd Zobir; Suriani Abu Bakar; Saifollah Abdullah; Zulkarnain Zainal; Siti Halimah Sarijo; Mohamad Rusop

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

ARM - Field Campaign - Fall 1997 Water Vapor IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Vapor IOP Water Vapor IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Fall 1997 Water Vapor IOP 1997.09.15 - 1997.10.05 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb For data sets, see below. Summary The Water Vapor IOP was conducted as a follow-up to a predecessor IOP on water vapor held in September 1996. This IOP relied heavily on both ground-based guest and CART instrumentation and in-situ aircraft and tethered sonde/kite measurements. Primary operational hours were from 6 p.m. Central until at least midnight, with aircraft support normally from about 9 p.m. until midnight when available. However, many daytime measurements were made to support this IOP. The first Water Vapor IOP primarily concentrated on the atmosphere's lowest

445

G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from 15 channels between 170 and 183.310 GHz. Atmospheric emission in this spectral region is primarily due to water vapor, with some influence from liquid water. Channels between 170.0 and 176.0 GHz are particularly sensitive to the presence of liquid water. The sensitivity to water vapor of the 183.31-GHz line is approximately 30 times higher than at the frequencies of the two-channel microwave radiometer (MWR) for a precipitable water vapor (PWV) amount of less than 2.5 mm. Measurements from the GVRP instrument are therefore especially useful during low-humidity conditions (PWV < 5 mm). In addition to integrated water vapor and liquid water, the GVRP can provide low-resolution vertical profiles of water vapor in very dry conditions.

Caddeau, MP

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

446

Vapor port and groundwater sampling well  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus has been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing.

Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wylie, Allan H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Storing images in warm atomic vapor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reversible and coherent storage of light in atomic medium is a key-stone of future quantum information applications. In this work, arbitrary two-dimensional images are slowed and stored in warm atomic vapor for up to 30 $\\mu$s, utilizing electromagnetically induced transparency. Both the intensity and the phase patterns of the optical field are maintained. The main limitation on the storage resolution and duration is found to be the diffusion of atoms. A techniqueanalogous to phase-shift lithography is employed to diminish the effect of diffusion on the visibility of the reconstructed image.

M. Shuker; O. Firstenberg; R. Pugatch; A. Ron; N. Davidson

2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

448

Recovery of benzene in an organic vapor monitor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solid adsorbents available (silica gel, activated alumina, etc. ), activated charcoal is most frequently utilized. Activated charcoal has retentivity for sorbed vapors several times that of silica gel and it displays a selectivity for organic vapors... (diffusion rate) of the vapor molecules to the sur- face of the adsorbent. The adsorption process determine how effective the adsorbent collects and holds the contam- inant on the surface of the activated charcoal. Recovery of the contaminant from...

Krenek, Gregory Joel

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

449

Transportation Market Distortions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Highways, Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Evaluating Criticism of Transportation Costing, VictoriaFrom Here: Evaluating Transportation Diversity, Victoria

Litman, Todd

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

The effect of preceding elbows on aerosol deposition in subsequent flow elements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of penetration and L/D[t] were used to compare the straight tube deposition with and without an upstream bend in the transport system. Deposition velocities were calculated from the penetration values and were used to develop a correlation. The effect...

Ramakrishna, Nagaraj

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

451

Mercury Vapor At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) Mercury Vapor At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Haleakala Volcano Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes The field survey program on the northwest rift zone consisted of soil mercury and radon emanometry surveys, groundwater temperature and chemistry studies, Schlumberger resistivity soundings and self-potential profiles. Geophysical and geochemical surveys along this rift (southwest) were limited by difficult field conditions and access limitations. The geophysical program consisted of one Schlumberger sounding, one

452

Mercury Vapor At Vale Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Vale Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Exploration Activity Details...

453

Mercury Vapor At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Exploration Activity...

454

Mercury Vapor At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck,...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Exploration Activity...

455

Mercury Vapor At Desert Peak Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Desert Peak Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Exploration Activity Details...

456

Mercury Vapor At Socorro Mountain Area (Kooten, 1987) | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Socorro Mountain Area (Kooten, 1987) Exploration Activity Details Location...

457

Mercury Vapor At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Varekamp...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Exploration...

458

Thermal Performance of a Double-Tube Type Lng Vaporizer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This report concerns the confirmed test results and method of analysis of the thermal performance of a double-tube type LNG vaporizer (DTV). The DTV is a...

Y. Miyata; T. Miura; S. Kasahara; H. Shohtani…

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Optimal Control of Vapor Extraction of Heavy Oil.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Vapor extraction (Vapex) process is an emerging technology for viscous oil recovery that has gained much attention in the oil industry. However, the oil production… (more)

Muhamad, Hameed (Author)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Geographic Information System At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Nash...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geographic Information System At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Nash, Et Al., 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor transport deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor During the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

modifications reduced but could not eliminate these adverse effects. The Raman lidar water vapor (aerosol extinction) measurements produced by these modified algorithms were,...

462

Thermal Gradient Holes At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski,...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al.,...

463

Ground Magnetics At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) Exploration Activity Details Location Cove Fort Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Ground Magnetics Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding...

464

Spray structures and vaporizing characteristics of a GDI fuel spray  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The spray structures and distribution characteristics of liquid and vapor phases in non-evaporating and evaporating Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) fuel sprays were investigated using Laser Induced...

Dong-Seok Choi; Gyung-Min Choi; Duck-Jool Kim

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Gasification of Charcoal: Influence of Water Vapor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Direct use of biomass as a fuel offers a limited field of applications. Conversion of biomass to gases and liquids is of great importance to make transport of energy cheaper, gases and liquids being more easil...

J. R. Richard; M. Cathonnet; J. P. Rouan

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

The Effect of Magnetic Radiation on Pipeline Transportation of Crude Oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The deposition of paraffin wax during the pipeline transportation impedes the flow of crude oil and eventually blocks the pipelines. The hot oiling method is extensively used to control the wax deposition in the oil industry. Consequently, a huge amount ... Keywords: magnetic treatment, magnetic paraffin control technology, magnetic viscosity reducing, pipeline transportation, oil gathering

Zhang Weiwei; Zhang Guangyu; Dong Huijuan

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates V. Mattioli and P. Basili Department of Electronic and Information Engineering University of Perugia Perugia, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Introduction In recent years the Global Positioning System (GPS) has proved to be a reliable instrument for measuring precipitable water vapor (PWV) (Bevis et al. 1992), offering an independent source of information on water vapor when compared with microwave radiometers (MWRs), and/or radiosonde

468

Vapor and gas sampling of Single-Shell Tank 241-T-111 using the vapor sampling system  

SciTech Connect

This document presents sampling data resulting from the January 20, 1995, sampling of SST 241-T-111 using the vapor sampling system.

Caprio, G.S.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-BY-112 using the vapor sampling system  

SciTech Connect

This document presents sampling data from the November 18, 1994, sampling of SST 241-BY-112 using the vapor sampling system.

Caprio, G.S.

1995-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

470

Glass softening, crystallization, and vaporization of nano-aggregates of Amorphous Solid Water: Fast Scanning Calorimetry studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fast scanning calorimetry (FSC) was employed to investigate glass softening dynamics in amorphous solid water (ASW) nano-aggregates with thicknesses ranging from 2 to 20 nm. ASW nano-aggregates were prepared by vapor-deposition on the surface of a tungsten filament near 141 K and then heated at a rate of 100 kK/s. The resulting thermogram complex endo- and exothermal features were analyzed using a simple model. The results of the analysis show that glass softening of ASW nano-aggregates takes place at 160 K and vaporization of ASW nano-aggregates can take place at temperatures as low as 185 K. The results of these studies are discussed in conjunction with results of past studies of glass softening dynamics in water in various confining geometries.

Deepanjan Bhattacharya; Liam OReilly; Vlad Sadtchenko

2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

471

Nanostructured silicon thin films deposited by PECVD in the presence of silicon nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Nanostructured silicon thin films have been deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at low substrate temperature (100 C) in the presence of silicon nanoparticles. The nanostructure of the films was revealed by transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, which showed ordered silicon domains (1--2 nm) embedded in an amorphous silicon matrix. These ordered domains are due to the particles created in the discharge that contribute to the film growth. One consequence of the incorporation of nanoparticles is the accelerated crystallization of the nanostructured silicon thin films when compared to standard a-Si:H, as shown by the electrical characterization during the annealing.

Viera, G.; Cabarrocas, P.R.; Hamma, S.; Sharma, S.N.; Costa, J.; Bertran, E.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Informal Report . VAPOR DETECTION OF TRAFFICKING OF CONTRABAND MONEY-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I BNL- 62834 Informal Report . VAPOR DETECTION OF TRAFFICKING OF CONTRABAND MONEY-· [D VAPOR DETECTION OF TRAFFICKING OF CONTRABAND MONEY- A DISCUSSION OF TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY Concept MONEY --A DISCUSSION OF TECHNICAL FEASffiILITY Russell N. Dietz, Head Tracer Technology Center

473

RESONANT FARADAY ROTATION IN A HOT LITHIUM VAPOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RESONANT FARADAY ROTATION IN A HOT LITHIUM VAPOR By SCOTT RUSSELL WAITUKAITIS A Thesis Submitted: #12;Abstract I describe a study of Faraday rotation in a hot lithium vapor. I begin by dis- cussing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3 The Lithium Oven and Solenoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3 Theoretical Framework

Cronin, Alex D.

474

Hybrid Thin Film Deposition System | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hybrid Thin Film Deposition System Hybrid Thin Film Deposition System Only available at EMSL, the Discovery Deposition System has been customized to be a fully automated...

475

FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Bulletin 627 Bulletin 627 BUREAU o b MINES FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS By Michael G. Zabetakis DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement,

476

New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

SCIENTIFIC REPORT SCIENTIFIC REPORT Title Page Project Title: New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration DOE Award Number: DE-FG36-04GO14327 Document Title: Final Scientific Report Period Covered by Report: September 30, 2004 to September 30, 2005 Name and Address of Recipient Organization: Magnetic Development, Inc., 68 Winterhill Road, Madison, CT 06443, phone: 203-214-7247, fax: 203-421-7948, e-mail: mjb1000@aol.com Contact Information: Mark J. Bergander, Ph.D., P.E., Principal Investigator, phone: 203-214-7247, fax: 203-421-7948, e-mail: mjb1000@aol.com Project Objective (as stated in the proposal): The main objective of this project is to confirm on a well-instrumented prototype the theoretically derived claims of higher efficiency and coefficient

477

Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

478

Photo-Electric Ionization of Caesium Vapor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurement of photo-electric ionization in gases.—The current from a filament, normally limited by space change, is increased by the presence of positive ions. As shown by Kingdon this effect may be greatly magnified if a small cathode is practically enclosed by the anode so that the ions are imprisoned. This method was used for the detection of photo-electric ionization. Besides possessing extreme sensitivity it is unaffected by photo-electric emission from the electrodes.Photo-electric effect in caesium vapor.—The change in thermionic current with the unresolved radiation from a mercury arc was measured as functions of the applied voltage, filament temperature, and vapor pressure. Then the photo-electric effect as a function of wave-length was studied using a monochromatic illuminator to disperse light from the arc or a Mazda lamp. The ionization per unit flux was found to increase with increasing wave-length to a sharp maximum at the limit 1s=3184A of the principal series, as is required by the Bohr theory. For longer wave-lengths the ionization decreased to about 10 percent at 3400A. Photo-excitation. The simple theory does not admit of ionization by wave-lengths greater than 3184A but the data are in qualitative agreement with the hypothesis that such radiation produces excited atoms which upon collision with other atoms acquire sufficient additional energy to become ionized. Hence, unlike an x-ray limit, the photo-ionization effect for a valence electron is not sharply discontinuous at the true threshold for direct ionization.Photo-ionization photometer and intensitometer. A tube of the type described, with suitable gases for the range of wave-length involved, may be used as a photometer or may be calibrated to measure intensity of radiation directly.

Paul D. Foote and F. L. Mohler

1925-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Gas Separation Using Organic-Vapor-Resistent Membranes In Conjunctin With Organic-Vapor-Selective Membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for treating a gas mixture containing at least an organic compound gas or vapor and a second gas, such as natural gas, refinery off-gas or air. The process uses two sequential membrane separation steps, one using membrane selective for the organic compound over the second gas, the other selective for the second gas over the organic vapor. The second-gas-selective membranes use a selective layer made from a polymer having repeating units of a fluorinated polymer, and demonstrate good resistance to plasticization by the organic components in the gas mixture under treatment, and good recovery after exposure to liquid aromatic hydrocarbons. The membrane steps can be combined in either order.

Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); He, Zhenjie (Fremont, CA); Da Costa, Andre R. (Menlo Park, CA); Daniels, Ramin (San Jose, CA); Amo, Karl D. (Mountain View, CA); Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA)

2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

480

Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System: Thermal Storage Using Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: UTRC is developing a new climate-control system for EVs that uses a hybrid vapor compression adsorption system with thermal energy storage. The targeted, closed system will use energy during the battery-charging step to recharge the thermal storage, and it will use minimal power to provide cooling or heating to the cabin during a drive cycle. The team will use a unique approach of absorbing a refrigerant on a metal salt, which will create a lightweight, high-energy-density refrigerant. This unique working pair can operate indefinitely as a traditional vapor compression heat pump using electrical energy, if desired. The project will deliver a hot-and-cold battery that provides comfort to the passengers using minimal power, substantially extending the driving range of EVs.

None

2012-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor transport deposition" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Ash & Pulverized Coal Deposition in Combustors & Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

Further progress in achieving the objectives of the project was made in the period of October I to December 31, 1997. The direct numerical simulation of particle removal process in turbulent gas flows was continued. Variations of vorticity contours which are averaged over a short time duration are studied. It is shown that the near wall vortices profoundly affect the particle removal process in turbulent boundary layer flows. The sublayer model for evaluating the particle deposition in turbulent flows was extended to include the effect of particle rebound. A new more advance flow model for the near wall vortices is also used in these analysis. Sample particle trajectories are obtained and discussed. Experimental data for transport and deposition of fibrous particles in the aerosol wind tunnel was obtained. The measured deposition velocity is compared with the empirical correlation and the available data and discussed. Particle resuspension process in turbulent flows are studied. The model is compared with the experimental data. It is shown that when the effects of the near wall flow structure, as well as the surface roughness are included the model agrees with the available experimental data.

Goodarz Ahmadi

1998-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

482

Ash & Pulverized Coal Deposition in Combustors & Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

Further progress in achieving the objectives of the project was made in the period of July 1 to September 30, 1997. The direct numerical simulation of particle removal process in turbulent gas flows was continued. Variations of vorticity contours which are averaged over a short time duration are studied. It is shown that the near wall vortices profoundly affect the particle removal process in turbulent boundary layer flows. The sublayer model for evaluating the particle deposition in turbulent flows was extended to include the effect of particle rebound. A new more advance flow model for the near wall vortices is also used in these analysis. Sample particle trajectories are obtained and discussed. Experimental data for transport and deposition of fibrous particles in the aerosol wind tunnel was obtained. The measured deposition velocity is compared with the empirical correlation and the available data and discussed. Particle resuspension process in turbulent flows are studied. The model is compared with the experimental data. It is shown that when the effects of the near wall flow structure, as well as the surface roughness are included the model agrees with the available experimental data.

Goodarz Ahmadi

1998-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

483

Computational Study of Particle Deposition, Resuspension, and Transport.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Undesirable airborne particulate matter is present in the indoor environment largely because of the humans that inhabit it, and the disturbances that cause the matter… (more)

DeGraw, Jason

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

The Transport and Deposition of Persistent Toxic Substances  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/Elimination of Persistent Toxic Substances, held May 21-22, in Romulus Michigan. The material presented here was collected . . . . . . . u Bruce Kirschner . . . . . b Serge L'Italien . . . . . . c Paul Lioy . . . . . . . . . . a Maris Ratza . . . . . . . . l Orlando Cabrera Rivera k Bruce Rodger . . . . . . . k Joyce Rosenthal . . . . q

485

The Transport and Deposition of Persistent Toxic Substances  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rosenthal, of CBNS, for valuable discussions and assistance; for example, portions of the analysis contained in this study were based in part on CBNS's earlier emissions inventory work for dioxins and hexachlorobenzene B.3. Destruction and Transformation of Atmospheric Pollutants by Chemical Reactions

486

Oxidation of Slurry Aluminide Coatings on Cast Stainless Steel Alloy CF8C-Plus at 800oC in Water Vapor  

SciTech Connect

A new, cast austenitic stainless steel, CF8C-Plus, has been developed for a wide range of high temperature applications, including diesel exhaust components, turbine casings and turbocharger housings. CF8C-Plus offers significant improvements in creep rupture life and creep rupture strength over standard CF8C steel. However, at higher temperatures and in more aggressive environments, such as those containing significant water vapor, an oxidation-resistant protective coating will be necessary. The oxidation behavior of alloys CF8C and CF8C-Plus with various aluminide coatings were compared at 800oC in air plus 10 vol% water vapor. Due to their affordability, slurry aluminides were the primary coating system of interest, although chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and pack cementation coatings were also compared. Additionally, a preliminary study of the low cycle fatigue behavior of aluminized CF8C-Plus was conducted at 800oC. Each type of coating provided substantial improvements in oxidation behavior, with simple slurry aluminides showing very good oxidation resistance after 4,000 h testing in water vapor. Preliminary low cycle fatigue results indicated that thicker aluminide coatings degraded high temperature fatigue properties of CF8C-Plus, whereas thinner coatings did not. Results suggest that appropriately designed slurry aluminide coatings are a viable option for economical, long-term oxidation protection of austenitic stainless steels in water vapor.

Haynes, James A [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Dryepondt, Sebastien N [ORNL; Kumar, Deepak [ORNL; Zhang, Ying [Tennessee Technological University

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Highly Confined Photon Transport in Subwavelength Metallic Slot Waveguides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was deposited on one side of a free-standing Si3N4 membrane. Using focused ion- beam milling, wire waveguidesHighly Confined Photon Transport in Subwavelength Metallic Slot Waveguides J. A. Dionne,*, H. J and electronic components. Although optical interconnects exhibit a large bandwidth for signal transport, minimum

Atwater, Harry

488

Sustained Storage and Transport of Hydraulic Gold Mining Sediment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sustained Storage and Transport of Hydraulic Gold Mining Sediment in the Bear River, California L deposits of hydraulic gold mining sediment remain in main channels of the Bear River more than 100 years- sic model of sediment transport in a symmet- rical wave that is based on hydraulic mining sediment

James, L. Allan

489

Apparatus for downward transport of heat  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for the downward transport of heat by vaporization of a working fluid, usually from a collector which can be powered by the sun to a condenser which drains the condensed working fluid to a lower reservoir, is controled by a control valve which is operationally dependent upon the level of working fluid in either the lower reservoir or an upper reservoir which feeds the collector. Condensed working fluid is driven from the lower to the upper reservoir by vaporized working fluid whose flow is controled by the controll valve. The upper reservoir is in constant communication with the condenser which prevents a buildup in temperature/pressure as the apparatus goes through successive pumping cycles.

Neeper, D.A.; Hedstrom, J.C.

1985-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

490

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment are begun. The studies are to be in parallel with LSFCO composition to characterize the segregation of cations and slow crack growth in environmental conditions. La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} has also been characterized for paramagnetic ordering at room temperature and the evolution of magnetic moments as a function of temperature are investigated. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic vapor laser Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

with the exception of pagination. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE 1 Summary: vapor, atomic physics and vapor ionization, absorption reflection in a heated plasma layer, and...

492

E-Print Network 3.0 - atom vapor cells Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

rotation in the vapor cell due to inten- sity-induced birefringence in the rubidium atomic vapor. While... Super efficient absorption filter for quantum memory using atomic...