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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor radiometer gvr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

ARM - Instrument - gvr  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govInstrumentsgvr govInstrumentsgvr Documentation GVR : Handbook GVR : Instrument Mentor Monthly Summary (IMMS) reports GVR : Data Quality Assessment (DQA) reports ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer (GVR) Instrument Categories Radiometric Picture of the G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer (GVR) Picture of the G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer (GVR) General Overview The G-Band Vapor Radiometer (GVR) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from four double sideband channels centered at ±1, ±3, ±7, and ±14 GHz around the 183.31-GHz water vapor line. Atmospheric emission in this spectral region is primarily due to water vapor, with some

2

GVR (G-Band Vapor Radiometer) M.P. Cadeddu and J.C. Liljegren Argonne Natl. Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MWR status MWR status M.P. Cadeddu New radiometers New radiometers ECO-00664 (MWR procurement) open Specifications have been written and submitted Draft of specifications sent to vendors last month A few changes were incorporated after vendors feedback. Final specification document will be sent next week. ECO-00664 (MWR procurement) open Specifications have been written and submitted Draft of specifications sent to vendors last month A few changes were incorporated after vendors feedback. Final specification document will be sent next week. PWV-LWP: 12 2-channel MWR Temperature-humidity profile: 2 profilers operating Low LWP-PWV: 2 183-GHz radiometers Low LWP: 2 90/150-GHz radiometers PWV-LWP: 12 2-channel MWR Temperature-humidity profile: 2 profilers

3

GVR (G-Band Vapor Radiometer) M.P. Cadeddu and J.C. Liljegren Argonne Natl. Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ARM 90/150 GHz data at ARM 90/150 GHz data at COPS M.P. Cadeddu, A. Vogelmann, D.D. Turner, S. Crewell, U. Lönhert MWRHF (90/150) data Data available at archives from 06/22 to 12/31 Challenges associated with instrument: New instrument - new technology We still need to learn about calibration Spectral region (WV continuum) still uncertain in models Data available at archives from 06/22 to 12/31 Challenges associated with instrument: New instrument - new technology We still need to learn about calibration Spectral region (WV continuum) still uncertain in models Weather conditions were not ideal for the initial testing of the instrument. The radiometer did not calibrate from 06/30 until 10/13 The few calibrations in June may have been affected by dew formation Calibration of summer data is

4

G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product  

SciTech Connect

The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) value-added product (VAP) computes precipitable water vapor using neural network techniques from data measured by the GVR. The GVR reports time-series measurements of brightness temperatures for four channels located at 183.3 1, 3, 7, and 14 GHz.

Koontz, A; Cadeddu, M

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

5

ARM - Datastreams - gvr  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Datastreamsgvr Datastreamsgvr Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.5439/1095594 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : GVR G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer Active Dates 2006.09.28 - 2014.01.02 Measurement Categories Atmospheric State, Radiometric Originating Instrument G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer (GVR) Measurements Only measurements considered scientifically relevant are shown below by default. Show all measurements Measurement Units Variable Altitude above mean sea level m alt Base time in Epoch seconds since 1970-1-1 0:00:00 0:00 base_time 183.3 +/- 1 GHz hot load signal count hot1 ( time ) 183.3 +/- 3 GHz hot load signal count hot3 ( time )

6

MEASUREMENTS AND RETRIEVALS FROM A NEW 183-GHz WATER VAPOR RADIOMETER IN  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MEASUREMENTS AND RETRIEVALS FROM A NEW 183-GHz WATER VAPOR RADIOMETER IN MEASUREMENTS AND RETRIEVALS FROM A NEW 183-GHz WATER VAPOR RADIOMETER IN THE ARCTIC Cadeddu, Maria Argonne National Laboratory Category: Instruments A new G-band (183 GHz) vapor radiometer (GVR), developed and built by Prosensing Inc. (http://www.prosensing.com), was deployed in Barrow, Alaska, in April 2005. The radiometer was deployed as part of the ongoing Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's effort to improve water vapor retrievals in the cold, dry Arctic environment. The instrument measures brightness temperatures from four double sideband channels centered at 1, 3, 7, and 14 GHz from the 183.31-GHz water vapor line. Atmospheric emission in this spectral region is primarily due to water vapor, with some influence from liquid water. The GVR will remain in Barrow

7

Improved Retrieval of Integrated Water Vapor from Water Vapor Radiometer Measurements Using Numerical Weather Prediction Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water vapor radiometer (WVR) retrieval algorithms require a priori information on atmospheric conditions along the line of sight of the radiometer in order to derive opacities from observed brightness temperatures. This paper's focus is the mean ...

Steven R. Chiswell; Steven Businger; Michael Bevis; Fredrick Solheim; Christian Rocken; Randolph Ware

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

Maria Cadeddu

9

A Comparison of Columnar Water Vapor Retrievals Obtained with Near-IR Solar Radiometer and Microwave Radiometer Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple two-channel solar radiometer and analysis technique have been developed for setting atmospheric water vapor via differential solar transmission measurements in and adjacent to the 940-nm water vapor absorption band. A prototype solar ...

J. Reagan; K. Thome; B. Herman; R. Stone; J. DeLuisi; J. Snider

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates V. Mattioli and P. Basili Department of Electronic and Information Engineering University of Perugia Perugia, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Introduction In recent years the Global Positioning System (GPS) has proved to be a reliable instrument for measuring precipitable water vapor (PWV) (Bevis et al. 1992), offering an independent source of information on water vapor when compared with microwave radiometers (MWRs), and/or radiosonde

11

A Steerable Dual-Channel Microwave Radiometer for Measurement of Water Vapor and Liquid in the Troposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An instrument that remotely senses the integrated amounts of water vapor and liquid on a path through the atmosphere is discussed. The vapor and liquid are measured simultaneously but independently by microwave radiometers. Comparison of the ...

D. C. Hogg; F. O. Guiraud; J. B. Snider; M. T. Decker; E. R. Westwater

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

An Airborne Millimeter-Wave Imaging Radiometer for Cloud, Precipitation, and Atmospheric Water Vapor Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A six-channel airborne total-power Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (MIR) was recently built to provide measurements of atmospheric water vapor, clouds, and precipitation. The instrument is a cross-track scanner that has a 3-dB beamwidth of 3.5...

P. Racette; R. F. Adler; J. R. Wang; A. J. Gasiewski; D. M. Jakson; D. S. Zacharias

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Comparisons of Line-of-Sight Water Vapor Observations Using the Global Positioning System and a Pointing Microwave Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Line-of-sight measurements of integrated water vapor from a global positioning system (GPS) receiver and a microwave radiometer are compared. These two instruments were collocated at the central facility of the Department of Energys Atmospheric ...

John Braun; Christian Rocken; James Liljegren

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Comparison of NearReal Time Estimates of Integrated Water Vapor Derived with GPS, Radiosondes, and Microwave Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the authors compare the integrated water vapor (IWV) retrieved with a global positioning system (GPS) receiver, radiosondes (RS), and a microwave radiometer (MWR) using data collected simultaneously during a 3-month campaign in the ...

Jol Van Baelen; Jean-Pierre Aubagnac; Alain Dabas

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

ARM: G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer profiler: 15 microwave brightness temperatures from 170.0 to 183.3 GHz  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer profiler: 15 microwave brightness temperatures from 170.0 to 183.3 GHz

Maria Cadeddu

16

DRAFT Microwave Radiometer Profiler Handbook  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Microwave Radiometer Profiler Handbook Evaluation of a New Multi-Frequency Microwave Radiometer for Measuring the Vertical Distribution of Temperature, Water Vapor, and Cloud...

17

Experimental Determination of Water Vapor Profiles from Ground-Based Radiometer Measurements at 21.0 and 31.4 GHz.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water vapor profiles have been obtained from radiometer measurements at 21.0 and 31.4 GHz and ground values of humidity, temperature and pressure. The inversion technique was based on minimum variance estimation, including constraints derived ...

B. G. Skoog; J. I. H. Askne; G. Elgered

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path from Scanning Microwave Radiometers During the 2003 Cloudiness Inter-Comparison Experiment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path from Scanning Microwave Radiometers During the 2003 Cloudiness Inter-Comparison Experiment V. Mattioli Department of Electronic and Information Engineering University of Perugia Perugia, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado V. Morris Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction Ground-based microwave radiometers (MWR) are widely used to measure atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV) and cloud liquid path (CLP). Comparisons of PWV derived from MWRs with water vapor retrievals from instruments like radiosondes, Global Positioning System (GPS) and Raman

19

Comparison of Measurements of Atmospheric Wet Delay by Radiosonde, Water Vapor Radiometer, GPS, and VLBI  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accuracy of the Global Positioning System (GPS) as an instrument for measuring the integrated water vapor content of the atmosphere has been evaluated by comparison with concurrent observations made over a 14-day period by radiosonde, ...

A. E. Niell; A. J. Coster; F. S. Solheim; V. B. Mendes; P. C. Toor; R. B. Langley; C. A. Upham

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Calibration of Sun RadiometerBased Atmospheric Water Vapor Retrievals Using GPS Meteorology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study of the validation and calibration process for integrated water vapor (IWV) measurements derived from sun radiometry at the 940-nm solar absorption channel employed in the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Aerosol Canada (AEROCAN) is ...

Amadou Idrissa Bokoye; Alain Royer; Patrick Cliche; Norm ONeill

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor radiometer gvr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The Microwave Radiometer (MWR) provides time-series measurements of column-integrated amounts of water vapor and liquid water. The instrument itself is essentially a sensitive microwave receiver. That is, it is tuned to measure the microwave emissions of the vapor and liquid water molecules in the atmosphere at specific frequencies.

Morris, VR

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Data Sets (Revision 2)  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a short description of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility microwave radiometer (MWR) Retrieval (MWRRET) value-added product (VAP) algorithm. This algorithm utilizes a complementary physical retrieval method and applies brightness temperature offsets to reduce spurious liquid water path (LWP) bias in clear skies resulting in significantly improved precipitable water vapor (PWV) and LWP retrievals. We present a general overview of the technique, input parameters, output products, and describe data quality checks. A more complete discussion of the theory and results is given in Turner et al. (2007b).

Gaustad, KL; Turner, DD; McFarlane, SA

2011-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

23

Microwave Radiometer-High Frequency (MWRHF) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The 90/150-GHz Vapor Radiometer provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from two channels centered at 90 and 150 GHz. These two channels are sensitive to the presence of liquid water and precipitable water vapor.

Caddedu, MP

2011-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

24

Comparison of Column Water Vapor Measurements Using Downward-looking Near-Infrared and Infrared Imaging Systems and Upward-looking Microwave Radiometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Remote soundings of precipitable water vapor from three systems are compared with each other and with ground truth from radiosondes. Ancillary data from a mesoscale network of surface observing stations and from wind-profiling radars are also ...

Bo-Cai Gao; Alexander F. H. Goetz; Ed R. Westwater; B. Boba Stankov; D. Birkenheuer

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

ARM - VAP Process - gvrpwv  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Productsgvrpwv Productsgvrpwv Documentation & Plots Technical Report Data Management Facility Plots (Quick Looks) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send VAP : G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Instrument Categories Radiometric The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) value-added product (VAP) computes precipitable water vapor using neural network techniques from data measured by the GVR. The GVR reports time-series measurements of brightness temperatures for four channels located at 183.3 ± 1, 3, 7, and 14 GHz. For more details, see the technical report. Output Products gvr : G-band (183 GHz) Vapor Radiometer Primary Measurements The following measurements are those considered scientifically relevant.

26

Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Measurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Measurements Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Measurements and Radiosonde Comparisons During the WVIOP2000 Field Experiment D. Cimini University of L'Aquila L'Aquil, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Y. Han Science System Applications National Aeronautics Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland S. Keihm Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California Introduction During September to October 2000, a water vapor intensive operational period (WVIOP) was conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and

27

Radiometer Calibration Trends  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiometer Calibration Trends S. M. Wilcox, T. L. Stoffel, and D. R. Myers National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado Abstract Calibrations of Atmospheric Radiation...

28

Microwave Radiometer 3 Channel (MWR3C) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The microwave radiometer 3-channel (MWR3C) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from three channels centered at 23.834, 30, and 89 GHz. These three channels are sensitive to the presence of liquid water and precipitable water vapor.

Cadeddu, MP

2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

29

Loss-compensated radiometer  

SciTech Connect

A new radiometer concept is described and evaluated. Automatic dynamic electrical compensation is achieved by a high-gain feedback amplifier and low thermal inertia solar and compensating electrical sensors. With sufficiently high gain, compensation can increase accuracy to limits determined by amplifier drift. Equations governing instrument response are derived and analyzed. Initial measurements on a preliminary prototype confirm the validity of the concept which should yield a very accurate instrument with ''self calibrating'' features.

Lobo, P.C.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

ARM - Facility News Article  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

March 31, 2007 [Facility News] March 31, 2007 [Facility News] Radiometers Operate in Low Water Vapor Conditions in Barrow, Alaska Bookmark and Share A researcher checks the GVR antennae on a cold, crisp day at the ARM site in Barrow, Alaska. The radiometer is inside the insulated box beneath the antenna; the data is collected and displayed on the computer inside the instrument shelter. A researcher checks the GVR antennae on a cold, crisp day at the ARM site in Barrow, Alaska. The radiometer is inside the insulated box beneath the antenna; the data is collected and displayed on the computer inside the instrument shelter. To provide more accurate ground-based measurements of water vapor in extremely arid environments, three types of 183.3-GHz radiometers operated simultaneously in February and March at the ARM North Slope of Alaska site

31

Evaluating the Quality of Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Measurements and Retrievals Using Detrended Fluctuation and Spectral Analysis Methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Time series both of microwave radiometer brightness temperature measurements at 23.8 and 31.4 GHz and of retrievals of water vapor and liquid water path from these brightness temperatures are evaluated using the detrended fluctuation analysis ...

K. Ivanova; E. E. Clothiaux; H. N. Shirer; T. P. Ackerman; J. C. Liljegren; M. Ausloos

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Lighting Research Group: Facilities: Spectro-Radiometer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spectro-Radiometer Spectro-Radiometer Spectro-Radiometer spectro-radiometer Gonio-photometer | Integrating sphere | Power analyzer | Spectro-radiometer The spectro-radiometer is used to measure the light output of a light source at each wavelength. The part that looks like a video camera (to the far right in the picture) can look at each wavelength separately. The spectro-radiometer can also be used as a standard light meter and measure all visible wavelengths at once to obtain the total light output of a source. The console portion of the spectro-radiometer is used to display the meter readings and also to adjust measurement settings like the sensitivity. The computer is interfaced with the spectro-radiometer and is used to send commands to the machine and receive, store, and analyze the data.

33

Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The visible Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) is a passive instrument that measures global and diffuse components of solar irradiance at six narrowband channels and one open, or broadband, channel (Harrison et al. 1994). Direct irradiance is not a primary measurement, but is calculated using the diffuse and global measurements. To collect one data record, the MFRSR takes measurements at four different shadowband positions. The first measurement is taken with the shadowband in the nadir (home) position. The next three measurements are, in order, the first side-band, sun-blocked, and second side-band. The side-band measurements are used to correct for the portion of the sky obscured by the shadowband. The nominal wavelengths of the narrowband channels are 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's aerosol optical depth at each wavelength. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Harrison and Michalsky 1994) and other atmospheric constituents.

Hodges, GB; Michalsky, JJ

2011-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

34

ARM Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR): irradiances  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) takes spectral measurements of direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. These measurements are at nominal wavelengths of 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm. The measurements are made at a user-specified time interval, usually about one minute or less. The sampling rate for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility MFRSRs is 20 seconds. From such measurements, one may infer the atmosphere's optical depth at the wavelengths mentioned above. In turn, these optical depths may be used to derive information about the column abundances of ozone and water vapor (Michalsky et al. 1995), as well as aerosol (Michalsky et al. 1994) and other atmospheric constituents. A silicon detector is also part of the MFRSR. This detector provides a measure of the broadband direct normal, diffuse horizontal and total horizontal solar irradiances. A MFRSR head that is mounted to look vertically downward can measure upwelling spectral irradiances. In the ARM system, this instrument is called a multifilter radiometer (MFR). At the Southern Great Plains (SGP) there are two MFRs; one mounted at the 10-m height and the other at 25 m. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites, the MFRs are mounted at 10 m. MFRSR heads are also used to measure normal incidence radiation by mounting on a solar tracking device. These are referred to as normal incidence multi-filter radiometers (NIMFRs) and are located at the SGP and NSA sites. Another specialized use for the MFRSR is the narrow field of view (NFOV) instrument located at SGP. The NFOV is a ground-based radiometer (MFRSR head) that looks straight up.

Hodges, Gary

35

Calibration Service for Low-level Pulsed-Laser Radiometers ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... be noted that not all pulse energies or peak ... both the peak-power and pulse-energy radiometers ... a single radiometer has not been reserved for NIST ...

2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

36

Simultaneous Measurements of Atmospheric Water Vapor with MIR, Raman Lidar, and Rawinsondes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric water vapor were made by the Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (MIR), Raman lidar, and rawinsondes. Two types of rawinsonde sensor packages (AIR and Vaisala) were carried by the same balloon. The measured ...

J. R. Wang; S. H. Melfi; P. Racette; D. N. Whitemen; L. A. Chang; R. A. Ferrare; K. D. Evans; F. J. Schmidlin

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Observed and Modeled Growing-Season Diurnal Precipitable Water Vapor in South-Central Canada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-temporal-resolution total-column precipitable water vapor (PWV) was measured using a Radiometrics Corporation WVR-1100 Atmospheric Microwave Radiometer (AMR). The AMR was deployed at the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg, Canada, during the ...

John Hanesiak; Mark Melsness; Richard Raddatz

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

A Field Comparison among a Domeless Net Radiometer, Two Four-Component Net Radiometers, and a Domed Net Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Kipp & Zonen NR-Lite is a newly designed domeless net radiometer. In preparation for the Oklahoma Atmospheric Surface-layer Instrumentation System (OASIS) Project, the NR-Lite was rigorously field tested for over eight months during 1998. ...

J. A. Brotzge; C. E. Duchon

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

ARM - Field Campaign - Water Vapor IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Water Vapor IOP 2000.09.18 - 2000.10.08 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb Data Availability Yes For data sets, see below. Description Scientific hypothesis: 1. Microwave radiometer (MWR) observations of the 22 GHz water vapor line can accurately constrain the total column amount of water vapor (assuming a calibration accuracy of 0.5 degC or better, which translates into 0.35 mm PWV). 2. Continuous profiling by Raman lidar provides a stable reference for handling sampling problems and observes a fixed column directly above the site only requiring a single height- independent calibration factor. 3. Agreement between the salt-bath calibrated in-situ probes, chilled

40

Water Vapor Structure Displacements from Cloud-Free Meteosat Scenes and Their Interpretation for the Wind Field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The evaluation of water vapor (WV) images taken by satellite-borne radiometers has become an essential source of data in modern meteorology. The analysis of structure displacements within sections of WV images is an effective way to get ...

G. Bche; H. Karbstein; A. Kummer; H. Fischer

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor radiometer gvr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

An Integrated Assessment of Measured and Modeled Integrated Water Vapor in Switzerland for the Period 200103  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper an integrated assessment of the vertically integrated water vapor (IWV) measured by radiosonde, microwave radiometer (MWR), and GPS and modeled by the limited-area mesoscale model of MeteoSwiss is presented. The different IWV ...

G. Guerova; E. Brockmann; F. Schubiger; J. Morland; C. Mtzler

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

ARM - Field Campaign - Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsArctic Winter Water Vapor IOP govCampaignsArctic Winter Water Vapor IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP 2004.03.09 - 2004.04.09 Lead Scientist : Ed Westwater Data Availability http://www.etl.noaa.gov/programs/2004/wviop/data will contain quicklooks of all of the data. For data sets, see below. Summary During the IOP, the Ground-based Scanning Radiometer of NOAA/ETL, and the ARM MicroWave Radiometer and Microwave Profiler, yielded excellent data over a range of conditions. In all, angular-scanned and calibrated radiometric data from 22.345 to 380 GHz were taken. The Precipitable Water Vapor varied about an order of magnitude from 1 to 10 mm, and surface temperatures varied from about -10 to -40 deg. Celcius. Vaisala RS90

43

Solid-State Radiometer Measurements of Sea Surface Skin Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite sea surface skin temperature (SSST) maps are readily available from precisely calibrated radiometer systems such as the ERS along-track scanning radiometer and, in the near future, from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer. ...

C. J. Donlon; S. J. Keogh; D. J. Baldwin; I. S. Robinson; I. Ridley; T. Sheasby; I. J. Barton; E. F. Bradley; T. J. Nightingale; W. Emery

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

ARM's Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) Data  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

ARM's BRS data contains measurements of broadband shortwave and longwave, downwelling, upwelling, and normal radiation. The Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) has collected data since 2001. Data Plots can be viewed for the BRS datastream through ARM's Thumbnail Browser. The primary site for BRS data collection is the Southern Great Plains (SGP).

45

GVR: Global View Resilience | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the range of errors that can be detected and corrected. Efficiency is critical for exascale reliability, so by exploiting new opportunities arising from the myriad ongoing...

46

Microsoft PowerPoint - GVR2_Poster  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(2) Flight Research Laboratory, National Research Council (NRC), Ottawa, Canada Instrument: Funded by a Phase II DOE SBIR contract, ProSensing Inc. developed a...

47

Vapor Degreasing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 6   Applications of vapor degreasing by vapor-spray-vapor systems...hardware Brass 2270 5000 Buffing compound; rouge Lacquer spray Racked work on continuous monorail Acoustic ceiling tile Steel 2720 6000 Light oil (stamping lubricant) Painting Monorail conveyor Gas meters Terneplate 4540 10,000 Light oil Painting Monorail conveyor Continuous strip, 0.25??4.1 mm...

48

Vapor Characterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... thermodynamics (that is, vapor liquid equilibrium) as ... of solids and low volatility liquids is extraordinarily ... such situations is the gas saturation method ...

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

49

Accurate Liquid Water Path Retrieval from Low-Cost Microwave Radiometers Using Additional Information from a Lidar Ceilometer and Operational Forecast Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water clouds have an important impact on the radiative balance of the earth. The use of ground-based dual-frequency microwave radiometers to derive both liquid water path (LWP) and water vapor path (WVP) is well established, but uncertainties ...

Nicolas Gaussiat; Robin J. Hogan; Anthony J. Illingworth

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Ground-Based and Airborne (PMS 2-D Probe Canister-Mounted) 183 GHz Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ground-Based and Airborne (PMS 2-D Probe Canister-Mounted) 183 GHz Water Ground-Based and Airborne (PMS 2-D Probe Canister-Mounted) 183 GHz Water Vapor Radiometer Pazmany, Andrew ProSensing Inc. Category: Instruments ProSensing Inc. has developed a G-band (183 GHz, 1.5 mm wavelength) water vapor radiometer (GVR) for the measurement of low concentrations of atmospheric water vapor and liquid water. The instrument's precipitable water vapor measurement precision is approximately 0.01 mm in dry (<2 mm vapor column) conditions. The ground-based version of the instrument was first deployed at ProSensing's facility in Amherst, MA in February 2005, then at the North Slope of Alaska DOE ARM site in Barrow AK in April 2005, where it has been continuously operating since. An airborne version, designed to operate from a standard PMS 2-D probe canister, is now being

51

Relationships between Water Vapor Path and Precipitation over the Tropical Oceans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationship between water vapor path W and surface precipitation rate P over tropical oceanic regions is analyzed using 4 yr of gridded daily SSM/I satellite microwave radiometer data. A tight monthly mean relationship P (mm day?1) = exp[...

Christopher S. Bretherton; Matthew E. Peters; Larissa E. Back

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

ARM: Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Broadband Radiometer Station (BRS) broadband shortwave and longwave 1-min radiation data with Dutton correction

Tom Stoffel; Bev Kay; Aron Habte; Mary Anderberg; Mark Kutchenreiter

53

Field Performance of a Spinning-Reflector Microwave Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the winter of 1986, two microwave radiometers were operated side by side at a high-altitude weather observation site in the central Sierra Nevada for the purpose of comparing measurements in a variety of ambient weather conditions. The ...

Belay B. Demoz; Arlen W. Huggins; Joseph A. Warburton; Richard L. Smith

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Comparison of Scatterometer and Radiometer Wind Vector Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coincident measurements with a 37-GHz polarimetric radiometer and a 10-GHz scatterometer during the Coastal Ocean Probing Experiment (COPE) in September and October of 1995 offered a unique opportunity to compare their relative sensitivity and ...

David E. Weissman; William J. Plant; William C. Keller; Vladimir G. Irisov

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Temperature Profiling with Neural Network Inversion of Microwave Radiometer Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A neural network is used to obtain vertical profiles of temperature from microwave radiometer data. The overall rms error in the retrieved profiles of a test dataset was only about 8% worse than the overall error using an optimized statistical ...

James H. Churnside; Thomas A. Stermitz; Judith A. Schroeder

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Accurate Airborne Surface Temperature Measurements with Chopper-stabilized Radiometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accuracy of chopper-stabilized radiometers for the meteorological measurement of surface temperatures was investigated during a series of airborne trails, including tests at high altitude using a pressurized aircraft. The significant finding ...

Dieter Lorenz

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Comparison of Plotting Methods for Solar Radiometer Calibration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An alternative formulation of the Langley plot relating observed solar irradiance, extraterrestrial solar irradiance, and air mass has been suggested to potentially improve radiometer calibration accuracy. In this study, results from the ...

S. M. Adler-Golden; J. R. Slusser

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Water vapor from sunradiometry in comparison wit microwave and balloon-sonde measurements at the Southern Great Plains ARM site  

SciTech Connect

Water vapor plays an important role in weather in climate; it is the most important greenhouse gas and the most variable in space and time. The DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is studying the column abundance and distribution of water vapor with altitude. Although the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) is mainly for measurements of spectral short-wave radiation and spectral extinction by aerosol, it can also measure total column water vapor. This paper reports a preliminary investigation of MFRSR`s capabilities for total column water vapor under cloudless conditions.

Michalsky, J.J.; Harrison, L.C. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States); Liljegren, J.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

59

Water vapor from sunradiometry in comparison with microwave and balloon-sonde measurements at the Southern Great Plains ARM Site  

SciTech Connect

Water vapor plays a fundamental role in weather and climate. It is the most important greenhouse gas and the most variable in space and time. The DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program is devoting a large fraction of its resources for the accurate characterization of the column abundance and the distribution of water vapor with altitude. Balloon sondes, microwave radiometers, and Raman lidars are the major instruments either currently in use or under consideration for these tasks. Although the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) is primarily intended for use in accurate measurements of spectral short-wave radiation and in the measurement of spectral extinction by aerosol, it has the potential to measure total column water vapor as well. In this paper the authors report on a preliminary investigation of the MFRSR`s capabilities with regard to accurate measurements of total column water vapor at times when there is a clear path to the sun, i.e., cloudless conditions.

Michalsky, J.J.; Harrison, L.C. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Research Center; Liljegren, J.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Calibrated vapor generator source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

Davies, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Larson, Ronald A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Goodrich, Lorenzo D. (Shelley, ID); Hall, Harold J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stoddard, Billy D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davis, Sean G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kaser, Timothy G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor radiometer gvr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Calibrated vapor generator source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

1995-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

62

An Infrared Sea Surface Temperature Autonomous Radiometer (ISAR) for Deployment aboard Volunteer Observing Ships (VOS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The infrared SST autonomous radiometer (ISAR) is a self-calibrating instrument capable of measuring in situ sea surface skin temperature (SSTskin) to an accuracy of 0.1 K. Extensive field deployments alongside two independent research radiometers ...

C. Donlon; I. S. Robinson; W. Wimmer; G. Fisher; M. Reynolds; R. Edwards; T. J. Nightingale

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

The Miami2001 Infrared Radiometer Calibration and Intercomparison. Part II: Shipboard Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The second calibration and intercomparison of infrared radiometers (Miami2001) was held at the University of Miami's Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS) during a workshop held from May to June 2001. The radiometers ...

I. J. Barton; P. J. Minnett; K. A. Maillet; C. J. Donlon; S. J. Hook; A. T. Jessup; T. J. Nightingale

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Quantitative Measurements of Path-Integrated Rain Rate by an Airborne Microwave Radiometer over the Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data on the airborne microwave radiometer, which is one of the sensors of the airborne microwave rain-scatterometer/radiometer (AMRS) system, are analyzed to infer path-integrated rain rate measured from topside. The equation of radiative ...

Masaharu Fujita; Ken'ichi Okamoto; Harunobu Masuko; Takeyuki Ojima; Nobuyoshi Fugono

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

A High Speed Spectrally Scanning Radiometer (SPERAD) for Airborne Measurements of Cloud Optical Properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall design of a radiometer and data acquisition system for use on an aircraft platform is described. The instrument is a fast response spectrally scanning radiometer providing measurements at 48 spectral intervals between 400 and 1200 nm. ...

Graeme L. Stephens; John C. Scott

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Design and Performance Analysis of an Automated 10-Channel Solar Radiometer Instrument  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An automated multichannel solar radiometer has been designed and fabricated by the Atmospheric Remote Sensing Laboratory at The University of Arizona. The automated radiometer has 10 separate silicon-photodiode-based channels that allow near-...

A. R. Ehsani; J. A. Reagan; W. H. Erxleben

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

NREL: MIDC/ARM Radiometer Characterization System (36.606 N,...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Measurement and Instrumentation Data Center collects Irradiance and Meterological data from the ARM Radiometer Characterization System....

68

Scanning multichannel microwave radiometer snow water equivalent assimilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

climatic driver through the surface albedo's role in energy and water budgets [e.g., Yeh et al., 1983Scanning multichannel microwave radiometer snow water equivalent assimilation Jiarui Dong,1 due to complicating effects, including distance to open water, presence of wet snow, and presence

Houser, Paul R.

69

Microwave Radiometer Calibration on Decadal Time Scales Using On-Earth Brightness Temperature References: Application to the TOPEX Microwave Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is described to calibrate a satellite microwave radiometer operating near 1837 GHz on decadal time scales for the purposes of climate studies. The method uses stable on-earth brightness temperature references over the full dynamic range ...

Shannon Brown; Shailen Desai; Stephen Keihm; Wenwen Lu

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Mercury Vapor Pressure Correlation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An apparent difference between the historical mercury vapor concentration equations used by the mercury atmospheric measurement community ...

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

71

Differential Microwave Radiometer and the Cosmic Microwave Background |  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Differential Differential Microwave Radiometer and the Cosmic Microwave Background Laboratory Policy and Evaluation (LPE) LPE Home Staff M&O Contracts SC Laboratory Appraisal Process Laboratory Planning Process Work for Others in the Office of Science Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) DOE's Philosophy on LDRD Frequently Asked Questions Success Stories Brochures Additional Information LDRD Program Contacts Technology Transfer DOE National Laboratories Contact Information Laboratory Policy and Evaluation U.S. Department of Energy SC-32/Forrestal Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (202) 586-5447 F: (202) 586-3119 Success Stories Differential Microwave Radiometer and the Cosmic Microwave Background Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page

72

Method and apparatus for precision control of radiometer  

SciTech Connect

A radiometer controller of a solar radiation detector is described. The system includes a calibration method and apparatus comprised of mounting all temperature sensitive elements of the controller in thermostatically controlled ovens during calibration and measurements, using a selected temperature that is above any which might be reached in the field. The instrument is calibrated in situ by adjusting heater power to the receptor cavity in the radiometer detector to a predetermined full scale level as displayed by a meter. Then with the heater de-energized and the receptor cavity covered, the voltage output, is set to zero as displayed by the meter. Next the preset power is applied to the heater and the output of the radiant measurement channel is applied to the panel meter. With this preset heater power producing the proper heat, the gain of the measurement channel is adjusted to bring the meter display to full scale.

Estey, R.S.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Narrow Field of View Zenith Radiometer (NFOV) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The two-channel narrow field-of-view radiometer (NFOV2) is a ground-based radiometer that looks straight up and measures radiance directly above the instrument at wavelengths of 673 and 870 nm. The field-of-view of the instrument is 1.2 degrees, and the sampling time resolution is one second. Measurements of the NFOV2 have been used to retrieve optical properties for overhead clouds that range from patchy to overcast. With a one-second sampling rate of the NFOV2, faster than almost any other ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) instrument, we are able, for the first time, to capture changes in cloud optical properties at the natural time scale of cloud evolution.

Chiu, C; Marshak, A; Hodges, G; Barnard, JC; Schmelzer, J

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Quantitative Analysis of Spectral Impacts on Silicon Photodiode Radiometers: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Inexpensive broadband pyranometers with silicon photodiode detectors have a non-uniform spectral response over the spectral range of 300-1100 nm. The response region includes only about 70% to 75% of the total energy in the terrestrial solar spectral distribution from 300 nm to 4000 nm. The solar spectrum constantly changes with solar position and atmospheric conditions. Relative spectral distributions of diffuse hemispherical irradiance sky radiation and total global hemispherical irradiance are drastically different. This analysis convolves a typical photodiode response with SMARTS 2.9.5 spectral model spectra for different sites and atmospheric conditions. Differences in solar component spectra lead to differences on the order of 2% in global hemispherical and 5% or more in diffuse hemispherical irradiances from silicon radiometers. The result is that errors of more than 7% can occur in the computation of direct normal irradiance from global hemispherical irradiance and diffuse hemispherical irradiance using these radiometers.

Myers, D. R.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Vapor spill monitoring method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

Bianchini, Gregory M. (Livermore, CA); McRae, Thomas G. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

NREL: MIDC/SMUD Anatolia Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (38.55...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Measurement and Instrumentation Data Center collects Irradiance and Meterological data from the SMUD Anatolia Irradiance Inc. Rotating Shadowband Radiometer v2....

77

ECE RADIOMETER UPGRADE ON THE DIII-D TOKAMAK  

SciTech Connect

OAK A271 ECE RADIOMETER UPGRADE ON THE DIII-D TOKAMAK. The electron cyclotron emission (ECE) heterodyne radiometer diagnostic on DIII-D has been upgraded with the addition of eight channels for a total of 40. The new, higher frequency channels allow measurements of electron temperature into the magnetic axis in discharges at maximum field, 2.15 T. The complete set now extends over the full usable range of second harmonic emission frequencies at 2.0 T covering radii from the outer edge inward to the location of third harmonic overlap on the high field side. Full coverage permits the measurement of heat pulses and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluctuations on both sides of the magnetic axis. In addition, the symmetric measurements are used to fix the location of the magnetic axis in tokamak magnetic equilibrium reconstructions. Also, the new higher frequency channels have been used to determine central T{sub e} with good time resolution in low field, high density discharges using third harmonic ECE in the optically gray and optically thick regimes.

AUSTIN, ME; LOHR, J

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

A New Look at Calibration and Use of Eppley Precision Infrared Radiometers. Part II: Calibration and Use of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Improved Meteorology Precision Infrared Radiometer*  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For some years, investigators have made measurements of downwelling longwave irradiance with the Eppley Precision Infrared Radiometer (PIR), recording the values of thermopile voltage and body and dome thermistor resistances and combining them in ...

Richard E. Payne; Steven P. Anderson

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

A High-Accuracy Multiwavelength Radiometer for In Situ Measurements in the Thermal Infrared. Part I: Characterization of the Instrument  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The new infrared radiometer (conveyable low-noise infrared radiometer for measurements of atmosphere and ground surface targets, or CLIMAT) is a highly sensitive field instrument designed to measure brightness temperatures or radiances in the ...

Michel Legrand; Christophe Pietras; Grard Brogniez; Martial Haeffelin; Nader Khalil Abuhassan; Michal Sicard

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Calibration of Geostationary-Satellite Infrared Radiometers Using the TIROS-N Vertical Sounder: Application to METEOSAT-1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is presented for the calibration of infrared radiometers on geostationary satellites using calibrated infrared radiometers on an orbiting satellite. This method relies on similarities between the weighting functions corresponding to the ...

N. Beriot; N. A. Scott; A. Chedin; P. Sitbon

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor radiometer gvr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Dual transmission grating based imaging radiometer for tokamak edge and divertor plasmas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The designs of single transmission grating based extreme ultraviolet (XUV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) imaging spectrometers can be adapted to build an imaging radiometer for simultaneous measurement of both spectral ranges. This paper describes the design of such an imaging radiometer with dual transmission gratings. The radiometer will have an XUV coverage of 20-200 A with a {approx}10 A resolution and a VUV coverage of 200-2000 A with a {approx}50 A resolution. The radiometer is designed to have a spatial view of 16 Degree-Sign , with a 0.33 Degree-Sign resolution and a time resolution of {approx}10 ms. The applications for such a radiometer include spatially resolved impurity monitoring and electron temperature measurements in the tokamak edge and the divertor. As a proof of principle, the single grating instruments were used to diagnose a low temperature reflex discharge and the relevant data is also included in this paper.

Kumar, Deepak; Clayton, Daniel J.; Parman, Matthew; Stutman, Dan; Tritz, Kevin; Finkenthal, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

82

Working Group Reports A Short-Wave Radiometer Array Across  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 Working Group Reports A Short-Wave Radiometer Array Across the Tropical Pacific Ocean as a Component of the TOGA-TAO Buoy Array R. M. Reynolds Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York Introduction The purpose of this document is to bring together pertinent information concerning the NOAA TOGA-TAO buoy array so that a decision can be made for the following questions: 1. Are the scientific gains from an array of short-wave radiation sensors in the equatorial Pacific Ocean sufficiently impelling that DOE/ARM should provide financial and material support to NOAA/PMEL to install and operate this array? 2. What scientists and/or scientific studies would directly benefit from such a data set? 3. What should that array look like? That is, what sub-set of buoys should be so implemented given the per-buoy

83

Electrolyte vapor condenser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

1983-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

84

Electrolyte vapor condenser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well.

Sederquist, Richard A. (Newington, CT); Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Sawyer, Richard D. (Canton, CT)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Vapor concentration monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for monitoring the concentration of a vapor, such as heavy water, having at least one narrow bandwidth in its absorption spectrum, in a sample gas such as air. The air is drawn into a chamber in which the vapor content is measured by means of its radiation absorption spectrum. High sensitivity is obtained by modulating the wavelength at a relatively high frequency without changing its optical path, while high stability against zero drift is obtained by the low frequency interchange of the sample gas to be monitored and of a reference sample. The variable HDO background due to natural humidity is automatically corrected.

Bayly, John G. (Deep River, CA); Booth, Ronald J. (Deep River, CA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Definition: Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Mercury Vapor Mercury is discharged as a highly volatile vapor during hydrothermal activity and high concentrations in...

87

Measurement of Boundary-Layer Temperature Profiles by a Scanning 5-MM Radiometer During the 1999 Winter NSA/AAO Radiometer Exp  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Boundary-Layer Temperature Profiles by Boundary-Layer Temperature Profiles by a Scanning 5-MM Radiometer During the 1999 Winter NSA/AAO Radiometer Experiment and WVIOP 2000 V. Y. Leuski and E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado Introduction A scanning 5-mm-wavelength radiometer was deployed during two Intensive Operational Periods (IOPs) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) facilities. The first was conducted at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Adjacent arctic Ocean (AAO) site near Barrow, Alaska, during March 1999. One goal was to evaluate the ability of an

88

Ocean Aerosols: The Marine Fast-Rotating Shadow-Band Radiometer Network  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ocean Aerosols: The Marine Fast-Rotating Ocean Aerosols: The Marine Fast-Rotating Shadow-Band Radiometer Network M. A. Miller, R. M. Reynolds, and J. J. Bartholomew Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York Introduction A network of ship-mounted marine fast-rotating shadow-band radiometers (FRSRs) and broadband radiometers have been deployed over the fast four years on several backbone ships, funded jointly by Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) and National Aeronautic and Space Administration's (NASA's) Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Studies (SIMBIOS). These radiometers operate continuously and automatically during daylight hours. There fundamental measurements made by the FRSRs in the network are the direct-normal irradiance

89

Advanced Rain/No-Rain Classification Methods for Microwave Radiometer Observations over Land  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Seto et al. developed rain/no-rain classification (RNC) methods over land for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI). In this study, the methods are modified for application to other microwave radiometers. The ...

Shinta Seto; Takuji Kubota; Nobuhiro Takahashi; Toshio Iguchi; Taikan Oki

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Comparison of Infrared Atmospheric Brightness Temperatures Measured by a Fourier Transform Spectrometer and a Filter Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increased interest in using atmospheric brightness temperature measurements from simple infrared radiometers combined with radars and lidars has prompted the investigation of their accuracy for various sky conditions. In comparisons of ...

Joseph A. Shaw; Jack B. Snider; James H. Churnside; Mark D. Jacobson

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Combining Microwave Radiometer and Wind Profiler Radar Measurements for High-Resolution Atmospheric Humidity Profiling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A self-consistent remote sensing physical method to retrieve atmospheric humidity high-resolution profiles by synergetic use of a microwave radiometer profiler (MWRP) and wind profiler radar (WPR) is illustrated. The proposed technique is based ...

Laura Bianco; Domenico Cimini; Frank S. Marzano; Randolph Ware

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Retrieval of Cirrus Cloud Radiative and Backscattering Properties Using Combined Lidar and Infrared Radiometer (LIRAD) Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for retrieval of cirrus macrophysical and radiative properties using combined ruby lidar and infrared radiometer measurements is explained in detail. The retrieval algorithm includes estimation of a variable backscatter-to-extinction ...

Jennifer M. Comstock; Kenneth Sassen

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Hurricane Surface Wind Measurements from an Operational Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the first time, the NOAA/Aircraft Operations Center (AOC) flew stepped frequency microwave radiometers (SFMRs) on both WP-3D research aircraft for operational hurricane surface wind speed measurement in 2005. An unprecedented number of major ...

Eric W. Uhlhorn; Peter G. Black; James L. Franklin; Mark Goodberlet; James Carswell; Alan S. Goldstein

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Wind Speed Effects on Sea Surface Emission and Reflection for the Along Track Scanning Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The emission and reflection properties of a rough sea surface are investigated, with particular emphasis on the wavelengths and viewing geometry relevant to the Along Track Scanning Radiometer. The authors start from Fresnel's equations for a ...

Philip D. Watts; Myles R. Allen; Timothy J. Nightingale

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Errors in Net Radiometry: Comparison and Evaluation of Six Radiometer Designs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Net radiation is a fundamental variable in meteorology, but net radiometers have not been used extensively since the 1960s because of what is commonly considered as unreliable function. This study was conducted to determine whether this problem ...

Sven Halldin; Anders Lindroth

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

The Miami2001 Infrared Radiometer Calibration and Intercomparison. Part I: Laboratory Characterization of Blackbody Targets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The second calibration and intercomparison of infrared radiometers (Miami2001) was held at the University of Miami's Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS) during MayJune 2001. The participants were from several groups ...

J. P. Rice; J. J. Butler; B. C. Johnson; P. J. Minnett; K. A. Maillet; T. J. Nightingale; S. J. Hook; A. Abtahi; C. J. Donlon; I. J. Barton

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

The Enhanced NOAA Global Land Dataset from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global mapped data of reflected radiation in the visible (0.63 ?m) and near-infrared (0.85 ?m) wavebands of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellites have been ...

Garik Gutman; Dan Tarpley; Aleksandr Ignatov; Steve Olson

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

High-Resolution Imaging of Rain Systems with the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) has been developed and flown in the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft for imaging various atmospheric and surface processes, primarily the internal structure of rain clouds. The AMPR is a ...

Roy W. Spencer; Robbie E. Hood; Frank J. Lafontaine; Eric A. Smith; Robert Platt; Joe Galliano; Vanessa L. Griffin; Elena Lobl

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Attitude Determination from a Balloon-Borne Radiometer Using Two-Sided Limb Scanning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The determination of the horizontal attitude of a balloon-borne, infrared, limb-scanning radiometer is discussed. In particular, the relationship between scan-angle, as measured by the instrument, and the tangent height of the ray path through ...

J. R. Drummond; D. Turner; A. Ashton

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

An Evaluation of a Self-Calibrating Infrared Radiometer for Measuring Sea Surface Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite radiometer measurements of global sea surface temperature (SST) with an accuracy of 0.3 K are required for climate change monitoring. In order to validate that this accuracy can be achieved, in situ measurements of sea surface radiance ...

J. P. Thomas; R. J. Knight; H. K. Roscoe; J. Turner; C. Symon

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor radiometer gvr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Using digital cameras as quasi-spectral radiometers to study complex fenestration systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work discusses the use of digital cameras fitted with absorption filters as quasi-spectral radiometers. By filtering incident light into selected wavelength intervals, accurate estimates of radiances can be made for ...

Gayeski, Nicholas

102

Numerical Filtering of Spurious Transients in a Satellite Scanning Radiometer: Application to CERES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning radiometer was designed to provide high accuracy measurements of the radiances from the earth. Calibration testing of the instruments showed the presence of an undesired slow transient ...

G. Louis Smith; D. K. Pandey; Robert B. Lee III; Bruce R. Barkstrom; Kory J. Priestley

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Spatial Variability of Summer Florida Precipitation and Its Impact on Microwave Radiometer Rainfall-Measurement Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three-dimensional radar data for three summer Florida storm are used as input to a microwave radiative transfer model. The model simulates microwave brightness observations by a 19-GHz, nadir-pointing, satellite-borne microwave radiometer.

B. J. Turner; G. L. Austin

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Structure of Florida Thunderstorms Using High-Altitude Aircraft Radiometer and Radar Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an analysis of a unique radar and radiometer dataset from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) ER-2 high-altitude aircraft overlying Florida thunderstorms on 5 October 1993 during the Convection and ...

G. M. Heymsfield; J. M. Shepherd; S. W. Bidwell; W. C. Boncyk; I. J. Caylor; S. Ameen; W. S. Olson

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Bayesian Estimation of Precipitation from Satellite Passive Microwave Observations Using Combined RadarRadiometer Retrievals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precipitation estimation from satellite passive microwave radiometer observations is a problem that does not have a unique solution that is insensitive to errors in the input data. Traditionally, to make this problem well posed, a priori ...

Mircea Grecu; William S. Olson

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Correlations between Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer Data and an Antecedent Precipitation Index  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Passive microwave brightness temperatures from the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) can be used to infer the soil moisture content over agricultural areas such as the southern Great Plains of the United States. A linear ...

Gregory D. Wilke; Marshall J. McFarland

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Mobile Microwave Radiometer Observations: Spatial Characteristics of Supercooled Cloud Water and Cloud Seeding Implications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous studies of the spatial distribution of supercooled liquid water in winter storms over mountainous terrain were performed primarily with instrumented aircraft and to a lesser extent with scans from a stationary microwave radiometer. The ...

Arlen W. Huggins

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Design, Operation, and Calibration of a Shipboard Fast-Rotating Shadowband Spectral Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the design, calibration, and deployment of a fast-rotating shadowband radiometer (FRSR) that accurately decomposes downward shortwave (solar) irradiance into direct-beam and diffuse components from a moving platform, such as ...

R. Michael Reynolds; Mark A. Miller; Mary J. Bartholomew

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Optimizing Performance of a Microwave Salinity Mapper: STARRS L-Band Radiometer Enhancements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Airborne microwave radiometers for salinity remote sensing have advanced to a point where operational surveys can be conducted over the inner continental shelf to observe the evolution of freshwater plumes emanating from rivers and estuaries. To ...

Derek M. Burrage; Joel C. Wesson; Mark A. Goodberlet; Jerry L. Miller

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Vicarious Calibration of an Ocean Salinity Radiometer from Low Earth Orbit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Statistical properties of the brightness temperature (TB) measured by a low-earth-orbiting radiometer operating at 1.4 GHz are considered as a means of calibrating and validating the sensor. Mapping of ocean salinity by such an instrument ...

Christopher S. Ruf

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Characteristics as Determined from a Satellite Passive Microwave Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data from the Nimbus-5 F-Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR-5) have been used to calculate latent heat release (LHR) and other rainfall parameters for over 70 satelite observations of 21 tropical cyclones during 1973, 1974 and 1975 ...

E. B. Rodgers; R. F. Adler

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Multiwavelength Scanning Radiometer for Airborne Measurements of Scattered Radiation within Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multi-wavelength scanning radiometer has been developed for measuring the angular distribution of scattered radiation deep within a cloud layer. The purpose of the instrument is to provide measurements from which the single scattering albedo of ...

Michael D. King; Maxwell G. Strange; Peter Leone; Lamdin R. Blaine

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Organic vapor jet printing system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

Forrest, Stephen R

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

114

Producing Mega-pixel CMB Maps from Differential Radiometer Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A major goal of cosmology is to obtain sensitive, high resolution maps of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy. Such maps, as would be produced by the recently proposed Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP), will contain a wealth of primary information about conditions in the early universe. To mitigate systematic effects when observing the microwave background, it is desirable for the raw data to be collected in differential form: as a set of temperature differences between points in the sky. However, the production of large (mega-pixel) maps from a set of temperature differences is a potentially severe computational challenge. We present a new technique for producing maps from differential radiometer data that has a computational cost that grows in the slowest possible way with increasing angular resolution and number of map pixels. The required central processor (CPU) time is proportional to the number of differential data points and the required random access memory (RAM) is proportional to the number of map pixels. We test our technique, and demonstrate its feasibility, by simulating one year of a space-borne anisotropy mission.

Edward L. Wright; Gary Hinshaw; Charles L. Bennett

1995-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

115

Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor Mercury Vapor Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Mercury Vapor Details Activities (23) Areas (23) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Lab Analysis Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Fluid Lab Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Fluid Lab Analysis Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Anomalously high concentrations can indicate high permeability or conduit for fluid flow Hydrological: Field wide soil sampling can generate a geometrical approximation of fluid circulation Thermal: High concentration in soils can be indicative of active hydrothermal activity Dictionary.png Mercury Vapor: Mercury is discharged as a highly volatile vapor during hydrothermal

116

Fuel vapor canister  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses an improved fuel vapor storage canister for use in a vehicle emission system of the type utilizing an enclosure with an interior communicated with a source of fuel vapor. The improved canister comprises: the enclosure having a mixture including particles of activated charcoal and many pieces of foam rubber, the pieces of foam rubber in the mixture being randomly and substantially evenly dispersed whereby substantially all the charcoal particles are spaced relatively closely to at least one foam rubber piece; the mixture being packed into the enclosure under pressure so that the pieces of foam rubber are compressed enough to tightly secure the charcoal particles one against another to prevent a griding action therebetween.

Moskaitis, R.J.; Ciuffetelli, L.A.

1991-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

117

Stratified vapor generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A stratified vapor generator (110) comprises a first heating section (H.sub.1) and a second heating section (H.sub.2). The first and second heating sections (H.sub.1, H.sub.2) are arranged so that the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2) is operatively associated with the outlet of the first heating section (H.sub.1). A moisture separator (126) having a vapor outlet (164) and a liquid outlet (144) is operatively associated with the outlet (124) of the second heating section (H.sub.2). A cooling section (C.sub.1) is operatively associated with the liquid outlet (144) of the moisture separator (126) and includes an outlet that is operatively associated with the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2).

Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Hassani, Vahab (Golden, CO)

2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

118

VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Determination of total ozone from DMSP multichannel filter radiometer measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The multichannel filter radiometer (MFR) infrared sensor was first flown in 1977 on a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Block 5D series satellite operated by the US Air Force. The first four satellites in this series carried MFR sensors from which total atmospheric column ozone amounts may be derived. The last MFR sensor ceased operating on February 16, 1980. The series of four sensors spans a data period of nearly three years. The MFR sensor measures infrared radiances for 16 channels. Total ozone amounts are determined from sets of radiance measurements using an empirical relationship that is developed using linear regression analysis. Total ozone is modeled as a linear combination of terms involving functions of the MFR radiances for four channels (1, 3, 7 and 16) and the secant of the zenith angle. The ozone retrieval methodology is described schematically. The ozone retrieval model is developed through regression analysis using sets of simulated MFR radiances derived from detailed radiative transfer calculations. The MFR total ozone data are compared with independent ground-based Dobson measurements in order to evaluate the ozone retrieval methodology. Many Dobson observatories have been providing their daily measurements of total ozone which are taken close in time to DMSP overpass times. MFR total ozone data are compared with Dobson measurements taken between January 1 and February 15, 1979, and the results are summarized. Comparisons were made where the MFR and Dobson measurements are within 300 km and 300 minutes of each other. Percentages are computed with respect to the Dobson values. The MFR data were processed using a preliminary methodology, and the data will be reprocessed in the near future.

Luther, F.M.; Weichel, R.L.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Evaluation of Radiometers in Full-Time Use at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar Radiation Research Laboratory  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the evaluation of the relative performance of the complement of solar radiometers deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL).

Wilcox, S. M.; Myers, D. R.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor radiometer gvr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Retrieval of Precipitation Profiles from Airborne Radar and Passive Radiometer Measurements: Comparison with Dual-Frequency Radar Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study compares precipitation rate profiles derived from a single frequency radar and radiometer with such profiles derived from a dual-frequency radar.

J. A. Weinman; R. Meneghini; K. Nakamura

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Vapor spill pipe monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

1983-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

123

A 16-channel heterodyne electron cyclotron emission radiometer on J-TEXT  

SciTech Connect

To study equilibrium temporal dynamics and the mechanisms of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, a 16-channel heterodyne electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer has been developed to view the J-TEXT tokamak from the low field side. The ECE radiometer detects second-harmonic extraordinary mode in the frequency band of 94-125 GHz which corresponds to resonances from 1.8 T to 2.2 T. This ECE system consists of an ECE transmission line, a radio frequency unit, and two 8-channel intermediate frequency units. An in situ blackbody calibration source is applied for system calibration by comparison of hot and cold sources in order to provide an absolute temperature measurement.

Yang, Z. J.; Zhuang, G.; Xiao, J. S.; Wang, Z. J. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Key Laboratory of Fusion and Advanced Electromagnetic Technology Ministry of Education, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Phillips, P. E.; Huang, H.; Rowan, W. L. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

124

Validation of Atlantic Ocean Sea Surface Temperatures Measured by the ERS-1 Along Track Scanning Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the period from October 1991 to May 1992 the royal research ship Bransfield made its annual voyage from the United Kingdom to Antarctica and back. Whenever the measurement swath of the Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) on the ERS-1 ...

J. P. Thomas; J. Turner

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Characterization of the Immersion Factor for a Series of In-Water Optical Radiometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spectral immersion factors, If(?), account for the difference between the in-air and in-water absolute response of submersible radiometers and are required to properly apply the in-air absolute calibration of the sensor when used underwater. The ...

G. Zibordi; S. B. Hooker; J. Mueller; G. Lazin

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Correcting Active Scatterometer Data for the Effects of Rain Using Passive Radiometer Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model for the effects of rain on scatterometer data is proposed. Data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) and the SeaWinds scatterometer, both on the Midori-II satellite, are used. The model includes three basic rain effects: ...

K. A. Hilburn; F. J. Wentz; D. K. Smith; P. D. Ashcroft

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

VAPOR SHIELD FOR INDUCTION FURNACE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent relates to a water-cooled vapor shield for an inductlon furnace that will condense metallic vapors arising from the crucible and thus prevent their condensation on or near the induction coils, thereby eliminating possible corrosion or shorting out of the coils. This is accomplished by placing, about the top, of the crucible a disk, apron, and cooling jacket that separates the area of the coils from the interior of the cruclbIe and provides a cooled surface upon whlch the vapors may condense.

Reese, S.L.; Samoriga, S.A.

1958-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

128

Vapor adsorption process  

SciTech Connect

The removal of undesirable acid components from sour natural gas is often accomplished by a vapor adsorption process wherein a bed of solid adsorbent material is contacted with an inlet gas stream so that desired components contained in the gas stream are adsorbed on the bed, then regenerated by contact with a heated regeneration gas stream. Adsorbed components are desorbed from the bed and the bed is cooled preparatory to again being contacted with the inlet gas stream. By this process, the bed is contacted, during the regeneration cycle, with a selected adsorbable material. This material has the property of being displaced from the bed by the desired components and has a heat of desorption equal to or greater than the heat of adsorption of the desired components. When the bed is contacted with the inlet gas stream, the selected adsorbable material is displaced by the desired components resulting in the temperature of the bed remaining relatively constant, thereby allowing the utilization of the maximum bed adsorption capacity. (4 claims)

Snyder, C.F.; Casad, B.M.

1973-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

129

Atmospheric Water Vapor over China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chinese radiosonde data from 1970 to 1990 are relatively homogeneous in time and are used to examine the climatology, trends, and variability of Chinas atmospheric water vapor content. The climatological distribution of precipitable water (PW) ...

Panmao Zhai; Robert E. Eskridge

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Vapor deposition of hardened niobium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

Blocher, Jr., John M. (Columbus, OH); Veigel, Neil D. (Columbus, OH); Landrigan, Richard B. (Columbus, OH)

1983-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

131

Chemical vapor deposition sciences  

SciTech Connect

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a widely used method for depositing thin films of a variety of materials. Applications of CVD range from the fabrication of microelectronic devices to the deposition of protective coatings. New CVD processes are increasingly complex, with stringent requirements that make it more difficult to commercialize them in a timely fashion. However, a clear understanding of the fundamental science underlying a CVD process, as expressed through computer models, can substantially shorten the time required for reactor and process development. Research scientists at Sandia use a wide range of experimental and theoretical techniques for investigating the science of CVD. Experimental tools include optical probes for gas-phase and surface processes, a range of surface analytic techniques, molecular beam methods for gas/surface kinetics, flow visualization techniques and state-of-the-art crystal growth reactors. The theoretical strategy uses a structured approach to describe the coupled gas-phase and gas-surface chemistry, fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer of a CVD process. The software used to describe chemical reaction mechanisms is easily adapted to codes that model a variety of reactor geometries. Carefully chosen experiments provide critical information on the chemical species, gas temperatures and flows that are necessary for model development and validation. This brochure provides basic information on Sandia`s capabilities in the physical and chemical sciences of CVD and related materials processing technologies. It contains a brief description of the major scientific and technical capabilities of the CVD staff and facilities, and a brief discussion of the approach that the staff uses to advance the scientific understanding of CVD processes.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

132

Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Aerosols and Trace Gases by Means of Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer. Part I: Retrieval Algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A retrieval algorithm for processing multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) data from clear and partially cloudy days is described and validated. This method, while complementary to the Langley approach, uses consistency between the ...

Mikhail D. Alexandrov; Andrew A. Lacis; Barbara E. Carlson; Brian Cairns

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

A Second-Generation Blackbody System for the Calibration and Verification of Sea-Going Infrared Radiometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Quasi-operational shipborne radiometers provide a Fiducial Reference Measurement (FRM) for satellite validation of satellite sea surface skin temperature (SSTskin) retrievals. External reference blackbodies are required to verify the performance ...

Craig J. Donlon; W. Wimmer; I. Robinson; G. Fisher; M. Ferlet; T. Nightingale; B. Bras

134

The Global Trend in Sea Surface Temperature from 20 Years of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The trend in sea surface temperature has been determined from 20 yr of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Pathfinder data (version 5). The data span the period from January 1985 to December 2004, inclusive. The linear trends were calculated ...

S. A. Good; G. K. Corlett; J. J. Remedios; E. J. Noyes; D. T. Llewellyn-Jones

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

First Three Years of the Microwave Radiometer aboard Envisat: In-Flight Calibration, Processing, and Validation of the Geophysical Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Envisat microwave radiometer is designed to correct the satellite altimeter data for the excess path delay resulting from tropospheric humidity. Neural networks have been used to formulate the inversion algorithm to retrieve this quantity ...

E. Obligis; L. Eymard; N. Tran; S. Labroue; P. Femenias

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

A High-Accuracy Multiwavelength Radiometer for In Situ Measurements in the Thermal Infrared. Part II: Behavior in Field Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performances of the new conveyable low-noise infrared radiometer for measurements of atmosphere and ground surface targets, or CLIMAT, are presented for in situ measurements. For this, quantitative analyses were carried out on measurements ...

Grard Brogniez; Christophe Pietras; Michel Legrand; Philippe Dubuisson; Martial Haeffelin

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

A Change Detection Algorithm for Retrieving High-Resolution Soil Moisture From SMAP Radar and Radiometer Observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A change detection algorithm has been developed in order to obtain high-resolution soil moisture estimates from future Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) L-band radar and radiometer observations. The approach combines ...

Piles, Maria

138

A New Look at Calibration and Use of Eppley Precision Infrared Radiometers. Part I: Theory and Application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The calibration and accuracy of the Eppley precision infrared radiometer (PIR) is examined both theoretically and experimentally. A rederivation of the fundamental energy balance of the PIR indicates that the calibration equation in common use in ...

C. W. Fairall; P. O. G. Persson; E. F. Bradley; R. E. Payne; S. P. Anderson

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Retrieval of Cirrus Microphysical Properties with a Suite of Algorithms for Airborne and Spaceborne Lidar, Radar, and Radiometer Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Algorithms are developed to convert data streams from multiple airborne and spaceborne remote sensors into layer-averaged cirrus bulk microphysical properties. Radiometers such as the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observe ...

Yuying Zhang; Gerald G. Mace

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

The Calibration and Intercalibration of Sea-Going Infrared Radiometer Systems Using a Low Cost Blackbody Cavity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are many infrared radiometer systems available for the measurement of in situ sea surface skin temperature (SSST). Unfortunately, the marine environment is extremely hostile to optical components, and to ensure the accuracy of SSST ...

C. J. Donlon; T. Nightingale; L. Fiedler; G. Fisher; D. Baldwin; I. S. Robinson

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor radiometer gvr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Remotely Sensed Measurements of Stratocumulus Properties during FIRE Using the C130 Aircraft Multi-channel Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper gives a description of a narrow-hand near-infrared radiometer that was operated during the marine stratocumulus intensive field observation program of FIRE in 1987 from the United Kingdom Meteorological Office C130 aircraft. All data ...

F. Rawlins; J. S. Foot

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Inference of Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer Moisture and Temperature Structure Using Airborne Lidar and Infrared Radiometer Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new technique for retrieving near-surface moisture and profiles of mixing ratio and potential temperature through the depth of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) using airborne lidar and multichannel infrared radiometer data is ...

Stephen P. Palm; Denise Hagan; Geary Schwemmer; S. H. Melfi

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Retrieval of cloud properties using CALIPSO Imaging Infrared Radiometer. Part II: effective diameter and ice water path  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper describes the version 3 Level 2 operational analysis of the Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR) data collected in the framework of the CALIPSO mission to retrieve cirrus cloud effective diameter and ice water path in synergy with the ...

Anne Garnier; Jacques Pelon; Philippe Dubuisson; Ping Yang; Michal Faivre; Olivier Chomette; Nicolas Pascal; Pat Lucker; Tim Murray

144

Characterization of Precipitating Clouds by Ground-Based Measurements with the Triple-Frequency Polarized Microwave Radiometer ADMIRARI  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A groundbreaking new-concept multiwavelength dual-polarized Advanced Microwave Radiometer for Rain Identification (ADMIRARI) has been built and continuously operated in two field campaigns: the Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation ...

Alessandro Battaglia; Pablo Saavedra; Thomas Rose; Clemens Simmer

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Microfluidic labeling of biomolecules with radiometals for use in nuclear Tobias D. Wheeler,ab  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

). The analysis was performed using the following gradient of 0.1 vol% TFA in de-ionized water (A) and 0.1 vol of concentrated reagents. As a model reaction, we radiolabel 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic of reservoirs for the incubation of the radiometal­ligand mixture and (3) a thin-film heater for heating

Kenis, Paul J. A.

146

ARM - PI Product - MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govDataPI Data ProductsMWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water govDataPI Data ProductsMWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : MWR Retrievals of Cloud Liquid Water and Water Vapor 2005.02.01 - 2011.04.25 Site(s) FKB GRW HFE NIM PYE SBS General Description A new algorithm is being developed for the ARM Program to derive liquid water path (LWP) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) from the 2-channel (23.8 and 31.4 GHz) microwave radiometers (MWRs) deployed at ARM climate research facilities. This algorithm utilizes the "monoRTM" radiative transfer model (http://rtweb.aer.com), a combination of both an advanced statistical and physical-iterative retrieval, and brightness temperature offsets applied before the retrieval is performed. This allows perhaps the

147

Comparison of Historical Satellite Based Estimates of Solar Radiation Resources with Recent Rotating Shadowland Radiometer Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite-based solar radiation estimates have recently been incorporated into the 1990-2005 update to the 1961-1990 U.S. National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) also supplies satellite-based estimates of solar radiation. The usefulness of such data with respect to solar resources for site selection and designing solar energy conversion systems is often questioned. The availability of rotating shadow band radiometer measurement data at several new stations provides an opportunity to compare historical satellite-based estimates of solar resources with measurements. We compare mean monthly daily total (MMDT) solar radiation data from eight years of NSRDB and 22 years of NASA hourly global horizontal and direct beam solar estimates with measured data from three stations, collected after the end of the available resource estimates. We compare the most recent shadowband radiometer MMDT with a complement of thermopile 'first class' solar radiometers at one site. Quantitative analysis shows that in most cases, the long-term average MMDT and measured data are comparable, within 10% of each other for global, and 20% for direct-radiation MMDT.

Myers, D.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Image Storage in Hot Vapors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We theoretically investigate image propagation and storage in hot atomic vapor. A $4f$ system is adopted for imaging and an atomic vapor cell is placed over the transform plane. The Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of an object in the object plane can thus be transformed into atomic Raman coherence according to the idea of ``light storage''. We investigate how the stored diffraction pattern evolves under diffusion. Our result indicates, under appropriate conditions, that an image can be reconstructed with high fidelity. The main reason for this procedure to work is the fact that diffusion of opposite-phase components of the diffraction pattern interfere destructively.

Zhao, L; Xiao, Y; Yelin, S F

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Image Storage in Hot Vapors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We theoretically investigate image propagation and storage in hot atomic vapor. A $4f$ system is adopted for imaging and an atomic vapor cell is placed over the transform plane. The Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of an object in the object plane can thus be transformed into atomic Raman coherence according to the idea of ``light storage''. We investigate how the stored diffraction pattern evolves under diffusion. Our result indicates, under appropriate conditions, that an image can be reconstructed with high fidelity. The main reason for this procedure to work is the fact that diffusion of opposite-phase components of the diffraction pattern interfere destructively.

L. Zhao; T. Wang; Y. Xiao; S. F. Yelin

2007-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

150

Atomic vapor laser isotope separation process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser spectroscopy system is utilized in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. The system determines spectral components of an atomic vapor utilizing a laser heterodyne technique. 23 figs.

Wyeth, R.W.; Paisner, J.A.; Story, T.

1990-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

151

Vapor Pressure Measurement of Supercooled Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new dewpoint hygrometer was developed for subfreezing temperature application. Vapor pressure of supercooled water was determined by measuring temperatures at the dew-forming surface and the vapor source ice under the flux density balance, and ...

N. Fukuta; C. M. Gramada

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Distribution of Tropical Tropospheric Water Vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilizing a conceptual model for tropical convection and observational data for water vapor, the maintenance of the vertical distribution of the tropical tropospheric water vapor is discussed. While deep convection induces large-scale subsidence ...

De-Zheng Sun; Richard S. Lindzen

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Atmospheric Water Vapor Characteristics at 70N  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using an extensive rawinsonde archive, characteristics of Arctic water vapor and its transports at 70N are examined for the period 19741991. Monthly-mean profiles and vertically integrated values of specific humidity and meridional vapor fluxes ...

Mark C. Serreze; Roger G. Barry; John E. Walsh

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Volatilized metal compounds retard vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

Warren, Barbara K. (Charleston, WV)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

LOW PRESSURE CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF POLYSILICON  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THEORY The mass transport processes in low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) are similar to those occuring in catalytic reactors

Gieske, R.J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Vapor Pressures and Heats of Vaporization of Primary Coal Tars  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

/ PC92544-18 / PC92544-18 VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS FINAL REPORT Grant Dates: August, 1992 - November, 1996 Principal Authors: Eric M. Suuberg (PI) and Vahur Oja Report Submitted: April, 1997 Revised: July, 1997 Grant Number: DE-FG22-92PC92544 Report Submitted by: ERIC M. SUUBERG DIVISION OF ENGINEERING BROWN UNIVERSITY PROVIDENCE, RI 02912 TEL. (401) 863-1420 Prepared For: U. S. DEPT. OF ENERGY FEDERAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CENTER P.O. BOX 10940 PITTSBURGH, PA 15236 DR. KAMALENDU DAS, FETC, MORGANTOWN , WV TECHNICAL PROJECT OFFICER "US/DOE Patent Clearance is not required prior to the publication of this document" ii United States Government Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any

158

Macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylates for stable radiometal antibody conjugates for therapy, spect and pet imaging  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A simple method for the synthesis of 1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N'N",N'"-tetraacetic acid and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane N,N',N",N'"-tetraacetic acid involves cyanomethylating 1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane or 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane to form a tetranitrile and hydrolyzing the tetranitrile. These macrocyclic compounds are functionalized through one of the carboxylates and then conjugated to various biological molecules including monoclonal antibodies. The resulting conjugated molecules are labeled with radiometals for SPECT and PET imaging and for radiotherapy.

Mease, Ronnie C. (Fairfax, VA); Mausner, Leonard F. (Stony Brook, NY); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY)

1997-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

159

Macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylates for stable radiometal antibody conjugates for therapy, SPECT and PET imaging  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A simple method for the synthesis of 1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N{prime}N{double_prime},N{prime}{double_prime}-tetraacetic acid and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane N,N{prime},N{double_prime},N{prime}{double_prime}-tetraacetic acid involves cyanomethylating 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane or 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane to form a tetranitrile and hydrolyzing the tetranitrile. These macrocyclic compounds are functionalized through one of the carboxylates and then conjugated to various biological molecules including monoclonal antibodies. The resulting conjugated molecules are labeled with radiometals for SPECT and PET imaging and for radiotherapy. 4 figs.

Mease, R.C.; Mausner, L.F.; Srivastava, S.C.

1997-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

160

Producing radiometals in liquid targets: Proof of feasibility with {sup 94m}Tc  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

{sup 94m}Tc was produced in a liquid target loaded with a molybdenum-salt solution. This novel technique allows for the irradiation of metals dissolved in a liquid solution, normally only available in metal powder or foil form. By using this approach, the existing liquid targets and transfer infrastructure of many PET cyclotrons can be used to produce radiometals, avoiding the need, expense and challenges of operating solid targets. Such an approach allows for rapid testing of new isotopes for proof of feasibility studies. Different concentrations of Mo solution and their effect on the target performance were tested. Sufficient quantities to allow for preclinical studies were produced.

Hoehr, C.; Badesso, B.; Morley, T.; Trinczek, M.; Buckley, K.; Klug, J.; Zeisler, S.; Hanemaayer, V.; Ruth, T. R.; Benard, F.; Schaffer, P. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, V6T 2A3 Vancouver, BC (Canada); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, V6T 2A3 Vancouver, BC (Canada) and BC Cancer Agency, 600 West 10th Avenue, V5Z 4E6 Vancouver, BC (Canada); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, V6T 2A3 Vancouver, BC (Canada); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, V6T 2A3 Vancouver, BC (Canada) and BC Cancer Agency, 600 West 10th Avenue, V5Z 4E6 Vancouver, BC (Canada); BC Cancer Agency, 600 West 10th Avenue, V5Z 4E6 Vancouver, BC (Canada); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, V6T 2A3 Vancouver, BC (Canada)

2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor radiometer gvr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Means and method for vapor generation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid, in heat transfer contact with a surface heated to a temperature well above the vaporization temperature of the liquid, will undergo a multiphase (liquid-vapor) transformation from 0% vapor to 100% vapor. During this transition, the temperature driving force or heat flux and the coefficients of heat transfer across the fluid-solid interface, and the vapor percentage influence the type of heating of the fluid--starting as "feedwater" heating where no vapors are present, progressing to "nucleate" heating where vaporization begins and some vapors are present, and concluding with "film" heating where only vapors are present. Unstable heating between nucleate and film heating can occur, accompanied by possibly large and rapid temperature shifts in the structures. This invention provides for injecting into the region of potential unstable heating and proximate the heated surface superheated vapors in sufficient quantities operable to rapidly increase the vapor percentage of the multiphase mixture by perhaps 10-30% and thereby effectively shift the multiphase mixture beyond the unstable heating region and up to the stable film heating region.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Vapor phase heat transport systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Vapor phase heat-transport systems are being tested in two of the passive test cells at Los Alamos. The systems consist of an active fin-and-tube solar collector and a condenser inside a water storage tank. The refrigerant, R-11, can be returned to the collector by a pump or by a self-pumping scheme. In one of the test cells the liquid was self-pumped to the roof-mounted collector 17 ft above the condenser. A mechanical valve was designed and tested that showed that the system could operate in a completely passive mode. Performance comparisons have been made with a passive water wall test cell.

Hedstrom, J.C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Coupling apparatus for a metal vapor laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coupling apparatus for a large bore metal vapor laser is disclosed. The coupling apparatus provides for coupling high voltage pulses (approximately 40 KV) to a metal vapor laser with a high repetition rate (approximately 5 KHz). The coupling apparatus utilizes existing thyratron circuits and provides suitable power input to a large bore metal vapor laser while maintaining satisfactory operating lifetimes for the existing thyratron circuits.

Ball, D.G.; Miller, J.L.

1993-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

164

Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) Exploration Activity Details Location Unspecified Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Surface soil-mercury surveys are an inexpensive and useful exploration tool for geothermal resources. ---- Surface geochemical surveys for mercury were conducted in 16 areas in 1979-1981 by ARCO Oil and Gas Company as part of its geothermal evaluation program. Three techniques used together have proved satisfactory in evaluating surface mercury data. These are contouring, histograms and cumulative frequency plots of the data. Contouring geochemical data and constructing histograms are standard

165

Thermoplastic Composite with Vapor Grown Carbon Fiber.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Vapor grown carbon fiber (VGCF) is a new class of highly graphitic carbon nanofiber and offers advantages of economy and simpler processing over continuous-fiber composites. (more)

Lee, Jaewoo

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO) In this project, Building America team Building Science Corporation researched some of the ramifications of using exterior, vapor...

167

Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Volatilized metal compounds are described which are capable of retarding vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

Warren, B.K.

1991-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

168

Water Vapor Fields Deduced from METEOSAT-1 Water Vapor Channel Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A quasi-operational process for the determination of water vapor fields from METEPSAT-1 water vapor channel data is described. Each count of the WV picture is replaced by the corresponding mean relative humidity value using both the calibration ...

M. M. Poc; M. Roulleau

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Cloud Clearing over the Ocean in the Processing of Data from the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Infrared radiometric measurements of surface parameters are prone to error if clouds are present in the observation path. The along-track scanning radiometer (ATSR) with its novel dual-view feature is able to correct for absorption effects in the ...

Albin M. Zvody; Christopher T. Mutlow; David T. Llewellyn-Jones

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We evaluated the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer. One minute averages of 3-second data for 12 months from the test instrument measurements were compared with the computed reference data set. Combined uncertainty in the computed reference irradiance is 1.8% {+-} 0.5%. Total uncertainty in the pyranometer comparisons is {+-}2.5%. We show mean percent difference between reference global irradiance and test pyranometer 1 minute data as a function of zenith angle, and percent differences between daily totals for the reference and test irradiances as a function of day number. We offer no explicit conclusion about the performance of instrument models, as a general array of applications with a wide range of instrumentation and accuracy requirements could be addressed with any of the radiometers.

Myers, D.; Wilcox, S. M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Radiometric Validation of ERS-1 Along-Track Scanning Radiometer Average Sea Surface Temperature in the Atlantic Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ERS-1 along-track scanning radiometer (ATSR) provides a half-degree latitude by half-degree longitude average sea surface temperature (ASST) measurement representative of the thermal skin layer of the ocean that is intended for use in global ...

Craig J. Donlon; Ian S. Robinson

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Validation of Satellite-Derived Liquid Water Paths Using ARM SGP Microwave Radiometers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Satellite-Derived Liquid Water Paths Using Satellite-Derived Liquid Water Paths Using ARM SGP Microwave Radiometers M. M. Khaiyer and J. Huang Analytical Services & Materials, Inc. Hampton, Virginia P. Minnis, B. Lin, and W. L. Smith, Jr. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia A. Fan Science Applications International Corporation Hampton, Virginia A. Rapp Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado Introduction Satellites are useful for monitoring climatological parameters over large domains. They are especially useful for measuring various cloud microphysical and radiative parameters where ground-based instruments are not available. The geostationary operational environmental satellite (GOES) has been used to retrieve cloud and radiative properties over an extended domain centered on the Atmospheric

173

Modification of the collective Thomson scattering radiometer in the search for parametric decay on TEXTOR  

SciTech Connect

Strong scattering of high-power millimeter waves at 140 GHz has been shown to take place in heating and current-drive experiments at TEXTOR when a tearing mode is present in the plasma. The scattering signal is at present supposed to be generated by the parametric decay instability. Here we describe the heterodyne detection system used to characterize the newly discovered signal measured at TEXTOR, and we present spectral shapes in which the signal can appear under different conditions. The radiation is collected by the receiver through a quasi-optical transmission line that is independent of the electron cyclotron resonance heating transmission line, and so the scattering geometry is variable. The signal is detected with 42 frequency channels ranging from 136 to 142 GHz. We demonstrate that the large signal does not originate from gyrotron spurious radiation. The measured signal agrees well with independent backscattering radiometer data.

Nielsen, S. K.; Salewski, M.; Korsholm, S. B.; Leipold, F.; Meo, F.; Michelsen, P.; Stejner, M. [Association EURATOM - DTU, Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Risoe Campus, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Bongers, W.; Moseev, D.; Westerhof, E. [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM - FOM, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Oosterbeek, J. W. [Department of Applied Physics, Science and Technology of Nuclear Fusion, Eindhoven University of Technology, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

174

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

Novick, Vincent J.; Johnson, Stanley A.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

A neural network for real-time retrievals of PWV and LWP from Arctic millimeter-wave ground-based observations.  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a new neural network (NN) algorithm for real-time retrievals of low amounts of precipitable water vapor (PWV) and integrated liquid water from millimeter-wave ground-based observations. Measurements are collected by the 183.3-GHz G-band vapor radiometer (GVR) operating at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility, Barrow, AK. The NN provides the means to explore the nonlinear regime of the measurements and investigate the physical boundaries of the operability of the instrument. A methodology to compute individual error bars associated with the NN output is developed, and a detailed error analysis of the network output is provided. Through the error analysis, it is possible to isolate several components contributing to the overall retrieval errors and to analyze the dependence of the errors on the inputs. The network outputs and associated errors are then compared with results from a physical retrieval and with the ARM two-channel microwave radiometer (MWR) statistical retrieval. When the NN is trained with a seasonal training data set, the retrievals of water vapor yield results that are comparable to those obtained from a traditional physical retrieval, with a retrieval error percentage of {approx}5% when the PWV is between 2 and 10 mm, but with the advantages that the NN algorithm does not require vertical profiles of temperature and humidity as input and is significantly faster computationally. Liquid water path (LWP) retrievals from the NN have a significantly improved clear-sky bias (mean of {approx}2.4 g/m{sup 2}) and a retrieval error varying from 1 to about 10 g/m{sup 2} when the PWV amount is between 1 and 10 mm. As an independent validation of the LWP retrieval, the longwave downwelling surface flux was computed and compared with observations. The comparison shows a significant improvement with respect to the MWR statistical retrievals, particularly for LWP amounts of less than 60 g/m{sup 2}.

Cadeddu, M. P.; Turner, D. D.; Liljegren, J. C.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Atomic vapor laser isotope separation  

SciTech Connect

Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique. A major present application to the enrichment of uranium for light-water power reactor fuel has been under development for over 10 years. In June 1985 the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet the nation's future need for the internationally competitive production of uranium separative work. The economic basis for this decision is considered, with an indicated of the constraints placed on the process figures of merit and the process laser system. We then trace an atom through a generic AVLIS separator and give examples of the physical steps encountered, the models used to describe the process physics, the fundamental parameters involved, and the role of diagnostic laser measurements.

Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

1985-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

177

A New Global Water Vapor Dataset  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comprehensive and accurate global water vapor dataset is critical to the adequate understanding of water vapor's role in the earth's climate system. To begin to satisfy this need, the authors have produced a blended dataset made up of global, 5-...

David L. Randel; Thomas J. Greenwald; Thomas H. Vonder Haar; Graeme L. Stephens; Mark A. Ringerud; Cynthia L. Combs

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

LNG fire and vapor control system technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler for sampling semi-volatile organic gases and particulate components. A semi-volatile organic reversible gas sorbent macroreticular resin agglomerates of randomly packed microspheres with the continuous porous structure of particles ranging in size between 0.05-10 .mu.m for use in an integrated diffusion vapor-particle sampler.

Gundel, Lara (Berkeley, CA); Daisey, Joan M. (Walnut Creek, CA); Stevens, Robert K. (Cary, NC)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Stacked vapor fed amtec modules  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention pertains to a stacked AMTEC module. The invention includes a tubular member which has an interior. The member is comprised of a ion conductor that substantially conducts ions relative to electrons, preferably a beta"-alumina solid electrolyte, positioned about the interior. A porous electrode for conducting electrons and allowing sodium ions to pass therethrough, and wherein electrons and sodium ions recombine to form sodium is positioned about the beta"-alumina solid electrolyte. The electrode is operated at a temperature and a pressure that allows the recombined sodium to vaporize. Additionally, an outer current collector grid for distributing electrons throughout the porous electrode is positioned about and contacts the porous electrode. Also included in the invention is transporting means for transporting liquid sodium to the beta"-alumina solid electrolyte of the tubular member. A transition piece is positioned about the interior of the member and contacts the transporting means. The transition piece divides the member into a first cell and a second cell such that each first and second cell has a beta"-alumina solid electrolyte, a first and second porous electrode and a grid. The transition piece conducts electrons from the interior of the tubular member. There is supply means for supplying sodium to the transporting means. Preferably the supply means is a shell which surrounds the tubular member and is operated at a temperature such that the vaporized sodium condenses thereon. Returning means for returning the condensed sodium from the shell to the transporting means provides a continuous supply of liquid sodium to the transporting means. Also, there are first conducting means for conducting electric current from the transition piece which extends through the shell, and second conducting means for conducting electric current to the grid of the first cell which extends through the shell.

Sievers, Robert K. (North Huntingdon, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor radiometer gvr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Cloud Properties Working Group Low Clouds Update  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cloud Properties Working Group Cloud Properties Working Group Low Clouds Update Low Clouds Update Jennifer Comstock Jennifer Comstock Dave Turner Dave Turner Andy Andy Vogelmann Vogelmann Instruments Instruments 90/150 GHz microwave radiometer 90/150 GHz microwave radiometer Deployed during COPS AMF Deployed during COPS AMF Exploring calibration w/ DPR ( Exploring calibration w/ DPR ( Crewell Crewell & & L L ö ö hnert hnert ) ) See COPS Breakout, Wednesday evening See COPS Breakout, Wednesday evening 183 GHz (GVR) deployed at the NSA 183 GHz (GVR) deployed at the NSA Neural network algorithm to retrieve PWV & LWP (Maria Neural network algorithm to retrieve PWV & LWP (Maria Cadeddu Cadeddu ) ) Potential VAP candidate (RPWG) Potential VAP candidate (RPWG)

182

Mercury Vapor At Desert Peak Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Desert Peak Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Desert Peak Area...

183

Mercury Vapor At Socorro Mountain Area (Kooten, 1987) | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Socorro Mountain Area (Kooten, 1987) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Socorro Mountain Area...

184

Abstract: Apparatus for Measuring Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Measurements of the vapor pressures and saturated liquid densities of ethanol and the vapor pressure of an ethanol water mixture (ethanol=0.6743 ...

185

Mercury Vapor At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Mccoy Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness not...

186

Water vapor retrieval over many surface types  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present a study of of the water vapor retrieval for many natural surface types which would be valuable for multi-spectral instruments using the existing Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio (CIBR) for the 940 nm water vapor absorption feature. An atmospheric code (6S) and 562 spectra were used to compute the top of the atmosphere radiance near the 940 nm water vapor absorption feature in steps of 2.5 nm as a function of precipitable water (PW). We derive a novel technique called ``Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption`` (APDA) and show that APDA performs better than the CIBR over many surface types.

Borel, C.C.; Clodius, W.C.; Johnson, J.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Modeling engine oil vaporization and transport of the oil vapor in the piston ring pack on internal combustion engines.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A model was developed to study engine oil vaporization and oil vapor transport in the piston ring pack of internal combustion engines. With the assumption (more)

Cho, Yeunwoo, 1973-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Performance of Commercial Radiometers in Very Low Temperature and Pressure Environments Typical of Polar Regions and of the Stratosphere: A Laboratory Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Characterizing the performance of ground-based commercial radiometers in cold and/or low-pressure environments is critical for developing accurate flux measurements in the polar regions and in the upper troposphere and stratosphere. Commercially ...

Wenying Su; Ellsworth Dutton; Thomas P. Charlock; Warren Wiscombe

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Rain/No-Rain Classification Methods for Microwave Radiometer Observations over Land Using Statistical Information for Brightness Temperatures under No-Rain Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the goals of the Global Precipitation Measurement project, the successor to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), is to produce a 3-hourly global rainfall map using several spaceborne microwave radiometers. It is important, ...

Shinta Seto; Nobuhiro Takahashi; Toshio Iguchi

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Radiative Flux Estimation from a Broadband Radiometer Using Synthetic Angular Models in the EarthCARE Mission Framework. Part II: Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The instantaneous top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance-to-flux conversion for the broadband radiometer (BBR) on board the Earth Clouds, Aerosols, and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) was assessed in Part I of this paper, by developing theoretical ...

Carlos Domenech; Ernesto Lopez-Baeza; David P. Donovan; Tobias Wehr

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Design of a Shadowband Spectral Radiometer for the Retrieval of Thin Cloud Optical Depth, Liquid Water Path, and the Effective Radius  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design and operation of a Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (TCRSR) described here was used to measure the radiative intensity of the solar aureole and enable the simultaneous retrieval of cloud optical depth, drop effective radius, ...

M. J. Bartholomew; R. M. Reynolds; A. M. Vogelmann; Q. Min; R. Edwards; S. Smith

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Radiometer and Profiler Analysis of the Effects of a Bore and a Solitary Wave on the Stability of the Nocturnal Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study uses data from a microwave profiling radiometer (MPR), along with 915-MHz wind profiler, Doppler radar, and surface data to quantify the kinematic and thermodynamic effects of two wave features, an undular bore and a soliton, on the ...

Timothy A. Coleman; Kevin R. Knupp

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Retrieval of Key Aerosol Optical Parameters from Spectral Direct and Diffuse Irradiances Observed by a Radiometer with Nonideal Cosine Response Characteristic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spectral direct and diffuse irradiances observed by a radiometer with a horizontal surface detector have been frequently used to study aerosol optical parameters, such as aerosol optical thickness (?aer) and single scattering albedo (?). Such ...

Pradeep Khatri; Tamio Takamura; Akihiro Yamazaki; Yutaka Kondo

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

A Study of a Retrieval Method for Temperature and Humidity Profiles from Microwave Radiometer Observations Based on Principal Component Analysis and Stepwise Regression  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses the application of principal component analysis and stepwise regression in the retrieval of vertical profiles of temperature and humidity based on the measurements of a 35-channel microwave radiometer. It uses the radiosonde ...

Haobo Tan; Jietai Mao; Huanhuan Chen; P. W. Chan; Dui Wu; Fei Li; Tao Deng

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Scientific Basis and Initial Evaluation of the CLAVR-1 Global Clear/Cloud Classification Algorithm for the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An algorithm for the remote sensing of global cloud cover using multispectral radiance measurements from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on board National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar-orbiting ...

Larry L. Stowe; Paul A. Davis; E. Paul McClain

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Analysis of binary vapor turbines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effect the binary mixture has on the turbine is examined in terms of design and cost. Several flow theories for turbines and turbine blading are reviewed. The similarity method, which uses dimensionless parameters, is used in determining rotative speeds and diameters for a variety of inlet temperatures and exit pressures. It is shown that the ratio of exit to inlet specific volume for each component in the mixture is the same for each specie. The specific volume ratio constraints are combined with the temperature equalities, the condenser pressure, and the total inlet entropy to form the constraints necessary to determine the exit state uniquely in an isentropic expansion. The non-isentropic exit state is found in a similar manner. The expansion process is examined for several cases and compared with the expansion of a single component vapor. Finally, in order to maintain high efficiency and to meet the criteria which makes the similarity method valid at high inlet temperatures, turbine multistaging is examined and a sample case is given for a two stage turbine.

Bliss, R.W.; Boehm, R.F.; Jacobs, H.R.

1976-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Remotely Controlled, Continuous Observations of Infrared Radiance with the CSIRO/ARM Mark II Radiometer at the SGP CART Site  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Remotely Controlled, Continuous Observations of Remotely Controlled, Continuous Observations of Infrared Radiance with the CSIRO/ARM Mark II Radiometer at the SGP CART Site C. M. R. Platt and R. T. Austin Department of Atmospheric Science Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado C. M. R. Platt and J. A. Bennett Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization Atmospheric Research Aspendale, Victoria, Australia Abstract The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization/Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (CSIRO/ARM) Program Mark II infrared (IR) filter radiometer operated continuously at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site for a period of five weeks. Data of high quality were obtained by remote operation and data transfer with no evidence of spurious

198

Comparison of Historical Satellite-Based Estimates of Solar Radiation Resources with Recent Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Measurements: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The availability of rotating shadow band radiometer measurement data at several new stations provides an opportunity to compare historical satellite-based estimates of solar resources with measurements. We compare mean monthly daily total (MMDT) solar radiation data from eight years of NSRDB and 22 years of NASA hourly global horizontal and direct beam solar estimates with measured data from three stations, collected after the end of the available resource estimates.

Myers, D. R.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Method to Calculate Uncertainty Estimate of Measuring Shortwave Solar Irradiance using Thermopile and Semiconductor Solar Radiometers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The uncertainty of measuring solar irradiance is fundamentally important for solar energy and atmospheric science applications. Without an uncertainty statement, the quality of a result, model, or testing method cannot be quantified, the chain of traceability is broken, and confidence cannot be maintained in the measurement. Measurement results are incomplete and meaningless without a statement of the estimated uncertainty with traceability to the International System of Units (SI) or to another internationally recognized standard. This report explains how to use International Guidelines of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) to calculate such uncertainty. The report also shows that without appropriate corrections to solar measuring instruments (solar radiometers), the uncertainty of measuring shortwave solar irradiance can exceed 4% using present state-of-the-art pyranometers and 2.7% using present state-of-the-art pyrheliometers. Finally, the report demonstrates that by applying the appropriate corrections, uncertainties may be reduced by at least 50%. The uncertainties, with or without the appropriate corrections might not be compatible with the needs of solar energy and atmospheric science applications; yet, this report may shed some light on the sources of uncertainties and the means to reduce overall uncertainty in measuring solar irradiance.

Reda, I.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration Title Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 1995 Authors Hunt, Arlon J., Michael R. Ayers, and Wanqing Cao Journal Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids Volume 185 Pagination 227-232 Abstract A new method to produce novel composite materials based on the use of aerogels as a starting material is described. Using chemical vapor infiltration, a variety of solid materials were thermally deposited into the open pore structure of aerogel. The resulting materials possess new and unusual properties including photoluminescence, magnetism and altered optical properties. An important characteristic of this preparation process is the very small size of the deposits that gives rise to new behaviors. Silicon deposits exhibit photoluminescence, indicating quantum confinement. Two or more phases may be deposited simultaneously and one or both chemically or thermally reacted to produce new structures.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor radiometer gvr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

Dietz, Russell N. (Shoreham, NY); Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators  

SciTech Connect

A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

Dietz, R.N.; Senum, G.I.

1981-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

203

Chemical vapor deposition of antimicrobial polymer coatings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is large and growing interest in making a wide variety of materials and surfaces antimicrobial. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD), a solventless low-temperature process, is used to form thin films of polymers ...

Martin, Tyler Philip, 1977-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran polymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis develops a platform for deposition of polymer thin films that can be further tailored by chemical surface modification. First, we explore chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran films using ...

Olsson, Ylva Kristina

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Tropospheric Water Vapor and Climate Sensitivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Estimates are made of the effect of changes in tropospheric water vapor on the climate sensitivity to doubled carbon dioxide (CO2), using a coarse resolution atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab mixed layer ocean. The ...

Edwin K. Schneider; Ben P. Kirtman; Richard S. Lindzen

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Chemical vapor depositing of metal fluorides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Purity BeF2 and BeF2AlF3glasses have been deposited by the chemical vapor deposition technique using beryllium and aluminum 1

A. Sarhangi; J. M. Power

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Chemical vapor infiltration using microwave energy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a method for producing reinforced ceramic composite articles by means of chemical vapor infiltration and deposition in which an inverted temperature gradient is utilized. Microwave energy is the source of heat for the process.

Devlin, D.J.; Currier, R.P.; Laia, J.R.; Barbero, R.S.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

208

Multicomponent fuel vaporization at high pressures.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We extend our multicomponent fuel model to high pressures using a Peng-Robinson equation of state, and implement the model into KIVA-3V. Phase equilibrium is achieved by equating liquid and vapor fugacities. The latent heat of vaporization and fuel enthalpies are also corrected for at high pressures. Numerical simulations of multicomponent evaporation are performed for single droplets for a diesel fuel surrogate at different pressures.

Torres, D. J. (David J.); O'Rourke, P. J. (Peter J.)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Urania vapor composition at very high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Due to the chemically unstable nature of uranium dioxide its vapor composition at very high temperatures is, presently, not sufficiently studied though more experimental knowledge is needed for risk assessment of nuclear reactors. We used laser vaporization coupled to mass spectrometry of the produced vapor to study urania vapor composition at temperatures in the vicinity of its melting point and higher. The very good agreement between measured melting and freezing temperatures and between partial pressures measured on the temperature increase and decrease indicated that the change in stoichiometry during laser heating was very limited. The evolutions with temperature (in the range 2800-3400 K) of the partial pressures of the main vapor species (UO{sub 2}, UO{sub 3}, and UO{sub 2}{sup +}) were compared with theoretically predicted evolutions for equilibrium noncongruent gas-liquid and gas-solid phase coexistences and showed very good agreement. The measured main relative partial pressure ratios around 3300 K all agree with calculated values for total equilibrium between condensed and vapor phases. It is the first time the three main partial pressure ratios above stoichiometric liquid urania have been measured at the same temperature under conditions close to equilibrium noncongruent gas-liquid phase coexistence.

Pflieger, Rachel [Institute for Transuranium Elements, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Marcoule Institute for Separation Chemistry (ICSM), UMR 5257, CEA-CNRS-UMII-ENSCM, Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France); Colle, Jean-Yves [Institute for Transuranium Elements, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Iosilevskiy, Igor [Joint Institute for High Temperature, Russian Academy of Science, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, State University, 141700 Moscow (Russian Federation); Extreme Matter Institute (EMMI), 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Sheindlin, Michael [Institute for Transuranium Elements, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Joint Institute for High Temperature, Russian Academy of Science, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Vapor scavenging by atmospheric aerosol particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Particle growth due to vapor scavenging was studied using both experimental and computational techniques. Vapor scavenging by particles is an important physical process in the atmosphere because it can result in changes to particle properties (e.g., size, shape, composition, and activity) and, thus, influence atmospheric phenomena in which particles play a role, such as cloud formation and long range transport. The influence of organic vapor on the evolution of a particle mass size distribution was investigated using a modified version of MAEROS (a multicomponent aerosol dynamics code). The modeling study attempted to identify the sources of organic aerosol observed by Novakov and Penner (1993) in a field study in Puerto Rico. Experimentally, vapor scavenging and particle growth were investigated using two techniques. The influence of the presence of organic vapor on the particle`s hydroscopicity was investigated using an electrodynamic balance. The charge on a particle was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A prototype apparatus--the refractive index thermal diffusion chamber (RITDC)--was developed to study multiple particles in the same environment at the same time.

Andrews, E.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

ARM - Field Campaign - Water Vapor IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Water Vapor IOP 1996.09.10 - 1996.09.30 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb For data sets, see below. Summary SCHEDULE This IOP will be conducted from September 10 - 30, 1996 (coincident with the Fall ARM-UAV IOP). Instruments that do not require supervision will be operated continuously during this period. Instruments that do require supervision are presently planned to be operated for 8-hour periods each day. Because it is necessary to cover as broad a range of environmental conditions as possible, the daily 8-hour period will be shifted across the diurnal cycle as deemed appropriate during the IOP (but will be maintained as a contiguous 8-hour block).

212

atmospheric water vapor | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

atmospheric water vapor atmospheric water vapor Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. Source NREL Date Released July 31st, 2006 (8 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords atmospheric water vapor Carribean Islands Central America DNI GIS Mexico NREL GEF solar SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 247.8 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 370.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review

213

atmoshperic water vapor | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

atmoshperic water vapor atmoshperic water vapor Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude for China. Source NREL Date Released April 12th, 2005 (9 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords atmoshperic water vapor China GEF GIS NREL solar SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 625.6 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 704.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 01/01/1985 - 12/31/1991 License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL) Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote Usefulness of the dataset Average vote Your vote Ease of access

214

Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself.

Alger, Terry (Tracy, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress is reported on: adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks; theoretical investigation of adsorption; estimation of adsorption parameters from transient experiments; transient adsorption experiment -- salinity and noncondensible gas effects; the physics of injection of water into, transport and storage of fluids within, and production of vapor from geothermal reservoirs; injection optimization at the Geysers Geothermal Field; a model to test multiwell data interpretation for heterogeneous reservoirs; earth tide effects on downhole pressure measurements; and a finite-difference model for free surface gravity drainage well test analysis.

Not Available

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Global distributions of total ozone during January and February 1979 as determined from DMSP multichannel filter radiometer measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The multichannel filter radiometer instrument (MFR) was first flown on a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Block 5D series satellite in 1977. Daily analyses of the global distribution of retrieved total ozone are presented for January and February 1979. The temporal and spatial averages and variability of ozone during this period are discussed. Retrieved total column ozone data derived from the MFR measurements for January 1979 are compared with preliminary SBUV measurements and with distributions of total ozone measured between 1958 and 1967.

Luther, F.M.; Ellis, J.S.; Lovill, J.E.; Sullivan, T.J.; Weichel, R.L.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Synthesis of macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylates and their use for preparing stable radiometal antibody immunoconjugates for therapy, spect and pet imaging  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A simple method for the synthesis of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N'N",N'"-tetraacetic acid and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane N,N',N",N'"-tetraacetic acid involves cyanomethylating 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane or 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane to form a tetranitrile and hydrolyzing the tetranitrile. These macrocyclic compounds are functionalized through one of the carboxylates and then conjugated to various biological molecules including monoclonal antibodies. The resulting conjugated molecules are labeled with radiometals for SPECT and PET imaging and for radiotherapy.

Mease, Ronnie C. (Fairfax, VA); Mausner, Leonard F. (Stony Brook, NY); Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY)

1995-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

218

Results of First Outdoor Comparison Between Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) and Infrared Integrating Sphere (IRIS) Radiometer at PMOD (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ACP and IRIS are developed to establish a world reference for calibrating pyrgeometers with traceability to SI units. The two radiometers are unwindowed with negligible spectral dependence, and traceable to SI units through the temperature scale (ITS-90). The first outdoor comparison between the two designs was held from January 28 to February 8, 2013 at the Physikalisch-Metorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD). The difference between the irradiance measured by ACP and that of IRIS was within 1 W/m2. A difference of 5 W/m2 was observed between the irradiance measured by ACP&IRIS and that of the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG).

Reda, I.; Grobner, J.; Wacker, S.; Stoffel, T.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Synthesis of macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylates and their use for preparing stable radiometal antibody immunoconjugates for therapy, SPECT and PET imaging  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A simple method for the synthesis of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N{prime}N{double_prime},N{prime}{double_prime}-tetraacetic acid and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane N,N{prime},N{double_prime},N{prime}{double_prime}-tetraacetic acid involves cyanomethylating 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane or 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane to form a tetranitrile and hydrolyzing the tetranitrile. These macrocyclic compounds are functionalized through one of the carboxylates and then conjugated to various biological molecules including monoclonal antibodies. The resulting conjugated molecules are labeled with radiometals for SPECT and PET imaging and for radiotherapy. 4 figs.

Mease, R.C.; Mausner, L.F.; Srivastava, S.C.

1995-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

220

Method and Apparatus for Concentrating Vapors for Analysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method are disclosed for pre-concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the apparatus can be thermally desorbed achieving at least partial separation of vapor mixtures. The apparatus is suitable, e.g., for preconcentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than for direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications.

Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Baldwin, David L. (Kennewick, WA); Anheier, Jr., Norman C. (Richland, WA)

2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor radiometer gvr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Microwave Radiometer Profiler (jensen-mwr)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

A major component of the Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) field campaign was the deployment of an enhanced radiosonde array designed to capture the vertical profile of atmospheric state variables (pressure, temperature, humidity wind speed and wind direction) for the purpose of deriving the large-scale forcing for use in modeling studies. The radiosonde array included six sites (enhanced Central Facility [CF-1] plus five new sites) launching radiosondes at 3-6 hour sampling intervals. The network will cover an area of approximately (300)2 km2 with five outer sounding launch sites and one central launch location. The five outer sounding launch sites are: S01 Pratt, KS [ 37.7oN, 98.75oW]; S02 Chanute, KS [37.674, 95.488]; S03 Vici, Oklahoma [36.071, -99.204]; S04 Morris, Oklahoma [35.687, -95.856]; and S05 Purcell, Oklahoma [34.985, -97.522]. Soundings from the SGP Central Facility during MC3E can be retrieved from the regular ARM archive. During routine MC3E operations 4 radiosondes were launched from each of these sites (approx. 0130, 0730, 1330 and 1930 UTC). On days that were forecast to be convective up to four additional launches were launched at each site (approx. 0430, 1030, 1630, 2230 UTC). There were a total of approximately 14 of these high frequency launch days over the course of the experiment. These files contain brightness temperatures observed at Purcell during MC3E. The measurements were made with a 5 channel (22.235, 23.035, 23.835, 26.235, 30.000GHz) microwave radiometer at one minute intervals. The results have been separated into daily files and the day of observations is indicated in the file name. All observations were zenith pointing. Included in the files are the time variables base_time and time_offset. These follow the ARM time conventions. Base_time is the number seconds since January 1, 1970 at 00:00:00 for the first data point of the file and time_offset is the offset in seconds from base_time.

Mike Jensen

222

ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Microwave Radiometer Profiler (jensen-mwr)  

SciTech Connect

A major component of the Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) field campaign was the deployment of an enhanced radiosonde array designed to capture the vertical profile of atmospheric state variables (pressure, temperature, humidity wind speed and wind direction) for the purpose of deriving the large-scale forcing for use in modeling studies. The radiosonde array included six sites (enhanced Central Facility [CF-1] plus five new sites) launching radiosondes at 3-6 hour sampling intervals. The network will cover an area of approximately (300)2 km2 with five outer sounding launch sites and one central launch location. The five outer sounding launch sites are: S01 Pratt, KS [ 37.7oN, 98.75oW]; S02 Chanute, KS [37.674, 95.488]; S03 Vici, Oklahoma [36.071, -99.204]; S04 Morris, Oklahoma [35.687, -95.856]; and S05 Purcell, Oklahoma [34.985, -97.522]. Soundings from the SGP Central Facility during MC3E can be retrieved from the regular ARM archive. During routine MC3E operations 4 radiosondes were launched from each of these sites (approx. 0130, 0730, 1330 and 1930 UTC). On days that were forecast to be convective up to four additional launches were launched at each site (approx. 0430, 1030, 1630, 2230 UTC). There were a total of approximately 14 of these high frequency launch days over the course of the experiment. These files contain brightness temperatures observed at Purcell during MC3E. The measurements were made with a 5 channel (22.235, 23.035, 23.835, 26.235, 30.000GHz) microwave radiometer at one minute intervals. The results have been separated into daily files and the day of observations is indicated in the file name. All observations were zenith pointing. Included in the files are the time variables base_time and time_offset. These follow the ARM time conventions. Base_time is the number seconds since January 1, 1970 at 00:00:00 for the first data point of the file and time_offset is the offset in seconds from base_time.

Mike Jensen

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Low Temperature Direct Growth of Graphene Films on Transparent Substrates by Chemical Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Few- Layer Graphene by Chemical Vapor Deposition",Liu, W. , et al. (2010). "Chemical vapor deposition of large5 1.3.3. Chemical Vapor

Antoine, Geoffrey Sandosh Jeffy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Polynomial Fits to Saturation Vapor Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors describe eighth- and sixth-order polynomial fits to Wexler's and Hyland-Wexler's saturation-vapor-pressure expressions. Fits are provided in both least-squares and relative-error norms. Error analysis is presented. The authors show ...

Piotr J. Flatau; Robert L. Walko; William R. Cotton

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Vaporization of synthetic fuels. Final report. [Thesis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The problem of transient droplet vaporization in a hot convective environment is examined. The main objective of the present study is to develop an algorithm for the droplet vaporization which is simple enough to be feasibly incorporated into a complete spray combustion analysis and yet will also account for the important physics such as liquid-phase internal circulation, unsteady droplet heating and axisymmetric gas-phase convection. A simplified liquid-phase model has been obtained based on the assumption of the existence of a Hill's spherical vortex inside the droplet together with some approximations made in the governing diffusion equation. The use of the simplified model in a spray situation has also been examined. It has been found that droplet heating and vaporization are essentially unsteady and droplet temperature is nonuniform for a significant portion of its lifetime. It has also been found that the droplet vaporization characteristic can be quite sensitive to the particular liquid-phase and gas-phase models. The results of the various models are compared with the existing experimental data. Due to large scattering in the experimental measurements, particularly the droplet diameter, no definite conclusion can be drawn based on the experimental data. Finally, certain research problems which are related to the present study are suggested for future studies.

Sirignano, W.A.; Yao, S.C.; Tong, A.Y.; Talley, D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Chemical vapor deposition of mullite coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is directed to the creation of crystalline mullite coatings having uniform microstructure by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The process comprises the steps of establishing a flow of reactants which will yield mullite in a CVD reactor, and depositing a crystalline coating from the reactant flow. The process will yield crystalline coatings which are dense and of uniform thickness.

Sarin, Vinod (Lexington, MA); Mulpuri, Rao (Boston, MA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

A Water Vapor Index from Satellite Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for deriving a water vapor index is presented. An important feature of the index is the fact that it does not rely on radiosondes. Thus, it is not influenced by problems associated with radiosondes and the extent to which the horizontal ...

Larry M. McMillin; David S. Crosby; Mitchell D. Goldberg

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Profiling Atmospheric Water Vapor by Microwave Radiometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-altitude microwave radiometric observations at frequencies near 92 and 183.3 GHz were used to study the potential of retrieving atmospheric water vapor profiles over both land and water. An algorithm based on an extended Kaiman-Bucy filter ...

J. R. Wang; J. L. King; T. T. Wilheit; G. Szejwach; L. H. Gesell; R. A. Nieman; D. S. Niver; B. M. Krupp; J. A. Gagliano

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Effects of capillarity and vapor adsorption in the depletion of vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs in natural (undisturbed) conditions contain water as both vapor and liquid phases. The most compelling evidence for the presence of distributed liquid water is the observation that vapor pressures in these systems are close to saturated vapor pressure for measured reservoir temperatures (White et al., 1971; Truesdell and White, 1973). Analysis of natural heat flow conditions provides additional, indirect evidence for the ubiquitous presence of liquid. From an analysis of the heat pipe process (vapor-liquid counterflow) Preuss (1985) inferred that effective vertical permeability to liquid phase in vapor-dominated reservoirs is approximately 10{sup 17} m{sup 2}, for a heat flux of 1 W/m{sup 2}. This value appears to be at the high end of matrix permeabilities of unfractured rocks at The Geysers, suggesting that at least the smaller fractures contribute to liquid permeability. For liquid to be mobile in fractures, the rock matrix must be essentially completely liquid-saturated, because otherwise liquid phase would be sucked from the fractures into the matrix by capillary force. Large water saturation in the matrix, well above the irreducible saturation of perhaps 30%, has been shown to be compatible with production of superheated steam (Pruess and Narasimhan, 1982). In response to fluid production the liquid phase will boil, with heat of vaporization supplied by the reservoir rocks. As reservoir temperatures decline reservoir pressures will decline also. For depletion of ''bulk'' liquid, the pressure would decline along the saturated vapor pressure curve, while for liquid held by capillary and adsorptive forces inside porous media, an additional decline will arise from ''vapor pressure lowering''. Capillary pressure and vapor adsorption effects, and associated vapor pressure lowering phenomena, have received considerable attention in the geothermal literature, and also in studies related to geologic disposal of heat generating nuclear wastes, and in the drying of porous materials. Geothermally oriented studies were presented by Chicoine et al. (1977), Hsieh and Ramey (1978, 1981), Herkelrath et al. (1983), and Nghiem and Ramey (1991). Nuclear waste-related work includes papers by Herkelrath and O'Neal (1985), Pollock (1986), Eaton and Bixler (1987), Pruess et al. (1990), Nitao (1990), and Doughty and E'ruess (1991). Applications to industrial drying of porous materials have been discussed by Hamiathy (1969) arid Whitaker (1977). This paper is primarily concerned with evaluating the impact of vapor pressure lowering (VPL) effects on the depletion behavior of vapor-dominated reservoirs. We have examined experimental data on vapor adsorption and capillary pressures in an effort to identify constitutive relationships that would be applicable to the tight matrix rocks of vapor-dominated systems. Numerical simulations have been performed to evaluate the impact of these effects on the depletion of vapor-dominated reservoirs.

Pruess, Karsten; O'Sullivan, Michael

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

In this project, Building America team Building Science Corporation researched some of the ramifications of using exterior, vapor permeable insulation on retrofit walls with vapor permeable cavity insulation. Retrofit strategies are a key factor in reducing exterior building stock consumption.

Not Available

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

The Effect of vapor subcooling on film condensation of metals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work presents an analysis of the interfacial "vapor-condensate" temperature distribution, which includes the effect of subcooling (supersaturation) in the vapor. Experimental data from previous investigators for ...

Fedorovich, Eugene D.

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Waste tank headspace gas and vapor characterization reference guide  

SciTech Connect

This document is to serve as a reference guide for gas and vapor sample results presented in tank characterization reports. It describes sampling equipment, devices, and protocols, and sample collection and analysis methods common to all vapor samples.

Huckaby, J.L.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition of nano-composite...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

plasma chemical vapor deposition of nano-composite CPt thin-films Title Microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition of nano-composite CPt thin-films Publication Type Journal...

234

Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Depositon of Nano-Structured...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plasma Chemical Vapor Depositon of Nano-Structured SnC Composite Thin-Film anodes for Li-ion Battteries Title Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Depositon of Nano-Structured SnC...

235

Estimating the Atmospheric Water Vapor Content from Sun Photometer Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The differential absorption technique for estimating columnar water vapor values from the analysis of sunphotometric measurements with wide- and narrowband interferential filters centered near 0.94 ?m is discussed and adapted. Water vapor line ...

Artemio Plana-Fattori; Michel Legrand; Didier Tanr; Claude Devaux; Anne Vermeulen; Philippe Dubuisson

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Atmospheric Solar Heating Rate in the Water Vapor Bands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The total absorption of solar radiation by water vapor in clear atmosphere is parameterized as a simple function of the scaled water vapor amount. For applications to cloudy and hazy atmospheres, the flux-weighted k-distribution functions are ...

Ming-Dah Chou

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Modeling engine oil vaporization and transport of the oil vapor in the piston ring pack on internal combustion engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A model was developed to study engine oil vaporization and oil vapor transport in the piston ring pack of internal combustion engines. With the assumption that the multi-grade oil can be modeled as a compound of several ...

Cho, Yeunwoo, 1973-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Advanced Membrane Systems: Recovering Wasteful and Hazardous Fuel Vapors at the Gasoline Tank  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Case study covering Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. and its membrane vapor processor that recovers fuel vapors from gasoline refueling.

239

Vapor-pressure lowering in geothermal systems  

SciTech Connect

The water vapor-pressure lowering phenomenon in porous media was investigated for a range of temperatures by measuring vapor pressure vs. mass of water adsorbed in consolidated sandstone cores and unconsolidated silica sands. Experimental results showed that the mass of water adsorbed on the rock surface is much more than the amount of pore steam. Results also revealed that the water adsorption is caused mainly by micropores in the porous medium. Measurement of the mass of methane and ethane adsorbed on dry rocks showed that the amount of adsorption is not great in comparison with the pore gas. It was found that adsorption data for water/sandstone core studies could be normalized with respect to temperature. Although this appears not to have been reported previously, it does agree in principle with findings for solid powders with micropores. Another interesting result was that reanalysis of previous studies of capillarity in sandstones indicates that experimental data probably were influenced mostly by adsorption.

Hsieh, C.H.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Hydrocarbon pool and vapor fire data analysis  

SciTech Connect

The flame geometry and thermal radiation data from a series of large scale experiments involving liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and gasoline spills on water were analyzed. The experiments were conducted at the Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California. Two types of fires have been studied; namely, pool fires and vapor fires. The spill quantity varied from 4 m/sup 3/ to approximately 6 m/sup 3/. The LPG pool fire flame height to diameter ratio were between 3.5 and 4.5. The gasoline flame height was about 2. The flame emissive powers for LPG pool fires ranged from 78 kW/m/sup 2/ to 115 kW/m/sup 2/. The average surface emissive power for gasoline pool fire was 40 kW/m/sup 2/. The LPG vapor fire emissive power ranged from 159 to 269 kW/m/sup 2/. 63 figures, 13 tables.

Mudan, K.S.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor radiometer gvr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

OPERATIONAL TESTS OF EBWR VAPOR RECOVERY SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

A description of the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor vapor-recovery system is given. The seal air operating pressures, temperatures, and moisture content were measured. Air flow through the seals was measured and seal wear was assessed. Assuming direct-cycle D/sub 2/ operation, the seals were evaluated relative to the amount of D/sub 2/ leakage that would be controlled (C.J.G.)

Gariboldi, R.J.; Jacobson, D.R.

1960-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Transport properties of fission product vapors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Kinetic theory of gases is used to calculate the transport properties of fission product vapors in a steam and hydrogen environment. Provided in tabular form is diffusivity of steam and hydrogen, viscosity and thermal conductivity of the gaseous mixture, and diffusivity of cesium iodide, cesium hydroxide, diatomic tellurium and tellurium dioxide. These transport properties are required in determining the thermal-hydraulics of and fission product transport in light water reactors.

Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment.

Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA); Moses, Edward I. (Castro Valley, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment. 2 figs.

Alger, T.W.; Ault, E.R.; Moses, E.I.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

DuPont Chemical Vapor Technical Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DuPont Safety Resources was tasked with reviewing the current chemical vapor control practices and providing preventive recommendations on best commercial techniques to control worker exposures. The increased focus of the tank closure project to meet the 2024 Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestones has surfaced concerns among some CH2MHill employees and other interested parties. CH2MHill is committed to providing a safe working environment for employees and desires to safely manage the tank farm operations using appropriate control measures. To address worker concerns, CH2MHill has chartered a ''Chemical Vapors Project'' to integrate the activities of multiple CH2MHill project teams, and solicit the expertise of external resources, including an independent Industrial Hygiene expert panel, a communications consultant, and DuPont Safety Resources. Over a three-month time period, DuPont worked with CH2MHill ESH&Q, Industrial Hygiene, Engineering, and the independent expert panel to perform the assessment. The process included overview presentations, formal interviews, informal discussions, documentation review, and literature review. DuPont Safety Resources concluded that it is highly unlikely that workers in the tank farms are exposed to chemicals above established standards. Additionally, the conventional and radiological chemistry is understood, the inherent chemical hazards are known, and the risk associated with chemical vapor exposure is properly managed. The assessment highlighted management's commitment to addressing chemical vapor hazards and controlling the associated risks. Additionally, we found the Industrial Hygiene staff to be technically competent and well motivated. The tank characterization data resides in a comprehensive database containing the tank chemical compositions and relevant airborne concentrations.

MOORE, T.L.

2003-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

246

Apparatus and method for photochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photochemical vapor deposition apparatus includes a reactor housing having a window in one wall above a reaction chamber in the housing. A transparent curtain divides the reaction chamber into a reaction zone and a flush zone. At least one substrate is mounted in the reaction zone in light communication with the window so that ultraviolet radiation may penetrate through the window into the reaction zone. The window is kept clear by a gas flowing through the flush zone.

Jackson, Scott C. (Wilmington, DE); Rocheleau, Richard E. (Wilmington, DE)

1987-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

247

Passive vapor transport solar heating systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the systems under consideration, refrigerant is evaporated in a solar collector and condensed in thermal storage for space or water heating located within the building at a level below that of the collector. Condensed liquid is lifted to an accumulator above the collector by the vapor pressure generated in the collector. Tests of two systems are described, and it is concluded that one of these systems offers distinct advantages.

Hedstrom, J.C.; Neeper, D.A.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

A molecular view of vapor deposited glasses  

SciTech Connect

Recently, novel organic glassy materials that exhibit remarkable stability have been prepared by vapor deposition. The thermophysical properties of these new ''stable'' glasses are equivalent to those that common glasses would exhibit after aging over periods lasting thousands of years. The origin of such enhanced stability has been elusive; in the absence of detailed models, past studies have discussed the formation of new polyamorphs or that of nanocrystals to explain the observed behavior. In this work, an atomistic molecular model of trehalose, a disaccharide of glucose, is used to examine the properties of vapor-deposited stable glasses. Consistent with experiment, the model predicts the formation of stable glasses having a higher density, a lower enthalpy, and higher onset temperatures than those of the corresponding ''ordinary'' glass formed by quenching the bulk liquid. Simulations reveal that newly formed layers of the growing vapor-deposited film exhibit greater mobility than the remainder of the material, thereby enabling a reorganization of the film as it is grown. They also reveal that ''stable'' glasses exhibit a distinct layered structure in the direction normal to the substrate that is responsible for their unusual properties.

Singh, Sadanand; Pablo, Juan J. de [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2011-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

249

Validation of Geolocation of Measurements of the Clouds and the Earths Radiant Energy System (CERES) Scanning Radiometers aboard Three Spacecraft  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Clouds and the Earths Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument is a scanning radiometer for measuring Earth-emitted and -reflected solar radiation to understand Earths energy balance. One CERES instrument was placed into orbit aboard the ...

G. Louis Smith; Kory J. Priestley; Phillip C. Hess; Chris Currey; Peter Spence

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Vapor port and groundwater sampling well  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus have been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing. 10 figs.

Hubbell, J.M.; Wylie, A.H.

1996-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

251

Vapor port and groundwater sampling well  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus has been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing.

Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wylie, Allan H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Copper vapor laser acoustic thermometry system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A copper vapor laser (CVL) acoustic thermometry system is disclosed. The invention couples an acoustic pulse a predetermined distance into a laser tube by means of a transducer and an alumina rod such that an echo pulse is returned along the alumina rod to the point of entry. The time differential between the point of entry of the acoustic pulse into the laser tube and the exit of the echo pulse is related to the temperature at the predetermined distance within the laser tube. This information is processed and can provide an accurate indication of the average temperature within the laser tube.

Galkowski, J.J.

1986-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

253

Photochemical studies of alkali halide vapors  

SciTech Connect

Thesis. An apparatus has been constructed for studying the photodissociation of alkali halides to produce excited alkali metal atoms. The key component is a low pressure H/sub 2/ arc continuum uv source. Radiation from this source, modulated by a chopping wheel and analyzed by a monochromator, enters a cell containing the alkali halide vapor. In the appropriate wavelength range, photodissociation occurs to produce the alkali atom in an excited /sup 2/p state, the flourescence from which is detected by a photomultiplier-lock-in amplifier combination. (auth)

Earl, B.L.

1973-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

ARM - Field Campaign - Fall 1997 Water Vapor IOP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Vapor IOP Water Vapor IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Fall 1997 Water Vapor IOP 1997.09.15 - 1997.10.05 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb For data sets, see below. Summary The Water Vapor IOP was conducted as a follow-up to a predecessor IOP on water vapor held in September 1996. This IOP relied heavily on both ground-based guest and CART instrumentation and in-situ aircraft and tethered sonde/kite measurements. Primary operational hours were from 6 p.m. Central until at least midnight, with aircraft support normally from about 9 p.m. until midnight when available. However, many daytime measurements were made to support this IOP. The first Water Vapor IOP primarily concentrated on the atmosphere's lowest

255

Method and apparatus for concentrating vapors for analysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pre-concentration device and a method are disclosed for concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the pre-concentration device are thermally desorbed, achieving at least partial separation of the vapor mixtures. The pre-concentration device is suitable, e.g., for pre-concentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable.

Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Baldwin, David L. (Kennewick, WA); Anheier, Jr., Norman C. (Richland, WA)

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

256

Analysis of the transient compressible vapor flow in heat pipe  

SciTech Connect

The transient compressible one-dimensional vapor flow dynamics in a heat pipe is modeled. The numerical results are obtained by using the implicit non-iterative Beam-Warming finite difference method. The model is tested for simulated heat pipe vapor flow and actual vapor flow in cylindrical heat pipes. A good comparison of the present transient results for the simulated heat pipe vapor flow with the previous results of a two-dimensional numerical model is achieved and the steady state results are in agreement with the existing experimental data. The transient behavior of the vapor flow under subsonic, sonic, and supersonic speeds and high mass flow rates are successfully predicted. The one-dimensional model also describes the vapor flow dynamics in cylindrical heat pipes at high temperatures.

Jang, J.H.; Faghri, A. [Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States); Chang, W.S. [Wright Research and Development Center, Wright-Patterson, OH (United States)

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Interfacial instability induced by lateral vapor pressure fluctuation in bounded thin liquid-vapor layers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study an instability of thin liquid-vapor layers bounded by rigid parallel walls from both below and above. In this system, the interfacial instability is induced by lateral vapor pressure fluctuation, which is in turn attributed to the effect of phase change: evaporation occurs at the hotter portion of the interface and condensation at the colder one. The high vapor pressure drives the liquid away and the low one pulls it up. A set of equations describing the temporal evolution of the interface of the liquid-vapor layers is derived. This model neglects the effect of mass loss or gain at the interface and guarantees the mass conservation of the liquid layer. The result of linear stability analysis of the model shows that the presence of the pressure dependence of the local saturation temperature suppresses the growth of long-wave disturbances. We find the stability criterion, which suggests that only slight temperature gradients are sufficient to overcome the stabilizing gravitational effect for a water an...

Kanatani, Kentaro

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Mercury Vapor At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) Mercury Vapor At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Haleakala Volcano Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes The field survey program on the northwest rift zone consisted of soil mercury and radon emanometry surveys, groundwater temperature and chemistry studies, Schlumberger resistivity soundings and self-potential profiles. Geophysical and geochemical surveys along this rift (southwest) were limited by difficult field conditions and access limitations. The geophysical program consisted of one Schlumberger sounding, one

260

Mercury Vapor At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Varekamp...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon Mercury Vapor At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Jump to:...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor radiometer gvr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Mercury Vapor At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck,...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon Mercury Vapor At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Jump to: navigation,...

262

Mercury Vapor At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Exploration Activity...

263

Mercury Vapor At Vale Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon Mercury Vapor At Vale Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Jump to: navigation, search...

264

Interaction of sodium vapor and graphite studied by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The kinetics of the reaction between graphite and sodium vapor is analyzed with support ... High temperature compression test to determine the anode paste...

265

Optimal Control of Vapor Extraction of Heavy Oil.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Vapor extraction (Vapex) process is an emerging technology for viscous oil recovery that has gained much attention in the oil industry. However, the oil production (more)

Muhamad, Hameed

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

ARM - Field Campaign - ARM-FIRE Water Vapor Experiment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Order Data Browell, Edward LASE Order Data Gutman, Seth GPS Order Data Richardson, Scott Chilled Mirror Order Data Sachse, G. Water Vapor Order Data Schmidlin, Francis CM Sondes...

267

Measurements of Vapor Pressures and PVT Properties for n ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. Measurements of Vapor Pressures and PVT Properties for n-Butane from 280 to 440 K at Pressures to 200 MPa ...

2006-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

268

Molecular restrictions for human eye irritation by chemical vapors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and reactive airborne chemicals. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 1998;WL. Chemesthesis: The Common Chemical Sense. In: Finger TE,MH. Quantification of chemical vapors in chemosensory

Cometto-Muniz, J. Enrique; Cain, William S.; Abraham, Michael H.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor During the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor During the May 2003 Aerosol IOP R. A. Ferrare National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton,...

270

Cesium vapor cycle for an advanced LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

A review indicates that a cesium vapor topping cycle appears attractive for use in the intermediate fluid circuit of an advanced LMFBR designed for a reactor outlet temperature of 1250$sup 0$F or more and would have the following advantages: (1) it would increase the thermal efficiency by about 5 to 10 points (from approximately 40 percent to approximately 45 to 50 percent) thus reducing the amount of waste heat rejected to the environment by 15 to 30 percent. (2) the higher thermal efficiency should reduce the overall capital cost of the reactor plant in dollars per kilowatt. (3) the cesium can be distilled out of the intermediate fluid circuit to leave it bone-dry, thus greatly reducing the time and cost of maintenance work (particularly for the steam generator). (4) the large volume and low pressure of the cesium vapor region in the cesium condenser-steam generator greatly reduces the magnitude of pressure fluctuations that might occur in the event of a leak in a steam generator tube, and the characteristics inherent in a condenser make it easy to design for rapid concentration of any noncondensibles that may form as a consequence of a steam leak into the cesium region so that a steam leak can be detected easily in the very early stages of its development. (auth)

Fraas, A.P.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Reactions of atmospheric vapors with lunar soil  

SciTech Connect

Detailed experimental data have been acquired for the hydration of the surfaces of lunar fines. Inert vapor adsorption has been employed to measure the surface properties (surface energy, surface area, porosity, etc.) and changes wrought in the hydration-dehydration processes. Plausible mechanisms have been considered and the predominant process involves hydration of the metamict metallosilicate surfaces to form a hydrated laminar structure akin to terrestrial clays. Additional credence for this interpretation is obtained by comparison to existing geochemical literature concerning terrestrial weathering of primary metallosilicates. The surface properties of the hydrated lunar fines are compared favorably to those of terrestrial clay minerals. In addition, experimental results are given to show that fresh disordered surfaces of volcanic sand react with water vapor in a manner virtually identical to the majority of the lunar fines. The results show that ion track etching and/or grain boundary attack are minor contributions in the weathering of lunar fines in the realm of our microgravimetric experimental conditions. 14 references. (auth)

Fuller, E.L. Jr.; Agron, P.A.

1976-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Ethanol production by vapor compression distillation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate a one gallon per hour vapor compression distillation unit for fuel ethanol production that can be profitably manufactured and economically operated by individual family units. Vapor compression distillation is already an industrially accepted process and this project's goal is to demonstrate that it can be done economically on a small scale. Theoretically, the process is independent of absolute pressure. It is only necessary that the condenser be at higher pressure than the evaporator. By reducing the entire process to a pressure of approximately 0.1 atmosphere, the evaporation and condensation can occur at near ambient temperature. Even though this approach requires a vacuum pump, and thus will not represent the final cost effective design, it does not require preheaters, high temperature materials, or as much insulation as if it were to operate a near ambient pressure. Therefore, the operation of the ambient temperature unit constitutes the first phase of this project. Presently, the ambient temperature unit is fully assembled and has begun testing. So far it has successfully separated ethanol from a nine to one diluted input solution. However the production rate has been very low.

Ellis, G.S.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Vapor and gas sampling of Single-Shell Tank 241-A-101 using the Vapor Sampling System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document presents sampling data resulting from the June 8, 1995, sampling of SST 241-A-101 using the Vapor Sampling System.

Caprio, G.S.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-SX-106 using the vapor sampling system  

SciTech Connect

This document presents sampling data resulting from the March 24, 1995, sampling of SST 241-SX-106 using the vapor sampling system.

Caprio, G.S.

1995-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

275

FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Bulletin 627 Bulletin 627 BUREAU o b MINES FLAMMABILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND VAPORS By Michael G. Zabetakis DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement,

276

New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

SCIENTIFIC REPORT SCIENTIFIC REPORT Title Page Project Title: New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration DOE Award Number: DE-FG36-04GO14327 Document Title: Final Scientific Report Period Covered by Report: September 30, 2004 to September 30, 2005 Name and Address of Recipient Organization: Magnetic Development, Inc., 68 Winterhill Road, Madison, CT 06443, phone: 203-214-7247, fax: 203-421-7948, e-mail: mjb1000@aol.com Contact Information: Mark J. Bergander, Ph.D., P.E., Principal Investigator, phone: 203-214-7247, fax: 203-421-7948, e-mail: mjb1000@aol.com Project Objective (as stated in the proposal): The main objective of this project is to confirm on a well-instrumented prototype the theoretically derived claims of higher efficiency and coefficient

277

How solvent vapors can improve steam floods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermal recovery methods depend for their success on the viscosity reduction of heavy crude oils at high temperatures. The viscosity of a heavy oil can also be reduced if it is diluted with a low-viscosity solvent, such as one of the lighter hydrocarbons. It is not surprising that there has been considerable interest in combining the two methods. The process of injecting vaporized solvent with the steam for a gravity drainage type recovery is described here along with a description of the particular phase behavior of steam/solvent mixtures which is beneficial to the process. And computer simulations which compare steam-only and steam/solvent floods under Athabasca-type conditions are overviewed.

Vogel, J. [Vogel, (Jack), Seabrook, TX (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Gas transport model for chemical vapor infiltration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A node-bond percolation model is presented for the gas permeability and pore surface area of the coarse porosity in woven fiber structures during densification by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). Model parameters include the number of nodes per unit volume and their spatial distribution, and the node and bond radii and their variability. These parameters relate directly to structural features of the weave. Some uncertainty exists in the proper partition of the porosity between ``node`` and ``bond`` and between intra-tow and inter-tow, although the total is constrained by the known fiber loading in the structure. Applied to cloth layup preforms the model gives good agreement with the limited number of available measurements.

Starr, T.L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0245 (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

RESONANT FARADAY ROTATION IN A HOT LITHIUM VAPOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RESONANT FARADAY ROTATION IN A HOT LITHIUM VAPOR By SCOTT RUSSELL WAITUKAITIS A Thesis Submitted: #12;Abstract I describe a study of Faraday rotation in a hot lithium vapor. I begin by dis- cussing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3 The Lithium Oven and Solenoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3 Theoretical Framework

Cronin, Alex D.

280

Identification of Atmospheric Fronts over the Ocean with Microwave Measurements of Water Vapor and Rain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Paper describes some basic research techniques and algorithms developed to diagnose fronts in cyclonic storms over the ocean with data from satellite-borne microwave radiometers. The need for this research stems from the limited availability ...

Kristina B. Kanaros; Iffekhar Bhatti; Llynn A. Mcmurdie; Grant W. Petty

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor radiometer gvr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System: Thermal Storage Using Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: UTRC is developing a new climate-control system for EVs that uses a hybrid vapor compression adsorption system with thermal energy storage. The targeted, closed system will use energy during the battery-charging step to recharge the thermal storage, and it will use minimal power to provide cooling or heating to the cabin during a drive cycle. The team will use a unique approach of absorbing a refrigerant on a metal salt, which will create a lightweight, high-energy-density refrigerant. This unique working pair can operate indefinitely as a traditional vapor compression heat pump using electrical energy, if desired. The project will deliver a hot-and-cold battery that provides comfort to the passengers using minimal power, substantially extending the driving range of EVs.

None

2012-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

282

Worker Protection from Chemical Vapors: Hanford Tank Farms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical vapor emissions from underground hazardous waste storage tanks on the Hanford site in eastern Washington State are a potential concern because workers enter the tank farms on a regular basis for waste retrievals, equipment maintenance, and surveillance. Tank farm contractors are in the process of retrieving all remaining waste from aging single-shell tanks, some of which date to World War II, and transferring it to newer double-shell tanks. During the waste retrieval process, tank farm workers are potentially exposed to fugitive chemical vapors that can escape from tank head-spaces and other emission points. The tanks are known to hold more than 1,500 different species of chemicals, in addition to radionuclides. Exposure assessments have fully characterized the hazards from chemical vapors in half of the tank farms. Extensive sampling and analysis has been done to characterize the chemical properties of hazardous waste and to evaluate potential health hazards of vapors at the ground surface, where workers perform maintenance and waste transfer activities. Worker concerns, risk communication, and exposure assessment are discussed, including evaluation of the potential hazards of complex mixtures of chemical vapors. Concentrations of vapors above occupational exposure limits (OEL) were detected only at exhaust stacks and passive breather filter outlets. Beyond five feet from the sources, vapors disperse rapidly. No vapors have been measured above 50% of their OELs more than five feet from the source. Vapor controls are focused on limited hazard zones around sources. Further evaluations of vapors include analysis of routes of exposure and thorough analysis of nuisance odors. (authors)

Anderson, T.J. [CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. / Environmental Health, Richland, WA (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

The Effects of Water Vapor on the Oxidation of Nickel-Base ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

water vapor are compared at temperatures from 700C to 1100C. It is shown that water vapor affects the oxidation of such alloys in different ways. Water vapor...

284

Water Vapor Flux Measurements from Ground-Based Vertically Pointed Water Vapor Differential Absorption and Doppler Lidars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the first time, two lidar systems were used to measure the vertical water vapor flux in a convective boundary layer by means of eddy correlation. This was achieved by combining a water vapor differential absorption lidar and a heterodyne wind ...

Andreas Giez; Gerhard Ehret; Ronald L. Schwiesow; Kenneth J. Davis; Donald H. Lenschow

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Mercury Vapor At Silver Peak Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Silver Peak Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Silver Peak Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness useful...

286

Does EIA report water vapor emissions data? - FAQ - U.S. Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Does EIA report water vapor emissions data? No. Water vapor is the most abundant greenhouse gas, but most scientists believe that human activity has a very small ...

287

EA-0881: Tank 241-c-103 Organic Vapor and Liquid Characterization...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

881: Tank 241-c-103 Organic Vapor and Liquid Characterization and Supporting Activities, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington EA-0881: Tank 241-c-103 Organic Vapor and Liquid...

288

New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this project is to confirm on a well-instrumented prototype the theoretically derived claims of higher efficiency and coefficient of performance for geothermal heat pumps based on a new regenerative thermodynamic cycle as comparing to existing technology. In order to demonstrate the improved performance of the prototype, it will be compared to published parameters of commercially available geothermal heat pumps manufactured by US and foreign companies. Other objectives are to optimize the design parameters and to determine the economic viability of the new technology. Background (as stated in the proposal): The proposed technology closely relates to EERE mission by improving energy efficiency, bringing clean, reliable and affordable heating and cooling to the residential and commercial buildings and reducing greenhouse gases emission. It can provide the same amount of heating and cooling with considerably less use of electrical energy and consequently has a potential of reducing our nations dependence on foreign oil. The theoretical basis for the proposed thermodynamic cycle was previously developed and was originally called a dynamic equilibrium method. This theory considers the dynamic equations of state of the working fluid and proposes the methods for modification of T-S trajectories of adiabatic transformation by changing dynamic properties of gas, such as flow rate, speed and acceleration. The substance of this proposal is a thermodynamic cycle characterized by the regenerative use of the potential energy of two-phase flow expansion, which in traditional systems is lost in expansion valves. The essential new features of the process are: (1) The application of two-step throttling of the working fluid and two-step compression of its vapor phase. (2) Use of a compressor as the initial step compression and a jet device as a second step, where throttling and compression are combined. (3) Controlled ratio of a working fluid at the first and second step of compression. In the proposed system, the compressor compresses the vapor only to 50-60% of the final pressure, while the additional compression is provided by a jet device using internal potential energy of the working fluid flow. Therefore, the amount of mechanical energy required by a compressor is significantly reduced, resulting in the increase of efficiency (either COP or EER). The novelty of the cycle is in the equipment and in the way the multi-staging is accomplished. The anticipated result will be a new refrigeration system that requires less energy to accomplish a cooling task. The application of this technology will be for more efficient designs of: (1) Industrial chillers, (2) Refrigeration plants, (3) Heat pumps, (4) Gas Liquefaction plants, (5) Cryogenic systems.

Mark J. Bergander

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

289

Enhanced Attenuation Technologies: Passive Soil Vapor Extraction  

SciTech Connect

Passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) is an enhanced attenuation (EA) approach that removes volatile contaminants from soil. The extraction is driven by natural pressure gradients between the subsurface and atmosphere (Barometric Pumping), or by renewable sources of energy such as wind or solar power (Assisted PSVE). The technology is applicable for remediating sites with low levels of contamination and for transitioning sites from active source technologies such as active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) to natural attenuation. PSVE systems are simple to design and operate and are more cost effective than active systems in many scenarios. Thus, PSVE is often appropriate as an interim-remedial or polishing strategy. Over the past decade, PSVE has been demonstrated in the U.S. and in Europe. These demonstrations provide practical information to assist in selecting, designing and implementing the technology. These demonstrations indicate that the technology can be effective in achieving remedial objectives in a timely fashion. The keys to success include: (1) Application at sites where the residual source quantities, and associated fluxes to groundwater, are relatively low; (2) Selection of the appropriate passive energy source - barometric pumping in cases with a deep vadose zone and barrier (e.g., clay) layers that separate the subsurface from the atmosphere and renewable energy assisted PSVE in other settings and where higher flow rates are required. (3) Provision of sufficient access to the contaminated vadose zones through the spacing and number of extraction wells. This PSVE technology report provides a summary of the relevant technical background, real-world case study performance, key design and cost considerations, and a scenario-based cost evaluation. The key design and cost considerations are organized into a flowchart that dovetails with the Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics Guidance of the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). The PSVE flowchart provides a structured process to determine if the technology is, or is not, reasonable and defensible for a particular site. The central basis for that decision is the expected performance of PSVE under the site specific conditions. Will PSVE have sufficient mass removal rates to reduce the release, or flux, of contamination into the underlying groundwater so that the site can meet it overall remedial objectives? The summary technical information, case study experiences, and structured decision process provided in this 'user guide' should assist environmental decision-makers, regulators, and engineers in selecting and successfully implementing PSVE at appropriate sites.

Vangelas, K.; Looney, B.; Kamath, R.; Adamson, D.; Newell, C.

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

290

Desalination Using Vapor-Compression Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ability to produce potable water economically is the primary purpose of seawater desalination research. Reverse osmosis (RO) and multi-stage flash (MSF) cost more than potable water produced from fresh water resources. As an alternative to RO and MSF, this research investigates a high-efficiency mechanical vapor-compression distillation system that employs an improved water flow arrangement. The incoming salt concentration was 0.15% salt for brackish water and 3.5% salt for seawater, whereas the outgoing salt concentration was 1.5% and 7%, respectively. Distillation was performed at 439 K (331oF) and 722 kPa (105 psia) for both brackish water feed and seawater feed. Water costs of the various conditions were calculated for brackish water and seawater feeds using optimum conditions considered as 25 and 20 stages, respectively. For brackish water at a temperature difference of 0.96 K (1.73oF), the energy requirement is 2.0 kWh/m3 (7.53 kWh/kgal). At this condition, the estimated water cost is $0.39/m3 ($1.48/kgal) achieved with 10,000,000 gal/day distillate, 30-year bond, 5% interest rate, and $0.05/kWh electricity. For seawater at a temperature difference of 0.44 K (0.80oF), the energy requirement is 3.97 kWh/m3 (15.0 kWh/kgal) and the estimated water cost is $0.61/m3 ($2.31/kgal). Greater efficiency of the vapor compression system is achieved by connecting multiple evaporators in series, rather than the traditional parallel arrangement. The efficiency results from the gradual increase of salinity in each stage of the series arrangement in comparison to parallel. Calculations using various temperature differences between boiling brine and condensing steam show the series arrangement has the greatest improvement at lower temperature differences. The following table shows the improvement of a series flow arrangement compared to parallel: ?T (K) Improvement (%)*1.111 2.222 3.333 15.21 10.80 8.37 * Incoming salt concentration: 3.5% Outgoing salt concentration: 7% Temperature: 450 K (350oF) Pressure: 928 kPa (120 psig) Stages: 4

Lubis, Mirna R.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Numerical simulation of water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs is a means of condensate disposal, as well as a reservoir management tool for enhancing energy recovery and reservoir life. We review different approaches to modeling the complex fluid and heat flow processes during injection into vapor-dominated systems. Vapor pressure lowering, grid orientation effects, and physical dispersion of injection plumes from reservoir heterogeneity are important considerations for a realistic modeling of injection effects. An example of detailed three-dimensional modeling of injection experiments at The Geysers is given.

Pruess, K.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled. 2 figs.

Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

1988-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

293

Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Simple microwave field imaging technique using hot atomic vapor cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate a simple technique for microwave field imaging using alkali atoms in a vapor cell. The microwave field to be measured drives Rabi oscillations on atomic hyperfine transitions, which are detected in a spatially resolved way using a laser beam and a CCD camera. Our vapor cell geometry enables single-shot recording of two-dimensional microwave field images with 350 {\\mu}m spatial resolution. Using microfabricated vapor cell arrays, a resolution of a few micrometers seems feasible. All vector components of the microwave magnetic field can be imaged. Our apparatus is simple and compact and does not require cryogenics or ultra-high vacuum.

Bhi, Pascal

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Simple microwave field imaging technique using hot atomic vapor cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate a simple technique for microwave field imaging using alkali atoms in a vapor cell. The microwave field to be measured drives Rabi oscillations on atomic hyperfine transitions, which are detected in a spatially resolved way using a laser beam and a camera. Our vapor cell geometry enables single-shot recording of two-dimensional microwave field images with 350 {\\mu}m spatial resolution. Using microfabricated vapor cell arrays, a resolution of a few micrometers seems feasible. All vector components of the microwave magnetic field can be imaged. Our apparatus is simple and compact and does not require cryogenics or ultra-high vacuum.

Pascal Bhi; Philipp Treutlein

2012-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

296

Preliminary assessment of halogenated alkanes as vapor-phase tracers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New tracers are needed to evaluate the efficiency of injection strategies in vapor-dominated environments. One group of compounds that seems to meet the requirements for vapor-phase tracing are the halogenated alkanes (HCFCs). HCFCs are generally nontoxic, and extrapolation of tabulated thermodynamic data indicate that they will be thermally stable and nonreactive in a geothermal environment. The solubilities and stabilities of these compounds, which form several homologous series, vary according to the substituent ratios of fluorine, chlorine, and hydrogen. Laboratory and field tests that will further define the suitability of HCFCs as vapor-phase tracers are under way.

Adams, Michael C.; Moore, Joseph N.; Hirtz, Paul

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Mercury Vapor At Medicine Lake Area (Kooten, 1987) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kooten, 1987) Kooten, 1987) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Medicine Lake Area (Kooten, 1987) Exploration Activity Details Location Medicine Lake Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown References Gerald K. Van Kooten (1987) Geothermal Exploration Using Surface Mercury Geochemistry Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Mercury_Vapor_At_Medicine_Lake_Area_(Kooten,_1987)&oldid=386431" Category: Exploration Activities What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation:

298

Catalytic Reactor For Oxidizing Mercury Vapor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic reactor (10) for oxidizing elemental mercury contained in flue gas is provided. The catalyst reactor (10) comprises within a flue gas conduit a perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) having a plurality of through openings (33) and a plurality of projecting corona discharge electrodes (31); a perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) having a plurality of through openings (43) axially aligned with the through openings (33) of the perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) displaced from and opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31); and a catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) overlaying that face of the perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31). A uniformly distributed corona discharge plasma (1000) is intermittently generated between the plurality of corona discharge electrode tips (31) and the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) when a stream of flue gas is passed through the conduit. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is not being generated, the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) adsorb mercury vapor contained in the passing flue gas. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is being generated, ions and active radicals contained in the generated corona discharge plasma (1000) desorb the mercury from the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d), oxidizing the mercury in virtually simultaneous manner. The desorption process regenerates and activates the catalyst member molecules.

Helfritch, Dennis J. (Baltimore, MD)

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

299

Modeling of LNG Pool Spreading and Vaporization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, a source term model for estimating the rate of spreading and vaporization of LNG on land and sea is introduced. The model takes into account the composition changes of the boiling mixture, the varying thermodynamic properties due to preferential boiling within the mixture and the effect of boiling on conductive heat transfer. The heat, mass and momentum balance equations are derived for continuous and instantaneous spills and mixture thermodynamic effects are incorporated. A parameter sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the effect of boiling heat transfer regimes, friction, thermal contact/roughness correction parameter and VLE/mixture thermodynamics on the pool spreading behavior. The aim was to provide a better understanding of these governing phenomena and their relative importance throughout the pool lifetime. The spread model was validated against available experimental data for pool spreading on concrete and sea. The model is solved using Matlab for two continuous and instantaneous spill scenarios and is validated against experimental data on cryogenic pool spreading found in literature.

Basha, Omar 1988-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Dynamics of nucleation in chemical vapor deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the evolution of layer morphology during the early stages of metal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) onto Si(100) via pyrolysis of Fe(CO){sub 5} below 250{degrees}C. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) shows that nuclei formation is limited by precursor dissociation which occurs on terraces, not at step sites. Also, the average size of clusters formed during CVD is larger than for Fe growth by evaporation (a random deposition process). Based on STM data and Monte Carlo simulations, we conclude that the CVD-growth morphology is affected by preferential dissociation of Fe(CO){sub 5} molecules at existing Fe clusters -- an autocatalytic effect. We demonstrate that nucleation kinetics can be used to control formation of metal nanostructures on chemically tailored surfaces. Reactive sites on Si (001) are first passivated by hydrogen. H atoms are locally removed by electron stimulated desorption using electrons emitted from the STM tip. Subsequent pyrolysis of Fe(CO){sub 5} leads to selective nucleation and growth of Fe films in the areas where H has been removed.

Mayer, T.M.; Adams, D.P.; Swartzentruber, B.S.; Chason, E.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor radiometer gvr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Occupational Exposure Evaluation of Complex Vapor Mixtures at the Hanford Nuclear Waste Site, Washington Work-site Vapor Characterization  

SciTech Connect

Extensive sampling and analysis has been done over the years to characterize the radioactive and chemical properties of hazardous waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford site in eastern Washington State. The purpose of these analyses was to evaluate safety and environmental concerns related to tank stability. More recently, characterization studies have broadened to evaluate potential health hazards of chemical vapors at the ground surface, where workers perform maintenance and waste transfer activities. Chemical vapor emissions from underground hazardous waste storage tanks on the Hanford site are a potential concern because workers enter the tank farms on a regular basis for waste retrievals, equipment maintenance, and surveillance. The extensive sampling done during this campaign evaluated vapor concentrations of more than 100 different chemical at 70 sites in and around one section of the tank farms. Sampling identified only four vapors (ammonia, nitrous oxide, nitrosodimethylamine, and nitrosomethylethylamine) that were present above occupational exposure limits. These elevated concentrations were detected only at exhaust stacks and passive breather filter outlets. Beyond five feet from the sources, vapors disperse rapidly. No vapors were measured above 10% of their OELs more than five feet from the source. This suggests that vapor controls can be focused on limited hazard zones around sources. (authors)

Anderson, T. J. [CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. / Environmental Health, P.O. Box 1000, S7-70, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) D. C. Tobin, H. E. Revercomb, and D. D. Turner University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin Introduction An overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) is given. This field experiment was conducted during November-December 2000 near the central ground-based Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in north central Oklahoma, and was sponsored jointly by the ARM, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE), and the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) programs. Its primary goal was to collect accurate measurements of upper-level (~8 to 12 km) water vapor near the ground-based ARM site. These data are being used to determine the accuracy of measurements that are

303

Mercury Vapor At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) Mercury Vapor At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Kawaihae Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness not useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes The soil geochemistry yielded quite complex patterns of mercury concentrations and radonemanation rates within the survey area (Cox and Cuff, 1981c). Mercury concentrations (Fig. 38) showed a general minimum along the Kawaihae-Waimea roads and a broad trend of increasing mercury concentrations toward both the north and south. There is no correlation apparent between the mercury patterns and either the resistivity sounding data or the surface geology in the area. The radon emanometry data (Fig.

304

Mercury Vapor At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) Mercury Vapor At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Lualualei Valley Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Soil mercury and radon emanation surveys were performed over much of the accessible surface of Lualualei Valley (Cox and Thomas, 1979). The results of these surveys (Figs 7 and 8) delineated several areas in which soil mercury concentrations or radon emanation rates were substantially above normal background values. Some of these areas were apparently coincident with the mapped fracture systems associated with the caldera boundaries.

305

Industrial Heat Pumps Using Solid/Vapor Working Fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Industrial heat pumps have the potential to reduce the operating costs of chemical and heat treating processes in the chemical, petroleum, paper, dairy, and many other industries. The cost development of fossil fuel and other prime energy require excellent efficiency/cost ratios and hardware designs adaptable to specific process needs, in order to compete with vapor re-compression recovery systems. The state-of-the-art heat pump equipment employing liquid/vapor working fluids fulfills the requirements only in some applications. The employment of solid/vapor complex compounds leads to more cost effective heat recovery, which is due to simple hardware with no moving parts, extraordinary low maintenance effort, excellent temperature lifts avoiding the need of two-stage systems, and low first cost. This paper describes the advantages and disadvantages of solid/vapor working media.

Rockenfeller, U.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Broadband Water Vapor Transmission Functions for Atmospheric IR Flux Computations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transmission functions associated with water vapor molecular line and e-type absorption in the IR spectral regions are presented in the form of simple analytical functions and small tables, from which atmospheric IR fluxes and cooling rates can ...

Ming-Dah Chou

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Characterization of Advanced Avalanche Photodiodes for Water Vapor Lidar Receivers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development of advanced differential absorption lidar (DIAL) receivers is very important to increase the accuracy of atmospheric water vapor measurements. A major component of such receivers is the optical detector. In the near-infrared wavelength range ...

Refaat Tamer F.; Halama Gary E.; DeYoung Russell J.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Advanced Chemical Heat Pumps Using Liquid-Vapor Reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical heat pumps utilizing liquid-vapor reactions can be configured in forms analogous to electric drive vapor-compression heat pumps and heat activated absorption heat pumps. Basic thermodynamic considerations eliminate some heat pumps and place restrictive working fluid requirements on others, but two thermodynamically feasible systems have significant potential advantage over conventional technology. An electric drive reactive heat pump can use smaller heat exchangers and compressor than a vapor-compression machine, and have more flexible operating characteristics. A waste heat driven heat pump (temperature amplifier) using liquid-vapor chemical reactions- can operate with higher coefficient of performance and smaller heat exchangers than an absorption temperature amplifying heat pump. Higher temperatures and larger temperature lifts should also be possible.

Kirol, L.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor from UARS MLS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Initial results of upper-tropospheric water vapor obtained from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are presented. MLS is less affected by clouds than infrared or visible techniques, and the UARS ...

W. G. Read; J. W. Waters; D. A. Flower; L. Froidevaux; R. F. Jarnot; D. L. Hartmann; R. S. Harwood; R. B. Rood

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Intercomparison of Four Commercial Analyzers for Water Vapor Isotope Measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ?18O and ?D of atmospheric water vapor are important tracers in hydrological and ecological studies. Isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS) provides an in situ technology for measuring ?18O and ?D in ambient conditions. An intercomparison ...

Xue-Fa Wen; Xuhui Lee; Xiao-Min Sun; Jian-Lin Wang; Ya-Kun Tang; Sheng-Gong Li; Gui-Rui Yu

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Moisture Vertical Structure, Column Water Vapor, and Tropical Deep Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The vertical structure of the relationship between water vapor and precipitation is analyzed in 5 yr of radiosonde and precipitation gauge data from the Nauru Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site. The first vertical principal component of ...

Christopher E. Holloway; J. David Neelin

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Improved Magnus Form Approximation of Saturation Vapor Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Algorithms, based on Magnus's form equations, are described that minimize the difference between several relationships between temperature and water vapor pressure at saturation that are commonly used in archiving data. The work was initiated in ...

Oleg A. Alduchov; Robert E. Eskridge

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Ice Growth from the Vapor at ?5C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are summarized and illustrated from a long series of experiments on ice growth from the vapor, nearly all in a very small range of conditions: ?5C, slightly below liquid water saturation, with minimal environmental gradients and no ...

Charles A. Knight

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Numerical analysis of vapor flow in a micro heat pipe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The vapor flow in a flat plate micro heat pipe with both uniform and linear heat flux boundary conditions has been numerically analyzed. For both types of boundary conditions, the Navier-Stokes equations with steady incompressible two-dimensional flow were solved using the SIMPLE method. The results indicate that the pressure, shear stress, and friction factor under linear heat flux boundary conditions are considerably smoother, and hence, more closely approximate the real situation. As the heat flux increases, the pressure drop increases, but the friction factor demonstrates only a slight change for different heat flux conditions. The size and shape of the micro heat pipe vapor space was shown to have a significant influence on the vapor flow behavior for micro heat pipes. When the vapor space area decreases, the pressure drop, shear stress, and friction factor all significantly increase.

Liu, Xiaoqin

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Heat transfer during film condensation of a liquid metal vapor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The object of this investigation is to resolve the discrepancy between theory and experiment for the case of heat transfer durirnfilm condensation of liquid metal vapors. Experiments by previous investigators have yielded ...

Sukhatme, S. P.

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Heat transfer during film condensation of potassium vapor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The object of this work is to investigate theoretically and experimentally the following two phases of heat transfer during condensation of potassium vapore, a. Heat transfer during film condensation of pure saturated ...

Kroger, Detlev Gustav

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Photoinitiated chemical vapor depostion [sic] : mechanism and applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photoinitiated chemical vapor deposition (piCVD) is developed as a simple, solventless, and rapid method for the deposition of swellable hydrogels and functional hydrogel copolymers. Mechanistic experiments show that piCVD ...

Baxamusa, Salmaan Husain

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Chemical vapor deposition of organosilicon and sacrificial polymer thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) produced films for a wide array of applications from a variety of organosilicon and organic precursors. The structure and properties of thin films were controlled by varying processing ...

Casserly, Thomas Bryan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

The Arm Program's Water Vapor Intensive Observation Periods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of water vapor intensive observation periods (WVIOPs) were conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Oklahoma between 1996 and 2000. The goals of these WVIOPs are to characterize the accuracy of the operational ...

H. E. Revercomb; D. D. Turner; D. C. Tobin; R. O. Knuteson; W. F. Feltz; J. Barnard; J. Bsenberg; S. Clough; D. Cook; R. Ferrare; J. Goldsmith; S. Gutman; R. Halthore; B. Lesht; J. Liljegren; H. Linn; J. Michalsky; V. Morris; W. Porch; S. Richardson; B. Schmid; M. Splitt; T. Van Hove; E. Westwater; D. Whiteman

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

New Equations for Computing Vapor Pressure and Enhancement Factor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Equations are presented which relate saturation vapor pressure to temperature for moist air. The equations are designed to be easily implemented on a calculator or computer and can be used to convert in either direction. They are more accurate ...

Arden L. Buck

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor radiometer gvr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Solar Radiation Absorption due to Water Vapor: Advanced Broadband Parameterizations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate parameterizations for calculating solar radiation absorption in the atmospheric column due to water vapor lines and continuum are proposed for use in broadband shortwave radiative transfer codes. The error in the absorption values is ...

Tatiana A. Tarasova; Boris A. Fomin

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Water vapor and the dynamics of climate changes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water vapor is not only Earth's dominant greenhouse gas. Through the release of latent heat when it condenses, it also plays an active role in dynamic processes that shape the global circulation of the atmosphere and thus ...

Schneider, Tapio

323

Column Water Vapor Content in Clear and Cloudy Skies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With radiosonde data from 15 Northern Hemisphere stations, surface-to-400-mb column water vapor is computed from daytime soundings for 19881990. On the basis of simultaneous surface visual cloud observations, the data are categorized according ...

Dian J. Gaffen; William P. Elliott

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Initiated chemical vapor deposition of functional polyacrylic thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) was explored as a novel method for synthesis of functional polyacrylic thin films. The process introduces a peroxide initiator, which can be decomposed at low temperatures (<200?C) ...

Mao, Yu, 1975-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Raman Lidar Profiling of Tropospheric Water Vapor over Kangerlussuaq, Greenland  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new measurement capability has been implemented in the Arctic Lidar Technology (ARCLITE) system at the Sondrestrom upper-atmosphere research facility near Kangerlussuaq, Greenland (67.0N, 50.9W), enabling estimates of atmospheric water vapor ...

Ryan Reynolds Neely III; Jeffrey P. Thayer

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Lidar Monitoring of the Water Vapor Cycle in the Troposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The water vapor mixing ratio distribution in the lower and middle troposphere has been continuously monitored, using an active lidar system. The methodology of the differential absorption laser method used for these measurements is summarized and ...

C. Cahen; G. Megie; P. Flamant

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers  

SciTech Connect

An injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers is disclosed. The invention includes the combination of a seeding oscillator with an injection locked oscillator (ILO) for improving the quality, particularly the intensity, of an output laser beam pulse. The present invention includes means for matching the first seeder laser pulses from the seeding oscillator to second laser pulses of a metal vapor laser to improve the quality, and particularly the intensity, of the output laser beam pulse.

Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Determination of the Vapor Pressure of Lanthanum Fluoride  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary experiments have been made to determine the vapor pressure of lanthanum fluoride between 0.001 and 0.1 millimeter of mercury by means of the Knudsen effusion method. A tantalum cell for this purpose is described. Only preliminary results were obtained and they were all in a relatively high pressure region. However, a plot of the vapor pressure against the reciprocal of absolute temperature approximates a straight line such as would be predicted from theoretical considerations.

Stone, B. D.

1954-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

329

Heat Recovery in Distillation by Mechanical Vapor Recompression  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A significant reduction in distillation tower energy requirements can be achieved by mechanical vapor recompression. Three design approaches for heating a distillation tower reboiler by mechanical vapor recompression are presented. The advantages of using a screw compressor are discussed in detail. An example of a xylene extraction tower is sited, illustrating the economic attractiveness in which a simple payback period of less than two years is achievable.

Becker, F. E.; Zakak, A. I.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Observational Studies of Atmospheric Aerosols over Bozeman, Montana, Using a Two-Color Lidar, a Water Vapor DIAL, a Solar Radiometer, and a Ground-Based Nephelometer over a 24-h Period  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coordinated observational data of atmospheric aerosols were collected over a 24-h period between 2300 mountain daylight time (MDT) on 27 August 2009 and 2300 MDT on 28 August 2009 at Bozeman, Montana (45.66N, 111.04W, elevation 1530 m) using a ...

Kevin S. Repasky; John A. Reagan; Amin R. Nehrir; David S. Hoffman; Michael J. Thomas; John L. Carlsten; Joseph A. Shaw; Glenn E. Shaw

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon oxide films using disilane and nitrous oxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: disilane, low temperature, nitrous oxide, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, silicon oxide

Juho Song; G. S. Lee; P. K. Ajmera

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Design of a Shadowband Spectral Radiometer for the Retrieval of Thin Cloud Optical Depth, Liquid Water Path, and the Effective Radius  

SciTech Connect

The design and operation of a Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (TCRSR) described here was used to measure the radiative intensity of the solar aureole and enable the simultaneous retrieval of cloud optical depth, drop effective radius, and liquid water path. The instrument consists of photodiode sensors positioned beneath two narrow metal bands that occult the sun by moving alternately from horizon to horizon. Measurements from the narrowband 415-nm channel were used to demonstrate a retrieval of the cloud properties of interest. With the proven operation of the relatively inexpensive TCRSR instrument, its usefulness for retrieving aerosol properties under cloud-free skies and for ship-based observations is discussed.

Bartholomew M. J.; Reynolds, R. M.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Min, Q.; Edwards, R.; Smith, S.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Remote sensing of total integrated water vapor, wind speed, and cloud liquid water over the ocean using the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A modified D-matrix retrieval method is the basis of the refined total integrated water vapor (TIWV), total integrated cloud liquid water (CLW), and surface wind speed (WS) retrieval methods that are developed. The 85 GHZ polarization difference is used to restrict the application of the geophysical retrieval algorithms which are developed to handle specific atmospheric absorptive situations. An improved semi-empirical sea surface emissivity model is integrated into this refined D-matrix procedure that is being developed for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Radiometer (AMSR). The purpose of this work is to test the refined geophysical parameter retrieval methods using data from the Special Sensor Microwave / Imager (SSM/I). When comparing the statistical performance of the TIWV, WS, and CLW retrieval methods presented to the statistical performance of published retrieval methods for each geophysical parameter, the retrieval methods developed for this study perform only slightly better. However, it is demonstrated that the new retrieval methods are more physically valid than the comparison retrieval methods. The utilization of the polarization difference of the 85 GHZ channels to restrict the application of specifically-derived retrieval algorithms proves to be a valuable and reliable geophysical parameter retrieval tool.

Manning, Norman Willis William

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

MWRRET (Microwave Radiometer Retrievals)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plus Plus Plus Andy Vogelmann, Dave Turner Andy Vogelmann, Dave Turner & Jennifer Comstock & Jennifer Comstock Min Min Susanne Crewell Susanne Crewell Ulrich L Ulrich L ö ö rnard rnard Jim Liljegren Jim Liljegren John Ogre John Ogre . Y. Matrosov . Y. Matrosov Sally McFarlane Sally McFarlane Warren Wiscombe, Christine Chiu, Sasha Marshak, Maria Warren Wiscombe, Christine Chiu, Sasha Marshak, Maria Cadeddu, Qilong Min, Susanne Crewell, Ulrich L Cadeddu, Qilong Min, Susanne Crewell, Ulrich L ö ö hnert, Mandy hnert, Mandy M. Khaiyer, Greg McFarquhar , Chuck Long, Bill O M. Khaiyer, Greg McFarquhar , Chuck Long, Bill O ' ' Hirok, Bin Hirok, Bin Lin, Connor Flynn, Eli Mlawer, Graham Feingold, Jim Barnard, Lin, Connor Flynn, Eli Mlawer, Graham Feingold, Jim Barnard,

335

Atmospheric Longwave Irradiance Uncertainty: Pyrgeometers Compared to an Absolute Sky-Scanning Radiometer, Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer, and Radiative Transfer Model Calculations  

SciTech Connect

Because atmospheric longwave radiation is one of the most fundamental elements of an expected climate change, there has been a strong interest in improving measurements and model calculations in recent years. Important questions are how reliable and consistent are atmospheric longwave radiation measurements and calculations and what are the uncertainties? The First International Pyrgeometer and Absolute Sky-scanning Radiometer Comparison, which was held at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program's Souther Great Plains site in Oklahoma, answers these questions at least for midlatitude summer conditions and reflects the state of the art for atmospheric longwave radiation measurements and calculations. The 15 participating pyrgeometers were all calibration-traced standard instruments chosen from a broad international community. Two new chopped pyrgeometers also took part in the comparison. And absolute sky-scanning radiometer (ASR), which includes a pyroelectric detector and a reference blackbody source, was used for the first time as a reference standard instrument to field calibrate pyrgeometers during clear-sky nighttime measurements. Owner-provided and uniformly determined blackbody calibration factors were compared. Remarkable improvements and higher pyrgeometer precision were achieved with field calibration factors. Results of nighttime and daytime pyrgeometer precision and absolute uncertainty are presented for eight consecutive days of measurements, during which period downward longwave irradiance varied between 260 and 420 W m-2. Comparisons between pyrgeometers and the absolute ASR, the atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer, and radiative transfer models LBLRTM and MODTRAN show a surprisingly good agreement of <2 W m-2 for nighttime atmospheric longwave irradiance measurements and calculations.

Philipona, J. R.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; Stoffel, T.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Reda, I.; Stifter, Armin; Wendling, Peter; Wood, Norm; Clough, Shepard A.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Anderson, Gail; Revercomb, Henry E.; Shippert, Timothy R.

2001-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

336

Dynamic modeling of plasma-vapor interactions during plasma disruptions  

SciTech Connect

Intense deposition of energy in short times on fusion reactor components during a plasma disruption may cause severe surface erosion due to ablation of these components. The exact amount of the eroded material is very important to the reactor design and its lifetime. During the plasma deposition, the vaporized wall material will interact with the incoming plasma particles and may shield the rest of the wall from damage. The vapor shielding may then prolong the lifetime of these components and increase the reactor duty cycle. To correctly evaluate the impact of vapor shielding effect a comprehensive model is developed. In this model the dynamic slowing down of the plasma particles, both ions and electrons, with the eroded wall material is established. Different interaction processes between the plasma particles and the ablated material is included. The generated photons radiation source and the transport of this radiation through the vapor to the wall is modeled. Recent experimental data on disruptions is analyzed and compared with model predictions. Vapor shielding may be effective in reducing the overall erosion rate for certain plasma disruption parameters and conditions.

Hassanein, A.; Ehst, D.A.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process involving vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials for creating high aspect ratio (i.e., length much greater than diameter), isolated cylindrical holes in dielectric materials that have been exposed to high-energy atomic particles. The process includes cleaning the surface of the tracked material and exposing the cleaned surface to a vapor of a suitable etchant. Independent control of the temperatures of the vapor and the tracked materials provide the means to vary separately the etch rates for the latent track region and the non-tracked material. As a rule, the tracked regions etch at a greater rate than the non-tracked regions. In addition, the vapor-etched holes can be enlarged and smoothed by subsequent dipping in a liquid etchant. The 20-1000 nm diameter holes resulting from the vapor etching process can be useful as molds for electroplating nanometer-sized filaments, etching gate cavities for deposition of nano-cones, developing high-aspect ratio holes in trackable resists, and as filters for a variety of molecular-sized particles in virtually any liquid or gas by selecting the dielectric material that is compatible with the liquid or gas of interest.

Musket, Ronald G. (Danville, CA); Porter, John D. (Berkeley, CA); Yoshiyama, James M. (Fremont, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Drying of pulverized material with heated condensible vapor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for drying pulverized material utilizes a high enthalpy condensable vapor such as steam for removing moisture from the individual particles of the pulverized material. The initially wet particulate material is tangentially delivered by a carrier vapor flow to an upper portion of a generally vertical cylindrical separation drum. The lateral wall of the separation drum is provided with a plurality of flow guides for directing the vapor tangentially therein in the direction of particulate material flow. Positioned concentrically within the separation drum and along the longitudinal axis thereof is a water-cooled condensation cylinder which is provided with a plurality of collection plates, or fines, on the outer lateral surface thereof. The cooled collection fines are aligned counter to the flow of the pulverized material and high enthalpy vapor mixture to maximize water vapor condensation thereon. The condensed liquid which includes moisture removed from the pulverized materials then flows downward along the outer surface of the coolant cylinder and is collected and removed. The particles travel in a shallow helix due to respective centrifugal and vertical acceleration forces applied thereto. The individual particles of the pulverized material are directed outwardly by the vortex flow where they contact the inner cylindrical surface of the separation drum and are then deposited at the bottom thereof for easy collection and removal. The pulverized material drying apparatus is particularly adapted for drying coal fines and facilitates the recovery of the pulverized coal. 2 figs.

Carlson, L.W.

1984-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

339

Vaporization behavior of non-stoichiometric refractory carbide materials and direct observations of the vapor phase using laser diagnostics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transition metal and actinide carbides, such as ZrC or NbC and UC or ThC, exhibit a wide range of stoichiometry, and therefore vaporize incongruently. At long times, steady state vaporization can be achieved where relative concentrations of atomic species on solid surface equals that in the gas phase. The surface composition under these steady state conditions is termed the congruently vaporizing composition, (CVC). Modeling the vaporization or corrosion behavior of this dynamic process is complex and requires an understanding of how the surface composition changes with time and a knowledge of CVC, which is both temperature and atmosphere dependent. This paper describes vaporization and corrosion behavior of non-stoichiometric refractory carbide materials and, as an example, describes a thermokinetic model that characterizes the vaporization behavior of the complex carbide U{sub x}Zr{sub 1-x}C{sub y} in hydrogen at 2500 to 3200 K. This model demonstrates that steady state corrosion of U{sub x}Zr{sub l-x}C{sub y} is rate limited by gaseous transport of Zr where partial pressure of Zr is determined by CVC. This paper also briefly describes efforts to image and characterize the vapor phase above the surface of ZrC in static and flowing gas environments using planar laser induced fluorescence. We have developed the method for monitoring and controlling the corrosion behavior of nuclear fuels in nuclear thermal rockets. However, the techniques described can be used, to image boundary layers, and could be used verifying corrosion models.

Butt, D.P.; Wantuck, P.J.; Rehse, S.J.; Wallace, T.C. Sr.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

An advanced vapor-compression desalination system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Currently, the two dominant desalination methods are reverse osmosis (RO) and multi-stage flash (MSF). RO requires large capital investment and maintenance, whereas MSF is too energy intensive. An innovative vapor-compression desalination system is developed in this study. A comprehensive mathematical model for the heat exchanger/evaporator is described. The literature indicates that extraordinarily high overall heat transfer coefficients for the evaporator are possible at selected operating conditions that employ dropwise condensation in the steam side and pool boiling in the liquid side. A smooth titanium surface is chosen to promote dropwise condensation and to resist corrosion. To maximize energy efficiency, a combined-cycle cogeneration scheme is employed composed of a gas turbine, a heat recovery boiler, and a steam turbine that drive a compressor. The combined-cycle power source is oversized relative to the needs of the compressor. The excess power is converted to electricity and sold to the open market. A three-effect evaporator is employed. It is fed with seawater, assumed to be 3.5% salt. Boiling brine (7% salt) is in the low pressure side of the heat exchanger and condensing steam is in the high-pressure side of the heat exchanger. The condensing steam flows at 1.52 m/s (5 ft/s), which maximizes the heat transfer coefficient. The plant is sized to produce 37,854 m3/d (10 mill gal/day) and is assumed to be financed with a 5%, 30-yr municipal bond. Two economic cases were emphasized: the United States and the Middle East. For the United States, the fuel costs $5/GJ ($5.27/mill Btu) with the latent heat exchanger at ( ) 1.11 K 2.00 F T ? = ° . The required compressor energy is 14 MJ/m3 (14.7 kW h/thous gal). The capital cost for the U.S. is $884 d/m3 ($3,342/thous gal) and the delivered water selling price is $0.47/m3 ($1.79/thous/gal). For the Middle East, the fuel costs $0.5/GJ ($0.53/mill Btu) with the latent heat exchanger at K T 33 . 3 = ? ( ) F 00 . 6 ° . The required compressor energy is 26 MJ/m3 (27.3 kW h/thous gal). ). The capital cost for the Middle East is $620 d/m3 ($2,344/thous gal), and the delivered water selling price is $0.25/m3 ($0.95/thous/gal). In all cases, the water selling price is attractive relative to competing technologies.

Lara Ruiz, Jorge Horacio Juan

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor radiometer gvr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Low temperature photochemical vapor deposition of alloy and mixed metal oxide films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for formation of an alloy thin film, or a mixed metal oxide thin film, on a substrate at relatively low temperatures. Precursor vapor(s) containing the desired thin film constituents is positioned adjacent to the substrate and irradiated by light having wavelengths in a selected wavelength range, to dissociate the gas(es) and provide atoms or molecules containing only the desired constituents. These gases then deposit at relatively low temperatures as a thin film on the substrate. The precursor vapor(s) is formed by vaporization of one or more precursor materials, where the vaporization temperature(s) is selected to control the ratio of concentration of metals present in the precursor vapor(s) and/or the total precursor vapor pressure.

Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Validation of TES Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals with ARM  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Validation of TES Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals with ARM Validation of TES Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals with ARM Observations Cady-Pereira, Karen Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Shephard, Mark Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Clough, Shepard Atmospheric and Environmental Research Mlawer, Eli Atmospheric & Environmental Research, Inc. Turner, David University of Wisconsin-Madison Category: Atmospheric State and Surface The primary objective of the TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) instrument on the Aura spacecraft is the retrieval of trace gases, especially water vapor and ozone. The TES retrievals extremely useful for global monitoring of the atmospheric state, but they must be validated. The ARM sites are well instrumented and provide continuous measurements, which

343

High temperature vapor pressure and the critical point of potassium  

SciTech Connect

The vapor pressure of potassium was experimentally determined from 2100 deg F up to-its critical temperature. An empirical equation of the form ln P = A + B/T + C ln T + DT/sup 1.5/ was found to best fit the data. A critical pressure of 2378.2 plus or minus 4.0 psia (161.79 plus or minus 0.27 ata) was measured. The corresponding critical temperature, extrapolated from the pressure-- temperature curve, is 4105.4 plus or minus 5 deg R (2280.8 plus or minus 3 deg K). The technique employed was tae pressure tube method developed earlier in this laboratory and used for determining the vapor pressure of rubidium and cesium. This method measures tae critical pressure directly, as well as the vapor pressure st lower temperatures. (4 tables, 6 figures, 26 references) (auth)

Jerez, W.R.; Bhise, V.S.; Das Gupta, S.; Bonilla, C.F.

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Atmospheric Precorrected Differential Absorption technique to retrieve columnar water vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Differential absorption techniques are suitable to retrieve the total column water vapor contents from imaging spectroscopy data. A technique called Atmospheric Precorrected Differential Absorption (APDA) is derived directly from simplified radiative transfer equations. It combines a partial atmospheric correction with a differential absorption technique. The atmospheric path radiance term is iteratively corrected during the retrieval of water vapor. This improves the results especially over low background albedos. The error of the method for various ground reflectance spectra is below 7% for most of the spectra. The channel combinations for two test cases are then defined, using a quantitative procedure, which is based on MODTRAN simulations and the image itself. An error analysis indicates that the influence of aerosols and channel calibration is minimal. The APDA technique is then applied to two AVIRIS images acquired in 1991 and 1995. The accuracy of the measured water vapor columns is within a range of {+-}5% compared to ground truth radiosonde data.

Schlaepfer, D.; Itten, K.I. [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland). Dept. of Geography] [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland). Dept. of Geography; Borel, C.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Keller, J. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)] [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Interactions between Liquid-Wall Vapor and Edge Plasmas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of liquid walls for fusion reactors could help solve problems associated with material erosion from high plasma heat-loads and neutronic activation of structures. A key issue analyzed here is the influx of impurity ions to the core plasma from the vapor of liquid side-walls. Numerical 2D transport simulations are performed for a slab geometry which approximates the edge region of a reactor-size tokamak. Both lithium vapor (from Li or SnLi walls) and fluorine vapor (from Flibe walls) are considered for hydrogen edge-plasmas in the high- and low-recycling regimes. It is found that the minimum influx is from lithium with a low-recycling hydrogen plasma, and the maximum influx occurs for fluorine with a high-recycling hydrogen plasma.

Rognlien, T D; Rensink, M E

2000-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

346

Intermediate Vapor Expansion Distillation and Nested Enrichment Cascade Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although it is known that incorporating an intermediate reboiler or reflux condenser in a distillation column will improve column efficiency by 15 to 100%, there has been little use of this technique to date." Intermediate vapor compression heat pumping was recently introduced as one practical means of achieving this benefit. Introduced in this paper are two new means having added advantages over compression: intermediate vapor expansion heat pumping, and nested enrichment cascades. In both cases the efficiency advantage is obtained without requiring import of shaft work. With intermediate vapor expansion, the expander is more efficient and less costly than the compressor which achieves comparable improvement in distillation efficiency. With the "nested enrichment" technique, the increased efficiency is obtained without requiring either compressors or expanders.

Erickson, D. C.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Liquid-phase compositions from vapor-phase analyses  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic normally is not considered to be a contaminant. However, because arsenic was found in many cylinders of UF{sub 6}, including in corrosion products, a study was performed of the distribution of the two arsenic fluorides, AsF{sub 3} and AsF{sub 5}, between liquid and vapor phases. The results of the study pertain to condensation or vaporization of liquid UF{sub 6}. This study includes use of various experimental data plus many extrapolations necessitated by the meagerness of the experimental data. The results of this study provide additional support for the vapor-liquid equilibrium model of J.M. Prausnitz and his coworkers as a means of describing the distribution of various impurities between vapor and liquid phases of UF{sub 6}. Thus, it is concluded that AsF{sub 3} will tend to concentrate in the liquid phase but that the concentration of AsF{sub 5} in the vapor phase will exceed its liquid-phase concentration by a factor of about 7.5, which is in agreement with experimental data. Because the weight of the liquid phase in a condensation operation may be in the range of thousands of times that of the vapor phase, most of any AsF{sub 5} will be in the liquid phase in spite of this separation factor of 7.5. It may also be concluded that any arsenic fluorides fed into a uranium isotope separation plant will either travel with other low-molecular-weight gases or react with materials present in the plant. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Davis, W. Jr. (Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, TN (USA)); Cochran, H.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Vapor sampling of the headspace of radioactive waste storage tanks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper recants the history of vapor sampling in the headspaces of radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford. The first two tanks to receive extensive vapor pressure sampling were Tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-C-103. At various times, a gas chromatography, on-line mass spectrometer, solid state hydrogen monitor, FTIR, and radio acoustic ammonia monitor have been installed. The head space gas sampling activities will continue for the next few years. The current goal is to sample the headspace for all the tanks. Some tank headspaces will be sampled several times to see the data vary with time. Other tanks will have continuous monitors installed to provide additional data.

Reynolds, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

349

Effect of higher water vapor content on TBC performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal gasification, or IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle), is one pathway toward cleaner use of coal for power generation with lower emissions. However, when coal-derived synthesis gas (i.e., syngas) is burned in turbines designed for natural gas, turbine manufacturers recommend 'derating,' or lowering the maximum temperature, which lowers the efficiency of the turbine, making electricity from IGCC more expensive. One possible reason for the derating is the higher water vapor contents in the exhaust gas. Water vapor has a detrimental effect on many oxidation-resistant high-temperature materials. In a turbine hot section, Ni-base superalloys are coated with a thermal barrier coating (TBC) allowing the gas temperature to be higher than the superalloy solidus temperature. TBCs have a low thermal conductivity ceramic top coating (typically Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}, or YSZ) and an oxidation-resistant metallic bond coating. For land-based gas turbines, the industry standard is air plasma sprayed (APS) YSZ and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed NiCoCrAlY bond coatings. To investigate the role of higher water vapor content on TBC performance and possible mitigation strategies, furnace cycling experiments were conducted in dry O{sub 2} and air with 10% (typical with natural gas or jet fuel) or 50 vol% water vapor. Cycle frequency and temperature were accelerated to one hour at 1100 C (with 10 minute cooling to {approx}30 C between each thermal cycle) to induce early failures in coatings that are expected to operate for several years with a metal temperature of {approx}900 C. Coupons (16 mm diameter x 2 mm thick) of commercial second-generation single crystal superalloy CMSX4 were HVOF coated on both sides with {approx}125 {micro}m of Ni-22wt%Co-17Cr-12Al either with 0.7Y or 0.7Y-0.3Hf-0.4Si. One side was then coated with 190-240 {micro}m of APS YSZ. Coatings were cycled until the YSZ top coating spalled. Figure 2 shows the results of the initial phase of experiments. Compared to dry O{sub 2}, the addition of 10% water vapor decreased the lifetime of MCrAlY by {approx}30% for the conventional CMSX4 substrates. Higher average lifetimes were observed with Hf in the bond coating, but a similar decrease in lifetime was observed when water vapor was added. The addition of Y and La to the superalloy substrate did not change the YSZ lifetime with 10% water vapor. However, increasing water vapor content from 10 to 50% did not further decrease the lifetime of either bond coating with the doped superalloy substrate. Thus, these results suggest that higher water vapor contents cannot explain the derating of syngas-fired turbines, and other factors such as sulfur and ash from imperfect syngas cleanup (or upset conditions) need to be explored. Researchers continue to study effects of water vapor on thermally grown alumina scale adhesion and growth rate, and are looking for bond coating compositions more resistant to oxidation in the presence of water vapor.

Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Haynes, James A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

The Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program. [Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the finding and recommendations on the audit of the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program. The status of the program was assessed to determine whether the Department was achieving objectives stated in its January 1990 Plan for the Demonstration, Transition and Deployment of AVLIS Technology. Through Fiscal Year 1991, the Department had spent about $1.1 billion to develop AVLIS technology. The January 1990 plan provided for AVLIS to be far enough along by September to enable the Department to make a determination of the technical and economic feasibility of deployment. However, the milestones needed to support that determination were not met. An estimated $550 million would be needed to complete AVLIS engineering development and related testing prior to deployment. The earliest possible deployment date has slipped to beyond the year 2000. It is recommended that the Department reassess the requirement for AVLIS in light of program delays and changes that have taken place in the enrichment market since January 1990. Following the reassessment, a decision should be made to either fully support and promote the actions needed to complete AVLIS development or discontinue support for the program entirely. Management's position is that the Department will successfully complete the AVLIS technology demonstration and that the program should continue until it can be transferred to a Government corporation. Although the auditors recognize that AVLIS may be transferred, there are enough technical and financial uncertainties that a thorough assessment is warranted.

Not Available

1992-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

351

Computation of Infrared Cooling Rates in the Water Vapor Bands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fast but accurate method for calculating the infrared radiative terms due to water vapor has been developed. It makes use of the behavior in the far wings of absorption lines to scale transmission along an inhomogencous path to an equivalent ...

Ming Dah Chou; Albert Arking

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Probing Hurricanes with Stable Isotopes of Rain and Water Vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rain and water vapor were collected during flights in Hurricanes Olivia (1994), Opal (1995), Marilyn (1995), and Hortense (1995) and analyzed for their stable isotopic concentrations, or ratios, H218O:H2O and HDO:H2O. The spatial patterns and ...

Stanley Gedzelman; James Lawrence; John Gamache; Michael Black; Edward Hindman; Robert Black; Jason Dunion; Hugh Willoughby; Xiaoping Zhang

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Vapor-Liquid Partitioning of Sulfuric Acid and Ammonium Sulfate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The quality of water and steam is central to ensuring power plant component availability and reliability. A key part of developing operating cycle chemistry guidelines is an understanding of the impurity distribution between water and steam. This study focused on the partitioning of sulfuric acid and ammonium bisulfate between the liquid and vapor phases.

1999-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

354

Observation of Water Vapor Greenhouse Absorption over the Gulf of Mexico Using Aircraft and Satellite Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Through its interaction with radiation, water vapor provides an important link between the ocean and atmosphere. One way this occurs is through the greenhouse effect; observations of water vapor greenhouse absorption in the Gulf of Mexico during ...

David Marsden; Francisco P. J. Valero

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Modes and Mechanisms of Global Water Vapor Variability over the Twentieth Century  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The modes and mechanisms of the annual water vapor variations over the twentieth century are investigated based on a newly developed twentieth-century atmospheric reanalysis product. It is found that the leading modes of global water vapor ...

Liping Zhang; Lixin Wu; Bolan Gan

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Water Vapor Transport and the Production of Precipitation in the Eastern Fertile Crescent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study presented here attempts to quantify the significance of southerly water vapor fluxes on precipitation occurring in the eastern Fertile Crescent region. The water vapor fluxes were investigated at high temporal and spatial resolution by ...

J. P. Evans; R. B. Smith

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Influence of a Tropical Island Mountain on Solar Radiation, Air Temperature and Vapor Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measured solar radiation, air temperature, and water vapor pressure at 17 stations on the northwest flank of Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii are compared with modeled clear day solar radiation and free atmosphere air temperature and water vapor pressure. ...

Dennis Nullet

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

A Comparison of Water Vapor Measurements Made by Raman Lidar and Radiosondes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the calibration characteristics of the NASA/GSFC Raman water vapor lidar during three field experiments that occurred between 1991 and 1993. The lidar water vapor profiles are calibrated using relative humidity profiles ...

R. A. Ferrare; S. H. Melfi; D. N. Whiteman; K. D. Evans; F. J. Schmidlin; D. O'C. Starr

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Investigation of Turbulent Processes in the Lower Troposphere with Water Vapor DIAL and RadarRASS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-resolution water vapor and wind measurements in the lower troposphere within the scope of the Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX) are presented. The measurements were performed during a field campaign with a new water vapor differential ...

V. Wulfmeyer

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Method and apparatus to measure vapor pressure in a flow system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method for determining, by a condensation method, the vapor pressure of a material with a known vapor pressure versus temperature characteristic, in a flow system particularly in a mercury isotope enrichment process.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Biblarz, Oscar (Swampscott, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor radiometer gvr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Heat transfer during film condensation of potassium vapor on a horizontal plate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The object of the investigation is to analyze the following two features of heat transfer during condensation of potassium vapor: a. Heat transfer during film condensation of a pure saturated potassium vapor on a horizontal ...

Meyrial, Paul M.

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Distributions of Liquid, Vapor, and Ice in an Orographic Cloud from Field Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The phase distribution of the water mass of a cold orographic cloud into vapor, liquid, and ice is calculated from measurements made from an instrumented aircraft. The vapor values are calculated from thermodynamic measurements, and the liquid is ...

Taneil Uttal; Robert M. Rauber; Lewis O. Grant

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Chemical vapor deposition thin films as biopassivation coatings and directly patternable dielectrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Organosilicon thin films deposited by pulsed plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PPECVD) and hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) were investigated as potential biopassivation coatings for neural probes. ...

Pryce Lewis, Hilton G. (Hilton Gavin), 1973-

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Determination of concentration-dependent dispersion of propane in vapor extraction of heavy oil.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Vapex (vapor extraction) is a solvent-based non-thermal in-situ heavy oil recovery process. In Vapex process, a vaporized hydrocarbon solvent is injected into an upper horizontal (more)

Abukhalifeh, Hadil

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Measurements of the Vapor Pressure of Supercooled Water Using Infrared Spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements are presented of the vapor pressure of supercooled water utilizing infrared spectroscopy, which enables unambiguous verification that the authors data correspond to the vapor pressure of liquid water, not a mixture of liquid water ...

Will Cantrell; Eli Ochshorn; Alexander Kostinski; Keith Bozin

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Automated Retrievals of Water Vapor and Aerosol Profiles from an Operational Raman Lidar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Automated routines have been developed to derive water vapor mixing ratio, relative humidity, aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficient, and linear depolarization profiles, as well as total precipitable water vapor and aerosol optical ...

D. D. Turner; R. A. Ferrare; L. A. Heilman Brasseur; W. F. Feltz; T. P. Tooman

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Tropical Water Vapor and Cloud Feedbacks in Climate Models: A Further Assessment Using Coupled Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By comparing the response of clouds and water vapor to ENSO forcing in nature with that in Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) simulations by some leading climate models, an earlier evaluation of tropical cloud and water vapor ...

De-Zheng Sun; Yongqiang Yu; Tao Zhang

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

High efficiency vapor-fed AMTEC system for direct conversion. Appendices for final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report consists of four appendices for the final report. They are: Appendix A: 700 C Vapor-Fed AMTEC Cell Calculations; Appendix B: 700 C Vapor-Fed AMTEC Cell Parts Drawings; Appendix C: 800 C Vapor-Fed AMTEC Cell Calculations; and Appendix D: 800 C Wick-Pumped AMTEC Cell System Design.

Anderson, W.G.; Bland, J.J.

1997-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

369

Method for the generation of variable density metal vapors which bypasses the liquidus phase  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a method for producing a metal vapor that includes the steps of combining a metal and graphite in a vessel to form a mixture; heating the mixture to a first temperature in an argon gas atmosphere to form a metal carbide; maintaining the first temperature for a period of time; heating the metal carbide to a second temperature to form a metal vapor; withdrawing the metal vapor and the argon gas from the vessel; and separating the metal vapor from the argon gas. Metal vapors made using this method can be used to produce uniform powders of the metal oxide that have narrow size distribution and high purity.

Kunnmann, Walter (Stony Brook, NY); Larese, John Z. (Rocky Point, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Mercury Vapor At Mokapu Penninsula Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mokapu Penninsula Area (Thomas, 1986) Mokapu Penninsula Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Mokapu Penninsula Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Mokapu Penninsula Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness not useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes The high degree of cultural activity (e.g. residential areas, streets, jet runways, etc.) on Mokapu both limited the extent of the soil geochemical surveys performed and rendered their interpretation much more difficult. Soil mercury concentrations and radon emanometry data on the peninsula showed a few localized high values (Figs 13, 14), but no consistent correlation between the anomalous zones and geologic features could be

371

Catalytic hydrogenation process and apparatus with improved vapor liquid separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous hydrogenation process and apparatus wherein liquids are contacted with hydrogen in an ebullated catalyst reaction zone with the liquids and gas flowing vertically upwardly through that zone into a second zone substantially free of catalyst particles and wherein the liquid and gases are directed against an upwardly inclining surface through which vertical conduits are placed having inlet ends at different levels in the liquid and having outlet ends at different levels above the inclined surface, such that vapor-rich liquid is collected and discharged through conduits terminating at a higher level above the inclined surface than the vapor-poor liquid which is collected and discharged at a level lower than the inclined surface.

Chervenak, Michael C. (Pennington, NJ); Comolli, Alfred G. (Trenton, NJ)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

1988-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

374

Enhanced frequency up-conversion in Rb vapor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate highly efficient generation of coherent 420 nm light via up-conversion of near-infrared lasers in a hot rubidium vapor cell. By optimizing pump polarizations and frequencies we achieve a single-pass conversion efficiency of 260%/W, significantly higher than in previous experiments. A full 2D exploration of the coherent light generation and fluorescence as a function of the pump frequencies reveals that coherent blue light is generated at 85Rb two-photon resonances, as predicted by theory, but at high vapor pressure it is suppressed in spectral regions that don't support phase matching or exhibit single-photon Kerr refraction. Favorable scaling of our current 1 mW blue beam power with additional pump power is predicted. Infrared pump polarization could be used for future intensity switching experiments.

Vernier, A; Riis, E; Arnold, A S

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Hydrocarbon pool and vapor fire data analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The flame geometry and thermal radiation data from a series of large scale experiments involving liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and gasoline spills on water were analyzed. The experiments were conducted at the Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, California. Two types of fires have been studied; namely, pool fires and vapor fires. The spill quantity varied from 4 m/sup 3/ to approximately 6 m/sup 3/. The LPG pool fire flame height to diameter ratio were between 3.5 and 4.5. The gasoline flame height was about 2. The flame emissive powers for LPG pool fires ranged from 78 kW/m/sup 2/ to 115 kW/m/sup 2/. The average surface emissive power for gasoline pool fire was 40 kW/m/sup 2/. The LPG vapor fire emissive power ranged from 159 to 269 kW/m/sup 2/. 63 figures, 13 tables.

Mudan, K.S.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

High average power magnetic modulator for metal vapor lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A three-stage magnetic modulator utilizing magnetic pulse compression designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper vapor laser at a 4.5 kHz repetition rate is disclosed. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power. The circuit includes a step up auto transformer and utilizes a rod and plate stack construction technique to achieve a high packing factor.

Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA); Miller, John L. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

System for the removal of contaminant soil-gas vapors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system extracts contaminated vapors from soil or other subsurface regions by using changes in barometric pressure to operate sensitive check valves that control air entry and removal from wells in the ground. The system creates an efficient subterranean flow of air through a contaminated soil plume and causes final extraction of the contaminants from the soil to ambient air above ground without any external energy sources. 4 figs.

Weidner, J.R.; Downs, W.C.; Kaser, T.G.; Hall, H.J.

1997-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

378

Vaporizing Flow in Hot Fractures: Observations from Laboratory Experiments  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Understanding water seepage in hot fractured rock is important in a number of fields including geothermal energy recovery and nuclear waste disposal. Heat-generating high-level nuclear waste packages which will be emplaced in the partially saturated fractured tuffs at the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, if it becomes a high-level nuclear waste repository, will cause significant impacts on moisture distribution and migration. Liquid water, which occupies anywhere from 30 to 100% of the porespace, will be vaporized as the temperature reaches the boiling temperature. Flowing primarily in fractures, the vapor will condense where it encounters cooler rock, generating mobile water. This water will flow under gravitational and capillary forces and may flow back to the vicinity of the emplaced waste where it may partially escape vaporization. Water flowing down (sub-) vertical fractures may migrate considerable distances through fractured rock that is at above-boiling temperatures; thus, flowing condensate may contact waste packages, and provide a pathway for the transport of water-soluble radionuclides downward to the saturated zone. Thermally-driven flow processes induced by repository heat may be as important or even more important for repository performance than natural infiltration. For a nominal thermal loading of 57 kW/acre, vaporization may generate an average equivalent percolation flux from condensate of 23.1 mm/yr over 1,000 years, and 5.2 mm/yr over 10,000 years. These numbers are comparable to or larger than current estimates of net infiltration at Yucca Mountain. This condensate, which is generated in the immediate vicinity (meters) of the waste packages, will likely have a larger impact on waste package and repository performance than a similar amount of water introduced at the land surface.

Kneafsey, T.; Pruess, K.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

M.D.?Lukin, Storage of light in atomic vapor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report an experiment in which a light pulse is decelerated and trapped in a vapor of Rb atoms, stored for a controlled period of time, and then released on demand. We accomplish this storage of light by dynamically reducing the group velocity of the light pulse to zero, so that the coherent excitation of the light is reversibly mapped into a collective Zeeman (spin) coherence of the Rb vapor. PACS numbers 03.67.-a, 42.50.-p, 42.50.Gy Typeset using REVTEX 1 Photons are the fastest and most robust carriers of information, but they are difficult to localize and store. The present Letter reports a proof-of-principle demonstration of a technique [1,2] to trap, store, and release excitations carried by light pulses. Specifically, a pulse of light which is several kilometers long in free space is compressed to a length of a few centimeters and then converted into collective spin excitations in a vapor of Rb atoms. After a controllable storage time, the process is reversed and the atomic coherence is converted

D. F. Phillips; A. Fleischhauer; A. Mair; R. L. Walsworth; M. D. Lukin

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Applications of Mechanical Vapor Recompression to Evaporation and Crystallization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the past 10-15 years, mechanical vapor recompression (MVR) has become the preferred system in many industrial evaporation and crystallization applications, because of its economy and simplicity of operation. In most instances, the need for steam to provide heat for the evaporation and cooling water for condensing the overhead vapors is virtually eliminated; and, at the same time, a wide range of turndown is available. An MVR is generally found to be the most economical choice when there is no boiler plant available or when electrical power is priced competitively in comparison to steam. Vapor recompression is accomplished using centrifugal, axial-flow, or positive displacement compressors and these compressors can be powered by electricity, steam turbine or a gas turbine. The use of an MVR Evaporator/Crystallizer provides a comparatively low cost means of expanding the production capability of an existing evaporation plant either by adding a "stand alone" unit or by reconfiguring a multiple-effect system into several single-effect MVR's.

Outland, J. S.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor radiometer gvr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Method of and apparatus for measuring vapor density  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and method are disclosed which determine the concentration of an individual component, such as water vapor, of a multi-component mixture, such as a gaseous mixture for cooling a nuclear reactor. A hygrometer apparatus includes an infrared source for producing a broadband infrared energy beam that includes a strong water vapor absorption band and a weak water vapor absorption region. The beam is chopped to select infrared pulses. A temporally first pulse has a wavelength in the weakly absorbing region, a temporally second pulse has a wavelength in the strong band and a temporally third pulse has a wavelength in the weakly absorbing region. A fourth reference pulse representing background radiation is interposed in such chopped pulses. An indium arsenide infrared sensor is responsive to the pulses for generating an output signal in proportion to an equation given in the patent where N1 is proportional to the transmission through the sample of the first signal, N4 is related to the background radiation, and [K2 (N2-N4) + K3 (N3-N4)] is the time-weighted average of the transmission through the sample of the second and third pulses applicable at the time of the second pulse, with the reference pulse N4 being subtracted in each case to render the ratio independent of variations in the background radiation. 11 figs.

Nelson, L.D.; Cerni, T.A.

1989-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

382

Method of and apparatus for measuring vapor density  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and method determine the concentration of an individual component, such as water vapor, of a multi-component mixture, such as a gaseous mixture for cooling a nuclear reactor. A hygrometer apparatus includes an infrared source for producing a broadband infrared energy beam that includes a strong water vapor absorption band and a weak water vapor absorption region. The beam is chopped to select infrared pulses. A temporally first pulse has a wavelength in the weakly absorbing region, a temporally second pulse has a wavelength in the strong band and a temporally third pulse has a wavlength in the weakly absorbing region. A fourth reference pulse representing background radiation is interposed in such chopped pulses. An indium arsenide infrared sensor is responsive to the pulses for generating an output signal in proportion to: ##EQU1## where N1 is proportional to the transmission through the sample of the first signal, N4 is related to the background radiation, and [K2 (N2-N4)+K3 (N3-N4)] is the time-weighted average of the transmission through the sample of the second and third pulses applicable at the time of the second pulse, with the reference pulse N4 being subtracted in each case to render the ratio independent of variations in the background radiation.

Nelson, Loren D. (Morrison, CO); Cerni, Todd A. (Littleton, CO)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Improved method for removing metal vapor from gas streams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a process for gas cleanup to remove one or more metallic contaminants present as vapor. More particularly, the invention relates to a gas cleanup process using mass transfer to control the saturation levels such that essentially no particulates are formed, and the vapor condenses on the gas passage surfaces. It addresses the need to cleanup an inert gas contaminated with cadmium which may escape from the electrochemical processing of Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel in a hot cell. The IFR is a complete, self-contained, sodium-cooled, pool-type fast reactor fueled with a metallic alloy of uranium, plutonium and zirconium, and is equipped with a close-coupled fuel cycle. Tests with a model have shown that removal of cadmium from argon gas is in the order of 99.99%. The invention could also apply to the industrial cleanup of air or other gases contaminated with zinc, lead, or mercury. In addition, the invention has application in the cleanup of other gas systems contaminated with metal vapors which may be toxic or unhealthy.

Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.

1994-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

384

Tank 241-BY-110 Headspace Gas and Vapor Characterization Results for Samples Collected in November 1994. Revision 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Significant changes have been made to all of the original vapor characterization reports. This report documents specific headspace gas and vapor characterization results for all vapor sampling events to date. In addition, changes have been made to the original vapor reports to qualify the data based on quality assurance issues associated with the performing laboratories.

Huckaby, J.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Bratzel, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

LESSONS LEARNED FROM PREVIOUS WASTE STORAGE TANK VAPOR CONTROL ATTEMPTS ON SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) & DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) FARMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report forms the basis for a feasibility study and conceptual design to control vapor emissions from waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The Carbtrol, Vapor Mixing, and High Efficiency Gas Absorber (HEGA) vapor controls were evaluated to determine the lessons learned from previous failed vapor control attempts. This document illustrates the resulting findings based on that evaluation.

BAKER, D.M.

2004-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

386

Tank Vapor Characterization Project -- Headspace vapor characterization of Hanford waste Tank 241-C-107: Results from samples collected on 01/17/96  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the analytical results of vapor samples taken from the headspace of waste storage tank 241-C-107 (Tank C-107) at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The results described in this report were obtained to compare vapor sampling of the tank headspace using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) and In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system with and without high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) prefiltration. The results include air concentrations of water (H{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}), permanent gases, total non-methane hydrocarbons (TO-12), and individual organic analytes collected in SUMMA{trademark} canisters and on triple sorbent traps (TSTs). Samples were collected by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and analyzed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Analyses were performed by the Vapor Analytical Laboratory (VAL) at PNNL. Analyte concentrations were based on analytical results and, where appropriate, sample volume measurements provided by WHC.

Thomas, B.L.; Evans, J.C.; Pool, K.H.; Olsen, K.B.; Fruchter, J.S.; Silvers, K.L.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

SORPTION OF GASES BY VAPOR-DEPOSITED TITANIUM FILMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results are summarized for an investigation of the sorption rates of gases on vapor-deposited titanium films. The usefulness of such films for ultrahigh speed vacuum pumping is appraised. The sorption of hydrogen, deuterium, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water vapor, helium, argon, and methane onto titanium films was measured for a variety of circumstances using techniques and apparatus developed for this specific purpose. The information obtained and techniques evolved in this study have shown that large-scale getter pumping is feasible and can be a very effective means of pumping many gases. Sticking fractions larger than 0.8 were obtained for hydrogen, deuterium, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The experiments have shown that the sticking fraction for gases on vapor-deposited films is a function of the deposition conditions. There is strong evidence to support the supposition that conditions which favor the formation of a porous, fine-grained film structure with a large surface-to-volume ratio produce films with the highest sorption rates. The technique for measuring sticking fractions is new and in many respects unique. It utilizes a very large sorption surface, thus minimizing the perturbing effect of the instrumentation and evaporation apparatus and reducing the hazard of film contamination due to small leaks in the system or outgassing of system components. The method gives especially good accuracy for measurements of sticking fractions approaching unity. The quantity of gas adsorbed, the gas flux onto the getter surface, and the gas flux leaving the getter surface are measured directly. Any two of these three independent measurements can be used to determine the sticking fraction, thereby providing a means of checking the data. The evaporation techniques, substrate surface, and substrate area were chosen to very nearly duplicate the conditions likely to be encountered in the practical application of large-scale getter pumping. (auth)

Clausing, R.E.

1964-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Observed annual and interannual variations in tropospheric water vapor  

SciTech Connect

Radiosonde observations from a global network of 56 radiosonde stations for 1973-1990 are used to describe and quantify annual and interannual variations of tropospheric water vapor. Taking care to identify data inhomogeneities related to changes in instruments or observing practices, monthly mean and anomaly data sets are constructed for dew point, specific humidity, relative humidity, temperature and precipitable water from the surface to 500 mb. Local annual cycles of tropospheric humidity can be classified according to the amplitude and phase of humidity variations which define five humidity regimes. For two regimes, both in middle and high latitudes, relative humidity is fairly constant while the annual cycle of precipitable water is in phase with that of temperature. At some midlatitude stations with a monsoon-like climate, seasonal relative humidity variations are large. In the tropics, seasonal relative humidity variations, especially above the boundary layer, dominate the annual cycle of precipitable water, and precipitable water variations are not related to temperature variations. Correlations of temperature and specific humidity anomalies are generally positive outside the tropics, suggesting that atmospheric warming is associated with increases in water vapor content. However, correlations of temperature and relative humidity anomalies are sometimes not significant and are often negative (e.g., in mid- and high latitude continental regions). Thus relative humidity is not always insensitive to temperature changes. In the tropics, tropospheric water vapor and temperature variations are not well correlated. An empirical orthogonal function analysis of tropical specific humidity variations identified two important modes of variability. The first is a step-like increase in specific humidity that occurred in about 1976-1977, and the second is associated with the El Nino phenomenon.

Gaffen, D.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique.

Vo-Dinh, Tuan (625 Gulfwood Rd., Knoxville, TN 37923)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique. 7 figs.

Vo-Dinh, T.

1987-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

391

Recirculating wedges for metal-vapor plasma tubes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A metal vapor laser is disclosed that recycles condensed metal located at the terminal ends of a plasma tube back toward the center of the tube. A pair of arcuate wedges are incorporated on the bottom of the plasma tube near the terminal ends. The wedges slope downward toward the center so that condensed metal may be transported under the force of gravity away from the terminal ends. The wedges are curved to fit the plasma tube to thereby avoid forming any gaps within the tube interior. 8 figures.

Hall, J.P.; Sawvel, R.M.; Draggoo, V.G.

1994-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

392

Recirculating wedges for metal-vapor plasma tubes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A metal vapor laser is disclosed that recycles condensed metal located at the terminal ends of a plasma tube back toward the center of the tube. A pair of arcuate wedges are incorporated on the bottom of the plasma tube near the terminal ends. The wedges slope downward toward the center so that condensed metal may be transported under the force of gravity away from the terminal ends. The wedges are curved to fit the plasma tube to thereby avoid forming any gaps within the tube interior.

Hall, Jerome P. (Livermore, CA); Sawvel, Robert M. (Modesto, CA); Draggoo, Vaughn G. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Nonlinear transmission through a tapered fiber in rubidium vapor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sub-wavelength diameter tapered optical fibers surrounded by rubidium vapor can undergo a substantial decrease in transmission at high atomic densities due to the accumulation of rubidium atoms on the surface of the fiber. Here we demonstrate the ability to control these changes in transmission using light guided within the taper. We observe transmission through a tapered fiber that is a nonlinear function of the incident power. This effect can also allow a strong control beam to change the transmission of a weak probe beam.

S. M. Hendrickson; T. B. Pittman; J. D. Franson

2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

394

Method and apparatus for producing thermal vapor stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for producing a thermal vapor stream for injecting into a subterranean formation for the recovery of liquefiable minerals therefrom, including a pressure vessel containing a high pressure combustion chamber for producing a heating gas for introduction into a heating gas injector. The heating gas injector is partly immersed in a steam generating section of the pressure vessel such that the heating gas is passed through the steam generating section to produce steam and combustion products which are directed between the pressure vessel and the combustion chamber for simultaneously cooling of the combustion chamber by further heating of the steam and combustion gases.

Cradeur, Robert R. (Spring, TX); Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Sugar Land, TX)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Physical vapor deposition and patterning of calcium fluoride films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Physical vapor deposition of calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) thin films was performed via electron beam evaporation, resistive/thermal evaporation, and nonreactive radio frequency sputtering. Patterning of the resultant ''usable'' thin films was then also attempted in several ways, including by shadow mask deposition, liftoff, and direct chemical etching. Resistive evaporation produced the most stable films, having polycrystalline morphology with a moderately strong preference to the 331 orientation. The cleanest patterning results were obtained via a polymer/metal liftoff. The results and implications of each of the various deposition and patterning techniques are discussed.

Pinol, L.; Rebello, K.; Caruso, K.; Francomacaro, A. S.; Coles, G. L. [Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, Maryland 20723 (United States)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

396

Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

397

Multi-cathode metal vapor arc ion source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. One embodiment of the appaatus utilizes a multi-cathode arrangement for interaction with the anode.

Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); MacGill, Robert A. (645 Kern St., Richmond, CA 94805)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Chemical vapor deposition of amorphous semiconductor films. Final subcontract report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from higher order silanes has been studied for fabricating amorphous hydrogenated silicon thin-film solar cells. Intrinsic and doped a-Si:H films were deposited in a reduced-pressure, tubular-flow reactor, using disilane feed-gas. Conditions for depositing intrinsic films at growth rates up to 10 A/s were identified. Electrical and optical properties, including dark conductivity, photoconductivity, activation energy, optical absorption, band-gap and sub-band-gap absorption properties of CVD intrinsic material were characterized. Parameter space for depositing intrinsic and doped films, suitable for device analysis, was identified.

Rocheleau, R.E.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Passive space heating with a self-pumping vapor system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this system, which should be useful for space or water heating, a refrigerant is evaporated in a solar collector and condensed within thermal storage located in the building below the collector. The vapor pressure generated in the collector periodically forces the condensed liquid upward to the location of the collector. This paper reports results of an operational test, in which this system provided passive space heating for an outdoor test cell during a winter season. The daily average energy yield and the elevation of collector temperature caused by self-pumping are reported, as well as observations on failure modes, system reliability, and suggestions for a practical configuration.

Hedstrom, J.C.; Neeper, D.A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Mercury Vapor At Salt Wells Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Salt Wells Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) Mercury Vapor At Salt Wells Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Salt Wells Area (Henkle, Et Al., 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Salt Wells Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date - 2005 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Adsorbed mercury soil geochemical surveys and radiometric geophysical surveys were carried out in conjunction with geologic mapping to test the application of these ground-based techniques to geothermal exploration at three prospects in Nevada by Henkle Jr. et al. in 2005. Mercury soil vapor surveys were not widely used in geothermal exploration in the western US at the time, although the association of mercury vapors with geothermal

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor radiometer gvr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

The Prospects of Alternatives to Vapor Compression Technology for Space Cooling and Food Refrigeration Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Five alternatives to vapor compression technology were qualitatively evaluated to determine their prospects for being better than vapor compression for space cooling and food refrigeration applications. The results of the assessment are summarized in the report. Overall, thermoacoustic and magnetic technologies were judged to have the best prospects for competing with vapor compression technology, with thermotunneling, thermoelectric, and thermionic technologies trailing behind in that order.

Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Fernandez, Nicholas; Stout, Tyson E.

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

402

Comparative Global Warming Impacts of Electric Vapor-Compression and Direct-fired Absorption Equipment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report compares the global warming impacts of electric vapor-compression and gas-fired absorption-cycle equipment for commercial cooling applications. Absorption chillers do not use ozone depleting refrigerants but substitution of alternative refrigerants in electrically driven vapor-compression cycle equipment also offers radically reduced or eliminated potential for stratospheric ozone depletion. Therefore, when comparing absorption-cycle and vapor-compression equipment, net global warming impacts...

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

(Ti,Mg)N Thin Film Coatings Produced Via Physical Vapor Deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Magnesium (Mg) doped TiN was prepared via physical vapor deposition to ... Axial Compression of a Hollow Cylinder Filled with a Foam: A Porcupine Quill...

404

Separation of heavy water by vapor-phase thermal diffusion coupled with distillation and condensation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study on the enrichment of heavy water in a vapor-phase thermal-diffusion column has been conducted. With the combination of the effects of distillation, vapor-phase thermal diffusion, and partial condensation, considerable improvement in the degree of enrichment has been achieved in a vapor-phase column rather than in a liquid-phase column. It was also found that even the part of enrichment contributed only by vapor-phase thermal-diffusion effect is much higher than that obtained by liquid-phase thermal diffusion.

Yeh, H.M. [Tamkang Univ., Taiwan (China); Chang, S.M. [Cheng Kung Univ., Taiwan (China)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Evaluation of Fire Dynamics Simulator for Liquefied Natural Gas Vapor Dispersion Hazards.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and Pipeline and Hazardous Material Administration (PHMSA) require vapor dispersion modeling as part of a siting analysis for liquefied (more)

Kohout, Andrew Joseph

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Evaluation of fire dynamics simulator for liquefied natural gas vapor dispersion hazards.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and Pipeline and Hazardous Material Administration (PHMSA) require vapor dispersion modeling as part of a siting analysis for (more)

Kohout, Andrew Joseph

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

SAT-TMMC: Liquid-Vapor coexistence properties - TraPPE ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

SAT-TMMC: Liquid-Vapor coexistence properties - TraPPE Carbon Dioxide. ... Fluid, Carbon Dioxide. Model, TraPPE [1]. V, 27000 3. TRUNCATION, ...

2013-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

408

Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Renewable Energy, Office of Geothermal Technologies, of theTransport in Fractured Geothermal Reservoirs, Geothermics,Depletion of Vapor-Dominated Geothermal Reservoirs, Lawrence

Pruess, Karsten

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

PRODUCTION AND DESTRUCTION OF D- BY CHARGE TRANSFER IN METAL VAPORS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

alkali-vapor target of the heat- pipe type. The beam leavingthe incident beam. The heat-pipe target and the collimation

Schlachter, A.S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

Norton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Imaging Spectrometry of Tropospheric Ozone and Water Vapor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Imaging spectrometry has the potential of remotely detecting atmospheric trace gases on the basis of their absorption of radiation. Ozone absorbs particulary in the ultraviolet and visible range of the spectrum, whereas water vapor has strong absorption features in the near infrared. Hence, spectrometry is expected to be a promising tool to extract these trace gas contents in a given air column by using the correlation between cumulative trace gas amount and absorption strength in the sensor channels located in the absorption bands. New mathematical methods of channel selection and method evaluation for measuring atmospheric trace gases are presented. Three already known and four new differential absorption techniques are evaluated by using MODTRAN2 simulations of the radiance spectrum at the sensor level and an analytical error propagation analysis. Finally, the best methods and channel combinations are selected and applied to AVIRIS data of Central Switzerland. The spatial ozone distribution could be estimated over water in a qualitative manner, whereas the total column water vapor content could be quantified over land with an accuracy of about 6%.

Daniel Schlpfer; Klaus I. Itten; Johannes Keller

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Energy Saving in Distillation Using Structured Packing and Vapor Recompression  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"Distillation is a big consumer of energy in process plant operations. A first step to energy cost savings is the use of high efficiency structured packing in place of trays or dumped packings in conventionally operated distillation columns. Larger savings, as much as 80%, may be obtained by using a direct vapor recompression (VRC) heat pump instead of the conventional column operation with a steam heated reboiler. A main criterion of the suitability of a distillation for VRC is a low temperature difference across the column. VRC uses hot compressed overhead vapors, instead of steam, to heat the reboiler. Cost savings are highest when the pressure ratio for the compressor is low. The pressure ratio depends on the boiling point difference of top and bottom products, the reboiler-condenser driving force temperature and the column pressure drop. Structured packing has a low pressure drop; thus increasing the savings obtained with VRC - for retrofits or new columns - and increasing the range of applications where VRC is suitable for distillations. For low pressure distillation application, a column with a small pressure drop is especially important. An example of a vacuum distillation which is made suitable for VRC with use of structured packing is separation of styrene and ethyl benzene. "

Hill, J.H.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

ARM - Facility News Article  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP Starts; Microwave Radiometer Profiler Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP Starts; Microwave Radiometer Profiler Deployed Bookmark and Share Some of the instruments collecting data during the Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP include ARM's microwave radiometer profiler (left) and microwave radiometer (right), and NOAA's ground-based scanning radiometer (middle). Some of the instruments collecting data during the Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP include ARM's microwave radiometer profiler (left) and microwave radiometer (right), and NOAA's ground-based scanning radiometer (middle). The Arctic Winter Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period (IOP), a collaborative effort with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratory, began on March 10 in Barrow, Alaska. The major goal of the Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP

414

Twenty-Four-Hour Raman Lidar Water Vapor Measurements during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Programs 1996 and 1997 Water Vapor Intensive Observation Periods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Prior to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement programs first water vapor intensive observation period (WVIOP) at the Cloud and Radiation Testbed site near Lamont, Oklahoma, an automated 24-h Raman lidar was delivered to the site. This ...

D. D. Turner; J. E. M. Goldsmith

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Commercial Alloys for Sulfuric Acid Vaporization in Thermochemical Hydrogen Cycles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Most thermochemical cycles being considered for producing hydrogen include a processing stream in which dilute sulfuric acid is concentrated, vaporized and then decomposed over a catalyst. The sulfuric acid vaporizer is exposed to highly aggressive conditions. Liquid sulfuric acid will be present at a concentration of >96 wt% (>90 mol %) H2SO4 and temperatures exceeding 400oC [Brown, et. al, 2003]. The system will also be pressurized, 0.7-3.5 MPa, to keep the sulfuric acid in the liquid state at this temperature and acid concentration. These conditions far exceed those found in the commercial sulfuric acid generation, regeneration and handling industries. Exotic materials, e.g. ceramics, precious metals, clad materials, etc., have been proposed for this application [Wong, et. al., 2005]. However, development time, costs, reliability, safety concerns and/or certification issues plague such solutions and should be considered as relatively long-term, optimum solutions. A more cost-effective (and relatively near-term) solution would be to use commercially-available metallic alloys to demonstrate the cycle and study process variables. However, the corrosion behavior of commercial alloys in sulfuric acid is rarely characterized above the natural boiling point of concentrated sulfuric acid (~250oC at 1 atm). Therefore a screening study was undertaken to evaluate the suitability of various commercial alloys for concentration and vaporization of high-temperature sulfuric acid. Initially alloys were subjected to static corrosion tests in concentrated sulfuric acid (~95-97% H2SO4) at temperatures and exposure times up to 200oC and 480 hours, respectively. Alloys with a corrosion rate of less than 5 mm/year were then subjected to static corrosion tests at a pressure of 1.4 MPa and temperatures up to 375oC. Exposure times were shorter due to safety concerns and ranged from as short as 5 hours up to 144 hours. The materials evaluated included nickel-, iron- and cobalt-based commercial alloys. The corrosion rates in these tests are reported and how they may or may not relate to the corrosion behavior in an operating thermochemical cycle is discussed.

Thomas M. Lillo; Karen M. Delezene-Briggs

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Laser-induced micron size clustering in thiophenol vapor  

SciTech Connect

Positively charged micron sized clusters are efficiently produced following irradiation of thiophenol vapor at 248 nm by a single KrF laser pulse of 30 ns duration. The production mechanism has been studied by examining the effect of N[sub 2], Ar, and He as diffusion media in mixtures with thiophenol, and by varying the laser pulse energy and excitation wavelength. A qualitative summary of possible mechanisms that may be responsible for the experimental results is presented providing a framework for understanding the observed cluster growth. The measurements indicate an optimum set of parameters for growth of large clusters and also show that the cluster charge can be controlled by selection of the buffer gas mixture.

Zafiropulos, V.; Kollia, Z.; Fotakis, C. (FORTH-Institute for Electronic Structure and Laser, P.O. Box 1527, GR 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)); Stockdale, J.A.D. (L-463, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States))

1993-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

417

Gas/vapor- and fire-resistant transformers. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project responds to the serious need for a fire and explosion-resistant power transformer that can be produced at an acceptable cost while eliminating or reducing environmental concern. The objectives were to build three transformers with size, performance, cost, and losses equivalent to their oil counterpart. After much development of materials and systems, a gas-insulated vapor cooled system was chosen for the 2500 kVA 95 BIL unit. An immersed system utilizing perchloroethylene (C/sub 2/Cl/sub 4/) with 25% transformer oil, was used for the 1000-kVA, 200-BIL network transformer and the 5000-kVA 200-BIL substation transformer. The materials and systems developed provide safer fire-resistant transformers at near the cost of oil-insulated units but with greatly reduced dependence on the petroleum industry.

Moore, C.L.; Dakin, T.W.; Stewart, W.A.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Evaluation of aqueous cleaners as alternatives to vapor degreasing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of the preparation process during assembly of thermally activated batteries, the stainless steel piece parts are normally cleaned by vapor degreasing with trichloroethylene. Severe restrictions on the use of chlorinated and fluorinated hydrocarbons in recent years prompted the evaluation of a number of aqueous cleaners as a replacement technology for this application. A total of seven commercial aqueous degreasers was evaluated in this study at several dilution ratios and temperatures. One organic cleaner was also examined under ambient conditions. The effectiveness of the cleaner was determined by the use of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which is a surface analytical technique that is very sensitive to low levels of surface contaminants. A quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) that is immersed in the cleaning bath was evaluated as a tool for monitoring the bath cleanliness. The best overall cleaning results were obtained with Micro, Impro-Clean 3800, and Sonicor cleaners.

Guidotti, R.A.; Schneider, T.W.; Frye, G.C. [and others

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Evaluation of aqueous cleaners as alternatives to vapor degreasing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of the preparation process during assembly of thermally activated batteries, the stainless steel piece parts are normally cleaned by vapor degreasing with trichloroethylene. Severe restrictions on the use of chlorinated and fluorinated hydrocarbons in recent years prompted the evaluation of a number of aqueous cleaners as a replacement technology for this application. A total of seven commercial aqueous degreasers was evaluated in this study at several dilution ratios and temperatures. One organic cleaner was also examined under ambient conditions. The effectiveness of the cleaner was determined by the use of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which is a surface analytical technique that is very sensitive to low levels of surface contaminants. A quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) that is immersed in the cleaning bath was evaluated as a tool for monitoring the bath cleanliness. The best overall cleaning results were obtained with Micro, Impro-Clean 3800, and Sonicor cleaners.

Guidotti, R.A.; Schneider, T.W.; Frye, G.C. [and others

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Combustion chamber and thermal vapor stream producing apparatus and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new and improved method and apparatus for burning a hydrocarbon fuel for producing a high pressure thermal vapor stream comprising steam and combustion gases for injecting into a subterranean formation for the recovery of liquefiable minerals therefrom, wherein a high pressure combustion chamber having multiple refractory lined combustion zones of varying diameters is provided for burning a hydrocarbon fuel and pressurized air in predetermined ratios injected into the chamber for producing hot combustion gases essentially free of oxidizing components and solid carbonaceous particles. The combustion zones are formed by zones of increasing diameters up a final zone of decreasing diameter to provide expansion zones which cause turbulence through controlled thorough mixing of the air and fuel to facilitate complete combustion. The high pressure air and fuel is injected into the first of the multiple zones where ignition occurs with a portion of the air injected at or near the point of ignition to further provide turbulence and more complete combustion.

Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Sugar Land, TX); Cradeur, Robert R. (Spring, TX)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor radiometer gvr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

FFT-LB modeling of thermal liquid-vapor systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We further develop a thermal LB model for multiphase flows. In the improved model, we propose to use the FFT scheme to calculate both the convection term and external force term. The usage of FFT scheme is detailed and analyzed. By using the FFT algorithm spatiotemporal discretization errors are decreased dramatically and the conservation of total energy is much better preserved. A direct consequence of the improvement is that the unphysical spurious velocities at the interfacial regions can be damped to neglectable scale. Together with the better conservation of total energy, the more accurate flow velocities lead to the more accurate temperature field which determines the dynamical and final states of the system. With the new model, the phase diagram of the liquid-vapor system obtained from simulation is more consistent with that from theoretical calculation. Very sharp interfaces can be achieved. The accuracy of simulation results are also verified by the Laplace law. The FFT scheme can be easily applied t...

Gan, Yanbiao; Zhang, Guangcai; Li, Yingjun

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominatedgeothermal reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Water injection has been recognized as a powerful techniquefor enhancing energy recovery from vapor-dominated geothermal systemssuch as The Geysers. In addition to increasing reservoir pressures,production well flow rates, and long-term sustainability of steamproduction, injection has also been shown to reduce concentrations ofnon-condensible gases (NCGs) in produced steam. The latter effectimproves energy conversion efficiency and reduces corrosion problems inwellbores and surface lines.This report reviews thermodynamic andhydrogeologic conditions and mechanisms that play an important role inreservoir response to water injection. An existing general-purposereservoir simulator has been enhanced to allow modeling of injectioneffects in heterogeneous fractured reservoirs in three dimensions,including effects of non-condensible gases of different solubility.Illustrative applications demonstrate fluid flow and heat transfermechanisms that are considered crucial for developing approaches to insitu abatement of NCGs.

Pruess, Karsten

2006-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

423

Nonlinear magneto-optic effects in optically dense Rb vapor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nonlinear magneto-optical effects, originated from atomic coherence, are studied both theoretically and experimentally in thermal Rb vapor. The analytical description of the fundamental properties of coherent media are based on the simplified three- and four-level systems, and then verified using numerical simulations and experimental measurements. In particular, we analyze the modification of the long-lived atomic coherence due to various physical effects, such as reabsorption of spontaneous radiation, collisions with a buffer gas atoms, etc. We also discuss the importance of the high-order nonlinearities in the description of the polarization rotation for the elliptically polarized light. The effect of self-rotation of the elliptical polarization is also analyzed. Practical applications of nonlinear magneto-optical effects are considered in precision metrology and magnetometery, and for the generation of non-classical states of electromagnetic field.

Novikova, Irina Borisovna

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Storage and retrieval of thermal light in warm atomic vapor  

SciTech Connect

We report slowed propagation and storage and retrieval of thermal light in warm rubidium vapor using the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We first demonstrate slowed propagation of the probe thermal light beam through an EIT medium by measuring the second-order correlation function of the light field using the Hanbury-Brown-Twiss interferometer. We also report an experimental study on the effect of the EIT slow-light medium on the temporal coherence of thermal light. Finally, we demonstrate the storage and retrieval of the thermal light beam in the EIT medium. The direct measurement of the photon number statistics of the retrieved light field shows that the photon number statistics are preserved during the storage and retrieval processes.

Cho, Young-Wook; Kim, Yoon-Ho [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

425

Gas transport model for chemical vapor infiltration. Topical report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A node-bond percolation model is presented for the gas permeability and pore surface area of the coarse porosity in woven fiber structures during densification by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). Model parameters include the number of nodes per unit volume and their spatial distribution, and the node and bond radii and their variability. These parameters relate directly to structural features of the weave. Some uncertainty exists in the proper partition of the porosity between {open_quotes}node{close_quotes} and{open_quote}bond{close_quotes} and between intra-tow and inter-tow, although the total is constrained by the known fiber loading in the structure. Applied to cloth layup preforms the model gives good agreement with the limited number of available measurements.

Starr, T.L. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Measurement of gas transport properties for chemical vapor infiltration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process for fabricating ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), transport of gas phase reactant into the fiber preform is a critical step. The transport can be driven by pressure or by concentration. This report describes methods for measuring this for CVI preforms and partially infiltrated composites. Results are presented for Nicalon fiber cloth layup preforms and composites, Nextel fiber braid preforms and composites, and a Nicalon fiber 3-D weave composite. The results are consistent with a percolating network model for gas transport in CVI preforms and composites. This model predicts inherent variability in local pore characteristics and transport properties, and therefore, in local densification during processing; this may lead to production of gastight composites.

Starr, T.L.; Hablutzel, N. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Chemical vapor deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon from disilane  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films deposited at growth rates of 1 to 30 A/s by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from disilane source gas at 24 torr total pressure in a tubular reactor. The effects of substrate temperature and gas holding time (flow rate) on film growth rate and effluent gas composition were measured at temperatures ranging from 360{sup 0} to 485{sup 0}C and gas holding times from 3 to 62s. Effluent gases determined by gas chromatography included silane, disilane and other higher order silanes. A chemical reaction engineering model, based on a silylene (SiH/sub 2/) insertion gas phase reaction network and film growth from both SiH/sub 2/ and high molecular weight silicon species, Si/sub n/H/sub 2n/, was developed. The model predictions were in good agreement with experimentally determined growth rates and effluent gas compositions.

Bogaert, R.J.; Russell, T.W.F.; Klein, M.T. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Rocheleau, R.E.; Baron, B.N. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (USA). Inst. of Energy Conversion)

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Low Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Thin Film Magnets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thin-film magnet formed from a gas-phase reaction of tetracyanoetheylene (TCNE) OR (TCNQ), 7,7,8,8-tetracyano-P-quinodimethane, and a vanadium-containing compound such as vanadium hexcarbonyl (V(CO).sub.6) and bis(benzene)vanalium (V(C.sub.6 H.sub.6).sub.2) and a process of forming a magnetic thin film upon at least one substrate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at a process temperature not exceeding approximately 90.degree. C. and in the absence of a solvent. The magnetic thin film is particularly suitable for being disposed upon rigid or flexible substrates at temperatures in the range of 40.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The present invention exhibits air-stable characteristics and qualities and is particularly suitable for providing being disposed upon a wide variety of substrates.

Miller, Joel S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Pokhodnya, Kostyantyn I. (Salt Lake City, UT)

2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

429

Advanced Membrane Systems: Recovering Wasteful and Hazardous Fuel Vapors at the Gasoline Tank  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CMS to develop a membrane CMS to develop a membrane vapor processor that recovers fuel vapors from gasoline refueling with 99 percent efficiency. This membrane system enables gasoline stations to surpass environmental regulations while reducing fuel losses. Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) was founded in 1993 in Wilmington, DE, with the acquisition of rights to certain DuPont polymer membrane patents. CMS focuses

430

Apparatus and method for removing mercury vapor from a gas stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A metallic filter effectively removes mercury vapor from gas streams. The filter captures the mercury which then can be released and collected as product. The metallic filter is a copper mesh sponge plated with a six micrometer thickness of gold. The filter removes up to 90% of mercury vapor from a mercury contaminated gas stream.

Ganesan, Kumar (Butte, MT)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Method and apparatus to measure vapor pressure in a flow system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method for determining, by a condensation method, the vapor pressure of a material with a known vapor pressure versus temperature characteristic, in a flow system particularly in a mercury isotope enrichment process. 2 figures.

Grossman, M.W.; Biblarz, O.

1991-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

432

Lithium phosphorous oxynitride films synthesized by a plasma-assisted directed vapor deposition approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lithium phosphorous oxynitride films synthesized by a plasma-assisted directed vapor deposition vapor deposition approach has been explored for the synthesis of lithium phosphorous oxynitride Lipon the ionic transport properties of these films. This enabled the synthesis of electrolyte films with lithium

Wadley, Haydn

433

The finite element analysis of water vapor diffusion in a brick with vertical holes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a finite element analysis of water vapor diffusion in a brick with vertical holes. The isotherms, isodensity, isopressure and isohumidity surfaces considering the longitudinal and transverse direction diffusion of water vapor in a ... Keywords: brick wall, diffusion, finite element method (FEM), numerical simulation

Madalina Calbureanu; Mihai Talu; Carlos Manuel Travieso-Gonzlez; Stefan Talu; Mihai Lungu; Raluca Malciu

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Laser vaporization/ionization interface for coupling microscale separation techniques with mass spectrometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a laser-induced vaporization and ionization interface for directly coupling microscale separation processes to a mass spectrometer. Vaporization and ionization of the separated analytes are facilitated by the addition of a light-absorbing component to the separation buffer or solvent. 8 figs.

Yeung, E.S.; Chang, Y.C.

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

435

Integrated Water Vapor Field and Multiscale Variations over China from GPS Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water vapor plays a key role in the global hydrologic cycle and in climatic change. However, the distribution and variability of water vapor in the troposphere are not understood wellin particular, in China with the complex Tibetan Plateau and ...

Shuanggen Jin; Z. Li; J. Cho

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Synthesis of high-quality monolayer and bilayer graphene on copper using chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/IG of the Raman spectra (red line in Fig. 6a) taken from the graphene grown on high purity Cu (99.999%) is above 3Synthesis of high-quality monolayer and bilayer graphene on copper using chemical vapor deposition determining the growth of high-quality monolayer and bilayer graphene on Cu using chemical vapor deposition

437

Rapid tooling by electron-beam vapor deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) of tooling metal, onto a shaped substrate to produce a replica of the substrate surface, offers the potential for significant cost savings over present methods of injection mold manufacturing. These savings are realized by the high deposition rate and the corresponding short manufacturing times provided by the EBPVD process. However, on route to realizing these gains, there are process technical issues which need to be resolved. Mold surfaces typically contain relatively high aspect ratio details that must be replicated to dimensional tolerances within +/- 2 mils. The deposited mold material must also provide high surface hardness and high fracture toughness. Good quality grain structure can be obtained in deposited Al 10-wt% Cu mold material when the substrate and corresponding deposit are at high process temperature. However, the resulting mold is subject to distortion during cooldown due to differential temperatures and shrinkage rates. Thermally controlled cooldown and the use of crushable substrate materials reduce these distortions, but not to the required levels of tolerance. Deposition of the Al-Cu at lower temperature produces columnar, poorly joined grains which result in a brittle and weakened mold material. When Al 10-wt% Cu metal vapor is deposited across high aspect ratio step features on the substrate surface, a grain growth defect can form in the step-shadowed regions of the deposited material, alongside the step feature. The step coverage defect consists of entrained voids which persist at intermediate deposition temperatures and produce a weakened mold. This final 1997 LDRD report investigates causes of this step coverage defect and offers methods for their control and elimination.

Meier, T. C., LLNL

1998-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

438

Intercalibration of the Infrared Window and Water Vapor Channels on Operational Geostationary Environmental Satellites Using a Single Polar-Orbiting Satellite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) has been intercalibrating radiometers on five geostationary satellites (GOES-8, -10, Meteosat-5, -7, and GMS-5) using a single polar-orbiting or low-earth orbiting satellite [...

Mathew M. Gunshor; Timothy J. Schmit; W. Paul Menzel

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

EA-0881: Tank 241-c-103 Organic Vapor and Liquid Characterization and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

81: Tank 241-c-103 Organic Vapor and Liquid Characterization 81: Tank 241-c-103 Organic Vapor and Liquid Characterization and Supporting Activities, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington EA-0881: Tank 241-c-103 Organic Vapor and Liquid Characterization and Supporting Activities, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to sample the vapor space and liquid waste and perform other supporting activities in Tank 241-C-103 located in the 241-C Tank Farm on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD August 10, 1992 EA-0881: Finding of No Significant Impact Tank 241-c-103 Organic Vapor and Liquid Characterization and Supporting Activities, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington August 10, 1992

440

Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile … Vapor Retarder Classification  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2006 the IRC has permitted Class III 2006 the IRC has permitted Class III vapor retarders like latex paint (see list above) in all climate zones under certain conditions thanks to research by Building America teams. Air-tight and well-insulated homes have little or no tolerance for drying if they get wet; moisture control is critical. That's why Building America research establishing vapor retarder classifications and their appropriate applications has been instrumental in the market transformation to high-performance homes. As buildings have gotten tighter over the past several decades, questions about vapor retarders and vapor barriers have confounded builders and code developers. Vapor barriers have traditionally been installed on the warm in winter side of the wall assembly in an attempt to keep interior moisture from entering the wall cavity

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor radiometer gvr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve Vapor Pressure Committee 2009 annual report.  

SciTech Connect

This report comprises an annual summary of activities under the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Vapor Pressure Committee in FY2009. The committee provides guidance to senior project management on the issues of crude oil vapor pressure monitoring nd mitigation. The principal objectives of the vapor pressure program are, in the event of an SPR drawdown, to minimize the impact on the environment and assure worker safety and public health from crude oil vapor emissions. The annual report reviews key program areas ncluding monitoring program status, mitigation program status, new developments in measurements and modeling, and path forward including specific recommendations on cavern sampling for the next year. The contents of this report were first presented to SPR senior anagement in December 2009, in a deliverable from the vapor pressure committee. The current SAND report is an adaptation for the Sandia technical audience.

Allen, Ray (Allen Energy Services, Inc., Longview, TX); Eldredge, Lisa (DynMcDermott Petroleum Operations, Harahan, LA); DeLuca, Charles (DynMcDermott Petroleum Operations, Harahan, LA); Mihalik, Patrick (DynMcDermott Petroleum Operations, Harahan, LA); Maldonado, Julio (U.S. Department of Energy, Harahan, LA); Lord, David L.; Rudeen, David Keith (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Berndsen, Gerard (U.S. Department of Energy, Harahan, LA)

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Vaporization modeling of petroleum-biofuel drops using a hybrid multi-component approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical modeling of the vaporization characteristics of multi-component fuel mixtures is performed in this study. The fuel mixtures studied include those of binary components, biodiesel, diesel-biodiesel, and gasoline-ethanol. The use of biofuels has become increasingly important for reasons of environmental sustainability. Biofuels are often blended with petroleum fuels, and the detailed understanding of the vaporization process is essential to designing a clean and efficient combustion system. In this study, a hybrid vaporization model is developed that uses continuous thermodynamics to describe petroleum fuels and discrete components to represent biofuels. The model is validated using the experimental data of n-heptane, n-heptane-n-decane mixture, and biodiesel. Since biodiesel properties are not universal due to the variation in feedstock, methods for predicting biodiesel properties based on the five dominant fatty acid components are introduced. Good levels of agreement in the predicted and measured drop size histories are obtained. Furthermore, in modeling the diesel-biodiesel drop, results show that the drop lifetime increases with the biodiesel concentration in the blend. During vaporization, only the lighter components of diesel fuel vaporize at the beginning. Biodiesel components do not vaporize until some time during the vaporization process. On the other hand, results of gasoline-ethanol drops indicate that both fuels start to vaporize once the process begins. At the beginning, the lighter components of gasoline have a slightly higher vaporization rate than ethanol. After a certain time, ethanol vaporizes faster than the remaining gasoline components. At the end, the drop reduces to a regular gasoline drop with heavier components. Overall, the drop lifetime increases as the concentration of ethanol increases in the drop due to the higher latent heat. (author)

Zhang, Lei; Kong, Song-Charng [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, 2025 Black Engineering Building, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

443

Analysis of crude oil vapor pressures at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Crude oil storage caverns at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) are solution-mined from subsurface salt domes along the U.S. Gulf Coast. While these salt domes exhibit many attractive characteristics for large-volume, long-term storage of oil such as low cost for construction, low permeability for effective fluids containment, and secure location deep underground, they also present unique technical challenges for maintaining oil quality within delivery standards. The vapor pressures of the crude oils stored at SPR tend to increase with storage time due to the combined effects of geothermal heating and gas intrusion from the surrounding salt. This presents a problem for oil delivery offsite because high vapor-pressure oil may lead to excessive atmospheric emissions of hydrocarbon gases that present explosion hazards, health hazards, and handling problems at atmospheric pressure. Recognizing this potential hazard, the U.S. Department of Energy, owner and operator of the SPR, implemented a crude oil vapor pressure monitoring program that collects vapor pressure data for all the storage caverns. From these data, DOE evaluates the rate of change in vapor pressures of its oils in the SPR. Moreover, DOE implemented a vapor pressure mitigation program in which the oils are degassed periodically and will be cooled immediately prior to delivery in order to reduce the vapor pressure to safe handling levels. The work described in this report evaluates the entire database since its origin in 1993, and determines the current levels of vapor pressure around the SPR, as well as the rate of change for purposes of optimizing both the mitigation program and meeting safe delivery standards. Generally, the rate of vapor pressure increase appears to be lower in this analysis than reported in the past and, problematic gas intrusion seems to be limited to just a few caverns. This being said, much of the current SPR inventory exceeds vapor pressure delivery guidelines and must be degassed and cooled in order to meet current delivery standards.

Rudeen, David Keith (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Lord, David L.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Three-Dimensional Evolution of Water Vapor Distributions in the Northern Hemisphere Stratosphere as Observed by the MLS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The three-dimensional evolution of stratospheric water vapor distributions observed by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) during the period October 1991July 1992 is documented. The transport features inferred from the MLS water vapor distributions ...

W. A. Lahoz; A. O'Neill; E. S. Carr; R. S. Harwood; L. Froidevaux; W. G. Read; J. W. Waters; J. B. Kumer; J. L. Mergenthaler; A. E. Roche; G. E. Peckham; R. Swinbank

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

The Apparent Water Vapor Sinks and Heat Sources Associated with the Intraseasonal Oscillation of the Indian Summer Monsoon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The possibility of using remote sensing retrievals to estimate apparent water vapor sinks and heat sources is explored. The apparent water vapor sinks and heat sources are estimated from a combination of remote sensing, specific humidity, and ...

Sun Wong; Eric J. Fetzer; Baijun Tian; Bjorn Lambrigtsen; Hengchun Ye

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Developing an Operational, Surface-Based, GPS, Water Vapor Observing System for NOAA: Network Design and Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The need for a reliable, low-cost observing system to measure water vapor in the atmosphere is incontrovertible. Experiments have shown the potential for using Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers to measure total precipitable water vapor ...

Daniel E. Wolfe; Seth I. Gutman

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

The Earths Clear-Sky Radiation Budget and Water Vapor Absorption in the Far Infrared  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detailed observational data are used to simulate the sensitivity of clear-sky outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) to water vapor perturbations in order to investigate the effect of uncertainties in water vapor measurements and spectroscopic ...

Ashok Sinha; John E. Harries

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Pairing Measurements of the Water Vapor Isotope Ratio with Humidity to Deduce Atmospheric Moistening and Dehydration in the Tropical Midtroposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of the isotope ratio of water vapor (expressed as the ? value) allow processes that control the humidity in the tropics to be identified. Isotopic information is useful because the change in ? relative to the water vapor mixing ratio (...

David Noone

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Effect of gas feeding methods on optical properties of GaN grown by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: Ga vacancies, GaN growth, gas feeding method, optical property, rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD), yellow luminescence

Sun Jung Kim; Young Hun Seo; Kee Suk Nahm; Yun Bong Hahn; Hyun Wook Shim; Eun-Kyung Suh; Kee Young Lim; Hyung Jae Lee

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

NIST Lunar spectro-radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... each of which is connected to a spectrograph covering a different ... to be approximately 0.5 % through visible atmospheric window bands and less ...

2013-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

451

Tank 241-BY-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Tank 241-BY-107 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues{close_quotes}. Tank 241-BY-107 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution{close_quotes}.

Huckaby, J.L.

1995-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

452

Engineering Task Plan for Preparing the Type 4 In Situ Vapor Samplers (ISVS) for Use  

SciTech Connect

The DOE has identified a need to sample vapor space and exhaust ducts of several waste tanks The In-Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) Type IV vapor sampling cart has been identified as the appropriate monitoring tool. The ISVS carts have been out of service for a number of years. This ETP outlines the work to be performed to ready the type IV gas sampler for operation Characterization Engineering will evaluate the Type IV gas sampler carts to determine their state of readiness and will proceed to update procedures and equipment documentation to make the sampler operationally acceptable.

BOGER, R.M.

2000-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

453

Tank 241-S-102 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Tank 241-S-102 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-S-102 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution. {close_quotes}

Huckaby, J.L.

1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

454

GHz Rabi flopping to Rydberg states in hot atomic vapor cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the observation of Rabi oscillations to a Rydberg state on a timescale below one nanosecond in thermal rubidium vapor. We use a bandwidth-limited pulsed excitation and observe up to 6 full Rabi cycles within a pulse duration of ~ 4 ns. We find good agreement between the experiment and numerical simulations based on a surprisingly simple model. This result shows that fully coherent dynamics with Rydberg states can be achieved even in thermal atomic vapor thus suggesting small vapor cells as a platform for room temperature quantum devices. Furthermore the result implies that previous coherent dynamics in single atom Rydberg gates can be accelerated by three orders of magnitude.

Huber, B; Schlagmller, M; Klle, A; Kbler, H; Lw, R; Pfau, T

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

GHz Rabi flopping to Rydberg states in hot atomic vapor cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the observation of Rabi oscillations to a Rydberg state on a timescale below one nanosecond in thermal rubidium vapor. We use a bandwidth-limited pulsed excitation and observe up to 6 full Rabi cycles within a pulse duration of ~ 4 ns. We find good agreement between the experiment and numerical simulations based on a surprisingly simple model. This result shows that fully coherent dynamics with Rydberg states can be achieved even in thermal atomic vapor thus suggesting small vapor cells as a platform for room temperature quantum devices. Furthermore the result implies that previous coherent dynamics in single atom Rydberg gates can be accelerated by three orders of magnitude.

B. Huber; T. Baluktsian; M. Schlagmller; A. Klle; H. Kbler; R. Lw; T. Pfau

2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

456

The Water Vapor Abundance in Orion KL Outflows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the detection and modeling of more than 70 far-IR pure rotational lines of water vapor, including the 18O and 17O isotopologues, towards Orion KL. Observations were performed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer Fabry-Perot (LWS/FP; R~6800-9700) on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) between ~43 and ~197 um. The water line profiles evolve from P-Cygni type profiles (even for the H2O18 lines) to pure emission at wavelengths above ~100 um. We find that most of the water emission/absorption arises from an extended flow of gas expanding at 25+-5 kms^-1. Non-local radiative transfer models show that much of the water excitation and line profile formation is driven by the dust continuum emission. The derived beam averaged water abundance is 2-3x10^-5. The inferred gas temperature Tk=80-100 K suggests that: (i) water could have been formed in the "plateau" by gas phase neutral-neutral reactions with activation barriers if the gas was previously heated (e.g. by shocks) to >500 K and/or (ii) H2O formation in the outflow is dominated by in-situ evaporation of grain water-ice mantles and/or (iii) H2O was formed in the innermost and warmer regions (e.g. the hot core) and was swept up in ~1000 yr, the dynamical timescale of the outflow.

J. Cernicharo; J. R. Goicoechea; F. Daniel; M. R. Lerate; M. J. Barlow; B. M. Swinyard; E. van Dishoeck; T. L. Lim; S. Viti; J. Yates

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

457

FFT-LB modeling of thermal liquid-vapor systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We further develop a thermal LB model for multiphase flows. In the improved model, we propose to use the FFT scheme to calculate both the convection term and external force term. The usage of FFT scheme is detailed and analyzed. By using the FFT algorithm spatiotemporal discretization errors are decreased dramatically and the conservation of total energy is much better preserved. A direct consequence of the improvement is that the unphysical spurious velocities at the interfacial regions can be damped to neglectable scale. Together with the better conservation of total energy, the more accurate flow velocities lead to the more accurate temperature field which determines the dynamical and final states of the system. With the new model, the phase diagram of the liquid-vapor system obtained from simulation is more consistent with that from theoretical calculation. Very sharp interfaces can be achieved. The accuracy of simulation results are also verified by the Laplace law. The FFT scheme can be easily applied to other models for multiphase flows.

Yanbiao Gan; Aiguo Xu; Guangcai Zhang; Yingjun Li

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

458

Chemical vapor deposition growth. Quarterly report No. 3  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of the contract is to explore the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method for the growth of Si sheet on inexpensive substrate materials. The work is carried out at the Rockwell Electronics Research Division in Anaheim, and also involves some experimental solar cell fabrication and evaluation by the Photo-electronics Group of Optical Coating Laboratory, Inc. (OCLI), in City of Industry, California. The contract program is composed of six main technical tasks: (1) modification and test of an existing CVD reactor system; (2) identification and/or development of suitable inexpensive substrate materials; (3) experimental investigation of CVD process parameters using various candidate substrate materials; (4) preparation of Si sheet samples for various special studies, including solar cell fabrication; (5) evaluation of the properties of the Si sheet material produced by the CVD process; and (6) fabrication and evaluation of experimental solar cell structures (by OCLI), using standard and near-standard processing techniques. The progress achieved during the fourth quarter is described by task, followed by a summary of conclusions and recommendations and an outline of the work planned for the next three months. The manpower and funding expenditures to date are summarized in Appendix A, and the Updated Technical Program Plan is included as Appendix B.

Ruth, R.P.; Manasevit, H.M.; Johnson, R.D.; Moudy, L.A..; Simpson, W.I.; Yang, J.J.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Chemical vapor deposition of amorphous silicon films from disilane  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous silicon films for fabrication of solar cells have been deposited by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from disilane (Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/) using a tubular flow reactor. A mathematical description for the CVD reactor was developed and solved by a numerical procedure. The proposed chemical reaction network for the model is based on silylene (SiH/sub 2/) insertion in the gas phase and film growth from SiH/sub 2/ and silicon polymers (Si/sub n/N/sub 2n/, n approx. 10). Estimates of the rate constants have been obtained for trisilane decomposition, silicon polymer formation, and polymer dehydrogenation. The silane unimolecular decomposition rate constants were corrected for pressure effects. The model behavior is compared to the experimental results over the range of conditions: reactor temperature (360 to 485/sup 0/C), pressures (2 to 48 torr), and gas holding time (1 to 70 s). Within the above range of conditions, film growth rate varies from 0.01 to 30 A/s. Results indicate that silicon polymers are the main film precursors for gas holding times greater than 3 s. Film growth by silylene only becomes important at short holding times, large inert gas dilution, and positions near the beginning of the reactor hot zone.

Bogaert, R.J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Decline curve analysis of vapor-dominated reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Geothermal Program activities at the INEEL include a review of the transient and pseudosteady state behavior of production wells in vapor-dominated systems with a focus on The Geysers field. The complicated history of development, infill drilling, injection, and declining turbine inlet pressures makes this field an ideal study area to test new techniques. The production response of a well can be divided into two distinct periods: transient flow followed by pseudo-steady state (depletion). The transient period can be analyzed using analytic equations, while the pseudo-steady state period is analyzed using empirical relationships. Yet by reviewing both periods, a great deal of insight can be gained about the well and reservoir. An example is presented where this approach is used to determine the permeability thickness product, kh, injection and production interference, and estimate the empirical Arps decline parameter b. When the production data is reinitialized (as may be required by interference effects), the kh determined from the new transient period is repeatable. This information can be used for well diagnostics, quantification of injection benefits, and the empirical estimation of remaining steam reserves.

Faulder, D.D.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor radiometer gvr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Plasma and Ion Assistance in Physical Vapor Deposition: AHistorical Perspective  

SciTech Connect

Deposition of films using plasma or plasma-assist can betraced back surprisingly far, namely to the 18th century for arcs and tothe 19th century for sputtering. However, only since the 1960s thecoatings community considered other processes than evaporation for largescale commercial use. Ion Plating was perhaps the first importantprocess, introducing vapor ionization and substrate bias to generate abeam of ions arriving on the surface of the growing film. Ratherindependently, cathodic arc deposition was established as an energeticcondensation process, first in the former Soviet Union in the 1970s, andin the 1980s in the Western Hemisphere. About a dozen various ion-basedcoating technologies evolved in the last decades, all characterized byspecific plasma or ion generation processes. Gridded and gridless ionsources were taken from space propulsion and applied to thin filmdeposition. Modeling and simulation have helped to make plasma and ionseffects to be reasonably well understood. Yet--due to the complex, oftennon-linear and non-equilibrium nature of plasma and surfaceinteractions--there is still a place for the experience plasma"sourcerer."

Anders, Andre

2007-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

462

Fuzzy rule-based modeling of vapor cloud explosion probabilities  

SciTech Connect

Estimating the frequency of accidents in nonreactor nuclear facilities is difficult because quantitative reliability data are lacking for many critical items. Because data are often lacking, the risk analysis relies on [open quotes]expert judgment[close quotes] or [open quotes]engineering judgment.[close quotes] This paper presents an alternative to the ad hoc use of engineering judgment in risk analysis. This alternative is fuzzy rule-based modeling. The fundamental principle of fuzzy rule-based modeling is that qualitative knowledge, which is the basis of engineering judgment, is valid knowledge. The intent of fuzzy rule-based modeling is to make better, systematic use of qualitative knowledge. The method is related to expert system technology. The basic concepts of fuzzy rule-based modeling, as applied to consequence modeling, have been discussed previously. This paper examines the application of these methods to the problem of estimating probabilities. The study considers a particular application, determining the probability of a deflagration-to-detonation transition in a vapor cloud.

Kubic, W.L. Jr. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Mercury Vapor At Lahaina-Kaanapali Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Lahaina-Kaanapali Area (Thomas, 1986) Mercury Vapor At Lahaina-Kaanapali Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Lahaina-Kaanapali Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Lahaina-Kaanapali Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes The soil mercury concentration and radon emanometry patterns observed for the Lahaina prospect were similar to those found in Olowalu. Several localized zones of high mercury concentration or enhanced radon emanation were observed, but showed little relationship to each other or to the recognized geologic structure in the area. The data were interpreted to suggest that there might be a small thermal anomaly to the northeast of the

464

GPS Water Vapor Projects Within the ARM Southern Great Plains Region  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

GPS Water Vapor Projects Within the ARM GPS Water Vapor Projects Within the ARM Southern Great Plains Region J. Braun, T. Van Hove, S. Y. Ha, and C. Rocken GPS Science and Technology Program University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Boulder, Colorado Abstract The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has a need for an improved capability to measure and characterize the four-dimensional distribution of water vapor within the atmosphere. Applications for this type of data include their use in radiation transfer studies, cloud-resolving and single-column models, and for the establishment of an extended time series of water vapor observations. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research's (UCAR) GPS Science and Technology (GST) Program is working with ARM to leverage the substantial investment in

465

Mercury Vapor At Hualalai Northwest Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Hualalai Northwest Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) Mercury Vapor At Hualalai Northwest Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Hualalai Northwest Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Hualalai Northwest Rift Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes The Hualalai lower northwest rift and southern flank were sampled for soil mercury concentration and radon emanation rates (Cox and Cuff, 1981d). The data generated by these surveys yielded complex patterns of mercury concentrations and radon emanation rates that generally did not show coincident anomalies (Figs 42, 43). References Donald M. Thomas (1 January 1986) Geothermal Resources Assessment In

466

Glenwood Springs Vapor Caves Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Springs Vapor Caves Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Springs Vapor Caves Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Glenwood Springs Vapor Caves Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Glenwood Springs Vapor Caves Sector Geothermal energy Type Pool and Spa Location Glenwood Springs, Colorado Coordinates 39.5505376°, -107.3247762° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

467

Mercury Vapor At Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area (Kodosky, 1989)  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area (Kodosky, 1989) Mercury Vapor At Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area (Kodosky, 1989) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area (Kodosky, 1989) Exploration Activity Details Location Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes One-hundred twelve samples were collected from relatively unaltered air-fall ejecta along two Novarupta Basin traverse lines (Fig. 5). One hundred eighty-two samples were taken from active/fossil fumaroles in Novarupta Basin (22 sites, Fig. 5), fossil fumaroles (41 sites) and air-fall tephra (2 sites) within and immediately adjacent to the remainder of the VTTS (Fig. 6). In total, 294 samples were collected from 127 sites

468

Influence of GPS Precipitable Water Vapor Retrievals on Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting in Southern California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of precipitable water vapor (PWV) retrievals from the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) on quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) skill are examined over two flood-prone regions of Southern California: Santa ...

Steven Marcus; Jinwon Kim; Toshio Chin; David Danielson; Jayme Laber

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Distribution of Tropospheric Water Vapor in Clear and Cloudy Conditions from Microwave Radiometric Profiling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A dataset gathered over 369 days in various midlatitude sites with a 12-frequency microwave radiometric profiler is used to analyze the statistical distribution of tropospheric water vapor content (WVC) in clear and cloudy conditions. The WVC ...

Alia Iassamen; Henri Sauvageot; Nicolas Jeannin; Soltane Ameur

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Water Vapor Transfer over the Southwest Pacific: Mean Patterns and Variations during Wet and Dry Periods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mean water vapor transfer of the Southwest Pacific, as determined from radiosonde records near the 170E meridional transect, is computed for the 196073 period. Emphasis is placed on defining average patterns, then examining variations that ...

M. M. Khatep; B. B. Fitzharris; W. E. Bardsley

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Initiated chemical vapor deposition of polymeric thin films : mechanism and applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a novel technique for depositing polymeric thin films. It is able to deposit thin films of application-specific polymers in one step without using any solvents. Its uniqueness ...

Chan, Kelvin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Single- and few-layer graphene by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition on nickel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) process is used to fabricate graphene based films consisting of one to several graphene layers across their area. Polycrystalline Ni thin films are used and the graphene ...

Reina Ceeco, Alfonso

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Temperature and Water Vapor Variance Scaling in Global Models: Comparisons to Satellite and Aircraft Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations of the scale dependence of height-resolved temperature T and water vapor q variability are valuable for improved subgrid-scale climate model parameterizations and model evaluation. Variance spectral benchmarks for T and q obtained ...

B. H. Kahn; J. Teixeira; E. J. Fetzer; A. Gettelman; S. M. Hristova-Veleva; X. Huang; A. K. Kochanski; M. Khler; S. K. Krueger; R. Wood; M. Zhao

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Analysis of Intense Poleward Water Vapor Transports into High Latitudes of Western North America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Significant cool season precipitation along the western coast of North America is often associated with intense water vapor transport (IWVT) from the Pacific Ocean during favorable synoptic-scale flow regimes. These relatively narrow and intense ...

Alain Roberge; John R. Gyakum; Eyad H. Atallah

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

A Modified Tracer Selection and Tracking Procedure to Derive Winds Using Water Vapor Imagers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The remotely sensed upper-tropospheric water vapor wind information has been of increasing interest for operational meteorology. A new tracer selection based on a local image anomaly and tracking procedure, itself based on NashSutcliffe model ...

S. K. Deb; C. M. Kishtawal; P. K. Pal; P. C. Joshi

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

The Development of a Scanning Raman Water Vapor Lidar for Boundary Layer and Tropospheric Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A scanning, ultraviolet, Raman water vapor lidar designed primarily for boundary layer measurements has been built and operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory Ground-Based Earth Observing Network team. The system provides high temporal and ...

W. E. Eichinger; D. I. Cooper; P. R. Forman; J. Griegos; M. A. Osborn; D. Richter; L. L. Tellier; R. Thornton

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Intercalibrating Microwave Satellite Observations for Monitoring Long-Term Variations in Upper- and Midtropospheric Water Vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper analyzes the growing archive of 183-GHz water vapor absorption band measurements from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit B (AMSU-B) and Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) on board polar-orbiting satellites and document adjustments ...

Eui-Seok Chung; Brian J. Soden; Viju O. John

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Results of Year-Round Remotely Sensed Integrated Water Vapor by Ground-Based Microwave Radiometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on two years of measurements with a time resolution of 1 min, some climatological findings on precipitable water vapor (PWV) and cloud liquid water (CLW) in central Europe are given. A weak diurnal cycle is apparent. The mean overall ...

J. Gldner; D. Spnkuch

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Tropospheric Water Vapor Profiles Retrieved from Pressure-Broadened Emission Spectra at 22 GHz  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors present the analysis and the evaluation of the retrieval of tropospheric water vapor profiles from pressure-broadened emission spectra at 22 GHz measured with a ground-based microwave spectroradiometer. The spectra have a bandwidth of ...

Alexander Haefele; Niklaus Kmpfer

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Optimization of multi-pressure himidification-dehumidification desalination using thermal vapor compression and hybridization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Humidification-dehumidification (HD or HDH) desalination, and specifically HD driven by a thermal vapor compressor (TVC), is a thermal desalination method that has the potential to produce potable water efficiently in order ...

Mistry, Karan Hemant

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481

Desalination-of water by vapor-phase transport through hydrophobic nanopores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a new approach to desalination of water whereby a pressure difference across a vapor-trapping nanopore induces selective transport of water by isothermal evaporation and condensation across the pore. Transport ...

Lee, Jongho

482

Estimates of the Water Vapor Climate Feedback during El NioSouthern Oscillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The strength of the water vapor feedback has been estimated by analyzing the changes in tropospheric specific humidity during El NioSouthern Oscillation (ENSO) cycles. This analysis is done in climate models driven by observed sea surface ...

A. E. Dessler; S. Wong

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Expansion of the laser ablation vapor plume into a background gas: Part A, Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

x ] = 1 y 2 y 4 dy The thermal energy stored in the vaporet + E ek (subscript t=thermal energy and k=kinetic energy)Also, the kinetic and thermal energies in the vapor plume

Wen, Sy-Bor; Mao, Xianglei; Greif, Ralph; Russo, Richard E.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Oxidative chemical vapor deposition of conductive polymers for use in novel photovoltaic device architectures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), (PEDOT), deposited via oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) has been investigated for use in organic electronic devices. The oCVD process as well as the ...

Howden, Rachel M. (Rachel Mary)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Structure/processing relationships in vapor-liquid-solid nanowire epitaxy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The synthesis of Si and III-V nanowires using the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism and low-cost Si substrates was investigated. The VLS mechanism allows fabrication of heterostructures which are not readily ...

Boles, Steven Tyler

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

On the Relationship between Water Vapor over the Oceans and Sea Surface Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monthly mean precipitable water data obtained from passive microwave radiometry (SMMR) are correlated with NMC-blended sea surface temperature data. It is shown that the monthly mean water vapor content of the atmosphere above the oceans can ...

Graeme L. Stephens

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Fault detection methods for vapor-compression air conditioners using electrical measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) This method was experimentally tested and validated on a commercially available air handler and duct system. In the second class of faults studied, liquid refrigerant, rather than vapor, enters the cylinder of a ...

Laughman, Christopher Reed.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Observed Increase of TTL Temperature and Water Vapor in Polluted Clouds over Asia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite observations are analyzed to examine the correlations between aerosols and the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) temperature and water vapor. This study focuses on two regions, both of which are important pathways for the mass transport ...

Hui Su; Jonathan H. Jiang; Xiaohong Liu; Joyce E. Penner; William G. Read; Steven Massie; Mark R. Schoeberl; Peter Colarco; Nathaniel J. Livesey; Michelle L. Santee

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

A Lightning Prediction Index that Utilizes GPS Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary weather forecast challenge at the Cape Canaveral Air Station and Kennedy Space Center is lightning. This paper describes a statistical approach that combines integrated precipitable water vapor (IPWV) data from a global positioning ...

Robert A. Mazany; Steven Businger; Seth I. Gutman; William Roeder

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Dynamic Response of the Fine Wire Psychrometer for Direct Measurement of Water Vapor Flux  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the measurement of humidity fluctuation in the atmospheric boundary layer, a wet- and dry-bulb ther-mocouple psychrometer has been used traditionally. However, in the direct measurement of water vapor flux with the eddy correlation method, ...

Osamu Tsukamoto

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Derived Over-Ocean Water Vapor Transports from Satellite-Retrieved E ? P Datasets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A methodology is developed for deriving atmospheric water vapor transports over the World Oceans from satellite-retrieved precipitation (P) and evaporation (E) datasets. The motivation for developing the method is to understand climatically ...

Byung-Ju Sohn; Eric A. Smith; Franklin R. Robertson; Seong-Chan Park

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Tropical Cyclone Convection and Intensity Analysis Using Differenced Infrared and Water Vapor Imagery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technique to identify and quantify intense convection in tropical cyclones (TCs) using bispectral, geostationary satellite imagery is explored. This technique involves differencing the water vapor (WV) and infrared window (IRW) channel ...

Timothy L. Olander; Christopher S. Velden

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Water Vapor Measurements by Howard University Raman Lidar during the WAVES 2006 Campaign  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water vapor mixing ratio retrieval using the Howard University Raman lidar is presented with emphasis on three aspects: (i) comparison of the lidar with collocated radiosondes and Raman lidar, (ii) investigation of the relationship between ...

M. Adam; B. B. Demoz; D. D. Venable; E. Joseph; R. Connell; D. N. Whiteman; A. Gambacorta; J. Wei; M. W. Shephard; L. M. Miloshevich; C. D. Barnet; R. L. Herman; J. Fitzgibbon

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Global Observations of Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor Derived from TOVS Radiance Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a physically based method for the retrieval of upper-tropospheric humidity (UTH) and upper-tropospheric column water vapor (UTCWV) based an the use of radiance data collected by the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), ...

Graeme L. Stephens; Darren L. Jackson; Ian Wittmeyer

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Comparison of Water Vapor Measurements with Data Retrieved from ECMWF Analyses during the POLINAT Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the POLINAT (Pollution from Aircraft Emissions in the North Atlantic Flight Corridor) experiment, water vapor content was measured with a frost-point hygrometer on board the DLR (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fr Luft-und-Raumfahrt) Falcon ...

Jolle Ovarlez; Peter van Velthoven

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Improved Daytime Column-Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor from Vaisala Radiosonde Humidity Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate water vapor profiles from radiosondes are essential for long-term climate prediction, weather prediction, validation of remote sensing retrievals, and other applications. The Vaisala RS80, RS90, and RS92 radiosondes are among the more ...

K. E. Cady-Pereira; M. W. Shephard; D. D. Turner; E. J. Mlawer; S. A. Clough; T. J. Wagner

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

LASE Measurements of Water Vapor, Aerosol, and Cloud Distributions in Saharan Air Layers and Tropical Disturbances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) on board the NASA DC-8 measured high-resolution profiles of water vapor and aerosols, and cloud distributions in 14 flights over the eastern North Atlantic during the NASA African Monsoon ...

Syed Ismail; Richard A. Ferrare; Edward V. Browell; Gao Chen; Bruce Anderson; Susan A. Kooi; Anthony Notari; Carolyn F. Butler; Sharon Burton; Marta Fenn; Jason P. Dunion; Gerry Heymsfield; T. N. Krishnamurti; Mrinal K. Biswas

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Water Vapor from Backscattered Sunlight in Cloudy Atmospheres  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The differential absorption technique is used to derive columnar water vapor contents above clouds. Radiative transfer simulations were carried out for two different spectral channels, one channel within the ???water water absorption band and ...

P. Albert; R. Bennartz; J. Fischer

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Surface Water Vapor Pressure and Temperature Trends in North America during 19482010  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over one-quarter billion hourly values of temperature and relative humidity observed at 309 stations located across North America during 19482010 were studied. The water vapor pressure was determined and seasonal averages were computed. Data were ...

V. Isaac; W. A. van Wijngaarden

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

A Satellite-Based Assessment of Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor Measurements during AFWEX  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Consistency of upper-tropospheric water vapor measurements from a variety of state-of-the-art instruments was assessed using collocated Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-8 (GOES-8) 6.7-?m brightness temperatures as a common ...

Eui-Seok Chung; Brian J. Soden

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z