Sample records for vapor pressure max

  1. To estimate vapor pressure easily

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Yang, H.C. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (USA))

    1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor pressures as functions of temperature for approximately 700 major organic chemical compounds are given. The tabulation also gives the temperature range for which the data are applicable. Minimum and maximum temperatures are denoted by TMIN and TMAX. The Antoine equation that correlates vapor pressure as a function of temperature is described. A representative comparison of calculated and actual data values for vapor pressure is shown for ethyl alcohol. The coefficient tabulation is based on both literature (experimental data) and estimated values.

  2. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  3. Enthalpies of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures of Some Deuterated Hydrocarbons. Liquid-Vapor Pressure Isotope Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Enthalpies of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures of Some Deuterated Hydrocarbons. Liquid hydrocarbons and their perdeuterated analogues have been determined by correlation-gas chromatography of cyclohexane-d12 and benzene-d6. Other hydrocarbons studied include the perdeuterated forms of hexane, toluene

  4. Vapor Pressure measurements for dichlorosilane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Tony Knimbula

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    stainless steel surface inside the head. In the user's manual, one of the sections talked about this window and the plugging screw below it. This screw was provided to empty any fluid that might have gotten into that section of the head behind the window... due to being tilted. Immediately afler emptying the fluid, the balance was still unsteady. After allowing the area to dry by leaving the plug off for a few days, the balance readings were stable. It tumed out that the pressure would somehow push...

  5. A new vapor pressure equation originating at the critical point

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nuckols, James William

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - tence curve has been developed from critical scaling theory. The agreement between published vapor pressures and vapor pressures predicted by this equation is very good, especially in the critical region where many other vapor pressure equations fail... vapor pressure data f' or Ar, N2, 02H6, and H20, w1th the parameters ai to a being determined by an unweighted least squares curve 5 fit. The method of least squares has been described adequately elsewhere, e. g. Wylie (1966), and the theory w111...

  6. Temperature dependent vapor pressures of chlorinated catechols, syringols, and syringaldehydes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei, Y.D.; Shiu, W.Y.; Boocock, D.G.B. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry] [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry; Wania, F. [WECC Wania Environmental Chemists Corp., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [WECC Wania Environmental Chemists Corp., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The vapor pressures of nine chlorinated catechols, syringols, and syringaldehydes were determined as a function of temperature with a gas chromatographic retention time technique. The vapor pressures at 298.15 K were in the range of 0.02--1 Pa, and the enthalpies of vaporization, between 68 and 82 kJ/mol. The validity of the technique was established by a calibration involving four chlorinated phenols with well-known vapor pressures. Using these data and previously reported solubility data, Henry`s law constants for these substances and some chlorinated guaiacols and veratrols were estimated. The vapor pressure of these substances tends to decrease with increasing polarity and an increasing number of chlorine atoms. Henry`s law constants decrease sharply with increasing polarity, suggesting that methylation can result in a significant increase in a chemical`s potential for volatilization from water.

  7. Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled.

  8. Optimal determination of the vapor pressure critical exponent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walton, Clifford Wayne

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , 1969), while scaling theory predicts about 0. 1 (Vicentini-Missoni et al. , 1969; Widom and Rowlinson, 1970). The object of this study was to determine the optimum value of 0 by means of a least squares fit of various nonanalytic vapor pressure... onal : cj ence Foundation, Grant ENG76-00692, is acknowl- edged. vi TABLE OF CONTENTS Page SCOPE. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNII'ICANCE INTRODUCTION Theory. Development of Vapor Pressure Equations PROCEDURE. Curve Fit Method (CFN). Numerical...

  9. Hypothetical Thermodynamic Properties. Subcooled Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons William Hanshaw, Marjorie Nutt, and James S. Chickos* Department of Chemistry and liquid vapor pressures from T ) 298.15 K to T ) 510 K of a series of polyaromatic hydrocarbons have been protocols are also made, and agreement generally is quite good. Introduction Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

  10. Method and apparatus to measure vapor pressure in a flow system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Biblarz, Oscar (Swampscott, MA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method for determining, by a condensation method, the vapor pressure of a material with a known vapor pressure versus temperature characteristic, in a flow system particularly in a mercury isotope enrichment process.

  11. OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A HIGH PRESSURE ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION REACTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A HIGH PRESSURE ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION REACTOR K.J. BACHMANN vapor deposition (HPOMCVD) reactor for use in thin film crystal growth. The advantages of such a reactor decomposition pressures and increased control over local stoichiometry and defect formation. While we focus here

  12. Method and apparatus to measure vapor pressure in a flow system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; Biblarz, O.

    1991-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method for determining, by a condensation method, the vapor pressure of a material with a known vapor pressure versus temperature characteristic, in a flow system particularly in a mercury isotope enrichment process. 2 figures.

  13. Analysis of crude oil vapor pressures at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudeen, David Keith (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Lord, David L.

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crude oil storage caverns at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) are solution-mined from subsurface salt domes along the U.S. Gulf Coast. While these salt domes exhibit many attractive characteristics for large-volume, long-term storage of oil such as low cost for construction, low permeability for effective fluids containment, and secure location deep underground, they also present unique technical challenges for maintaining oil quality within delivery standards. The vapor pressures of the crude oils stored at SPR tend to increase with storage time due to the combined effects of geothermal heating and gas intrusion from the surrounding salt. This presents a problem for oil delivery offsite because high vapor-pressure oil may lead to excessive atmospheric emissions of hydrocarbon gases that present explosion hazards, health hazards, and handling problems at atmospheric pressure. Recognizing this potential hazard, the U.S. Department of Energy, owner and operator of the SPR, implemented a crude oil vapor pressure monitoring program that collects vapor pressure data for all the storage caverns. From these data, DOE evaluates the rate of change in vapor pressures of its oils in the SPR. Moreover, DOE implemented a vapor pressure mitigation program in which the oils are degassed periodically and will be cooled immediately prior to delivery in order to reduce the vapor pressure to safe handling levels. The work described in this report evaluates the entire database since its origin in 1993, and determines the current levels of vapor pressure around the SPR, as well as the rate of change for purposes of optimizing both the mitigation program and meeting safe delivery standards. Generally, the rate of vapor pressure increase appears to be lower in this analysis than reported in the past and, problematic gas intrusion seems to be limited to just a few caverns. This being said, much of the current SPR inventory exceeds vapor pressure delivery guidelines and must be degassed and cooled in order to meet current delivery standards.

  14. U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve Vapor Pressure Committee 2009 annual report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, Ray (Allen Energy Services, Inc., Longview, TX); Eldredge, Lisa (DynMcDermott Petroleum Operations, Harahan, LA); DeLuca, Charles (DynMcDermott Petroleum Operations, Harahan, LA); Mihalik, Patrick (DynMcDermott Petroleum Operations, Harahan, LA); Maldonado, Julio (U.S. Department of Energy, Harahan, LA); Lord, David L.; Rudeen, David Keith (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Berndsen, Gerard (U.S. Department of Energy, Harahan, LA)

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report comprises an annual summary of activities under the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Vapor Pressure Committee in FY2009. The committee provides guidance to senior project management on the issues of crude oil vapor pressure monitoring nd mitigation. The principal objectives of the vapor pressure program are, in the event of an SPR drawdown, to minimize the impact on the environment and assure worker safety and public health from crude oil vapor emissions. The annual report reviews key program areas ncluding monitoring program status, mitigation program status, new developments in measurements and modeling, and path forward including specific recommendations on cavern sampling for the next year. The contents of this report were first presented to SPR senior anagement in December 2009, in a deliverable from the vapor pressure committee. The current SAND report is an adaptation for the Sandia technical audience.

  15. Evaporation monitoring and composition control of alloy systems with widely differing vapor pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anklam, T.M.; Berzins, L.V.; Braun, D.G.; Haynam, C.; McClelland, M.A.; Meier, T.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing sensors and controls to improve and extend electron beam materials processing technology to alloy systems with constituents of widely varying vapor pressure. The approach under development involves using tunable lasers to measure the density and composition of the vapor plume. A laser based vaporizer control system for vaporization of a uranium-iron alloy has been previously demonstrated in multi-hundred hour, high rate vaporization experiments at LLNL. This paper reviews the design and performance of the uranium vaporization sensor and control system and discusses the extension of the technology to monitoring of uranium vaporization. Data is presented from an experiment in which titanium wire was fed into a molten niobium pool. Laser data is compared to deposited film composition and film cross sections. Finally, the potential for using this technique for composition control in melting applications is discussed.

  16. Evaporation monitoring and composition control of alloy systems with widely differing vapor pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anklam, T.M.; Berzins, L.V.; Braun, D.G.; Haynam, C.; McClelland, M.A.; Meier, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing sensors and controls to improve and extend electron beam materials processing technology to alloy systems with constituents of widely varying vapor pressure. The approach under development involves using tunable lasers to measure the density and composition of the vapor plume. A laser based vaporizer control system for vaporization of a uranium-iron alloy has been previously demonstrated in multi-hundred hour, high rate vaporization experiments at LLNL. This paper reviews the design and performance of the uranium vaporization sensor and control system and discusses the extension of the technology to monitoring of titanium vaporization. Data is presented from an experiment in which titanium wire was fed into a molten niobium pool. Laser data is compared to deposited film composition and film cross sections. Finally, the potential for using this technique for composition control in melting applications is discussed.

  17. Bilayer graphene growth by low pressure chemical vapor deposition on copper foil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Wenjing, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Successfully integrating graphene in standard processes for applications in electronics relies on the synthesis of high-quality films. In this work we study Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) growth of bilayer ...

  18. Single- and few-layer graphene by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition on nickel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reina Ceeco, Alfonso

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) process is used to fabricate graphene based films consisting of one to several graphene layers across their area. Polycrystalline Ni thin films are used and the graphene ...

  19. Integrated rig for the production of boron nitride nanotubes via the pressurized vapor-condenser method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Michael W; Jordan, Kevin C

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated production apparatus for production of boron nitride nanotubes via the pressure vapor-condenser method. The apparatus comprises: a pressurized reaction chamber containing a continuously fed boron containing target having a boron target tip, a source of pressurized nitrogen and a moving belt condenser apparatus; a hutch chamber proximate the pressurized reaction chamber containing a target feed system and a laser beam and optics.

  20. Measurement of alkali-vapor emission from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion of Illinois coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Teats, F.G.; Swift, W.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Banerjee, D.D. (Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two Illinois Herrin No. 6 coals and one Illinois Springfield No. 5 coal were separately combusted in a laboratory-scale (15-cm dia) pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) combined with an alkali sorber. These coals were combusted in a fluidized bed of Tymochtee dolomite at temperatures ranging from 910 to 950[degree]C and a system pressure of 9.2 atm absolute. Alkali-vapor emission (Na and K) in the PFBC flue gas was determined by the analytical activated-bauxite sorber bed technique developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The test results showed that sodium is the major alkali-vapor species present in the PFBC flue gas, and that the level of sodium-vapor emission increases linearly with both Na and Cl contents in the coals. This suggests that the sodium-vapor emission results from direct vaporization of NaCl present in the coals. The measured alkali-vapor concentration (Na + K), 67 to 190 ppbW, is more than 2.5 times greater than the allowable alkali limit of 24 ppb for an industrial gas turbine. Combusting these coals in a PFBC for power generation may require developing a method to control alkali vapors.

  1. Measurement of alkali-vapor emission from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion of Illinois coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Teats, F.G.; Swift, W.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Banerjee, D.D. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States)

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two Illinois Herrin No. 6 coals and one Illinois Springfield No. 5 coal were separately combusted in a laboratory-scale (15-cm dia) pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) combined with an alkali sorber. These coals were combusted in a fluidized bed of Tymochtee dolomite at temperatures ranging from 910 to 950{degree}C and a system pressure of 9.2 atm absolute. Alkali-vapor emission (Na and K) in the PFBC flue gas was determined by the analytical activated-bauxite sorber bed technique developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The test results showed that sodium is the major alkali-vapor species present in the PFBC flue gas, and that the level of sodium-vapor emission increases linearly with both Na and Cl contents in the coals. This suggests that the sodium-vapor emission results from direct vaporization of NaCl present in the coals. The measured alkali-vapor concentration (Na + K), 67 to 190 ppbW, is more than 2.5 times greater than the allowable alkali limit of 24 ppb for an industrial gas turbine. Combusting these coals in a PFBC for power generation may require developing a method to control alkali vapors.

  2. Preconcentrator with high volume chiller for high vapor pressure particle detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, Kevin L

    2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method for collecting particles of both high and low vapor pressure target materials entrained in a large volume sample gas stream. Large volume active cooling provides a cold air supply which is mixed with the sample gas stream to reduce the vapor pressure of the particles. In embodiments, a chiller cools air from ambient conditions to 0-15.degree. C. with the volumetric flow rate of the cold air supply being at least equal to the volumetric flow rate of the sample gas stream. In further embodiments an adsorption media is heated in at least two stages, a first of which is below a threshold temperature at which decomposition products of the high vapor pressure particle are generated.

  3. VAPOR PRESSURE ISOTOPE EFFECTS IN THE MEASUREMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL TRITIUM SAMPLES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhne, W.

    2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Standard procedures for the measurement of tritium in water samples often require distillation of an appropriate sample aliquot. This distillation process may result in a fractionation of tritiated water and regular light water due to the vapor pressure isotope effect, introducing either a bias or an additional contribution to the total tritium measurement uncertainty. The magnitude of the vapor pressure isotope effect is characterized as functions of the amount of water distilled from the sample aliquot and the heat settings for the distillation process. The tritium concentration in the distillate is higher than the tritium concentration in the sample early in the distillation process, it then sharply decreases due to the vapor pressure isotope effect and becomes lower than the tritium concentration in the sample, until the high tritium concentration retained in the boiling flask is evaporated at the end of the process. At that time, the tritium concentration in the distillate again overestimates the sample tritium concentration. The vapor pressure isotope effect is more pronounced the slower the evaporation and distillation process is conducted; a lower heat setting during the evaporation of the sample results in a larger bias in the tritium measurement. The experimental setup used and the fact that the current study allowed for an investigation of the relative change in vapor pressure isotope effect in the course of the distillation process distinguish it from and extend previously published measurements. The separation factor as a quantitative measure of the vapor pressure isotope effect is found to assume values of 1.034 {+-} 0.033, 1.052 {+-} 0.025, and 1.066 {+-} 0.037, depending on the vigor of the boiling process during distillation of the sample. A lower heat setting in the experimental setup, and therefore a less vigorous boiling process, results in a larger value for the separation factor. For a tritium measurement in water samples, this implies that the tritium concentration could be underestimated by 3 - 6%.

  4. Improved measurement of crude oil vapor pressure via PVT study methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roehner, R. [Alyeska Pipeline Service Co., Anchorage, AK (United States); Wetzel, G.; Stonestreet, W.; Lievios, J.; Reed, D.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A technical task force created by owner companies of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) including BP Pipelines (Alaska), and Arco Transportation Alaska, Inc., and Alyeska Pipeline Service Company (APSC), the operator of TAPS, have investigated new technology for measuring the saturated liquid bubble point vapor pressure (BPVP) of crude oils. This technology is based on Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) Cell study methods and consists of an on-line Vapor Pressure Analyzer (VPA) developed by Arco Oil & Gas Company and marketed by Fluid Data (TVP-1000), and a mercury-free automated PVT lab system (RUSKA 2370 Lab System) marketed by Ruska Instrument Corporation and modified to meet APSC requirements. In this methodology, the BPVP for the multicomponent fluid crude oil is defined and approximated by the intersection of the liquid compressibility and two phase lines on the isothermal pressure-volume (PV) curve for the fluid. The Task Force finds that this new technology provides saturated liquid bubble point vapor pressure values of TAPS crude oils which differ by 15 to 95 kPa from True Vapor Pressure (TVP) values obtained using API Publication 2517, Figure 18B-Equation for of Crude Oils With A Reid Vapor Pressure of 2-15 Pounds per Square Inch and corresponding RVP data from the crude oils tested. The range in difference between the BPVP and the TVP for each of five different TAPS crude oils tested was found to be due to differences in crude oil composition. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of TiN from tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium and ammonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of titanium in a nitrogen atmosphere forms TiN with only a slight dependence on substrate temperatureAtmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of TiN from tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium, Massachusetts 02138 (Received 15 December 1994; accepted 28 October 1995) Near stoichiometric titanium nitride

  6. Observations on vapor pressure in SPR caverns : sources.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munson, Darrell Eugene

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The oil of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) represents a national response to any potential emergency or intentional restriction of crude oil supply to this country, and conforms to International Agreements to maintain such a reserve. As assurance this reserve oil will be available in a timely manner should a restriction in supply occur, the oil of the reserve must meet certain transportation criteria. The transportation criteria require that the oil does not evolve dangerous gas, either explosive or toxic, while in the process of transport to, or storage at, the destination facility. This requirement can be a challenge because the stored oil can acquire dissolved gases while in the SPR. There have been a series of reports analyzing in exceptional detail the reasons for the increases, or regains, in gas content; however, there remains some uncertainty in these explanations and an inability to predict why the regains occur. Where the regains are prohibitive and exceed the criteria, the oil must undergo degasification, where excess portions of the volatile gas are removed. There are only two known sources of gas regain, one is the salt dome formation itself which may contain gas inclusions from which gas can be released during oil processing or storage, and the second is increases of the gases release by the volatile components of the crude oil itself during storage, especially if the stored oil undergoes heating or is subject to biological generation processes. In this work, the earlier analyses are reexamined and significant alterations in conclusions are proposed. The alterations are based on how the fluid exchanges of brine and oil uptake gas released from domal salt during solutioning, and thereafter, during further exchanges of fluids. Transparency of the brine/oil interface and the transfer of gas across this interface remains an important unanswered question. The contribution from creep induced damage releasing gas from the salt surrounding the cavern is considered through computations using the Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, suggesting a relative minor, but potentially significant, contribution to the regain process. Apparently, gains in gas content can be generated from the oil itself during storage because the salt dome has been heated by the geothermal gradient of the earth. The heated domal salt transfers heat to the oil stored in the caverns and thereby increases the gas released by the volatile components and raises the boiling point pressure of the oil. The process is essentially a variation on the fractionation of oil, where each of the discrete components of the oil have a discrete temperature range over which that component can be volatized and removed from the remaining components. The most volatile components are methane and ethane, the shortest chain hydrocarbons. Since this fractionation is a fundamental aspect of oil behavior, the volatile component can be removed by degassing, potentially prohibiting the evolution of gas at or below the temperature of the degas process. While this process is well understood, the ability to describe the results of degassing and subsequent regain is not. Trends are not well defined for original gas content, regain, and prescribed effects of degassing. As a result, prediction of cavern response is difficult. As a consequence of this current analysis, it is suggested that solutioning brine of the final fluid exchange of a just completed cavern, immediately prior to the first oil filling, should be analyzed for gas content using existing analysis techniques. This would add important information and clarification to the regain process. It is also proposed that the quantity of volatile components, such as methane, be determined before and after any degasification operation.

  7. In-reactor oxidation of zircaloy-4 under low water vapor pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter G. Luscher; David J. Senor; Keven K. Clayton; Glen R. Longhurst

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Complementary in- and ex-reactor oxidation tests have been performed to evaluate the oxidation and hydrogen absorption performance of Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) under relatively low partial pressures (300 and 1000 Pa) of water vapor at specified test temperatures (330 and 370 C). Data from these tests will be used to support the fabrication of components intended for isotope-producing targets and provide information regarding the temperature and pressure dependence of oxidation and hydrogen absorption of Zr- 4 over the specified range of test conditions. Comparisons between in- and ex-reactor test results were performed to evaluate the influence of irradiation.

  8. In-Reactor Oxidation of Zircaloy-4 Under Low Water Vapor Pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luscher, Walter G.; Senor, David J.; Clayton, Kevin; Longhurst, Glen

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Complementary in- and ex-reactor oxidation tests have been performed to evaluate the oxidation and hydrogen absorption performance of Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) under relatively low partial pressures (300 and 1000 Pa) of water vapor at specified test temperatures (330° and 370°C). Data from these tests will be used to support fabrication of components intended for isotope-producing targets and provide information regarding the temperature and pressure dependence of oxidation and hydrogen absorption of Zr-4 over the specified range of test conditions. Comparisons between in- and ex- reactor test results were performed to evaluate the influence of irradiation.

  9. Solubility parameter and activity coefficient of HDEHP dimer in select organic diluents by vapor pressure osmometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, M.; Nilsson, M. [University of California Irvine, 916 Engineering Tower, UC Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2575 (United States); Zalupski, P. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thorough understanding of the non-ideal behavior of the chemical components utilized in solvent extraction contributes to the success of any large-scale spent nuclear fuel treatment. To address this, our current work uses vapor pressure osmometry to characterize the non-ideal behavior of the solvent extraction agent di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), a common extractant in proposed separation schemes. Solubility parameters were fit to data on HDEHP at four temperatures using models based on Scatchard Hildebrand regular solution theory with Flory Huggins entropic corrections. The results are comparable but not identical to the activity coefficients from prior slope analysis in the literature. (authors)

  10. Vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary coal tars. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 July 1993--30 September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suuberg, E.M.; Oja, V.; Lilly, W.D.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    There is significant current interest in general area of coal pyrolysis, particularly with respect to comprehensive models of this complicated phenomenon. This interest derives from the central role of pyrolysis in all thermally driven coal conversion processes -- gasification, combustion, liquefaction, mild gasification, or thermal benefication. There remain several key data needs in these application areas. Among them is a need for more reliable correlation for prediction of vapor pressure of heavy, primary coal tars. Such information is important in design of all coal conversion processes, in which the volatility of tarry products is of major concern. Only very limited correlations exist, and these are not considered reliable to even an order of magnitude when applied to tars. The present project seeks to address this important gap in the near term by direct measurement of vapor pressures of coal tar fractions, by application of well-established techniques and modifications thereof. The principal objectives of the program are to: (1) obtain data on the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of tars from a range of ranks of coal, (2) develop correlations based on a minimum set of conveniently measurable characteristics of the tars, (3) develop equipment that would allow performing such measurements in a reliable, straightforward fashion. Results of the literature survey are compiled. The experimental tasks have been concerned with setup and calibration.

  11. Vapor pressure and boiling point elevation of slash pine black liquors: Predictive models with statistical approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaman, A.A.; McNally, T.W.; Fricke, A.L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor-liquid equilibria and boiling point elevation of slash pine kraft black liquors over a wide range of solid concentrations (up to 85% solids) has been studied. The liquors are from a statistically designed pulping experiment for pulping slash pine in a pilot scale digester with four cooking variables of effective alkali, sulfidity, cooking time, and cooking temperature. It was found that boiling point elevation of black liquors is pressure dependent, and this dependency is more significant at higher solids concentrations. The boiling point elevation data at different solids contents (at a fixed pressure) were correlated to the dissolved solids (S/(1 {minus} S)) in black liquor. Due to the solubility limit of some of the salts in black liquor, a change in the slope of the boiling point elevation as a function of the dissolved solids was observed at a concentration of around 65% solids. An empirical method was developed to describe the boiling point elevation of each liquor as a function of pressure and solids mass fraction. The boiling point elevation of slash pine black liquors was correlated quantitatively to the pulping variables, using different statistical procedures. These predictive models can be applied to determine the boiling point rise (and boiling point) of slash pine black liquors at processing conditions from the knowledge of pulping variables. The results are presented, and their utility is discussed.

  12. Pore evolution during high pressure atomic vapor deposition D. D. Hass Y. Y. Yang H. N. G. Wadley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    The development of physical vapor deposition systems that employ inert gas jets to entrain and deposit atomic conditions can contain a higher volume fraction of porosity and a different pore morphology to coatings created by conventional, low pressure (\\10-4 Pa) deposition processes. A recent direct simulation Monte

  13. Alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100 ms scale in a single-cell vacuum system for cold atom experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugrain, Vincent; Reichel, Jakob [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, ENS, UPMC, CNRS, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Rosenbusch, Peter [LNE-SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, 61 av de l’Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe and characterize a device for alkali vapor pressure modulation on the 100 ms timescale in a single-cell cold atom experiment. Its mechanism is based on optimized heat conduction between a current-modulated alkali dispenser and a heat sink at room temperature. We have studied both the short-term behavior during individual pulses and the long-term pressure evolution in the cell. The device combines fast trap loading and relatively long trap lifetime, enabling high repetition rates in a very simple setup. These features make it particularly suitable for portable atomic sensors.

  14. On-line coating of glass with tin oxide by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Sopko, J.F. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); Houf, William G.; Chae, Yong Kee; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Li, M. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); McCamy, J.W. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA)

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of tin oxide is a very important manufacturing technique used in the production of low-emissivity glass. It is also the primary method used to provide wear-resistant coatings on glass containers. The complexity of these systems, which involve chemical reactions in both the gas phase and on the deposition surface, as well as complex fluid dynamics, makes process optimization and design of new coating reactors a very difficult task. In 2001 the U.S. Dept. of Energy Industrial Technologies Program Glass Industry of the Future Team funded a project to address the need for more accurate data concerning the tin oxide APCVD process. This report presents a case study of on-line APCVD using organometallic precursors, which are the primary reactants used in industrial coating processes. Research staff at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA, and the PPG Industries Glass Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA collaborated to produce this work. In this report, we describe a detailed investigation of the factors controlling the growth of tin oxide films. The report begins with a discussion of the basic elements of the deposition chemistry, including gas-phase thermochemistry of tin species and mechanisms of chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of tin precursors. These results provide the basis for experimental investigations in which tin oxide growth rates were measured as a function of all major process variables. The experiments focused on growth from monobutyltintrichloride (MBTC) since this is one of the two primary precursors used industrially. There are almost no reliable growth-rate data available for this precursor. Robust models describing the growth rate as a function of these variables are derived from modeling of these data. Finally, the results are used to conduct computational fluid dynamic simulations of both pilot- and full-scale coating reactors. As a result, general conclusions are reached concerning the factors affecting the growth rate in on-line APCVD reactors. In addition, a substantial body of data was generated that can be used to model many different industrial tin oxide coating processes. These data include the most extensive compilation of thermochemistry for gas-phase tin-containing species as well as kinetic expressions describing tin oxide growth rates over a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and reactant concentrations.

  15. Optimization of multi-pressure himidification-dehumidification desalination using thermal vapor compression and hybridization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mistry, Karan Hemant

    Humidification-dehumidification (HD or HDH) desalination, and specifically HD driven by a thermal vapor compressor (TVC), is a thermal desalination method that has the potential to produce potable water efficiently in order ...

  16. Graphene chemical vapor deposition at very low pressure: The impact of substrate surface self-diffusion in domain shape

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunha, T. H. R.; Ek-Weis, J.; Lacerda, R. G.; Ferlauto, A. S., E-mail: ferlauto@fisica.ufmg.br [Department of Physics, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte 31270-901 (Brazil)

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The initial stages of graphene chemical vapor deposition at very low pressures (<10{sup ?5?}Torr) were investigated. The growth of large graphene domains (?up to 100??m) at very high rates (up to 3??m{sup 2} s{sup ?1}) has been achieved in a cold-wall reactor using a liquid carbon precursor. For high temperature growth (>900?°C), graphene grain shape and symmetry were found to depend on the underlying symmetry of the Cu crystal, whereas for lower temperatures (<900?°C), mostly rounded grains are observed. The temperature dependence of graphene nucleation density was determined, displaying two thermally activated regimes, with activation energy values of 6?±?1?eV for temperatures ranging from 900?°C to 960?°C and 9?±?1?eV for temperatures above 960?°C. The comparison of such dependence with the temperature dependence of Cu surface self-diffusion suggests that graphene growth at high temperatures and low pressures is strongly influenced by copper surface rearrangement. We propose a model that incorporates Cu surface self-diffusion as an essential process to explain the orientation correlation between graphene and Cu crystals, and which can clarify the difference generally observed between graphene domain shapes in atmospheric-pressure and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition.

  17. Z .Thin Solid Films 392 2001 231 235 Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of electrochromic tungsten oxide films Roy G. Gordona,U , Sean Barryb , Jeffrey T. Bartona , Randy N.R. Broomhall oxide, WO , is a coloring layer commonly used in electrochromic windows and displays. Successful: Chemical vapor deposition; Tungsten; Oxides; Electrochromism 1. Introduction Tungsten oxide is a key

  18. Characterization and fate of vapor-phase organic constituents from atmospheric pressure fluidized bed combustors (AFBC): East Stroudsburg University AFBC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Newton, G.J.; Henderson, T.R.; Hobbs, C.H.

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Very little research has been devoted to the characterization of vapor-phase organic compounds in gaseous streams. Because of the concerns that gaseous organic compounds from FBCs may include potentially toxic and/or mutagenic materials. We will measure vapor-phase hydrocarbon concentrations in the process streams of operating FBCs. This report describes our field sampling results on the atmospheric pressure fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) at the East Stroudsburg University during its normal operation for supplying heat and hot water to the campus. This AFBC has a bed size of 36 ft/sup 2/ and was burning anthracite culm. The culm consumption rates during the week of our sampling period were 1600 to 3000 lb/hr. Emphasis was placed on characterization of process stream effluents, including particles and vapor-phase organic constituents. Results indicated that the mass concentration (or loading) of particulate matter within the effluent stream was similar to other FBCs that have been studied. The particulate mass concentration measured after the baghouse location was 0.0048 g/m/sup 3/ (0.0047 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu). This was equivalent to a total of 35 g/hr of particulate emissions. The fraction of particulate material presented as organics (extractable fraction) was, on the average, less than 2% of total mass of particulate emissions. The vapor-phase organic contents indicated that the quantities of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were low, being less than 2.5 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ for any individual sample. Most of the PAHs detected were low boiling compounds such as naphthalene or phenanthrene, with trace amounts of pyrene. 22 refs., 13 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    studied intensively and has overcome some of the constraints of traditional high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) diamond synthesis methods (more) Chen, Yu-Chun 2009-01-01 12...

  20. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam (Revised0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on recovering low-pressure waste steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  1. Thermal expansion of low-pressure chemical vapor deposition polysilicon films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ballarini, Roberto

    polysilicon films were deposited on the sub- strates by LPCVD in a hot-walled horizontal tube fur- nace with an inner diameter of 225 mm, using SiH4 at a flow rate of 100 sccm and a pressure of 300 mtorr J. Mater

  2. Organic vapor jet printing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

  3. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  4. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Larson, Ronald A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Goodrich, Lorenzo D. (Shelley, ID); Hall, Harold J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stoddard, Billy D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davis, Sean G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kaser, Timothy G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

  5. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: SinceDevelopment | Department of Energy $18UnrevisedCool Roof InfrastructureLow-Pressure

  6. Variation in rectal temperature, respiratory rate, and pulse rate of cattle as related to variations in solar radiation, air temperature, wind velocity, and vapor pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quazi, Mohammad Fazlur Rahim

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VARIATION IN RECTAL TEMPERATURE, RESPIRATORY RATE, AND PULSE RATE GF CATTLE AS RELATED TO VARIATIONS IN SOLAR RADIATION, AIR TEMPERATURE, WIND VELOCITY, AND VAPOR PRESSURE A Dissertation By Mohammad Fazlur Rahim Quazi Approved as to style... Dissertation By Mohammad Fazlur Rahim tyiazi Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 1955 Major Subject: Genetics ? ?4...

  7. Max Schulze

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighand Retrievals from a NewCuneo Matthew Cuneo MatthewEnergyMauroMauryMax

  8. Max Schulze

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your Home andDisposition |MaterialsMatt DozierWaltherMattyMax

  9. Effect of reactor pressure on the electrical and structural properties of InN epilayers grown by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nabben, Reinhard

    Effect of reactor pressure on the electrical and structural properties of InN epilayers grown://avspublications.org/jvsta/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Effect of reactor pressure on the electrical and structural properties of InN epilayers grown-atmospheric reactor pressures (2.5­18.5 bar) on the electrical and structural properties of InN epilayers deposited

  10. Absolute integrated intensities of vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Absolute integrated intensities of vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide (H202) in the mid-infrared at atmospheric pressure. Absolute integrated intensities of vapor-phase hydrogen...

  11. Effects of pressure, temperature, and hydrogen during graphene growth on SiC(0001) using propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Roudon, E.; Lefebvre, D.; Portail, M. [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France)] [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T. [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)] [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene growth from a propane flow in a hydrogen environment (propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition (CVD)) on SiC differentiates from other growth methods in that it offers the possibility to obtain various graphene structures on the Si-face depending on growth conditions. The different structures include the (6{radical}3 Multiplication-Sign 6{radical}3)-R30 Degree-Sign reconstruction of the graphene/SiC interface, which is commonly observed on the Si-face, but also the rotational disorder which is generally observed on the C-face. In this work, growth mechanisms leading to the formation of the different structures are studied and discussed. For that purpose, we have grown graphene on SiC(0001) (Si-face) using propane-hydrogen CVD at various pressure and temperature and studied these samples extensively by means of low energy electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Pressure and temperature conditions leading to the formation of the different structures are identified and plotted in a pressure-temperature diagram. This diagram, together with other characterizations (X-ray photoemission and scanning tunneling microscopy), is the basis of further discussions on the carbon supply mechanisms and on the kinetics effects. The entire work underlines the important role of hydrogen during growth and its effects on the final graphene structure.

  12. Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of High Silica SiO2-TiO2 Antireflective Thin Films for Glass Based Solar Panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klobukowski, Erik R [ORNL; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E [ORNL; McCamy, James [PPG; Harris, Caroline [PPG; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of SiO2-TiO2 thin films employing [[(tBuO)3Si]2O-Ti(OiPr)2], which can be prepared from commercially available materials, results in antireflective thin films on float glass under industrially relevant manufacturing conditions. It was found that while the deposition temperature had an effect on the SiO2:TiO2 ratio, the thickness was dependent on the time of deposition. This study shows that it is possible to use APCVD employing a single source precursor containing titanium and silicon to produce thin films on float glass with high SiO2:TiO2 ratios.

  13. Vapor Transport in Dry Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2001-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Water-vapor movement in soils is a complex process, controlled by both diffusion and advection and influenced by pressure and thermal gradients acting across tortuous flow paths. Wide-ranging interest in water-vapor transport includes both theoretical and practical aspects. Just how pressure and thermal gradients enhance water-vapor flow is still not completely understood and subject to ongoing research. Practical aspects include dryland farming (surface mulching), water harvesting (aerial wells), fertilizer placement, and migration of contaminants at waste-sites. The following article describes the processes and practical applications of water-vapor transport, with emphasis on unsaturated (dry) soil systems.

  14. Effects of arrival rate and gas pressure on the chemical bonding and composition in titanium nitride films prepared on Si(100) substrates by ion beam and vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuoka, M.; Isotani, S.; Mittani, J.C.R.; Chubaci, J.F.D.; Ogata, K.; Kuratani, N. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, C. P. 66318, 05315-970, Sao Paolo, SP (Brazil); Nissin Electric Company, Ltd., 47, Umezu-Takase-cho, Ukyo-ku, Kyota 615-8686 (Japan)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin titanium nitride films were prepared at room temperature by titanium metal vapor deposition on silicon substrates with simultaneous irradiation by a 2 keV nitrogen ion beam. Arrival rate ratios, ARR(N/Ti), defined as the ratio of the flux of incident atomic nitrogen particles in the ion beam relative to the flux of titanium atoms transported to the substrate, ranged from 0.17 to 2.5. The gas pressure in the vacuum chamber was maintained at 1.3x10{sup -3} or 6.7x10{sup -3} Pa during the deposition and irradiation process. Analyses of Ti 2p x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra indicated the presence of metal Ti{sup 0}, nitride TiN, oxide TiO{sub 2}, oxynitride TiN{sub x}O{sub y}, and carbide TiC phases. The Ti{sup 0} phase was observed exclusively and predominantly in the films prepared at 1.3x10{sup -3} Pa and ARR(N/Ti)=0.17, 0.21, and 0.28, and the TiN phase is major in the others, as confirmed by the x-ray diffractometry analyses. The chemical composition ratio N/Ti in the films prepared at 1.3x10{sup -3} Pa increased linearly with increasing ARR(N/Ti) up to ARR(N/Ti)=0.42 and tended to be constant with further increase in ARR(N/Ti), while this ratio in the films prepared at 6.7x10{sup -3} Pa was almost constant independently of ARR(N/Ti), similar to the constant value observed at 1.3x10{sup -3} Pa and higher ARR(N/Ti). This dependence may be understood by comparison with the flux of evaporated titanium atoms, the flux of nitrogen in the beam, and the impingement rate of nitrogen gas in the vacuum chamber, evaluated through the kinetic theory of gases. On the other hand, titanium is known to be one of the chemically active materials which form stable compounds with gases by chemisorption, this fact leading to considerable incorporation of contaminant oxygen and carbon in the depositing titanium film.

  15. 97055-97044 Revision C May 2007 Ion Max and Ion Max-S

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    97055-97044 Revision C May 2007 Ion Max and Ion Max-S API Source Hardware Manual #12;© 2007 Thermo, it meets all pertinent electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and safety standards as described below. EMC/23/EEC and harmonized standard EN 61010-1:2001. Changes that you make to your system may void compliance

  16. Vapor pressures of mixtures of CFC-114 with the potential replacement coolants C{sub 4}F{sub 10} and c-C{sub 4}F{sub 8}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trowbridge, L.D. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Otey, M.G. [Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, KY (United States)

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Enrichment Corporation`s production of isotopically enriched uranium depends solely on two plants which utilize the gaseous diffusion process. This process uses large quantities of CFC-114 as an evaporative coolant. CFC-114, however, will be phased out of production at the end of 1995 due to its potential to deplete stratospheric ozone. A search has been underway for substitutes for a number of years. The initial search (1988-89) for an ozone-friendly, commercially available, chemically compatible substitute yielded two candidates, FC-c318 (c-C{sub 4}F{sub 8}) and FC-3110 (C{sub 4}F{sub 10}). The intended mode of replacing coolant was to stage the new coolant into independent subsystems of the plants, so that some systems would continue to operate on CFC-114, and an increasing number would operate on the new coolant. During that changeover process, the possibility of coolant mixing arises in variety of scenarios. This work was intended to generate sufficient experimental information to be able to predict the vapor pressure of coolant mixtures over the range of operating conditions likely to be found in the diffusion plants. Specifically, vapor pressures were measured over the temperature range 322 to 355 K (120{degrees}F to 180{degrees}F) and over the full range of mole fractions for binary mixtures of CFC-114 with FC-3110, and of CFC-114 with FC-c318.

  17. "apsched: request exceeds max nodes, alloc"

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "apsched: request exceeds max nodes, alloc" runtime error message: "apsched: request exceeds max nodes, alloc" September 12, 2014 (0 Comments) Symptom: User jobs with single or...

  18. Ex 7.6(a) The vapor pressure of benzene is 400 Torr at 60.6C, but it fell to 386 Torr when 19.0 g of an involatile organic compound was dissolved in 500 g of benzene. Calculate the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Findley, Gary L.

    Ex 7.6(a) The vapor pressure of benzene is 400 Torr at 60.6°C, but it fell to 386 Torr when 19.0 g of an involatile organic compound was dissolved in 500 g of benzene. Calculate the molar mass of the involatile

  19. Vapor Pressures and Heats of Vaporization of Primary Coal Tars

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not FoundInformation DOEInformation Summary Big*Theea Dynamic Performance-

  20. Vapor-liquid equilibrium of water-acetone-air at ambient temperatures and pressures. An analysis of different VLE-fitting methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lichtenbelt, J.H.; Schram, B.J.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The availability of accurate equilibrium data is of high importance in chemical engineering practice both for design and research purposes. It appeared that for the gas absorption system water-acetone-air in the range of special interest for absorption and desorption operations, neither literature data nor calculations following UNIFAC gave a sufficient accuracy. An experimental program was set up to determine equilibrium data with an accuracy within 2% for low acetone concentrations (up to 7 wt % gas phase) at ambient temperature (16-30/sup 0/C) and atmospheric pressure (740-860 mmHg). From experiments the activity coefficient at infinite dilution of acetone ..gamma.. is found to be 6.79 (0.01) at 20/sup 0/C and 7.28 (0.01) at 25/sup 0/C, while the total error in ..gamma.. is 1.5%. The equilibrium constant can be calculated from ..gamma.. and shows the same error. The experimental data-fitting with procedures of Margules (two parameters) and Van Laar were successful, but NRTL, Wilson, and UNIQUAC failed, probably because of the small concentration range used.

  1. Industrial Heat Pumps Using Solid/Vapor Working Fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockenfeller, U.

    with vapor re-compression recovery systems. The state-of-the-art heat pump equipment employing liquid/vapor working fluids fulfills the requirements only in some applications. The employment of solid/vapor complex compounds leads to 'nore cost effective... allows for firing temperatures much higher than possible with liquid/vapor systems. The high energy density per unit mass and the independence of the vapor pressure from the refrigerant concentration (p = f (T), p "# f( x)) over a wide range leads...

  2. Effect of NH{sub 3} on the low pressure chemical vapor deposition of TiO{sub 2} film at low temperature using tetrakis(diethylamino)titanium and oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Xuemei; Takoudis, Christos G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 and Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States)

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of NH{sub 3} on TiO{sub 2} film deposition using tetrakis(diethylamino)titanium (TDEAT) and O{sub 2} as source gases in a low pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor was studied at low temperatures ranging from 100 to 250 deg. C. TiO{sub 2} film is traditionally deposited at temperature above 300 deg. C using oxygen-based Ti precursors, such as titanium tetraisopropoxide. In this study, the authors demonstrate that a combination of both reactive precursors, i.e., TDEAT and NH{sub 3}, is an effective technique for TiO{sub 2} film deposition at lower temperatures, albeit with some nitrogen incorporation. It was found that films can be formed at temperatures as low as 100 deg. C when NH{sub 3} is used. At higher temperatures, the growth rate of TiO{sub 2} films deposited using NH{sub 3} is higher than that of films deposited without NH{sub 3} by up to one order of magnitude. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data show that NH{sub 3} enhances the formation of TiNO and TiN, and x-ray diffraction analysis shows that all as-deposited films have amorphous structure. Both x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy depth profiles show that nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen are uniformly distributed throughout the film. The mechanism of enhancement of growth rate using NH{sub 3} is also discussed.

  3. Effects of capillarity and vapor adsorption in the depletion of vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, Karsten; O'Sullivan, Michael

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs in natural (undisturbed) conditions contain water as both vapor and liquid phases. The most compelling evidence for the presence of distributed liquid water is the observation that vapor pressures in these systems are close to saturated vapor pressure for measured reservoir temperatures (White et al., 1971; Truesdell and White, 1973). Analysis of natural heat flow conditions provides additional, indirect evidence for the ubiquitous presence of liquid. From an analysis of the heat pipe process (vapor-liquid counterflow) Preuss (1985) inferred that effective vertical permeability to liquid phase in vapor-dominated reservoirs is approximately 10{sup 17} m{sup 2}, for a heat flux of 1 W/m{sup 2}. This value appears to be at the high end of matrix permeabilities of unfractured rocks at The Geysers, suggesting that at least the smaller fractures contribute to liquid permeability. For liquid to be mobile in fractures, the rock matrix must be essentially completely liquid-saturated, because otherwise liquid phase would be sucked from the fractures into the matrix by capillary force. Large water saturation in the matrix, well above the irreducible saturation of perhaps 30%, has been shown to be compatible with production of superheated steam (Pruess and Narasimhan, 1982). In response to fluid production the liquid phase will boil, with heat of vaporization supplied by the reservoir rocks. As reservoir temperatures decline reservoir pressures will decline also. For depletion of ''bulk'' liquid, the pressure would decline along the saturated vapor pressure curve, while for liquid held by capillary and adsorptive forces inside porous media, an additional decline will arise from ''vapor pressure lowering''. Capillary pressure and vapor adsorption effects, and associated vapor pressure lowering phenomena, have received considerable attention in the geothermal literature, and also in studies related to geologic disposal of heat generating nuclear wastes, and in the drying of porous materials. Geothermally oriented studies were presented by Chicoine et al. (1977), Hsieh and Ramey (1978, 1981), Herkelrath et al. (1983), and Nghiem and Ramey (1991). Nuclear waste-related work includes papers by Herkelrath and O'Neal (1985), Pollock (1986), Eaton and Bixler (1987), Pruess et al. (1990), Nitao (1990), and Doughty and E'ruess (1991). Applications to industrial drying of porous materials have been discussed by Hamiathy (1969) arid Whitaker (1977). This paper is primarily concerned with evaluating the impact of vapor pressure lowering (VPL) effects on the depletion behavior of vapor-dominated reservoirs. We have examined experimental data on vapor adsorption and capillary pressures in an effort to identify constitutive relationships that would be applicable to the tight matrix rocks of vapor-dominated systems. Numerical simulations have been performed to evaluate the impact of these effects on the depletion of vapor-dominated reservoirs.

  4. Cloud Security by Max Garvey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolmach, Andrew

    Cloud Security Survey by Max Garvey #12;Cloudy Cloud is Cloudy What is the cloud? On Demand Service Network access Resource pooling Elasticity of Resources Measured Service #12;Cloud Types/Variants Iaa Cloud Public Cloud Hybrid Cloud combination. Private cloud with overflow going to public cloud. #12

  5. Max-Planck-Institut fr biologische Kybernetik Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineering (Aeronautics) The Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics in Tübingen, Germany launches

  6. Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

  7. Method and apparatus for pressurizing vaporous fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ferguson, Russell L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pump apparatus according to the present invention may comprise a pump body having a bore therein and a piston mounted within the bore so that the piston may be reciprocated within the bore between first and second positions. A sleeve seal assembly mounted to the pump body contacts the piston as the piston moves between the first and second positions. A piston seal assembly mounted to the piston contacts the bore in the pump body and is located on the piston so that the piston seal assembly does not contact the sleeve seal assembly as the piston is reciprocated between the first and second positions within the bore of the pump body.

  8. All graphene electromechanical switch fabricated by chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milaninia, Kaveh M.

    We demonstrate an electromechanical switch comprising two polycrystalline graphene films; each deposited using ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition. The top film is pulled into electrical contact with the bottom film ...

  9. Overview of chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Lowden, R.A.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is developing into a commercially important method for the fabrication of continuous filament ceramic composites. Current efforts are focused on the development of an improved understanding of the various processes in CVI and its modeling. New approaches to CVI are being explored, including pressure pulse infiltration and microwave heating. Material development is also proceeding with emphasis on improving the oxidation resistance of the interfacial layer between the fiber and matrix. This paper briefly reviews these subjects, indicating the current state of the science and technology.

  10. Vapor spill monitoring method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bianchini, Gregory M. (Livermore, CA); McRae, Thomas G. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

  11. Elec 331 -Blood Pressure Heart Valves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulfrey, David L.

    Elec 331 - Blood Pressure 1 Heart Valves · Atrio-Ventricular (AV) ­ Bicuspid / Mitral (left - Blood Pressure 2 Phases of the Heart · Systole (Max BP) ­ Ventricle contracted ­ Aorta inflated 331 - Blood Pressure 3 Korotkov Phases / Sounds S D P P Nothing Sharp Swish Faint Nothing 0 1 2-3 4 5

  12. Min-max and min-max regret versions of some combinatorial optimization problems : a survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , such as deterministic or stochastic approaches, will fail to protect against exceptional high-impact events (earthquakes-clefs : Min-max, min-max regret, optimisation combinatoire, complexité, ap- proximation, analyse de robustesse in order to max- imize the level of protection. Quantifying the protection level using the expected impact

  13. Adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported on: adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks; theoretical investigation of adsorption; estimation of adsorption parameters from transient experiments; transient adsorption experiment -- salinity and noncondensible gas effects; the physics of injection of water into, transport and storage of fluids within, and production of vapor from geothermal reservoirs; injection optimization at the Geysers Geothermal Field; a model to test multiwell data interpretation for heterogeneous reservoirs; earth tide effects on downhole pressure measurements; and a finite-difference model for free surface gravity drainage well test analysis.

  14. A Power-Law Formulation of Laminar Flow in Short Pipes Max Sherman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Power-Law Formulation of Laminar Flow in Short Pipes Max Sherman Indoor Environment Program ABSTRACT This report develops a theoretical description of the hydrodynamic relationship based on a power pipes can be described with a simple power law dependence on pressure, but that the exponent

  15. aneurysm sac pressure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    vapor deposition AMS subject Ringhofer, Christian 440 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  16. ankle brachial pressure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    vapor deposition AMS subject Ringhofer, Christian 380 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  17. adequate intracuff pressures: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    vapor deposition AMS subject Ringhofer, Christian 284 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  18. airway pressure titration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    vapor deposition AMS subject Ringhofer, Christian 411 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  19. airway pressure ncpap: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    vapor deposition AMS subject Ringhofer, Christian 373 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  20. accompanying intraarterial pressure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    vapor deposition AMS subject Ringhofer, Christian 363 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  1. Max Tech and Beyond Design Competition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Max Tech and Beyond Design Competition is an annual competition run by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) that challenges students to design...

  2. Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and Nihat Ay Preprint no.: 60 2013 #12;#12;Information-driven intrinsic motivation in reinforcement learning Keyan Zahedi1 , Georg Martius1 , and Nihat Ay1,2 1 Information Theory of Cognitive Systems, Max Planck

  3. Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    information by Nils Bertschinger, Johannes Rauh, Eckehard Olbrich, J¨urgen Jost, and Nihat Ay Preprint no1 , J¨urgen Jost1,2 , Nihat Ay1,2 1Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Leipzig

  4. MaxPlanckInstitut fur Mathematik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of strongly interacting Markov chains by Nihat Ay and Thomas Wennekers Preprint no.: 107 2001 #12; #12; Dynamical Properties of Strongly Interacting Markov Chains Nihat Ay and Thomas Wennekers Max

  5. Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Approximation Errors of Restricted Boltzmann Machines by Guido Mont´ufar, Johannes Rauh, and Nihat Ay Preprint F. Montufar1 , Johannes Rauh1 , Nihat Ay1,2 1 Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences

  6. Max-Planck-Institut f ur Mathematik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    stochastic interaction in directed acyclic networks (revised version: March 2002) by Nihat Ay Preprint no.: 54 2001 #12; #12; Locality of Global Stochastic Interaction in Directed Acyclic Networks Nihat Ay Max

  7. Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Universal Approximation in Embodied Systems by Guido Mont´ufar, Nihat Ay, and Keyan Ghazi-Zahedi Preprint no Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences montufar@mis.mpg.de Nihat Ay Max Planck Institute

  8. Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on complexity and stochastic interaction by Nihat Ay Preprint no.: 95 2001 #12; #12; Information Geometry on Complexity and Stochastic Interaction Nihat Ay Max-Planck-Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences Inselstr

  9. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research. ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research. Abstract: The generation of calibrated vapor samples of...

  10. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

    1983-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

  11. Pressure Swing Adsorption: An Energy Conservation Success Story

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kennedy, P. E.; Hill, J. D.

    problem. A net income of more than 25 million dollars each year is realized by bulk gasoline loading terminals in the United States which utilize pressure swing adsorption for vapor recovery and pollution abatement. A rela tively new application...-hydrocarbon portion of the vapor passes through the adsorbent and therefore, no energy is wasted doing work on the vented air. Figure 2 is a flowsheet of a typical gasoline vapor recovery unit. Approximately 500 PSA gasoline vapor recovery systems have been...

  12. Some effects of pressure and temperature on combustion of lignite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marable, Max

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SOME EFFECTS OF PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE ON COMBUSTION OF LIGNITE A Thesis by MAX MARABLE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1975... Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering SOME EFFECTS OF PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE ON COMBUSTION OF LIGNITE A Thesis by MAX MARABLE Approved as to style an ontent by: / Chairm of Committee Member Member August 1975 ABSTRACT Some Effects...

  13. Combustion Process in a Spark Ignition Engine: Analysis of Cyclic Maximum Pressure and Peak Pressure Angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Litak; T. Kaminski; J. Czarnigowski; A. K. Sen; M. Wendeker

    2006-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we analyze the cycle-to-cycle variations of maximum pressure $p_{max}$ and peak pressure angle $\\alpha_{pmax}$ in a four-cylinder spark ignition engine. We examine the experimental time series of $p_{max}$ and $\\alpha_{pmax}$ for three different spark advance angles. Using standard statistical techniques such as return maps and histograms we show that depending on the spark advance angle, there are significant differences in the fluctuations of $p_{max}$ and $\\alpha_{pmax}$. We also calculate the multiscale entropy of the various time series to estimate the effect of randomness in these fluctuations. Finally, we explain how the information on both $p_{max}$ and $\\alpha_{pmax}$ can be used to develop optimal strategies for controlling the combustion process and improving engine performance.

  14. Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibrium of 1,2-dibromoethane + tetrachlorolmethane at temperatures between 283. 15 and 323. 15 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, P.; Valero, J.; Gracia, M. (Univ. de Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Organica-Quimica Fisica)

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor pressures of 1, 2-dibromoethane + tetrachlormethane, at 5 K interval between 283.15 and 323.15 K, were measured by a static method. Activity coefficients and excess molar Gibbs free energies G[sup E] were calculated by Barker's method. Reduction of the vapor pressure results is well represented by the Redlich-Kister, Wilson, and NRTL correlations.

  15. Stacked vapor fed amtec modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sievers, Robert K. (North Huntingdon, PA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention pertains to a stacked AMTEC module. The invention includes a tubular member which has an interior. The member is comprised of a ion conductor that substantially conducts ions relative to electrons, preferably a beta"-alumina solid electrolyte, positioned about the interior. A porous electrode for conducting electrons and allowing sodium ions to pass therethrough, and wherein electrons and sodium ions recombine to form sodium is positioned about the beta"-alumina solid electrolyte. The electrode is operated at a temperature and a pressure that allows the recombined sodium to vaporize. Additionally, an outer current collector grid for distributing electrons throughout the porous electrode is positioned about and contacts the porous electrode. Also included in the invention is transporting means for transporting liquid sodium to the beta"-alumina solid electrolyte of the tubular member. A transition piece is positioned about the interior of the member and contacts the transporting means. The transition piece divides the member into a first cell and a second cell such that each first and second cell has a beta"-alumina solid electrolyte, a first and second porous electrode and a grid. The transition piece conducts electrons from the interior of the tubular member. There is supply means for supplying sodium to the transporting means. Preferably the supply means is a shell which surrounds the tubular member and is operated at a temperature such that the vaporized sodium condenses thereon. Returning means for returning the condensed sodium from the shell to the transporting means provides a continuous supply of liquid sodium to the transporting means. Also, there are first conducting means for conducting electric current from the transition piece which extends through the shell, and second conducting means for conducting electric current to the grid of the first cell which extends through the shell.

  16. Momentum and thermal boundary-layer thickness in a stagnation flow chemical vapor deposition reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandy, David

    reactor David S. Dandy and Jungheum Yun Department of Chemical Engineering, Colorado State University stagnation flows characteristic of highly convective chemical vapor deposition pedestal reactors. Expressions of diamond via low- pressure chemical vapor deposition, direct current (dc) arcjet reactor systems3­8 have

  17. Stratified vapor generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Hassani, Vahab (Golden, CO)

    2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A stratified vapor generator (110) comprises a first heating section (H.sub.1) and a second heating section (H.sub.2). The first and second heating sections (H.sub.1, H.sub.2) are arranged so that the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2) is operatively associated with the outlet of the first heating section (H.sub.1). A moisture separator (126) having a vapor outlet (164) and a liquid outlet (144) is operatively associated with the outlet (124) of the second heating section (H.sub.2). A cooling section (C.sub.1) is operatively associated with the liquid outlet (144) of the moisture separator (126) and includes an outlet that is operatively associated with the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2).

  18. Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering (ECCOMAS 2012) Corresponding author Dimensions $ L. Banjaia,1 , M. Kachanovskab, aDepartment of Mathematics, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS,UK bMax Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Inselstr. 22, 04103 Leipzig

  19. Max-Planck-Institut f ur Mathematik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    physics are con­ sistent with the Moyal product of noncommutative field theory. An example­Witten noncommutative gauge theories by Friedemann Brandt, Carmelo P. Martin, and Fernando Ruiz Ruiz Preprint no.: 70­Witten noncommutative gauge theories Friedemann Brandt Max­Planck­Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Inselstra�e

  20. Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    18 1 Introduction Noncommutative quantum field theories (NCQFT) enjoy wide popularity among theoret. Quantum field theory on a noncommutative Minkowski spacetime was rigorously realised in [8]. The quantumJun2012 Wedge-Local Quantum Fields on a Nonconstant Noncommutative Spacetime A. Much Max

  1. Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -organization of complex robotic behaviors by Georg Martius, Ralf Der, and Nihat Ay Preprint no.: 15 2013 #12;#12;Information driven self-organization of complex robotic behaviors Georg Martius1, Ralf Der1, Nihat Ay1,2 1Max

  2. Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Conditional Probability Polytopes by Guido Mont´ufar, Johannes Rauh, and Nihat Ay Preprint no.: 87 2014 #12 , and Nihat Ay1,2,3 {montufar, jrauh, nay}@mis.mpg.de 1 Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences

  3. Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Conditional Restricted Boltzmann Machines for Sensorimotor Control by Guido Mont´ufar, Nihat Ay, and Keyan for Sensorimotor Control Guido Mont´ufar1 , Nihat Ay1,2,3 , and Keyan Zahedi1 1 Max Planck Institute

  4. Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Information Inequalities by Nihat Ay, and Walter Wenzel Preprint no.: 16 2011 #12;#12;On Solution Sets of Information Inequalities Nihat Ay1,2 & Walter Wenzel1,3 {nay, wenzel}@mis.mpg.de 1Max Planck Institute

  5. A study of new mixture combining rules for prediction of vapor-liquid equilibria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyu, Guor-Shiarn

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wong and Sandler published two important articles in 1992 that established new mixture combining rules (MCR) for use with cubic equations of state (EOS) in the prediction and correlation of vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) over wide ranges of pressure...

  6. Desalination-of water by vapor-phase transport through hydrophobic nanopores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jongho

    We propose a new approach to desalination of water whereby a pressure difference across a vapor-trapping nanopore induces selective transport of water by isothermal evaporation and condensation across the pore. Transport ...

  7. Fixation of nitrogen in the presence of water vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harteck, Paul (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the fixation of nitrogen is disclosed which comprises combining a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, metal oxide and water vapor, initially heating the combination to initiate a reaction which forms nitrate, but at a temperature and pressure range below the dissociation pressure of the nitrate. With or without the water component, the yield of fixed nitrogen is increased by the use of a Linde Molecular Sieve Catalyst.

  8. Water Vapor Experiment Concludes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps1DOE AwardsDNitrateEnergyNews3 Water Vapor

  9. ARM Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProducts (VAP) VAP Update Information on new,Scanning Radar323ARM Water Vapor IOP

  10. Vaporization of zinc from scrap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The rate of zinc vaporization from galvanized scrap was measured using a thermogravimetric apparatus along with chemical analysis. It is found that the rate of zinc vaporization is very fast in nitrogen and carbon monoxide atmospheres at temperatures higher than 950 C. At lower temperature rate decreases with decreasing temperature and is controlled by the gas phase mass transport. The simultaneous oxidation and vaporization of zinc occurs when the samples were heated in carbon dioxide and air. The current experimental results indicate that almost all of the zinc from scrap vaporizes during the heating process in a very short period of time after the temperature reaches above 850 C.

  11. Vapor spill pipe monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

    1983-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

  12. Max-Planck-Institut f ur Mathematik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by the equations: (1.1) (# t +D)u = 0, u(x; 0) = #, and Bu = 0. The specific heat # is a section to the dual bundle V # . Let #(#, #, D, B)(t) := # M u# be the total heat energy content. As t # 0, there is a completeMax-Planck-Institut fË? ur Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften Leipzig Heat content asymptotics

  13. Vapor-liquid equilibria of hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, A.; Lamm, S.; Orbey, H.; Sandler, S.I. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark (United States))

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) + 1-heptene, MTBE + four-component gasoline prototype, ethanol + four-component gasoline prototype, and separately MTBE and ethanol with the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Gasoline Blend A are reported. Small additions of MTBE have a very small effect on the total equilibrium pressure of this gasoline blend, and at most temperatures will decrease this pressure. In contrast, small additions of ethanol to this gasoline blend result in a significant increase in the equilibrium pressure at all temperatures. Analysis shows that the vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the MTBE-containing systems are easily correlated using a modified Peng-Robinson equation of state with conventional van der Waals one-fluid mixing rules. Data for mixtures containing ethanol cannot be accurately correlated in this way.

  14. as-found pressure test: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    vapor deposition AMS subject Ringhofer, Christian 480 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  15. Energy Management - Using Steam Pressure Efficiently

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiandani, N.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Saturated steam contains heat in two different forms. Sensible heat and latent heat. Due to the nature of this vapor, the relative proportion of latent heat is higher at lower pressures compared to higher pressures. When steam is used for heating...

  16. Energy Management - Using Steam Pressure Efficiently 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiandani, N.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Saturated steam contains heat in two different forms. Sensible heat and latent heat. Due to the nature of this vapor, the relative proportion of latent heat is higher at lower pressures compared to higher pressures. When steam is used for heating...

  17. Vapor Retarder Classification - Building America Top Innovation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Top Innovation. See an example of vapor retarder best practices in action. Find other case studies of Building America projects across the country that utilizes vapor retarder...

  18. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm.

  19. Neurton Damage and MAX Phase Ternary Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barsoum, Michael; Hoffman, Elizabeth; Sindelar, Robert; Garcua-Duaz, Brenda; Kohse, Gordon

    2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Demands of Gen IV nuclear power plants for long service life under neutron radiation at high temperature are severe. Advanced materials that would withstand high temperatures (up to 1000+ C) to high doses in a neutron field would be ideal for reactor internal structures and would add to the long service life and reliability of the reactors. The objective of this work is to investigate the resonse of a new class of machinable, conductive, layered, ternary transition metal carbides and nitrides - the so-called MAX phases - to low and moderate neutron dose levels.

  20. SolarMax Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt LtdShawangunk, NewSingapore Jump to:Voltaic MalaysiaSolarLab Jump to:SolarMax

  1. METEOROLOGICAL INFLUENCES ON VAPOR INCIDENTS IN THE 200 EAST & 200 WEST TANK FARMS FROM CY1995 TO CY2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HOCKING, M.J.

    2005-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Revised for a more comprehensive overview of vapor incidents reported at the Hanford Tank Farms. Investigation into the meteorological influences on vapor incidents in the tank farm to determine what, if any, meteorological influences contribute to the reporting of odors, smells, vapors, and other gases. Weather phenomena, specifically barometric pressure, and wind velocity and direction can potentially cause or exacerbate a vapor release within the farm systems. The purpose of this document is to gather and evaluate the meteorological and weather information for the Tank Farms Shift Log Vapor Incident entries and determine what, if any, meteorological influences contribute to the reporting of odors, smells, vapors, and other gases such as propane. A part of the evaluation will be determining which of the incidents are related to actual ''intrusive'' work, and which are ''transient.'' Transient vapor incidents are herein defined as those vapors encountered during walkdowns, surveys, or other activities that did not require working directly with the tanks, pits, transfer lines, etc. Another part of the investigation will involve determining if there are barometric pressures or other weather related phenomena that might cause or contribute vapors being released when there are no ''intrusive'' activities. A final purpose is to evaluate whether there is any correlation between the 242-A Evaporator operations and Vapor Incidents entered on the Shift Log.

  2. AVTA: 2013 Ford C-MAX HEV Testing Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    VTO's National Laboratories have tested and collected both dynamometer and fleet data for the Ford C-MAX HEV (a hybrid electric vehicle).

  3. Max-Planck-Institut fr biologische Kybernetik Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and analysis of human psychophysical experiments. · Good understanding of the English language in speaking Position in Human Motion Simulation The Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics in Tübingen laws of perception will be implemented into the control framework of motion-based simulators. Human

  4. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ho, Clifford K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  5. Vapor deposition of hardened niobium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blocher, Jr., John M. (Columbus, OH); Veigel, Neil D. (Columbus, OH); Landrigan, Richard B. (Columbus, OH)

    1983-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

  6. Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibrium accompanied by esterification; ethanol-formic acid system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rim, J.K.; Bae, S.Y.; Lee, H.T.

    1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The equilibrium total pressures after reaction between ethanol and formic acid were measured at 30, 40 and 50/sup 0/C, and the compositions of the vapor and liquid phases were determined gas chromatographically. Since the presence of the carboxylic acid in the mixture induces dimerization and trimerization of the acid in the vapor phase, the modified fugacity coefficients were calculated from ''chemical'' theory using the Lewis fugacity rule, from which are calculated the activity coefficients and the vapor-phase mole fractions using the nonrandom, two-liquid (NRTL) equation. The parameters in the NRTL equation were obtained from vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the binary system. The calculated results agree closely with the experimental vapor-phase mole-fraction data.

  7. System for the removal of contaminant soil-gas vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weidner, Jerry R. (Iona, ID); Downs, Wayne C. (Sugar City, ID); Kaser, Timothy G. (Ammon, ID); Hall, H. James (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system extracts contaminated vapors from soil or other subsurface regions by using changes in barometric pressure to operate sensitive check valves that control air entry and removal from wells in the ground. The system creates an efficient subterranean flow of air through a contaminated soil plume and causes final extraction of the contaminants from the soil to ambient air above ground without any external energy sources.

  8. Screw Type Steam Compressors for Mechanical Vapor Recompression (MVR) Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kawamura, K.; Apaloo, Thomas-L.

    SCREW TYPE STEAM COMPRESSORS FOR MECHANICAL VAPOR RECOMPRESSION (MVR) SYSTEMS K. KAWAMURA AND THOMAS-L. APALOO MYCOM CORPORATION, LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA MATSUDA, MAYEKAWA MFG. CO., TOKYO, JAPAN ABSTRACT In processes of evaporation... to a usable pressure for reinjection into the process stream. Mycom has developed, designed and installed two large MVR systems using screw compressors: one for a brewery and the other for a whiskey plant. This paper discusses the system aspects...

  9. System for the removal of contaminant soil-gas vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weidner, J.R.; Downs, W.C.; Kaser, T.G.; Hall, H.J.

    1997-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A system extracts contaminated vapors from soil or other subsurface regions by using changes in barometric pressure to operate sensitive check valves that control air entry and removal from wells in the ground. The system creates an efficient subterranean flow of air through a contaminated soil plume and causes final extraction of the contaminants from the soil to ambient air above ground without any external energy sources. 4 figs.

  10. 6 MaxPlanckForschung 4 | 09 PERSPEKTIVEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ", zu dem die Max- Planck-Gesellschaft und Siemens über 400 Wissenschaftler, Politiker und Manager müsse. Siemens setze bereits ganz auf grüne Technologien, so Siemens-Chef Peter Löscher. Max-Planck-Gesellschaft und Siemens laden zum Future Dialogue Unter dem Titel ,,The Evolution of Me- dicine" fand vom 14. bis

  11. APPLICATION OF THE FUZZY MIN-MAX NEURAL NETWORK CLASSIFIER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blekas, Konstantinos

    . The fuzzy min-max classi cation network constitutes a promisimg pattern recognition approach that is based. Experimental results us- ing the modi ed model on a di cult pattern recognition prob- lem establishes of the fuzzy min-max clas- si cation neural network on a pattern recognition problem that involves both

  12. Modcomp MAX IV System Processors reference guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummings, J.

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A user almost always faces a big problem when having to learn to use a new computer system. The information necessary to use the system is often scattered throughout many different manuals. The user also faces the problem of extracting the information really needed from each manual. Very few computer vendors supply a single Users Guide or even a manual to help the new user locate the necessary manuals. Modcomp is no exception to this, Modcomp MAX IV requires that the user be familiar with the system file usage which adds to the problem. At General Atomics there is an ever increasing need for new users to learn how to use the Modcomp computers. This paper was written to provide a condensed Users Reference Guide'' for Modcomp computer users. This manual should be of value not only to new users but any users that are not Modcomp computer systems experts. This Users Reference Guide'' is intended to provided the basic information for the use of the various Modcomp System Processors necessary to, create, compile, link-edit, and catalog a program. Only the information necessary to provide the user with a basic understanding of the Systems Processors is included. This document provides enough information for the majority of programmers to use the Modcomp computers without having to refer to any other manuals. A lot of emphasis has been placed on the file description and usage for each of the System Processors. This allows the user to understand how Modcomp MAX IV does things rather than just learning the system commands.

  13. A Multiscale Simulator for Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Custom Technologies, Motorola, Inc., Mail Drop M350, 2200 W. Broadway Rd., Mesa, AZ 85202 Timothy that govern the species and energy transport with chemical reactions throughout the reactor chamber, and (2

  14. A Multiscale Simulator for Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Custom Technologies, Motorola, Inc., Mail Drop M350, 2200 W. Broadway Rd., Mesa, AZ 85202 Timothy the equations that govern the species and energy transport with chemical reactions throughout the reactor

  15. IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS, VOL. 10, NO. 1, JANUARY 2006 31 Price-Based Max-Min Fair Rate Allocation in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew, Lachlan

    of the max- imum utility rate allocations is max-min fair. This approach is applied to wireless in [5

  16. Image Storage in Hot Vapors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Zhao; T. Wang; Y. Xiao; S. F. Yelin

    2007-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We theoretically investigate image propagation and storage in hot atomic vapor. A $4f$ system is adopted for imaging and an atomic vapor cell is placed over the transform plane. The Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of an object in the object plane can thus be transformed into atomic Raman coherence according to the idea of ``light storage''. We investigate how the stored diffraction pattern evolves under diffusion. Our result indicates, under appropriate conditions, that an image can be reconstructed with high fidelity. The main reason for this procedure to work is the fact that diffusion of opposite-phase components of the diffraction pattern interfere destructively.

  17. Vapor deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Sattelberger, Alfred P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  18. Vacuum vapor deposition gun assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, Joseph D. (Boulder, CO)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vapor deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, a hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  19. Hydrogen Cars and Water Vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    misidentified as "zero-emissions vehicles." Fuel cell vehicles emit water vapor. A global fleet could have, with discernible effects on people and ecosystems. The broad environmental effects of fuel cell vehicles. This cycle is currently under way with hydrogen fuel cells. As fuel cell cars are suggested as a solution

  20. Graphene Nucleation Density on Copper: Fundamental Role of Background Pressure Ivan Vlassiouk,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Randall

    1 Graphene Nucleation Density on Copper: Fundamental Role of Background Pressure Ivan Vlassiouk the effect of background pressure and synthesis temperature on the graphene crystal sizes in chemical vapor of the background pressure and provide the activation energy for graphene nucleation in atmospheric pressure CVD (9

  1. Vapor-liquid equilibria for methanol + tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esteve, X.; Chaudhari, S.K.; Coronas, A. [Univ. Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain). Dept. of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium (P-T-x) for the methanol + tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether binary system were obtained by the static method in the range of temperatures from 293.15 to 423.15 K at 10 K intervals. The modified vapor pressure apparatus used is described. The Kuczynsky method was used to calculate the liquid and vapor composition and the activity coefficients of methanol from the initial composition of the sample and the measured pressure and temperature. The results were correlated by the NRTL and UNIQUAC temperature dependent activity coefficient models. This system shows nearly ideal behavior at 323.15 K, but positive deviations from ideality at lower temperatures and negative deviations at higher temperatures are observed. The activity coefficients become more negative with the increase in temperature and mole fraction of methanol. The excess molar enthalpy using the Gibss-Helmholtz equation and the NRTL and UNIQUAC parameters were calculated at 303.15 K and compared with experimental data. This binary system shows promise as a working pair for high-temperature heat pump applications.

  2. Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, Barbara K. (Charleston, WV)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatilized metal compounds retard vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

  3. Princeton, Max Planck Society launch new research center for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Planck Society President Peter Gruss, and Consul General of the Federal Republic of Germany in New York Busso von Alvensleben meet to sign an agreement launching the new Max...

  4. Centerfor Genome Bas Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spang, Rainer

    Be rlin Centerfor Genome Bas ed Bioinform a tics Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics109/209 and 01GR0455 of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. In addition X

  5. Centerfor Genome Bas Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spang, Rainer

    Be rlin Centerfor Genome Bas ed Bioinform a tics Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics of Education. 2 #12;Chapter 2 Implemented functions 2.1 twilight.pval: Testing effect sizes twilight

  6. LINEAR-PROGRAMMING DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF FAST ALGORITHMS FOR MAX 2-CSP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Alexander Alexander

    LINEAR-PROGRAMMING DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF FAST ALGORITHMS FOR MAX 2-CSP ALEXANDER D. SCOTT AND GREGORY B. SORKIN Abstract. The class Max (r, 2)-CSP (or simply Max 2-CSP) consists of constraint(G) (13/75 + o(1))m, which gives a faster Max 2-CSP algorithm that uses exponential space: running in time

  7. Vapor-deposited porous films for energy conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Hayes, Jeffrey P.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Metallic films are grown with a "spongelike" morphology in the as-deposited condition using planar magnetron sputtering. The morphology of the deposit is characterized by metallic continuity in three dimensions with continuous and open porosity on the submicron scale. The stabilization of the spongelike morphology is found over a limited range of the sputter deposition parameters, that is, of working gas pressure and substrate temperature. This spongelike morphology is an extension of the features as generally represented in the classic zone models of growth for physical vapor deposits. Nickel coatings were deposited with working gas pressures up 4 Pa and for substrate temperatures up to 1000 K. The morphology of the deposits is examined in plan and in cross section views with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The parametric range of gas pressure and substrate temperature (relative to absolute melt point) under which the spongelike metal deposits are produced appear universal for other metals including gold, silver, and aluminum.

  8. Vapor canister heater for evaporative emissions systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, R.P.; Berg, P.G.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Automotive evaporative emissions systems use a charcoal canister to store evaporative hydrocarobn emissions. These stored vapors are later purged and burned during engine operation. Under certain conditions the engine cannot completely purge the canister of the stored fuel vapors, which results in a decreased vapor storage capacity in the canister. A self-regulating PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) heater has been developed to warm the purge air as it enters the canister, in order to provide thermal energy for increased release of the vapors from charcoal sites. This paper describes the construction and operation of the vapor canister heater as it relates to improved evaporative emission system performance.

  9. Means and method for vapor generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid, in heat transfer contact with a surface heated to a temperature well above the vaporization temperature of the liquid, will undergo a multiphase (liquid-vapor) transformation from 0% vapor to 100% vapor. During this transition, the temperature driving force or heat flux and the coefficients of heat transfer across the fluid-solid interface, and the vapor percentage influence the type of heating of the fluid--starting as "feedwater" heating where no vapors are present, progressing to "nucleate" heating where vaporization begins and some vapors are present, and concluding with "film" heating where only vapors are present. Unstable heating between nucleate and film heating can occur, accompanied by possibly large and rapid temperature shifts in the structures. This invention provides for injecting into the region of potential unstable heating and proximate the heated surface superheated vapors in sufficient quantities operable to rapidly increase the vapor percentage of the multiphase mixture by perhaps 10-30% and thereby effectively shift the multiphase mixture beyond the unstable heating region and up to the stable film heating region.

  10. A Fixed Point Charge Model for Water Optimized to the Vapor-Liquid Coexistence Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the temperature range of the liquid. Results were compared to the SPC, SPC/E, and MSPC/E models, vapor pressures, critical parameters, and the second virial coefficient. It is inferior to the SPC interactions. Models of this type include the Bernal-Fowler1 , ST22 , TIPS23 , TIP4P4 , SPC5 , SPC/E6

  11. Vapor explosion in the RIA-ST-4 experiment. [BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Genk, M.S.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A concern in assuring the safety of commercial light water reactors (LWRs) is whether core overheating, during which molten fuel is produced, can lead to massive vaporization of the coolant and shock pressurization of the system due to an energetic molten fuel-coolant interaction (MFCI). The RIA-ST-4 experiment was one of four scoping tests in the Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) Test Series which is being conducted in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) to define an energy deposition failure threshold and to determine modes and consequences of fuel rod failure during a postulated boiling water reactor (BWR) control rod drop accident.

  12. Eigenvalues And Eigenvectors In The Max-Plus Algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    By Misoo; Misoo Chung; William E. Cherowitzo; David C. Fisher; David C. Fisher

    The max-plus algebra defined in the set ! [ f\\Gamma1g is an algebra with two binary operations \\Phi and\\Omega where a \\Phi b is the maximum of a and b, and a\\Omega b is the sum of a and b. These operations form a monoid-field (there is no inverse under \\Phi). This paper implements algorithms for solving linear systems and computing eigenvalues and eigenvectors including the first known polynomial-time algorithm for finding eigenvalues of matrices in the max-plus algebra. Analogs to the characteristic equation and the Cayley-Hamilton theorem are presented. This abstract accurately represents the content of the candidate's thesis. I recommend its publication. Signed David C. Fisher iii Contents 1 The Max-Plus Algebra 1 1.1 Matrix Multiplication in (! max ) n\\Thetan : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 3 1.2 An Application : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 5 2 Systems of Linear Equations in (! max ) n 8 2.1 Solving Ax \\Phi b = Cx \\Phi d : : : : : : : : : : : ...

  13. Method and apparatus for pressurizing a liquefied gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.

    2005-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus providing at least one thermoelectric device for pressurizing a liquefied gas container and methods employing same are disclosed. A thermoelectric device including a heating surface and a cooling surface is used for pressurizing a container by vaporizing liquefied gas within the container by transferring heat energy from a portion of the liquefied gas in contact with the cooling surface to another portion of the liquefied gas in contact with the heating surface of the thermoelectric device to convert some of the liquefied gas to a vapor state. Liquefied gas vapor and/or liquid phase may be supplied by disclosed apparatus and methods. The apparatus may also be used as a vapor pump or a liquid pump, or fluid pump. Methods of operation are also disclosed.

  14. Control of flow through a vapor generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radcliff, Thomas D.

    2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In a Rankine cycle system wherein a vapor generator receives heat from exhaust gases, provision is made to avoid overheating of the refrigerant during ORC system shut down while at the same time preventing condensation of those gases within the vapor generator when its temperature drops below a threshold temperature by diverting the flow of hot gases to ambient and to thereby draw ambient air through the vapor generator in the process. In one embodiment, a bistable ejector is adjustable between one position, in which the hot gases flow through the vapor generator, to another position wherein the gases are diverted away from the vapor generator. Another embodiment provides for a fixed valve ejector with a bias towards discharging to ambient, but with a fan on the downstream side of said vapor generator for overcoming this bias.

  15. Max-Plus Stochastic Control and Risk-Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleming, Wendell H., E-mail: whf@dam.brown.ed [Brown University, Division of Applied Mathematics and Lefschetz Center for Dynamical Systems (United States); Kaise, Hidehiro, E-mail: kaise@is.nagoya-u.ac.j [Nagoya University, Graduate School of Information Science (Japan); Sheu, Shuenn-Jyi, E-mail: sheusj@math.sinica.edu.t [Academia Sinica, Institute of Mathematics (China)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the Maslov idempotent probability calculus, expectations of random variables are defined so as to be linear with respect to max-plus addition and scalar multiplication. This paper considers control problems in which the objective is to minimize the max-plus expectation of some max-plus additive running cost. Such problems arise naturally as limits of some types of risk sensitive stochastic control problems. The value function is a viscosity solution to a quasivariational inequality (QVI) of dynamic programming. Equivalence of this QVI to a nonlinear parabolic PDE with discontinuous Hamiltonian is used to prove a comparison theorem for viscosity sub- and super-solutions. An example from mathematical finance is given, and an application in nonlinear H-infinity control is sketched.

  16. Coupling apparatus for a metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Miller, John L. (Dublin, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coupling apparatus for a large bore metal vapor laser is disclosed. The coupling apparatus provides for coupling high voltage pulses (approximately 40 KV) to a metal vapor laser with a high repetition rate (approximately 5 KHz). The coupling apparatus utilizes existing thyratron circuits and provides suitable power input to a large bore metal vapor laser while maintaining satisfactory operating lifetimes for the existing thyratron circuits.

  17. Coupling apparatus for a metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, D.G.; Miller, J.L.

    1993-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Coupling apparatus for a large bore metal vapor laser is disclosed. The coupling apparatus provides for coupling high voltage pulses (approximately 40 KV) to a metal vapor laser with a high repetition rate (approximately 5 KHz). The coupling apparatus utilizes existing thyratron circuits and provides suitable power input to a large bore metal vapor laser while maintaining satisfactory operating lifetimes for the existing thyratron circuits.

  18. Wick for metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, David B. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved wick for a metal vapor laser is made of a refractory metal cylinder, preferably molybdenum or tungsten for a copper laser, which provides the wicking surface. Alternately, the inside surface of the ceramic laser tube can be metalized to form the wicking surface. Capillary action is enhanced by using wire screen, porous foam metal, or grooved surfaces. Graphite or carbon, in the form of chunks, strips, fibers or particles, is placed on the inside surface of the wick to reduce water, reduce metal oxides and form metal carbides.

  19. Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, B.K.

    1991-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatilized metal compounds are described which are capable of retarding vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

  20. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1999-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

  1. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Vincent J. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

  2. MEMS Lubrication by In-Situ Tribochemical Reactions From the Vapor Phase.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugger, Michael T.; Asay, David B.; Kim, Seong H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor Phase Lubrication (VPL) of silicon surfaces with pentanol has been demonstrated. Two potential show stoppers with respect to application of this approach to real MEMS devices have been investigated. Water vapor was found to reduce the effectiveness of VPL with alcohol for a given alcohol concentration, but the basic reaction mechanism observed in water-free environments is still active, and devices operated much longer in mixed alcohol and water vapor environments than with chemisorbed monolayer lubricants alone. Complex MEMS gear trains were successfully lubricated with alcohol vapors, resulting in a factor of 104 improvement in operating life without failure. Complex devices could be made to fail if operated at much higher frequencies than previously used, and there is some evidence that the observed failure is due to accumulation of reaction products at deeply buried interfaces. However, if hypothetical reaction mechanisms involving heated surfaces are valid, then the failures observed at high frequency may not be relevant to operation at normal frequencies. Therefore, this work demonstrates that VPL is a viable approach for complex MEMS devices in conventional packages. Further study of the VPL reaction mechanisms are recommended so that the vapor composition may be optimized for low friction and for different substrate materials with potential application to conventionally fabricated, metal alloy parts in weapons systems. Reaction kinetics should be studied to define effective lubrication regimes as a function of the partial pressure of the vapor phase constituent, interfacial shear rate, substrate composition, and temperature.

  3. Enhanced Attenuation Technologies: Passive Soil Vapor Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vangelas, K.; Looney, B.; Kamath, R.; Adamson, D.; Newell, C.

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) is an enhanced attenuation (EA) approach that removes volatile contaminants from soil. The extraction is driven by natural pressure gradients between the subsurface and atmosphere (Barometric Pumping), or by renewable sources of energy such as wind or solar power (Assisted PSVE). The technology is applicable for remediating sites with low levels of contamination and for transitioning sites from active source technologies such as active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) to natural attenuation. PSVE systems are simple to design and operate and are more cost effective than active systems in many scenarios. Thus, PSVE is often appropriate as an interim-remedial or polishing strategy. Over the past decade, PSVE has been demonstrated in the U.S. and in Europe. These demonstrations provide practical information to assist in selecting, designing and implementing the technology. These demonstrations indicate that the technology can be effective in achieving remedial objectives in a timely fashion. The keys to success include: (1) Application at sites where the residual source quantities, and associated fluxes to groundwater, are relatively low; (2) Selection of the appropriate passive energy source - barometric pumping in cases with a deep vadose zone and barrier (e.g., clay) layers that separate the subsurface from the atmosphere and renewable energy assisted PSVE in other settings and where higher flow rates are required. (3) Provision of sufficient access to the contaminated vadose zones through the spacing and number of extraction wells. This PSVE technology report provides a summary of the relevant technical background, real-world case study performance, key design and cost considerations, and a scenario-based cost evaluation. The key design and cost considerations are organized into a flowchart that dovetails with the Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics Guidance of the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). The PSVE flowchart provides a structured process to determine if the technology is, or is not, reasonable and defensible for a particular site. The central basis for that decision is the expected performance of PSVE under the site specific conditions. Will PSVE have sufficient mass removal rates to reduce the release, or flux, of contamination into the underlying groundwater so that the site can meet it overall remedial objectives? The summary technical information, case study experiences, and structured decision process provided in this 'user guide' should assist environmental decision-makers, regulators, and engineers in selecting and successfully implementing PSVE at appropriate sites.

  4. New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark J. Bergander

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this project is to confirm on a well-instrumented prototype the theoretically derived claims of higher efficiency and coefficient of performance for geothermal heat pumps based on a new regenerative thermodynamic cycle as comparing to existing technology. In order to demonstrate the improved performance of the prototype, it will be compared to published parameters of commercially available geothermal heat pumps manufactured by US and foreign companies. Other objectives are to optimize the design parameters and to determine the economic viability of the new technology. Background (as stated in the proposal): The proposed technology closely relates to EERE mission by improving energy efficiency, bringing clean, reliable and affordable heating and cooling to the residential and commercial buildings and reducing greenhouse gases emission. It can provide the same amount of heating and cooling with considerably less use of electrical energy and consequently has a potential of reducing our nations dependence on foreign oil. The theoretical basis for the proposed thermodynamic cycle was previously developed and was originally called a dynamic equilibrium method. This theory considers the dynamic equations of state of the working fluid and proposes the methods for modification of T-S trajectories of adiabatic transformation by changing dynamic properties of gas, such as flow rate, speed and acceleration. The substance of this proposal is a thermodynamic cycle characterized by the regenerative use of the potential energy of two-phase flow expansion, which in traditional systems is lost in expansion valves. The essential new features of the process are: (1) The application of two-step throttling of the working fluid and two-step compression of its vapor phase. (2) Use of a compressor as the initial step compression and a jet device as a second step, where throttling and compression are combined. (3) Controlled ratio of a working fluid at the first and second step of compression. In the proposed system, the compressor compresses the vapor only to 50-60% of the final pressure, while the additional compression is provided by a jet device using internal potential energy of the working fluid flow. Therefore, the amount of mechanical energy required by a compressor is significantly reduced, resulting in the increase of efficiency (either COP or EER). The novelty of the cycle is in the equipment and in the way the multi-staging is accomplished. The anticipated result will be a new refrigeration system that requires less energy to accomplish a cooling task. The application of this technology will be for more efficient designs of: (1) Industrial chillers, (2) Refrigeration plants, (3) Heat pumps, (4) Gas Liquefaction plants, (5) Cryogenic systems.

  5. Tropospheric water vapor and climate sensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, E.K.; Kirtman, B.P.; Lindzen, R.S. [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States)] [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States)

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimates are made of the effect of changes in tropospheric water vapor on the climate sensitivity to doubled carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) using a coarse resolution atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab mixed layer ocean. The sensitivity of the model to doubled CO{sub 2} is found as the difference between the equilibrium responses for control and doubled CO{sub 2} cases. Clouds are specified to isolate the water vapor feedback. Experiments in which the water vapor distribution is specified rather than internally calculated are used to find the contribution of water vapor in various layers and latitude belts to the sensitivity. The contribution of water vapor in layers of equal mass to the climate sensitivity varies by about a factor of 2 with height, with the largest contribution coming from layers between 450 and 750 mb, and the smallest from layers above 230 mb. The positive feedback on the global mean surface temperature response to doubled CO{sub 2} from water vapor above 750 mb is about 2.6 times as large as that from water vapor below 750 mb. The feedback on global mean surface temperature due to water vapor in the extratropical free troposphere is about 50% larger than the feedback due to the lower-latitude free troposphere water vapor. Several important sources of nonlinearity of the radiative heating rates were identified in the process of constructing the specified cloud and water vapor fields. These are (1) the interaction of clouds and solar radiation, which produces much more reflection of solar radiation for time mean clouds than for the instantaneous clouds; (2) the correlation of clouds and water vapor, which produces less downward longwave radiation at the ground for correlated clouds and water vapor than when these fields are independent; and (3) the interaction of water vapor with long wave radiation, which produces less downward longwave radiation at the ground of the average over instantaneous water vapor distributions than of the time mean water vapor distribution.

  6. Continuous growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grigorian, Leonid (Raymond, OH); Hornyak, Louis (Evergreen, CO); Dillon, Anne C (Boulder, CO); Heben, Michael J (Denver, CO)

    2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a chemical vapor deposition process for the continuous growth of a carbon single-wall nanotube where a carbon-containing gas composition is contacted with a porous membrane and decomposed in the presence of a catalyst to grow single-wall carbon nanotube material. A pressure differential exists across the porous membrane such that the pressure on one side of the membrane is less than that on the other side of the membrane. The single-wall carbon nanotube growth may occur predominately on the low-pressure side of the membrane or, in a different embodiment of the invention, may occur predominately in between the catalyst and the membrane. The invention also relates to an apparatus used with the carbon vapor deposition process.

  7. Continuous growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grigorian, Leonid; Hornyak, Louis; Dillon, Anne C; Heben, Michael J

    2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a chemical vapor deposition process for the continuous growth of a carbon single-wall nanotube where a carbon-containing gas composition is contacted with a porous membrane and decomposed in the presence of a catalyst to grow single-wall carbon nanotube material. A pressure differential exists across the porous membrane such that the pressure on one side of the membrane is less than that on the other side of the membrane. The single-wall carbon nanotube growth may occur predominately on the low-pressure side of the membrane or, in a different embodiment of the invention, may occur predominately in between the catalyst and the membrane. The invention also relates to an apparatus used with the carbon vapor deposition process.

  8. Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

  9. DOE FY10_Svc_Cont_Inv 122910 v2 MAX.xlsx | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    MAX.xlsx DOE FY10SvcContInv 122910 v2 MAX.xlsx More Documents & Publications Service Contract Inventory ClassWaiverWC-1982-001-FormerlyWA-1982-017.pdf...

  10. Solar-induced chemical vapor deposition of diamond-type carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J.R.; Tracy, C.E.; King, D.E.; Stanley, J.T.

    1994-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved chemical vapor deposition method for depositing transparent continuous coatings of sp[sup 3]-bonded diamond-type carbon films, comprises: (a) providing a volatile hydrocarbon gas/H[sub 2] reactant mixture in a cold wall vacuum/chemical vapor deposition chamber containing a suitable substrate for said films, at pressure of about 1 to 50 Torr; and (b) directing a concentrated solar flux of from about 40 to about 60 watts/cm[sup 2] through said reactant mixture to produce substrate temperatures of about 750 C to about 950 C to activate deposition of the film on said substrate. 11 figs.

  11. Adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks. First quarterly report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported on: adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks; theoretical investigation of adsorption; estimation of adsorption parameters from transient experiments; transient adsorption experiment -- salinity and noncondensible gas effects; the physics of injection of water into, transport and storage of fluids within, and production of vapor from geothermal reservoirs; injection optimization at the Geysers Geothermal Field; a model to test multiwell data interpretation for heterogeneous reservoirs; earth tide effects on downhole pressure measurements; and a finite-difference model for free surface gravity drainage well test analysis.

  12. Materials, methods and devices to detect and quantify water vapor concentrations in an atmosphere

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allendorf, Mark D; Robinson, Alex L

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We have demonstrated that a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor coated with a nanoporous framework material (NFM) film can perform ultrasensitive water vapor detection at concentrations in air from 0.05 to 12,000 ppmv at 1 atmosphere pressure. The method is extendable to other MEMS-based sensors, such as microcantilevers, or to quartz crystal microbalance sensors. We identify a specific NFM that provides high sensitivity and selectivity to water vapor. However, our approach is generalizable to detection of other species using NFM to provide sensitivity and selectivity.

  13. Direct vapor/solid synthesis of mercuric iodide using compounds of mercury and iodine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, Nathan L. (Carpinteria, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for producing high purity mercuric iodide by passing a gaseous source of a mercuric compound through a particulate bed of a low vapor pressure iodide compound which is maintained at an elevated temperature which is the lower of either: (a) just below the melting or volatilization temperature of the iodide compound (which ever is lower); or (b) just below the volatilization point of the other reaction product formed during the reaction; to cause the mercuric compound to react with the iodide compound to form mercuric iodide which then passes as a vapor out of the bed into a cooler condensation region.

  14. Guidelines for Residential Commissioning Craig Wray, Iain Walker, Max Sherman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-48767 Guidelines for Residential Commissioning Craig Wray, Iain Walker, Max Sherman Berkeley, CA 94720 January 2003 This report describes work supported by the California Energy Commission-76SF00098. This report was prepared as a result of work sponsored by the California Energy Commission

  15. Water Quality for Livestock Max Irsik DVM, MAB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    Water Quality for Livestock Max Irsik DVM, MAB Beef Cattle Extension Veterinarian University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine Water is an essential nutrient for humans and livestock and drinking water is the primary source of water for most cattle. The most important aspect of water

  16. Iain S. Walker1 and Max H. Sherman1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL 50189 1 Iain S. Walker1 and Max H. Sherman1 Sealant Longevity for Residential Ducts Reference by LBNL is being used as a basis for an ASTM Standard under sub-committee E6.41. LBNL tests found sealants. LBNL has also tested advanced tape products being developed by major manufacturers. The results

  17. Curriculum Vitae Arne Max Erich Winguth, Ph.D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winguth, Arne

    in an earth system model", two months summer salary, 2005. [9] Visiting Scientist, Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany, "Development of marine carbon cycle in an earth system model", two months summer salary of marine carbon cycle in an earth system model", two months summer salary, 2003. [12] University

  18. Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science Pressand features are hardly noticeable when the whole face is inverted (rotated 180°), but strikingly grotesque are still important. "Although we look at the eyes first our neural functions still grasp the whole picture

  19. A study of the minimum meniscus radius as a function of vapor temperature using heat pipes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sonnier, Ronald James

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    /sec 2 latent heat of vaporization, BTU/lb m wick permeability, ft 2 length, ft molecular weight, ibm water parameter, hf pfof/uf fgff f pressure, lbf/ft 2 desorption pressure, lbf/ft 2 saturation pressure, lbf/ft 2 heat transfer rate, BTU... into Cosgrove's equation, assuming the temperature is uni- form inside the heat pipe, replacing the sum of the section lengths by the total length of the heat pipe, and combining the fluid prop- erties into one var1able there is obtained N = hf pfof/uf...

  20. LNG fire and vapor control system technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

  1. Quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gundel, Lara (Berkeley, CA); Daisey, Joan M. (Walnut Creek, CA); Stevens, Robert K. (Cary, NC)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler for sampling semi-volatile organic gases and particulate components. A semi-volatile organic reversible gas sorbent macroreticular resin agglomerates of randomly packed microspheres with the continuous porous structure of particles ranging in size between 0.05-10 .mu.m for use in an integrated diffusion vapor-particle sampler.

  2. 6, 80698095, 2006 Water vapor in Asian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of Sciences, Beijing, China 2 National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, USA Received: 23 May 2006 vapor from European Center for Medium-Range Weather20 Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses. 1 Introduction Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor (UTWV) is a key greenhouse gas which exerts a major influence on the energy balance

  3. Participants EWASS 2012 Symposium 2 Albertsson, T., Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinton, Jim

    Occhiogrosso, A., University College London Parise, B., Max-Planck-Institut f¨ur Radioastronomie 1 #12;Pilbratt

  4. System-level Max Power (SYMPO) -A Systematic Approach for Escalating System-level Power Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, Lizy Kurian

    System-level Max Power (SYMPO) - A Systematic Approach for Escalating System-level Power a computer system for the worst case power consumption scenario, system architects often use hand-crafted max SYMPO, an automatic SYstem level Max POwer virus generation framework, which maximizes the power

  5. Sugar++: A SAT-Based MAX-CSP/COP Solver Tomoya Tanjo1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    Sugar++: A SAT-Based MAX-CSP/COP Solver Tomoya Tanjo1 , Naoyuki Tamura2 , and Mutsunori Banbara2 1 describes some features of Sugar++, a SAT-based MAX- CSP/COP solver entering the Third International CSP Solver Competition. In our approach, a MAX-CSP is translated into a Constraint Optimization Problem (COP

  6. Evaluation of Annular Pressure Buildup (APB) during WCD Blowout of Deepwater Hp/Ht Wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taghizadeh Ansari, Matin

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    . 12 WELLCATTM models any standard hydrocarbons composed of dry or free gas, oil and dissolved gas, vapor-liquids without heavy oil, and dissolved gas. The oil properties can be calculated by oil API gravity, while gas properties are modeled using... and Environmental Enforcement FWHP Flowing Well Head Pressure FBHP Flowing Bottom Hole Pressure CGR Condensate Gas Ratio GLR Gas Liquid Ratio API American Petroleum Association SRK Soave-Redlich-Kwong VLE Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium PR Peng-Robinson GOR Gas...

  7. HANFORD CHEMICAL VAPORS WORKER CONCERNS & EXPOSURE EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANDERSON, T.J.

    2006-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical vapor emissions from underground hazardous waste storage tanks on the Hanford site in eastern Washington State are a potential concern because workers enter the tank farms on a regular basis for waste retrievals, equipment maintenance, and surveillance. Tank farm contractors are in the process of retrieving all remaining waste from aging single-shell tanks, some of which date to World War II, and transferring it to newer double-shell tanks. During the waste retrieval process, tank farm workers are potentially exposed to fugitive chemical vapors that can escape from tank headspaces and other emission points. The tanks are known to hold more than 1,500 different species of chemicals, in addition to radionuclides. Exposure assessments have fully characterized the hazards from chemical vapors in half of the tank farms. Extensive sampling and analysis has been done to characterize the chemical properties of hazardous waste and to evaluate potential health hazards of vapors at the ground surface, where workers perform maintenance and waste transfer activities. Worker concerns. risk communication, and exposure assessment are discussed, including evaluation of the potential hazards of complex mixtures of chemical vapors. Concentrations of vapors above occupational exposure limits-(OEL) were detected only at exhaust stacks and passive breather filter outlets. Beyond five feet from the sources, vapors disperse rapidly. No vapors have been measured above 50% of their OELs more than five feet from the source. Vapor controls are focused on limited hazard zones around sources. Further evaluations of vapors include analysis of routes of exposure and thorough analysis of nuisance odors.

  8. Quantitative Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-PhaseGlyoxal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-Phase Glyoxal,Methylglyoxal, and 2,3-Butanedione (Diacetyl) with Quantitative Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-Phase Glyoxal,Methylglyoxal,...

  9. Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymers for Chemical Vapor Sensing. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Acidic Polymers for Chemical Vapor Sensing. Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymers for Chemical Vapor Sensing. Abstract: A review with 171 references. Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers for...

  10. Recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirza, Zia I. (La Verne, CA); Knell, Everett W. (Los Alamitos, CA); Winter, Bruce L. (Danville, CA)

    1980-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Values are recovered from a hydrocarbon-containing vapor by contacting the vapor with quench liquid consisting essentially of hydrocarbons to form a condensate and a vapor residue, the condensate and quench fluid forming a combined liquid stream. The combined liquid stream is mixed with a viscosity-lowering liquid to form a mixed liquid having a viscosity lower than the viscosity of the combined liquid stream to permit easy handling of the combined liquid stream. The quench liquid is a cooled portion of the mixed liquid. Viscosity-lowering liquid is separated from a portion of the mixed liquid and cycled to form additional mixed liquid.

  11. Diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite used as granular sorbents for the removal of sodium chloride vapor from hot flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.; Johnson, I.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite were tested as granular sorbents for use as filter media in granular-bed filters for the removal of gaseous alkali metal compounds from the hot (800/sup 0/C) flue gas of PFBC. Tests were performed at atmospheric pressure, using NaCl vapor transported in relatively dry simulated flue gas of PFBC. Either a fixed-bed combustor or a high-temperature sorption test rig was used. The effects of sorbent bed temperature, superficial gas velocity, gas hourly space velocity, and NaCl-vapor concentration in flue gas on the sorption behavior of these two sorbents and their ultimate sorption capacities were determined. Both diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite were found to be very effective in removing NaCl vapor from flue gas. Preliminary cost evaluations showed that they are economically attractive as granular sorbents for cleaning alkali vapor from simulated flue gas.

  12. Elastic properties of superconducting MAX phases from first principles calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. R. Shein; A. L. Ivanovskii

    2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Using first-principles density functional calculations, a systematic study on the elastic properties for all known superconducting MAX phases (Nb2SC, Nb2SnC, Nb2AsC, Nb2InC, Mo2GaC and Ti2InC) was performed. As a result, the optimized lattice parameters, independent elastic constants, indicators of elastic anisotropy and brittle/ductile behavior as well as the so-called machinability indexis were calculated. We derived also bulk and shear moduli, Young's moduli, and Poisson's ratio for ideal polycrystalline MAX aggregates. The results obtained were discussed in comparison with available theoretical and experimental data and elastic parameters for other layered superconductors.

  13. Helium Adsorption in Silica Aerogel near the Liquid-Vapor Critical Point

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobias Herman; James Day; John Beamish

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the adsorption and desorption of helium near its liquid-vapor critical point in silica aerogels with porosities between 95 % and 98%. We used a capacitive measurement technique which allowed us to probe the helium density inside the aerogel directly, even though the samples were surrounded by bulk helium. The aerogel’s very low thermal conductivity resulted in long equilibration times so we monitored the pressure and the helium density, both inside the aerogel and in the surrounding bulk, and waited at each point until all had stabilized. Our measurements were made at temperatures far from the critical point, where a well defined liquid-vapor interface exists, and at temperatures up to the bulk critical point. Hysteresis between adsorption and desorption isotherms persisted to temperatures close to the liquid-vapor critical point and there was no sign of an equilibrium liquid-vapor transition once the hysteresis disappeared. Many features of our isotherms can be described in terms of capillary condensation, although this picture becomes less applicable as the liquid-vapor critical point is approached and it is unclear how it can be applied to aerogels, whose tenuous structure includes a wide range of length scales. I.

  14. Helium adsorption in silica aerogel near the liquid-vapor critical point

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobias Herman; James Day; John Beamish

    2005-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the adsorption and desorption of helium near its liquid-vapor critical point in silica aerogels with porosities between 95% and 98%. We used a capacitive measurement technique which allowed us to probe the helium density inside the aerogel directly, even though the samples were surrounded by bulk helium. The aerogel's very low thermal conductivity resulted in long equilibration times so we monitored the pressure and the helium density, both inside the aerogel and in the surrounding bulk, and waited at each point until all had stabilized. Our measurements were made at temperatures far from the critical point, where a well defined liquid-vapor interface exists, and at temperatures up to the bulk critical point. Hysteresis between adsorption and desorption isotherms persisted to temperatures close to the liquid-vapor critical point and there was no sign of an equilibrium liquid-vapor transition once the hysteresis disappeared. Many features of our isotherms can be described in terms of capillary condensation, although this picture becomes less applicable as the liquid-vapor critical point is approached and it is unclear how it can be applied to aerogels, whose tenuous structure includes a wide range of length scales.

  15. Variable pressure power cycle and control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsberry, Fred L. (Spring, TX)

    1984-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A variable pressure power cycle and control system that is adjustable to a variable heat source is disclosed. The power cycle adjusts itself to the heat source so that a minimal temperature difference is maintained between the heat source fluid and the power cycle working fluid, thereby substantially matching the thermodynamic envelope of the power cycle to the thermodynamic envelope of the heat source. Adjustments are made by sensing the inlet temperature of the heat source fluid and then setting a superheated vapor temperature and pressure to achieve a minimum temperature difference between the heat source fluid and the working fluid.

  16. Development of a Water Based, Critical Flow, Non-Vapor Compression cooling Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosni, Mohammad H.

    2014-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Expansion of a high-pressure liquid refrigerant through the use of a thermostatic expansion valve or other device is commonplace in vapor-compression cycles to regulate the quality and flow rate of the refrigerant entering the evaporator. In vapor-compression systems, as the condensed refrigerant undergoes this expansion, its pressure and temperature drop, and part of the liquid evaporates. We (researchers at Kansas State University) are developing a cooling cycle that instead pumps a high-pressure refrigerant through a supersonic converging-diverging nozzle. As the liquid refrigerant passes through the nozzle, its velocity reaches supersonic (or critical-flow) conditions, substantially decreasing the refrigerant’s pressure. This sharp pressure change vaporizes some of the refrigerant and absorbs heat from the surrounding conditions during this phase change. Due to the design of the nozzle, a shockwave trips the supersonic two-phase refrigerant back to the starting conditions, condensing the remaining vapor. The critical-flow refrigeration cycle would provide space cooling, similar to a chiller, by running a secondary fluid such as water or glycol over one or more nozzles. Rather than utilizing a compressor to raise the pressure of the refrigerant, as in a vapor-cycle system, the critical-flow cycle utilizes a high-pressure pump to drive refrigerant liquid through the cooling cycle. Additionally, the design of the nozzle can be tailored for a given refrigerant, such that environmentally benign substances can act as the working fluid. This refrigeration cycle is still in early-stage development with prototype development several years away. The complex multi-phase flow at supersonic conditions presents numerous challenges to fully understanding and modeling the cycle. With the support of DOE and venture-capital investors, initial research was conducted at PAX Streamline, and later, at Caitin. We (researchers at Kansas State University) have continued development of the cycle and have gained an in-depth understanding of the governing fundamental knowledge, based on the laws of physics and thermodynamics and verified with our testing results. Through this research, we are identifying optimal working fluid and operating conditions to eventually demonstrate the core technology for space cooling or other applications.

  17. Max Tech and Beyond: Fluorescent Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scholand, Michael

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluorescent lamps are the most widely used artificial light source today, responsible for approximately 70% of the lumens delivered to our living spaces globally. The technology was originally commercialized in the 1930's, and manufacturers have been steadily improving the efficacy of these lamps over the years through modifications to the phosphors, cathodes, fill-gas, operating frequency, tube diameter and other design attributes. The most efficient commercially available fluorescent lamp is the 25 Watt T5 lamp. This lamp operates at 114-116 lumens per watt while also providing good color rendering and more than 20,000 hours of operating life. Industry experts interviewed indicated that while this lamp is the most efficient in the market today, there is still a further 10 to 14% of potential improvements that may be introduced to the market over the next 2 to 5 years. These improvements include further developments in phosphors, fill-gas, cathode coatings and ultraviolet (UV) reflective glass coatings. The commercialization of these technology improvements will combine to bring about efficacy improvements that will push the technology up to a maximum 125 to 130 lumens per watt. One critical issue raised by researchers that may present a barrier to the realization of these improvements is the fact that technology investment in fluorescent lamps is being reduced in order to prioritize research into light emitting diodes (LEDs) and ceramic metal halide high intensity discharge (HID) lamps. Thus, it is uncertain whether these potential efficacy improvements will be developed, patented and commercialized. The emphasis for premium efficacy will continue to focus on T5 lamps, which are expected to continue to be marketed along with the T8 lamp. Industry experts highlighted the fact that an advantage of the T5 lamp is the fact that it is 40% smaller and yet provides an equivalent lumen output to that of a T8 or T12 lamp. Due to its smaller form factor, the T5 lamp contains less material (i.e., glass, fill gas and phosphor), and has a higher luminance, enabling fixtures to take advantage of the smaller lamp size to improve the optics and provide more efficient overall system illuminance. In addition to offering the market a high-quality efficacious light source, another strong value proposition of fluorescent lighting is its long operating life. In today's market, one manufacturer is offering fluorescent lamps that have a rated life of 79,000 hours - which represents 18 years of service at 12 hours per day, 365 days per year. These lamps, operated using a long-life ballast specified by the manufacturer, take advantage of improvements in cathode coatings, fill gas chemistry and pressure to extend service life by a factor of four over conventional fluorescent lamps. It should be noted that this service life is also longer (approximately twice as long) as today's high-quality LED products. The fluorescent market is currently focused on the T5 and T8 lamp diameters, and it is not expected that other diameters would be introduced. Although T8 is a more optimal diameter from an efficacy perspective, the premium efficiency and optimization effort has been focused on T5 lamps because they are 40% smaller than T8, and are designed to operate at a higher temperature using high-frequency electronic ballasts. The T5 lamp offers savings in terms of materials, packaging and shipping, as well as smaller fixtures with improved optical performance. Manufacturers are actively researching improvements in four critical areas that are expected to yield additional efficacy improvements of approximately 10 to 14 percent over the next five years, ultimately achieving approximately 130 lumens per watt by 2015. The active areas of research where these improvements are anticipated include: (1) Improved phosphors which continue to be developed and patented, enabling higher efficacies as well as better color rendering and lumen maintenance; (2) Enhanced fill gas - adjusting proportions of argon, krypton, neon and xenon to optimize performance, while also m

  18. Integrated natural-gas-engine cooling jacket vapor-compressor program. Annual progress report (phase 2), January-December 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiBella, F.A.; Becker, F.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A unique, alternative cogeneration system was designed that will provide an industrial or commercial energy user with high-pressure steam and electricity directly from a packaged cogeneration system. The Integrated Gas Engine Vapor Compression System concept includes an engine-generator set and a steam screw compressor that are mechanically integrated with the engine. The gas-fueled engine is ebulliently cooled, thus allowing its water jacket heat to be recovered in the form of low-pressure steam. This steam is then compressed by the steam compressor to a higher pressure, and when combined with the high-pressure steam generated in the engine's exhaust gas boiler it provides the end user with a more useable thermal energy source. Phase 1B of this project was completed in 1986 and consisted primarily of the procurement of equipment and the final design and assembly of a prototype integrated gas-engine vapor-compression system.

  19. Chemical vapor infiltration using microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devlin, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Currier, Robert P. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing reinforced ceramic composite articles by means of chemical vapor infiltration and deposition in which an inverted temperature gradient is utilized. Microwave energy is the source of heat for the process.

  20. Chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsson, Ylva Kristina

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis develops a platform for deposition of polymer thin films that can be further tailored by chemical surface modification. First, we explore chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran films using ...

  1. An advanced vapor-compression desalination system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lara Ruiz, Jorge Horacio Juan

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, the two dominant desalination methods are reverse osmosis (RO) and multi-stage flash (MSF). RO requires large capital investment and maintenance, whereas MSF is too energy intensive. An innovative vapor-compression desalination system...

  2. Modeling of LNG Pool Spreading and Vaporization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basha, Omar 1988-

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, a source term model for estimating the rate of spreading and vaporization of LNG on land and sea is introduced. The model takes into account the composition changes of the boiling mixture, the varying thermodynamic properties due...

  3. Chemical vapor deposition of antimicrobial polymer coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Tyler Philip, 1977-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is large and growing interest in making a wide variety of materials and surfaces antimicrobial. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD), a solventless low-temperature process, is used to form thin films of polymers ...

  4. Solid-Vapor Sorption Refrigeration Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graebel, W.; Rockenfeller, U.; Kirol, L.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SOLID-VAPOR SORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS DR. WILLIAM GRAEBEL DR. UWE ROCKENFELLER MR. LANCE KIROL Engineer President Chief Engineer Rocky Research Rocky Research Rocky Research Boulder city, NV Boulder city, NV Boulder City, NV Abstract.... Complex compounds have a number of advantages as working media, including: 43 SOLID-VAPOR SORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS DR. WILLIAM GRAEBEL Engineer Rocky Research Boulder city, NV DR. UWE ROCKENFELLER President Rocky Research Boulder city, NV MR...

  5. Vaporization cooling for gas turbines, the return-flow cascade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerrebrock, J.L.; Stickler, D.B.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new paradigm for gas turbine design is treated, in which major elements of the hot section flow path are cooled by vaporization of a suitable two-phase coolant. This enables the blades to be maintained at nearly uniform temperature without detailed knowledge of the heat flux to the blades, and makes operation feasible at higher combustion temperatures using a wider range of materials than is possible in conventional gas turbines with air cooling. The new enabling technology for such cooling is the return-flow cascade, which extends to the rotating blades the heat flux capability and self-regulation usually associated with heat-pipe technology. In this paper the potential characteristics of gas turbines that use vaporization cooling are outlined briefly, but the principal emphasis is on the concept of the return-flow cascade. The concept is described and its characteristics are outlined. Experimental results are presented that confirm its conceptual validity and demonstrate its capability for blade cooling at heat fluxes representative of those required for high pressure ratio high temperature gas turbines.

  6. Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for methanol + ethanol + water, methanol + water, and ethanol + water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurihara, Kiyofumi; Takeda, Kouichi; Kojima, Kazuo [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry; Minoura, Tsuyoshi [Mitui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria were measured for the ternary system methanol + ethanol + water and its constituent binary systems of methanol + water and ethanol + water at 323.15, 328.15, and 333.15 K. The apparatus that was used made it possible to control the measured temperature and total pressure by computer. The experimental binary data were correlated by the NRTL equation. The ternary system was predicted using the binary NRTL parameters with good accuracy.

  7. Pressure [bar] ABBGroup-1-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basse, Nils Plesner

    GENERATION System voltage: 12-24 kV Rated current: 6000-24000 A Max. short-circuit current: 50-500 kA TRANSMISSION System voltage: 72-800 kV Rated current: 2500-4000 A Max. short-circuit current: 25-63 k to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short-circuit A circuit breaker

  8. EXPERIMENTS AND CORRESPONDING CALCULATIONS ON THERMOHYDRAULIC PRESSURE SURGES IN PIPES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    phenomena. A decision must be made whether the numerous effects that can occur during a transient event and 120 °C and pressures between 1 bar and 20 bar comprise the effects of vaporous and gaseous cavitation and simulated data could be achieved. From the numerical simulations it could be assessed, which effects

  9. Flammability Characteristics of Hydrogen and Its Mixtures with Light Hydrocarbons at Atmospheric and Sub-atmospheric Pressures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le, Thuy Minh Hai

    2013-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    /vapor. This research focuses on the flammability limits of hydrogen and its binary mixtures with light hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, n-butane, and ethylene) at sub-atmospheric pressures. The flammability limits of hydrogen, light hydrocarbons, and binary mixtures...

  10. Flammability Characteristics of Hydrogen and Its Mixtures with Light Hydrocarbons at Atmospheric and Sub-atmospheric Pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le, Thuy Minh Hai

    2013-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    /vapor. This research focuses on the flammability limits of hydrogen and its binary mixtures with light hydrocarbons (methane, ethane, n-butane, and ethylene) at sub-atmospheric pressures. The flammability limits of hydrogen, light hydrocarbons, and binary mixtures...

  11. Evaluation of anticipatory signal to steam generator pressure control program for 700 MWe Indian pressurized heavy water reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pahari, S.; Hajela, S.; Rammohan, H. P.; Malhotra, P. K.; Ghadge, S. G. [Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited, Nabhikiya Urja Bhavan, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai, PIN-400094 (India)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    700 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR) is horizontal channel type reactor with partial boiling at channel outlet. Due to boiling, it has a large volume of vapor present in the primary loops. It has two primary loops connected with the help of pressurizer surge line. The pressurizer has a large capacity and is partly filled by liquid and partly by vapor. Large vapor volume improves compressibility of the system. During turbine trip or load rejection, pressure builds up in Steam Generator (SG). This leads to pressurization of Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS). To control pressurization of SG and PHTS, around 70% of the steam generated in SG is dumped into the condenser by opening Condenser Steam Dump Valves (CSDVs) and rest of the steam is released to the atmosphere by opening Atmospheric Steam Discharge Valves (ASDVs) immediately after sensing the event. This is accomplished by adding anticipatory signal to the output of SG pressure controller. Anticipatory signal is proportional to the thermal power of reactor and the proportionality constant is set so that SG pressure controller's output jacks up to ASDV opening range when operating at 100% FP. To simulate this behavior for 700 MWe IPHWR, Primary and secondary heat transport system is modeled. SG pressure control and other process control program have also been modeled to capture overall plant dynamics. Analysis has been carried out with 3-D neutron kinetics coupled thermal hydraulic computer code ATMIKA.T to evaluate the effect of the anticipatory signal on PHT pressure and over all plant dynamics during turbine trip in 700 MWe IPHWR. This paper brings out the results of the analysis with and without considering anticipatory signal in SG pressure control program during turbine trip. (authors)

  12. Vapor scavenging by atmospheric aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, E.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle growth due to vapor scavenging was studied using both experimental and computational techniques. Vapor scavenging by particles is an important physical process in the atmosphere because it can result in changes to particle properties (e.g., size, shape, composition, and activity) and, thus, influence atmospheric phenomena in which particles play a role, such as cloud formation and long range transport. The influence of organic vapor on the evolution of a particle mass size distribution was investigated using a modified version of MAEROS (a multicomponent aerosol dynamics code). The modeling study attempted to identify the sources of organic aerosol observed by Novakov and Penner (1993) in a field study in Puerto Rico. Experimentally, vapor scavenging and particle growth were investigated using two techniques. The influence of the presence of organic vapor on the particle`s hydroscopicity was investigated using an electrodynamic balance. The charge on a particle was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A prototype apparatus--the refractive index thermal diffusion chamber (RITDC)--was developed to study multiple particles in the same environment at the same time.

  13. The Max Tech and Beyond Competition | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMayDepartmentTest for PumpingThe Facts on GasThe Importance TheThe Max Tech

  14. SolarMax Technology Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with form HistoryRistmaSinosteelSolar Energy sroWiki Page SolarSolarMax

  15. Property:Incentive/MaxInc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkins County, Nebraska:PrecourtOid JumpEligSysSize Jump to: navigation, searchFundSrcMaxInc

  16. MaxWeber,"ScienceasaVocation" 'WissenschaftalsBeruf,'fromGesammlteAufsaetzezurWissenschaftslehre(Tubingen,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldreich, Oded

    MaxWeber,"ScienceasaVocation" 'Wissenschaftals a sort of moral right to expect some consideration. He also #12;Weber,"ScienceasVocation" 2

  17. a min-max regret robust optimization approach for large scale full ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    admin

    2007-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    the full-factorial scenario design of data uncertainty. The proposed algorithm is shown to be efficient for solving large-scale min-max regret robust optimization ...

  18. Method and Apparatus for Concentrating Vapors for Analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Baldwin, David L. (Kennewick, WA); Anheier, Jr., Norman C. (Richland, WA)

    2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for pre-concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the apparatus can be thermally desorbed achieving at least partial separation of vapor mixtures. The apparatus is suitable, e.g., for preconcentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than for direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications.

  19. Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scholand, Michael

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-intensity discharge (HID) lamps are most often found in industrial and commercial applications, and are the light source of choice in street and area lighting, and sports stadium illumination. HID lamps are produced in three types - mercury vapor (MV), high pressure sodium (HPS) and metal halide (MH). Of these, MV and MH are considered white-light sources (although the MV exhibits poor color rendering) and HPS produces a yellow-orange color light. A fourth lamp, low-pressure sodium (LPS), is not a HID lamp by definition, but it is used in similar applications and thus is often grouped with HID lamps. With the notable exception of MV which is comparatively inefficient and in decline in the US from both a sales and installed stock point of view; HPS, LPS and MH all have efficacies over 100 lumens per watt. The figure below presents the efficacy trends over time for commercially available HID lamps and LPS, starting with MV and LPS in 1930's followed by the development of HPS and MH in the 1960's. In HID lamps, light is generated by creating an electric arc between two electrodes in an arc tube. The particles in the arc are partially ionized, making them electrically conductive, and a light-emitting 'plasma' is created. This arc occurs within the arc tube, which for most HID lamps is enclosed within an evacuated outer bulb that thermally isolates and protects the hot arc tube from the surroundings. Unlike a fluorescent lamp that produces visible light through down-converting UV light with phosphors, the arc itself is the light source in an HID lamp, emitting visible radiation that is characteristic of the elements present in the plasma. Thus, the mixture of elements included in the arc tube is one critical factor determining the quality of the light emitted from the lamp, including its correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI). Similar to fluorescent lamps, HID lamps require a ballast to start and maintain stable operating conditions, and this necessitates additional power beyond that used by the lamp itself. HID lamps offer important advantages compared to other lighting technologies, making them well suited for certain applications. HID lamps can be very efficient, have long operating lives, are relatively temperature-insensitive and produce a large quantity of light from a small package. For these reasons, HID lamps are often used when high levels of illumination are required over large areas and where operating and maintenance costs must be kept to a minimum. Furthermore, if the installation has a significant mounting height, high-power HID lamps can offer superior optical performance luminaires, reducing the number of lamps required to illuminate a given area. The indoor environments best suited to HID lamps are those with high ceilings, such as those commonly found in industrial spaces, warehouses, large retail spaces, sports halls and large public areas. Research into efficacy improvements for HID lighting technologies has generally followed market demand for these lamps, which is in decline for MV and LPS, has reached a plateau for HPS and is growing for MH. Several manufacturers interviewed for this study indicated that although solid-state lighting was now receiving the bulk of their company's R&D investment, there are still strong HID lamp research programs, which concentrate on MH technologies, with some limited amount of investment in HPS for specific niche applications (e.g., agricultural greenhouses). LPS and MV lamps are no longer being researched or improved in terms of efficacy or other performance attributes, although some consider MH HID lamps to be the next-generation MV lamp. Thus, the efficacy values of commercially available MV, LPS and HPS lamps are not expected to increase in the next 5 to 10 years. MH lamps, and more specifically, ceramic MH lamps are continuing to improve in efficacy as well as light quality, manufacturability and lamp life. Within an HID lamp, the light-producing plasma must be heated to sufficiently high temperatures to achieve high efficiencie

  20. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Dawson, Jay W. (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  1. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Dawson, Jay W. (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2006-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  2. Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.

    1988-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself. 4 figs.

  3. Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry (Tracy, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself.

  4. Min-max redundancy resolution for a mobile manipulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reister, D.B.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have considered the problem of determining the values of the joint variables of a mobile manipulator with many redundant degrees of freedom that will minimize an objective function when the position and orientation of the end of the manipulator are given. The objective function is the weighted sum of three components: distance, torque, and reach. Each of the three components is a max or min. We have converted the min-max optimization problem into a nonlinear programming problem and used the Kuhn-Tucker conditions to derive necessary conditions for the optimum solutions. The necessary conditions require that one or more of each of the three sets (distance, torque, and reach) of nonnegative Lagrange multipliers must be positive. If one of the Lagrange multipliers is positive, the corresponding slack variable must be zero. When two or more of the Lagrange multipliers from a single set are positive, the slack variables place constraints on the joint variables. Specification of the Cartesian position and orientation of the end of the arm also places constraints on the joint variables. If the mobile manipulator has N degrees of freedom and the total number of constraints is M, the constraints define a manifold of dimensions N - M. When N = M, the dimension of the manifold is zero (it consists of isolated points). When N > M, a search of the manifold may yield a submanifold that maximizes the Lagrangian function. We discuss examples where the number of slack variable constraints (M) is two or more.

  5. Cosmological Constraints from the SDSS maxBCG Cluster Catalog

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rozo, Eduardo; /CCAPP; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Rykoff, Eli S.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Annis, James T.; /Fermilab; Becker, Matthew R.; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Evrard, August E.; /Michigan U. /Michigan U., MCTP; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Fermilab /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U.; Hansen, Sarah M.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Hao, Jia; /Michigan U.; Johnston, David E.; /Northwestern U.; Koester, Benjamin P.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U.; McKay, Timothy A.; /Michigan U. /Michigan U., MCTP; Sheldon, Erin S.; /Brookhaven; Weinberg, David H.; /CCAPP /Ohio State U.

    2009-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We use the abundance and weak lensing mass measurements of the SDSS maxBCG cluster catalog to simultaneously constrain cosmology and the richness-mass relation of the clusters. Assuming a flat {Lambda}CDM cosmology, we find {sigma}{sub 8}({Omega}{sub m}/0.25){sup 0.41} = 0.832 {+-} 0.033 after marginalization over all systematics. In common with previous studies, our error budget is dominated by systematic uncertainties, the primary two being the absolute mass scale of the weak lensing masses of the maxBCG clusters, and uncertainty in the scatter of the richness-mass relation. Our constraints are fully consistent with the WMAP five-year data, and in a joint analysis we find {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.807 {+-} 0.020 and {Omega}{sub m} = 0.265 {+-} 0.016, an improvement of nearly a factor of two relative to WMAP5 alone. Our results are also in excellent agreement with and comparable in precision to the latest cosmological constraints from X-ray cluster abundances. The remarkable consistency among these results demonstrates that cluster abundance constraints are not only tight but also robust, and highlight the power of optically-selected cluster samples to produce precision constraints on cosmological parameters.

  6. Ceramic-metallic coatings by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, D.E.; Singh, J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EB-PVD) process is considered to be a technology that has overcome some of the difficulties or problems associated with the chemical vapor deposition (CVD), physical vapor deposition (PVD) and metal spray processes. The EB-PVD process offers many desirable characteristics such as relatively high deposition rates (up to 100-150 {mu}m/minute with an evaporation rate {approx}10-15 Kg/hour,) dense coatings, precise compositional control, columnar and poly-crystalline microstructure, low contamination, and high thermal efficiency. Various metallic and ceramic coatings (oxides, carbides, nitrides) can be deposited at relatively low temperatures. Even elements with low vapor pressure such as molybdenum, tungsten, and carbon are readily evaporated by this process. In addition, EB-PVD is capable of producing multi-layered laminated metallic/ceramic coatings on large components by changing the EB-PVD processing conditions such as ingot composition, part manipulation, and electron beam energy. Attachment of an ion assisted beam source to the EB-PVD offers additional benefits such as dense coatings with improved adhesion. In addition, textured coatings can be obtained that are desirable in many applications such as cutting tools. This laboratory has started a new thrust in the coating area by the EB-PVD process. The microstructure of thermal barrier ceramic coatings (i.e., yttria stabilized zirconia) developed by the EB-PVD process will be presented.

  7. The importance of snow scavenging of polychlorinated biphenyl and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon vapors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wania, F. [WECC Wania Environmental Chemists Corp., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [WECC Wania Environmental Chemists Corp., Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Mackay, D. [Trent Univ., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada). Environmental and Resource Studies] [Trent Univ., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada). Environmental and Resource Studies; Hoff, J.T. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Earth Science] [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Earth Science

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, experimental data on the scavenging of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the atmosphere by snow were interpreted assuming that the distribution of chemical between particles and dissolved phase measured in the meltwater reflects the state of the chemical during the scavenging process. A consequence of this assumption is that vapor scavenging is found to be unimportant relative to particle scavenging. An alternative interpretation is presented that during melting repartitioning occurs from the dissolved phase to the particle-sorbed phase. Further, it is argued that a constant particle scavenging ratio may apply to all chemicals of the same class in the same precipitation event, and its value can be estimated from the scavenging characteristics of predominantly particle-sorbed, high molecular mass chemicals. This analysis suggests that for more volatile PCBs and PAHs vapor scavenging is an important, if not the dominating, snow scavenging process. Gas scavenging ratios obtained with this method are, as expected, negatively correlated with the vapor pressure of a substance, indicating that adsorption to the air-ice interface is the process responsible for vapor scavenging.

  8. Advanced Chemical Heat Pumps Using Liquid-Vapor Reactions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirol, L.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical heat pumps utilizing liquid-vapor reactions can be configured in forms analogous to electric drive vapor-compression heat pumps and heat activated absorption heat pumps. Basic thermodynamic considerations eliminate some heat pumps and place...

  9. Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, Building America team Building Science Corporation researched some of the ramifications of using exterior, vapor permeable insulation on retrofit walls with vapor permeable cavity insulation. Retrofit strategies are a key factor in reducing exterior building stock consumption.

  10. Vapor intrusion modeling : limitations, improvements, and value of information analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friscia, Jessica M. (Jessica Marie)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor intrusion is the migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a subsurface source into the indoor air of an overlying building. Vapor intrusion models, including the Johnson and Ettinger (J&E) model, can be ...

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    OPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS CONSIDERING ADSORPTION governing the behavior of vapor- dominated geothermal reservoirs. These mechanisms affect both was to determine the most effective injection strategy once these two effects are considered. Geothermal reservoir

  12. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Atkinson, David

    2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  13. Vaporization of synthetic fuels. Final report. [Thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sirignano, W.A.; Yao, S.C.; Tong, A.Y.; Talley, D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of transient droplet vaporization in a hot convective environment is examined. The main objective of the present study is to develop an algorithm for the droplet vaporization which is simple enough to be feasibly incorporated into a complete spray combustion analysis and yet will also account for the important physics such as liquid-phase internal circulation, unsteady droplet heating and axisymmetric gas-phase convection. A simplified liquid-phase model has been obtained based on the assumption of the existence of a Hill's spherical vortex inside the droplet together with some approximations made in the governing diffusion equation. The use of the simplified model in a spray situation has also been examined. It has been found that droplet heating and vaporization are essentially unsteady and droplet temperature is nonuniform for a significant portion of its lifetime. It has also been found that the droplet vaporization characteristic can be quite sensitive to the particular liquid-phase and gas-phase models. The results of the various models are compared with the existing experimental data. Due to large scattering in the experimental measurements, particularly the droplet diameter, no definite conclusion can be drawn based on the experimental data. Finally, certain research problems which are related to the present study are suggested for future studies.

  14. Chemical vapor deposition of mullite coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, Vinod (Lexington, MA); Mulpuri, Rao (Boston, MA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is directed to the creation of crystalline mullite coatings having uniform microstructure by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The process comprises the steps of establishing a flow of reactants which will yield mullite in a CVD reactor, and depositing a crystalline coating from the reactant flow. The process will yield crystalline coatings which are dense and of uniform thickness.

  15. Atomic-vapor-laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, J.I.

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper gives a brief history of the scientific considerations leading to the development of laser isotope separation (LIS) processes. The close relationship of LIS to the broader field of laser-induced chemical processes is evaluated in terms of physical criteria to achieve an efficient production process. Atomic-vapor LIS processes under development at Livermore are reviwed. 8 figures.

  16. Program performs vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, V.L.

    1982-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A program designed for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV or 41C calculators solves basic vapor-liquid equilibrium problems, including figuring the dewpoint, bubblepoint, and equilibrium flash. The algorithm uses W.C. Edmister's method for predicting ideal-solution K values.

  17. Max Tech and Beyond: High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scholand, Michael

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressure Sodium Light Emitting Diode Lamp Lumen Depreciationit is expected that light emitting diode (LED) lamps willLED Technology Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are an emerging

  18. Living and working in Germany A guide for international scientists at Max Planck Institutes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Living and working in Germany A guide for international scientists at Max Planck Institutes #12 and the hospitality in your town. You will quickly find that Germany is a country of many facets ­ a country Planck Society is Germany's most successful scientific or- ganisation in basic research. Max Planck

  19. The Max Planck Society At home in Germany -present throughout the world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 The Max Planck Society At home in Germany - present throughout the world Internationalisation ­ the Max Planck Society's role in safeguarding Germany's future Cooperation across national borders is one the internationalisation of science, both on its own behalf and also on behalf of Germany as a research location. To do

  20. Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective? Max Sherman, Iain Walker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective? Max Sherman, Iain Walker Environmental thereof or the Regents of the University of California. #12;Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective? Max Sherman and Iain Walker, Lawrence Berkeley Lab ABSTRACT Ventilation dilutes or removes indoor

  1. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATIC CONTROL 1 Max-Plus Control Design for Temporal Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    constraints, timed event graph (TEG). I. INTRODUCTION Many manufacturing systems are subject to tight time with Timed Event Graphs (TEG), that permit to take time constraints explicitely into account. The problem). As is well-known from [5], TEG give rise to Max-Plus algebraic models, which are linear over the dioid max

  2. The use and misuse of Vc,max in Earth System Models Alistair Rogers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    REVIEW The use and misuse of Vc,max in Earth System Models Alistair Rogers Received: 18 November Dordrecht (outside the USA) 2013 Abstract Earth System Models (ESMs) aim to project global change. Central Á Vc,max Á Leaf nitrogen Á Earth System Models Introduction The primary goal of Earth System Models

  3. 07. September 2007 Julia Ducke 1 Max-Planck-Institut fr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    07. September 2007 Julia Ducke 1 Max-Planck-Institut für Mikrostrukturphysik HalleWeb 2.0-Workshop Wiki Erfahrungen mit Web 2.0 Erfahrungsbericht aus der Bibliothek des MPI für Mikrostrukturphysik #12;07. September 2007 Julia Ducke 2 Max-Planck-Institut für Mikrostrukturphysik HalleWeb 2.0-Workshop #12

  4. Efficient SIMD technique with parallel Max-Log-MAP Algorithm for Turbo Decoders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Efficient SIMD technique with parallel Max-Log-MAP Algorithm for Turbo Decoders David Gnaedig Turbo on a DSP a parallel Max-Log-MAP algorithm for turbo decoders. It consists in using SIMD instructions by the use of an adapted two-dimensional turbo code and its parallel interleaver structure. After a brief

  5. Max-min Fair Rate Allocation and Routing in Energy Harvesting Networks: Algorithmic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hone, James

    Max-min Fair Rate Allocation and Routing in Energy Harvesting Networks: Algorithmic Analysis Jelena@ee}.columbia.edu ABSTRACT This paper considers max-min fair rate allocation and rout- ing in energy harvesting networks energy profile and focus on the design of efficient and opti- mal algorithms that can serve as benchmarks

  6. Water heat pipe frozen startup and shutdown transients with internal temperature, pressure and visual observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reinarts, Thomas Raymond

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with Internal Temperature, Pressure and Visual Observations. IDecember 1989) Thomas Raymond Reinarts, B. S. , Texas A8M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Frederick Best In a set of transient heat pipe experiments vapor space and wick... LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1. Outer Aluminum Wall Temperatures Observed and Predicted 79 Table 2. Summary of Measured Dryout, Rewet and Melting Front 126 Velocities LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Typical Heat Pipe Diagram Figure 2. Curvature of Vapor...

  7. Modeling engine oil vaporization and transport of the oil vapor in the piston ring pack on internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Yeunwoo, 1973-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model was developed to study engine oil vaporization and oil vapor transport in the piston ring pack of internal combustion engines. With the assumption that the multi-grade oil can be modeled as a compound of several ...

  8. Stability trends of MAX phases from first principles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlqvist, M.; Alling, B.; Rosen, J. [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, IFM, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a systematic method to investigate the phase stability of M{sub n+1}AX{sub n} phases, here applied for M=Sc, Ti, V, Cr, or Mn, A=Al, and X=C or N. Through a linear optimization procedure including all known competing phases, we identify the set of most competitive phases for n=1-3 in each system. Our calculations completely reproduce experimental occurrences of stable MAX phases. We also identify and suggest an explanation for the trend in stability as the transition metal is changed across the 3d series for both carbon- and nitrogen-based systems. Based on our results, the method can be used to predict stability of potentially existing undiscovered phases.

  9. Liquid-vapor phase transition in nuclei or compound nucleus decay?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. G. Moretto; J. B. Elliott; L. Phair; G. J. Wozniak

    2002-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent analyses of multifragmentation in terms of Fisher's model and the related construction of a phase diagram brings forth the problem of the true existence of the vapor phase and the meaning of its associated pressure. Our analysis shows that a thermal emission picture is equivalent to a Fisher-like equilibrium description which avoids the problem of the vapor and explains the recently observed Boltzmann-like distribution of the emission times. In this picture a simple Fermi gas thermometric relation is naturally justified. Low energy compound nucleus emission of intermediate mass fragments is shown to scale according to Fisher's formula and can be simultaneously fit with the much higher energy ISiS multifragmentation data.

  10. A NORMETEX MODEL 15 M3/HR WATER VAPOR PUMPING TEST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.; Fowley, M.; Steeper, T.

    2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests were performed using a Model 15 m{sup 3}/hr Normetex vacuum pump to determine if pump performance degraded after pumping a humid gas stream. An air feed stream containing 30% water vapor was introduced into the pump for 365 hours with the outlet pressure of the pump near the condensation conditions of the water. Performance of the pump was tested before and after the water vapor pumping test and indicated no loss in performance of the pump. The pump also appeared to tolerate small amounts of condensed water of short duration without increased noise, vibration, or other adverse indications. The Normetex pump was backed by a dual-head diaphragm pump which was affected by the condensation of water and produced some drift in operating conditions during the test.

  11. Bringing ATLAS production to HPC resources - A use case with the Hydra supercomputer of the Max Planck Society

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kluth, Stefan; The ATLAS collaboration; Mazzaferro, Luca; Walker, Rodney

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bringing ATLAS production to HPC resources - A use case with the Hydra supercomputer of the Max Planck Society

  12. CHEMISTRY OF IMPACT-GENERATED SILICATE MELT-VAPOR DEBRIS DISKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visscher, Channon [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Fegley, Bruce Jr. [Planetary Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and McDonnell Center for Space Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In the giant impact theory for lunar origin, the Moon forms from material ejected by the impact into an Earth-orbiting disk. Here we report the initial results from a silicate melt-vapor equilibrium chemistry model for such impact-generated planetary debris disks. In order to simulate the chemical behavior of a two-phase (melt+vapor) disk, we calculate the temperature-dependent pressure and chemical composition of vapor in equilibrium with molten silicate from 2000 to 4000 K. We consider the elements O, Na, K, Fe, Si, Mg, Ca, Al, Ti, and Zn for a range of bulk silicate compositions (Earth, Moon, Mars, eucrite parent body, angrites, and ureilites). In general, the disk atmosphere is dominated by Na, Zn, and O{sub 2} at lower temperatures (<3000 K) and SiO, O{sub 2}, and O at higher temperatures. The high-temperature chemistry is consistent for any silicate melt composition, and we thus expect abundant SiO, O{sub 2}, and O to be a common feature of hot, impact-generated debris disks. In addition, the saturated silicate vapor is highly oxidizing, with oxygen fugacity (f{sub O{sub 2}}) values (and hence H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}/CO ratios) several orders of magnitude higher than those in a solar-composition gas. High f{sub O{sub 2}} values in the disk atmosphere are found for any silicate composition because oxygen is the most abundant element in rock. We thus expect high oxygen fugacity to be a ubiquitous feature of any silicate melt-vapor disk produced via collisions between rocky planets.

  13. Metal vapor laser including hot electrodes and integral wick

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA); Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal vapor laser, specifically one utilizing copper vapor, is disclosed herein. This laser utilizes a plasma tube assembly including a thermally insulated plasma tube containing a specific metal, e.g., copper, and a buffer gas therein. The laser also utilizes means including hot electrodes located at opposite ends of the plasma tube for electrically exciting the metal vapor and heating its interior to a sufficiently high temperature to cause the metal contained therein to vaporize and for subjecting the vapor to an electrical discharge excitation in order to lase. The laser also utilizes external wicking arrangements, that is, wicking arrangements located outside the plasma tube.

  14. Metal vapor laser including hot electrodes and integral wick

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, E.R.; Alger, T.W.

    1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal vapor laser, specifically one utilizing copper vapor, is disclosed herein. This laser utilizes a plasma tube assembly including a thermally insulated plasma tube containing a specific metal, e.g., copper, and a buffer gas therein. The laser also utilizes means including hot electrodes located at opposite ends of the plasma tube for electrically exciting the metal vapor and heating its interior to a sufficiently high temperature to cause the metal contained therein to vaporize and for subjecting the vapor to an electrical discharge excitation in order to lase. The laser also utilizes external wicking arrangements, that is, wicking arrangements located outside the plasma tube. 5 figs.

  15. Precision micro drilling with copper vapor lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, J.J.; Martinez, M.W.; Warner, B.E.; Dragon, E.P.; Huete, G.; Solarski, M.E.

    1994-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have developed a copper vapor laser based micro machining system using advanced beam quality control and precision wavefront tilting technologies. Micro drilling has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratio up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled on a variety of metals with good quality. For precision trepanned holes, the hole-to-hole size variation is typically within 1% of its diameter. Hole entrance and exit are both well defined with dimension error less than a few microns. Materialography of sectioned holes shows little (sub-micron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone with surface roughness within 1--2 microns.

  16. Atomic vapor spectroscopy in integrated photonic structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritter, Ralf; Pernice, Wolfram; Kübler, Harald; Pfau, Tilman; Löw, Robert

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate an integrated optical chip immersed in atomic vapor providing several waveguide geometries for spectroscopy applications. The narrow-band transmission through a silicon nitride waveguide and interferometer is altered when the guided light is coupled to a vapor of rubidium atoms via the evanescent tail of the waveguide mode. We use grating couplers to couple between the waveguide mode and the radiating wave, which allow for addressing arbitrary coupling positions on the chip surface. The evanescent atom-light interaction can be numerically simulated and shows excellent agreement with our experimental data. This work demonstrates a next step towards miniaturization and integration of alkali atom spectroscopy and provides a platform for further fundamental studies of complex waveguide structures.

  17. Apparatus and method for photochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Scott C. (Wilmington, DE); Rocheleau, Richard E. (Wilmington, DE)

    1987-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A photochemical vapor deposition apparatus includes a reactor housing having a window in one wall above a reaction chamber in the housing. A transparent curtain divides the reaction chamber into a reaction zone and a flush zone. At least one substrate is mounted in the reaction zone in light communication with the window so that ultraviolet radiation may penetrate through the window into the reaction zone. The window is kept clear by a gas flowing through the flush zone.

  18. Solid-Vapor Sorption Refrigeration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graebel, W.; Rockenfeller, U.; Kirol, L.

    SOLID-VAPOR SORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS DR. WILLIAM GRAEBEL DR. UWE ROCKENFELLER MR. LANCE KIROL Engineer President Chief Engineer Rocky Research Rocky Research Rocky Research Boulder city, NV Boulder city, NV Boulder City, NV Abstract... Complex compound sorption reactions are ideally suited for use in refrigeration cycles as an economically viable alternative to CFC refrigerants. Complex compound refrigeration provides a number of energy-saving advantages over present refrigeration...

  19. DuPont Chemical Vapor Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MOORE, T.L.

    2003-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    DuPont Safety Resources was tasked with reviewing the current chemical vapor control practices and providing preventive recommendations on best commercial techniques to control worker exposures. The increased focus of the tank closure project to meet the 2024 Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestones has surfaced concerns among some CH2MHill employees and other interested parties. CH2MHill is committed to providing a safe working environment for employees and desires to safely manage the tank farm operations using appropriate control measures. To address worker concerns, CH2MHill has chartered a ''Chemical Vapors Project'' to integrate the activities of multiple CH2MHill project teams, and solicit the expertise of external resources, including an independent Industrial Hygiene expert panel, a communications consultant, and DuPont Safety Resources. Over a three-month time period, DuPont worked with CH2MHill ESH&Q, Industrial Hygiene, Engineering, and the independent expert panel to perform the assessment. The process included overview presentations, formal interviews, informal discussions, documentation review, and literature review. DuPont Safety Resources concluded that it is highly unlikely that workers in the tank farms are exposed to chemicals above established standards. Additionally, the conventional and radiological chemistry is understood, the inherent chemical hazards are known, and the risk associated with chemical vapor exposure is properly managed. The assessment highlighted management's commitment to addressing chemical vapor hazards and controlling the associated risks. Additionally, we found the Industrial Hygiene staff to be technically competent and well motivated. The tank characterization data resides in a comprehensive database containing the tank chemical compositions and relevant airborne concentrations.

  20. Vapor-phase heat-transport system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hedstrom, J.C.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vapor-phase heat-transport system is being tested in one of the passive test cells at Los Alamos. The system consists of one selective-surface collector and a condenser inside a water storage tank. The refrigerant, R-11, can be returned to the collector by gravity or with a pump. Results from several operating configurations are presented, together with a comparison with other passive systems. A new self-pumping concept is presented.

  1. Combined rankine and vapor compression cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radcliff, Thomas D.; Biederman, Bruce P.; Brasz, Joost J.

    2005-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An organic rankine cycle system is combined with a vapor compression cycle system with the turbine generator of the organic rankine cycle generating the power necessary to operate the motor of the refrigerant compressor. The vapor compression cycle is applied with its evaporator cooling the inlet air into a gas turbine, and the organic rankine cycle is applied to receive heat from a gas turbine exhaust to heat its boiler within one embodiment, a common condenser is used for the organic rankine cycle and the vapor compression cycle, with a common refrigerant, R-245a being circulated within both systems. In another embodiment, the turbine driven generator has a common shaft connected to the compressor to thereby eliminate the need for a separate motor to drive the compressor. In another embodiment, an organic rankine cycle system is applied to an internal combustion engine to cool the fluids thereof, and the turbo charged air is cooled first by the organic rankine cycle system and then by an air conditioner prior to passing into the intake of the engine.

  2. High volume fuel vapor release valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gimby, D.R.

    1991-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a fuel vapor release valve for use in a vehicle fuel system. It comprises a valve housing 10 placed in a specific longitudinal orientation, the valve housing 10 defining an interior cavity 22 having an inlet 20 for admitting fuel vapor and an outlet 14 for discharging such fuel vapor; a valve member 24 positioned in the cavity 22 for movement between an outlet 14 opening position and an outlet 14 closing position, the valve member 24 including a cap member 34 having a seat surface 36 for mating with the outlet 14 and an orifice 42 extending through the cap member 34 providing a passageway from the outlet 14 to the cavity 22, the orifice 42 extending through the cap member 34 providing a passageway from the outlet 14 to the cavity 22, the orifice 42 having a lesser radius than the outlet 14; the valve member 24 further including a plug member 30 engaged with the cap member 34 for movement between an orifice 42 opening position and an orifice 42 closing position; and, a valve housing tilt responsive means for moving the valve member 24 to an outlet 14 and orifice 42 closing position in response to tilting of the valve 10 about its longitudinal axis whereby, upon the return of the valve 10 to its specified longitudinal orientation, the plug member 30 first moves to an orifice 42 opening position and the cap member 34 subsequently moves to an outlet 14 opening position.

  3. Modeling the Effect of Fuel Ethanol Concentration on Cylinder Pressure Evolution in Direct-Injection Flex-Fuel Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Modeling the Effect of Fuel Ethanol Concentration on Cylinder Pressure Evolution in Direct the fuel vaporization pro- cess for ethanol-gasoline fuel blends and the associated charge cooling effect from both measured and modeled cylinder pressure exhibit a monotonic correlation with the fuel ethanol

  4. Pressurized release of liquefied fuel gases (LNG and LPG). Topical report, May 1993-February 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atallah, S.; Janardhan, A.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is an important contribution to the behavior of pressurized liquefied gases when accidentally released into the atmosphere. LNG vehicle fueling stations and LPG storage facilities operate at elevated pressures. Accidental releases could result in rainout and the formation of an aerosol in the vapor cloud. These factors must be considered when estimating the extent of the hazard zone of the vapor cloud using a heavier-than-air gas dispersion model such as DEGADIS (or its Windows equivalent DEGATEC). The DOS program PREL has been incorporated in the Windows program LFGRISK.

  5. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria of the water + 1-propanol system at 30, 60, and 100 kPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabaldon, C.; Marzal, P.; Monton, J.B.; Rodrigo, M.A. [Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica] [Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria for the water + 1-propanol system are reported at 30, 60, and 100 kPa. The results were found to be thermodynamically consistent according to Van Ness-Byer-Gibbs, Kojima, and Wisniak methods. The system shows a minimum boiling azeotrope, and the azeotropic composition is scarcely shifted with pressure. Results were compared with literature values. The data were correlated with Margules, Van Laar, Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC liquid-phase activity coefficient models.

  6. High Temperature High Pressure Thermodynamic Measurements for Coal Model Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John C. Chen; Vinayak N. Kabadi

    1998-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a better thermodynamic model for predicting properties of high-boiling coal derived liquids, especially the phase equilibria of different fractions at elevated temperatures and pressures. The development of such a model requires data on vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), enthalpy, and heat capacity which would be experimentally determined for binary systems of coal model compounds and compiled into a database. The data will be used to refine existing models such as UNIQUAC and UNIFAC. The flow VLE apparatus designed and built for a previous project was upgraded and recalibrated for data measurements for thk project. The modifications include better and more accurate sampling technique and addition of a digital recorder to monitor temperature, pressure and liquid level inside the VLE cell. VLE data measurements for system benzene-ethylbenzene have been completed. The vapor and liquid samples were analysed using the Perkin-Elmer Autosystem gas chromatography.

  7. Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for benzene + cyclohexane + 1-propanol and for three constituent binary systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurihara, Kiyofumi; Uchiyama, Masanori; Kojima, Kazuo [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry] [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria were measured for the ternary system of benzene + cyclohexane + 1-propanol and its constituent binary systems of benzene + cyclohexane, cyclohexane + 1-propanol, and benzene + 1-propanol at 323.15 and 333.15 K, using the apparatus proposed in a previous study. The experimental binary data were correlated using the NRTL equation. The ternary system was predicted using the binary NRTL parameters. The average absolute percent deviations between the predicted and experimental ternary total pressures are 0.5% at 323.15 K and 0.4% at 333.15 K.

  8. Metal film deposition by laser breakdown chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jervis, T.R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dielectric breakdown of gas mixtures can be used to deposit homogeneous thin films by chemical vapor deposition with appropriate control of flow and pressure conditions to suppress gas phase nucleation and particle formation. Using a pulsed CO/sub 2/ laser operating at 10.6 microns where there is no significant resonant absorption in any of the source gases, we have succeeded in depositing homogeneous films from several gas phase precursors by gas phase laser pyrolysis. Nickel and molybdenum from the respective carbonyls and tungsten from the hexafluoride have been examined to date. In each case the gas precursor is buffered to reduce the partial pressure of the reactants and to induce breakdown. The films are spectrally reflective and uniform over a large area. Films have been characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, pull tests, and resistivity measurements. The highest quality films have resulted from the nickel depositions. Detailed x-ray diffraction analysis of these films yields a very small domain size (approx. 50 A) consistent with rapid quenching from the gas phase reaction zone. This analysis also shows nickel carbide formation consistent with the temperature of the reaction zone and the Auger electron spectroscopy results which show some carbon and oxygen incorporation (8% and 1% respectively). Gas phase transport and condensation of the molybdenum carbonyl results in substantial carbon and oxygen contamination of the molybdenum films requiring heated substrates, a requirement not consistent with the goals of the program to maximize the quench rate of the deposition. Results from tungsten deposition experiments representing a reduction chemistry instead of the decomposition chemistry involved in the carbonyl experiments are also reported.

  9. Development of chemical vapor composites, CVC materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Industry has a critical need for high-temperature operable ceramic composites that are strong, non-brittle, light weight, and corrosion resistant. Improvements in energy efficiency, reduced emissions and increased productivity can be achieved in many industrial processes with ceramic composites if the reaction temperature and pressure are increased. Ceramic composites offer the potential to meet these material requirements in a variety of industrial applications. However, their use is often restricted by high cost. The Chemical Vapor composite, CVC, process can reduce the high costs and multiple fabrication steps presently required for ceramic fabrication. CVC deposition has the potential to eliminate many difficult processing problems and greatly increase fabrication rates for composites. With CVC, the manufacturing process can control the composites` density, microstructure and composition during growth. The CVC process: can grow or deposit material 100 times faster than conventional techniques; does not require an expensive woven preform to infiltrate; can use high modulus fibers that cannot be woven into a preform; can deposit composites to tolerances of less than 0.025 mm on one surface without further machining.

  10. Water, Vapor, and Salt Dynamics in a Hot Repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahrami, Davood; Danko, George [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, 1664 N. Virginia St., Reno, NV, 89557 (United States); Walton, John [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University, El Paso, TX, 79968 (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a new model study examining the high temperature nuclear waste disposal concept at Yucca Mountain using MULTIFLUX, an integrated in-drift- and mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic model. The results show that a large amount of vapor flow into the drift is expected during the period of above-boiling temperatures. This phenomenon makes the emplacement drift a water/moisture attractor during the above-boiling temperature operation. The evaporation of the percolation water into the drift gives rise to salt accumulation in the rock wall, especially in the crown of the drift for about 1500 years in the example. The deposited salts over the drift footprint, almost entirely present in the fractures, may enter the drift either by rock fall or by water drippage. During the high temperature operation mode, the barometric pressure variation creates fluctuating relative humidity in the emplacement drift with a time period of approximately 10 days. Potentially wet and dry conditions and condensation on salt-laden drift wall sections may adversely affect the storage environment. Salt accumulations during the above-boiling temperature operation must be sufficiently addressed to fully understand the waste package environment during the thermal period. Until the questions are resolved, a below-boiling repository design is favored where the Alloy-22 will be less susceptible to localized corrosion. (authors)

  11. Optical properties of chemical-vapor-deposited diamond films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bi, X.X.; Eklund, P.C.; Zhang, J.G.; Rao, A.M. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (USA)); Perry, T.A.; Beetz, C.P. Jr. (Physics Department, General Motors Research Laboratory, Warren, MI (USA))

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of room-temperature optical studies on {similar to}10 micron thick, free-standing diamond films are reported. The films were grown on Si(100) substrates by hot filament-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from a methane/hydrogen mixture. The as-grown, free surface of the films exhibited a surface roughness of scale {sigma}{similar to}0.2 to 5 microns, depending on the methane/hydrogen mixture, which introduces significant optical scattering loss for frequencies greater than 0.5 eV. Specular reflection and transmission spectra in the range 0.01--10 eV were collected. Below the threshold for interband adsorption near {similar to}5 eV, the films studied behaved approximately as thin parallel plates of refractive index 2.4, with the rough free surface leading to increasingly larger loss of specular transmission/reflection with decreasing wavelength. Structure in the mid-infrared transmission spectra was observed and attributed to disorder-induced one-phonon absorption, intrinsic multi-phonon absorption, and infrared active --C--H{sub 2} stretching modes. The strength of the C--H band was observed to increase with increasing methane pressure in the growth chamber. At 5.3 eV, the onset of interband absorption was observed, in good agreement with the value of the indirect bandgap in type IIa (intrinsic) diamond.

  12. Keynote speakers Susan E. Trumbore -Max-Planck-Institute for Biogeochemistry Jena, Germany

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    Keynote speakers Susan E. Trumbore - Max-Planck-Institute for Biogeochemistry Jena, Germany http for Landscape Biogeochemistry, Germany http://www.arthur-gessler.de/ PhillippeTortell, University of British

  13. An Approximation Algorithm for Max-Min Fair Allocation of Indivisible Goods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saberi, Amin

    Saberi Abstract In this paper, we give the first approximation algorithm for the problem of max-min fair 94305. Email:{asadpour,saberi}@stanford.edu. 1 #12;1 Introduction Fair division, also known as the cake

  14. A Connectionist model of Planning via Back-chaining Search Max Garagnani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shastri, Lokendra

    A Connectionist model of Planning via Back-chaining Search Max Garagnani Department of Computing+1 World state ObservableEpisodic Memory ECALL Figure 1: A block diagram showing the basic compo

  15. The NanoMax-TSTM three-axis stage offers an unmatched combination of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kik, Pieter

    555 Spacer Block to Raise Optical- Axis Height to 125-mm 17 AMA 554 ©2002 MELLES GRIOT MCE 1042 03 holes threaded M2 on 20 centers dimensions: millimeters 17 MAX 302 3-axis stage MELLES GRIOT

  16. Method and apparatus for concentrating vapors for analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Baldwin, David L. (Kennewick, WA); Anheier, Jr., Norman C. (Richland, WA)

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A pre-concentration device and a method are disclosed for concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the pre-concentration device are thermally desorbed, achieving at least partial separation of the vapor mixtures. The pre-concentration device is suitable, e.g., for pre-concentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable.

  17. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caddeau, MP

    2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from 15 channels between 170 and 183.310 GHz. Atmospheric emission in this spectral region is primarily due to water vapor, with some influence from liquid water. Channels between 170.0 and 176.0 GHz are particularly sensitive to the presence of liquid water. The sensitivity to water vapor of the 183.31-GHz line is approximately 30 times higher than at the frequencies of the two-channel microwave radiometer (MWR) for a precipitable water vapor (PWV) amount of less than 2.5 mm. Measurements from the GVRP instrument are therefore especially useful during low-humidity conditions (PWV < 5 mm). In addition to integrated water vapor and liquid water, the GVRP can provide low-resolution vertical profiles of water vapor in very dry conditions.

  18. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria of 1-butanol + N,N-dimethylformamide and 1-pentanol + N,N-dimethylformamide systems at 50.00 and 100.00 kPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marzal, P.; Gabaldon, C.; Seco, A.; Monton, J.B. [Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The experimental determinations of vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) are indispensable for the design of separation processes such as distillation columns, extractive distillation, and selection of solvents. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria were obtained for the 1-butanol + N,N-dimethylformamide and 1-pentanol + N,N-dimethylformamide systems at 50.00 and 100.00 kPa. The activity coefficients were found to be thermodynamically consistent. The data were correlated with five liquid phase activity coefficient models (Margules, Van Laar, Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC). Experimental vapor pressures of N,N-dimethylformamide are also included.

  19. Heat Recovery in Distillation by Mechanical Vapor Recompression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, F. E.; Zakak, A. I.

    tower energy requirements can be achieved by mechanical vapor recompression. Three design approaches for heating a distillation tower reboiler by mechanical vapor recompression are presented. The advantages of using a screw compressor are discussed... for lowering energy consumption in the distillation process through various heat recovery techniques. (3-8) One such technique utilizes mechanical vapor recompression. (9-12) The principle of this ap proach involves the use of a compressor to recycle...

  20. Recovery of benzene in an organic vapor monitor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krenek, Gregory Joel

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solid adsorbents available (silica gel, activated alumina, etc. ), activated charcoal is most frequently utilized. Activated charcoal has retentivity for sorbed vapors several times that of silica gel and it displays a selectivity for organic vapors... (diffusion rate) of the vapor molecules to the sur- face of the adsorbent. The adsorption process determine how effective the adsorbent collects and holds the contam- inant on the surface of the activated charcoal. Recovery of the contaminant from...

  1. Review of enhanced vapor diffusion in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, S.W.; Ho, C.K.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor diffusion in porous media in the presence of its own liquid has often been treated similar to gas diffusion. The gas diffusion rate in porous media is much lower than in free space due to the presence of the porous medium and any liquid present. However, enhanced vapor diffusion has also been postulated such that the diffusion rate may approach free-space values. Existing data and models for enhanced vapor diffusion, including those in TOUGH2, are reviewed in this paper.

  2. Advanced Chemical Heat Pumps Using Liquid-Vapor Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirol, L.

    ADVANCED CHEMICAL HEAT PUMPS USING LIQUID-VAPOR REACTIONS LANCE KIROL Senior Program Specialist Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Idaho Falls, Idaho . ABSTRACT Chemical heat pumps utilizing liquid-vapor reactions can be configured... in forms analogous to electric drive vapor-compression heat pumps and heat activated absorption heat pumps. Basic thermodynamic considerations eliminate some heat pumps and place restrictive working fluid requirements on others, but two thermodynam...

  3. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, J.M.; Wylie, A.H.

    1996-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus have been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing. 10 figs.

  4. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wylie, Allan H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus has been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing.

  5. Chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berkman, Samuel (Florham Park, NJ)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A single chamber continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor is described for depositing continuously on flat substrates, for example, epitaxial layers of semiconductor materials. The single chamber reactor is formed into three separate zones by baffles or tubes carrying chemical source material and a carrier gas in one gas stream and hydrogen gas in the other stream without interaction while the wafers are heated to deposition temperature. Diffusion of the two gas streams on heated wafers effects the epitaxial deposition in the intermediate zone and the wafers are cooled in the final zone by coolant gases. A CVD reactor for batch processing is also described embodying the deposition principles of the continuous reactor.

  6. Copper vapor laser acoustic thermometry system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galkowski, Joseph J. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A copper vapor laser (CVL) acoustic thermometry system is disclosed. The invention couples an acoustic pulse a predetermined distance into a laser tube by means of a transducer and an alumina rod such that an echo pulse is returned along the alumina rod to the point of entry. The time differential between the point of entry of the acoustic pulse into the laser tube and the exit of the echo pulse is related to the temperature at the predetermined distance within the laser tube. This information is processed and can provide an accurate indication of the average temperature within the laser tube.

  7. Vapor Retarder Classification - Building America Top Innovation |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group current C3EDepartmentDepartment of Energy Photo of a vapor retarder

  8. Category:Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, click here. Category:Conceptual ModelLists forMercury Vapor page? For detailed

  9. acetone vapor sensing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XI, Universit de 7 ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR PROFILES DERIVED FROM REMOTE-SENSING RADIOMETER MEASUREMENTS CiteSeer Summary: The feasibility and preliminary testing of a low...

  10. Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra-Efficient Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra-Efficient Air...

  11. alkali vapor species: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of hexagonal patterns in a nonlinear optical system: Alkali metal vapor in a single-mirror arrangement Physics Websites Summary: Secondary bifurcations of hexagonal patterns in...

  12. alkali atom vapor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    low power requirements, these "chip-scale" atomic Popovic, Zoya 3 Hybrid Optical Pumping of Optically Dense Alkali-Metal Vapor without Quenching Gas M. V. Romalis Physics...

  13. assisted chemical vapor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nanodiamonds (NDs) with 70-80 nm size via bead assisted sonic disintegration (BASD) of a polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition (CVD) film. The NDs display high crystalline...

  14. atmospheric water vapor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    greenhouse gas, contributing to approximately two-thirds of the Earth's greenhouse effect Mitchell, 1989; IntergovernmentalA meta-analysis of water vapor...

  15. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Vapor Power Cycles 1 Vapor Power Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    is not a suitable model for steam power cycle since: The turbine has to handle steam with low quality which will cause erosion and wear in turbine blades. It is impractical to design a compressor that handles two vapor expands isentropically in turbine and produces work. 4-1: Const P heat rejection High quality

  16. The control of confined vapor phase explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scilly, N.F. [Laporte plc, Widnes (United Kingdom); Owen, O.J.R. [Fine Organics, Ltd., Middlesborough (United Kingdom); Wilberforce, J.K. [Solvay SA, Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The probability of, for example, a fire or explosion occurring during a process operation is related both to the fire-related properties of the materials used, such as flash point, flammable limits etc., i.e. the material or intrinsic factors, and the nature of the operation and the equipment used, i.e. the extrinsic factors. The risk, or frequency of occurrence, of other hazards such as reaction runaway, major toxic release etc. can be determined in a similar manner. For a vapor phase explosion (and a fire) the probability of the event is the product of the probability of generating a flammable atmosphere and the probability of ignition. Firstly, materials may be coded using properties that are relevant to the hazard in question. Secondly, different operations have different degrees of risk and these risks are assigned as Low, Medium, High etc. according to criteria outlined here. Combination of these two factors will then be a measure of the overall risk of the operation with the specified material and may be used to define operating standards. Currently, the hazard/risk of a vapor phase explosions is examined by this method but in due course dust explosions, fires, condensed phase explosions, reaction runaways, physical explosions, major toxic releases and incompatibility will be included.

  17. Vapor and gas sampling of Single-Shell Tank 241-A-101 using the Vapor Sampling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caprio, G.S.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents sampling data resulting from the June 8, 1995, sampling of SST 241-A-101 using the Vapor Sampling System.

  18. PressurePressure Indiana Coal Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    TimeTime PressurePressure · Indiana Coal Characteristics · Indiana Coals for Coke · CoalTransportation in Indiana · Coal Slurry Ponds Evaluation · Site Selection for Coal Gasification · Coal-To-Liquids Study, CTL · Indiana Coal Forecasting · Under-Ground Coal Gasification · Benefits of Oxyfuel Combustion · Economic

  19. Integrated natural-gas-engine cooling-jacket vapor-compressor program. Annual report (Phase 1A), February 1985-October 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiBella, F.A.; Balsavich, J.; Becker, F.

    1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project objective is to design and test a prototype Integrated Gas Engine Vapor Compression System; a system that is thought to be an attractive and economically viable alternative to currently available cogeneration systems. A unique, alternative cogeneration system has been designed that will provide an industrial or commercial energy user with high-pressure steam and electricity directly from a packaged cogeneration system. The Integrated Gas Engine Vapor Compression System concept includes an engine-generator set and a steam screw compressor that is mechanically integrated with the engine.

  20. A study of capillary pressure in a partly saturated quartz powder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Jack Willard, Jr

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3-2. Principle of the Direct Suction Method. of Measuring Soil Suction contents. Suctions greater than one atmosphere cannot be measured as the water in the measuring system will vaporize or cavitate. The direct suction method (Figure 3-2) covers.... This does not effect the capillary pressure, which is the difference between the air and water across the menisci formed in the disc and. sample, but it does relieve negative pressure in the measuring system water. Therefore the cavitation...

  1. 1-Dimensional Numerical Model of Thermal Conduction and Vapor Diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schörghofer, Norbert

    developed by Samar Khatiwala, 2001 extended to variable thermal properties and irregular grid by Norbert Sch for c. Upper boundary condition: a) Radiation Q + k T z z=0 = T4 z=0 Q is the incoming solar flux of Water Vapor with Phase Transitions developed by Norbert Sch¨orghofer, 2003­2004 3 phases: vapor, free

  2. Fenton Oxidation of TCE Vapors in a Foam Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fenton Oxidation of TCE Vapors in a Foam Reactor Eunsung Kan,a,b Seongyup Kim,a and Marc A.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/ep.10205 Oxidation of dilute TCE vapors in a foam reactor using Fenton's reagent composition of Fenton's reagents, the foam reactor configuration provided a higher rate absorption and greater

  3. ADHESION FORCES BETWEEN MICA SURFACES IN UNDERSATURATED VAPORS OF HYDROCARBONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsuoka, Hiroshige

    ADHESION FORCES BETWEEN MICA SURFACES IN UNDERSATURATED VAPORS OF HYDROCARBONS H. MATSUOKA1 , T] or meniscus force [3], which have been neglected in the conventional and relatively large mechani- cal systems forces between mica surfaces in under- saturated vapors of several kind of hydrocarbon liquids are mea

  4. Analysis of electron-beam vaporization of refractory metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheshgi, H.S.; Gresho, P.M.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron beam is focussed onto a small area on the surface of a refractory metal to locally raise the temperature and vaporize metal. At high vaporization rates the hot area is on the surface of a churning liquid-metal pool contained in a solid-metal skull which sits in a cooled crucible. Inner workings of the process are revealed by analysis of momentum, energy, and mass transfer. At the surface high temperature causes high vaporization rate and high vapor thrust, depressing the vapor/liquid surface. In the liquid pool surface-tension gradients and thermal buoyancy drive a (typically) chaotic flow. In the solid skull thermal conductivity and contact resistance regulate the rate of heat transfer from pool to crucible. Analyses of these phenomena together reveal process performance sensitivities - e.g., to depression size or to magnitude of surface-tension gradients. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

  6. Monitoring of vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for monitoring vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a high-temperature environment has an excitation source producing electromagnetic radiation, an optical path having an optical probe optically communicating the electromagnetic radiation received at a proximal end to a distal end, a spectrometer or polychromator, a detector, and a positioner coupled to the first optical path. The positioner can slidably move the distal end of the optical probe to maintain the distal end position with respect to an area of a material undergoing combustion. The emitted wavelength can be directed to a detector in a single optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration, in a dual optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration or in a dual optical probe 90.degree. side scattered configuration. The apparatus can be used to monitor an emitted wavelength of energy from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as it fluoresces in a high temperature environment.

  7. Chemical vapor deposition of group IIIB metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erbil, A.

    1989-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Coatings of Group IIIB metals and compounds thereof are formed by chemical vapor deposition, in which a heat decomposable organometallic compound of the formula given in the patent where M is a Group IIIB metal, such as lanthanum or yttrium and R is a lower alkyl or alkenyl radical containing from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms, with a heated substrate which is above the decomposition temperature of the organometallic compound. The pure metal is obtained when the compound of the formula 1 is the sole heat decomposable compound present and deposition is carried out under nonoxidizing conditions. Intermetallic compounds such as lanthanum telluride can be deposited from a lanthanum compound of formula 1 and a heat decomposable tellurium compound under nonoxidizing conditions.

  8. Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System: Thermal Storage Using Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: UTRC is developing a new climate-control system for EVs that uses a hybrid vapor compression adsorption system with thermal energy storage. The targeted, closed system will use energy during the battery-charging step to recharge the thermal storage, and it will use minimal power to provide cooling or heating to the cabin during a drive cycle. The team will use a unique approach of absorbing a refrigerant on a metal salt, which will create a lightweight, high-energy-density refrigerant. This unique working pair can operate indefinitely as a traditional vapor compression heat pump using electrical energy, if desired. The project will deliver a hot-and-cold battery that provides comfort to the passengers using minimal power, substantially extending the driving range of EVs.

  9. Gas Separation Using Organic-Vapor-Resistent Membranes In Conjunctin With Organic-Vapor-Selective Membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); He, Zhenjie (Fremont, CA); Da Costa, Andre R. (Menlo Park, CA); Daniels, Ramin (San Jose, CA); Amo, Karl D. (Mountain View, CA); Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA)

    2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for treating a gas mixture containing at least an organic compound gas or vapor and a second gas, such as natural gas, refinery off-gas or air. The process uses two sequential membrane separation steps, one using membrane selective for the organic compound over the second gas, the other selective for the second gas over the organic vapor. The second-gas-selective membranes use a selective layer made from a polymer having repeating units of a fluorinated polymer, and demonstrate good resistance to plasticization by the organic components in the gas mixture under treatment, and good recovery after exposure to liquid aromatic hydrocarbons. The membrane steps can be combined in either order.

  10. Understanding Blood Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Understanding Blood Pressure · Monitorathomewithadigitalmonitor. · Useleftarmwithcorrectsizecuff. · Avoidcaffeine,alcohol,andtobacco. Steps to Follow FOR AN ACCURATE MEASUREMENT Blood pressure is the measurement of the force of blood on the walls of the arteries. Bottom number = Diastolic (force between heart beats) Top

  11. Integrated natural-gas-engine cooling-jacket vapor-compressor program. Final report, February 1985-August 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiBella, F.A.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A unique, alternative cogeneration system has been designed that will provide an industrial or commercial energy user with high-pressure steam and electricity directly from a packaged cogeneration system. The Integrated Gas Engine Vapor Compression System concept includes an engine-generator set and a twin screw compressor that are mechanically integrated with the engine. The gas-fueled engine is ebulliently cooled, thus allowing its water jacket heat to be recovered in the form of low-pressure steam. The steam is then compressed by the steam compressor to a higher pressure, and when combined with the high-pressure steam generated in the engine's exhaust gas boiler, it provides the end user with a more usable thermal energy source. Phase 1B of the project was completed in 1986 and consisted primarily of the procurement of equipment and the final design and assembly of a prototype integrated gas engine vapor compression system. The project continued with Phase 2, which comprised the actual laboratory testing of the prototype system, as well as the study of several pertinent subtasks that were identified to GRI as supportive of the primary project objective. Phase 2 also included the selection of a field site, site engineering, and the final installation, start-up, and acceptance testing of the system.

  12. A model of vapor-liquid equilibria in acid gas: Aqueous alkanolamine systems using the electrolyte-NRTL equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austgen, D.M.; Rochelle, G.T. (Univ. of Texas at Austin, TX (US)); (Peng, X. (Sinopen Beijing Design Institute (US)); Chen, C.C. (Aspen Technology, Inc. TX (US)))

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper a thermodynamically-consistent model is developed for representing vapor-liquid equilibria in the acid gas (H/sub 2/S, CO/sub 2/)-alkanolamine-water system. The model accounts for chemical equilibria in a rigorous manner. Activity coefficients are represented with the Electrolyte-NRTL equation, treating both long-range ion-ion interactions and short-range interactions between all true liquid phase species. Both water and alkanolamine are treated as solvents. Adjustable parameters of the Electrolyte-NRTL equation, representing short-range binary interactions, are fitted primarily on binary and ternary system VLE data. Calculated vapor pressures of H/sub 2/S or CO/sub 2/ over aqueous solutions of monoethanolamine or diethanolamine generally agree with published experimental data within 10 percent over the temperature range 25-120{sup 0}C. No more than two additional parameters are adjusted on quartenary system VLE data to provide a good representation of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/ vapor pressures over the same alkanolamine solutions.

  13. alkali-metal vapor density: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    system: Alkali metal vapor in a single-mirror arrangement Physics Websites Summary: Secondary bifurcations of hexagonal patterns in a nonlinear optical system: Alkali metal vapor...

  14. Apparatus for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Gloucester, MA); Marcucci, Rudolph V. (Danvers, MA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for enriching the isotopic Hg content of mercury is provided. The apparatus includes a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill including mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. In a preferred embodiment, constant mercury pressure is maintained in the filter by means of a water-cooled tube that depends from it, the tube having a drop of mercury disposed in it. The reactor is arranged around the filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of a material which is transparent to ultraviolet light.

  15. The effect of the operation modes of a gas discharge low-pressure amalgam lamp on the intensity of generation of 185 nm UV vacuum radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasilyak, L. M., E-mail: vasilyak@ihed.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute of High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Drozdov, L. A., E-mail: lit@npo.lit.ru; Kostyuchenko, S. V.; Sokolov, D. V. [ZAO LIT (Russian Federation); Kudryavtsev, N. N.; Sobur, D. A., E-mail: soburda@gmail.com [Moscow Institute for Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of the discharge current, mercury vapor pressure, and the inert gas pressure on the intensity and efficiency of the 185 nm line generation are considered. The spectra of the UV radiation (vacuum ultraviolet) transmission by protective coatings from the oxides of rare earth metals and aluminum are investigated.

  16. Optical characterization of InN layers grown by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nabben, Reinhard

    and optical properties of InN films grown on sapphire and GaN/sapphire templates. Results obtained from Raman analyzed in this contribution were grown on GaN/sapphire and sapphire 0001 substrates by HPCVD, utilizing to optical absorption edge estimates obtained from optical transmission spectra analysis. The analysis shows

  17. HIGH PRESSURE VAPOR TRANSPORT OF ZnGeP 2 : II. THREEDIMENSIONAL SIMULATION OF GASDYNAMICS UNDER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the laser damage threshold of ZnGeP 2 non­linear optical devices that are built with bulk single crystals in HPVT crystal growth. Introduction Non­linear optical interactions in birefringent materials find laser) radiation. Typically, these materials have been processed using bulk crystal growth techniques

  18. IMPROVED MAGNUS' FORM OF SATURATION VAPOR PRESSURE Oleg A. Alduchov' and Robert E. Eskridge

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilAElectronic InputRudolphMATERIALSInformationUniversity)WPreprintCELL WALLS |-

  19. Using a MaxEnt Classifier for the Automatic Content Scoring of Free-Text Responses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sukkarieh, Jana Z. [Educational Testing Service, Rosedale Road, Princeton NJ 08541 (United States)

    2011-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Criticisms against multiple-choice item assessments in the USA have prompted researchers and organizations to move towards constructed-response (free-text) items. Constructed-response (CR) items pose many challenges to the education community - one of which is that they are expensive to score by humans. At the same time, there has been widespread movement towards computer-based assessment and hence, assessment organizations are competing to develop automatic content scoring engines for such items types - which we view as a textual entailment task. This paper describes how MaxEnt Modeling is used to help solve the task. MaxEnt has been used in many natural language tasks but this is the first application of the MaxEnt approach to textual entailment and automatic content scoring.

  20. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria of the water + 2-propanol system at 30, 60, and 100 kPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marzal, P.; Monton, J.B.; Rodrigo, M.A. [Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica] [Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distillation is perhaps the separation process most widely used in the chemical processing industry. The correct design of distillation columns requires the availability of accurate and, if possible, thermodynamically consistent vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) data. The present work is part of a project studying the effect of pressure on the behavior of the azeotropic point in mixtures in which at least one component is an alcohol. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria were obtained for the water + 2-propanol system at 30, 60, and 100 kPa. The activity coefficients were found to be thermodynamically consistent by the methods of Van Ness-Byer-Gibbs, Kojima, and Wisniak. The data were correlated with five liquid phase activity coefficient models (Margules, Van Laar, Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC).

  1. Vapor-liquid equilibria of the water + 1,3-propanediol and water + 1,3-propanediol + lithium bromide systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mun, S.Y.; Lee, H.

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data of the water + 1,3-propanediol and water + 1,3-propanediol + lithium bromide systems were measured at 60, 160, 300, and 760 mmHg at temperatures ranging from 315 to 488 K. The apparatus used in this work is a modified still especially designed for the measurement of low-pressure VLE, in which both liquid and vapor are continuously recirculated. For the analysis of salt-containing solutions, a method incorporating refractometry and gravimetry was used. From the experimental measurements, the effect of lithium bromide on the VLE behavior of water + 1,3-propanediol was investigated. The experimental data of the salt-free system were successfully correlated using the Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC models. In addition, the extended UNIQUAC model of Sander et al. was applied to the VLE calculation of salt-containing mixtures.

  2. A model of vapor-liquid equilibria for acid gas-alkanolamine-water systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austgen, D.M. Jr.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A physico-chemical model was developed for representing liquid phase chemical equilibria and vapor-liquid (phase) equilibria of H{sub 2}SCO{sub 2}-alkanolamine-water systems. The equilibrium composition of the liquid phase is determined by minimization of the Gibbs free energy. Activity coefficients are represented with the Electrolyte-NRTL equation treating both long-range electrostatic interactions and short-range binary interactions between liquid phase species. Vapor phase fugacity coefficients are calculated using the Redlich-Kwong-Soave Equation of State. Adjustable parameters of the model, binary interaction parameters and carbamate stability constants, were fitted on published binary system alkanolamine-water and ternary system (H{sub 2}S-alkanolamine-water, CO{sub 2}-alkanolamine-water) VLE data. The Data Regression System of ASPEN PLUS, based upon the Maximum Likelihood Principle, was used to estimate adjustable parameters. Ternary system measurements used in parameter estimation ranged in temperature from 25 to 120{degree}C in alkanolamine concentration from 1 to 5 M, in acid gas loading from 0 to 1.5 moles per mole alkanolamine, and in acid gas partial pressure from 0.1 to 1,000 kPa. Maximum likelihood estimates of ternary system H{sub 2} or CO{sub 2} equilibrium partial pressures and liquid phase concentrations were found to be in good agreement with measurements for aqueous solutions of monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), diglycolamine (DGA), and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) indicating that the model successfully represents ternary system data. The model was extended to represent CO{sub 2} solubility in aqueous mixtures of MDEA with MEA or DEA. The solubility was measured at 40 and 80{degree}C over a wide range of CO{sub 2} partial pressures. These measurements were used to estimate additional binary parameters of the mixed solvent systems.

  3. Atmospheric Pressure Reactor System | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Pressure Reactor System Atmospheric Pressure Reactor System The atmospheric pressure reactor system is designed for testing the efficiency of various catalysts for the...

  4. In-well vapor stripping drilling and characterization work plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koegler, K.J.

    1994-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This work plan provides the information necessary for drilling, sampling, and hydrologic testing of wells to be completed in support of a demonstration of the in-well vapor stripping system. The in-well vapor stripping system is a remediation technology designed to preferentially extract volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater by converting them to a vapor phase. Air-lift pumping is used to lift and aerate groundwater within the well. The volatiles escaping the aerated water are drawn off by a slight vacuum and treated at the surface while the water is allowed to infiltrate the vadose zone back to the watertable.

  5. Vapor deposition of water on graphitic surfaces: Formation of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lupi, Laura; Kastelowitz, Noah; Molinero, Valeria, E-mail: Valeria.Molinero@utah.edu [Department of Chemistry, The University of Utah, 315 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0850 (United States)

    2014-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbonaceous surfaces are a major source of atmospheric particles and could play an important role in the formation of ice. Here we investigate through molecular simulations the stability, metastability, and molecular pathways of deposition of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, and ice I from water vapor on graphitic and atomless Lennard-Jones surfaces as a function of temperature. We find that bilayer ice is the most stable ice polymorph for small cluster sizes, nevertheless it can grow metastable well above its region of thermodynamic stability. In agreement with experiments, the simulations predict that on increasing temperature the outcome of water deposition is amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water. The deposition nucleation of bilayer ice and ice I is preceded by the formation of small liquid clusters, which have two wetting states: bilayer pancake-like (wetting) at small cluster size and droplet-like (non-wetting) at larger cluster size. The wetting state of liquid clusters determines which ice polymorph is nucleated: bilayer ice nucleates from wetting bilayer liquid clusters and ice I from non-wetting liquid clusters. The maximum temperature for nucleation of bilayer ice on flat surfaces, T{sub B}{sup max} is given by the maximum temperature for which liquid water clusters reach the equilibrium melting line of bilayer ice as wetting bilayer clusters. Increasing water-surface attraction stabilizes the pancake-like wetting state of liquid clusters leading to larger T{sub B}{sup max} for the flat non-hydrogen bonding surfaces of this study. The findings of this study should be of relevance for the understanding of ice formation by deposition mode on carbonaceous atmospheric particles, including soot.

  6. MaxNet: Faster Flow Control Convergence Bartek P. Wydrowski, Lachlan L. H. Andrew, Iven M. Y. Mareels.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew, Lachlan

    MaxNet: Faster Flow Control Convergence Bartek P. Wydrowski, Lachlan L. H. Andrew, Iven M. Y of Melbourne, Vic, 3010, Australia Ph. +61 3 8344 3816 Fax. +61 3 8344 6678 Abstract. MaxNet is a distributed generates the congestion signal that controls the source rate. This is unlike SumNet networks

  7. Photoinitiated chemical vapor depostion [sic] : mechanism and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baxamusa, Salmaan Husain

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photoinitiated chemical vapor deposition (piCVD) is developed as a simple, solventless, and rapid method for the deposition of swellable hydrogels and functional hydrogel copolymers. Mechanistic experiments show that piCVD ...

  8. Low Level Heat Recovery Through Heat Pumps and Vapor Recompression 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of each approach as a function of the source and sink temperatures and magnitude of heat flow. Generic heat pumps and vapor recompression designs are explained, costed, estimated in performance, and evaluated as a function of the economic parameters...

  9. Optical Precursors in Rubidium Vapor and Their Relation to Superradiance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenlong

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical precursor is the sharp optical pulse front that does not show delay in absorptive media. In this thesis, optical precursor behavior in rubidium (Rb) vapor was investigated in the picoseconds regime. An amplified femtosecond laser was shaped...

  10. Applications of Mechanical Vapor Recompression to Evaporation and Crystallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Outland, J. S.

    there is no boiler plant available or when electrical power is priced competitively in comparison to steam. Vapor recompression is accomplished using centrifugal, axial-flow, or positive displacement compressors and these compressors can be powered by electricity...

  11. Melt and vapor characteristics in an electron beam evaporator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumenfeld, L.; Fleche, J.L.; Gonella, C. [DCC/DPE/SPEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We compare the free surface temperatures T{sub s}, calculated by two methods, in cerium or copper evaporation experiments. The first method considers properties of the melt: by an empirical law we take into account turbulent thermal convection, instabilities and craterization of the free surface. The second method considers the vapor flow expansion and connects T{sub s} to the measured terminal parallel temperature and the terminal mean parallel velocity of the vapor jet, by Direct Simulation Monte Carlo calculations including an atom-atom inelastic collision algorithm. The agreement between the two approaches is better for cerium than for copper in the high craterization case. The analysis, from the point of view of the properties of the melt, of the terminal parameters of the vapor jet for the high beam powers shows that T{sub s} and the Knudsen number at the vapor source reach a threshold when the beam power increases.

  12. University of Oregon: GPS-based Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Vignola, F.; Andreas, A.

    A partnership with the University of Oregon and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) data to compliment existing resource assessment data collection by the university.

  13. Chemical vapor deposition of organosilicon and sacrificial polymer thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casserly, Thomas Bryan

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) produced films for a wide array of applications from a variety of organosilicon and organic precursors. The structure and properties of thin films were controlled by varying processing ...

  14. Initiated chemical vapor deposition of functional polyacrylic thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mao, Yu, 1975-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) was explored as a novel method for synthesis of functional polyacrylic thin films. The process introduces a peroxide initiator, which can be decomposed at low temperatures (<200?C) ...

  15. Apparent Temperature Dependence on Localized Atmospheric Water Vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvaggio, Carl

    Apparent Temperature Dependence on Localized Atmospheric Water Vapor Matthew Montanaroa, Carl temperature of the target if not properly accounted for. The temperature error is defined as the difference between the target leaving apparent temperature and observed apparent temperature. The effects

  16. Low Level Heat Recovery Through Heat Pumps and Vapor Recompression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The intent of this paper is to examine the methods and economics of recovering low level heat through heat pumps and vapor recompression. Actual commercially available equipment is considered to determine the near-term and future economic viability...

  17. Enabling integration of vapor-deposited polymer thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petruczok, Christy D. (Christy Danielle)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) is a versatile, one-step process for synthesizing conformal and functional polymer thin films on a variety of substrates. This thesis emphasizes the development of tools to further ...

  18. Systems and methods for generation of hydrogen peroxide vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Love, Adam H; Eckels, Joel Del; Vu, Alexander K; Alcaraz, Armando; Reynolds, John G

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A system according to one embodiment includes a moisture trap for drying air; at least one of a first container and a second container; and a mechanism for at least one of: bubbling dried air from the moisture trap through a hydrogen peroxide solution in the first container for producing a hydrogen peroxide vapor, and passing dried air from the moisture trap into a headspace above a hydrogen peroxide solution in the second container for producing a hydrogen peroxide vapor. A method according one embodiment includes at least one of bubbling dried air through a hydrogen peroxide solution in a container for producing a first hydrogen peroxide vapor, and passing dried air from the moisture trap into a headspace above the hydrogen peroxide solution in a container for producing a second hydrogen peroxide vapor. Additional systems and methods are also presented.

  19. Type B Accident Investigation of the Acid Vapor Inhalation on...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2005, in TA-48, Building RC-1 Room 402 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Type B Accident Investigation of the Acid Vapor Inhalation on June 7, 2005, in TA-48, Building RC-1...

  20. A thermokinetic model describing the vaporization behavior of U[sub x]Zr[sub 1-x]C[sub 1-y] in hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butt, D.P.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the thermodynamics and kinetics of the corrosion of U[sub x]Zr[sub 1-x]C[sub 1-y] in hydrogen gas. It describes how corrosion rates are influenced by variables such as pressure, temperature, and gas flow rate. A model is developed which agrees with experimental steady-state corrosion rates at 1 atm between 2670 and 3100 K. It is shown that under steady-state conditions the corrosion flux is rate limited by the vapor phase transport of Zr(g) away from the solid surface to the bulk gas stream where the partial pressure of Zr(g) is determined by the congruently vaporizing surface composition. Extrapolation of the model to higher pressures indicates that Zr(g) transport should also be rate limiting at higher pressures but the corrosion rate should decrease slightly with increased hydrogen pressure due to reduced gaseous diffusion rates. The model predicts that the corrosion rate will increase as the square root of gas velocity for a given temperature and pressure. Calculations demonstrating the effects of gas velocity are in agreement with experimental studies.

  1. A thermokinetic model describing the vaporization behavior of U{sub x}Zr{sub 1-x}C{sub 1-y} in hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butt, D.P

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the thermodynamics and kinetics of the corrosion of U{sub x}Zr{sub 1-x}C{sub 1-y} in hydrogen gas. It describes how corrosion rates are influenced by variables such as pressure, temperature, and gas flow rate. A model is developed which agrees with experimental steady-state corrosion rates at 1 atm between 2670 and 3100 K. It is shown that under steady-state conditions the corrosion flux is rate limited by the vapor phase transport of Zr(g) away from the solid surface to the bulk gas stream where the partial pressure of Zr(g) is determined by the congruently vaporizing surface composition. Extrapolation of the model to higher pressures indicates that Zr(g) transport should also be rate limiting at higher pressures but the corrosion rate should decrease slightly with increased hydrogen pressure due to reduced gaseous diffusion rates. The model predicts that the corrosion rate will increase as the square root of gas velocity for a given temperature and pressure. Calculations demonstrating the effects of gas velocity are in agreement with experimental studies.

  2. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Chae Un (Ithaca, NY); Gruner, Sol M. (Ithaca, NY)

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  3. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  4. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cadeddu, Maria

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  5. KC-135 zero-gravity two-phase flow pressure drop experiments and modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lambert, Anne

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the nomenclature list . 13 f @=0 079(gD P. (ttt j The frictional pressure gradient calculated from the Fanning equation for the total flow liquid plus vapor) assumed to flow as liquid is: (dP j ~2f G dz ra D Finally, combining equation (4) and (5), the two... be integrated to obtain the frictional pressure drop: hpze=L( ? )ze or dP dz m 2f G2L 24 p D Annular Flow Model Colli r In the case of annular flow with no entrainment and a "smooth" interface, Collier [11] shows that the friction pressure gradient can...

  6. Intermediate Vapor Expansion Distillation and Nested Enrichment Cascade Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.

    INTERMEDIATE VAPOR EXPANSION DISTILLATION AND NESTED ENRICHMENT CASCADE DISTILLATION D.. C. Erickson Energy Concepts Company Annapolis, Maryland ABSTRACT Although it is known that incorporating an intermediate reboiler or reflux... condenser in a distillation ~olumn will improve column efficiency by 15 to 100%, there has been little use of this technique to date." Intermediate vapor compression heat pumping was recently introduced as one practical means of achieving this benefit...

  7. Injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers is disclosed. The invention includes the combination of a seeding oscillator with an injection locked oscillator (ILO) for improving the quality, particularly the intensity, of an output laser beam pulse. The present invention includes means for matching the first seeder laser pulses from the seeding oscillator to second laser pulses of a metal vapor laser to improve the quality, and particularly the intensity, of the output laser beam pulse.

  8. Vaporizer design criteria for ethanol fueled internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ariyaratne, Arachchi Rallage

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Properties of Alcohols, Water and Petroleum Fuels. 2 Results of regression analysis. 3 Effect of various parameters on vaporization length. 51 4 Predicted tube length for different fuel requirements (Ten stainless steel tubes, 4. 7 mm ID. ). 60 ix LIST... with quality with increasing heat flux as parameter. 18 5 Reynolds Number Factor, F. 6 Suppression Factor, S. 27 27 7 Flow chart of the algorithm for vaporization length. 8 The single tube heat exchanger. 33 36 9 Thermocouple arrangement along...

  9. Social science in forestry Paul Tabbush, Liz O'Brien, Max Hislop and Suzanne Martin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Social science in forestry Paul Tabbush, Liz O'Brien, Max Hislop and Suzanne Martin The Social on the idea that sustainable forestry, derived from the 1993 Helsinki Conference, is the result of economic development that is positive in its implications for the environment and for society (Forestry Commission

  10. MinMax Control of LQ Systems under the H1 Norm Constraint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Satoshi

    ** Abstract: Satisfactory optimal control of linear systems under the existence of distur­ bance is studiedMin­Max Control of LQ Systems under the H1 Norm Constraint Kiyotaka Shimizu* and Satoshi Ito. The satisfactory optimal control minimizes a quadratic maximal­valued objective functional subject to the H1 norm

  11. Bayesian Learning via Stochastic Gradient Langevin Dynamics Max Welling welling@ics.uci.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaski, Samuel

    Bayesian Learning via Stochastic Gradient Langevin Dynamics Max Welling welling@ics.uci.edu D. Bren on iterative learning from small mini-batches. By adding the right amount of noise to a standard stochastic" and collects sam- ples after it has been surpassed. We apply the method to three models: a mixture of Gaussians

  12. Ventilation Requirements in Hot Humid Iain S. Walker and Max H. Sherman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-59889 Ventilation Requirements in Hot Humid Climates Iain S. Walker and Max H. Sherman residential ventilation standard, ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Meeting this standard in new construction requires the use of mechanical ventilation, which in turn can often significantly increase the latent load faced

  13. HEAT RECOVERY IN BUILDING ENVELOPES Max H. Sherman and Iain S. Walker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 LBNL 47329 HEAT RECOVERY IN BUILDING ENVELOPES Max H. Sherman and Iain S. Walker Energy formula may produce an unreasonably high contribution because of heat recovery within the building physical model has been developed and used to predict the infiltration heat recovery based on the Peclet

  14. Efficient Cross-Layer Negotiation Max Planck Institute for Software Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Bryan

    Efficient Cross-Layer Negotiation Bryan Ford Max Planck Institute for Software Systems baford toward a more evolvable Internet. 1. INTRODUCTION The Internet's power and generality rests on its archi-studied [4, 5, 16]. Layering connection-oriented protocols can also increase connection setup delay, however

  15. AmbiMax: Autonomous Energy Harvesting Platform for Multi-Supply Wireless Sensor Nodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chou, Pai H.

    of multiple energy harvesting sources including solar, wind, thermal, and vibration, each with a different as the operating lifetime. Unfortunately, Fig. 1. Photo of AmbiMax Hardware with a Solar Panel, Wind Generator power efficiently. As a result, they must use a much larger solar panel than necessary to yield the same

  16. Large-Scale Patent Classification with Min-Max Modular Support Vector Machines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Bao-Liang

    Large-Scale Patent Classification with Min-Max Modular Support Vector Machines Xiao-Lei Chu, Chao Ma, Jing Li, Bao-Liang Lu Senior Member, IEEE, Masao Utiyama, and Hitoshi Isahara Abstract-- Patent-world patent classification typically exceeds one million, and this number increases every year. An effective

  17. Adaptation of Organizational Models for Multi-Agent Systems based on Max Flow Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    López-Sánchez, Maite

    Adaptation of Organizational Models for Multi-Agent Systems based on Max Flow Networks Mark Amsterdam, The Netherlands mhoogen@cs.vu.nl http://www.cs.vu.nl/~mhoogen Abstract Organizational models of the organizational model can be essential to ensure a continuous success- ful function of the system. This paper

  18. Prediction of Protein Subcellular Multi-locations with a Min-Max Modular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Bao-Liang

    -location problem. In addition, there are a large portion of proteins lack the information like GO and FunPrediction of Protein Subcellular Multi-locations with a Min-Max Modular Support Vector Machine subcellular multi-locations of proteins with machine learning techniques is a challenging problem

  19. Special Publication 800-127 Guide to Securing WiMAX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padgette of Booz Allen Hamilton. The authors would also like to thank the WiMAX Forum of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Cyrus Tibbs and Matthew Sexton of Booz Allen Hamilton, wish to thank their colleagues who reviewed drafts of this document and contributed to its

  20. DARK MATTER AND DARK ENERGY AS EFFECTS OF QUANTUM GRAVITY Max I. Fomitchev1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giles, C. Lee

    DARK MATTER AND DARK ENERGY AS EFFECTS OF QUANTUM GRAVITY Max I. Fomitchev1 Submitted March 12th of high matter density expected in the early Universe I show that primordial inflation and dark energy (i , 2004 ABSTRACT I present a theory of quantum gravity based on the principle of gravitational energy

  1. High Speed Max-Log-MAP Turbo SISO Decoder Implementation Using Branch Metric Normalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arslan, Tughrul

    High Speed Max-Log-MAP Turbo SISO Decoder Implementation Using Branch Metric Normalization J. H.Erdogan@ee.ed.ac.uk, Tughrul.Arslan@ee.ed.ac.uk Abstract The authors present a turbo soft-in soft-out (SISO) decoder based. The turbo decoder with the proposed technique has been synthesized to evaluate its power consumption

  2. Virtual Test Tubes: A New Methodology for Computing Max Garzon, Evan Drumwright

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deaton, Russell J.

    with conventional solid-state based computers. Here, we explore an alter- native approach to exploiting and complexity, comparing it with the standard symbolic-based solid-state approach. It is becoming increasinglyVirtual Test Tubes: A New Methodology for Computing Max Garzon, Evan Drumwright Computer Science

  3. Max-Weight Scheduling in Queueing Networks With Heavy-Tailed Traffic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markakis, Mihalis G.

    We consider the problem of scheduling in a single-hop switched network with a mix of heavy-tailed and light-tailed traffic and analyze the impact of heavy-tailed traffic on the performance of Max-Weight scheduling. As a ...

  4. An Object-Oriented Method for ASCET Max Fuchs and Dieter Nazareth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    98MF19 BMW-ROOM An Object-Oriented Method for ASCET Max Fuchs and Dieter Nazareth BMW AG, 80788 Munich Maximilian.Fuchs,Dieter.Nazareth@bmw.de Dirk Daniel and Bernhard Rumpe Department of Computer kitchen without a cooking book. Plans to employ the tool for BMW vehicle software sparked off demand

  5. Computing Reliability Distributions of Windowed Max-log-map (MLM) Detectors : ISI Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavcic, Aleksandar

    Computing Reliability Distributions of Windowed Max-log-map (MLM) Detectors : ISI Channels Fabian-log-map (MLM) detector has well-known appli- cations to the intersymbol interefence (ISI) channel [1, · · · , is trans- mitted across the ISI channel. Let the following random This work was performed when F. Lim

  6. Beef Cow Management Survey USDA NAHMS 2007-2008 Max Irsik DVM, MAB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    identification survey results (USDA NAHMS 2007-2008) Beef cow management practices Percent of Operations by typeBeef Cow Management Survey USDA NAHMS 2007-2008 Max Irsik DVM, MAB Beef Cattle Extension-calf operations. The Beef 2007-08 study focused on health and management practices on U.S. beef operations from 24

  7. Pressure-sensitive optrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for sensing changes in pressure and for generating optical signals related to changes in pressure. Light from a fiber optic is directed to a movable surface which is coated with a light-responsive material, and which moves relative to the end of the fiber optic in response to changes in pressure. The same fiber optic collects a portion of the reflected or emitted light from the movable surface. Changes in pressure are determined by measuring changes in the amount of light collected. 5 figs.

  8. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, Juhani (Karhula, FI)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

  9. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isaksson, J.

    1996-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

  10. Dual shell pressure balanced vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fassbender, Alexander G. (West Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dual-wall pressure balanced vessel for processing high viscosity slurries at high temperatures and pressures having an outer pressure vessel and an inner vessel with an annular space between the vessels pressurized at a pressure slightly less than or equivalent to the pressure within the inner vessel.

  11. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Annual status report for FY 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvers, K.L.; Fruchter, J.S.; Huckaby, J.L.; Almeida, T.L.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Pool, K.H.; Simonen, C.A.; Thornton, B.M.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Fiscal Year 1996, staff at the Vapor Analytical Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performed work in support of characterizing the vapor composition of the headspaces of radioactive waste tanks at the Hanford Site. Work performed included support for technical issues and sampling methodologies, upgrades for analytical equipment, analytical method development, preparation of unexposed samples, analyses of tank headspaces samples, preparation of data reports, and operation of the tank vapor database. Progress made in FY 1996 included completion and issuance of 50 analytical data reports. A sampling system comparison study was initiated and completed during the fiscal year. The comparison study involved the vapor sampling system (VSS), a truck-based system, and the in situ vapor sampling system (ISVS), a cart-based system. Samples collected during the study were characterized for inorganic, permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds and organic speciation by SUMMA{trademark} and TST methods. The study showed comparable sampling results between the systems resulting in the program switching from the VSS to the less expensive ISVS methodology in late May 1996. A temporal study was initiated in January 1996 in order to understand the influences seasonal temperatures changes have on the vapors in the headspace of Hanford waste tanks. A holding time study was initiated in the fourth quarter of FY 1996. Samples were collected from tank S-102 and rushed to the laboratory for time zero analysis. Additional samples will be analyzed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 weeks.

  12. Compound nuclear decay and the liquid to vapor phase transition: a physical picture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. G. Moretto; J. B. Elliott; L. Phair

    2005-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Analyses of multifragmentation in terms of the Fisher droplet model (FDM) and the associated construction of a nuclear phase diagram bring forth the problem of the actual existence of the nuclear vapor phase and the meaning of its associated pressure. We present here a physical picture of fragment production from excited nuclei that solves this problem and establishes the relationship between the FDM and the standard compound nucleus decay rate for rare particles emitted in first-chance decay. The compound thermal emission picture is formally equivalent to a FDM-like equilibrium description and avoids the problem of the vapor while also explaining the observation of Boltzmann-like distribution of emission times. In this picture a simple Fermi gas thermometric relation is naturally justified and verified in the fragment yields and time scales. Low energy compound nucleus fragment yields scale according to the FDM and lead to an estimate of the infinite symmetric nuclear matter critical temperature between 18 and 27 MeV depending on the choice of the surface energy coefficient of nuclear matter.

  13. High pressure low heat rate phosphoric acid fuel cell stack

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wertheim, R.J.

    1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A high pressure phosphoric acid fuel cell stack assembly is described comprising: (a) a stack of fuel cells for producing electricity, the stack including cathode means, anode means, and heat exchange means; (b) means for delivering pressurized air to the cathode means; (c) means for delivering a hydrogen rich fuel gas to the anode means for electrochemically reacting with oxygen in the pressurized air to produce electricity and water; (d) first conduit means connected to the cathode means for exhausting a mixture of oxygen-depleted air and reaction water from the cathode means; (e) second conduit means connected to the first conduit means for delivering a water fog to the first conduit means for entrainment in the mixture of oxygen-depleted air and reaction water to form a two phase coolant having a gaseous air phase and an entrained water droplet phase; (f) means for circulating the coolant to the heat exchange means to cool the stack solely through vaporization of the water droplet phase in the heat exchange means whereby a mixed gas exhaust of air and water vapor is exhausted from the heat exchange means; and (g) means for heating the mixed gas exhaust and delivering the heated mixed gas exhaust at reformer reaction temperatures to an autothermal reformer in the stack assembly for autothermal reaction with a raw fuel to form the hydrogen rich fuel.

  14. On the existence of vapor-liquid phase transition in dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kundu, M.; Sen, A.; Ganesh, R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428, Gujarat (India); Avinash, K. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The phenomenon of phase transition in a dusty-plasma system (DPS) has attracted some attention in the past. Earlier Farouki and Hamaguchi [J. Chem. Phys. 101, 9876 (1994)] have demonstrated the existence of a liquid to solid transition in DPS where the dust particles interact through a Yukawa potential. However, the question of the existence of a vapor-liquid (VL) transition in such a system remains unanswered and relatively unexplored so far. We have investigated this problem by performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations which show that the VL transition does not have a critical curve in the pressure versus volume diagram for a large range of the Yukawa screening parameter ? and the Coulomb coupling parameter ?. Thus, the VL phase transition is found to be super-critical, meaning that this transition is continuous in the dusty plasma model given by Farouki and Hamaguchi. We provide an approximate analytic explanation of this finding by means of a simple model calculation.

  15. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of graphene on copper substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woehrl, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.woehrl@uni-due.de; Schulz, Stephan [Faculty of Chemistry and CENIDE, University Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)] [Faculty of Chemistry and CENIDE, University Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Ochedowski, Oliver; Gottlieb, Steven [Faculty of Physics and CENIDE, University Duisburg Essen, Lotharstraße 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)] [Faculty of Physics and CENIDE, University Duisburg Essen, Lotharstraße 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Shibasaki, Kosuke [Institute of Materials Science, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)] [Institute of Materials Science, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A plasma enhanced vapor deposition process is used to synthesize graphene from a hydrogen/methane gas mixture on copper samples. The graphene samples were transferred onto SiO{sub 2} substrates and characterized by Raman spectroscopic mapping and atomic force microscope topographical mapping. Analysis of the Raman bands shows that the deposited graphene is clearly SLG and that the sheets are deposited on large areas of several mm{sup 2}. The defect density in the graphene sheets is calculated using Raman measurements and the influence of the process pressure on the defect density is measured. Furthermore the origin of these defects is discussed with respect to the process parameters and hence the plasma environment.

  16. Electrochromic properties of tungsten trioxide thin films prepared by photochemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maruyama, Toshiro; Kanagawa, Tetsuya (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic tungsten trioxide thin films were prepared by a photochemical vapor deposition. The source material was tungsten carbonyl. A 6 W low pressure mercury lamp was used as a light source. Amorphous tungsten trioxide thin films were obtained at a substrate temperature of 200 C. The UV radiation enhances the oxidation of tungsten, in addition to the acceleration of the deposition of the films. Reduction and oxidation of the films in a 0.3M LiClO[sub 4] propylene carbonate solution resulted in desirable changes in optimal absorption. The bleaching time was short compared to the amorphous CVD film. Coulometry indicated that the coloration efficiency was 222 cm[sup 2]/C.

  17. Vapor-liquid equilibria for the system benzene-thiophene-methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Triday, J.O.; Rodriguez, P.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isothermal vapor pressure data over the whole range of composition were obtained for the system benzene-thiophene-methanol. Data were taken at temperatures of 35, 40, and 45 /sup 0/C by using a static equilibrium cell. The systems benzene-methanol and thiophene-methanol are highly nonideal, while the system benzene-thiophene shows a very small deviation from ideality. The models suggested by Wilson and by Renon and Prausnitz (NRTL) and the modified equation of Abrams and Prausnitz (UNIQUAC) were used in the reduction of data. Physical parameters of these equations obtained from the binary data were used to predict the ternary system. The Wilson equation gives the best fit for the binary as well as the ternary data. Also, this equation gives the best prediction for the ternary system.

  18. A comparison of water vapor quantities from model short-range forecasts and ARM observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hnilo, J J

    2006-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Model evolution and improvement is complicated by the lack of high quality observational data. To address a major limitation of these measurements the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program was formed. For the second quarter ARM metric we will make use of new water vapor data that has become available, and called the 'Merged-sounding' value added product (referred to as OBS, within the text) at three sites: the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Darwin Australia (DAR) and the Southern Great Plains (SGP) and compare these observations to model forecast data. Two time periods will be analyzed March 2000 for the SGP and October 2004 for both DAR and NSA. The merged-sounding data have been interpolated to 37 pressure levels (e.g., from 1000hPa to 100hPa at 25hPa increments) and time averaged to 3 hourly data for direct comparison to our model output.

  19. PRESSURE ACTIVATED SEALANT TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael A. Romano

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop new, efficient, cost effective methods of internally sealing natural gas pipeline leaks through the application of differential pressure activated sealants. In researching the current state of the art for gas pipeline sealing technologies we concluded that if the project was successful, it appeared that pressure activated sealant technology would provide a cost effective alternative to existing pipeline repair technology. From our analysis of current field data for a 13 year period from 1985 to 1997 we were able to identify 205 leaks that were candidates for pressure activated sealant technology, affirming that pressure activated sealant technology is a viable option to traditional external leak repairs. The data collected included types of defects, areas of defects, pipe sizes and materials, incident and operating pressures, ability of pipeline to be pigged and corrosion states. This data, and subsequent analysis, was utilized as a basis for constructing applicable sealant test modeling.

  20. High pressure melt ejection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarbell, W.W.; Brockmann, J.E.; Pilch, M.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent probabilistic risk assessments have identified the potential for reactor pressure vessel failure while the reactor coolant system is at elevated pressure. The analyses postulate that the blowdown of steam and hydrogen into the reactor cavity will cause the core material to be swept from the cavity region into the containment building. The High Pressure Melt Streaming (HIPS) program is an experimental study of the high pressure ejection of molten material and subsequent interactions within a concrete cavity. The program focuses on using prototypic system conditions and scaled models of reactor geometries to accurately simulate the ex-vessel processes during high-pressure accident sequences. Scaling analyses of the experiment show that the criteria established for core debris removal from the cavity are met or exceeded. Tests are performed at two scales, representing 1/10th and 1/20th linear reproductions of the Zion reactor plant. Results of the 1/20th scale tests are presented.

  1. Pressurizer tank upper support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Tod H. (O'Hara Township, Allegheny County, PA); Ott, Howard L. (Kiski Township, Armstrong County, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90.degree. intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure.

  2. Pressurizer tank upper support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, T.H.; Ott, H.L.

    1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90[degree] intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure. 10 figures.

  3. Integrated natural-gas-engine cooling-jacket vapor-compressor program. Annual progress report (Phase 1B) January-December 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiBella, F.A.; Becker, F.; Balsavich, J.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A unique, alternative cogeneration system was designed that will provide an industrial or commercial energy user with high-pressure steam and electricity directly from a packaged cogeneration system. The Integrated Gas Engine Vapor Compression System concept includes an engine-generator set and a steam screw compressor mechanically integrated with the engine. The gas-fueled engine is ebulliently cooled, thus allowing its water jacket heat to be recovered in the form of low-pressure steam. The steam is then compressed by the steam compressor to a higher pressure, and when combined with the high-pressure steam generated in the engine's exhaust gas boiler it provides the end user with a more-usable thermal-energy source.

  4. Filter for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Gloucestor, MA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A filter for enriching the .sup.196 Hg content of mercury, including a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill of mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. The reactor is arranged around said filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of quartz, and are transparent to ultraviolet light. The .sup.196 Hg concentration in the mercury fill is less than that which is present in naturally occurring mercury, that is less than about 0.146 atomic weight percent. Hydrogen is also included in the fill and serves as a quenching gas in the filter, the hydrogen also serving to prevent disposition of a dark coating on the interior of the filter.

  5. Capacitance pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eaton, William P. (Tijeras, NM); Staple, Bevan D. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, James H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) capacitance pressure sensor integrated with electronic circuitry on a common substrate and a method for forming such a device are disclosed. The MEM capacitance pressure sensor includes a capacitance pressure sensor formed at least partially in a cavity etched below the surface of a silicon substrate and adjacent circuitry (CMOS, BiCMOS, or bipolar circuitry) formed on the substrate. By forming the capacitance pressure sensor in the cavity, the substrate can be planarized (e.g. by chemical-mechanical polishing) so that a standard set of integrated circuit processing steps can be used to form the electronic circuitry (e.g. using an aluminum or aluminum-alloy interconnect metallization).

  6. High pressure counterflow CHF.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walkush, Joseph Patrick

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a report of the experimental results of a program in countercurrent flow critical heat flux. These experiments were performed with Freon 113 at 200 psia in order to model a high pressure water system. An internally ...

  7. The Sunyaev-Zeldovich Signal of the maxBCG SDSS Galaxy Clusters in WMAP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Draper, Patrick [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Dodelson, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Hao, Jiangang [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Rozo, Eduardo [Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Planck Collaboration measured the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) decrement of optically selected clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, finding that it falls significantly below expectations based on existing mass calibration of the maxBCG galaxy clusters. Resolving this tension requires either the data to go up, or the theoretical expectations to come down. Here, we use data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) to perform an independent estimate of the SZ decrement of maxBCG clusters. The recovered signal is consistent with that obtained using Planck, though with larger error bars due to WMAP's larger beam size and smaller frequency range. Nevertheless, this detection serves as an independent confirmation of the magnitude of the effect, and demonstrates that the observed discrepancy must be theoretical in origin.

  8. The effect of longitudinal spacer ribs on the minimum pressure drop in a heated annulus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, B.S.; Neff, J.M.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When evaluating a heated flow passage for vulnerability to static flow excursions, special note should be taken of flow restrictions which might allow premature vapor generation. In this study, measurements of steady state pressure drop were made for the downward flow of water in a vertical annulus. The outer wall was uniformly heated to allow subcooled boiling. Minima in the pressure drop characteristics were compared for test sections with and without longitudinal spacer ribs. For a given power and inlet temperature, the minimum occurred at a higher flow rate in the ribbed test section. This is attributed to vapor generation at the ribs. The work cited in this document show how a restriction in a heated channel can produce vapor which would not be observed in the absence of the restriction. In the present study, the effect of a flow restriction on the tendency to flow excursion is explored by finding demand curves for a heated annulus in subcooled boiling flow. The annulus is heated from the outside, and alternately equipped with and without longitudinal spacer ribs. These ribs separate the heated and unheated walls; in pressing against the heated wall they provide a means for premature vapor production.

  9. Evaluation and prevention of explosions in soil vapor extraction systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.W. [Radian Corp., El Segundo, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the widespread and long term use of petroleum derived fuels and solvents, many areas have subsurface soils contaminated with petroleum derivatives. This contamination can migrate to groundwater, which is frequently used to supply drinking water needs. A common method of cleaning up that contamination is soil vapor extraction (SVE). SVE is a technique where several extraction wells are installed in the contaminated area, with screens in the appropriate vertical locations. The soil vapors re extracted form the wells using a positive displacement blower. To prevent this subsurface contamination from becoming air pollution, the extracted vapors are then sent to some hydrocarbon removal device, such as a carbon adsorption system or a thermal oxidizer. The data used in this investigation were collected as part of a Radian Corporation project for a client. The site is a former petroleum refinery, and the hydrocarbons are primarily gasoline and diesel.

  10. Interactions between Liquid-Wall Vapor and Edge Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rognlien, T D; Rensink, M E

    2000-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of liquid walls for fusion reactors could help solve problems associated with material erosion from high plasma heat-loads and neutronic activation of structures. A key issue analyzed here is the influx of impurity ions to the core plasma from the vapor of liquid side-walls. Numerical 2D transport simulations are performed for a slab geometry which approximates the edge region of a reactor-size tokamak. Both lithium vapor (from Li or SnLi walls) and fluorine vapor (from Flibe walls) are considered for hydrogen edge-plasmas in the high- and low-recycling regimes. It is found that the minimum influx is from lithium with a low-recycling hydrogen plasma, and the maximum influx occurs for fluorine with a high-recycling hydrogen plasma.

  11. Piezoelectric Micro/Nano-Pillars for Energy Harvesting & Medical Ultrasound Applications Max Lifson, Dartmouth College, SURF 2010 Fellow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    Piezoelectric Micro/Nano-Pillars for Energy Harvesting & Medical Ultrasound Applications Max Lifson these pillars are actually hollow nanotubes, the purpose of this study is to verify a process that can be used

  12. Queue length asymptotics for generalized max-weight scheduling in the presence of heavy-tailed traffic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jagannathan

    We investigate the asymptotic behavior of the steady-state queue length distribution under generalized max-weight scheduling in the presence of heavy-tailed traffic. We consider a system consisting of two parallel queues, ...

  13. Liquid-phase compositions from vapor-phase analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, W. Jr. (Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, TN (USA)); Cochran, H.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Arsenic normally is not considered to be a contaminant. However, because arsenic was found in many cylinders of UF{sub 6}, including in corrosion products, a study was performed of the distribution of the two arsenic fluorides, AsF{sub 3} and AsF{sub 5}, between liquid and vapor phases. The results of the study pertain to condensation or vaporization of liquid UF{sub 6}. This study includes use of various experimental data plus many extrapolations necessitated by the meagerness of the experimental data. The results of this study provide additional support for the vapor-liquid equilibrium model of J.M. Prausnitz and his coworkers as a means of describing the distribution of various impurities between vapor and liquid phases of UF{sub 6}. Thus, it is concluded that AsF{sub 3} will tend to concentrate in the liquid phase but that the concentration of AsF{sub 5} in the vapor phase will exceed its liquid-phase concentration by a factor of about 7.5, which is in agreement with experimental data. Because the weight of the liquid phase in a condensation operation may be in the range of thousands of times that of the vapor phase, most of any AsF{sub 5} will be in the liquid phase in spite of this separation factor of 7.5. It may also be concluded that any arsenic fluorides fed into a uranium isotope separation plant will either travel with other low-molecular-weight gases or react with materials present in the plant. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Balance of atmospheric water vapor over the Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Ralph Morgan

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    / / / / I / o. i + B CAP C BBJ V S TPA PZA EHA Fig. 5. Vertical distribution of the average water-vapor flux normal to the perimeter of the Gulf of Nexico during Oct-Kov-Dec 1959. Plus values are inflow in kgm/sec-mb-. m. -o-I Pi C4 I / ~-o, i...BALANCE OF ATMOSPHERIC HATER VAPOR OVER THE GULF OF MEXICO A Thesis By RALPH MORGAN HUGHES Captain, USAF Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulf-'llment of the rec;uirements for the degree of MASTER...

  15. The development of a passive dosimeter for airborne benzene vapors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hager, David William

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PASSIVE DOSIMETER FOR AIRBORNE BENZENE VAPORS A Thesis DAVID NII LIAM HAGER Submitted to the Graduate Colleqe of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the d"gree of MASTER OF SC. IENCE May IB...7B Major Subject: Indus t& ial Hyqiene THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PASSIVE DOSIMETER FOR AIRBORNE BFNZENE VAPORS A Thesis by DAVID NILLIAM HAGER Approved as to style and content by: Z Chairman of Commi t e~ ~'g C'S~ Head of Department~ Member...

  16. The development of a passive dosimeter for airborne aniline vapors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, James Evan

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PASSIVE DOSIMETER FOR AIRBORNE ANILINE VAPORS A Thesis by James Evan Campbell Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE I...'iay 1977 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene THE DEVELOPMENT OF A PASSIVE DOSIMETER FOR AIRBORNE ANILINE VAPORS A Thesis by James E van Campbe1 1 Approved as to style and content by: Chairm of Com itt ea of De rtment Member Member May 1977...

  17. A study of vapor-liquid flow in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satik, Cengiz; Yortsos, Yanis C.

    1994-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the heat transfer-driven liquid-to-vapor phase change in single-component systems in porous media by using pore network models and flow visualization experiments. Experiments using glass micromodels were conducted. The flow visualization allowed us to define the rules for the numerical pore network model. A numerical pore network model is developed for vapor-liquid displacement where fluid flow, heat transfer and capillarity are included at the pore level. We examine the growth process at two different boundary conditions.

  18. High strain rate metalworking with vaporizing foil actuator: Control of flyer velocity by varying input energy and foil thickness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivek, A., E-mail: vivek.4@osu.edu; Hansen, S. R.; Daehn, Glenn S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2041, College Road, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrically driven rapid vaporization of thin metallic foils can generate a high pressure which can be used to launch flyers at high velocities. Recently, vaporizing foil actuators have been applied toward a variety of impulse-based metal working operations. In order to exercise control over this useful tool, it is imperative that an understanding of the effect of characteristics of the foil actuator on its ability for mechanical impulse generation is developed. Here, foil actuators made out of 0.0508 mm, 0.0762 mm, and 0.127 mm thick AA1145 were used for launching AA2024-T3 sheets of thickness 0.508 mm toward a photonic Doppler velocimeter probe. Launch velocities ranging between 300 m/s and 1100 m/s were observed. In situ measurement of velocity, current, and voltage assisted in understanding the effect of burst current density and deposited electrical energy on average pressure and velocity with foil actuators of various thicknesses. For the pulse generator, geometry, and flyer used here, the 0.0762 mm thick foil was found to be optimal for launching flyers to high velocities over short distances. Experimenting with annealed foil actuators resulted in no change in the temporal evolution of flyer velocity as compared to foil actuators of full hard temper. A physics-based analytical model was developed and found to have reasonable agreement with experiment.

  19. Experimental testing of cooling by low pressure adsorption in a zeolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redman, C.M.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A small scale facility was designed, constructed, and utilized to test the use of zeolite adsorption of water vapor to augment chill storage in ice for conventional space cooling. The facility uses solar-derived energy, for the heat source and evaporatively chilled water for the heat sump. The product cooling uses sublimation of ice instead of melting. The ZCAT facility utilizes a heat pumping technique in which a water vapor adsorbent functions as the compressor and condenser. The design was based on use of 13X zeolite as the adsorber because of its high adsorbence at low pressures. However, it has been determined that other materials such as silica gel should give superior performance. While zeolite 13X holds more water in the pressure and temperature ranges of interest, silica gel cycles more water and has less residue water. Both points are very important in the design of an efficient and cost effective system.

  20. Using min-max of torque to resolve redundancy for a mobile manipulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reister, D.B.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have considered the problem of determining the time trajectories of the joint variables of a mobile manipulator with many redundant degrees of freedom that will minimize the maximum value of the torque during a large scale motion by the manipulator. To create a well defined problem, we will divide the problem into two components: path planner and surveyor. The path planner will choose a path (between two points in Cartesian space) that will minimize the maximum value of the torque along the path. The input to the path planner is a network of path segments with the maximum value of the torque on each segment. The surveyor will find the points in joint space that are local minimums for the maximum value of the torque at each Cartesian position and define the network of path segments. In this paper, our focus will be on the surveyor and not on the path planner. Our min-max problem has an extra constraint on the joint variables. We seek a min-max at each Cartesian position rather than a global min-max. We have used the Kuhn-Tucker conditions to derive necessary conditions for the solution of our min-max problem. We find that the necessary conditions require that at one or more of the joints the magnitude of the normalized torques will be equal to the min-max value. We have explored the torque surfaces for two mobile manipulators: a planar manipulator and the CESARm. The CESARm is a manipulator with three joint angles controlling the height of the arm. The paths with three equal torques have low values for the torque but they only cover part of the workspace and do not join together. Paths with two equal torques cover the workspace and bridge between the disjoint path segments. We have evaluated the necessary conditions for both the paths with three equal torques and the paths with two equal torques. In most cases, the paths satisfy the necessary conditions.

  1. Pb nanowire formation on Al/lead zirconate titanate surfaces in high-pressure hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Arey, Bruce W.; Wang, Chong M.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Pitman, Stan G.

    2012-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin films of Al on lead zirconate titanate (PZT) annealed in high-pressure hydrogen at 100C exhibit surface Pb nanowire growth. Wire diameter is approximately 80 nm and length can exceed 100 microns. Based on microstructural analysis using electron microscopy and ion scattering, a vapor-solid scheme with hydrogen as a carrier gas was proposed as a growth mechanism. We expect that these observations may lead to controlled Pb nanowires growth through pattering of the Al film.

  2. Heat transfer during film condensation of potassium vapor on a horizontal plate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyrial, Paul M.

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The object of the investigation is to analyze the following two features of heat transfer during condensation of potassium vapor: a. Heat transfer during film condensation of a pure saturated potassium vapor on a horizontal ...

  3. Chemical vapor deposition thin films as biopassivation coatings and directly patternable dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pryce Lewis, Hilton G. (Hilton Gavin), 1973-

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organosilicon thin films deposited by pulsed plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PPECVD) and hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) were investigated as potential biopassivation coatings for neural probes. ...

  4. Control of Vapor Dispersion and Pool Fire of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) with Expansion Foam 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun, Geun Woong

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    in outdoor field tests. Thus, this research focused on experimental determination of the effect of expansion foam application on LNG vapor dispersion and pool fire. Specifically, for evaluating the use of foam to control the vapor hazard from spilled LNG...

  5. Amine functionalization by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) for interfacial adhesion and film cohesion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jingjing, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Amine functional polymer thin films provide a versatile platform for subsequent functionalization because of their diverse reactivity. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a polymer chemical vapor deposition ...

  6. Carbon-Supported bimetallic Pd-Fe catalysts for vapor-phasehydrodeoxy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon-Supported bimetallic Pd-Fe catalysts for vapor-phase hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol. Carbon-Supported bimetallic Pd-Fe catalysts for vapor-phase hydrodeoxygenation of...

  7. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.; Townsend, H.E.

    1994-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto. 6 figures.

  8. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, D.W.

    1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.

  9. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Townsend, Harold E. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto.

  10. A transient model for a cesium vapor thermionic converter. [Cs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Murray, C.S.; Chaudhuri, S. (Institute for Space Nuclear Power Studies, Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico (USA))

    1991-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an analytical model for simulating the transient and steady-state operation of cesium vapor thermionic converters. A parametric analysis is performed to assess the transient response of the converter to changes in fission power and width of interelectrode gap. The model optimizes the converter performance for maximum electric power to the load.(AIP)

  11. Continuous Operation of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactors Treating Toluene Vapors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Continuous Operation of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactors Treating Toluene Vapors Eunsung Kan, Marc A.interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/bit.20619 Abstract: Continuous operation of a new bioreactor for air pollution control called the foamed emulsion bioreactor (FEBR) has been investigated. The effect of several liquid feeding

  12. DIAMOND CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION Nucleation and Early Growth Stages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandy, David

    a reality. Epi- taxial diamond has been grown on diamond and cubic-BN. Polycrystalline diamond films haveDIAMOND CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION Nucleation and Early Growth Stages by Huimin Liu David S. Dandy of high-quality diamond coatings on preshaped parts and synthesis of free-standing shapes of diamond

  13. Forced vaporization cooling of HVDC thyristor valves. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scaringe, R.P.; Staub, F.W.; Lazarek, G.M.; Black, S.H.; Abuaf, N.

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cooling of power-dissipating devices by boiling Freon R-113 was investigated. Thermohydraulic instability questions were resolved, and it was shown tht the maximum (critical) heat flux available using this coolant in a forced vaporization cooling mode provides sufficient margin for semiconductor device duty cycles. Analytical predictive tools, experimental data, and empirical correlations were developed for design purposes.

  14. Method for removing metal vapor from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.

    1996-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for cleaning an inert gas contaminated with a metallic vapor, such as cadmium, involves withdrawing gas containing the metallic contaminant from a gas atmosphere of high purity argon; passing the gas containing the metallic contaminant to a mass transfer unit having a plurality of hot gas channels separated by a plurality of coolant gas channels; cooling the contaminated gas as it flows upward through the mass transfer unit to cause contaminated gas vapor to condense on the gas channel walls; regenerating the gas channels of the mass transfer unit; and, returning the cleaned gas to the gas atmosphere of high purity argon. The condensing of the contaminant-containing vapor occurs while suppressing contaminant particulate formation, and is promoted by providing a sufficient amount of surface area in the mass transfer unit to cause the vapor to condense and relieve supersaturation buildup such that contaminant particulates are not formed. Condensation of the contaminant is prevented on supply and return lines in which the contaminant containing gas is withdrawn and returned from and to the electrorefiner and mass transfer unit by heating and insulating the supply and return lines. 13 figs.

  15. Method for removing metal vapor from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahluwalia, R. K. (6440 Hillcrest Dr., Burr Ridge, IL 60521); Im, K. H. (925 Lehigh Cir., Naperville, IL 60565)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for cleaning an inert gas contaminated with a metallic vapor, such as cadmium, involves withdrawing gas containing the metallic contaminant from a gas atmosphere of high purity argon; passing the gas containing the metallic contaminant to a mass transfer unit having a plurality of hot gas channels separated by a plurality of coolant gas channels; cooling the contaminated gas as it flows upward through the mass transfer unit to cause contaminated gas vapor to condense on the gas channel walls; regenerating the gas channels of the mass transfer unit; and, returning the cleaned gas to the gas atmosphere of high purity argon. The condensing of the contaminant-containing vapor occurs while suppressing contaminant particulate formation, and is promoted by providing a sufficient amount of surface area in the mass transfer unit to cause the vapor to condense and relieve supersaturation buildup such that contaminant particulates are not formed. Condensation of the contaminant is prevented on supply and return lines in which the contaminant containing gas is withdrawn and returned from and to the electrorefiner and mass transfer unit by heating and insulating the supply and return lines.

  16. Cometabolic Degradation of TCE Vapors in a Foamed Emulsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cometabolic Degradation of TCE Vapors in a Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor E U N S U N G K A N A N D M the experiments, 85-101% of the degraded TCE chlorine was recovered as chloride. Overall, the results suggest to complete degradation of TCE to harmless end products. Unfortunately, no microorganism can grow on TCE

  17. Experimental Study of Water Vapor Adsorption on Geothermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    SGP-TR-148 Experimental Study of Water Vapor Adsorption on Geothermal Reservoir Rocks Shubo Shang Geothermal Program under Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG07-90IDI2934,and by the Department of Petroleum Engineering, Stanford University Stanford Geothermal Program Interdisciplinary Research in Engineering

  18. Surface Science in the Richmond Lab: Vapor/Water Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    Surface Science in the Richmond Lab: Vapor/Water Studies Many of the Earth's important atmospheric recovery, and emulsion stabilization. We are studying the behavior of species at the carbon tetrachloride.2 3100300029002800 pH~ 2 pH~ 4.5 pH ~ 5.5 Wavenumbers / cm-1 SFGAmp/arb.units COOH COOH COOH Emulsion Studies

  19. Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg.sup.196 enrichment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg.sup.196 isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

  20. Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg[sup 196] enrichment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.

    1993-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg[sup 196] isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

  1. Plating under reduced pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dini, J.W.; Beat, T.G.; Cowden, W.C. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Ryan, L.E.; Hewitt, W.B. (TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, CA (United States))

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plating under reduced pressure was evaluated for both electroless nickel and electrodeposited copper systems. The objective was to reduce pitting of these coatings thereby further enhancing their usage for diamond turning applications. Cursory experiments with electroless nickel showed reduced porosity when deposition was done at around 500 torr. Detailed experiments with electrodeposited copper at around 100 torr provided similar results. Scanning tunneling microscopy was effectively used to show the improvement in the copper deposits plated under reduced pressure. Benefits included reduced surface roughness and finer and denser grain structure.

  2. Assessment of radionuclide vapor-phase transport in unsaturated tuff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.M.; Updegraff, C.D.; Bonano, E.J.; Randall, J.D.

    1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes bounding calculations performed to investigate the possibility of radionuclide migration in a vapor phase associated with the emplacement of high-level waste canister in unsaturated tuff formations. Two potential radionuclide transport mechanisms in the vapor phase were examined: aerosol migration and convection/diffusion of volatile species. The former may have significant impact on the release of radionuclides to the accessible environment as the concentration in the aerosols will be equal to that in the ground water. A conservative analysis of air diffusion in a stagnant liquid film indicated that for all expected repository conditions, aerosol formation is not possible. The migration of volatile species was examined both in the vicinity of a waste canister and outside the thermally disturbed zone. Two-dimensional (radial) and three-dimensional (radial-vertical) coupled heat transfer-gas flow-liquid flow simulations were performed using the TOUGH computer code. The gas flow rate relative to the liquid flow rate predicted from the simulations allowed calculations of mobility ratios due to convection which led to the conclusion that, except for the immediate region near the canister, transport in the liquid phase will be dominant for radionuclides heavier than radon. Near the waste canister, iodine transport may also be important in the vapor phase. Bounding calculations for vertical mobility ratios were carried out as a function of saturation. These calculations are conservative and agree well with the two-dimensional simulations. Based on this analysis, it is clear that vapor-phase transport will not be important for radionuclides such as cesium and heavier species. Vapor transport for iodine may play a role in the overall release scenario depending on the particular repository conditions.

  3. Saltstone Osmotic Pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, Ralph L.; Dixon, Kenneth L.

    2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent research into the moisture retention properties of saltstone suggest that osmotic pressure may play a potentially significant role in contaminant transport (Dixon et al., 2009 and Dixon, 2011). The Savannah River Remediation Closure and Disposal Assessments Group requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct a literature search on osmotic potential as it relates to contaminant transport and to develop a conceptual model of saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. This report presents the findings of the literature review and presents a conceptual model for saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. The task was requested through Task Technical Request HLW-SSF-TTR-2013-0004. Simulated saltstone typically has very low permeability (Dixon et al. 2008) and pore water that contains a large concentration of dissolved salts (Flach and Smith 2013). Pore water in simulated saltstone has a high salt concentration relative to pore water in concrete and groundwater. This contrast in salt concentration can generate high osmotic pressures if simulated saltstone has the properties of a semipermeable membrane. Estimates of osmotic pressure using results from the analysis of pore water collected from simulated saltstone show that an osmotic pressure up to 2790 psig could be generated within the saltstone. Most semi-permeable materials are non-ideal and have an osmotic efficiency <1 and as a result actual osmotic pressures are less than theoretical pressures. Observations from laboratory tests of simulated saltstone indicate that it may exhibit the behavior of a semi-permeable membrane. After several weeks of back pressure saturation in a flexible wall permeameter (FWP) the membrane containing a simulated saltstone sample appeared to have bubbles underneath it. Upon removal from the FWP the specimen was examined and it was determined that the bubbles were due to liquid that had accumulated between the membrane and the sample. One possible explanation for the accumulation of solution between the membrane and sample is the development of osmotic pressure within the sample. Osmotic pressure will affect fluid flow and contaminant transport and may result in the changes to the internal structure of the semi-permeable material. B?nard et al. 2008 reported swelling of wet cured Portland cement mortars containing salts of NaNO{sub 3}, KNO{sub 3}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}x12H {sub 2}O, and K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} when exposed to a dilute solution. Typically hydraulic head is considered the only driving force for groundwater in groundwater models. If a low permeability material containing a concentrated salt solution is present in the hydrogeologic sequence large osmotic pressures may develop and lead to misinterpretation of groundwater flow and solute transport. The osmotic pressure in the semi-permeable material can significantly impact groundwater flow in the vicinity of the semi-permeable material. One possible outcome is that groundwater will flow into the semi-permeable material resulting in hydrologic containment within the membrane. Additionally, hyperfiltration can occur within semi-permeable materials when water moves through a membrane into the more concentrated solution and dissolved constituents are retained in the lower concentration solution. Groundwater flow and transport equations that incorporate chemical gradients (osmosis) have been developed. These equations are referred to as coupled flow equations. Currently groundwater modeling to assess the performance of saltstone waste forms is conducted using the PORFLOW groundwater flow and transport model. PORFLOW does not include coupled flow from chemico-osmotic gradients and therefore numerical simulation of the effect of coupled flow on contaminant transport in and around saltstone cannot be assessed. Most natural semi-permeable membranes are non-ideal membranes and do not restrict all movement of solutes and as a result theoretical osmotic potential is not realized. Osmotic efficiency is a parameter in the coupled flow equation that accounts for the

  4. Reactor pressure vessel nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, R.C.; Upton, H.A.

    1994-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough. 2 figs.

  5. Smoothing HCCI heat release with vaporization-cooling-induced thermal stratification using ethanol.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dec, John E.; Sjoberg, Carl-Magnus G.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol and ethanol/gasoline blends are being widely considered as alternative fuels for light-duty automotive applications. At the same time, HCCI combustion has the potential to provide high efficiency and ultra-low exhaust emissions. However, the application of HCCI is typically limited to low and moderate loads because of unacceptably high heat-release rates (HRR) at higher fueling rates. This work investigates the potential of lowering the HCCI HRR at high loads by using partial fuel stratification to increase the in-cylinder thermal stratification. This strategy is based on ethanol's high heat of vaporization combined with its true single-stage ignition characteristics. Using partial fuel stratification, the strong fuel-vaporization cooling produces thermal stratification due to variations in the amount of fuel vaporization in different parts of the combustion chamber. The low sensitivity of the autoignition reactions to variations of the local fuel concentration allows the temperature variations to govern the combustion event. This results in a sequential autoignition event from leaner and hotter zones to richer and colder zones, lowering the overall combustion rate compared to operation with a uniform fuel/air mixture. The amount of partial fuel stratification was varied by adjusting the fraction of fuel injected late to produce stratification, and also by changing the timing of the late injection. The experiments show that a combination of 60-70% premixed charge and injection of 30-40 % of the fuel at 80{sup o}CA before TDC is effective for smoothing the HRR. With CA50 held fixed, this increases the burn duration by 55% and reduces the maximum pressure-rise rate by 40%. Combustion stability remains high but engine-out NO{sub x} has to be monitored carefully. For operation with strong reduction of the peak HRR, ISNO{sub x} rises to around 0.20 g/kWh for an IMEP{sub g} of 440 kPa. The single-cylinder HCCI research engine was operated naturally aspirated without EGR at 1200 rpm, and had low residual level using a CR = 14 piston.

  6. Cavitation erosion of silver plated coating at different temperatures and pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hattori, Shuji; Motoi, Yoshihiro [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fuku-shi, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Kikuta, Kengo; Tomaru, Hiroshi [IHI Corperation, TOYOSU IHI BUILDING, 1-1, Toyosu 3-chome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 1358710 (Japan)

    2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Cavitation often occurs in inducer pumps used for space rockets. Silver plated coating on the inducer liner faces the damage of cavitation. Therefore, it is important to study about the cavitation erosion resistance for silver plated coating at several operating conditions in the inducer pumps. In this study, the cavitation erosion tests were carried for silver plated coating in deionized water and ethanol at several liquid temperatures (273K–400K) and pressures (0.10MPa–0.48MPa). The mass loss rate is evaluated in terms of thermodynamic parameter ? proposed by Brennen [9], suppression pressure p–p{sub v} (p{sub v}: saturated vapor pressure) and acoustic impedance ?c (?: density and c: sound speed). Cavitation bubble behaviors depending on the thermodynamic effect and the liquid type were observed by high speed video camera. The mass loss rate is formulated by thermodynamic parameter ?, suppression pressure p–p{sub v} and acoustic impedance ?c.

  7. ~max0006

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron4 Self-Scrubbing:,, ,Development1U CO1) 1Metal

  8. Min-max control design for large angle maneuvers of flexible spacecraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Cheolho

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    usiug the ICF approxiusation method is [M]J = (4. 7) Define the A[M] is 6[M] = e([i1~I] ? [M] J) 0 M, ] (4. 8) where e is the scaling factor to control the magnitude of A[M]. In this case, the state space fornr is z=Az+Bu (4. 9) where 0 I ? M... ( ber) gP Shankar P. Bhattacharyy (Member) Srinivas R. Vadali (Member) /Ye~- gc'g Walter E. Haisler (Head of Department) December 1991 ABSTRACT Min-Max Control Design for Large Angle Maneuvers of Flexible Spacecraft(December 1991) Cheolho I...

  9. Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Garbesi, Karina

    2011-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well established that energy efficiency is most often the lowest cost approach to reducing national energy use and minimizing carbon emissions. National investments in energy efficiency to date have been highly cost-effective. The cumulative impacts (out to 2050) of residential energy efficiency standards are expected to have a benefit-to-cost ratio of 2.71:1. This project examined energy end-uses in the residential, commercial, and in some cases the industrial sectors. The scope is limited to appliances and equipment, and does not include building materials, building envelopes, and system designs. This scope is consistent with the scope of DOE's appliance standards program, although many products considered here are not currently subject to energy efficiency standards. How much energy could the United States save if the most efficient design options currently feasible were adopted universally? What design features could produce those savings? How would the savings from various technologies compare? With an eye toward identifying promising candidates and strategies for potential energy efficiency standards, the Max Tech and Beyond project aims to answer these questions. The analysis attempts to consolidate, in one document, the energy savings potential and design characteristics of best-on-market products, best-engineered products (i.e., hypothetical products produced using best-on-market components and technologies), and emerging technologies in research & development. As defined here, emerging technologies are fundamentally new and are as yet unproven in the market, although laboratory studies and/or emerging niche applications offer persuasive evidence of major energy-savings potential. The term 'max tech' is used to describe both best-engineered and emerging technologies (whichever appears to offer larger savings). Few best-on-market products currently qualify as max tech, since few apply all available best practices and components. The three primary analyses presented in this report are: Nevertheless, it is important to analyze best-on-market products, since data on truly max tech technologies are limited. (1) an analysis of the cross-cutting strategies most promising for reducing appliance and equipment energy use in the U.S.; (2) a macro-analysis of the U.S. energy-saving potential inherent in promising ultra-efficient appliance technologies; and (3) a product-level analysis of the energy-saving potential.

  10. Claire E. Max, 2004 | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z CPlasma ofTopDepartment ofDepartmentClaire E. Max,

  11. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier2Max | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkins County,NumberOfNonCorporateOrganizationsInformation Tier2Max Jump to: navigation,

  12. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier3Max | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkins County,NumberOfNonCorporateOrganizationsInformation Tier2Max Jump

  13. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier4Max | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal PwerPerkins County,NumberOfNonCorporateOrganizationsInformation Tier2Max

  14. Improved efficiency and precise temperature control of low-frequency induction-heating pure iron vapor source on ECR ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kato, Y.; Takenaka, T.; Yano, K.; Kiriyama, R.; Kurisu, Y.; Nozaki, D.; Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Uchida, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Sato, F.; Iida, T. [Osaka Univ., 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Science (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo Univ., 2100 Kuzirai, Kawagoe, Saitama, 350-8585 (Japan); Osaka Univ., 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan)

    2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiply charged ions to be used prospectively are produced from solid pure material in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). Recently a pure iron source is also required for the production of caged iron ions in the fullerene in order to control cells in vivo in bio-nano science and technology. We adopt directly heating iron rod by induction heating (IH) because it has non-contact with insulated materials which are impurity gas sources. We choose molybdenum wire for the IH coils because it doesn't need water cooling. To improve power efficiency and temperature control, we propose to the new circuit without previously using the serial and parallel dummy coils (SPD) for matching and safety. We made the circuit consisted of inductively coupled coils which are thin-flat and helix shape, and which insulates the IH power source from the evaporator. This coupling coils circuit, i.e. insulated induction heating coil transformer (IHCT), can be move mechanically. The secondary current can be adjusted precisely and continuously. Heating efficiency by using the IHCT is much higher than those of previous experiments by using the SPD, because leakage flux is decreased and matching is improved simultaneously. We are able to adjust the temperature in heating the vapor source around melting point. And then the vapor pressure can be controlled precisely by using the IHCT. We can control {+-}10K around 1500 Degree-Sign C by this method, and also recognize to controlling iron vapor flux experimentally in the extreme low pressures. Now we come into next stage of developing induction heating vapor source for materials with furthermore high temperature melting points above 2000K with the IHCT, and then apply it in our ECRIS.

  15. A flexible pressure monitoring system for pressure ulcer prevention

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yip, Marcus

    Pressure ulcers are painful sores that arise from prolonged exposure to high pressure points, which restricts blood flow and leads to tissue necrosis. This is a common occurrence among patients with impaired mobility, ...

  16. Pressure suppression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.

    1994-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure suppression system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and an enclosed gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The GDCS pool includes a plenum for receiving through an inlet the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A condenser is disposed in the GDCS plenum for condensing the steam channeled therein and to trap the non-condensable gas therein. A method of operation includes draining the GDCS pool following the LOCA and channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the GDCS plenum for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith for trapping the gas therein. 3 figs.

  17. Continuous pressure letdown system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.; Matthews, David R.; Langowski, Terry

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous pressure letdown system connected to a hopper decreases a pressure of a 2-phase (gas and solid) dusty gas stream flowing through the system. The system includes a discharge line for receiving the dusty gas from the hopper, a valve, a cascade nozzle assembly positioned downstream of the discharge line, a purge ring, an inert gas supply connected to the purge ring, an inert gas throttle, and a filter. The valve connects the hopper to the discharge line and controls introduction of the dusty gas stream into the discharge line. The purge ring is connected between the discharge line and the cascade nozzle assembly. The inert gas throttle controls a flow rate of an inert gas into the cascade nozzle assembly. The filter is connected downstream of the cascade nozzle assembly.

  18. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1993-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

  19. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  20. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  1. Pressure suppression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure suppression system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and an enclosed gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The GDCS pool includes a plenum for receiving through an inlet the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A condenser is disposed in the GDCS plenum for condensing the steam channeled therein and to trap the non-condensable gas therein. A method of operation includes draining the GDCS pool following the LOCA and channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the GDCS plenum for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith for trapping the gas therein.

  2. High pressure furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  3. High pressure storage vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Qiang

    2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a composite pressure vessel with a liner having a polar boss and a blind boss a shell is formed around the liner via one or more filament wrappings continuously disposed around at least a substantial portion of the liner assembly combined the liner and filament wrapping have a support profile. To reduce susceptible to rupture a locally disposed filament fiber is added.

  4. Water vapor and the dynamics of climate changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Tapio; Levine, Xavier

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water vapor is not only Earth's dominant greenhouse gas. Through the release of latent heat when it condenses, it also plays an active role in dynamic processes that shape the global circulation of the atmosphere and thus climate. Here we present an overview of how latent heat release affects atmosphere dynamics in a broad range of climates, ranging from extremely cold to extremely warm. Contrary to widely held beliefs, atmospheric circulation statistics can change non-monotonically with global-mean surface temperature, in part because of dynamic effects of water vapor. For example, the strengths of the tropical Hadley circulation and of zonally asymmetric tropical circulations, as well as the kinetic energy of extratropical baroclinic eddies, can be lower than they presently are both in much warmer climates and in much colder climates. We discuss how latent heat release is implicated in such circulation changes, particularly through its effect on the atmospheric static stability, and we illustrate the circul...

  5. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  6. Tank vapor mitigation requirements for Hanford Tank Farms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakestraw, L.D.

    1994-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has contracted Los Alamos Technical Associates to listing of vapors and aerosols that are or may be emitted from the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at Hanford. Mitigation requirements under Federal and State law, as well as DOE Orders, are included in the listing. The lists will be used to support permitting activities relative to tank farm ventilation system up-grades. This task is designated Task 108 under MJB-SWV-312057 and is an extension of efforts begun under Task 53 of Purchase Order MPB-SVV-03291 5 for Mechanical Engineering Support. The results of that task, which covered only thirty-nine tanks, are repeated here to provide a single source document for vapor mitigation requirements for all 177 HLW tanks.

  7. Piston pump and method of reducing vapor lock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Harvey, Michael N. (DeSoto, TX)

    2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A pump includes a housing defining a cavity, at least one bore, a bore inlet, and a bore outlet. The bore extends from the cavity to the outlet and the inlet communicates with the bore at a position between the cavity and the outlet. A crankshaft is mounted in supports and has an eccentric portion disposed in the cavity. The eccentric portion is coupled to a piston so that rotation of the crankshaft reciprocates the piston in the bore between a discharge position an intake position. The bore may be offset from an axis of rotation to reduce bending of the piston during crankshaft rotation. During assembly of the pump, separate parts of the housing can be connected together to facilitate installation of internal pumping components. Also disclosed is a method of reducing vapor lock by mixing vapor and liquid portions of a substance and introducing the mixture into a piston bore.

  8. Piston pump and method of reducing vapor lock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Harvey, Michael N. (DeSoto, TX)

    2001-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A pump includes a housing defining a cavity, at least one bore, a bore inlet, and a bore outlet. The bore extends from the cavity to the outlet and the inlet communicates with the bore at a position between the cavity and the outlet. A crankshaft is mounted in supports and has an eccentric portion disposed in the cavity. The eccentric portion is coupled to a piston so that rotation of the crankshaft reciprocates the piston in the bore between a discharge position an intake position. The bore may be offset from an axis of rotation to reduce bending of the piston during crankshaft rotation. During assembly of the pump, separate parts of the housing can be connected together to facilitate installation of internal pumping components. Also disclosed is a method of reducing vapor lock by mixing vapor and liquid portions of a substance and introducing the mixture into a piston bore.

  9. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

    1988-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  10. High average power magnetic modulator for metal vapor lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA); Miller, John L. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-stage magnetic modulator utilizing magnetic pulse compression designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper vapor laser at a 4.5 kHz repetition rate is disclosed. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power. The circuit includes a step up auto transformer and utilizes a rod and plate stack construction technique to achieve a high packing factor.

  11. Program plan for the resolution of tank vapor issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osborne, J.W.; Huckaby, J.L.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1987, workers at the Hanford Site waste tank farms in Richland, Washington, have reported strong odors emanating from the large, underground high-level radioactive waste storage tanks. Some of these workers have complained of symptoms (e.g., headaches, nausea) related to the odors. In 1992, the U.S. Department of Energy, which manages the Hanford Site, and Westinghouse Hanford Company determined that the vapor emissions coming from the tanks had not been adequately characterized and represented a potential health risk to workers in the immediate vicinity of the tanks. At that time, workers in certain areas of the tank farms were required to use full-face, supplied-breathing-air masks to reduce their exposure to the fugitive emissions. While use of supplied breathing air reduced the health risks associated with the fugitive emissions, it introduced other health and safety risks (e.g., reduced field of vision, air-line tripping hazards, and heat stress). In 1992, an aggressive program was established to assure proper worker protection while reducing the use of supplied breathing air. This program focuses on characterization of vapors inside the tanks and industrial hygiene monitoring in the tank farms. If chemical filtration systems for mitigation of fugitive emissions are deemed necessary, the program will also oversee their design and installation. This document presents the plans for and approach to resolving the Hanford Site high-level waste tank vapor concerns. It is sponsored by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management.

  12. Method of and apparatus for measuring vapor density

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, L.D.; Cerni, T.A.

    1989-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method are disclosed which determine the concentration of an individual component, such as water vapor, of a multi-component mixture, such as a gaseous mixture for cooling a nuclear reactor. A hygrometer apparatus includes an infrared source for producing a broadband infrared energy beam that includes a strong water vapor absorption band and a weak water vapor absorption region. The beam is chopped to select infrared pulses. A temporally first pulse has a wavelength in the weakly absorbing region, a temporally second pulse has a wavelength in the strong band and a temporally third pulse has a wavelength in the weakly absorbing region. A fourth reference pulse representing background radiation is interposed in such chopped pulses. An indium arsenide infrared sensor is responsive to the pulses for generating an output signal in proportion to an equation given in the patent where N1 is proportional to the transmission through the sample of the first signal, N4 is related to the background radiation, and [K2 (N2-N4) + K3 (N3-N4)] is the time-weighted average of the transmission through the sample of the second and third pulses applicable at the time of the second pulse, with the reference pulse N4 being subtracted in each case to render the ratio independent of variations in the background radiation. 11 figs.

  13. Method of and apparatus for measuring vapor density

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Loren D. (Morrison, CO); Cerni, Todd A. (Littleton, CO)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method determine the concentration of an individual component, such as water vapor, of a multi-component mixture, such as a gaseous mixture for cooling a nuclear reactor. A hygrometer apparatus includes an infrared source for producing a broadband infrared energy beam that includes a strong water vapor absorption band and a weak water vapor absorption region. The beam is chopped to select infrared pulses. A temporally first pulse has a wavelength in the weakly absorbing region, a temporally second pulse has a wavelength in the strong band and a temporally third pulse has a wavlength in the weakly absorbing region. A fourth reference pulse representing background radiation is interposed in such chopped pulses. An indium arsenide infrared sensor is responsive to the pulses for generating an output signal in proportion to: ##EQU1## where N1 is proportional to the transmission through the sample of the first signal, N4 is related to the background radiation, and [K2 (N2-N4)+K3 (N3-N4)] is the time-weighted average of the transmission through the sample of the second and third pulses applicable at the time of the second pulse, with the reference pulse N4 being subtracted in each case to render the ratio independent of variations in the background radiation.

  14. VAPOR SPACE AND LIQUID/AIR INTERFACECORROSION TESTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zapp, P.; Hoffman, E.

    2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The phenomena of vapor space corrosion and liquid/air interface corrosion of carbon steel in simulated liquid waste environments have been investigated. Initial experiments have explored the hypothesis that vapor space corrosion may be accelerated by the formation of a corrosive electrolyte on the tank wall by a process of evaporation of relatively warmer waste and condensation of the vapor on the relatively cooler tank wall. Results from initial testing do not support the hypothesis of electrolyte transport by evaporation and condensation. The analysis of the condensate collected by a steel specimen suspended over a 40 C simulated waste solution showed no measurable concentrations of the constituents of the simulated solution and a decrease in pH from 14 in the simulant to 5.3 in the condensate. Liquid/air interface corrosion was studied as a galvanic corrosion system, where steel at the interface undergoes accelerated corrosion while steel in contact with bulk waste is protected. The zero-resistance-ammeter technique was used to measure the current flow between steel specimens immersed in solutions simulating (1) the high-pH bulk liquid waste and (2) the expected low-pH meniscus liquid at the liquid/air interface. Open-circuit potential measurements of the steel specimens were not significantly different in the two solutions, with the result that (1) no consistent galvanic current flow occurred and (2) both the meniscus specimen and bulk specimen were subject to pitting corrosion.

  15. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production from Biomass via Hot-Vapor-Filtered Fast Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Bio-oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Wang, Huamin; French, Richard; Deutch, Steve; Iisa, Kristiina

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Hot-vapor filtered bio-oils were produced from two different biomass feedstocks, oak and switchgrass, and the oils were evaluated in hydroprocessing tests for production of liquid hydrocarbon products. Hot-vapor filtering reduced bio-oil yields and increased gas yields. The yields of fuel carbon as bio-oil were reduced by ten percentage points by hot-vapor filtering for both feedstocks. The unfiltered bio-oils were evaluated alongside the filtered bio-oils using a fixed bed catalytic hydrotreating test. These tests showed good processing results using a two-stage catalytic hydroprocessing strategy. Equal-sized catalyst beds, a sulfided Ru on carbon catalyst bed operated at 220°C and a sulfided CoMo on alumina catalyst bed operated at 400°C were used with the entire reactor at 100 atm operating pressure. The products from the four tests were similar. The light oil phase product was fully hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection, while the residual oxygen ranged from 0.3 to 2.0%. The density of the products varied from 0.80 g/ml up to 0.86 g/ml over the period of the test with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 1.79 down to 1.57, suggesting some loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the suite of liquid fuel products from the process and the activity of the catalyst in relationship to the existing catalyst lifetime barrier for the technology.

  16. Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylva, D. M.

    Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction is a technical paper that addresses the operating and economic advantages associated with the program to lower the steam operating pressure. Evaluation of a testing program will be discussed. The paper...

  17. Nitrogen at very high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nellis, W.J.

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-pressure results for nitrogen are reviewed and discussed in terms of phenomena that occur at extreme conditions.

  18. Pressure Data Within BOP- ODS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This file describes the components within the BOP and the pressure readings taken during diagnostic operations on May 25.

  19. Pressure Data Within BOP- XLS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This file describes the components within the BOP and the pressure readings taken during diagnostic operations on May 25.

  20. Effect of microstructure anisotropy on the deformation of MAX polycrystals studied by in-situ compression combined with neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guitton, A.; Joulain, A.; Thilly, L., E-mail: ludovic.thilly@univ-poitiers.fr [Institut Pprime, CNRS-University of Poitiers-ENSMA, SP2MI, 86962 Futuroscope (France); Van Petegem, S.; Tromas, C.; Van Swygenhoven, H. [Materials Science and Simulations, NUM/ASQ, CH5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ compression tests combined with neutron diffraction were performed on Ti{sub 2}AlN MAX polycrystals with lamellar anisotropic microstructure: the diffraction peak evolution (position and profile) with applied stress reveals that lamellar grains parallel to compression axis remain elastic while lamellar grains perpendicular to compression plastify, both families being subjected to strong variations of heterogeneous strains (types II and III). We demonstrate that this behavior originates from the complex response of the very anisotropic lamellar microstructure and explains the observation of reversible hysteretic loops when cycling MAX polycrystals even in the elastic regime.

  1. Blood Pressure Medicine: Special Instructions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Blood Pressure Medicine: Special Instructions: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute · What is my blood pressure reading in numbers? · What is my goal blood pressure? · Is there a healthy eating plan that I should follow to help

  2. 11-14 An ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle with refrigerant-134a as the working fluid is considered. The rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space, the power input to the compressor, the rate of heat rejection to the environment,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    to the compressor, the rate of heat rejection to the environment, and the COP are to be determined. Assumptions 1 enters the compressor as a saturated vapor at the evaporator pressure, and leaves the condenser space and the power input to the compressor are determined from s and ( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) kW1.83 kW7

  3. THERMODYNAMIC AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF SODIUM LIQUID AND VAPOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemner, Ken

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.1 Enthalpy and Heat Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.1.2 Heat Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Heat Capacity at Constant Pressure, CP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Heat

  4. South Dakota DOT 1) Rural PCCP -0.0 Band California Profilograph and incentive for less than 25" per mile max incentive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California Profilograph - Bonus paid for less than 5" per mile. Max bonus is 103.5% for 2.9" PI or less and lift) - Bonus paid for 50 IRI or less, Max Bonus is $180 per 0.1 mile per lane for 35 or less IRI. 2

  5. High-pressure neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Hongwu [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This lecture will cover progress and prospect of applications of high-pressure neutron diffraction techniques to Earth and materials sciences. I will first introduce general high-pressure research topics and available in-situ high-pressure techniques. Then I'll talk about high-pressure neutron diffraction techniques using two types of pressure cells: fluid-driven and anvil-type cells. Lastly, I will give several case studies using these techniques, particularly, those on hydrogen-bearing materials and magnetic transitions.

  6. Many-body dissipative particle dynamics simulation of liquid/vapor and liquid/solid interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arienti, Marco; Pan, Wenxiao; Li, Xiaoyi; Karniadakis, George E.

    2011-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The combination of short-range repulsive and long-range attractive forces in Many-body Dissipative Particle Dynamics (MDPD) is examined at a vapor/liquid and liquid/solid interface. Based on the radial distribution of the virial pressure in a drop at equilibrium, a systematic study is carried out to characterize the sensitivity of the surface tension coefficient with respect to the inter-particle interaction parameters. For the first time, this study highlights the approximately cubic dependence of the surface tension coefficient on the bulk density of the fluid. In capillary flow, MDPD solutions are shown to satisfy the condition on the wavelength of an axial disturbance leading to the pinch-off of a cylindrical liquid thread. Correctly, no pinch-off occurs below the cutoff wavelength. MDPD is augmented by a set of bell-shaped weight functions to model interaction with a solid wall. There, hydrophilic and hydrophobic behaviors, including the occurrence of slip in the latter, are reproduced using a modification in the weight function that avoids particle clustering. Finally, the dynamics of droplets entering an inverted Y-shaped fracture junction is correctly captured in simulations parameterized by the Bond number, proving the flexibility of MDPD in modeling interface-dominated flows.

  7. Carbon-Supported bimetallic Pd-Fe catalysts for vapor-phase hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Junming; Karim, Ayman M.; Zhang, He; Kovarik, Libor; Li, Xiaohong S.; Hensley, Alyssa; McEwen, Jean-Sabin; Wang, Yong

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract Carbon supported metal catalysts (Cu/C, Fe/C, Pd/C, Pt/C, PdFe/C and Ru/C) have been prepared, characterized and tested for vapor-phase hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of guaiacol (GUA) at atmospheric pressure. Phenol was the major intermediate on all catalysts. Over the noble metal catalysts saturation of the aromatic ring was the major pathway observed at low temperature (250 °C), forming predominantly cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol. Substantial ring opening reaction was observed on Pt/C and Ru/C at higher reaction temperatures (e.g., 350 °C). Base metal catalysts, especially Fe/C, were found to exhibit high HDO activity without ring-saturation or ring-opening with the main products being benzene, phenol along with small amounts of cresol, toluene and trimethylbenzene (TMB). A substantial enhancement in HDO activity was observed on the PdFe/C catalysts. Compared with Fe/C, the yield to oxygen-free aromatic products (i.e., benzene/toluene/TMB) on PdFe/C increased by a factor of four at 350 °C, and by approximately a factor of two (83.2% versus 43.3%) at 450 °C. The enhanced activity of PdFe/C is attributed to the formation of PdFe alloy as evidenced by STEM, EDS and TPR.

  8. External pressure limitations for 0--15 psi storage tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dib, M.W. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Shrivastava, H.P. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large cylindrical storage tanks are designed in accordance with design rules of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section 3, Subsection NC, Article NC-3900 or American Petroleum Institute (API) Standard 620. Both of these Codes have identical requirements. These Codes provide a limit on the partial vacuum in the gas or vapor space not to exceed 1 oz/in{sup 2} to ensure stability of cylindrical walls against collapse. This criterion seems to be too conservative for the underground double shell storage tanks to be built at Hanford for the Department of Energy. The analysis presented herein shows that the bottom plate of the Hanford tank is the most critical component when an empty tank is subjected to partial vacuum. However, the allowable external pressures for both cylindrical walls and the bottom plate are significantly higher than 1 oz/in{sup 2}. The allowable external pressure for the bottom plate is largely dependent upon the plate uplift considerations which in turns depends on the plate thickness. The large displacement non-linear elastic analyses and the eigenvalue buckling solutions indicate that considerable wrinkling can occur before a snap-through buckling failure occurs.

  9. Vapor-liquid equilibrium of the Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/-HNO/sub 3/-H/sub 2/O system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, B.E.; Derby, J.J.; Stalzer, E.H.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The vapor-liquid equilibrium of the Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/-HNO/sub 3/-H/sub 2/O system in concentrations of 0 to 70 wt % Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ and 0 to 75 wt % HNO/sub 3/ at atmospheric pressure was correlated by two approaches. One was based on a dissociation equilibrium expression in which the activities of the reacting species (HNO/sub 3/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, and H/sup +/) were approximated with mole fractions. The activity coefficients of the undissociated HNO/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/O were correlated as functions of the concentrations of magnesium nitrate and nitric acid by second-order polynomials. The average absolute difference between predicted and experimental values was 8% for the mole fraction of acid in the vapor and 8/sup 0/K for the bubble-point temperature. The second approach was to correlate the mean ionic rational activity coefficient of water with a form of the excess Gibbs energy composed of two terms. One term, a function of the ionic strength, accounts for the coulombic (ionic) interactions; the other term accounts for the non-coulombic (molecular) interactions. The average absolute difference between predicted and experimental values was 9% for the mole fraction of acid in the vapor, and 10/sup 0/K for the bubble-point temperature.

  10. Conductance valve and pressure-to-conductance transducer method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Cummings, Eric B.; Brennan, James S.

    2005-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for interrupting or throttling undesired ionic transport through a fluid network is disclosed. The device acts as a fluid valve by reversibly generating a fixed "bubble" in the conducting solvent solution carried by the network. The device comprises a porous hydrophobic structure filling a portion of a connecting channel within the network and optionally incorporates flow restrictor elements at either end of the porous structure that function as pressure isolation barriers, and a fluid reservoir connected to the region of the channel containing the porous structure. Also included is a pressure pump connected to the fluid reservoir. The device operates by causing the pump to vary the hydraulic pressure to a quantity of solvent solution held within the reservoir and porous structure. At high pressures, most or all of the pores of the structure are filled with conducting liquid so the ionic conductance is high. At lower pressures, only a fraction of the pores are filled with liquid, so ionic conductivity is lower. Below a threshold pressure, the porous structure contains only vapor, so there is no liquid conduction path. The device therefore effectively throttles ionic transport through the porous structure and acts as a "conductance valve" or "pressure-to-conductance" transducer within the network.

  11. Theoretical collapse pressures for two pressurized torispherical heads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalnins, A.; Updike, D.P. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Rana, M.D. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Research and Development Dept.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to determine the pressures at which real torispherical heads fail upon a single application of pressure, two heads were pressurized in recent Praxair tests, and displacements and strains were recorded at various locations. In this paper, theoretical results for the two test heads are presented in the form of curves of pressure versus crown deflections, using the available geometry and material parameters. From these curves, limit and collapse pressures are calculated, using procedures permitted by the ASME B and PV Code Section 8/Div.2. These pressures are shown to vary widely, depending on the method and model used to calculate them. The effect of no stress relief on the behavior of the Praxair test heads is also evaluated and found to be of no significance for neither the objectives of the tests nor the objectives of this paper. The results of this paper are submitted as an enhancement to the experimental results recorded during the Praxair tests.

  12. Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tbingen, Germany VSS 2002, #18.3 ID501 Spatial updating in virtual environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tübingen, Germany VSS 2002, #18.3 ID501 Spatial: What are vestibular cues good for? MPI for Biological Cybernetics, Germany 2 "Voluntary" vs Cybernetics, Germany 3 Methods - Setup · Vestibular stimuli: 6 dof Motion Platform · Visual stimuli: LCD video

  13. In-Depth Look at Ground Source Heat Pumps and Other Electric Loads in Two GreenMax Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puttagunta, S.; Shapiro, C.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CARB partnered with WPPI Energy to answer key research questions on in-field performance of ground-source heat pumps and LAMELs through extensive field monitoring at two WPPI GreenMax demonstration homes in Wisconsin. These two test home evaluations provided valuable data on the true in-field performance of various building mechanical systems and lighting, appliances, and miscellaneous loads (LAMELs).

  14. Analysis, Modification, and Implementation (AMI) of Scheduling Algorithm for the IEEE 802.116e (Mobile WiMAX)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravichandiran, C; Vaidhyanathan, V

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mobile WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is being touted as the most promising and potential broadband wireless technology. And the popularity rate has been surging to newer heights as the knowledge-backed service era unfolds steadily. Especially Mobile WiMAX is being projected as a real and strategic boon for developing counties such as India due to its wireless coverage acreage is phenomenally high. Mobile WiMAX has spurred tremendous interest from operators seeking to deploy high-performance yet cost-effective broadband wireless networks. The IEEE 802.16e standard based Mobile WiMAX system will be investigated for the purpose of Quality of Service provisioning. As a technical challenge, radio resource management will be primarily considered and main is the costly spectrum and the increasingly more demanding applications with ever growing number of subscribers. It is necessary to provide Quality of Service (QoS) guaranteed with different characteristics. As a possible solution the sche...

  15. On the design of a 55 GHz Si/SiGe HBT frequency doubler operating close to f max

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    On the design of a 55 GHz Si/SiGe HBT frequency doubler operating close to f max S. Bruce, M. Kim. Abstract In this paper we present for the first time experimental results on a frequency doubler using a Si/SiGe GHz, for the Si/SiGe HBT, the conversion efficiency in a not completely optimised circuit was found

  16. 5782 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 55, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2007 Max-SINR ISI/ICI-Shaping Multicarrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schniter, Philip

    5782 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 55, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2007 Max-SINR ISI-symbol/inter-car- rier interference (ISI/ICI) subject to orthogonal or biorthogonal constraints. In doubly dispersive channels, however, complete sup- pression of ISI/ICI is impossible, and the ISI/ICI pattern gener- ated

  17. An optical water vapor sensor for unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy A. Berkoff; Paul L. Kebabian; Robert A. McClatchy; Charles E. Kolb; Andrew Freedman

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The water vapor sensor developed by Aerodyne Research, based on the optical absorption of light at {approximately}935 nm, has been successfully demonstrated on board the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Gulfstream-1 research aircraft during the Department of Energy's ARM Intensive Operations Period in August 1998. Data taken during this field campaign show excellent agreement with a chilled mirror and Lyman-alpha hygrometers and measurements confirm the ability to measure rapid, absolute water vapor fluctuations with a high degree of instrument stability and accuracy, with a noise level as low 10 ppmv (1 Hz measurement bandwidth). The construction of this small, lightweight sensor contains several unique elements which result in several significant advantages when compared to other techniques. First, the low power consumption Argon discharge lamp provides an optical beam at a fixed wavelength without a need for temperature or precision current control. The multi-pass absorption cell developed for this instrument provides a compact, low cost method that can survive deployment in the field. Fiber-optic cables, which are used to convey to light between the absorption cell, light source, and detection modules enable remote placement of the absorption cell from the opto-electronics module. Finally, the sensor does not use any moving parts which removes a significant source of potential malfunction. The result is an instrument which maintained its calibration throughout the field measurement campaign, and was not affected by high vibration and large uncontrolled temperature excursions. We believe that the development of an accurate, fast response water vapor monitor described in this report will open up new avenues of aerial-vehicle-based atmospheric research which have been relatively unexplored due to the lack of suitable low-cost, light-weight instrumentation.

  18. The Prospects of Alternatives to Vapor Compression Technology for Space Cooling and Food Refrigeration Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Fernandez, Nicholas; Stout, Tyson E.

    2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Five alternatives to vapor compression technology were qualitatively evaluated to determine their prospects for being better than vapor compression for space cooling and food refrigeration applications. The results of the assessment are summarized in the report. Overall, thermoacoustic and magnetic technologies were judged to have the best prospects for competing with vapor compression technology, with thermotunneling, thermoelectric, and thermionic technologies trailing behind in that order.

  19. Chemical Vapor Deposited Zinc Sulfide. SPIE Press Monograph

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCloy, John S.; Tustison, Randal W.

    2013-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Zinc sulfide has shown unequaled utility for infrared windows that require a combination of long-wavelength infrared transparency, mechanical durability, and elevated-temperature performance. This book reviews the physical properties of chemical vapor deposited ZnS and their relationship to the CVD process that produced them. An in-depth look at the material microstructure is included, along with a discussion of the material's optical properties. Finally, because the CVD process itself is central to the development of this material, a brief history is presented.

  20. Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan (625 Gulfwood Rd., Knoxville, TN 37923)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique.

  1. Multi-cathode metal vapor arc ion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ian G. (1088 Woodside Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); MacGill, Robert A. (645 Kern St., Richmond, CA 94805)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion generating apparatus utilizing a vacuum chamber, a cathode and an anode in the chamber. A source of electrical power produces an arc or discharge between the cathode and anode. The arc is sufficient to vaporize a portion of the cathode to form a plasma. The plasma is directed to an extractor which separates the electrons from the plasma, and accelerates the ions to produce an ion beam. One embodiment of the appaatus utilizes a multi-cathode arrangement for interaction with the anode.

  2. Recirculating wedges for metal-vapor plasma tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, J.P.; Sawvel, R.M.; Draggoo, V.G.

    1994-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal vapor laser is disclosed that recycles condensed metal located at the terminal ends of a plasma tube back toward the center of the tube. A pair of arcuate wedges are incorporated on the bottom of the plasma tube near the terminal ends. The wedges slope downward toward the center so that condensed metal may be transported under the force of gravity away from the terminal ends. The wedges are curved to fit the plasma tube to thereby avoid forming any gaps within the tube interior. 8 figures.

  3. Unusual thermopower of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, Youngwoo, E-mail: youngwoo.nam@chalmers.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Sun, Jie; Lindvall, Niclas; Yurgens, August [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Jae Yang, Seung; Rae Park, Chong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Woo Park, Yung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on thermopower (TEP) and resistance measurements of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Unlike the conventional resistance of pristine graphene, the gate-dependent TEP shows a large electron-hole asymmetry. This can be accounted for by inhomogeneity of the CVD-graphene where individual graphene regions contribute with different TEPs. At the high magnetic field and low temperature, the TEP has large fluctuations near the Dirac point associated with the disorder in the CVD-graphene. TEP measurements reveal additional characteristics of CVD-graphene, which are difficult to obtain from the measurement of resistance alone.

  4. Stimulated emission of ultraviolet radiation by vapors of complex molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barkova, L.A.; Gruzinskii, V.V.; Danilova, V.I.; Degtyarenko, K.M.; Kopylova, T.N.; Kuznetsov, A.L.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lasing was observed in vapors of new organic compounds: para-terphenyl, 2-phenylbenzoxazole, 2-(n-tolyl) benzoxazole, 2-(n-methoxyphenyl) benzoxazole, 2-(n-dimethylaminophenyl) benzoxazole, 2-biphenylbenzoxazole, 2-(..cap alpha..-naphthyl) benzoxazole, and also 1,4-di(n-phenylethynyl) benzole, and para-quaterphenyl pumped transversely by XeCl excimer laser radiation at lambda/sub p/ = 308 nm. The lasing bands without tuning covered the 330--370 nm range. The shortest-wavelength maximum (333.5 nm) was observed for 2-(n-methoxyphenyl) benzoxazole. An analysis was made of the lasing ability of the molecules.

  5. Recirculating wedges for metal-vapor plasma tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Jerome P. (Livermore, CA); Sawvel, Robert M. (Modesto, CA); Draggoo, Vaughn G. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal vapor laser is disclosed that recycles condensed metal located at the terminal ends of a plasma tube back toward the center of the tube. A pair of arcuate wedges are incorporated on the bottom of the plasma tube near the terminal ends. The wedges slope downward toward the center so that condensed metal may be transported under the force of gravity away from the terminal ends. The wedges are curved to fit the plasma tube to thereby avoid forming any gaps within the tube interior.

  6. Three-dimensional computer simulations of bioremediation and vapor extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Travis, B.; Trent, B.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical simulations of two remediation strategies are presented. These calculations are significant in they they will play a major role in the actual field implementation of two very different techniques. The first set of calculations simulates the actual spill event of nearly 60,000 gallons of No. 2 diesel fuel oil and its subsequent flow toward the water table for 13 years. Hydrogen peroxide saturated water flooding is then performed and the bioremediation of the organic material is then calculated. The second set of calculations describes the vacuum extraction of organic vapors and indicates the sensitivity to various assumed formation properties and boundary conditions. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Dosimeter for monitoring vapors and aerosols of organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1987-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A dosimeter is provided for collecting and detecting vapors and aerosols of organic compounds. The dosimeter comprises a lightweight, passive device that can be conveniently worn by a person as a badge or placed at a stationary location. The dosimeter includes a sample collector comprising a porous web treated with a chemical for inducing molecular displacement and enhancing phosphorescence. Compounds are collected onto the web by molecular diffusion. The web also serves as the sample medium for detecting the compounds by a room temperature phosphorescence technique. 7 figs.

  8. The development of a passive dosimeter for airborne aniline vapors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, James Evan

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    systems has been explained by Palmes and Gunnison et al. 3 Using Fick's First Law of Diffusion in relation to a concentration gradient through a tube of fixed length and cross sectional area, Palmes developed an equation useful in the determination... as an economical and accurate means of sampling a1rborne concentrat1ons of gases and vapors in the working environment. The passive diffusion system is dependent upon a principle differing from that usually employed in gas collection devices wh1ch depend upon...

  9. In situ bioremediation enhanced with air sparging and vapor extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fesko, S. [Eaton Corp., Willoughby Hills, OH (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Eaton Corporation operates a corporate airport hangar facility in central Michigan. Testing showed, and soil and groundwater investigation confirmed, that two underground storage tanks leaked. This release sent an undetermined amount of Jet A kerosene into the soil and groundwater. As a result, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) listed the facility on the Act 307 list of contaminated sites (Michigan equivalent of a Superfund listing). The objective of the remediation was to clean up an aquifer and soil system contaminated with Jet A kerosene. This cleanup used pump and treat, bioremediation, soil vapor extraction, and air sparging technologies.

  10. Moisture burst structure in satellite water vapor imagery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulsh, David Joel

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The moisture burst is a tropical synoptic-scale weather event that typically originates along the ITCZ and has been defined previously in window-channel infrared imagery. This research uses 6. 7-micrometer water vapor absorption band imagery to composite 35... moisture burst events during the North Pacific cool season of 1983-1984. Composite maps are constructed at four times, each 24 h apart, during the life cycle of the moisture burst. A comparative baseline is provided by an additional composite of 35 dates...

  11. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM-FIRE Water Vapor Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032)8Li (59AJ76)ARM2, 2006Observations ofgovCampaignsARM-FIRE Water Vapor

  12. Non-Vapor Compression HVAC Technologies Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOilNEW HAMPSHIREofNewsletter NewsletterGeneral CounselNon-Vapor

  13. Cradle and pressure grippers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muniak, John E. (New York, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gripper that is designed to incorporate the functions of gripping, supporting and pressure tongs into one device. The gripper has two opposing finger sections with interlocking fingers that incline and taper to form a wedge. The interlocking fingers are vertically off-set so that the opposing finger sections may close together allowing the inclined, tapered tips of the fingers to extend beyond the plane defined by the opposing finger section's engagement surface. The range of motion defined by the interlocking relationship of the finger sections allows the gripper to grab, lift and support objects of varying size and shape. The gripper has one stationary and one moveable finger section. Power is provided to the moveable finger section by an actuating device enabling the gripper to close around an object to be lifted. A lifting bail is attached to the gripper and is supported by a crane that provides vertical lift.

  14. Liquid fuel vaporizer and combustion chamber having an adjustable thermal conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, Michael R; Whyatt, Greg A; Howe, Daniel T; Fountain, Matthew S

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency and effectiveness of apparatuses for vaporizing and combusting liquid fuel can be improved using thermal conductors. For example, an apparatus having a liquid fuel vaporizer and a combustion chamber can be characterized by a thermal conductor that conducts heat from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The thermal conductor can be a movable member positioned at an insertion depth within the combustion chamber that corresponds to a rate of heat conduction from the combustion chamber to the vaporizer. The rate of heat conduction can, therefore, be adjusted by positioning the movable member at a different insertion depth.

  15. LABORATORY TESTING TO SIMULATE VAPOR SPACE CORROSION IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiersma, B.; Garcia-Diaz, B.; Gray, J.

    2013-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive liquid waste has been stored in underground carbon steel tanks for nearly 70 years at the Hanford nuclear facility. Vapor space corrosion of the tank walls has emerged as an ongoing challenge to overcome in maintaining the structural integrity of these tanks. The interaction between corrosive and inhibitor species in condensates/supernates on the tank wall above the liquid level, and their interaction with vapor phase constituents as the liquid evaporates from the tank wall influences the formation of corrosion products and the corrosion of the carbon steel. An effort is underway to gain an understanding of the mechanism of vapor space corrosion. Localized corrosion, in the form of pitting, is of particular interest in the vapor space. CPP testing was utilized to determine the susceptibility of the steel in a simulated vapor space environment. The tests also investigated the impact of ammonia gas in the vapor space area on the corrosion of the steel. Vapor space coupon tests were also performed to investigate the evolution of the corrosion products during longer term exposures. These tests were also conducted at vapor space ammonia levels of 50 and 550 ppm NH{sub 3} (0.005, and 0.055 vol.%) in air. Ammonia was shown to mitigate vapor space corrosion.

  16. Chemical vapor deposition of organosilicon composite thin films for porous low-k dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, April Denise, 1977-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulsed plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition has produced organosilicon thin films with the potential use as low dielectric constant interconnect materials in microelectronic circuits. Both diethylsilane and ...

  17. Removal of hydrogen sulfide as ammonium sulfate from hydropyrolysis product vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marker, Terry L; Felix, Larry G; Linck, Martin B; Roberts, Michael J

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for processing biomass into hydrocarbon fuels that includes processing a biomass in a hydropyrolysis reactor resulting in hydrocarbon fuels and a process vapor stream and cooling the process vapor stream to a condensation temperature resulting in an aqueous stream. The aqueous stream is sent to a catalytic reactor where it is oxidized to obtain a product stream containing ammonia and ammonium sulfate. A resulting cooled product vapor stream includes non-condensable process vapors comprising H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, CO, CO.sub.2, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.

  18. Steam Oxidation at High Pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL; Carney, Casey [URS

    2013-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A first high pressure test was completed: 293 hr at 267 bar and 670{degrees}C; A parallel 1 bar test was done for comparison; Mass gains were higher for all alloys at 267 bar than at 1 bar; Longer term exposures, over a range of temperatures and pressures, are planned to provide information as to the commercial implications of pressure effects; The planned tests are at a higher combination of temperatures and pressures than in the existing literature. A comparison was made with longer-term literature data: The short term exposures are largely consistent with the longer-term corrosion literature; Ferritic steels--no consistent pressure effect; Austenitic steels--fine grain alloys less able to maintain protective chromia scale as pressure increases; Ni-base alloys--more mass gains above 105 bar than below. Not based on many data points.

  19. High Pressure Hydrogen Materials Compatibility of Piezoelectric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pressure Hydrogen Materials Compatibility of Piezoelectric Films. High Pressure Hydrogen Materials Compatibility of Piezoelectric Films. Abstract: Abstract: Hydrogen is being...

  20. Pressure testing of torispherical heads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rana, M.D. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Research and Development Dept.; Kalnins, A.; Updike, D.P. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two vessels fabricated from SA516-70 steel with 6% knuckle radius torispherical heads were tested under internal pressure to failure. The D/t ratios of Vessel 1 and Vessel 2 were 238 and 185 respectively. The calculated maximum allowable working pressures of Vessel 1 and 2 heads using the ASME Section 8, Div. 1 rules and measured dimensions were 85 and 110 psi, respectively. Vessel 1 failed at a nozzle weld in the cylindrical shell at 700 psi pressure. Neither buckling nor any other objectionable deformation of the head was observed at a theoretical double-elastic-slope collapse pressure of 241 and a calculated buckling pressure of 270 psi. Buckles were observed developing slowly after 600 psi pressure, and a total of 22 buckles were observed after the test, having the maximum amplitude of 0.15 inch. Vessel 2 failed at the edge of the longitudinal weld of the cylindrical shell at 1,080 psi pressure. Neither buckling nor any other objectionable deformation of the head was observed up to the final pressure, which exceeded the theoretical double-elastic-slope collapse and calculated buckling pressures of 274 psi and 342 psi, respectively.