National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for vapor emits ultraviolet

  1. High extraction efficiency ultraviolet light-emitting diode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wierer, Jonathan; Montano, Ines; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2015-11-24

    Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with tailored AlGaN quantum wells can achieve high extraction efficiency. For efficient bottom light extraction, parallel polarized light is preferred, because it propagates predominately perpendicular to the QW plane and into the typical and more efficient light escape cones. This is favored over perpendicular polarized light that propagates along the QW plane which requires multiple, lossy bounces before extraction. The thickness and carrier density of AlGaN QW layers have a strong influence on the valence subband structure, and the resulting optical polarization and light extraction of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes. At Al>0.3, thinner QW layers (<2.5 nm are preferred) result in light preferentially polarized parallel to the QW plane. Also, active regions consisting of six or more QWs, to reduce carrier density, and with thin barriers, to efficiently inject carriers in all the QWs, are preferred.

  2. Tunnel junction enhanced nanowire ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarwar, A. T. M. Golam; May, Brelon J.; Deitz, Julia I.; Grassman, Tyler J.; McComb, David W.; Myers, Roberto C.

    2015-09-07

    Polarization engineered interband tunnel junctions (TJs) are integrated in nanowire ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs). A ∼6 V reduction in turn-on voltage is achieved by the integration of tunnel junction at the base of polarization doped nanowire UV LEDs. Moreover, efficient hole injection into the nanowire LEDs leads to suppressed efficiency droop in TJ integrated nanowire LEDs. The combination of both reduced bias voltage and increased hole injection increases the wall plug efficiency in these devices. More than 100 μW of UV emission at ∼310 nm is measured with external quantum efficiency in the range of 4–6 m%. The realization of tunnel junction within the nanowire LEDs opens a pathway towards the monolithic integration of cascaded multi-junction nanowire LEDs on silicon.

  3. Defect-Enabled Electrical Current Leakage in Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Moseley, Michael William; Allerman, Andrew A.; Crawford, Mary H.; Wierer, Jonathan; Smith, Michael L.; Biedermann, Laura

    2015-04-13

    The AlGaN materials system offers a tunable, ultra-wide bandgap that is exceptionally useful for high-power electronics and deep ultraviolet optoelectronics. Moseley et al. (pp. 723–726) investigate a structural defect known as an open-core threading dislocation or ''nanopipe'' that is particularly detrimental to devices that employ these materials. Furthermore, an AlGaN thin film was synthesized using metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition. Electrical current leakage is detected at a discrete point using a conductive atomic-force microscope (CAFM). However, no physical feature or abnormality at this location was visible by an optical microscope. The AlGaN thin film was then etched in hot phosphoric acid, andmore » the same location that was previously analyzed was revisited with the CAFM. The point that previously exhibited electrical current leakage had been decorated with a 1.1 μm wide hexagonal pit, which identified the site of electrical current leakage as a nanopipe and allows these defects to be easily observed by optical microscopy. Moreover, with this nanopipe identification and quantification strategy, the authors were able to correlate decreasing ultraviolet light-emitting diode optical output power with increasing nanopipe density.« less

  4. Photon extraction from nitride ultraviolet light-emitting devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schowalter, Leo J; Chen, Jianfeng; Grandusky, James R

    2015-02-24

    In various embodiments, a rigid lens is attached to a light-emitting semiconductor die via a layer of encapsulant having a thickness insufficient to prevent propagation of thermal expansion mismatch-induced strain between the rigid lens and the semiconductor die.

  5. Tunnel-injection GaN quantum dot ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, Jai; Kandaswamy, Prem Kumar; Protasenko, Vladimir; Verma, Amit; Grace Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep

    2013-01-28

    We demonstrate a GaN quantum dot ultraviolet light-emitting diode that uses tunnel injection of carriers through AlN barriers into the active region. The quantum dot heterostructure is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on AlN templates. The large lattice mismatch between GaN and AlN favors the formation of GaN quantum dots in the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode. Carrier injection by tunneling can mitigate losses incurred in hot-carrier injection in light emitting heterostructures. To achieve tunnel injection, relatively low composition AlGaN is used for n- and p-type layers to simultaneously take advantage of effective band alignment and efficient doping. The small height of the quantum dots results in short-wavelength emission and are simultaneously an effective tool to fight the reduction of oscillator strength from quantum-confined Stark effect due to polarization fields. The strong quantum confinement results in room-temperature electroluminescence peaks at 261 and 340 nm, well above the 365 nm bandgap of bulk GaN. The demonstration opens the doorway to exploit many varied features of quantum dot physics to realize high-efficiency short-wavelength light sources.

  6. Development of substrate-removal-free vertical ultraviolet light-emitting diode (RefV-LED)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurose, N. Aoyagi, Y.; Shibano, K.; Araki, T.

    2014-02-15

    A vertical ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diode (LED) that does not require substrate removal is developed. Spontaneous via holes are formed in n-AlN layer epitaxially grown on a high conductive n+Si substrate and the injected current flows directly from the p-electrode to high doped n{sup +} Si substrate through p-AlGaN, multi-quantum wells, n-AlGaN and spontaneous via holes in n-AlN. The spontaneous via holes were formed by controlling feeding-sequence of metal-organic gas sources and NH{sub 3} and growth temperature in MOCVD. The via holes make insulating n-AlN to be conductive. We measured the current-voltage, current-light intensity and emission characteristics of this device. It exhibited a built-in voltage of 3.8 V and emission was stated at 350 nm from quantum wells with successive emission centered at 400 nm. This UV LED can be produced, including formation of n and p electrodes, without any resist process.

  7. Nanostructured High Performance Ultraviolet and Blue Light Emitting Diodes for Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arto V. Nurmikko; Jung Han

    2005-09-30

    We report on research results in this project which synergize advanced material science approaches with fundamental optical physics concepts pertaining to light-matter interaction, with the goal of solving seminal problems for the development of very high performance light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the blue and near ultraviolet for Solid State Lighting applications. Accomplishments in the second 12 month contract period include (i) new means of synthesizing AlGaN and InN quantum dots by droplet heteroepitaxy, (ii) synthesis of AlGaInN nanowires as building blocks for GaN-based microcavity devices, (iii) progress towards direct epitaxial alignment of the dense arrays of nanowires, (iv) observation and measurements of stimulated emission in dense InGaN nanopost arrays, (v) design and fabrication of InGaN photonic crystal emitters, and (vi) observation and measurements of enhanced fluorescence from coupled quantum dot and plasmonic nanostructures. The body of results is presented in this report shows how a solid foundation has been laid, with several noticeable accomplishments, for innovative research, consistent with the stated milestones.

  8. NANOSTRUCTURED HIGH PERFORMANCE ULTRAVIOLET AND BLUE LIGHT EMITTING DIODES FOR SOLID STATE LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arto V. Nurmikko; Jung Han

    2004-10-01

    We report on research results in this project which synergize advanced material science approaches with fundamental optical physics concepts pertaining to light-matter interaction, with the goal of solving seminal problems for the development of very high performance light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the blue and near ultraviolet for Solid State Lighting applications. Accomplishments in the first 12 month contract period include (1) new means of synthesizing zero- and one-dimensional GaN nanostructures, (2) establishment of the building blocks for making GaN-based microcavity devices, and (3) demonstration of top-down approach to nano-scale photonic devices for enhanced spontaneous emission and light extraction. These include a demonstration of eight-fold enhancement of the external emission efficiency in new InGaN QW photonic crystal structures. The body of results is presented in this report shows how a solid foundation has been laid, with several noticeable accomplishments, for innovative research, consistent with the stated milestones.

  9. Growth of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, H.Q.; Hammons, B.E.; Crawford, M.H.; Lear, K.L.; Choquette, K.D.

    1996-10-01

    We present growth and characterization of visible and near-infrared vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Discussions on the growth issue of VCSEL materials include growth rate and composition control using an {ital in}{ital situ} normal-incidence reflectometer, comprehensive p- and n-type doping study in AlGaAs by CCl{sub 4} and Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} over the entire composition range, and optimization of ultra-high material uniformity. We also demonstrate our recent achievements of all-AlGaAs VCSELs which include the first room-temperature continuous- wave demonstration of 700-nm red VCSELs and high-efficiency and low- threshold voltage 850-nm VCSELs.

  10. Ultraviolet emission from a multi-layer graphene/MgZnO/ZnO light-emitting diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Jang-Won; Choi, Yong-Seok; Goo Kang, Chang; Hun Lee, Byoung [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byeong-Hyeok [Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Tu, C. W. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0407 (United States); Park, Seong-Ju, E-mail: sjpark@gist.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-03

    We report on ultraviolet emission from a multi-layer graphene (MLG)/MgZnO/ZnO light-emitting diodes (LED). The p-type MLG and MgZnO in the MLG/MgZnO/ZnO LED are used as transparent hole injection and electron blocking layers, respectively. The current-voltage characteristics of the MLG/MgZnO/ZnO LED show that current transport is dominated by tunneling processes in the MgZnO barrier layer under forward bias conditions. The holes injected from p-type MLG recombine efficiently with the electrons accumulated in ZnO, and the MLG/MgZnO/ZnO LED shows strong ultraviolet emission from the band edge of ZnO and weak red-orange emission from the deep levels of ZnO.

  11. New red phosphor for near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with high color-purity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhengliang; He, Pei; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Jishou; Gong, Menglian

    2010-02-15

    New red phosphors, Na{sub 5}Eu(MoO{sub 4}){sub 4} doped with boron oxide were prepared by the solid-state reaction. Their structure and photo-luminescent properties were investigated. With the introduction of boron oxide, the red emission intensity of the phosphors under 395 nm excitation is strengthened, with high color-purity (x = 0.673, y = 0.327). The single red light-emitting diode was obtained by combining InGaN chip with the red phosphor, bright red light can be observed by naked eyes from the red light-emitting diodes under a forward bias of 20 mA.

  12. High efficiency single Ag nanowire/p-GaN substrate Schottky junction-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Y.; Li, X.; Xu, P.; Wang, Y.; Shen, X.; Liu, X.; Yang, Q.; Hasan, T.

    2015-02-02

    We report a high efficiency single Ag nanowire (NW)/p-GaN substrate Schottky junction-based ultraviolet light emitting diode (UV-LED). The device demonstrates deep UV free exciton electroluminescence at 362.5?nm. The dominant emission, detectable at ultralow (<1??A) forward current, does not exhibit any shifts when the forward current is increased. External quantum efficiency (EQE) as high as 0.9% is achieved at 25??A current at room temperature. Experiments and simulation analysis show that devices fabricated with thinner Ag NWs have higher EQE. However, for very thin Ag NWs (diameter?

  13. Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reich, Christoph Guttmann, Martin; Wernicke, Tim; Mehnke, Frank; Kuhn, Christian; Feneberg, Martin; Goldhahn, Rüdiger; Rass, Jens; Kneissl, Michael; Lapeyrade, Mickael; Einfeldt, Sven; Knauer, Arne; Kueller, Viola; Weyers, Markus

    2015-10-05

    The optical polarization of emission from ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on (0001)-oriented Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N multiple quantum wells (MQWs) has been studied by simulations and electroluminescence measurements. With increasing aluminum mole fraction in the quantum well x, the in-plane intensity of transverse-electric (TE) polarized light decreases relative to that of the transverse-magnetic polarized light, attributed to a reordering of the valence bands in Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N. Using k ⋅ p theoretical model calculations, the AlGaN MQW active region design has been optimized, yielding increased TE polarization and thus higher extraction efficiency for bottom-emitting LEDs in the deep UV spectral range. Using (i) narrow quantum wells, (ii) barriers with high aluminum mole fractions, and (iii) compressive growth on patterned aluminum nitride sapphire templates, strongly TE-polarized emission was observed at wavelengths as short as 239 nm.

  14. Characterization of electrically-active defects in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with laser-based failure analysis techniques

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miller, Mary A.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Edward I. Cole, Jr.

    2016-01-12

    In this study, laser-based failure analysis techniques demonstrate the ability to quickly and non-intrusively screen deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes(LEDs) for electrically-active defects. In particular, two laser-based techniques, light-induced voltage alteration and thermally-induced voltage alteration, generate applied voltage maps (AVMs) that provide information on electrically-active defect behavior including turn-on bias, density, and spatial location. Here, multiple commercial LEDs were examined and found to have dark defect signals in the AVM indicating a site of reduced resistance or leakage through the diode. The existence of the dark defect signals in the AVM correlates strongly with an increased forward-bias leakage current. This increasedmore » leakage is not present in devices without AVM signals. Transmission electron microscopyanalysis of a dark defect signal site revealed a dislocation cluster through the pn junction. The cluster included an open core dislocation. Even though LEDs with few dark AVM defect signals did not correlate strongly with power loss, direct association between increased open core dislocation densities and reduced LED device performance has been presented elsewhere [M. W. Moseley et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 095301 (2015)].« less

  15. Tunnel-injection quantum dot deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with polarization-induced doping in III-nitride heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, Jai Islam, S. M.; Protasenko, Vladimir; Kumar Kandaswamy, Prem; Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep

    2014-01-13

    Efficient semiconductor optical emitters in the deep-ultraviolet spectral window are encountering some of the most deep rooted problems of semiconductor physics. In III-Nitride heterostructures, obtaining short-wavelength photon emission requires the use of wide bandgap high Al composition AlGaN active regions. High conductivity electron (n-) and hole (p-) injection layers of even higher bandgaps are necessary for electrical carrier injection. This approach requires the activation of very deep dopants in very wide bandgap semiconductors, which is a difficult task. In this work, an approach is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to counter the challenges. The active region of the heterostructure light emitting diode uses ultrasmall epitaxially grown GaN quantum dots. Remarkably, the optical emission energy from GaN is pushed from 365?nm (3.4?eV, the bulk bandgap) to below 240?nm (>5.2?eV) because of extreme quantum confinement in the dots. This is possible because of the peculiar bandstructure and band alignments in the GaN/AlN system. This active region design crucially enables two further innovations for efficient carrier injection: Tunnel injection of carriers and polarization-induced p-type doping. The combination of these three advances results in major boosts in electroluminescence in deep-ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lays the groundwork for electrically pumped short-wavelength lasers.

  16. Luminescent properties of Eu{sup 2+}-doped BaGdF{sub 5} glass ceramics a potential blue phosphor for ultra-violet light-emitting diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Weihuan; Zhang, Yuepin Ouyang, Shaoye; Zhang, Zhixiong; Wang, Qian; Xia, Haiping

    2015-01-14

    Eu{sup 2+} doped transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing BaGdF{sub 5} nanocrystals were successfully fabricated by melt-quenching technique under a reductive atmosphere. The structure of the glass and glass ceramics were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The luminescent properties were investigated by transmission, excitation, and emission spectra. The decay time of the Gd{sup 3+} ions at 312?nm excited with 275?nm were also investigated. The results of XRD and TEM indicated the existence of BaGdF5 nanocrystals in the transparent glass ceramics. The excitation spectra of Eu{sup 2+} doped glass ceramics showed an excellent overlap with the main emission region of an ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV-LED). Compared with the as-made glass, the emission of glass ceramics is much stronger by a factor of increasing energy transfer efficiency from Gd{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} ions, the energy transfer efficiency from Gd{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} ions was discussed. In addition, the chromaticity coordinates of glass and glass ceramics specimens were also discussed, which indicated that the Eu{sup 2+} doped BaGdF{sub 5} glass ceramics may be used as a potential blue-emitting phosphor for UV-LED.

  17. Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on semipolar GaN (2021) substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sawicka, M.; Grzanka, S.; Skierbiszewski, C.; Turski, H.; Muziol, G.; Krysko, M.; Grzanka, E.; Sochacki, T.; Siekacz, M.; Kucharski, R.

    2013-03-18

    Multi-quantum well (MQW) structures and light emitting diodes (LEDs) were grown on semipolar (2021) and polar (0001) GaN substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The In incorporation efficiency was found to be significantly lower for the semipolar plane as compared to the polar one. The semipolar MQWs exhibit a smooth surface morphology, abrupt interfaces, and a high photoluminescence intensity. The electroluminescence of semipolar (2021) and polar (0001) LEDs fabricated in the same growth run peaks at 387 and 462 nm, respectively. Semipolar LEDs with additional (Al,Ga)N cladding layers exhibit a higher optical output power but simultaneously a higher turn-on voltage.

  18. Electrical current leakage and open-core threading dislocations in AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moseley, Michael Allerman, Andrew; Crawford, Mary; Wierer, Jonathan J.; Smith, Michael; Biedermann, Laura

    2014-08-07

    Electrical current transport through leakage paths in AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet (DUV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and their effect on LED performance are investigated. Open-core threading dislocations, or nanopipes, are found to conduct current through nominally insulating Al{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}N layers and limit the performance of DUV-LEDs. A defect-sensitive phosphoric acid etch reveals these open-core threading dislocations in the form of large, micron-scale hexagonal etch pits visible with optical microscopy, while closed-core screw-, edge-, and mixed-type threading dislocations are represented by smaller and more numerous nanometer-scale pits visible by atomic-force microscopy. The electrical and optical performances of DUV-LEDs fabricated on similar Si-doped Al{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}N templates are found to have a strong correlation to the density of these nanopipes, despite their small fraction (<0.1% in this study) of the total density of threading dislocations.

  19. Inversion by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from N- to Ga-polar gallium nitride and its application to multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosalli, A. M.; Van Den Broeck, D. M.; Bedair, S. M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, NCSU, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, NCSU, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Bharrat, D.; El-Masry, N. A. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, NCSU, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)] [Department of Material Science and Engineering, NCSU, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2013-12-02

    We demonstrate a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth approach for inverting N-polar to Ga-polar GaN by using a thin inversion layer grown with high Mg flux. The introduction of this inversion layer allowed us to grow p-GaN films on N-polar GaN thin film. We have studied the dependence of hole concentration, surface morphology, and degree of polarity inversion for the inverted Ga-polar surface on the thickness of the inversion layer. We then use this approach to grow a light emitting diode structure which has the MQW active region grown on the advantageous N-polar surface and the p-layer grown on the inverted Ga-polar surface.

  20. Effects of Mg-doped AlN/AlGaN superlattices on properties of p-GaN contact layer and performance of deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al tahtamouni, T. M.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2014-04-15

    Mg-doped AlN/AlGaN superlattice (Mg-SL) and Mg-doped AlGaN epilayers have been investigated in the 284 nm deep ultraviolet (DUV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) as electron blocking layers. It was found that the use of Mg-SL improved the material quality of the p-GaN contact layer, as evidenced in the decreased density of surface pits and improved surface morphology and crystalline quality. The performance of the DUV LEDs fabricated using Mg-SL was significantly improved, as manifested by enhanced light intensity and output power, and reduced turn-on voltage. The improved performance is attributed to the enhanced blocking of electron overflow, and enhanced hole injection.

  1. KOH based selective wet chemical etching of AlN, AlxGa1-xN, and GaN crystals: A way towards substrate removal in deep ultraviolet-light emitting diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, W; Kirste, R; Bryan, I; Bryan, Z; Hussey, L; Reddy, P; Tweedie, J; Collazo, R; Sitar, Z

    2015-02-23

    A controllable and smooth potassium hydroxide-based wet etching technique was developed for the AlGaN system. High selectivity between AlN and AlxGa1-xN (up to 12 x) was found to be critical in achieving effective substrate thinning or removal for AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes, thus increasing light extraction efficiency. The mechanism of high selectivity of AlGaN as a function of Al composition can be explained as related to the formation and dissolution of oxide/hydroxide on top of N-polar surface. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopic analysis served as ultimate proof that these hillocks were not related to underlying threading dislocations. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

  2. Liquid-phase exfoliation of chemical vapor deposition-grown single layer graphene and its application in solution-processed transparent electrodes for flexible organic light-emitting devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Chaoxing; Li, Fushan E-mail: gtl-fzu@hotmail.com; Wu, Wei; Chen, Wei; Guo, Tailiang E-mail: gtl-fzu@hotmail.com

    2014-12-15

    Efficient and low-cost methods for obtaining high performance flexible transparent electrodes based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene are highly desirable. In this work, the graphene grown on copper foil was exfoliated into micron-size sheets through controllable ultrasonication. We developed a clean technique by blending the exfoliated single layer graphene sheets with conducting polymer to form graphene-based composite solution, which can be spin-coated on flexible substrate, forming flexible transparent conducting film with high conductivity (?8 ?/?), high transmittance (?81% at 550?nm), and excellent mechanical robustness. In addition, CVD-grown-graphene-based polymer light emitting diodes with excellent bendable performances were demonstrated.

  3. Electrical Current Leakage and Open-Core Threading Dislocations in AlGaN-Based Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes.

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Moseley, Michael William; Allerman, Andrew A.; Crawford, Mary H.; Wierer, Jonathan; Smith, Michael L.; Biedermann, Laura

    2014-08-04

    Electrical current transport through leakage paths in AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet (DUV) lightemitting diodes (LEDs) and their effect on LED performance are investigated. Open-core threading dislocations, or nanopipes, are found to conduct current through nominally insulating Al0.7Ga0.3N layers and limit the performance of DUV-LEDs. A defect-sensitive phosphoric acid etch reveals these opencore threading dislocations in the form of large, micron-scale hexagonal etch pits visible with optical microscopy, while closed-core screw-, edge-, and mixed-type threading dislocations are represented by smaller and more numerous nanometer-scale pits visible by atomic-force microscopy. The electrical and optical performances of DUV-LEDs fabricated on similar Si-doped Al0.7Ga0.3N templatesmore » are found to have a strong correlation to the density of these nanopipes, despite their small fraction (<0.1% in this study) of the total density of threading dislocations.« less

  4. Photopumped red-emitting InP/In{sub 0.5}Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.2}P self-assembled quantum dot heterostructure lasers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryou, J. H.; Dupuis, R. D.; Walter, G.; Kellogg, D. A.; Holonyak, N.; Mathes, D. T.; Hull, R.; Reddy, C. V.; Narayanamurti, V.

    2001-06-25

    We report the 300 K operation of optically pumped red-emitting lasers fabricated from InP self-assembled quantum dots embedded in In{sub 0.5}Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.2}P layers on GaAs (100) substrates grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Quantum dots grown at 650{degree}C on In{sub 0.5}Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.2}P layers have a high density on the order of 10{sup 10} cm{sup {minus}2} and the dominant size of individual quantum dots ranges from {similar_to}5 to {similar_to}10 nm for 7.5 monolayer {open_quotes}equivalent growth.{close_quotes} These InP/In{sub 0.5}Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.2}P quantum dot heterostructures are characterized by atomic force microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence. Laser structures are prepared from wafers having two vertically stacked InP quantum dot active layers within a 100-nm-thick In{sub 0.5}Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.2}P waveguide and upper and lower 600 nm InAlP cladding layers. We observe lasing at {lambda}{similar_to}680 nm at room temperature in optically pumped samples. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  5. The role of the carbon-silicon complex in eliminating deep ultraviolet absorption in AlN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaddy, BE; Bryan, Z; Bryan, I; Xie, JQ; Dalmau, R; Moody, B; Kumagai, Y; Nagashima, T; Kubota, Y; Kinoshita, T; Koukitu, A; Kirste, R; Sitar, Z; Collazo, R; Irving, DL

    2014-05-19

    Co-doping AlN crystals with Si is found to suppress the unwanted 4.7 eV (265 nm) deep ultraviolet absorption associated with isolated carbon acceptors common in materials grown by physical vapor transport. Density functional theory calculations with hybrid functionals demonstrate that silicon forms a stable nearest-neighbor defect complex with carbon. This complex is predicted to absorb at 5.5 eV and emit at or above 4.3 eV. Absorption and photoluminescence measurements of co-doped samples confirm the presence of the predicted C-N-Si-Al complex absorption and emission peaks and significant reduction of the 4.7 eV absorption. Other sources of deep ultraviolet absorption in AlN are also discussed. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  6. Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gero, Jonathan; Ermold, Brian; Gaustad, Krista; Koontz, Annette; Hackel, Denny; Garcia, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    The atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) is a ground-based instrument that measures the downwelling infrared radiance from the Earth’s atmosphere. The observations have broad spectral content and sufficient spectral resolution to discriminate among gaseous emitters (e.g., carbon dioxide and water vapor) and suspended matter (e.g., aerosols, water droplets, and ice crystals). These upward-looking surface observations can be used to obtain vertical profiles of tropospheric temperature and water vapor, as well as measurements of trace gases (e.g., ozone, carbon monoxide, and methane) and downwelling infrared spectral signatures of clouds and aerosols. The AERI is a passive remote sounding instrument, employing a Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the spectral range 3.3–19.2 μm (520–3020 cm-1) at an unapodized resolution of 0.5 cm-1 (max optical path difference of 1 cm). The extended-range AERI (ER-AERI) deployed in dry climates, like in Alaska, have a spectral range of 3.3–25.0 μm (400–3020 cm-1) that allow measurements in the far-infrared region. Typically, the AERI averages views of the sky over a 16-second interval and operates continuously.

  7. Method for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felter, T. E.; Kubiak, Glenn D.

    1999-01-01

    A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods.

  8. Method for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felter, T. E. (727 Clara St., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Kubiak, G. D. (475 Maple St., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550)

    2000-01-01

    A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods.

  9. Photoresist composition for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felter, T. E. (Alameda County, CA); Kubiak, G. D. (Alameda County, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods. A photoresist composition for extreme ultraviolet radiation of boron carbide polymers, hydrochlorocarbons and mixtures thereof.

  10. Method for generating extreme ultraviolet with mather-type plasma accelerators for use in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hassanein, Ahmed; Konkashbaev, Isak

    2006-10-03

    A device and method for generating extremely short-wave ultraviolet electromagnetic wave uses two intersecting plasma beams generated by two plasma accelerators. The intersection of the two plasma beams emits electromagnetic radiation and in particular radiation in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength. In the preferred orientation two axially aligned counter streaming plasmas collide to produce an intense source of electromagnetic radiation at the 13.5 nm wavelength. The Mather type plasma accelerators can utilize tin, or lithium covered electrodes. Tin, lithium or xenon can be used as the photon emitting gas source.

  11. light-emitting diode

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Cost The high-brightness, rapidly pulsed, multicolor light-emitting diode (LED) driver delivers lighting performance that exceeds that of conventional (laserarc-light) sources ...

  12. Optical monitor for water vapor concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, Paul

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma.

  13. Optical monitor for water vapor concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, P.

    1998-06-02

    A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma. 5 figs.

  14. Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Moisture Control Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders Vapor Barriers or Vapor ... can be part of an overall moisture control strategy for your home. | Photo courtesy ...

  15. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY ...

  16. Apparatus and method for photochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Scott C.; Rocheleau, Richard E.

    1987-03-31

    A photochemical vapor deposition apparatus includes a reactor housing having a window in one wall above a reaction chamber in the housing. A transparent curtain divides the reaction chamber into a reaction zone and a flush zone. At least one substrate is mounted in the reaction zone in light communication with the window so that ultraviolet radiation may penetrate through the window into the reaction zone. The window is kept clear by a gas flowing through the flush zone.

  17. Water Vapor Experiment Concludes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Water Vapor Experiment Concludes The AIRS (atmospheric infrared sounder) Water Vapor Experiment - Ground (AWEX-G) intensive operations period (IOP) at the SGP central facility ...

  18. Ultraviolet absorption hygrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gersh, Michael E.; Bien, Fritz; Bernstein, Lawrence S.

    1986-01-01

    An ultraviolet absorption hygrometer is provided including a source of pulsed ultraviolet radiation for providing radiation in a first wavelength region where water absorbs significantly and in a second proximate wavelength region where water absorbs weakly. Ultraviolet radiation in the first and second regions which has been transmitted through a sample path of atmosphere is detected. The intensity of the radiation transmitted in each of the first and second regions is compared and from this comparison the amount of water in the sample path is determined.

  19. Ultraviolet absorption hygrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gersh, M.E.; Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.

    1986-12-09

    An ultraviolet absorption hygrometer is provided including a source of pulsed ultraviolet radiation for providing radiation in a first wavelength region where water absorbs significantly and in a second proximate wavelength region where water absorbs weakly. Ultraviolet radiation in the first and second regions which has been transmitted through a sample path of atmosphere is detected. The intensity of the radiation transmitted in each of the first and second regions is compared and from this comparison the amount of water in the sample path is determined. 5 figs.

  20. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, John P.; Larson, Ronald A.; Goodrich, Lorenzo D.; Hall, Harold J.; Stoddard, Billy D.; Davis, Sean G.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Conrad, Frank J.

    1995-01-01

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

  1. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  2. Light emitting ceramic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valentine, Paul; Edwards, Doreen D.; Walker, Jr., William John; Slack, Lyle H.; Brown, Wayne Douglas; Osborne, Cathy; Norton, Michael; Begley, Richard

    2010-05-18

    A light-emitting ceramic based panel, hereafter termed "electroceramescent" panel, is herein claimed. The electroceramescent panel is formed on a substrate providing mechanical support as well as serving as the base electrode for the device. One or more semiconductive ceramic layers directly overlay the substrate, and electrical conductivity and ionic diffusion are controlled. Light emitting regions overlay the semiconductive ceramic layers, and said regions consist sequentially of a layer of a ceramic insulation layer and an electroluminescent layer, comprised of doped phosphors or the equivalent. One or more conductive top electrode layers having optically transmissive areas overlay the light emitting regions, and a multi-layered top barrier cover comprising one or more optically transmissive non-combustible insulation layers overlay said top electrode regions.

  3. Chemical vapor deposition of fluorine-doped zinc oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Roy G.; Kramer, Keith; Liang, Haifan

    2000-06-06

    Fims of fluorine-doped zinc oxide are deposited from vaporized precursor compounds comprising a chelate of a dialkylzinc, such as an amine chelate, an oxygen source, and a fluorine source. The coatings are highly electrically conductive, transparent to visible light, reflective to infrared radiation, absorbing to ultraviolet light, and free of carbon impurity.

  4. Vaporization, dispersion, and radiant fluxes from LPG spills. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    Both burning and non-burning spills of LPG (primarily propane) were studied. Vaporization rates for propane spills on soil, concrete, insulating concrete, asphalt, sod, wood, and polymer foams were measured. Thermal conductivity, heat transfer coefficients, and steady state vaporization rates were determined. Vapor concentrations were measured downwind of open propane pools 25, 100, 400, and 1600 ft/sup 2/ in area. A Gaussian dispersion model modified for area sources provided a good correlation of measured concentrations. Emitted and incident radiant fluxes from propane fires were measured. Simplified flame radiation models were adequate for predicting radiant fluxes; the maximum effective flux emitted at the flame surface was about 50,000 Btu/h-ft/sup 2/. A few tests in which propane was sprayed into the air showed that at moderately high spray rates all the propane flashed to vapor or atomized; no liquid collected on the ground.

  5. Resonantly enhanced method for generation of tunable, coherent vacuum-ultraviolet radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glownia, J.H.; Sander, R.K.

    1982-06-29

    Carbon Monoxide vapor is used to generate coherent, tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation by third-harmonic generation using a single tunable dye laser. The presence of a nearby electronic level resonantly enhances the nonlinear susceptibility of this molecule allowing efficient generation of the vuv light at modest pump laser intensities, thereby reducing the importance of a six-photon multiple-photon ionization process which is also resonantly enhanced by the same electronic level but no higher order. By choosing the pump radiation wavelength to be of shorter wavelength than individual vibronic levels used to extend tunability stepwise from 154.4 to 124.6 nm, and the intensity to be low enough, multiple-photon ionization can be eliminated. Excitation spectra of the third-harmonic emission output exhibit shifts to shorter wavelength and broadening with increasing CO pressure due to phase matching effects. Increasing the carbon monoxide pressure, therefore, allows the substantial filling in of gaps arising from the stepwise tuning thereby providing almost continuous tunability over the quoted range of wavelength emitted.

  6. Resonantly enhanced method for generation of tunable, coherent vacuum ultraviolet radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glownia, James H.; Sander, Robert K.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon Monoxide vapor is used to generate coherent, tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation by third-harmonic generation using a single tunable dye laser. The presence of a nearby electronic level resonantly enhances the nonlinear susceptibility of this molecule allowing efficient generation of the vuv light at modest pump laser intensities, thereby reducing the importance of a six-photon multiple-photon ionization process which is also resonantly enhanced by the same electronic level but to higher order. By choosing the pump radiation wavelength to be of shorter wavelength than individual vibronic levels used to extend tunability stepwise from 154.4 to 124.6 nm, and the intensity to be low enough, multiple-photon ionization can be eliminated. Excitation spectra of the third-harmonic emission output exhibit shifts to shorter wavelength and broadening with increasing CO pressure due to phase matching effects. Increasing the carbon monoxide pressure, therefore, allows the substantial filling in of gaps arising from the stepwise tuning thereby providing almost continuous tunability over the quoted range of wavelength emitted.

  7. ARM Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM Water Vapor IOP The SGP CART site will host the third ARM water vapor IOP on September 18-October 8, 2000. The CART site is home to a powerful array of instruments capable of ...

  8. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product Citation Details In-Document Search Title: G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) ...

  9. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS You are ...

  10. Advanced Ultraviolet Spectroradiometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lee Harrison of the State University of New York at Albany and is funded by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The sun emits a vast amount of energy in the form of ...

  11. Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1988-01-01

    The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled.

  12. Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1988-05-24

    The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled. 2 figs.

  13. Inorganic volumetric light source excited by ultraviolet light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, S.; Walko, R.J.; Ashley, C.S.; Brinker, C.J.

    1994-04-26

    The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation. The composition comprises a porous substrate loaded with a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with an exciting radiation. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with a component, e.g., a phosphor, capable of interacting with exciting radiation of a first energy, e.g., ultraviolet light, to produce radiation of a second energy, e.g., visible light. 4 figures.

  14. Inorganic volumetric light source excited by ultraviolet light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Scott; Walko, Robert J.; Ashley, Carol S.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation. The composition comprises a porous substrate loaded with a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with an exciting radiation. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with a component, e.g., a phosphor, capable of interacting with exciting radiation of a first energy, e.g., ultraviolet light, to produce radiation of a second energy, e.g., visible light.

  15. Chemical vapor deposition of fluorinated polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, J.A.; Lang, C.I.; Lu, T.M.; You, L.

    1993-12-31

    An overview of the authors` work directed toward the deposition of fluorinated polymers by condensation of thermally or photochemically generated intermediates directly from the vapor state will be presented. Previously known materials such as Teflon AF{reg_sign} and Parylene AF{sub 4} have been successfully deposited and are being evaluated for microelectronic application as on-chip dielectrics. A novel, one-step route to Parylene AF{sub 4} will be described which obviates the necessity of multistep organic synthesis to prepare precursors. A new, partially fluorinated parylene obtained from tetrafluoro-p-xylene will be described. It has also been observed that ultraviolet irradiation of the vapor of dimethyl tetrafluorobenzocyclobutene causes the deposition of an insoluble film which contains fluorine.

  16. Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Weatherize » Moisture Control » Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders Vapor diffusion retarders installed in a crawlspace can be part of an overall moisture control strategy for your home. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, NREL. Vapor diffusion retarders installed in a crawlspace can be part of an overall moisture control strategy for your home. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, NREL. In most U.S. climates, vapor barriers, or -- more

  17. Vapor spill monitoring method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bianchini, Gregory M.; McRae, Thomas G.

    1985-01-01

    Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

  18. ARM - Water Vapor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Vapor Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, ... FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Water ...

  19. Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Handbook

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gero, Jonathan; Hackel, Denny; Garcia, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    The atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) is a ground-based instrument that measures the downwelling infrared radiance from the Earth’s atmosphere. The observations have broad spectral content and sufficient spectral resolution to discriminate among gaseous emitters (e.g., carbon dioxide and water vapor) and suspended matter (e.g., aerosols, water droplets, and ice crystals). These upward-looking surface observations can be used to obtain vertical profiles of tropospheric temperature and water vapor, as well as measurements of trace gases (e.g., ozone, carbon monoxide, and methane) and downwelling infrared spectral signatures of clouds and aerosols.The AERI is a passive remote sounding instrument, employing a Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the spectral range 3.3–19.2 μm (520–3020 cm-1) at an unapodized resolution of 0.5 cm-1 (max optical path difference of 1 cm). The extended-range AERI (ER-AERI) deployed in dry climates, like in Alaska, have a spectral range of 3.3–25.0 μm (400–3020 cm-1) that allow measurements in the far-infrared region. Typically, the AERI averages views of the sky over a 16-second interval and operates continuously.

  20. Monitoring of vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.

    2004-06-01

    An apparatus for monitoring vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a high-temperature environment has an excitation source producing electromagnetic radiation, an optical path having an optical probe optically communicating the electromagnetic radiation received at a proximal end to a distal end, a spectrometer or polychromator, a detector, and a positioner coupled to the first optical path. The positioner can slidably move the distal end of the optical probe to maintain the distal end position with respect to an area of a material undergoing combustion. The emitted wavelength can be directed to a detector in a single optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration, in a dual optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration or in a dual optical probe 90.degree. side scattered configuration. The apparatus can be used to monitor an emitted wavelength of energy from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as it fluoresces in a high temperature environment.

  1. Vapor Pressures and Heats of Vaporization of Primary Coal Tars

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Therefore, future research could be directed at measuring the vapor pressures for the ... The results from the current work show that measuring the vapor pressures of complicated ...

  2. Temperature, Water Vapor, and Clouds"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor, and Clouds" Project ID: 0011106 ... measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well ...

  3. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1986-08-15

    The atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process for the enrichment of uranium is evaluated. (AIP)

  4. SciTech Connect: "light emitting diode"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    light emitting diode" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "light emitting diode" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text:...

  5. Ultraviolet radiation induced discharge laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilson, Verle A.; Schriever, Richard L.; Shearer, James W.

    1978-01-01

    An ultraviolet radiation source associated with a suitable cathode-anode electrode structure, disposed in a gas-filled cavity of a high pressure pulsed laser, such as a transverse electric atmosphere (TEA) laser, to achieve free electron production in the gas by photoelectric interaction between ultraviolet radiation and the cathode prior to the gas-exciting cathode-to-anode electrical discharge, thereby providing volume ionization of the gas. The ultraviolet radiation is produced by a light source or by a spark discharge.

  6. Infrared emitting device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurtz, Steven R.; Biefeld, Robert M.; Dawson, L. Ralph; Howard, Arnold J.; Baucom, Kevin C.

    1997-01-01

    An infrared emitting device and method. The infrared emitting device comprises a III-V compound semiconductor substrate upon which are grown a quantum-well active region having a plurality of quantum-well layers formed of a ternary alloy comprising InAsSb sandwiched between barrier layers formed of a ternary alloy having a smaller lattice constant and a larger energy bandgap than the quantum-well layers. The quantum-well layers are preferably compressively strained to increase the threshold energy for Auger recombination; and a method is provided for determining the preferred thickness for the quantum-well layers. Embodiments of the present invention are described having at least one cladding layer to increase the optical and carrier confinement in the active region, and to provide for waveguiding of the light generated within the active region. Examples have been set forth showing embodiments of the present invention as surface- and edge-emitting light emitting diodes (LEDs), an optically-pumped semiconductor laser, and an electrically-injected semiconductor diode laser. The light emission from each of the infrared emitting devices of the present invention is in the midwave infrared region of the spectrum from about 2 to 6 microns.

  7. Extreme ultraviolet lithography machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Haney, Steven J.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    2000-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10-14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.

  8. Vapor concentration monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bayly, John G.; Booth, Ronald J.

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus for monitoring the concentration of a vapor, such as heavy water, having at least one narrow bandwidth in its absorption spectrum, in a sample gas such as air. The air is drawn into a chamber in which the vapor content is measured by means of its radiation absorption spectrum. High sensitivity is obtained by modulating the wavelength at a relatively high frequency without changing its optical path, while high stability against zero drift is obtained by the low frequency interchange of the sample gas to be monitored and of a reference sample. The variable HDO background due to natural humidity is automatically corrected.

  9. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

    1983-02-08

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

  10. Blue light emitting thiogallate phosphor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dye, Robert C.; Smith, David C.; King, Christopher N.; Tuenge, Richard T.

    1998-01-01

    A crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor of the formula RGa.sub.2 S.sub.4 :Ce.sub.x where R is selected from the group consisting of calcium, strontium, barium and zinc, and x is from about 1 to 10 atomic percent, the phosphor characterized as having a crystalline microstructure on the size order of from about 100 .ANG. to about 10,000 .ANG. is provided together with a process of preparing a crystalline blue emitting thiogallate phosphor by depositing on a substrate by CVD and resultant thin film electroluminescent devices including a layer of such deposited phosphor on an ordinary glass substrate.

  11. Solvent vapor collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellison, Kenneth; Whike, Alan S.

    1979-01-30

    A solvent vapor collector is mounted on the upstream inlet end of an oven having a gas-circulating means and intended for curing a coating applied to a strip sheet metal at a coating station. The strip sheet metal may be hot and solvent vapors are evaporated at the coating station and from the strip as it passes from the coating station to the oven. Upper and lower plenums within a housing of the collector are supplied with oven gases or air from the gas-circulating means and such gases or air are discharged within the collector obliquely in a downstream direction against the strip passing through that collector to establish downstream gas flows along the top and under surfaces of the strip so as, in turn, to induct solvent vapors into the collector at the coating station. A telescopic multi-piece shroud is usefully provided on the housing for movement between an extended position in which it overlies the coating station to collect solvent vapors released thereat and a retracted position permitting ready cleaning and adjustment of that coating station.

  12. Category:Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mercury Vapor Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Mercury Vapor page? For detailed information on Mercury Vapor as...

  13. Broadband light-emitting diode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, Ian J.; Klem, John F.; Hafich, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    A broadband light-emitting diode. The broadband light-emitting diode (LED) comprises a plurality of III-V compound semiconductor layers grown on a semiconductor substrate, with the semiconductor layers including a pair of cladding layers sandwiched about a strained-quantum-well active region having a plurality of different energy bandgaps for generating light in a wavelength range of about 1.3-2 .mu.m. In one embodiment of the present invention, the active region may comprise a first-grown quantum-well layer and a last-grown quantum-well layer that are oppositely strained; whereas in another embodiment of the invention, the active region is formed from a short-period superlattice structure (i.e. a pseudo alloy) comprising alternating thin layers of InGaAs and InGaAlAs. The use a short-period superlattice structure for the active region allows different layers within the active region to be simply and accurately grown by repetitively opening and closing one or more shutters in an MBE growth apparatus to repetitively switch between different growth states therein. The broadband LED may be formed as either a surface-emitting LED or as an edge-emitting LED for use in applications such as chemical sensing, fiber optic gyroscopes, wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) fiber-optic data links, and WDM fiber-optic sensor networks for automobiles and aircraft.

  14. Broadband light-emitting diode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, I.J.; Klem, J.F.; Hafich, M.J.

    1998-07-14

    A broadband light-emitting diode is disclosed. The broadband light-emitting diode (LED) comprises a plurality of III-V compound semiconductor layers grown on a semiconductor substrate, with the semiconductor layers including a pair of cladding layers sandwiched about a strained-quantum-well active region having a plurality of different energy bandgaps for generating light in a wavelength range of about 1.3--2 {micro}m. In one embodiment of the present invention, the active region may comprise a first-grown quantum-well layer and a last-grown quantum-well layer that are oppositely strained; whereas in another embodiment of the invention, the active region is formed from a short-period superlattice structure (i.e. a pseudo alloy) comprising alternating thin layers of InGaAs and InGaAlAs. The use a short-period superlattice structure for the active region allows different layers within the active region to be simply and accurately grown by repetitively opening and closing one or more shutters in an MBE growth apparatus to repetitively switch between different growth states therein. The broadband LED may be formed as either a surface-emitting LED or as an edge-emitting LED for use in applications such as chemical sensing, fiber optic gyroscopes, wavelength-divisionmultiplexed (WDM) fiber-optic data links, and WDM fiber-optic sensor networks for automobiles and aircraft. 10 figs.

  15. Infrared emitting device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurtz, S.R.; Biefeld, R.M.; Dawson, L.R.; Howard, A.J.; Baucom, K.C.

    1997-04-29

    The infrared emitting device comprises a III-V compound semiconductor substrate upon which are grown a quantum-well active region having a plurality of quantum-well layers formed of a ternary alloy comprising InAsSb sandwiched between barrier layers formed of a ternary alloy having a smaller lattice constant and a larger energy bandgap than the quantum-well layers. The quantum-well layers are preferably compressively strained to increase the threshold energy for Auger recombination; and a method is provided for determining the preferred thickness for the quantum-well layers. Embodiments of the present invention are described having at least one cladding layer to increase the optical and carrier confinement in the active region, and to provide for waveguiding of the light generated within the active region. Examples have been set forth showing embodiments of the present invention as surface- and edge-emitting light emitting diodes (LEDs), an optically-pumped semiconductor laser, and an electrically-injected semiconductor diode laser. The light emission from each of the infrared emitting devices of the present invention is in the midwave infrared region of the spectrum from about 2 to 6 microns. 8 figs.

  16. Organic vapor jet printing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2012-10-23

    An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

  17. Organic vapor jet printing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R.

    2016-05-03

    An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

  18. Stratified vapor generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan; Hassani, Vahab

    2008-05-20

    A stratified vapor generator (110) comprises a first heating section (H.sub.1) and a second heating section (H.sub.2). The first and second heating sections (H.sub.1, H.sub.2) are arranged so that the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2) is operatively associated with the outlet of the first heating section (H.sub.1). A moisture separator (126) having a vapor outlet (164) and a liquid outlet (144) is operatively associated with the outlet (124) of the second heating section (H.sub.2). A cooling section (C.sub.1) is operatively associated with the liquid outlet (144) of the moisture separator (126) and includes an outlet that is operatively associated with the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2).

  19. Filter vapor trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guon, Jerold

    1976-04-13

    A sintered filter trap is adapted for insertion in a gas stream of sodium vapor to condense and deposit sodium thereon. The filter is heated and operated above the melting temperature of sodium, resulting in a more efficient means to remove sodium particulates from the effluent inert gas emanating from the surface of a liquid sodium pool. Preferably the filter leaves are precoated with a natrophobic coating such as tetracosane.

  20. The vapor pressures of explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Hotchkiss, Peter

    2013-01-05

    The vapor pressures of many explosive compounds are extremely low and thus determining accurate values proves difficult. Many researchers, using a variety of methods, have measured and reported the vapor pressures of explosives compounds at single temperatures, or as a function of temperature using vapor pressure equations. There are large variations in reported vapor pressures for many of these compounds, and some errors exist within individual papers. This article provides a review of explosive vapor pressures and describes the methods used to determine them. We have compiled primary vapor pressure relationships traceable to the original citations and include the temperature ranges for which they have been determined. Corrected values are reported as needed and described in the text. In addition, after critically examining the available data, we calculate and tabulate vapor pressures at 25 C.

  1. Quantum Dot Light Emitting Diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith Kahen

    2008-07-31

    The project objective is to create low cost coatable inorganic light emitting diodes, composed of quantum dot emitters and inorganic nanoparticles, which have the potential for efficiencies equivalent to that of LEDs and OLEDs and lifetime, brightness, and environmental stability between that of LEDs and OLEDs. At the end of the project the Recipient shall gain an understanding of the device physics and properties of Quantum-Dot LEDs (QD-LEDs), have reliable and accurate nanocrystal synthesis routines, and have formed green-yellow emitting QD-LEDs with a device efficiency greater than 3 lumens/W, a brightness greater than 400 cd/m2, and a device operational lifetime of more than 1000 hours. Thus the aim of the project is to break the current cost-efficiency paradigm by creating novel low cost inorganic LEDs composed of inorganic nanoparticles.

  2. Quantum Dot Light Emitting Diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahen, Keith

    2008-07-31

    The project objective is to create low cost coatable inorganic light emitting diodes, composed of quantum dot emitters and inorganic nanoparticles, which have the potential for efficiencies equivalent to that of LEDs and OLEDs and lifetime, brightness, and environmental stability between that of LEDs and OLEDs. At the end of the project the Recipient shall gain an understanding of the device physics and properties of Quantum-Dot LEDs (QD-LEDs), have reliable and accurate nanocrystal synthesis routines, and have formed green-yellow emitting QD-LEDs with a device efficiency greater than 3 lumens/W, a brightness greater than 400 cd/m{sup 2}, and a device operational lifetime of more than 1000 hours. Thus the aim of the project is to break the current cost-efficiency paradigm by creating novel low cost inorganic LEDs composed of inorganic nanoparticles.

  3. Porous light-emitting compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K.; McCleskey, Thomas Mark; Jia, Quanxi; Bauer, Eve; Mueller, Alexander H.

    2012-04-17

    Light-emitting devices are prepared by coating a porous substrate using a polymer-assisted deposition process. Solutions of metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for metal precursor were coated onto porous substrates. The coated substrates were heated at high temperatures under a suitable atmosphere. The result was a substrate with a conformal coating that did not substantially block the pores of the substrate.

  4. White light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Parthasarathy, Gautam

    2006-06-20

    A light-emitting device comprises a light-emitting member, which comprises two electrodes, at least two organic electroluminescent ("EL") materials disposed between the electrodes, a charge blocking material disposed between the electrodes, and at least one photoluminescent ("PL") material. The light-emitting member emits electromagnetic ("EM") radiation having a first spectrum in response to a voltage applied across the two electrodes. The PL material absorbs a portion of the EM radiation emitted by the light-emitting member and emits EM radiation having second spectrum different than the first spectrum. Each of the organic EL materials emits EM radiation having a wavelength range selected from the group consisting of blue and red wavelength ranges.

  5. Visible light emitting vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryan, Robert P. (Boulder, CO); Olbright, Gregory R. (Boulder, CO); Lott, James A. (Albuquerque, NM); Schneider, Jr., Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A vertical cavity surface emitting laser that emits visible radiation is built upon a substrate, then having mirrors, the first mirror on top of the substrate; both sets of mirrors being a distributed Bragg reflector of either dielectrics or other materials which affect the resistivity or of semiconductors, such that the structure within the mirror comprises a plurality of sets, each having a thickness of .lambda./2n where n is the index of refraction of each of the sets; each of the mirrors adjacent to spacers which are on either side of an optically active bulk or quantum well layer; and the spacers and the optically active layer are from one of the following material systems: In.sub.z (Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y).sub.1-z P, InAlGaAs, AlGaAs, InGaAs, or AlGaP/GaP, wherein the optically active region having a length equal to m .lambda./2n.sub.eff where m is an integer and n.sub.eff is the effective index of refraction of the laser cavity, and the spacer layer and one of the mirrors being transmissive to radiation having a wavelength of .lambda./n, typically within the green to red portion of the visible spectrum.

  6. Visible light emitting vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryan, R.P.; Olbright, G.R.; Lott, J.A.; Schneider, R.P. Jr.

    1995-06-27

    A vertical cavity surface emitting laser that emits visible radiation is built upon a substrate, then having mirrors, the first mirror on top of the substrate; both sets of mirrors being a distributed Bragg reflector of either dielectrics or other materials which affect the resistivity or of semiconductors, such that the structure within the mirror comprises a plurality of sets, each having a thickness of {lambda}/2n where n is the index of refraction of each of the sets; each of the mirrors adjacent to spacers which are on either side of an optically active bulk or quantum well layer; and the spacers and the optically active layer are from one of the following material systems: In{sub z}(Al{sub y}Ga{sub 1{minus}y}){sub 1{minus}z}P, InAlGaAs, AlGaAs, InGaAs, or AlGaP/GaP, wherein the optically active region having a length equal to m {lambda}/2n{sub eff} where m is an integer and n{sub eff} is the effective index of refraction of the laser cavity, and the spacer layer and one of the mirrors being transmissive to radiation having a wavelength of {lambda}/n, typically within the green to red portion of the visible spectrum. 10 figs.

  7. Vapor spill pipe monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

    1983-06-23

    The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

  8. Vaporization of zinc from scrap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    The rate of zinc vaporization from galvanized scrap was measured using a thermogravimetric apparatus along with chemical analysis. It is found that the rate of zinc vaporization is very fast in nitrogen and carbon monoxide atmospheres at temperatures higher than 950 C. At lower temperature rate decreases with decreasing temperature and is controlled by the gas phase mass transport. The simultaneous oxidation and vaporization of zinc occurs when the samples were heated in carbon dioxide and air. The current experimental results indicate that almost all of the zinc from scrap vaporizes during the heating process in a very short period of time after the temperature reaches above 850 C.

  9. Extreme ultraviolet spectra of highly ionized Ge, Kr and Mo emitted by imploding plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldsmith, S.; Feldman, U.; Cohen, L.; Behring, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    Spectra of highly ionized Ge, Kr and Mo in the spectral region of 10 to 80A were excited in laser-produced plasmas. The plasma was obtained by focusing the energy of the 24 laser beams of the University of Rochester Omega system on 0.4 mm diameter microballoon targets. The laser pulse duration was in the range of 0.87 to 1.09 ns, with total energy in the range of 1.8 to 2.2 kJ. The observed spectral lines include n = 2-2 transitions in the oxygen and fluorine isoelectronic sequences and n = 3 to 4 transitions in the sodium, magnesium and aluminum isoelectronic sequences. The present observations are compared with previous experimental and theoretical studies.

  10. Synthesis and optical properties of cadmium selenide quantum dots for white light-emitting diode application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Xianmei; Wang, Yilin; Gule, Teri; Luo, Qiang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 53000 (China); Zhou, Liya, E-mail: zhouliyatf@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 53000 (China); Gong, Fuzhong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 53000 (China)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ? Stable CdSe QDs were synthesized by the one-step and two-level process respectively. ? The fabricated white LEDs show good white balance. ? CdSe QDs present well green to yellow band luminescence. ? CdSe QDs displayed a broad excitation band. - Abstract: Yellow light-emitting cadmium selenide quantum dots were synthesized using one-step and two-step methods in an aqueous medium. The structural luminescent properties of these quantum dots were investigated. The obtained cadmium selenide quantum dots displayed a broad excitation band suitable for blue or near-ultraviolet light-emitting diode applications. White light-emitting diodes were fabricated by coating the cadmium selenide samples onto a 460 nm-emitting indium gallium nitrite chip. Both samples exhibited good white balance. Under a 20 mA working current, the white light-emitting diode fabricated via the one-step and two-step methods showed Commission Internationale de lclairage coordinates at (0.27, 0.23) and (0.27, 0.33), respectively, and a color rendering index equal to 41 and 37, respectively. The one-step approach was simpler, greener, and more effective than the two-step approach. The one-step approach can be enhanced by combining cadmium selenide quantum dots with proper phosphors.

  11. THERMALLY OPERATED VAPOR VALVE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dorward, J.G. Jr.

    1959-02-10

    A valve is presented for use in a calutron to supply and control the vapor to be ionized. The invention provides a means readily operable from the exterior of the vacuum tank of the apparatuss without mechanical transmission of forces for the quick and accurate control of the ionizing arc by a corresponding control of gas flow theretos thereby producing an effective way of carefully regulating the operation of the calutron. The invention consists essentially of a tube member extending into the charge bottle of a calutron devices having a poppet type valve closing the lower end of the tube. An electrical heating means is provided in the valve stem to thermally vary the length of the stem to regulate the valve opening to control the flow of material from the charge bottle.

  12. Tank vapor mitigation requirements for Hanford Tank Farms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakestraw, L.D.

    1994-11-15

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has contracted Los Alamos Technical Associates to listing of vapors and aerosols that are or may be emitted from the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at Hanford. Mitigation requirements under Federal and State law, as well as DOE Orders, are included in the listing. The lists will be used to support permitting activities relative to tank farm ventilation system up-grades. This task is designated Task 108 under MJB-SWV-312057 and is an extension of efforts begun under Task 53 of Purchase Order MPB-SVV-03291 5 for Mechanical Engineering Support. The results of that task, which covered only thirty-nine tanks, are repeated here to provide a single source document for vapor mitigation requirements for all 177 HLW tanks.

  13. Sensitivity calibration of an imaging extreme ultraviolet spectrometer-detector system for determining the efficiency of broadband extreme ultraviolet sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuchs, S.; Roedel, C.; Bierbach, J.; Paz, A. E.; Foerster, E.; Paulus, G. G.; Krebs, M.; Haedrich, S.; Limpert, J.; Kuschel, S.; Wuensche, M.; Hilbert, V.; Zastrau, U.

    2013-02-15

    We report on the absolute sensitivity calibration of an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectrometer system that is frequently employed to study emission from short-pulse laser experiments. The XUV spectrometer, consisting of a toroidal mirror and a transmission grating, was characterized at a synchrotron source in respect of the ratio of the detected to the incident photon flux at photon energies ranging from 15.5 eV to 99 eV. The absolute calibration allows the determination of the XUV photon number emitted by laser-based XUV sources, e.g., high-harmonic generation from plasma surfaces or in gaseous media. We have demonstrated high-harmonic generation in gases and plasma surfaces providing 2.3 {mu}W and {mu}J per harmonic using the respective generation mechanisms.

  14. Vaporization, dispersion, and radiant fluxes from LPG spills. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    Both burning and non-burning spills of LPG (primarily propane) were studied. Vaporization rates for propane spills on soil, concrete, insulating concrete, asphalt, sod, wood, and polymer foams were measured. Thermal conductivity, heat transfer coefficients, and steady state vaporization rates were determined. Vapor concentrations were measured downwind of open propane pools and a Gaussian dispersion model modified for area sources provided a good correlation of measured concentrations. Emitted and incident radiant fluxes from propane fires were measured. Simplified flame radiation models were adequate for predicting radiant fluxes. Tests in which propane was sprayed into the air showed that at moderately high spray rates all the propane flashed to vapor or atomized; no liquid collected on the ground.

  15. Photoluminescence performance of thulium doped Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2} under irradiation of ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet lights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhaofeng; Li, Yezhou; Liu, Xiong; Wei, Xingmin; Chen, Yueling; Zhou, Fei; Wang, Yuhua

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: A novel blue-emitting phosphor Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tm{sup 3+} was reported. Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tm{sup 3+} exhibited excellent thermal and irradiation stability. Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tm{sup 3+} was found to possess high color purity. - Abstract: In this work, we synthesized Tm{sup 3+} doped Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2} phosphors and investigated their photoluminescence properties under the excitation of ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet lights. The crystal structure analysis and variation of cell parameters confirm that Tm{sup 3+} ions have been successfully doped in the structure of Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2} host by occupying the sites of Ca{sup 2+} with the coordination number of 6. The luminescence results suggest that Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tm{sup 3+} is a good blue-emitting phosphor when excited by ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet irradiations. In addition, it is observed that there is nearly no degradation for Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tm{sup 3+} after undergoing thermal and irradiation treatments. Possible mechanisms for the luminescence processes are proposed on the basis of the discussion of excitation and emission spectra. In particular, the emission color of Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tm{sup 3+} by excitation of 147 and 172 nm irradiations is very close to the standard blue color, suggesting that it could be potentially applied in plasma display panels and mercury-free fluorescence lamps.

  16. Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects Print Wednesday, 28 July 2010 00:00 Since the 1970s, the semiconductor industry has strived to shrink the cost and size of circuit patterns printed onto computer chips in accordance with Moore's law, doubling the number of transistors on a computer's central processing unit (CPU) every two years. The introduction of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, printing chips using

  17. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyeth, Richard W.; Paisner, Jeffrey A.; Story, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    A laser spectroscopy system is utilized in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. The system determines spectral components of an atomic vapor utilizing a laser heterodyne technique.

  18. Microgap ultra-violet detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, Craig R.; Bionta, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    A microgap ultra-violet detector of photons with wavelengths less than 400 run (4000 Angstroms) which comprises an anode and a cathode separated by a gas-filled gap and having an electric field placed across the gap. Either the anode or the cathode is semi-transparent to UV light. Upon a UV photon striking the cathode an electron is expelled and accelerated across the gap by the electric field causing interactions with other electrons to create an electron avalanche which contacts the anode. The electron avalanche is detected and converted to an output pulse.

  19. Microgap ultra-violet detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.

    1994-09-20

    A microgap ultra-violet detector of photons with wavelengths less than 400 run (4,000 Angstroms) which comprises an anode and a cathode separated by a gas-filled gap and having an electric field placed across the gap is disclosed. Either the anode or the cathode is semi-transparent to UV light. Upon a UV photon striking the cathode an electron is expelled and accelerated across the gap by the electric field causing interactions with other electrons to create an electron avalanche which contacts the anode. The electron avalanche is detected and converted to an output pulse. 2 figs.

  20. Green emitting phosphors and blends thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Setlur, Anant Achyut; Siclovan, Oltea Puica; Nammalwar, Prasanth Kumar; Sathyanarayan, Ramesh Rao; Porob, Digamber G.; Chandran, Ramachandran Gopi; Heward, William Jordan; Radkov, Emil Vergilov; Briel, Linda Jane Valyou

    2010-12-28

    Phosphor compositions, blends thereof and light emitting devices including white light emitting LED based devices, and backlights, based on such phosphor compositions. The devices include a light source and a phosphor material as described. Also disclosed are phosphor blends including such a phosphor and devices made therefrom.

  1. Light emitting device having peripheral emissive region

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2013-05-28

    Light emitting devices are provided that include one or more OLEDs disposed only on a peripheral region of the substrate. An OLED may be disposed only on a peripheral region of a substantially transparent substrate and configured to emit light into the substrate. Another surface of the substrate may be roughened or include other features to outcouple light from the substrate. The edges of the substrate may be beveled and/or reflective. The area of the OLED(s) may be relatively small compared to the substrate surface area through which light is emitted from the device. One or more OLEDs also or alternatively may be disposed on an edge of the substrate about perpendicular to the surface of the substrate through which light is emitted, such that they emit light into the substrate. A mode expanding region may be included between each such OLED and the substrate.

  2. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2007-06-12

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  3. Vapor deposition of hardened niobium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blocher, Jr., John M.; Veigel, Neil D.; Landrigan, Richard B.

    1983-04-19

    A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

  4. Supersonic cluster jet source for debris-free extreme ultraviolet production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubiak, G.D.; Bernardez, L.J.

    1997-09-01

    The supersonic cluster jet has been developed and characterized for use as a target medium to produce a clean source of extreme ultraviolet radiation for extreme ultraviolet lithography and other applications. Spectroscopic characterization of the laser plasma emission produced from Xe, O{sub 2} and Kr cluster gas targets has been performed. Xe is the most efficient target gas, exhibiting a conversion efficiency at 13.5 nm of 0.8% into the relevant 2.5% spectral bandwidth. The other target gases are less efficient in the spectral region of interest and, in the case of oxygen, emit {approximately}5 times less off-band radiation. The angular distribution of the Xe plasma emission has also been characterized.

  5. Organic light emitting devices for illumination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hack, Michael; Lu, Min-Hao Michael; Weaver, Michael S.

    2012-01-24

    An organic light emitting device an a method of obtaining illumination from such a device is provided. The device has a plurality of regions, each region having an organic emissive layer adapted to emit a different spectrum of light. The regions in combination emit light suitable for illumination purposes. The area of each region may be selected such that the device is more efficient than an otherwise equivalent device having regions of equal size. The regions may have an aspect ratio of at least about four. All parts of any given region may be driven at the same current.

  6. Organic light emitting devices for illumination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hack, Michael; Lu, Min-Hao Michael; Weaver, Michael S.

    2010-02-16

    An organic light emitting device is provided. The device has a plurality of regions, each region having an organic emissive layer adapted to emit a different spectrum of light. The regions in combination emit light suitable for illumination purposes. The area of each region may be selected such that the device is more efficient that an otherwise equivalent device having regions of equal size. The regions may have an aspect ratio of at least about four. All parts of any given region may be driven at the same current.

  7. Stable blue phosphorescent organic light emitting devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Thompson, Mark; Giebink, Noel

    2014-08-26

    Novel combination of materials and device architectures for organic light emitting devices is provided. An organic light emitting device, is provided, having an anode, a cathode, and an emissive layer disposed between the anode and the cathode. The emissive layer includes a host and a phosphorescent emissive dopant having a peak emissive wavelength less than 500 nm, and a radiative phosphorescent lifetime less than 1 microsecond. Preferably, the phosphorescent emissive dopant includes a ligand having a carbazole group.

  8. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Freezer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Freezer Case Lighting Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Freezer Case Lighting This document is a report ...

  9. Vapor deposition of thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.C.; Pattillo, S.G.; Laia, J.R. Jr.; Sattelberger, A.P.

    1990-10-05

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl){sub 3}, iridium(allyl){sub 3}, molybdenum(allyl){sub 4}, tungsten(allyl){sub 4}, rhenium (allyl){sub 4}, platinum(allyl){sub 2}, or palladium(allyl){sub 2} are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  10. Vapor deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Sattelberger, Alfred P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  11. Horizontal molecular orientation in solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, L.; Inoue, M.; Komino, T.; Kim, J.-H.; Ribierre, J. C. E-mail: adachi@cstf.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research , Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395; Japan Science and Technology Agency , ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, c and others

    2015-02-09

    Horizontal orientation of the emission transition dipole moments achieved in glassy vapor-deposited organic thin films leads to an enhancement of the light out-coupling efficiency in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Here, our combined study of variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry and angle dependent photoluminescence demonstrates that such a horizontal orientation can be achieved in glassy spin-coated organic films based on a composite blend of a heptafluorene derivative as a dopant and a 4,4′-bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1′-biphenyl as a host. Solution-processed fluorescent OLEDs with horizontally oriented heptafluorene emitters were then fabricated and emitted deep blue electroluminescence with an external quantum efficiency as high as 5.3%.

  12. Ultraviolet Behavior of N = 8 supergravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, Lance J.

    2010-06-07

    In these lectures the author describes the remarkable ultraviolet behavior of N = 8 supergravity, which through four loops is no worse than that of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory (a finite theory). I also explain the computational tools that allow multi-loop amplitudes to be evaluated in this theory - the KLT relations and the unitarity method - and sketch how ultraviolet divergences are extracted from the amplitudes.

  13. Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects Print Since the 1970s, the semiconductor industry has strived to shrink the cost and size of circuit patterns printed onto computer chips in accordance with Moore's law, doubling the number of transistors on a computer's central processing unit (CPU) every two years. The introduction of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, printing chips using 13-nm-wavelength light, opens the way to future generations of smaller, faster, and cheaper

  14. Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects Print Since the 1970s, the semiconductor industry has strived to shrink the cost and size of circuit patterns printed onto computer chips in accordance with Moore's law, doubling the number of transistors on a computer's central processing unit (CPU) every two years. The introduction of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, printing chips using 13-nm-wavelength light, opens the way to future generations of smaller, faster, and cheaper

  15. Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects Print Since the 1970s, the semiconductor industry has strived to shrink the cost and size of circuit patterns printed onto computer chips in accordance with Moore's law, doubling the number of transistors on a computer's central processing unit (CPU) every two years. The introduction of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, printing chips using 13-nm-wavelength light, opens the way to future generations of smaller, faster, and cheaper

  16. Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects Print Since the 1970s, the semiconductor industry has strived to shrink the cost and size of circuit patterns printed onto computer chips in accordance with Moore's law, doubling the number of transistors on a computer's central processing unit (CPU) every two years. The introduction of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, printing chips using 13-nm-wavelength light, opens the way to future generations of smaller, faster, and cheaper

  17. Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects Print Since the 1970s, the semiconductor industry has strived to shrink the cost and size of circuit patterns printed onto computer chips in accordance with Moore's law, doubling the number of transistors on a computer's central processing unit (CPU) every two years. The introduction of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, printing chips using 13-nm-wavelength light, opens the way to future generations of smaller, faster, and cheaper

  18. Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects Print Since the 1970s, the semiconductor industry has strived to shrink the cost and size of circuit patterns printed onto computer chips in accordance with Moore's law, doubling the number of transistors on a computer's central processing unit (CPU) every two years. The introduction of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, printing chips using 13-nm-wavelength light, opens the way to future generations of smaller, faster, and cheaper

  19. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.

    2012-12-01

    The generation of calibrated vapor samples of explosives compounds remains a challenge due to the low vapor pressures of the explosives, adsorption of explosives on container and tubing walls, and the requirement to manage (typically) multiple temperature zones as the vapor is generated, diluted, and delivered. Methods that have been described to generate vapors can be classified as continuous or pulsed flow vapor generators. Vapor sources for continuous flow generators are typically explosives compounds supported on a solid support, or compounds contained in a permeation or diffusion device. Sources are held at elevated isothermal temperatures. Similar sources can be used for pulsed vapor generators; however, pulsed systems may also use injection of solutions onto heated surfaces with generation of both solvent and explosives vapors, transient peaks from a gas chromatograph, or vapors generated by s programmed thermal desorption. This article reviews vapor generator approaches with emphasis on the method of generating the vapors and on practical aspects of vapor dilution and handling. In addition, a gas chromatographic system with two ovens that is configurable with up to four heating ropes is proposed that could serve as a single integrated platform for explosives vapor generation and device testing. Issues related to standards, calibration, and safety are also discussed.

  20. Vacuum vapor deposition gun assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, Joseph D.

    1985-01-01

    A vapor deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, a hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  1. An optical water vapor sensor for unmanned aerial vehicles (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An optical water vapor sensor for unmanned aerial vehicles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An optical water vapor sensor for unmanned aerial vehicles The water vapor ...

  2. Side-emitting fiber optic position sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2008-02-12

    A side-emitting fiber optic position sensor and method of determining an unknown position of an object by using the sensor. In one embodiment, a concentrated beam of light source illuminates the side of a side-emitting fiber optic at an unknown axial position along the fiber's length. Some of this side-illuminated light is in-scattered into the fiber and captured. As the captured light is guided down the fiber, its intensity decreases due to loss from side-emission away from the fiber and from bulk absorption within the fiber. By measuring the intensity of light emitted from one (or both) ends of the fiber with a photodetector(s), the axial position of the light source is determined by comparing the photodetector's signal to a calibrated response curve, look-up table, or by using a mathematical model. Alternatively, the side-emitting fiber is illuminated at one end, while a photodetector measures the intensity of light emitted from the side of the fiber, at an unknown position. As the photodetector moves further away from the illuminated end, the detector's signal strength decreases due to loss from side-emission and/or bulk absorption. As before, the detector's signal is correlated to a unique position along the fiber.

  3. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyeth, R.W.; Paisner, J.A.; Story, T.

    1990-08-21

    A laser spectroscopy system is utilized in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. The system determines spectral components of an atomic vapor utilizing a laser heterodyne technique. 23 figs.

  4. ARM - Field Campaign - Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Water Vapor IOP ... Responses to Site Operations Questionnaires for Water Vapor IOP Instrument Name Instrument ...

  5. Vapor Retarder Classification - Building America Top Innovation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Vapor Retarder Classification - Building America Top Innovation Vapor Retarder Classification - Building America Top Innovation Photo of a vapor retarder classification. Air-tight and well-insulated homes have little or no tolerance for drying if they get wet; moisture control is critical. This Top Innovation profile describes Building America research that established vapor retarder classifications and appropriate applications that has been instrumental in the market

  6. Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, Barbara K.

    1991-01-01

    Volatilized metal compounds retard vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

  7. Visible light surface emitting semiconductor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olbright, Gregory R.; Jewell, Jack L.

    1993-01-01

    A vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser is disclosed comprising a laser cavity sandwiched between two distributed Bragg reflectors. The laser cavity comprises a pair of spacer layers surrounding one or more active, optically emitting quantum-well layers having a bandgap in the visible which serve as the active optically emitting material of the device. The thickness of the laser cavity is m .lambda./2n.sub.eff where m is an integer, .lambda. is the free-space wavelength of the laser radiation and n.sub.eff is the effective index of refraction of the cavity. Electrical pumping of the laser is achieved by heavily doping the bottom mirror and substrate to one conductivity-type and heavily doping regions of the upper mirror with the opposite conductivity type to form a diode structure and applying a suitable voltage to the diode structure. Specific embodiments of the invention for generating red, green, and blue radiation are described.

  8. Chemical vapor deposition of sialon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, R.L.; Casey, A.W.

    A laminated composite and a method for forming the composite by chemical vapor deposition are described. The composite includes a layer of sialon and a material to which the layer is bonded. The method includes the steps of exposing a surface of the material to an ammonia containing atmosphere; heating the surface to at least about 1200/sup 0/C; and impinging a gas containing N/sub 2/, SiCl/sub 4/, and AlCl/sub 3/ on the surface.

  9. Means and method for vapor generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid, in heat transfer contact with a surface heated to a temperature well above the vaporization temperature of the liquid, will undergo a multiphase (liquid-vapor) transformation from 0% vapor to 100% vapor. During this transition, the temperature driving force or heat flux and the coefficients of heat transfer across the fluid-solid interface, and the vapor percentage influence the type of heating of the fluid--starting as "feedwater" heating where no vapors are present, progressing to "nucleate" heating where vaporization begins and some vapors are present, and concluding with "film" heating where only vapors are present. Unstable heating between nucleate and film heating can occur, accompanied by possibly large and rapid temperature shifts in the structures. This invention provides for injecting into the region of potential unstable heating and proximate the heated surface superheated vapors in sufficient quantities operable to rapidly increase the vapor percentage of the multiphase mixture by perhaps 10-30% and thereby effectively shift the multiphase mixture beyond the unstable heating region and up to the stable film heating region.

  10. Means and method for vapor generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.

    A liquid, in heat transfer contact with a surface heated to a temperature well above the vaporization temperature of the liquid, will undergo a multiphase (liquid-vapor) transformation from 0% vapor to 100% vapor. During this transition, the temperature driving force or heat flux and the coefficients of heat transfer across the fluid-solid interface, and the vapor percentage influence the type of heating of the fluid - starting as feedwater heating where no vapors are present, progressing to nucleate heating where vaporization begins and some vapors are present, and concluding with film heating where only vapors are present. Unstable heating between nucleate and film heating can occur, accompanied by possibly large and rapid temperature shifts in the structures. This invention provides for injecting into the region of potential unstable heating and proximate the heated surface superheated vapors in sufficient quantities operable to rapidly increase the vapor percentage of the multiphase mixture by perhaps 10 to 30% and thereby effectively shift the multiphase mixture beyond the unstable heating region and up to the stable film heating region.

  11. Process for recovering organic vapors from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.

    1985-01-01

    A process for recovering and concentrating organic vapor from a feed stream of air having an organic vapor content of no more than 20,000 ppm by volume. A thin semipermeable membrane is provided which has a feed side and a permeate side, a selectivity for organic vapor over air of at least 50, as measured by the ratio of organic vapor permeability to nitrogen permeability, and a permeability of organic vapor of at least 3.times.10.sup.-7 cm.sup.3 (STP) cm/cm.sup.2 sec.cm Hg. The feed stream is passed across the feed side of the thin semipermeable membrane while providing a pressure on the permeate side which is lower than the feed side by creating a partial vacuum on the permeate side so that organic vapor passes preferentially through the membrane to form an organic vapor depleted air stream on the feed side and an organic vapor enriched stream on the permeate side. The organic vapor which has passed through the membrane is compressed and condensed to recover the vapor as a liquid.

  12. Device Optimization and Transient Electroluminescence Studies of Organic light Emitting Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lijuan Zou

    2003-08-05

    Organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) are among the most promising for flat panel display technologies. They are light, bright, flexible, and cost effective. And while they are emerging in commercial product, their low power efficiency and long-term degradation are still challenging. The aim of this work was to investigate their device physics and improve their performance. Violet and blue OLEDs were studied. The devices were prepared by thermal vapor deposition in high vacuum. The combinatorial method was employed in device preparation. Both continuous wave and transient electroluminescence (EL) were studied. A new efficient and intense UV-violet light emitting device was developed. At a current density of 10 mA/cm{sup 2}, the optimal radiance R could reach 0.38 mW/cm{sup 2}, and the quantum efficiency was 1.25%. using the delayed EL technique, electron mobilities in DPVBi and CBP were determined to be {approx} 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/Vs and {approx} 10{sup -4} cm{sup 2}/Vs, respectively. Overshoot effects in the transient El of blue light emitting devices were also observed and studied. This effect was attributed to the charge accumulation at the organic/organic and organic/cathode interfaces.

  13. Vacuum ultraviolet laser (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Vacuum ultraviolet laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Vacuum ultraviolet laser Transitions from the 2p.sup.4 (.sup.1 S.sub.0)3s .sup.2 S.sub.12 state of atomic ...

  14. Wick for metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, David B. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    An improved wick for a metal vapor laser is made of a refractory metal cylinder, preferably molybdenum or tungsten for a copper laser, which provides the wicking surface. Alternately, the inside surface of the ceramic laser tube can be metalized to form the wicking surface. Capillary action is enhanced by using wire screen, porous foam metal, or grooved surfaces. Graphite or carbon, in the form of chunks, strips, fibers or particles, is placed on the inside surface of the wick to reduce water, reduce metal oxides and form metal carbides.

  15. Chemical vapor deposition of sialon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, Richard L.; Casey, Alton W.

    1982-01-01

    A laminated composite and a method for forming the composite by chemical vapor deposition. The composite includes a layer of sialon and a material to which the layer is bonded. The method includes the steps of exposing a surface of the material to an ammonia containing atmosphere; heating the surface to at least about 1200.degree. C.; and impinging a gas containing in a flowing atmosphere of air N.sub.2, SiCl.sub.4, and AlCl.sub.3 on the surface.

  16. Suppression of H_2 Cooling in the Ultraviolet Background (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; ASTROPHYSICS; HYDROGEN; COOLING; ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION; ...

  17. Method of making organic light emitting devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shiang, Joseph John; Janora, Kevin Henry; Parthasarathy, Gautam; Cella, James Anthony; Chichak, Kelly Scott

    2011-03-22

    The present invention provides a method for the preparation of organic light-emitting devices comprising a bilayer structure made by forming a first film layer comprising an electroactive material and an INP precursor material, and exposing the first film layer to a radiation source under an inert atmosphere to generate an interpenetrating network polymer composition comprising the electroactive material. At least one additional layer is disposed on the reacted first film layer to complete the bilayer structure. The bilayer structure is comprised within an organic light-emitting device comprising standard features such as electrodes and optionally one or more additional layers serving as a bipolar emission layer, a hole injection layer, an electron injection layer, an electron transport layer, a hole transport layer, exciton-hole transporting layer, exciton-electron transporting layer, a hole transporting emission layer, or an electron transporting emission layer.

  18. Microwave-driven ultraviolet light sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manos, Dennis M.; Diggs, Jessie; Ametepe, Joseph D.

    2002-01-29

    A microwave-driven ultraviolet (UV) light source is provided. The light source comprises an over-moded microwave cavity having at least one discharge bulb disposed within the microwave cavity. At least one magnetron probe is coupled directly to the microwave cavity.

  19. Control of flow through a vapor generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radcliff, Thomas D.

    2005-11-08

    In a Rankine cycle system wherein a vapor generator receives heat from exhaust gases, provision is made to avoid overheating of the refrigerant during ORC system shut down while at the same time preventing condensation of those gases within the vapor generator when its temperature drops below a threshold temperature by diverting the flow of hot gases to ambient and to thereby draw ambient air through the vapor generator in the process. In one embodiment, a bistable ejector is adjustable between one position, in which the hot gases flow through the vapor generator, to another position wherein the gases are diverted away from the vapor generator. Another embodiment provides for a fixed valve ejector with a bias towards discharging to ambient, but with a fan on the downstream side of said vapor generator for overcoming this bias.

  20. Coupling apparatus for a metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, D.G.; Miller, J.L.

    1993-02-23

    Coupling apparatus for a large bore metal vapor laser is disclosed. The coupling apparatus provides for coupling high voltage pulses (approximately 40 KV) to a metal vapor laser with a high repetition rate (approximately 5 KHz). The coupling apparatus utilizes existing thyratron circuits and provides suitable power input to a large bore metal vapor laser while maintaining satisfactory operating lifetimes for the existing thyratron circuits.

  1. Coupling apparatus for a metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G.; Miller, John L.

    1993-01-01

    Coupling apparatus for a large bore metal vapor laser is disclosed. The coupling apparatus provides for coupling high voltage pulses (approximately 40 KV) to a metal vapor laser with a high repetition rate (approximately 5 KHz). The coupling apparatus utilizes existing thyratron circuits and provides suitable power input to a large bore metal vapor laser while maintaining satisfactory operating lifetimes for the existing thyratron circuits.

  2. Non-Vapor Compression HVAC Technologies Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    While vapor-compression technologies have served heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) needs very effectively, and have been the dominant HVAC technology for close to 100 years, the conventional refrigerants used in vapor-compression equipment contribute to global climate change when released to the atmosphere. The Building Technologies Office is evaluating low-global warming potential (GWP) alternatives to vapor-compression technologies.

  3. Novel methods of copper vapor laser excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McColl, W.B.; Ching, H.; Bosch, R.; Brake, M.; Gilgenbach, R.

    1990-12-31

    Microwave and intense electron beam excitation of copper vapor are being investigated to be used in copper vapor lasers for isotope separation. Both methods use copper chloride vapor by heating copper chloride. Helium was used as the buffer gas at 2 to 100 torr. In the microwave system, intense copperlines at 510 nm and 578 nm were observed. Initial electron beam results indicate that light emission follows the beam current.

  4. Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, B.K.

    1991-12-17

    Volatilized metal compounds are described which are capable of retarding vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

  5. ARM - Field Campaign - Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Water Vapor IOP 2000.09.18 - 2000.10.08 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb For data sets, see below. Abstract Scientific hypothesis: 1. Microwave radiometer (MWR) observations of the 22 GHz water vapor line can accurately constrain the total column amount of water vapor (assuming a calibration accuracy of 0.5 degC or better, which

  6. Oxycarbonitride phosphors and light emitting devices using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Yuanqiang; Romanelli, Michael D.; Tian, Yongchi

    2015-12-22

    A family of oxycarbonitride phosphor compositions is provided. Also provided are light emitting devices incorporating the oxycarbonitride phosphor compositions.

  7. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koontz, A; Cadeddu, M

    2012-12-05

    The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) value-added product (VAP) computes precipitable water vapor using neural network techniques from data measured by the GVR. The GVR reports time-series measurements of brightness temperatures for four channels located at 183.3 ± 1, 3, 7, and 14 GHz.

  8. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1999-08-03

    A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

  9. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Vincent J.; Johnson, Stanley A.

    1999-01-01

    A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

  10. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1985-11-08

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique. A major present application to the enrichment of uranium for light-water power reactor fuel has been under development for over 10 years. In June 1985 the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet the nation's future need for the internationally competitive production of uranium separative work. The economic basis for this decision is considered, with an indicated of the constraints placed on the process figures of merit and the process laser system. We then trace an atom through a generic AVLIS separator and give examples of the physical steps encountered, the models used to describe the process physics, the fundamental parameters involved, and the role of diagnostic laser measurements.

  11. P-doping-free III-nitride high electron mobility light-emitting diodes and transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Baikui; Tang, Xi; Chen, Kevin J.; Wang, Jiannong

    2014-07-21

    We report that a simple metal-AlGaN/GaN Schottky diode is capable of producing GaN band-edge ultraviolet emission at 3.4?eV at a small forward bias larger than ?2?V at room temperature. Based on the surface states distribution of AlGaN, a mature impact-ionization-induced Fermi-level de-pinning model is proposed to explain the underlying mechanism of the electroluminescence (EL) process. By experimenting with different Schottky metals, Ni/Au and Pt/Au, we demonstrated that this EL phenomenon is a universal property of metal-AlGaN/GaN Schottky diodes. Since this light-emitting Schottky diode shares the same active structure and fabrication processes as the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors, straight-forward and seamless integration of photonic and electronic functional devices has been demonstrated on doping-free III-nitride heterostructures. Using a semitransparent Schottky drain electrode, an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility light-emitting transistor is demonstrated.

  12. Stacked vapor fed amtec modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sievers, Robert K.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention pertains to a stacked AMTEC module. The invention includes a tubular member which has an interior. The member is comprised of a ion conductor that substantially conducts ions relative to electrons, preferably a beta"-alumina solid electrolyte, positioned about the interior. A porous electrode for conducting electrons and allowing sodium ions to pass therethrough, and wherein electrons and sodium ions recombine to form sodium is positioned about the beta"-alumina solid electrolyte. The electrode is operated at a temperature and a pressure that allows the recombined sodium to vaporize. Additionally, an outer current collector grid for distributing electrons throughout the porous electrode is positioned about and contacts the porous electrode. Also included in the invention is transporting means for transporting liquid sodium to the beta"-alumina solid electrolyte of the tubular member. A transition piece is positioned about the interior of the member and contacts the transporting means. The transition piece divides the member into a first cell and a second cell such that each first and second cell has a beta"-alumina solid electrolyte, a first and second porous electrode and a grid. The transition piece conducts electrons from the interior of the tubular member. There is supply means for supplying sodium to the transporting means. Preferably the supply means is a shell which surrounds the tubular member and is operated at a temperature such that the vaporized sodium condenses thereon. Returning means for returning the condensed sodium from the shell to the transporting means provides a continuous supply of liquid sodium to the transporting means. Also, there are first conducting means for conducting electric current from the transition piece which extends through the shell, and second conducting means for conducting electric current to the grid of the first cell which extends through the shell.

  13. LNG fire and vapor control system technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

  14. High bandwidth vapor density diagnostic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Globig, Michael A.; Story, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    A high bandwidth vapor density diagnostic system for measuring the density of an atomic vapor during one or more photoionization events. The system translates the measurements from a low frequency region to a high frequency, relatively noise-free region in the spectrum to provide improved signal to noise ratio.

  15. Quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gundel, Lara; Daisey, Joan M.; Stevens, Robert K.

    1998-01-01

    A quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler for sampling semi-volatile organic gases and particulate components. A semi-volatile organic reversible gas sorbent macroreticular resin agglomerates of randomly packed microspheres with the continuous porous structure of particles ranging in size between 0.05-10 .mu.m for use in an integrated diffusion vapor-particle sampler.

  16. An application of oil vaporization evaluation methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleckenstein, W.W. ); Bouck, L.S.; Hudgens, D. ); Querin, M. ); Williams, L. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes and quantifies the benefits of residual oil vaporization in an enhanced recovery gas injection project. Vaporized oil is recovered as natural gas liquid (NGL) when the injected gas is produced. In the reservoir application studied, 20% of the liquid hydrocarbons produced were being recovered as NGL. (VC)

  17. An application of oil vaporization evaluation methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleckenstein, W.W.; Bouck, L.S.; Hudgens, D.; Querin, M.; Williams, L.

    1992-02-01

    This paper describes and quantifies the benefits of residual oil vaporization in an enhanced recovery gas injection project. Vaporized oil is recovered as natural gas liquid (NGL) when the injected gas is produced. In the reservoir application studied, 20% of the liquid hydrocarbons produced were being recovered as NGL. (VC)

  18. Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guastad, Krista; Riihimaki, Laura; none,

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio (TWRMR) value-added product (VAP) is to calculate water-vapor mixing ratio at the 25-meter and 60-meter levels of the meteorological tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility.

  19. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard A. Ferrare; David D. Turner

    2011-09-01

    Project goals: (1) Use the routine surface and airborne measurements at the ARM SGP site, and the routine surface measurements at the NSA site, to continue our evaluations of model aerosol simulations; (2) Determine the degree to which the Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosol scattering and extinction can be used to remotely characterize the aerosol humidification factor; (3) Use the high temporal resolution CARL data to examine how aerosol properties vary near clouds; and (4) Use the high temporal resolution CARL and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data to quantify entrainment in optically thin continental cumulus clouds.

  20. A micrometer-size movable light emitting area in a resonant tunneling light emitting diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pettinari, G., E-mail: giorgio.pettinari@cnr.it [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); National Research Council (CNR), Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies (IFN-CNR), Via Cineto Romano 42, 00156 Roma (Italy); Balakrishnan, N.; Makarovsky, O.; Campion, R. P.; Patan, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Polimeni, A.; Capizzi, M. [CNISM-Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universit di Roma, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)] [CNISM-Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universit di Roma, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2013-12-09

    We report on the fabrication of a micrometer-size movable light emitting area in a GaAs/AlAs quantum well resonant tunneling p-i-n diode. The spatial position of the micrometer-size light emitting area shifts linearly with increasing applied bias, up to 30??m for a bias increment of 0.2?V. Also, the simultaneous resonant tunneling injection of both electrons and holes into the quantum well states is achieved at specific positions of the diode, thus resulting in a tenfold increase of the electroluminescence intensity.

  1. Long wavelength vertical cavity surface emitting laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choquette, Kent D.; Klem, John F.

    2005-08-16

    Selectively oxidized vertical cavity lasers emitting near 1300 nm using InGaAsN quantum wells are reported for the first time which operate continuous wave below, at and above room temperature. The lasers employ two n-type Al.sub.0.94 Ga.sub.0.06 As/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors each with a selectively oxidized current aperture adjacent to the active region, and the top output mirror contains a tunnel junction to inject holes into the active region. Continuous wave single mode lasing is observed up to 55.degree. C.

  2. Tunable, superconducting, surface-emitting teraherz source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welp, Ulrich; Koshelev, Alexei E.; Gray, Kenneth E.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii

    2009-10-27

    A compact, solid-state THz source based on the driven Josephson vortex lattice in a highly anisotropic superconductor such as Bi.sub.2Sr.sub.2CaCu.sub.2O.sub.8 that allows cw emission at tunable frequency. A second order metallic Bragg grating is used to achieve impedance matching and to induce surface emission of THz-radiation from a Bi.sub.2Sr.sub.2CaCu.sub.2O.sub.8 sample. Steering of the emitted THz beam is accomplished by tuning the Josephson vortex spacing around the grating period using a superimposed magnetic control field.

  3. Tunable, superconducting, surface-emitting teraherz source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welp, Ulrich; Koshelev, Alexei E.; Gray, Kenneth E.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii

    2010-05-11

    A compact, solid-state THz source based on the driven Josephson vortex lattice in a highly anisotropic superconductor such as Bi.sub.2Sr.sub.2CaCu.sub.2O.sub.8 that allows cw emission at tunable frequency. A second order metallic Bragg grating is used to achieve impedance matching and to induce surface emission of THz-radiation from a Bi.sub.2Sr.sub.2CaCu.sub.2O.sub.8 sample. Steering of the emitted THz beam is accomplished by tuning the Josephson vortex spacing around the grating period using a superimposed magnetic control field.

  4. Is N=8 Supergravity Ultraviolet Finite?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bern, Zvi; Dixon, Lance J.; Roiban, Radu

    2006-11-15

    Conventional wisdom holds that no four-dimensional gravity field theory can be ultraviolet finite. This understanding is based mainly on power counting. Recent studies confirm that one-loop N = 8 supergravity amplitudes satisfy the so-called 'no-triangle hypothesis', which states that triangle and bubble integrals cancel from these amplitudes. A consequence of this hypothesis is that for any number of external legs, at one loop N = 8 supergravity and N = 4 super-Yang-Mills have identical superficial degrees of ultraviolet behavior in D dimensions. We describe how the unitarity method allows us to promote these one-loop cancellations to higher loops, suggesting that previous power counts were too conservative. We discuss higher-loop evidence suggesting that N = 8 supergravity has the same degree of divergence as N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory and is ultraviolet finite in four dimensions. We comment on calculations needed to reinforce this proposal, which are feasible using the unitarity method.

  5. Ultraviolet stimulated electron source for use with low energy plasma instrument calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, Kevin; Harper, Ron; Funsten, Herb; MacDonald, Elizabeth [Space Science and Applications, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    We have developed and demonstrated a versatile, compact electron source that can produce a mono-energetic electron beam up to 50 mm in diameter from 0.1 to 30 keV with an energy spread of <10 eV. By illuminating a metal cathode plate with a single near ultraviolet light emitting diode, a spatially uniform electron beam with 15% variation over 1 cm{sup 2} can be generated. A uniform electric field in front of the cathode surface accelerates the electrons into a beam with an angular divergence of <1 Degree-Sign at 1 keV. The beam intensity can be controlled from 10 to 10{sup 9} electrons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}.

  6. Atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI): Status and the aerosol explanation for extra window region emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Revercomb, H.E.; Knuteson, R.O.; Best, F.A.; Dirkx, T.P.

    1996-04-01

    High spectral resolution observations of downwelling emission from 3 to 19 microns have been made by the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Prototype at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiative Testbed (CART) site for over two years. The spectral data set from AERI provides a basis for improving clear sky radiative transfer; determining the radiative impact of clouds, including the derivation of cloud radiative properties; defining the influences of aerosols in the window regions; and retrieving boundary layer state properties, including temperature, water vapor, and other trace gases. The data stream of radiometrically and spectrally calibrated radiances is routinely provided by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to those science teams requesting it, and further information on the instrument and data characteristics is available in the ARM Science Team proceedings for 1993 and 1994 and in several conference publications. This paper describes the AERI status, calibration, field experiment wit a new AERI-01 and schedule, window region emissions, and future AERI plans.

  7. Green cubic GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on microstructured silicon (100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stark, Christoph J. M.; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Wetzel, Christian, E-mail: wetzel@ieee.org [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States) [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Future Chips Constellation, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Lee, S. C.; Brueck, S. R. J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, 1313 Goddard SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Center for High Technology Materials, University of New Mexico, 1313 Goddard SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States); Jiang, Y.-B. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)] [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)

    2013-12-02

    GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes free of piezoelectric polarization were prepared on standard electronic-grade Si(100) substrates. Micro-stripes of GaN and GaInN/GaN quantum wells in the cubic crystal structure were grown on intersecting (111) planes of microscale V-grooved Si in metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy, covering over 50% of the wafer surface area. Crystal phases were identified in electron back-scattering diffraction. A cross-sectional analysis reveals a cubic structure virtually free of line defects. Electroluminescence over 20 to 100??A is found fixed at 487?nm (peak), 516?nm (dominant). Such structures therefore should allow higher efficiency, wavelength-stable light emitters throughout the visible spectrum.

  8. After More Than 20 Years Operating, Hanford's Soil Vapor Extraction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wise, Juan Aguilar, Doug Rybarski, and Christina Agular. The soil vapor extraction trailer is shown near Hanfords Plutonium Finishing Plant. The soil vapor extraction...

  9. Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra-Efficient Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to...

  10. Mechanistic aspects of vapor phase lubrication of silicon. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mechanistic aspects of vapor phase lubrication of silicon. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanistic aspects of vapor phase lubrication of silicon. No abstract ...

  11. Synthesis of platinum single-crystal nanoparticles in water vapor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of platinum single-crystal nanoparticles in water vapor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synthesis of platinum single-crystal nanoparticles in water vapor Authors: ...

  12. Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path from Scanning Microwave ... used to measure atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV) and cloud liquid path (CLP). ...

  13. GPS Water Vapor Projects Within the ARM Southern Great Plains...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GPS Water Vapor Projects Within the ARM Southern Great Plains Region J. Braun, T. Van ... and characterize the four-dimensional distribution of water vapor within the atmosphere. ...

  14. Vertical Variability of Aerosols and Water Vapor Over the Southern...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vertical Variability of Aerosols and Water Vapor Over the Southern Great Plains R. A. ... Abstract We use Raman lidar profiles of water vapor mixing ratio, relative humidity, ...

  15. Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor During the...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor During the May 2003 Aerosol IOP R. A. ... Marina, California Abstract Raman lidar water vapor and aerosol extinction profiles ...

  16. Recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirza, Zia I.; Knell, Everett W.; Winter, Bruce L.

    1980-09-30

    Values are recovered from a hydrocarbon-containing vapor by contacting the vapor with quench liquid consisting essentially of hydrocarbons to form a condensate and a vapor residue, the condensate and quench fluid forming a combined liquid stream. The combined liquid stream is mixed with a viscosity-lowering liquid to form a mixed liquid having a viscosity lower than the viscosity of the combined liquid stream to permit easy handling of the combined liquid stream. The quench liquid is a cooled portion of the mixed liquid. Viscosity-lowering liquid is separated from a portion of the mixed liquid and cycled to form additional mixed liquid.

  17. Process for vaporizing a liquid hydrocarbon fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Kuzminskas, Vaidotas (Glastonbury, CT); Bittner, Joseph E. (East Hartford, CT)

    1981-01-01

    The object of the invention is to provide a process for vaporizing liquid hydrocarbon fuels efficiently and without the formation of carbon residue on the apparatus used. The process includes simultaneously passing the liquid fuel and an inert hot gas downwardly through a plurality of vertically spaed apart regions of high surface area packing material. The liquid thinly coats the packing surface, and the sensible heat of the hot gas vaporizes this coating of liquid. Unvaporized liquid passing through one region of packing is uniformly redistributed over the top surface of the next region until all fuel has been vaporized using only the sensible heat of the hot gas stream.

  18. Electron emitting filaments for electron discharge devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, K.N.; Pincosy, P.A.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1983-06-10

    Electrons are copiously emitted by a device comprising a loop-shaped filament made of lanthanum hexaboride. The filament is directly heated by an electrical current produced along the filament by a power supply connected to the terminal legs of the filament. To produce a filament, a diamond saw or the like is used to cut a slice from a bar made of lanthanum hexaboride. The diamond saw is then used to cut the slice into the shape of a loop which may be generally rectangular, U-shaped, hairpin-shaped, zigzag-shaped, or generally circular. The filaments provide high electron emission at a relatively low operating temperature, such as 1600/sup 0/C. To achieve uniform heating, the filament is formed with a cross section which is tapered between the opposite ends of the filament to compensate for nonuniform current distribution along the filament due to the emission of electrons from the filament.

  19. Electron emitting filaments for electron discharge devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Pincosy, Philip A.; Ehlers, Kenneth W.

    1988-01-01

    Electrons are copiously emitted by a device comprising a loop-shaped filament made of lanthanum hexaboride. The filament is directly heated by an electrical current produced along the filament by a power supply connected to the terminal legs of the filament. To produce a filament, a diamond saw or the like is used to cut a slice from a bar made of lanthanum hexaboride. The diamond saw is then used to cut the slice into the shape of a loop which may be generally rectangular, U-shaped, hairpin-shaped, zigzag-shaped, or generally circular. The filaments provide high electron emission at a relatively low operating temperature, such as 1600.degree. C. To achieve uniform heating, the filament is formed with a cross section which is tapered between the opposite ends of the filament to compensate for non-uniform current distribution along the filament due to the emission of electrons from the filament.

  20. Photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chua, Song Liang; Lu, Ling; Soljacic, Marin

    2015-06-23

    A photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser (PCSEL) includes a gain medium electromagnetically coupled to a photonic crystal whose energy band structure exhibits a Dirac cone of linear dispersion at the center of the photonic crystal's Brillouin zone. This Dirac cone's vertex is called a Dirac point; because it is at the Brillouin zone center, it is called an accidental Dirac point. Tuning the photonic crystal's band structure (e.g., by changing the photonic crystal's dimensions or refractive index) to exhibit an accidental Dirac point increases the photonic crystal's mode spacing by orders of magnitudes and reduces or eliminates the photonic crystal's distributed in-plane feedback. Thus, the photonic crystal can act as a resonator that supports single-mode output from the PCSEL over a larger area than is possible with conventional PCSELs, which have quadratic band edge dispersion. Because output power generally scales with output area, this increase in output area results in higher possible output powers.

  1. Energy Savings Estimates of Light Emitting Diodes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Estimates of Light Emitting Diodes Energy Savings Estimates of Light Emitting Diodes This report is an analysis of niche markets and applications for light emitting diodes (LEDs), undertaken on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy nichefinalreport_january2011.pdf (677.78 KB) More Documents & Publications LED ADOPTION REPORT Energy Savings Potential of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications - Report 2010 U.S. Lighting Market Characterization

  2. Probe for measurement of velocity and density of vapor in vapor plume

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berzins, Leon V.; Bratton, Bradford A.; Fuhrman, Paul W.

    1997-01-01

    A probe which directs a light beam through a vapor plume in a first direction at a first angle ranging from greater than 0.degree. to less than 90.degree., reflecting the light beam back through the vapor plume at a 90.degree. angle, and then reflecting the light beam through the vapor plume a third time at a second angle equal to the first angle, using a series of mirrors to deflect the light beam while protecting the mirrors from the vapor plume with shields. The velocity, density, temperature and flow direction of the vapor plume may be determined by a comparison of the energy from a reference portion of the beam with the energy of the beam after it has passed through the vapor plume.

  3. Probe for measurement of velocity and density of vapor in vapor plume

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berzins, L.V.; Bratton, B.A.; Fuhrman, P.W.

    1997-03-11

    A probe is disclosed which directs a light beam through a vapor plume in a first direction at a first angle ranging from greater than 0{degree} to less than 90{degree}, reflecting the light beam back through the vapor plume at a 90{degree} angle, and then reflecting the light beam through the vapor plume a third time at a second angle equal to the first angle, using a series of mirrors to deflect the light beam while protecting the mirrors from the vapor plume with shields. The velocity, density, temperature and flow direction of the vapor plume may be determined by a comparison of the energy from a reference portion of the beam with the energy of the beam after it has passed through the vapor plume. 10 figs.

  4. COMPREHENSIVE OBSERVATIONS OF THE ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRUM AND IMPROVED...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SPECTRUM AND IMPROVED ENERGY LEVELS FOR SINGLY IONIZED CHROMIUM (Cr II) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: COMPREHENSIVE OBSERVATIONS OF THE ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRUM AND ...

  5. Vacuum-ultraviolet photoreduction of graphene oxide: Electrical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Vacuum-ultraviolet photoreduction of graphene oxide: Electrical conductivity of entirely reduced single sheets and reduced micro line patterns Citation Details In-Document Search...

  6. Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, R.N.; Senum, G.I.

    A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

  7. Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, Russell N.; Senum, Gunnar I.

    1981-01-01

    A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

  8. Chemical vapor infiltration using microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devlin, David J.; Currier, Robert P.; Laia, Jr., Joseph R.; Barbero, Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    A method for producing reinforced ceramic composite articles by means of chemical vapor infiltration and deposition in which an inverted temperature gradient is utilized. Microwave energy is the source of heat for the process.

  9. Vapor purification with self-cleaning filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Josephson, Gary B.; Heath, William O.; Aardahl, Christopher L.

    2003-12-09

    A vapor filtration device including a first electrode, a second electrode, and a filter between the first and second electrodes is disclosed. The filter is formed of dielectric material and the device is operated by applying a first electric potential between the electrodes to polarize the dielectric material such that upon passing a vapor stream through the filter, particles from the vapor stream are deposited onto the filter. After depositing the particles a second higher voltage is applied between the electrodes to form a nonthermal plasma around the filter to vaporize the collected particles thereby cleaning the filter. The filter can be a packed bed or serpentine filter mat, and an optional upstream corona wire can be utilized to charge airborne particles prior to their deposition on the filter.

  10. Test Procedures for Integrated Light-Emitting Diode Lamps; Final...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Test Procedures for Integrated Light-Emitting Diode Lamps - Final Rule (532.58 KB) More Documents & Publications ISSUANCE 2015-06-25: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures ...

  11. Light-Emitting Diodes on Semipolar Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project is producing high-efficiency semipolar light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on low-defect bulk gallium nitride (GaN) substrates.

  12. Light emitting device comprising phosphorescent materials for white light generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Mark E.; Dapkus, P. Daniel

    2014-07-22

    The present invention relates to phosphors for energy downconversion of high energy light to generate a broadband light spectrum, which emit light of different emission wavelengths.

  13. Energy Savings Estimates of Light Emitting Diodes in Niche Lighting...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Estimates of Light Emitting Diodes in Niche Lighting Applications Prepared for: Building Technologies Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of ...

  14. Water vapor distribution in protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Fujun; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-09-01

    Water vapor has been detected in protoplanetary disks. In this work, we model the distribution of water vapor in protoplanetary disks with a thermo-chemical code. For a set of parameterized disk models, we calculate the distribution of dust temperature and radiation field of the disk with a Monte Carlo method, and then solve the gas temperature distribution and chemical composition. The radiative transfer includes detailed treatment of scattering by atomic hydrogen and absorption by water of Lyα photons, since the Lyα line dominates the UV spectrum of accreting young stars. In a fiducial model, we find that warm water vapor with temperature around 300 K is mainly distributed in a small and well-confined region in the inner disk. The inner boundary of the warm water region is where the shielding of UV field due to dust and water itself become significant. The outer boundary is where the dust temperature drops below the water condensation temperature. A more luminous central star leads to a more extended distribution of warm water vapor, while dust growth and settling tends to reduce the amount of warm water vapor. Based on typical assumptions regarding the elemental oxygen abundance and the water chemistry, the column density of warm water vapor can be as high as 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}. A small amount of hot water vapor with temperature higher than ∼300 K exists in a more extended region in the upper atmosphere of the disk. Cold water vapor with temperature lower than 100 K is distributed over the entire disk, produced by photodesorption of the water ice.

  15. Quantitative IR Spectrum and Vibrational Assignments for Glycolaldehyde Vapor: Glycolaldehyde Measurements in Biomass Burning Plumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Sams, Robert L.; Profeta, Luisa T.; Akagi, Sheryl; Burling, Ian R.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Williams, Stephen D.

    2013-04-15

    Glycolaldehyde (GA, 2-hydroxyethanal, C2H4O2) is a semi-volatile molecule of atmospheric importance, recently proposed as a precursor in the formation of aqueous-phase secondary organic aerosol (SOA). There are few methods to measure glycolaldehyde vapor, but infrared spectroscopy has been used successfully. Using vetted protocols we have completed the first assignment of all fundamental vibrational modes and derived quantitative IR absorption band strengths using both neat and pressure-broadened GA vapor. Even though GA is problematic due to its propensity to both dimerize and condense, our intensities agree well with the few previously published values. Using the reference ?10 band Q-branch at 860.51 cm-1, we have also determined GA mixing ratios in biomass burning plumes generated by field and laboratory burns of fuels from the southeastern and southwestern United States, including the first field measurements of glycolaldehyde in smoke. The GA emission factors were anti-correlated with modified combustion efficiency confirming release of GA from smoldering combustion. The GA emission factors (g of GA emitted per kg dry biomass burned on a dry mass basis) had a low dependence on fuel type consistent with the production mechanism being pyrolysis of cellulose. GA was emitted at 0.23 0.13% of CO from field fires and we calculate that it accounts for ~18% of the aqueous-phase SOA precursors that we were able to measure.

  16. INTENSITY ENHANCEMENT OF OVI ULTRAVIOLET EMISSION LINES IN SOLAR SPECTRA DUE TO OPACITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keenan, F. P.; Mathioudakis, M.; Doyle, J. G.; Madjarska, M. S.; Rose, S. J.; Bowler, L. A.; Britton, J.; McCrink, L.

    2014-04-01

    Opacity is a property of many plasmas. It is normally expected that if an emission line in a plasma becomes optically thick, then its intensity ratio to that of another transition that remains optically thin should decrease. However, radiative transfer calculations undertaken both by ourselves and others predict that under certain conditions the intensity ratio of an optically thick to an optically thin line can show an increase over the optically thin value, indicating an enhancement in the former. These conditions include the geometry of the emitting plasma and its orientation to the observer. A similar effect can take place between lines of differing optical depths. While previous observational studies have focused on stellar point sources, here we investigate the spatially resolved solar atmosphere using measurements of the I(1032 )/I(1038 ) intensity ratio of OVI in several regions obtained with the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation instrument on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory satellite. We find several I(1032 )/I(1038 ) ratios observed on the disk to be significantly larger than the optically thin value of 2.0, providing the first detection (to our knowledge) of intensity enhancement in the ratio arising from opacity effects in the solar atmosphere. The agreement between observation and theory is excellent and confirms that the OVI emission originates from a slab-like geometry in the solar atmosphere, rather than from cylindrical structures.

  17. Optical coatings of variable refractive index and high laser-resistance from physical-vapor-deposited perfluorinated amorphous polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chow, Robert; Loomis, Gary E.; Thomas, Ian M.

    1999-01-01

    Variable index optical single-layers, optical multilayer, and laser-resistant coatings were made from a perfluorinated amorphous polymer material by physical vapor deposition. This was accomplished by physically vapor depositing a polymer material, such as bulk Teflon AF2400, for example, to form thin layers that have a very low refractive index (.about.1.10-1.31) and are highly transparent from the ultra-violet through the near infrared regime, and maintain the low refractive index of the bulk material. The refractive index can be varied by simply varying one process parameter, either the deposition rate or the substrate temperature. The thus forming coatings may be utilized in anti-reflectors and graded anti-reflection coatings, as well as in optical layers for laser-resistant coatings at optical wavelengths of less than about 2000 nm.

  18. Optical coatings of variable refractive index and high laser-resistance from physical-vapor-deposited perfluorinated amorphous polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chow, R.; Loomis, G.E.; Thomas, I.M.

    1999-03-16

    Variable index optical single-layers, optical multilayer, and laser-resistant coatings were made from a perfluorinated amorphous polymer material by physical vapor deposition. This was accomplished by physically vapor depositing a polymer material, such as bulk Teflon AF2400, for example, to form thin layers that have a very low refractive index (ca. 1.10--1.31) and are highly transparent from the ultra-violet through the near infrared regime, and maintain the low refractive index of the bulk material. The refractive index can be varied by simply varying one process parameter, either the deposition rate or the substrate temperature. The thus forming coatings may be utilized in anti-reflectors and graded anti-reflection coatings, as well as in optical layers for laser-resistant coatings at optical wavelengths of less than about 2000 nm. 2 figs.

  19. Light emitting elastomer compositions and method of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R.; Zifer, Thomas; Whinnery, LeRoy L.

    2004-11-23

    There is provided a light emitting device comprising a plurality of triboluminescent particles dispersed throughout an elastomeric body and activated by deforming the body in order to transfer mechanical energy to some portion of the particles. The light emitted by these mechanically excited particles is collected and directed into a light conduit and transmitted to a detector/indicator means.

  20. Effects of emitted electron temperature on the plasma sheath

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheehan, J. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Wang, H.; Raitses, Y.; Sydorenko, D.; Hershkowitz, N.

    2014-06-15

    It has long been known that electron emission from a surface significantly affects the sheath surrounding that surface. Typical fluid theory of a planar sheath with emitted electrons assumes that the plasma electrons follow the Boltzmann relation and the emitted electrons are emitted with zero energy and predicts a potential drop of 1.03T{sub e}/e across the sheath in the floating condition. By considering the modified velocity distribution function caused by plasma electrons lost to the wall and the half-Maxwellian distribution of the emitted electrons, it is shown that ratio of plasma electron temperature to emitted electron temperature significantly affects the sheath potential when the plasma electron temperature is within an order of magnitude of the emitted electron temperature. When the plasma electron temperature equals the emitted electron temperature the emissive sheath potential goes to zero. One dimensional particle-in-cell simulations corroborate the predictions made by this theory. The effects of the addition of a monoenergetic electron beam to the Maxwellian plasma electrons were explored, showing that the emissive sheath potential is close to the beam energy only when the emitted electron flux is less than the beam flux.

  1. INTERACTIVE: How Much Carbon Do Countries Emit? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    INTERACTIVE: How Much Carbon Do Countries Emit? INTERACTIVE: How Much Carbon Do Countries Emit? This interactive map is not viewable in your browser. Please view it in a modern browser. If you are using IE9, you can also view the interactive here

  2. Efficient semiconductor light-emitting device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choquette, Kent D.; Lear, Kevin L.; Schneider, Jr., Richard P.

    1996-01-01

    A semiconductor light-emitting device and method. The semiconductor light-emitting device is provided with at least one control layer or control region which includes an annular oxidized portion thereof to channel an injection current into the active region, and to provide a lateral refractive index profile for index guiding the light generated within the device. A periodic composition grading of at least one of the mirror stacks in the device provides a reduced operating voltage of the device. The semiconductor light-emitting device has a high efficiency for light generation, and may be formed either as a resonant-cavity light-emitting diode (RCLED) or as a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL).

  3. Efficient semiconductor light-emitting device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choquette, K.D.; Lear, K.L.; Schneider, R.P. Jr.

    1996-02-20

    A semiconductor light-emitting device and method are disclosed. The semiconductor light-emitting device is provided with at least one control layer or control region which includes an annular oxidized portion thereof to channel an injection current into the active region, and to provide a lateral refractive index profile for index guiding the light generated within the device. A periodic composition grading of at least one of the mirror stacks in the device provides a reduced operating voltage of the device. The semiconductor light-emitting device has a high efficiency for light generation, and may be formed either as a resonant-cavity light-emitting diode (RCLED) or as a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). 12 figs.

  4. Ultraviolet laser beam monitor using radiation responsive crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCann, Michael P.; Chen, Chung H.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus and method for monitoring an ultraviolet laser beam includes disposing in the path of an ultraviolet laser beam a substantially transparent crystal that will produce a color pattern in response to ultraviolet radiation. The crystal is exposed to the ultraviolet laser beam and a color pattern is produced within the crystal corresponding to the laser beam intensity distribution therein. The crystal is then exposed to visible light, and the color pattern is observed by means of the visible light to determine the characteristics of the laser beam that passed through crystal. In this manner, a perpendicular cross sectional intensity profile and a longitudinal intensity profile of the ultraviolet laser beam may be determined. The observation of the color pattern may be made with forward or back scattered light and may be made with the naked eye or with optical systems such as microscopes and television cameras.

  5. Condenser for ring-field deep-ultraviolet and extreme-ultraviolet lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Henry N.; Nugent, Keith A.

    2001-01-01

    A condenser for use with a ring-field deep ultraviolet or extreme ultraviolet lithography system. A condenser includes a ripple-plate mirror which is illuminated by a collimated beam at grazing incidence. The ripple plate comprises a plate mirror into which is formed a series of channels along an axis of the mirror to produce a series of concave surfaces in an undulating pattern. Light incident along the channels of the mirror is reflected onto a series of cones. The distribution of slopes on the ripple plate leads to a distribution of angles of reflection of the incident beam. This distribution has the form of an arc, with the extremes of the arc given by the greatest slope in the ripple plate. An imaging mirror focuses this distribution to a ring-field arc at the mask plane.

  6. Condenser for ring-field deep ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Henry N.; Nugent, Keith A.

    2002-01-01

    A condenser for use with a ring-field deep ultraviolet or extreme ultraviolet lithography system. A condenser includes a ripple-plate mirror which is illuminated by a collimated or converging beam at grazing incidence. The ripple plate comprises a flat or curved plate mirror into which is formed a series of channels along an axis of the mirror to produce a series of concave surfaces in an undulating pattern. Light incident along the channels of the mirror is reflected onto a series of cones. The distribution of slopes on the ripple plate leads to a distribution of angles of reflection of the incident beam. This distribution has the form of an arc, with the extremes of the arc given by the greatest slope in the ripple plate. An imaging mirror focuses this distribution to a ring-field arc at the mask plane.

  7. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A.; Beach, Raymond J.; Dawson, Jay W.; Krupke, William F.

    2007-10-23

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  8. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A.; Beach, Raymond J.; Dawson, Jay W.; Krupke, William F.

    2006-07-26

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  9. Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry (Tracy, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself.

  10. Vaporized alcohol fuel boosts engine efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardenburg, H.O.; Bergmann, H.K.; Metsch, H.I.; Schaefer, A.J.

    1983-02-01

    An effort is being made at Daimler-Benz AG to utilize the special characteristics of vaporized methanol and ethanol in an alcohol-gas spark-ignited engine. Describes laboratory testing which demonstrates that waste heat recovery and very lean air/fuel mixtures improve the efficiency and economy of a spark-ignition engine running on alcohol vapors. Presents graph comparing performance and torque of the alcohol-gas and diesel engines. Finds that the fuel consumption of the methanol-fueled version approaches that of a diesel engine, with other advantages including low engine noise, good acceleration, and favorable exhaust emissions.

  11. Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.

    1988-03-15

    A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself. 4 figs.

  12. Method and Apparatus for Concentrating Vapors for Analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grate, Jay W.; Baldwin, David L.; Anheier, Jr., Norman C.

    2008-10-07

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for pre-concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the apparatus can be thermally desorbed achieving at least partial separation of vapor mixtures. The apparatus is suitable, e.g., for preconcentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than for direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications.

  13. Biological applications of ultraviolet free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherland, J.C.

    1997-10-01

    This review examines the possibilities for biological research using the three ultraviolet free-electron lasers that are nearing operational status in the US. The projected operating characteristics of major interest in biological research of the free-electron lasers at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, and Duke University are presented. Experimental applications in the areas of far- and vacuum ultraviolet photophysics and photochemistry, structural biology, environmental photobiology, and medical research are discussed and the prospects for advances in these areas, based upon the characteristics of the new ultraviolet free-electron lasers, are evaluated.

  14. Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295?nm light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehnke, Frank Kuhn, Christian; Stellmach, Joachim; Rothe, Mark-Antonius; Reich, Christoph; Ledentsov, Nikolay; Pristovsek, Markus; Wernicke, Tim; Kolbe, Tim; Lobo-Ploch, Neysha; Rass, Jens; Kneissl, Michael

    2015-05-21

    The effects of the heterostructure design on the injection efficiency and external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet (UV)-B light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been investigated. It was found that the functionality of the Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N:Mg electron blocking layer is strongly influenced by its aluminum mole fraction x and its magnesium doping profile. By comparing LED electroluminescence, quantum well photoluminescence, and simulations of LED heterostructure, we were able to differentiate the contributions of injection efficiency and internal quantum efficiency to the external quantum efficiency of UV LEDs. For the optimized heterostructure using an Al{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}N:Mg electron blocking layer with a Mg to group III ratio of 4% in the gas phase the electron leakage currents are suppressed without blocking the injection of holes into the multiple quantum well active region. Flip chip mounted LED chips have been processed achieving a maximum output power of 3.5 mW at 290?mA and a peak external quantum efficiency of 0.54% at 30?mA.

  15. Vapor pressures of the polychlorinated naphthalenes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei, Y.D.; Shiu, W.Y.; Wania, F.

    1999-05-01

    The vapor pressures of the supercooled liquid P{sub L} for 17 polychlorinated naphthalene congeners were determined as a function of temperature with a gas chromatographic retention time technique. The method was calibrated with vapor pressure data for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) which had been measured by other techniques. These data were employed to predict temperature-dependent vapor pressures for all polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) from a regression with published retention time indices. Enthalpies of vaporization {Delta}{sub VAP}H and activity coefficients in 1-octanol were calculated for the PCNs and compared with those for polychlorinated biphenyls. Data analysis suggests that the dependence of P{sub L} and {Delta}{sub VAP}H on molecular size, as well as the partitioning behavior into 1-octanol of the PCNs, is very similar to that of coplanar PCBs, i.e., those congeners with no or only one chlorine substitution in the ortho positions. The affinity of these chemicals to 1-octanol increases with the degree of chlorination.

  16. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkinson, David

    2012-10-15

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  17. Chemical vapor deposition of mullite coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, Vinod (Lexington, MA); Mulpuri, Rao (Boston, MA)

    1998-01-01

    This invention is directed to the creation of crystalline mullite coatings having uniform microstructure by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The process comprises the steps of establishing a flow of reactants which will yield mullite in a CVD reactor, and depositing a crystalline coating from the reactant flow. The process will yield crystalline coatings which are dense and of uniform thickness.

  18. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Atkinson, David

    2014-07-24

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  19. Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Street...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Street Lighting Host Site: City of Oakland, California Final Report prepared in support of the U.S. DOE Solid-State Lighting ...

  20. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Roadway Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinzey, B. R.; Myer, M. A.

    2009-11-01

    A U.S. Department of Energy Solid-State Lighting Gateway Report on a Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Roadway Lighting in Lija Loop, Portland, Oregon.

  1. Organic light emitting device structure for obtaining chromaticity stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tung, Yeh-Jiun; Ngo, Tan

    2007-05-01

    The present invention relates to organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). The devices of the present invention are efficient white or multicolored phosphorescent OLEDs which have a high color stability over a wide range of luminances. The devices of the present invention comprise an emissive region having at least two emissive layers, with each emissive layer comprising a different host and emissive dopant, wherein at least one of the emissive dopants emits by phosphorescence.

  2. Organic light emitting device structures for obtaining chromaticity stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tung, Yeh-Jiun; Lu, Michael; Kwong, Raymond C.

    2005-04-26

    The present invention relates to organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). The devices of the present invention are efficient white or multicolored phosphorescent OLEDs which have a high color stability over a wide range of luminances. The devices of the present invention comprise an emissive region having at least two emissive layers, with each emissive layer comprising a different host and emissive dopant, wherein at least one of the emissive dopants emits by phosphorescence.

  3. Nanoscale engineering boosts performance of quantum dot light emitting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diodes Quantum dot light emitting diodes Nanoscale engineering boosts performance of quantum dot light emitting diodes Quantum dots are nano-sized semiconductor particles whose emission color can be tuned by simply changing their dimensions. October 25, 2013 Postdoctoral researcher Young-Shin Park characterizing emission spectra of LEDs in the Los Alamos National Laboratory optical laboratory. Postdoctoral researcher Young-Shin Park characterizing emission spectra of LEDs in the Los Alamos

  4. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode Parking Structure Lighting

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    at U.S. Department of Labor Headquarters (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode Parking Structure Lighting at U.S. Department of Labor Headquarters Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode Parking Structure Lighting at U.S. Department of Labor Headquarters This report documents a solid-state lighting (SSL) technology demonstration at the parking structure of the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL)

  5. Laser Makes New Shade of Ultraviolet (COSMIC Log on MSNBC.com...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cosmiclog.nbcnews.comnews201012285725603-laser-makes-new-shade-of-ultraviolet Submitted: Wednesday, December 29...

  6. Vapor Pressure and Molecular Composition of Vapors of the RbF...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the vapor phase of the respective systems. Farther work on the NaF-ZrFsub 4 system points to the existence of the gaseous complex NaZrsub 2Fsub 9 rather than NaZrFsub ...

  7. IMPROVED MAGNUS' FORM OF SATURATION VAPOR PRESSURE Oleg A. Alduchov...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We will show that two of the new formulations of vapor pressure over water and ice are ... The most precise formulation of vapor pressure over a plane surface of water was given by ...

  8. ARM: Microwave Water Radiometer (MWR): water liq. and vapor along...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microwave Water Radiometer (MWR): water liq. and vapor along line of sight (LOS) path Title: ARM: Microwave Water Radiometer (MWR): water liq. and vapor along line of sight (LOS) ...

  9. Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-10-01

    In this project, Building America team Building Science Corporation researched some of the ramifications of using exterior, vapor permeable insulation on retrofit walls with vapor permeable cavity insulation. Retrofit strategies are a key factor in reducing exterior building stock consumption.

  10. Ultraviolet Thomson scattering measurements of the electron feature...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Ultraviolet Thomson scattering measurements of the electron feature with an energetic 263 nm probe Authors: Ross, J S ; Divol, L ; Sorce, C ; Froula, D H ; Glenzer, S H ...

  11. 2014-05-16 Issuance: Test Procedures for Integrated Light-Emitting...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for integrated light-emitting ... to this document. 2014-05-16 Issuance: Test Procedures for Integrated Light-Emitting ...

  12. Double Beta Decay in Xenon-136: Measuring the Neutrino-Emitting...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Double Beta Decay in Xenon-136: Measuring the Neutrino-Emitting Mode and Searching for Majoron-Emitting Modes Authors: Herrin, Steven ; Stanford U., Phys. Dept. SLAC ...

  13. 2014-06-18 Issuance: Test Procedure for Integrated Light-Emitting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    18 Issuance: Test Procedure for Integrated Light-Emitting Diode Lamps; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-06-18 Issuance: Test Procedure for Integrated Light-Emitting ...

  14. Color tuning of light-emitting-diodes by modulating the concentration of red-emitting silicon nanocrystal phosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barillaro, G. Strambini, L. M.

    2014-03-03

    Luminescent forms of nanostructured silicon have received significant attention in the context of quantum-confined light-emitting devices thanks to size-tunable emission wavelength and high-intensity photoluminescence, as well as natural abundance, low cost, and non-toxicity. Here, we show that red-emitting silicon nanocrystal (SiN) phosphors, obtained by electrochemical erosion of silicon, allow for effectively tuning the color of commercial light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) from blue to violet, magenta, and red, by coating the LED with polydimethylsiloxane encapsulating different SiN concentrations. High reliability of the tuning process, with respect to SiN fabrication and concentration, and excellent stability of the tuning color, with respect to LED bias current, is demonstrated through simultaneous electrical/optical characterization of SiN-modified commercial LEDs, thus envisaging exciting perspectives for silicon nanocrystals in the field of light-emitting applications.

  15. Lamp for generating high power ultraviolet radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, Gary L.; Potter, James M.

    2001-01-01

    The apparatus is a gas filled ultraviolet generating lamp for use as a liquid purifier. The lamp is powred by high voltage AC, but has no metallic electrodes within or in contact with the gas enclosure which is constructed as two concentric quartz cylinders sealed together at their ends with the gas fill between the cylinders. Cooling liquid is pumped through the volume inside the inner quartz cylinder where an electrically conductive pipe spaced from the inner cylinder is used to supply the cooling liquid and act as the high voltage electrode. The gas enclosure is enclosed within but spaced from a metal housing which is connected to operate as the ground electrode of the circuit and through which the treated fluid flows. Thus, the electrical circuit is from the central pipe, and through the cooling liquid, the gas enclosure, the treated liquid on the outside of the outer quartz cylinder, and to the housing. The high voltage electrode is electrically isolated from the source of cooling liquid by a length of insulated hose which also supplies the cooling liquid.

  16. Quantum-dot light-emitting diodes utilizing CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals embedded in TiO{sub 2} thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Seung-Hee; Kumar, Ch. Kiran; Kim, Eui-Tae; Lee, Zonghoon; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Huh, Chul

    2008-11-10

    Quantum-dot (QD) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are demonstrated on Si wafers by embedding core-shell CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals in TiO{sub 2} thin films via plasma-enhanced metallorganic chemical vapor deposition. The n-TiO{sub 2}/QDs/p-Si LED devices show typical p-n diode current-voltage and efficient electroluminescence characteristics, which are critically affected by the removal of QD surface ligands. The TiO{sub 2}/QDs/Si system we presented can offer promising Si-based optoelectronic and electronic device applications utilizing numerous nanocrystals synthesized by colloidal solution chemistry.

  17. A solar type II radio burst from coronal mass ejection-coronal ray interaction: Simultaneous radio and extreme ultraviolet imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yao; Du, Guohui; Feng, Shiwei; Kong, Xiangliang; Wang, Bing; Feng, Li; Guo, Fan; Li, Gang

    2014-05-20

    Simultaneous radio and extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/white-light imaging data are examined for a solar type II radio burst occurring on 2010 March 18 to deduce its source location. Using a bow-shock model, we reconstruct the three-dimensional EUV wave front (presumably the type-II-emitting shock) based on the imaging data of the two Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory spacecraft. It is then combined with the Nanay radio imaging data to infer the three-dimensional position of the type II source. It is found that the type II source coincides with the interface between the coronal mass ejection (CME) EUV wave front and a nearby coronal ray structure, providing evidence that the type II emission is physically related to the CME-ray interaction. This result, consistent with those of previous studies, is based on simultaneous radio and EUV imaging data for the first time.

  18. Extended-range grazing-incidence spectrometer for high-resolution extreme ultraviolet measurements on an electron beam ion trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Magee, E. W.; Brown, G. V.; Träbert, E.; Widmann, K.; Hell, N.

    2014-11-15

    A high-resolution grazing-incidence grating spectrometer has been implemented on the Livermore electron beam ion traps for performing very high-resolution measurements in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet region spanning from below 10 Å to above 300 Å. The instrument operates without an entrance slit and focuses the light emitted by highly charged ions located in the roughly 50 μm wide electron beam onto a cryogenically cooled back-illuminated charge-coupled device detector. The measured line widths are below 0.025 Å above 100 Å, and the resolving power appears to be limited by the source size and Doppler broadening of the trapped ions. Comparisons with spectra obtained with existing grating spectrometers show an order of magnitude improvement in spectral resolution.

  19. Light-emitting device with organic electroluminescent material and photoluminescent materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNulty, Thomas Francis; Duggal, Anil Raj; Turner, Larry Gene; Shiang, Joseph John

    2005-06-07

    A light-emitting device comprises a light-emitting member, which comprises two electrodes and an organic electroluminescent material disposed between the electrodes, and at least one organic photoluminescent ("PL") material. The light-emitting member emits light having a first spectrum in response to a voltage applied across the two electrodes. The organic PL material absorbs a portion of the light emitted by the light-emitting member and emits light having second spectrum different than the first spectrum. The light-emitting device can include an inorganic PL material that absorbs another portion of the light emitted from the light-emitting member and emits light having a third spectrum different than both the first and the second spectra.

  20. Capillary - Discharge Based Hand-Held Detector For Chemical Vapor Monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duan, Yixiang

    2005-05-31

    A handheld/portable detector for chemical vapor monitoring includes a housing and a discharge chamber that is established therein. The plasma discharge has a relatively small volume, e.g., in the micro-liter range. A first electrode and a second electrode are disposed within the discharge chamber and a discharge gap is established therebetween. A sample gas tube is in fluid communication with the discharge chamber and provides a sample gas to the discharge chamber. Also, a plasma gas tube is in fluid communication with the discharge chamber and provides a plasma gas thereto. Accordingly, the plasma gas can be used to maintain microplasma discharge between the electrodes and the sample gas can be introduced into the microplasma discharge. A spectrometer optically connected to the handheld/portable detector is used to measure the radiation emitted by the sample gas when subjected to the microplasma discharge.

  1. Structural and emission properties of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots emitting at 1.3??m

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldmann, Elias Jahnke, Frank; Paul, Matthias; Kettler, Jan; Jetter, Michael; Michler, Peter; Krause, Florian F.; Mller, Knut; Mehrtens, Thorsten; Rosenauer, Andreas

    2014-10-13

    A combined experimental and theoretical study of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) emitting at 1.3??m under the influence of a strain-reducing InGaAs quantum well is presented. We demonstrate a red shift of 2040?nm observed in photoluminescence spectra due to the quantum well. The InGaAs/GaAs QDs grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy show a bimodal height distribution (1?nm and 5?nm) and indium concentrations up to 90%. The emission properties are explained with combined tight-binding and configuration-interaction calculations of the emission wavelengths in conjunction with high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy investigations of QD geometry and indium concentrations in the QDs, which directly enter the calculations. QD geometries and concentration gradients representative for the ensemble are identified.

  2. Metal vapor laser including hot electrodes and integral wick

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, E.R.; Alger, T.W.

    1995-03-07

    A metal vapor laser, specifically one utilizing copper vapor, is disclosed herein. This laser utilizes a plasma tube assembly including a thermally insulated plasma tube containing a specific metal, e.g., copper, and a buffer gas therein. The laser also utilizes means including hot electrodes located at opposite ends of the plasma tube for electrically exciting the metal vapor and heating its interior to a sufficiently high temperature to cause the metal contained therein to vaporize and for subjecting the vapor to an electrical discharge excitation in order to lase. The laser also utilizes external wicking arrangements, that is, wicking arrangements located outside the plasma tube. 5 figs.

  3. Metal vapor laser including hot electrodes and integral wick

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, Earl R.; Alger, Terry W.

    1995-01-01

    A metal vapor laser, specifically one utilizing copper vapor, is disclosed herein. This laser utilizes a plasma tube assembly including a thermally insulated plasma tube containing a specific metal, e.g., copper, and a buffer gas therein. The laser also utilizes means including hot electrodes located at opposite ends of the plasma tube for electrically exciting the metal vapor and heating its interior to a sufficiently high temperature to cause the metal contained therein to vaporize and for subjecting the vapor to an electrical discharge excitation in order to lase. The laser also utilizes external wicking arrangements, that is, wicking arrangements located outside the plasma tube.

  4. Apparatus for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.; Marcucci, Rudolph V.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for enriching the isotopic Hg content of mercury is provided. The apparatus includes a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill including mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. In a preferred embodiment, constant mercury pressure is maintained in the filter by means of a water-cooled tube that depends from it, the tube having a drop of mercury disposed in it. The reactor is arranged around the filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of a material which is transparent to ultraviolet light.

  5. Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.W.; Ault, E.R.; Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment. 2 figs.

  6. Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry W.; Ault, Earl R.; Moses, Edward I.

    1992-01-01

    A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment.

  7. DuPont Chemical Vapor Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MOORE, T.L.

    2003-10-03

    DuPont Safety Resources was tasked with reviewing the current chemical vapor control practices and providing preventive recommendations on best commercial techniques to control worker exposures. The increased focus of the tank closure project to meet the 2024 Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestones has surfaced concerns among some CH2MHill employees and other interested parties. CH2MHill is committed to providing a safe working environment for employees and desires to safely manage the tank farm operations using appropriate control measures. To address worker concerns, CH2MHill has chartered a ''Chemical Vapors Project'' to integrate the activities of multiple CH2MHill project teams, and solicit the expertise of external resources, including an independent Industrial Hygiene expert panel, a communications consultant, and DuPont Safety Resources. Over a three-month time period, DuPont worked with CH2MHill ESH&Q, Industrial Hygiene, Engineering, and the independent expert panel to perform the assessment. The process included overview presentations, formal interviews, informal discussions, documentation review, and literature review. DuPont Safety Resources concluded that it is highly unlikely that workers in the tank farms are exposed to chemicals above established standards. Additionally, the conventional and radiological chemistry is understood, the inherent chemical hazards are known, and the risk associated with chemical vapor exposure is properly managed. The assessment highlighted management's commitment to addressing chemical vapor hazards and controlling the associated risks. Additionally, we found the Industrial Hygiene staff to be technically competent and well motivated. The tank characterization data resides in a comprehensive database containing the tank chemical compositions and relevant airborne concentrations.

  8. The diffuse galactic far-ultraviolet sky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamden, Erika T.; Schiminovich, David; Seibert, Mark

    2013-12-20

    We present an all-sky map of the diffuse Galactic far ultraviolet (1344-1786 Å) background using Galaxy Evolution Explorer data, covering 65% of the sky with 11.79 arcmin{sup 2} pixels. We investigate the dependence of the background on Galactic coordinates, finding that a standard cosecant model of intensity is not a valid fit. Furthermore, we compare our map to Galactic all-sky maps of 100 μm emission, N {sub H} {sub I} column, and Hα intensity. We measure a consistent low level far-UV (FUV) intensity at zero points for other Galactic quantities, indicating a 300 photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} sr{sup –1} Å{sup –1} non-scattered isotropic component to the diffuse FUV. There is also a linear relationship between FUV and 100 μm emission below 100 μm values of 8 MJy sr{sup –1}. We find a similar linear relationship between FUV and N {sub H} {sub I} below 10{sup 21} cm{sup –2}. The relationship between FUV and Hα intensity has no such constant cutoff. For all Galactic quantities, the slope of the linear portion of the relationship decreases with Galactic latitude. A modified cosecant model, taking into account dust scattering asymmetry and albedo, is able to accurately fit the diffuse FUV at latitudes above 20°. The best fit model indicates an albedo, a, of 0.62 ± 0.04 and a scattering asymmetry function, g, of 0.78 ± 0.05. Deviations from the model fit may indicate regions of excess FUV emission from fluorescence or shock fronts, while low latitude regions with depressed FUV emission are likely the result of self-shielding dusty clouds.

  9. Combined rankine and vapor compression cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radcliff, Thomas D.; Biederman, Bruce P.; Brasz, Joost J.

    2005-04-19

    An organic rankine cycle system is combined with a vapor compression cycle system with the turbine generator of the organic rankine cycle generating the power necessary to operate the motor of the refrigerant compressor. The vapor compression cycle is applied with its evaporator cooling the inlet air into a gas turbine, and the organic rankine cycle is applied to receive heat from a gas turbine exhaust to heat its boiler within one embodiment, a common condenser is used for the organic rankine cycle and the vapor compression cycle, with a common refrigerant, R-245a being circulated within both systems. In another embodiment, the turbine driven generator has a common shaft connected to the compressor to thereby eliminate the need for a separate motor to drive the compressor. In another embodiment, an organic rankine cycle system is applied to an internal combustion engine to cool the fluids thereof, and the turbo charged air is cooled first by the organic rankine cycle system and then by an air conditioner prior to passing into the intake of the engine.

  10. Simulation of mixed-host emitting layer based organic light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riku, C.; Kee, Y. Y.; Ong, T. S.; Tou, T. Y.; Yap, S. S.

    2015-04-24

    ‘SimOLED’ simulator is used in this work to investigate the efficiency of the mixed-host organic light emitting devices (MH-OLEDs). Tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum(3) (Alq{sub 3}) and N,N-diphenyl-N,N-Bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1-diphenyl-4,4-diamine (TPD) are used as the electron transport layer (ETL) material and hole transport layer (HTL) material respectively, and the indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) and aluminum (Al) as anode and cathode. Three MH-OLEDs, A, B and C with the same structure of ITO / HTM (15 nm) / Mixed host (70 nm) / ETM (10 nm) /Al, are stimulated with ratios TPD:Alq{sub 3} of 3:5, 5:5, and 5:3 respectively. The Poole-Frenkel model for electron and hole mobilities is employed to compute the current density-applied voltage-luminance characteristics, distribution of the electric field, carrier concentrations and recombination rate.