Sample records for vapor deposition tools

  1. Vapor deposition of hardened niobium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blocher, Jr., John M. (Columbus, OH); Veigel, Neil D. (Columbus, OH); Landrigan, Richard B. (Columbus, OH)

    1983-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

  2. Vapor deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Sattelberger, Alfred P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  3. Vacuum vapor deposition gun assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, Joseph D. (Boulder, CO)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vapor deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, a hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  4. Enabling integration of vapor-deposited polymer thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petruczok, Christy D. (Christy Danielle)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) is a versatile, one-step process for synthesizing conformal and functional polymer thin films on a variety of substrates. This thesis emphasizes the development of tools to further ...

  5. Chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsson, Ylva Kristina

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis develops a platform for deposition of polymer thin films that can be further tailored by chemical surface modification. First, we explore chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran films using ...

  6. Chemical vapor deposition of antimicrobial polymer coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Tyler Philip, 1977-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is large and growing interest in making a wide variety of materials and surfaces antimicrobial. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD), a solventless low-temperature process, is used to form thin films of polymers ...

  7. Real-time growth rate metrology for a tungsten chemical vapor deposition process by acoustic sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    to a production-scale tungsten chemical vapor deposition cluster tool for in situ process sensing. Process gasesReal-time growth rate metrology for a tungsten chemical vapor deposition process by acoustic to achieve run-to-run process control of the deposited tungsten film thickness. © 2001 American Vacuum

  8. Chemical vapor deposition of mullite coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, Vinod (Lexington, MA); Mulpuri, Rao (Boston, MA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is directed to the creation of crystalline mullite coatings having uniform microstructure by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The process comprises the steps of establishing a flow of reactants which will yield mullite in a CVD reactor, and depositing a crystalline coating from the reactant flow. The process will yield crystalline coatings which are dense and of uniform thickness.

  9. Chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berkman, Samuel (Florham Park, NJ)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A single chamber continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor is described for depositing continuously on flat substrates, for example, epitaxial layers of semiconductor materials. The single chamber reactor is formed into three separate zones by baffles or tubes carrying chemical source material and a carrier gas in one gas stream and hydrogen gas in the other stream without interaction while the wafers are heated to deposition temperature. Diffusion of the two gas streams on heated wafers effects the epitaxial deposition in the intermediate zone and the wafers are cooled in the final zone by coolant gases. A CVD reactor for batch processing is also described embodying the deposition principles of the continuous reactor.

  10. Apparatus and method for photochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Scott C. (Wilmington, DE); Rocheleau, Richard E. (Wilmington, DE)

    1987-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A photochemical vapor deposition apparatus includes a reactor housing having a window in one wall above a reaction chamber in the housing. A transparent curtain divides the reaction chamber into a reaction zone and a flush zone. At least one substrate is mounted in the reaction zone in light communication with the window so that ultraviolet radiation may penetrate through the window into the reaction zone. The window is kept clear by a gas flowing through the flush zone.

  11. Chemical vapor deposition of group IIIB metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erbil, A.

    1989-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Coatings of Group IIIB metals and compounds thereof are formed by chemical vapor deposition, in which a heat decomposable organometallic compound of the formula given in the patent where M is a Group IIIB metal, such as lanthanum or yttrium and R is a lower alkyl or alkenyl radical containing from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms, with a heated substrate which is above the decomposition temperature of the organometallic compound. The pure metal is obtained when the compound of the formula 1 is the sole heat decomposable compound present and deposition is carried out under nonoxidizing conditions. Intermetallic compounds such as lanthanum telluride can be deposited from a lanthanum compound of formula 1 and a heat decomposable tellurium compound under nonoxidizing conditions.

  12. All graphene electromechanical switch fabricated by chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milaninia, Kaveh M.

    We demonstrate an electromechanical switch comprising two polycrystalline graphene films; each deposited using ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition. The top film is pulled into electrical contact with the bottom film ...

  13. Metal film deposition by laser breakdown chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jervis, T.R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dielectric breakdown of gas mixtures can be used to deposit homogeneous thin films by chemical vapor deposition with appropriate control of flow and pressure conditions to suppress gas phase nucleation and particle formation. Using a pulsed CO/sub 2/ laser operating at 10.6 microns where there is no significant resonant absorption in any of the source gases, we have succeeded in depositing homogeneous films from several gas phase precursors by gas phase laser pyrolysis. Nickel and molybdenum from the respective carbonyls and tungsten from the hexafluoride have been examined to date. In each case the gas precursor is buffered to reduce the partial pressure of the reactants and to induce breakdown. The films are spectrally reflective and uniform over a large area. Films have been characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, pull tests, and resistivity measurements. The highest quality films have resulted from the nickel depositions. Detailed x-ray diffraction analysis of these films yields a very small domain size (approx. 50 A) consistent with rapid quenching from the gas phase reaction zone. This analysis also shows nickel carbide formation consistent with the temperature of the reaction zone and the Auger electron spectroscopy results which show some carbon and oxygen incorporation (8% and 1% respectively). Gas phase transport and condensation of the molybdenum carbonyl results in substantial carbon and oxygen contamination of the molybdenum films requiring heated substrates, a requirement not consistent with the goals of the program to maximize the quench rate of the deposition. Results from tungsten deposition experiments representing a reduction chemistry instead of the decomposition chemistry involved in the carbonyl experiments are also reported.

  14. Chemical vapor deposition of organosilicon and sacrificial polymer thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casserly, Thomas Bryan

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) produced films for a wide array of applications from a variety of organosilicon and organic precursors. The structure and properties of thin films were controlled by varying processing ...

  15. Initiated chemical vapor deposition of functional polyacrylic thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mao, Yu, 1975-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) was explored as a novel method for synthesis of functional polyacrylic thin films. The process introduces a peroxide initiator, which can be decomposed at low temperatures (<200?C) ...

  16. Chemical vapor deposition thin films as biopassivation coatings and directly patternable dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pryce Lewis, Hilton G. (Hilton Gavin), 1973-

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organosilicon thin films deposited by pulsed plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PPECVD) and hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) were investigated as potential biopassivation coatings for neural probes. ...

  17. Vapor-deposited porous films for energy conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Hayes, Jeffrey P.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Metallic films are grown with a "spongelike" morphology in the as-deposited condition using planar magnetron sputtering. The morphology of the deposit is characterized by metallic continuity in three dimensions with continuous and open porosity on the submicron scale. The stabilization of the spongelike morphology is found over a limited range of the sputter deposition parameters, that is, of working gas pressure and substrate temperature. This spongelike morphology is an extension of the features as generally represented in the classic zone models of growth for physical vapor deposits. Nickel coatings were deposited with working gas pressures up 4 Pa and for substrate temperatures up to 1000 K. The morphology of the deposits is examined in plan and in cross section views with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The parametric range of gas pressure and substrate temperature (relative to absolute melt point) under which the spongelike metal deposits are produced appear universal for other metals including gold, silver, and aluminum.

  18. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  19. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

    1988-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  20. Ceramic-metallic coatings by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, D.E.; Singh, J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EB-PVD) process is considered to be a technology that has overcome some of the difficulties or problems associated with the chemical vapor deposition (CVD), physical vapor deposition (PVD) and metal spray processes. The EB-PVD process offers many desirable characteristics such as relatively high deposition rates (up to 100-150 {mu}m/minute with an evaporation rate {approx}10-15 Kg/hour,) dense coatings, precise compositional control, columnar and poly-crystalline microstructure, low contamination, and high thermal efficiency. Various metallic and ceramic coatings (oxides, carbides, nitrides) can be deposited at relatively low temperatures. Even elements with low vapor pressure such as molybdenum, tungsten, and carbon are readily evaporated by this process. In addition, EB-PVD is capable of producing multi-layered laminated metallic/ceramic coatings on large components by changing the EB-PVD processing conditions such as ingot composition, part manipulation, and electron beam energy. Attachment of an ion assisted beam source to the EB-PVD offers additional benefits such as dense coatings with improved adhesion. In addition, textured coatings can be obtained that are desirable in many applications such as cutting tools. This laboratory has started a new thrust in the coating area by the EB-PVD process. The microstructure of thermal barrier ceramic coatings (i.e., yttria stabilized zirconia) developed by the EB-PVD process will be presented.

  1. DIAMOND CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION Nucleation and Early Growth Stages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandy, David

    a reality. Epi- taxial diamond has been grown on diamond and cubic-BN. Polycrystalline diamond films haveDIAMOND CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION Nucleation and Early Growth Stages by Huimin Liu David S. Dandy of high-quality diamond coatings on preshaped parts and synthesis of free-standing shapes of diamond

  2. Chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Roy (Cambridge, MA); Kramer, Keith (Cleveland, OH); Liu, Xinye (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An aluminum oxide film is deposited on a heated substrate by CVD from one or more alkylaluminum alkoxide compounds having composition R.sub.n Al.sub.2 (OR').sub.6-n, wherein R and R' are alkyl groups and n is in the range of 1 to 5.

  3. Amine functionalization by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) for interfacial adhesion and film cohesion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jingjing, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Amine functional polymer thin films provide a versatile platform for subsequent functionalization because of their diverse reactivity. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a polymer chemical vapor deposition ...

  4. Molecular-jet chemical vapor deposition of SiC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lubben, D.; Jellison, G.E.; Modine, F.A.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SiC films have been deposited by molecular-jet chemical vapor deposition (MJCVD) on Si(001) substrates. Methylsilane (MS) diluted in He was used as a precursor for deposition under conditions which produced a MS molecular beam with 0.365 eV translational energy. Films grown at temperatures between 1000 and 1150 C and above {approx}1200 C were single crystal as judged by electron channeling, while those grown at intermediate temperatures were polycrystalline. Films grown at lower temperatures generally had a smoother surface morphology for moderate thicknesses, although all films showed at least some degree of faceting. The best thick films, up to 4 {mu}m, were obtained for substrate temperatures of {approx}1210 C under flow conditions which produced a deposition rate of {approx}1200 {angstrom} per minute.

  5. Initiated chemical vapor deposition of polymeric thin films : mechanism and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Kelvin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a novel technique for depositing polymeric thin films. It is able to deposit thin films of application-specific polymers in one step without using any solvents. Its uniqueness ...

  6. Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

  7. Chemical Vapor Deposited Zinc Sulfide. SPIE Press Monograph

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCloy, John S.; Tustison, Randal W.

    2013-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Zinc sulfide has shown unequaled utility for infrared windows that require a combination of long-wavelength infrared transparency, mechanical durability, and elevated-temperature performance. This book reviews the physical properties of chemical vapor deposited ZnS and their relationship to the CVD process that produced them. An in-depth look at the material microstructure is included, along with a discussion of the material's optical properties. Finally, because the CVD process itself is central to the development of this material, a brief history is presented.

  8. Unusual thermopower of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, Youngwoo, E-mail: youngwoo.nam@chalmers.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Sun, Jie; Lindvall, Niclas; Yurgens, August [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Jae Yang, Seung; Rae Park, Chong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Woo Park, Yung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on thermopower (TEP) and resistance measurements of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Unlike the conventional resistance of pristine graphene, the gate-dependent TEP shows a large electron-hole asymmetry. This can be accounted for by inhomogeneity of the CVD-graphene where individual graphene regions contribute with different TEPs. At the high magnetic field and low temperature, the TEP has large fluctuations near the Dirac point associated with the disorder in the CVD-graphene. TEP measurements reveal additional characteristics of CVD-graphene, which are difficult to obtain from the measurement of resistance alone.

  9. Chemical vapor deposition of organosilicon composite thin films for porous low-k dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, April Denise, 1977-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulsed plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition has produced organosilicon thin films with the potential use as low dielectric constant interconnect materials in microelectronic circuits. Both diethylsilane and ...

  10. Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C. (4745 Trinity Dr., Los Alamos, NM 87544); Kodas, Toivo T. (5200 Noreen Dr. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to the field of film coating deposition techniques, and more particularly to the deposition of multicomponent metal oxide films by aerosol chemical vapor deposition. This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

  11. Oxidative chemical vapor deposition of conductive polymers for use in novel photovoltaic device architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howden, Rachel M. (Rachel Mary)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), (PEDOT), deposited via oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) has been investigated for use in organic electronic devices. The oCVD process as well as the ...

  12. Field emission properties of chemical vapor deposited individual graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zamri Yusop, Mohd [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, 466-8555 Nagoya (Japan); Department of Materials, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, 466-8555 Nagoya (Japan); Center for Fostering Young and Innovative Researchers, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, 466-8555 Nagoya (Japan); Yaakob, Yazid; Takahashi, Chisato; Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, 466-8555 Nagoya (Japan)

    2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Here, we report field emission (FE) properties of a chemical vapor deposited individual graphene investigated by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. Free-standing bilayer graphene is mounted on a cathode microprobe and FE processes are investigated varying the vacuum gap of cathode and anode. The threshold field for 10?nA current were found to be 515, 610, and 870?V/?m for vacuum gap of 400, 300, and 200?nm, respectively. It is observed that the structural stability of a high quality bilayer graphene is considerably stable during emission process. By contacting the nanoprobe with graphene and applying a bias voltage, structural deformation and buckling are observed with significant rise in temperature owing to Joule heating effect. The finding can be significant for practical application of graphene related materials in emitter based devices as well as understanding the contact resistance influence and heating effect.

  13. Low Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Thin Film Magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Joel S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Pokhodnya, Kostyantyn I. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin-film magnet formed from a gas-phase reaction of tetracyanoetheylene (TCNE) OR (TCNQ), 7,7,8,8-tetracyano-P-quinodimethane, and a vanadium-containing compound such as vanadium hexcarbonyl (V(CO).sub.6) and bis(benzene)vanalium (V(C.sub.6 H.sub.6).sub.2) and a process of forming a magnetic thin film upon at least one substrate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at a process temperature not exceeding approximately 90.degree. C. and in the absence of a solvent. The magnetic thin film is particularly suitable for being disposed upon rigid or flexible substrates at temperatures in the range of 40.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The present invention exhibits air-stable characteristics and qualities and is particularly suitable for providing being disposed upon a wide variety of substrates.

  14. Polymer electrolyte fuel cell electrodes grown by vapor deposition techniques Pascal Brault*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cell electrodes grown by vapor deposition techniques Pascal Brault Abstract: Polymer fuel cell electrode growth using vapor deposition techniques is reviewed. The supports process: sputtering, CVD, PECVD, MOCVD. In each case, up-to-date fuel cell performances are highlighted

  15. Computational Analysis and Optimization of a Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactor with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    modifications of reactor configurations and manual control of operating conditions becomes prohibitivelyComputational Analysis and Optimization of a Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactor with Large for the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of silicon in a horizontal rotating disk reactor. A three

  16. OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A HIGH PRESSURE ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION REACTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A HIGH PRESSURE ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION REACTOR K.J. BACHMANN vapor deposition (HPOMCVD) reactor for use in thin film crystal growth. The advantages of such a reactor decomposition pressures and increased control over local stoichiometry and defect formation. While we focus here

  17. Low temperature chemical vapor deposition of Co thin films from Co2(CO)8

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    Low temperature chemical vapor deposition of Co thin films from Co2(CO)8 D.-X. Yea,*, S. Pimanpanga chemical vapor deposition with a metallorganic Co2(CO)8 precursor. After Ar sputtering of the surface, Co2(CO)8, has been extensively used in cobalt CVD and is attractive, since Co is in its elemental

  18. Lithium phosphorous oxynitride films synthesized by a plasma-assisted directed vapor deposition approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Lithium phosphorous oxynitride films synthesized by a plasma-assisted directed vapor deposition vapor deposition approach has been explored for the synthesis of lithium phosphorous oxynitride Lipon the ionic transport properties of these films. This enabled the synthesis of electrolyte films with lithium

  19. Molecular Orbital Studies of Titanium Nitride Chemical Vapor Deposition: Gas Phase Complex Formation,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Molecular Orbital Studies of Titanium Nitride Chemical Vapor Deposition: Gas Phase Complex Received June 6, 2000 The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of titanium nitride can be carried out with TiCl4 Titanium nitride thin films have a variety of proper- ties, such as extreme hardness, high chemical

  20. Molecular Orbital Studies of Titanium Nitride Chemical Vapor Deposition: Imido Dimer Formation and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Molecular Orbital Studies of Titanium Nitride Chemical Vapor Deposition: Imido Dimer Formation- ization of Ti(NR2)2NH in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of titanium nitride films. This study uses lead to the formation of higher oligomers. Introduction Titanium nitride thin films have a number

  1. Tunneling characteristics in chemical vapor deposited graphene hexagonal boron nitride graphene junctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Randall

    1 Tunneling characteristics in chemical vapor deposited graphene ­ hexagonal boron nitride ­ graphene junctions T. Roy1 , L. Liu2 , S. de la Barrera,3 B. Chakrabarti1,4 , Z. R. Hesabi1 , C. A. Joiner1 Abstract: Large area chemical vapor deposited graphene and hexagonal boron nitride was used to fabricate

  2. Momentum and thermal boundary-layer thickness in a stagnation flow chemical vapor deposition reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandy, David

    reactor David S. Dandy and Jungheum Yun Department of Chemical Engineering, Colorado State University stagnation flows characteristic of highly convective chemical vapor deposition pedestal reactors. Expressions of diamond via low- pressure chemical vapor deposition, direct current (dc) arcjet reactor systems3­8 have

  3. Properties of chemical vapor infiltration diamond deposited in a diamond powder matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panitz, J.K.G.; Tallant, D.R.; Hills, C.R.; Staley, D.J.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Densifying non-mined diamond powder precursors with diamond produced by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is an attractive approach for forming thick diamond deposits that avoids many potential manufacturability problems associated with predominantly chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes. The authors have developed two techniques: electrophoretic deposition and screen printing, to form nonmined diamond powder precursors on substrates. They then densify these precursors in a hot filament assisted reactor. Analysis indicated that a hot filament assisted chemical vapor infiltration process forms intergranular diamond deposits with properties that are to some degree different from predominantly hot-filament-assisted CVD material.

  4. Plasma and Ion Assistance in Physical Vapor Deposition: AHistorical Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre

    2007-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Deposition of films using plasma or plasma-assist can betraced back surprisingly far, namely to the 18th century for arcs and tothe 19th century for sputtering. However, only since the 1960s thecoatings community considered other processes than evaporation for largescale commercial use. Ion Plating was perhaps the first importantprocess, introducing vapor ionization and substrate bias to generate abeam of ions arriving on the surface of the growing film. Ratherindependently, cathodic arc deposition was established as an energeticcondensation process, first in the former Soviet Union in the 1970s, andin the 1980s in the Western Hemisphere. About a dozen various ion-basedcoating technologies evolved in the last decades, all characterized byspecific plasma or ion generation processes. Gridded and gridless ionsources were taken from space propulsion and applied to thin filmdeposition. Modeling and simulation have helped to make plasma and ionseffects to be reasonably well understood. Yet--due to the complex, oftennon-linear and non-equilibrium nature of plasma and surfaceinteractions--there is still a place for the experience plasma"sourcerer."

  5. Growth of graphene underlayers by chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fabiane, Mopeli; Khamlich, Saleh; Bello, Abdulhakeem; Dangbegnon, Julien; Momodu, Damilola; Manyala, Ncholu, E-mail: ncholu.manyala@up.ac.za [Department of Physics, Institute of Applied Materials, SARChI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028 (South Africa)] [Department of Physics, Institute of Applied Materials, SARChI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028 (South Africa); Charlie Johnson, A. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a simple and very convincing approach to visualizing that subsequent layers of graphene grow between the existing monolayer graphene and the copper catalyst in chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Graphene samples were grown by CVD and then transferred onto glass substrates by the bubbling method in two ways, either direct-transfer (DT) to yield poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/graphene/glass or (2) inverted transfer (IT) to yield graphene/PMMA/glass. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to reveal surface features for both the DT and IT samples. The results from FE-SEM and AFM topographic analyses of the surfaces revealed the underlayer growth of subsequent layers. The subsequent layers in the IT samples are visualized as 3D structures, where the smaller graphene layers lie above the larger layers stacked in a concentric manner. The results support the formation of the so-called “inverted wedding cake” stacking in multilayer graphene growth.

  6. Optical properties of chemical-vapor-deposited diamond films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bi, X.X.; Eklund, P.C.; Zhang, J.G.; Rao, A.M. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (USA)); Perry, T.A.; Beetz, C.P. Jr. (Physics Department, General Motors Research Laboratory, Warren, MI (USA))

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of room-temperature optical studies on {similar to}10 micron thick, free-standing diamond films are reported. The films were grown on Si(100) substrates by hot filament-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from a methane/hydrogen mixture. The as-grown, free surface of the films exhibited a surface roughness of scale {sigma}{similar to}0.2 to 5 microns, depending on the methane/hydrogen mixture, which introduces significant optical scattering loss for frequencies greater than 0.5 eV. Specular reflection and transmission spectra in the range 0.01--10 eV were collected. Below the threshold for interband adsorption near {similar to}5 eV, the films studied behaved approximately as thin parallel plates of refractive index 2.4, with the rough free surface leading to increasingly larger loss of specular transmission/reflection with decreasing wavelength. Structure in the mid-infrared transmission spectra was observed and attributed to disorder-induced one-phonon absorption, intrinsic multi-phonon absorption, and infrared active --C--H{sub 2} stretching modes. The strength of the C--H band was observed to increase with increasing methane pressure in the growth chamber. At 5.3 eV, the onset of interband absorption was observed, in good agreement with the value of the indirect bandgap in type IIa (intrinsic) diamond.

  7. Low Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition of Zirconium Nitride in a Fluidized Bed 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arrieta, Marie

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research was to design, assemble, and demonstrate the initial performance of a fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition (FB-CVD) system capable of producing thin, uniform zirconium nitride (ZrN) coatings (1 to 10 micrometers...

  8. Bilayer graphene growth by low pressure chemical vapor deposition on copper foil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Wenjing, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Successfully integrating graphene in standard processes for applications in electronics relies on the synthesis of high-quality films. In this work we study Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) growth of bilayer ...

  9. Iron (III) Chloride doping of large-area chemical vapor deposition graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Yi, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical doping is an effective method of reducing the sheet resistance of graphene. This thesis aims to develop an effective method of doping large area Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) graphene using Iron (III) Chloride ...

  10. Single- and few-layer graphene by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition on nickel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reina Ceeco, Alfonso

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) process is used to fabricate graphene based films consisting of one to several graphene layers across their area. Polycrystalline Ni thin films are used and the graphene ...

  11. Porous GaN nanowires synthesized using thermal chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Bongsoo

    Porous GaN nanowires synthesized using thermal chemical vapor deposition Seung Yong Bae a , Hee Won 2003 Abstract Porous structured GaN nanowires were synthesized with a large scale by chemical vapor to 1 mm. The porous GaN nanowires consist of the wurtzite single crystal grown with the [0 1 1

  12. Solar-induced chemical vapor deposition of diamond-type carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J.R.; Tracy, C.E.; King, D.E.; Stanley, J.T.

    1994-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved chemical vapor deposition method for depositing transparent continuous coatings of sp[sup 3]-bonded diamond-type carbon films, comprises: (a) providing a volatile hydrocarbon gas/H[sub 2] reactant mixture in a cold wall vacuum/chemical vapor deposition chamber containing a suitable substrate for said films, at pressure of about 1 to 50 Torr; and (b) directing a concentrated solar flux of from about 40 to about 60 watts/cm[sup 2] through said reactant mixture to produce substrate temperatures of about 750 C to about 950 C to activate deposition of the film on said substrate. 11 figs.

  13. Fabrication of nanostructure by physical vapor deposition with glancing angle deposition technique and its applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horprathum, M., E-mail: mati.horprathum@nectec.or.th; Eiamchai, P., E-mail: mati.horprathum@nectec.or.th; Patthanasettakul, V.; Limwichean, S.; Nuntawong, N.; Chindaudom, P. [Optical Thin-Film Laboratory National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, Pathumthani, 12120 (Thailand); Kaewkhao, J. [Center of Excellence in Glass Technology and Materials Science (CEGM), Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Chananonnawathorn, C. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, 12121 (Thailand)

    2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A nanostructural thin film is one of the highly exploiting research areas particularly in applications in sensor, photocatalytic, and solar-cell technologies. In the past two decades, the integration of glancing-angle deposition (GLAD) technique to physical vapor deposition (PVD) process has gained significant attention for well-controlled multidimensional nanomorphologies because of fast, simple, cost-effective, and mass-production capability. The performance and functional properties of the coated thin films generally depend upon their nanostructural compositions, i.e., large aspect ratio, controllable porosity, and shape. Such structural platforms make the fabricated thin films very practical for several realistic applications. We therefore present morphological and nanostructural properties of various deposited materials, which included metals, i.e., silver (Ag), and oxide compounds, i.e., tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}), titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), and indium tin oxide (ITO). Different PVD techniques based on DC magnetron sputtering and electron-beam evaporation, both with the integrated GLAD component, were discussed. We further explore engineered nanostructures which enable controls of optical, electrical, and mechanical properties. These improvements led to several practical applications in surface-enhanced Raman, smart windows, gas sensors, self-cleaning materials and transparent conductive oxides (TCO)

  14. Development of a spatially controllable chemical vapor deposition reactor with combinatorial processing capabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Development of a spatially controllable chemical vapor deposition reactor with combinatorial these limitations, a novel CVD reactor system has been developed that can explicitly control the spatial profile flexibility, we introduced a new CVD reactor concept that enables control of film deposition characteristics

  15. Low temperature junction growth using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Qi; Page, Matthew; Iwaniczko, Eugene; Wang, Tihu; Yan, Yanfa

    2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and a process for forming a semi-conductor device, and solar cells (10) formed thereby. The process includes preparing a substrate (12) for deposition of a junction layer (14); forming the junction layer (14) on the substrate (12) using hot wire chemical vapor deposition; and, finishing the semi-conductor device.

  16. Chemical vapor deposition of W-Si-N and W-B-N

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Roherty-Osmun, Elizabeth Lynn (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Paul M. (Albuquerque, NM); Custer, Jonathan S. (Albuquerque, NM); Jones, Ronald V. (Albuquerque, NM); Nicolet, Marc-A. (Pasadena, CA); Madar, Roland (Eybens, FR); Bernard, Claude (Brie et Angonnes, FR)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of depositing a ternary, refractory based thin film on a substrate by chemical vapor deposition employing precursor sources of tungsten comprising WF.sub.6, either silicon or boron, and nitrogen. The result is a W--Si--N or W--B--N thin film useful for diffusion barrier and micromachining applications.

  17. Chemical vapor deposition of W-Si-N and W-B-N

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, J.G.; Roherty-Osmun, E.L.; Smith, P.M.; Custer, J.S.; Jones, R.V.; Nicolet, M.; Madar, R.; Bernard, C.

    1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of depositing a ternary, refractory based thin film on a substrate by chemical vapor deposition employing precursor sources of tungsten comprising WF[sub 6], either silicon or boron, and nitrogen. The result is a W-Si-N or W-B-N thin film useful for diffusion barrier and micromachining applications. 10 figs.

  18. Multiplexed mass spectrometry for real-time sensing in a spatially programmable chemical vapor deposition reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    deposition reactor Yuhong Cai, Laurent Henn-Lecordier, and Gary W. Rubloffa Department of Materials Science locations in a spatially programmable chemical vapor deposition SP-CVD reactor prototype, where such chemical sensing is essential to achieve the benefits of a new paradigm for reactor design. The spatially

  19. Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullendore, A.W.

    1988-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures of organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides,e.g., transition metal carbonyl, such as nickel carbonyl and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit. 1 fig.

  20. Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullendore, Arthur W. (Sandia Park, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures or organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides, e.g., transition metal carbonyl such as nickel carbonyl, and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit.

  1. Process for the preparation of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites by chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lackey, Jr., Walter J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Caputo, Anthony J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for preparing fiber-reinforced ceramic composites. A specially designed apparatus provides a steep thermal gradient across the thickness of a fibrous preform. A flow of gaseous ceramic matrix material is directed into the fibrous preform at the cold surface. The deposition of the matrix occurs progressively from the hot surface of the fibrous preform toward the cold surface. Such deposition prevents the surface of the fibrous preform from becoming plugged. As a result thereof, the flow of reactant matrix gases into the uninfiltrated (undeposited) portion of the fibrous preform occurs throughout the deposition process. The progressive and continuous deposition of ceramic matrix within the fibrous preform provides for a significant reduction in process time over known chemical vapor deposition processes.

  2. Improved process for the preparation of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites by chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lackey, W.J. Jr.; Caputo, A.J.

    1984-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A specially designed apparatus provides a steep thermal gradient across the thickness of fibrous preform. A flow of gaseous ceramic matrix material is directed into the fibrous preform at the cold surface. The deposition of the matrix occurs progressively from the hot surface of the fibrous preform toward the cold surface. Such deposition prevents the surface of the fibrous preform from becoming plugged. As a result thereof, the flow of reactant matrix gases into the uninfiltrated (undeposited) portion of the fibrous preform occurs throughout the deposition process. The progressive and continuous deposition of ceramic matrix within the fibrous preform provides for a significant reduction in process time over known chemical vapor deposition processes.

  3. Electrochromic Devices Deposited on Low-Temperature Plastics by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robbins, Joshua; Seman, Michael

    2005-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic windows have been identified by the Basic energy Sciences Advisory committee as an important technology for the reduction of energy spent on heating and cooling in residential and commercial buildings. Electrochromic devices have the ability to reversibly alter their optical properties in response to a small electric field. By blocking ultraviolet and infrared radiation, while modulating the incoming visible radiation, electrochromics could reduce energy consumption by several Quads per year. This amounts to several percent of the total annual national energy expenditures. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate proof of concept for using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) for depositing all five layers necessary for full electrochromic devices, as an alternative to sputtering techniques. The overall goal is to produce electrochromic devices on flexible polymer substrates using PECVD to significantly reduce the cost of the final product. We have successfully deposited all of the films necessary for a complete electrochromic devices using PECVD. The electrochromic layer, WO3, displayed excellent change in visible transmission with good switching times. The storage layer, V2O5, exhibited a high storage capacity and good clear state transmission. The electrolyte, Ta2O5, was shown to functional with good electrical resistivity to go along with the ability to transfer Li ions. There were issues with leakage over larger areas, which can be address with further process development. We developed a process to deposit ZnO:Ga with a sheet resistance of < 50 W/sq. with > 90% transmission. Although we were not able to deposit on polymers due to the temperatures required in combination with the inverted position of our substrates. Two types of full devices were produced. Devices with Ta2O5 were shown to be functional using small aluminum dots as the top contact. The polymer electrolyte devices were shown to have a clear state transmission of 69% and a darkened state transmission 11%. These un-optimized devices compared well with commercially available products, which have a stated clear transmission of 59% and dark transmission of 4%. The PECVD oxides have displayed advantages over films produced by sputtering. The first advantage is that deposition rates were significantly higher than typical sputtering rates. Rates of 100 nm/min were achieved for WO3, and rates of 50 nm/min produced quality V2O5 and Ta2O5 films. Faster rates will produce a significant reduction in cost due to higher throughput. Another advantage was that films were less dense than those produced by sputtering as reported in the literature. This leads to high diffusion coefficients and fast switching times. Also less dense films have been shown to produce larger contrast ratios in WO3 and larger storage capacity in V2O5. From the data collected in this category 1 project we have shown that PECVD is feasible and beneficial for the deposition of working layers for electrochromic devices. These results and the lessons learned can be applied toward deposition on polymers and equipment scale-up in future work.

  4. Deposition of silicon carbide films using a high vacuum metalorganic chemical vapor deposition method with a single source precursor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boo, Jin-Hyo

    , high temperature, and high radiation environments. Conventional silicon carbide chemical vapor deposition CVD processes generally utilized multiple precursors such as silane and hydrocarbons, and required temperature alternatives to the conventional SiC CVD methods must be considered. To do this, a relatively

  5. arc vapor deposition: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Science Websites Summary: applied to the deposition of thermal barrier coatings onto an airfoil substrate using a gas jet assisted) principles have become...

  6. Research on fundamental aspects of inorganic vapor and particle deposition in coal-fired systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Parallel research studies are underway on the following interrelated and fundamental subjects; Geometrical Approach to Determining the Sticking Probability of Particles Impacting on Convex Solid Surfaces; Correlations for High Schmidt Number Particle Deposition From Dilute Flowing Rational Engineering Suspensions; Average Capture Probability of Arriving Particles Which Are Distributed With ResPect to ImPact VelocitY and Incidence Angle (Relative to Deposit Substrate); Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Vapor Infiltration of Non-isothermal Granular Deposits; Effective Area/Volume of Populations of 'MicroPorous' Aerosol Particles (Compact and 'Fractal' Quasispherical Aggregates); Effects of Radiative Heat Transfer on the Coagulation Rates of Combustion-Generated Particles; Structure-Sensitivity of Total Mass Deposition Rates from Combustion Product Streams containing Coagulation-Aged Populations of Aggregated Primary Particles; and Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4] Chemical Vapor Deposition From Chlorine-containing Coal-Derived Gases.

  7. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91 (2007) 924930 Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of zinc oxide at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hicks, Robert F.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91 (2007) 924­930 Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CIGS) or plastic substrates [1,2,8]. In this paper, we report on the deposition of aluminum- doped zinc

  8. atomic vapor deposited: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    deposition onto micro- and nanopowders14 and coating of nanoparticle films15 as well as aerogel coating of porous materials that exhibit ultrahigh-aspect ratios.12,13 To date,...

  9. SPATIALLY ORGANIZED PARYLENE NANOWIRES FABRICATED BY OBLIQUE ANGLE VAPOR DEPOSITION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    surfaces by functionalization through two methods: (i) electroless method of creating a porous Nickel 50-80 nm thin nickel film can be obtained by electroless deposition on the pary

  10. The development of chemically vapor deposited mullite coatings for the corrosion protection of SiC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auger, M.; Hou, P.; Sengupta, A.; Basu, S.; Sarin, V. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crystalline mullite coatings have been chemically vapor deposited onto SiC substrates to enhance the corrosion and oxidation resistance of the substrate. Current research has been divided into three distinct areas: (1) Development of the deposition processing conditions for increased control over coating`s growth rate, microstructure, and morphology; (2) Analysis of the coating`s crystal structure and stability; (3) The corrosion resistance of the CVD mullite coating on SiC.

  11. Study of anisotropy of spin cast and vapor deposited polyimide films using internal reflection techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liberman, V.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have compared anisotropy of spin cast and vapor deposited polyimide (VDP) films, using internal reflection infrared spectroscopy. The films were deposited directly on the internal reflection element. We find that spin cast films are more anisotropic than their VDP counterparts, with the polyimide chains tending to align parallel to the substrate. Both films are found to contain more and less ordered regions. Within the ordered regions, the plane of the phenyl ring tends to align parallel to the substrate.

  12. Diamond growth on WC-Co substrates by hot filament chemical vapor deposition: Effect of filamentsubstrate separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    Polycrystalline diamond films have been grown by hot filament (HF) chemical vapor deposition on WC-Co bar is an established technique for growing hard, wear- resistant polycrystalline diamond films on a range of substratesDiamond growth on WC-Co substrates by hot filament chemical vapor deposition: Effect of filament

  13. Supplemental heating of deposition tooling shields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohlhausen, James A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peebles, Diane E. (Albuquerque, NM); Hunter, John A. (Albuquerque, NM); Eckelmeyer, Kenneth H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of reducing particle generation from the thin coating deposited on the internal surfaces of a deposition chamber which undergoes temperature variation greater than 100.degree. C. comprising maintaining the temperature variation of the internal surfaces low enough during the process cycle to keep thermal expansion stresses between the coating and the surfaces under 500 MPa. For titanium nitride deposited on stainless steel, this means keeping temperature variations under approximately 70.degree. C. in a chamber that may be heated to over 350.degree. C. during a typical processing operation. Preferably, a supplemental heater is mounted behind the upper shield and controlled by a temperature sensitive element which provides feedback control based on the temperature of the upper shield.

  14. Cobalt Ultrathin Film Catalyzed Ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hone, James

    Cobalt Ultrathin Film Catalyzed Ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) using a cobalt ultrathin film (1 nm) as the catalyst and ethanol as carbon feedstock flow during the growth. The trace amount of self-contained water (0.2-5 wt %) in ethanol may act

  15. Field emission properties of phosphorus doped microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition diamond films by ion implantation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong Duk

    2002; published 5 February 2003 Phosphorus doped polycrystalline diamond films were grown using ion the electrical char- acteristics of diamond FEAs to lower the operating voltage. Polycrystalline diamond hasField emission properties of phosphorus doped microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition diamond

  16. Chemical Vapor Deposition-Derived Graphene with Electrical Performance of Exfoliated Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hone, James

    Chemical Vapor Deposition-Derived Graphene with Electrical Performance of Exfoliated Graphene a scalable method to produce large-area graphene, CVD-grown graphene has heretofore exhibited inferior of CVD-grown graphene in which two important sources of disorder, namely grain boundaries and processing

  17. Synthesis of high-quality monolayer and bilayer graphene on copper using chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    exfoliation of graphite [1], sublimation of epitaxial SiC [4], and catalyst-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) [5­9]. However, mechanical exfoliation of graphite can only supply small-size graphene (see Fig than that of graphene obtained via exfoli- ation of graphite as summarized in Fig. 1. While many

  18. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of TiN from tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium and ammonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of titanium in a nitrogen atmosphere forms TiN with only a slight dependence on substrate temperatureAtmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of TiN from tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium, Massachusetts 02138 (Received 15 December 1994; accepted 28 October 1995) Near stoichiometric titanium nitride

  19. Z .Thin Solid Films 392 2001 231 235 Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of electrochromic tungsten oxide films Roy G. Gordona,U , Sean Barryb , Jeffrey T. Bartona , Randy N.R. Broomhall oxide, WO , is a coloring layer commonly used in electrochromic windows and displays. Successful: Chemical vapor deposition; Tungsten; Oxides; Electrochromism 1. Introduction Tungsten oxide is a key

  20. Vapor phase deposition of oligo,,phenylene ethynylene... molecules for use in molecular electronic devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bean, John C.

    , many groups have made headway fab- ricating molecular electronic test devices.1­18 These devices exceptions,22,23 the field of mo- lecular electronics is plagued by problems including a lack of deviceVapor phase deposition of oligo,,phenylene ethynylene... molecules for use in molecular electronic

  1. Initiated chemical vapor deposition of fluoropolymer coatings for the surface modification of complex geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Malancha, 1980-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a one-step, soventless process that can be used to produce polymeric thin films. The iCVD technique has been used to polymerize a wide variety of vinyl monomers such as glycidyl ...

  2. Molecular orbital studies of titanium nitride chemical vapor deposition: gas phase b-elimination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Molecular orbital studies of titanium nitride chemical vapor deposition: gas phase b) of titanium nitride can be carried out using TiNR24 and NH3 (R Me or Et). Imido compounds are thought. Ó 2001 Pub- lished by Elsevier Science B.V. 1. Introduction It is well known that titanium nitride

  3. Epitaxial graphene prepared by chemical vapor deposition on single crystal thin iridium films on sapphire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Epitaxial graphene prepared by chemical vapor deposition on single crystal thin iridium films Cedex 9, France (Dated: 15 March 2011) Uniform single layer graphene was grown on single-crystal Ir. These graphene layers have a single crystallographic orientation and a very low density of defects, as shown

  4. Self-Limiting Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of Monolayer Graphene from Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    1 Self-Limiting Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of Monolayer Graphene from Ethanol Pei Zhao, and systematically investigate the growth of graphene from ethanol and compare its self-limiting behavior over copper facets with different identities. Results show that the growth of graphene from ethanol in the LPCVD

  5. Direct chemical vapor deposition of graphene on dielectric surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuegang; Ismach, Ariel

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A substrate is provided that has a metallic layer on a substrate surface of a substrate. A film made of a two dimensional (2-D) material, such as graphene, is deposited on a metallic surface of the metallic layer. The metallic layer is dewet and/or removed to provide the film on the substrate surface.

  6. Conjugate heat transfer and particle transport in outside vapor deposition process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, M.; Song, Y.; Kang, S.H. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical study of conjugate heat transfer and particle transport has been carried out for the outside vapor deposition process. A buoyant jet flow impinging on a two-layered cylinder has been analyzed including heat conduction occurring through the two-layered cylinder, which consists of the original target rod and the deposited porous layers. Temperature and flow fields have been obtained by an iterative method, and thermophoretic particle deposition has been studied. Of particular interest are the effects of the thickness of deposited layers, the torch speed, the rotation speed of the cylinder, and the distance between the torch and the cylinder on the heat transfer and particle deposition. Effects of variable properties and tube rotation are also included.

  7. Validating optical emission spectroscopy as a diagnostic of microwave activated CH4/Ar/H2 plasmas used for diamond chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    chemical vapor deposition of polycrystalline diamond. Several tracer species are monitored in order to gain used for diamond chemical vapor deposition Jie Ma,1 Michael N. R. Ashfold,1,a and Yuri A. Mankelevich2 spectroscopic methods used to diagnose microwave MW plasmas used for diamond chemical vapor deposition CVD . Zhu

  8. Chemical vapor deposited diamond-on-diamond powder composites (LDRD final report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panitz, J.K.; Hsu, W.L.; Tallant, D.R.; McMaster, M.; Fox, C.; Staley, D.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Densifying non-mined diamond powder precursors with diamond produced by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is an attractive approach for forming thick diamond deposits that avoids many potential manufacturability problems associated with predominantly chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes. The authors developed techniques for forming diamond powder precursors and densified these precursors in a hot filament-assisted reactor and a microwave plasma-assisted reactor. Densification conditions were varied following a fractional factorial statistical design. A number of conclusions can be drawn as a result of this study. High density diamond powder green bodies that contain a mixture of particle sizes solidify more readily than more porous diamond powder green bodies with narrow distributions of particle sizes. No composite was completely densified although all of the deposits were densified to some degree. The hot filament-assisted reactor deposited more material below the exterior surface, in the interior of the powder deposits; in contrast, the microwave-assisted reactor tended to deposit a CVD diamond skin over the top of the powder precursors which inhibited vapor phase diamond growth in the interior of the powder deposits. There were subtle variations in diamond quality as a function of the CVI process parameters. Diamond and glassy carbon tended to form at the exterior surface of the composites directly exposed to either the hot filament or the microwave plasma. However, in the interior, e.g. the powder/substrate interface, diamond plus diamond-like-carbon formed. All of the diamond composites produced were grey and relatively opaque because they contained flawed diamond, diamond-like-carbon and glassy carbon. A large amount of flawed and non-diamond material could be removed by post-CVI oxygen heat treatments. Heat treatments in oxygen changed the color of the composites to white.

  9. Pore evolution during high pressure atomic vapor deposition D. D. Hass Y. Y. Yang H. N. G. Wadley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    The development of physical vapor deposition systems that employ inert gas jets to entrain and deposit atomic conditions can contain a higher volume fraction of porosity and a different pore morphology to coatings created by conventional, low pressure (\\10-4 Pa) deposition processes. A recent direct simulation Monte

  10. Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, K.C.; Kodas, T.T.

    1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said substrate.

  11. Development of Nb{sub 3}Sn Cavity Vapor Diffusion Deposition System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eremeev, Grigory V.; Macha, Kurt M.; Clemens, William A.; Park, HyeKyoung; Williams, R. Scott

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nb{sub 3}Sn is a BCS superconductors with the superconducting critical temperature higher than that of niobium, so theoretically it surpasses the limitations of niobium in RF fields. The feasibility of technology has been demonstrated at 1.5 GHz with Nb{sub 3}Sn vapor deposition technique at Wuppertal University. The benefit at these frequencies is more pronounced at 4.2 K, where Nb{sub 3}Sn coated cavities show RF resistances an order of magnitude lower than that of niobium. At Jefferson Lab we started the development of Nb{sub 3}Sn vapor diffusion deposition system within an R\\&D development program towards compact light sources. Here we present the current progress of the system development.

  12. Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rainer Wallny

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Diamond was studied as a possible radiation hard technology for use in future high radiation environments. With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2010, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2015, all LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is installed and operational in all LHC experiments. As a result, this material is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the super-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications.

  13. Continuous growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grigorian, Leonid (Raymond, OH); Hornyak, Louis (Evergreen, CO); Dillon, Anne C (Boulder, CO); Heben, Michael J (Denver, CO)

    2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a chemical vapor deposition process for the continuous growth of a carbon single-wall nanotube where a carbon-containing gas composition is contacted with a porous membrane and decomposed in the presence of a catalyst to grow single-wall carbon nanotube material. A pressure differential exists across the porous membrane such that the pressure on one side of the membrane is less than that on the other side of the membrane. The single-wall carbon nanotube growth may occur predominately on the low-pressure side of the membrane or, in a different embodiment of the invention, may occur predominately in between the catalyst and the membrane. The invention also relates to an apparatus used with the carbon vapor deposition process.

  14. Continuous growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grigorian, Leonid; Hornyak, Louis; Dillon, Anne C; Heben, Michael J

    2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a chemical vapor deposition process for the continuous growth of a carbon single-wall nanotube where a carbon-containing gas composition is contacted with a porous membrane and decomposed in the presence of a catalyst to grow single-wall carbon nanotube material. A pressure differential exists across the porous membrane such that the pressure on one side of the membrane is less than that on the other side of the membrane. The single-wall carbon nanotube growth may occur predominately on the low-pressure side of the membrane or, in a different embodiment of the invention, may occur predominately in between the catalyst and the membrane. The invention also relates to an apparatus used with the carbon vapor deposition process.

  15. Low-temperature germanium ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition for back-end photonic integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimerling, Lionel C.

    Polycrystalline germanium (poly-Ge) grown on amorphous Si (a-Si) by ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHVCVD) over oxide barriers at low temperatures (Tles450degC) exhibits a larger grain size and lower defect ...

  16. Red emission from Eu-doped GaN luminescent films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steckl, Andrew J.

    chemical vapor deposition on GaN/Al2O3 substrates. Trimethylgallium TMGa , ammonia (NH3), and europium 2 europium doping was performed utilizing a europium beta-diketonate, eu- ropium 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-3

  17. Flux and energy analysis of species in hollow cathode magnetron ionized physical vapor deposition of copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, L.; Ko, E.; Dulkin, A.; Park, K. J.; Fields, S.; Leeser, K. [Novellus Systems, Inc., 4000 North 1st St., San Jose, California 95134 (United States); Meng, L.; Ruzic, D. N. [Center for Plasma-Material Interactions, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 201 South Goodwin, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To meet the stringent requirements of interconnect metallization for sub-32 nm technologies, an unprecedented level of flux and energy control of film forming species has become necessary to further advance ionized physical vapor deposition technology. Such technology development mandates improvements in methods to quantify the metal ion fraction, the gas/metal ion ratio, and the associated ion energies in the total ion flux to the substrate. In this work, a novel method combining planar Langmuir probes, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and gridded energy analyzer (GEA) custom instrumentation is developed to estimate the plasma density and temperature as well as to measure the metal ion fraction and ion energy. The measurements were conducted in a Novellus Systems, Inc. Hollow Cathode Magnetron (HCM{sup TM}) physical vapor deposition source used for deposition of Cu seed layer for 65-130 nm technology nodes. The gridded energy analyzer was employed to measure ion flux and ion energy, which was compared to the collocated planar Langmuir probe data. The total ion-to-metal neutral ratio was determined by the QCM combined with GEA. The data collection technique and the corresponding analysis are discussed. The effect of concurrent resputtering during the deposition process on film thickness profile is also discussed.

  18. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of graphene on copper substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woehrl, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.woehrl@uni-due.de; Schulz, Stephan [Faculty of Chemistry and CENIDE, University Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)] [Faculty of Chemistry and CENIDE, University Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Ochedowski, Oliver; Gottlieb, Steven [Faculty of Physics and CENIDE, University Duisburg Essen, Lotharstraße 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)] [Faculty of Physics and CENIDE, University Duisburg Essen, Lotharstraße 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Shibasaki, Kosuke [Institute of Materials Science, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)] [Institute of Materials Science, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A plasma enhanced vapor deposition process is used to synthesize graphene from a hydrogen/methane gas mixture on copper samples. The graphene samples were transferred onto SiO{sub 2} substrates and characterized by Raman spectroscopic mapping and atomic force microscope topographical mapping. Analysis of the Raman bands shows that the deposited graphene is clearly SLG and that the sheets are deposited on large areas of several mm{sup 2}. The defect density in the graphene sheets is calculated using Raman measurements and the influence of the process pressure on the defect density is measured. Furthermore the origin of these defects is discussed with respect to the process parameters and hence the plasma environment.

  19. Chemical vapor deposition techniques and related methods for manufacturing microminiature thermionic converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Donald B. (Albuquerque, NM); Sadwick, Laurence P. (Salt Lake City, UT); Wernsman, Bernard R. (Clairton, PA)

    2002-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of manufacturing microminiature thermionic converters (MTCs) having high energy-conversion efficiencies and variable operating temperatures using MEMS manufacturing techniques including chemical vapor deposition. The MTCs made using the methods of the invention incorporate cathode to anode spacing of about 1 micron or less and use cathode and anode materials having work functions ranging from about 1 eV to about 3 eV. The MTCs also exhibit maximum efficiencies of just under 30%, and thousands of the devices can be fabricated at modest costs.

  20. Tunneling characteristics in chemical vapor deposited graphene–hexagonal boron nitride–graphene junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, T.; Hesabi, Z. R.; Joiner, C. A.; Vogel, E. M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Liu, L.; Gu, G. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Tennessee, 1520 Middle Drive, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Barrera, S. de la; Feenstra, R. M. [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Chakrabarti, B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Rd., Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Large area chemical vapor deposited graphene and hexagonal boron nitride was used to fabricate graphene–hexagonal boron nitride–graphene symmetric field effect transistors. Gate control of the tunneling characteristics is observed similar to previously reported results for exfoliated graphene–hexagonal boron nitride–graphene devices. Density-of-states features are observed in the tunneling characteristics of the devices, although without large resonant peaks that would arise from lateral momentum conservation. The lack of distinct resonant behavior is attributed to disorder in the devices, and a possible source of the disorder is discussed.

  1. Thermal conductivity of ultra-thin chemical vapor deposited hexagonal boron nitride films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alam, M. T.; Haque, M. A., E-mail: mah37@psu.edu [Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Bresnehan, M. S.; Robinson, J. A. [Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA and The Center for Two-Dimensional and Layered Materials, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)] [Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA and The Center for Two-Dimensional and Layered Materials, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal conductivity of freestanding 10?nm and 20?nm thick chemical vapor deposited hexagonal boron nitride films was measured using both steady state and transient techniques. The measured value for both thicknesses, about 100?±?10?W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?1}, is lower than the bulk basal plane value (390?W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?1}) due to the imperfections in the specimen microstructure. Impressively, this value is still 100 times higher than conventional dielectrics. Considering scalability and ease of integration, hexagonal boron nitride grown over large area is an excellent candidate for thermal management in two dimensional materials-based nanoelectronics.

  2. Tunable carbon nanotube-tungsten carbide nanoparticles heterostructures by vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, Min; Guo, Hongyan; Ge, Changchun [Institute of Special Ceramics and Powder Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing (China); Institute of Powder Metallurgy and Advanced Ceramics, Southwest Jiaotong University, 111, 1st Section, Northern 2nd Ring Road, Chengdu (China); Yan, Qingzhi, E-mail: qzyan@ustb.edu.cn; Lang, Shaoting [Institute of Special Ceramics and Powder Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing (China)

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple, versatile route for the synthesis of carbon nanotube (CNT)-tungsten carbide nanoparticles heterostructures was set up via vapor deposition process. For the first time, amorphous CNTs (?-CNTs) were used to immobilized tungsten carbide nanoparticles. By adjusting the synthesis and annealing temperature, ?-CNTs/amorphous tungsten carbide, ?-CNTs/W{sub 2}C, and CNTs/W{sub 2}C/WC heterostructures were prepared. This approach provides an efficient method to attach other metal carbides and other nanoparticles to carbon nanotubes with tunable properties.

  3. III-nitride quantum cascade detector grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Yu, E-mail: yusong@princeton.edu; Huang, Tzu-Yung; Badami, Pranav; Gmachl, Claire [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Bhat, Rajaram; Zah, Chung-En [Corning Incorporated, Corning, New York 14831 (United States)

    2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum cascade (QC) detectors in the GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N material system grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition are designed, fabricated, and characterized. Only two material compositions, i.e., GaN as wells and Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N as barriers are used in the active layers. The QC detectors operates around 4??m, with a peak responsivity of up to ?100??A/W and a detectivity of up to 10{sup 8} Jones at the background limited infrared performance temperature around 140?K.

  4. Selective charge doping of chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene by interface modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Shengnan, E-mail: wang.shengnan@lab.ntt.co.jp; Suzuki, Satoru; Furukawa, Kazuaki; Orofeo, Carlo M.; Takamura, Makoto; Hibino, Hiroki [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)] [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The doping and scattering effect of substrate on the electronic properties of chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene are revealed. Wet etching the underlying SiO{sub 2} of graphene and depositing self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of organosilane between graphene and SiO{sub 2} are used to modify various substrates for CVD graphene transistors. Comparing with the bare SiO{sub 2} substrate, the carrier mobility of CVD graphene on modified substrate is enhanced by almost 5-fold; consistently the residual carrier concentration is reduced down to 10{sup 11}?cm{sup ?2}. Moreover, scalable and reliable p- and n-type graphene and graphene p-n junction are achieved on various silane SAMs with different functional groups.

  5. Electrochromic properties of tungsten trioxide thin films prepared by photochemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maruyama, Toshiro; Kanagawa, Tetsuya (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic tungsten trioxide thin films were prepared by a photochemical vapor deposition. The source material was tungsten carbonyl. A 6 W low pressure mercury lamp was used as a light source. Amorphous tungsten trioxide thin films were obtained at a substrate temperature of 200 C. The UV radiation enhances the oxidation of tungsten, in addition to the acceleration of the deposition of the films. Reduction and oxidation of the films in a 0.3M LiClO[sub 4] propylene carbonate solution resulted in desirable changes in optimal absorption. The bleaching time was short compared to the amorphous CVD film. Coulometry indicated that the coloration efficiency was 222 cm[sup 2]/C.

  6. Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kagan, Harris; Kass, Richard; Gan, K.K.

    2014-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    With the LHC upgrades in 2013, and further LHC upgrades scheduled in 2018, most LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require more radiation hard technologies than presently available. At present all LHC experiments now have some form of diamond detector. As a result Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of all LHC experiments. Moreover CVD diamond is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the HL-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications. Our accomplishments include: • Developed a two U.S.companies to produce electronic grade diamond, • Worked with companies and acquired large area diamond pieces, • Performed radiation hardness tests using various proton energies: 70 MeV (Cyric, Japan), 800 MeV (Los Alamos), and 24 GeV (CERN).

  7. Low-temperature chemical vapor deposition of tungsten from tungsten hexacarbonyl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogt, G.J.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of tungsten from W(CO)/sub 6/ has been investigated below 670 K as an alternate process to WF/sub 6/ CVD for coating glass microspheres. The major advantages of W(CO)/sub 6/ CVD are the elimination of the HF damage to the glass microspheres and potentially a lower deposition temperature for coating DT-filled microspheres. W(CO)/sub 6/ CVD can be utilized, in principle, to coat the microspheres with 1 to 5 ..mu..m of tungsten or to flash coat the microspheres for further coating by WF/sub 6/ CVD. Test coatings were deposited in a fluidized-bed reactor with a hydrogen carrier gas. The coatings were found to contain nearly equal portions of carbon and oxygen, ranging from 16 to 25 at.% for each element. The high carbon and oxygen concentrations are believed to result principally from the physical entrapment of chemisorbed CO molecules at the surface of the growing deposit. The general quality and adhesion of the W(CO)/sub 6/-derived coatings are unsatisfactory at this time for ICF applications.

  8. Analysis of gallium arsenide deposition in a horizontal chemical vapor deposition reactor using massively parallel computations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salinger, A.G.; Shadid, J.N.; Hutchinson, S.A. [and others

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical analysis of the deposition of gallium from trimethylgallium (TMG) and arsine in a horizontal CVD reactor with tilted susceptor and a three inch diameter rotating substrate is performed. The three-dimensional model includes complete coupling between fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and species transport, and is solved using an unstructured finite element discretization on a massively parallel computer. The effects of three operating parameters (the disk rotation rate, inlet TMG fraction, and inlet velocity) and two design parameters (the tilt angle of the reactor base and the reactor width) on the growth rate and uniformity are presented. The nonlinear dependence of the growth rate uniformity on the key operating parameters is discussed in detail. Efficient and robust algorithms for massively parallel reacting flow simulations, as incorporated into our analysis code MPSalsa, make detailed analysis of this complicated system feasible.

  9. Study of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films and the application to p-channel thin film transistor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nominanda, Helinda

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The material and process characteristics of boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (PECVD) have been studied. The goal is to apply the high quality films...

  10. Research on fundamental aspects of inorganic vapor and particle deposition in coal-fired systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In September 1990 DOE-PETC initiated at the Yale HTCRE Laboratory a systematic three-year research program directed toward providing engineers with the fundamentally-based design/optimization 'tools' for economically predicting the dynamics of net deposit growth*, and thermophysical properties of the resulting microparticulate deposits in coal-fired systems. In light of the theoretical 'program' based on the notion of self-regulation'' set forth in Rosner and Nagarajan (1987), this Task includes investigation of the effects of particle material properties and possible liquid phases on the capture properties of particulate deposits. For this purpose we exploit dynamical 'many-body' computer simulation techniques. This approach will provide the required parametric dependencies (on such quantities as incident kinetic energy and angle, mechanical and thermophysical properties of the particles,[hor ellipsis]) of a dimensionless ensemble-averaged particle capture fraction, relegating the role of direct laboratory experiment to verifying (or rejecting) some crucial features/consequences of the simulation route followed. Our ultimate goal is recommend 'sticking' and 'erosion' laws of mechanistic origin. The availability of such laws could dramatically increase the reliability of predicted deposition rates of inertially delivered particles, in the simultaneous presence of a condensed liquid phase within the growing particulate, deposit. Equally important, one could also rationally select conditions to avoid. troublesome deposition subject to other operational requirements.

  11. Method and apparatus for fabricating a thin-film solar cell utilizing a hot wire chemical vapor deposition technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Qi; Iwaniczko, Eugene

    2006-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin-film solar cell is provided. The thin-film solar cell comprises an a-SiGe:H (1.6 eV) n-i-p solar cell having a deposition rate of at least ten (10) .ANG./second for the a-SiGe:H intrinsic layer by hot wire chemical vapor deposition. A method for fabricating a thin film solar cell is also provided. The method comprises depositing a n-i-p layer at a deposition rate of at least ten (10) .ANG./second for the a-SiGe:H intrinsic layer.

  12. A study of heat transfer and particle motion relative to the modified chemical vapor deposition process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, M.; Greif, R. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)); Baum, H.R. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States))

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat transfer and particle motion relative to the modified chemical vapor deposition process have been studied for general values of the torch speed. Three-dimensional temperature fields have been obtained over the entire cross section of the tube and the effects of tube rotation and localized torch heating in the axial and circumferential directions have been studied. The particle trajectories have been calculated from a formulation that includes the contributions from forced flow, i.e., Poiseuille flow in the axial direction, rigid body rotation about the tube axis, and thermophoretic contributions in the axial, radial, and angular directions. The particle trajectories are helices and are shown to be strongly dependent on the tube rotation.

  13. Carbon impurities on graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition on platinum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ping, Jinglei; Fuhrer, Michael S., E-mail: michael.fuhrer@monash.edu [Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4111, USA and School of Physics, Monash University, 3800 Victoria (Australia)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We report nanocrystalline carbon impurities coexisting with graphene synthesized via chemical vapor deposition on platinum. For certain growth conditions, we observe micron-size island-like impurity layers which can be mistaken for second graphene layers in optical microscopy or scanning electron microscopy. The island orientation depends on the crystalline orientation of the Pt, as shown by electron backscatter diffraction, indicating growth of carbon at the platinum surface below graphene. Dark-field transmission electron microscopy indicates that in addition to uniform single-crystal graphene, our sample is decorated with nanocrystalline carbon impurities with a spatially inhomogeneous distribution. The impurity concentration can be reduced significantly by lowering the growth temperature. Raman spectra show a large D peak, however, electrical characterization shows high mobility (?8000?cm{sup 2}/Vs), indicating a limitation for Raman spectroscopy in characterizing the electronic quality of graphene.

  14. Growth of FePt encapsulated carbon nanotubes by thermal chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujiwara, Yuji, E-mail: fujiwara@phen.mie-u.ac.jp; Kaneko, Tetsuya; Hori, Kenta; Takase, Sho; Sato, Hideki; Maeda, Kohji; Kobayashi, Tadashi [Graduate School of Engineering, Mie University, Kurima-machiya-cho 1577, Tsu 514-8507 (Japan); Kato, Takeshi; Iwata, Satoshi [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Jimbo, Mutsuko [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Daido University, Takiharu-cho 10-3, Minami-ku, Nagoya 457-8530 (Japan)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    FePt encapsulated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown by thermal chemical vapor deposition using an Fe/Pt bilayer catalyst. The CNTs were grown according to the base growth model. Selected area electron diffraction results revealed that the encapsulated particles were A1-FePt, L1{sub 0}-FePt, and Fe{sub 3}PtC. The crystal structures of particles found at the root parts of CNTs were not able to be identified, however. The layered structure of catalytic films seemed to be responsible for the difference in Pt content between particles found at tip and root parts of CNTs. Approximately 60% of CNTs grown at 800?°C had particles at their tip parts, compared to only 30% when the growth temperature was 700?°C, indicating that higher process temperatures promote particle encapsulation in CNTs.

  15. Bifacial solar cell with SnS absorber by vapor transport deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wangperawong, Artit [Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Hsu, Po-Chun; Yee, Yesheng; Herron, Steven M.; Clemens, Bruce M.; Cui, Yi; Bent, Stacey F., E-mail: sbent@stanford.edu [Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The SnS absorber layer in solar cell devices was produced by vapor transport deposition (VTD), which is a low-cost manufacturing method for solar modules. The performance of solar cells consisting of Si/Mo/SnS/ZnO/indium tin oxide (ITO) was limited by the SnS layer's surface texture and field-dependent carrier collection. For improved performance, a fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate was used in place of the Mo to smooth the topography of the VTD SnS and to make bifacial solar cells, which are potentially useful for multijunction applications. A bifacial SnS solar cell consisting of glass/FTO/SnS/CdS/ZnO/ITO demonstrated front- and back-side power conversion efficiencies of 1.2% and 0.2%, respectively.

  16. Carbon nanowalls grown by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition during the carbonization of polyacrylonitrile fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Jiangling; Su Shi; Kundrat, Vojtech; Abbot, Andrew M.; Ye, Haitao [School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Zhou Lei [Department of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Mushtaq, Fajer [Department of Mechanical Engineering, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8092 (Switzerland); Ouyang Defang [School of Life and Health Science, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); James, David; Roberts, Darren [Thermo Fisher Scientific, Stafford House, Hemel Hempstead HP2 7GE (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We used microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) to carbonize an electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor to form carbon fibers. Scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the fibers at different evolution stages. It was found that MPECVD-carbonized PAN fibers do not exhibit any significant change in the fiber diameter, whilst conventionally carbonized PAN fibers show a 33% reduction in the fiber diameter. An additional coating of carbon nanowalls (CNWs) was formed on the surface of the carbonized PAN fibers during the MPECVD process without the assistance of any metallic catalysts. The result presented here may have a potential to develop a novel, economical, and straightforward approach towards the mass production of carbon fibrous materials containing CNWs.

  17. Vapor deposition of platinum alloyed nickel aluminide coatings Z. Yu , K.P. Dharmasena, D.D. Hass, H.N.G. Wadley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Vapor deposition of platinum alloyed nickel aluminide coatings Z. Yu , K.P. Dharmasena, D.D. Hass at high temperature. It requires the chemical vapor deposition of aluminum on a nickel rich superalloy substrate that has been pre-coated with several microns of electrodeposited platinum. Here, we show

  18. Research on fundamental aspects of inorganic vapor and particle deposition in coal-fired systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In September 1990 DOE-PETC initiated at the Yale HTCRE Laboratory a systematic three-year research program directed toward providing engineers with the fundamentally-based design/optimization tools'' foreconomically predicting the dynamics of net deposit growth, and thermophysical properties of the resulting microparticulate deposits in coal-fired systems. The goal of our research in the area of mineral mattertransport is to advance the capability of making reliable engineering predictions of the dynamics of net deposit growth for surfaces exposed to the particle-laden products of coal combustion. To accomplish thisfor a wide variety of combustor types, coal types, and operating conditions, this capability must be based on a quantitative understanding of each of the important mechanisms of mineral matter transport, as well as the nature of the interactions between these substances and the prevailing fireside'' surface of deposits. This level of understanding and predictive capability could be translated into very significant cost reductions for coal-fired equipment design, development and operation. It is also expected that this research activity will not only directly benefit the ash deposition R D community -- but also generically closely related technologies of importance to DOE (e.g. hot-gas clean-up, particulate solids handling,...).

  19. The aging of tungsten filaments and its effect on wire surface kinetics in hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    desorption kinetics. In particular, the Si signal exhibits a high temperature activation energy consistent vapor deposition growth have been measured by quadrupole mass spectrometry. New wires produce Si with previous measurements; the activation energy for the SiH3 signal suggests its formation is catalyzed. Aged

  20. Gas jet assisted vapor deposition of yttria stabilized zirconia D. D. Hass and H. N. G. Wadleya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Gas jet assisted vapor deposition of yttria stabilized zirconia D. D. Hass and H. N. G. Wadleya February 2009 A gas jet assisted electron beam evaporation process for synthesizing yttria stabilized zirconia YSZ coatings has recently been reported. The process uses a rarefied inert gas jet to entrain

  1. Temperature dependent photoluminescence of lateral polarity junctions of metal organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nabben, Reinhard

    implantation of Cu, Li and Ag into silicon doped GaN films grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition temperature (700-900°C) annealing. Low temperature (6K) photoluminescence (PL) for Cu-implanted GaN showed recovery of standard crystalline GaN features. Additional donor-acceptor pair features are observed below 3

  2. Reactor design for uniform chemical vapor deposition-grown films without substrate rotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wanlass, M.

    1987-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A reactor vessel is described for chemical vapor deposition of a uniform semiconductor film on a substrate, comprising: a generally cylindrical reaction chamber for receiving a substrate and a flow of reaction gas capable of depositing a film on the substrate under the conditions of the chamber, the chamber having upper and lower portion and being oriented about a vertical axis; a supporting means having a substrate support surface generally perpendicular to the vertical axis for carrying the substrate within the lower portion of the reaction chamber in a predetermined relative position with respect to the upper portion of the reaction chamber, the upper portion including a cylindrically shaped confinement chamber. The confinement chamber has a smaller diameter than the lower portion of the reaction chamber and is positioned above the substrate support surface; and a means for introducing a reaction gas into the confinement chamber in a nonaxial direction so as to direct the reaction gas into the lower portion of the reaction chamber with a non-axial flow having a rotational component with respect to the vertical axis. In this way the reaction gas defines an inward vortex flow pattern with respect to the substrate surface.

  3. Synthesis of multiferroic Er-Fe-O thin films by atomic layer and chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mantovan, R., E-mail: roberto.mantovan@mdm.imm.cnr.it; Vangelista, S.; Wiemer, C.; Lamperti, A.; Tallarida, G. [Laboratorio MDM IMM-CNR, I-20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Chikoidze, E.; Dumont, Y. [GEMaC, Université de Versailles St. Quentin en Yvelines-CNRS, Versailles (France); Fanciulli, M. [Laboratorio MDM IMM-CNR, I-20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    R-Fe-O (R?=?rare earth) compounds have recently attracted high interest as potential new multiferroic materials. Here, we report a method based on the solid-state reaction between Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe layers, respectively grown by atomic layer deposition and chemical vapor deposition, to synthesize Er-Fe-O thin films. The reaction is induced by thermal annealing and evolution of the formed phases is followed by in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Dominant ErFeO{sub 3} and ErFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} phases develop following subsequent thermal annealing processes at 850?°C in air and N{sub 2}. Structural, chemical, and morphological characterization of the layers are conducted through X-ray diffraction and reflectivity, time-of-flight secondary ion-mass spectrometry, and atomic force microscopy. Magnetic properties are evaluated by magnetic force microscopy, conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer, being consistent with the presence of the phases identified by X-ray diffraction. Our results constitute a first step toward the use of cost-effective chemical methods for the synthesis of this class of multiferroic thin films.

  4. Characterization of diamond-like nanocomposite thin films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santra, T. S.; Liu, C. H. [Institute of Nanoengineering and Microsystems (NEMS), National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30043 (China); Bhattacharyya, T. K. [Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India); Patel, P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Barik, T. K. [School of Applied Sciences, Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia 721657, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal (India)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) thin films, comprising the networks of a-C:H and a-Si:O were deposited on pyrex glass or silicon substrate using gas precursors (e.g., hexamethyldisilane, hexamethyldisiloxane, hexamethyldisilazane, or their different combinations) mixed with argon gas, by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Surface morphology of DLN films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic result shows that the films contain nanoparticles within the amorphous structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the structural change within the DLN films. The hardness and friction coefficient of the films were measured by nanoindentation and scratch test techniques, respectively. FTIR and XPS studies show the presence of C-C, C-H, Si-C, and Si-H bonds in the a-C:H and a-Si:O networks. Using Raman spectroscopy, we also found that the hardness of the DLN films varies with the intensity ratio I{sub D}/I{sub G}. Finally, we observed that the DLN films has a better performance compared to DLC, when it comes to properties like high hardness, high modulus of elasticity, low surface roughness and low friction coefficient. These characteristics are the critical components in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and emerging nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).

  5. Preparation of amorphous electrochromic tungsten oxide and molybdenum oxide by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary experiments have been performed to probe the feasibility of using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE--CVD) to prepare electrochromic thin films of tungsten oxide and molybdenum oxide by plasma reaction of WF/sub 6/, W(CO)/sub 6/, and Mo(CO)/sub 6/ with oxygen. Thin films produced in a 300 W, electrodeless, radio-frequency (rf), capacitive discharge were found to be electrochromic when tested with either liquid or solid electrolytes. Optical spectroscopy was performed on two electrochromic coatings after Li/sup +/ ion insertion from a propylene carbonate liquid electrolyte. Broad absorption peaks at --900 nm for WO/sub 3/ and 600 nm for MoO/sub 3/ were observed. Optical results for PE--CVD MoO/sub 3/ films differ from those reported for evaporated MoO/sub 3/ films which have an absorption peak at --800 nm. The shorter wavelength absorption in the PE--CVD MoO/sub 3/ films offers the potential for fabricating electrochromic devices with higher contrast ratios and less color change. Optical emission spectroscopy, Auger, and x-ray diffraction analyses indicate these thin film deposits to be predominantly amorphous tungsten and molybdenum oxides.

  6. Optical coatings of variable refractive index and high laser-resistance from physical-vapor-deposited perfluorinated amorphous polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chow, R.; Loomis, G.E.; Thomas, I.M.

    1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Variable index optical single-layers, optical multilayer, and laser-resistant coatings were made from a perfluorinated amorphous polymer material by physical vapor deposition. This was accomplished by physically vapor depositing a polymer material, such as bulk Teflon AF2400, for example, to form thin layers that have a very low refractive index (ca. 1.10--1.31) and are highly transparent from the ultra-violet through the near infrared regime, and maintain the low refractive index of the bulk material. The refractive index can be varied by simply varying one process parameter, either the deposition rate or the substrate temperature. The thus forming coatings may be utilized in anti-reflectors and graded anti-reflection coatings, as well as in optical layers for laser-resistant coatings at optical wavelengths of less than about 2000 nm. 2 figs.

  7. Optical coatings of variable refractive index and high laser-resistance from physical-vapor-deposited perfluorinated amorphous polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chow, Robert (Livermore, CA); Loomis, Gary E. (Livermore, CA); Thomas, Ian M. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Variable index optical single-layers, optical multilayer, and laser-resistant coatings were made from a perfluorinated amorphous polymer material by physical vapor deposition. This was accomplished by physically vapor depositing a polymer material, such as bulk Teflon AF2400, for example, to form thin layers that have a very low refractive index (.about.1.10-1.31) and are highly transparent from the ultra-violet through the near infrared regime, and maintain the low refractive index of the bulk material. The refractive index can be varied by simply varying one process parameter, either the deposition rate or the substrate temperature. The thus forming coatings may be utilized in anti-reflectors and graded anti-reflection coatings, as well as in optical layers for laser-resistant coatings at optical wavelengths of less than about 2000 nm.

  8. Massively parallel computation of 3D flow and reactions in chemical vapor deposition reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salinger, A.G.; Shadid, J.N.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Hennigan, G.L.; Devine, K.D.; Moffat, H.K.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computer modeling of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) reactors can greatly aid in the understanding, design, and optimization of these complex systems. Modeling is particularly attractive in these systems since the costs of experimentally evaluating many design alternatives can be prohibitively expensive, time consuming, and even dangerous, when working with toxic chemicals like Arsine (AsH{sub 3}): until now, predictive modeling has not been possible for most systems since the behavior is three-dimensional and governed by complex reaction mechanisms. In addition, CVD reactors often exhibit large thermal gradients, large changes in physical properties over regions of the domain, and significant thermal diffusion for gas mixtures with widely varying molecular weights. As a result, significant simplifications in the models have been made which erode the accuracy of the models` predictions. In this paper, the authors will demonstrate how the vast computational resources of massively parallel computers can be exploited to make possible the analysis of models that include coupled fluid flow and detailed chemistry in three-dimensional domains. For the most part, models have either simplified the reaction mechanisms and concentrated on the fluid flow, or have simplified the fluid flow and concentrated on rigorous reactions. An important CVD research thrust has been in detailed modeling of fluid flow and heat transfer in the reactor vessel, treating transport and reaction of chemical species either very simply or as a totally decoupled problem. Using the analogy between heat transfer and mass transfer, and the fact that deposition is often diffusion limited, much can be learned from these calculations; however, the effects of thermal diffusion, the change in physical properties with composition, and the incorporation of surface reaction mechanisms are not included in this model, nor can transitions to three-dimensional flows be detected.

  9. Cooperative Island Growth of Large Area Single-Crystal Graphene by Chemical Vapor Deposition on Cu

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regmi, Murari [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rouleau, Christopher [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Chen, Jihua [ORNL; Eastman, Jeffrey [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Eres, Gyula [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a two-step approach for suppressing nucleation of graphene on Cu using chemical vapor deposition. In the first step, as received Cu foils are oxidized in air at temperatures up to 500 C to remove surface impurities and to induce the regrowth of Cu grains during subsequent annealing in H2 flow at 1040 C prior to graphene growth. In the second step, transient reactant cooling is performed by using a brief Ar pulse at the onset of growth to induce collisional deactivation of the carbon growth species. The combination of these two steps results in a three orders of magnitude reduction in the graphene nucleation density, enabling the growth of millimeter-size single crystal graphene grains. A kinetic model shows that suppressing nucleation promotes a cooperative island growth mode that favors the formation of large area single crystal graphene, and it is accompanied by a roughly 3 orders of magnitude increase in the reactive sticking probability of methane compared to that in random nucleation growth.

  10. Nitrogen doping of chemical vapor deposition grown graphene on 4H-SiC (0001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, J. M.; Binder, J.; Wysmo?ek, A. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Ho?a 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); D?browski, P.; Strupi?ski, W. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wólczy?ska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Kopciuszy?ski, M.; Ja?ochowski, M. [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sk?odowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sk?odowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Klusek, Z. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of ?ód?, ul. Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 ?ód? (Poland); Baranowski, J. M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Ho?a 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wólczy?ska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present optical, electrical, and structural properties of nitrogen-doped graphene grown on the Si face of 4H-SiC (0001) by chemical vapor deposition method using propane as the carbon precursor and N{sub 2} as the nitrogen source. The incorporation of nitrogen in the carbon lattice was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy shows carrier behavior characteristic for massless Dirac fermions and confirms the presence of a graphene monolayer in the investigated nitrogen-doped samples. The structural and electronic properties of the material were investigated by Raman spectroscopy. A systematical analysis of the graphene Raman spectra, including D, G, and 2D bands, was performed. In the case of nitrogen-doped samples, an electron concentration on the order of 5–10 × 10{sup 12}?cm{sup ?2} was estimated based upon Raman and Hall effect measurements and no clear dependence of the carrier concentration on nitrogen concentration used during growth was observed. This high electron concentration can be interpreted as both due to the presence of nitrogen in graphitic-like positions of the graphene lattice as well as to the interaction with the substrate. A greater intensity of the Raman D band and increased inhomogeneity, as well as decreased electron mobility, observed for nitrogen-doped samples, indicate the formation of defects and a modification of the growth process induced by nitrogen doping.

  11. Effect of e-beam irradiation on graphene layer grown by chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iqbal, M. Z.; Kumar Singh, Arun; Iqbal, M. W.; Seo, Sunae; Eom, Jonghwa [Department of Physics and Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have grown graphene by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and transferred it onto Si/SiO{sub 2} substrates to make tens of micron scale devices for Raman spectroscopy study. The effect of electron beam (e-beam) irradiation of various doses (600 to 12 000 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}) on CVD grown graphene has been examined by using Raman spectroscopy. It is found that the radiation exposures result in the appearance of the strong disorder D band attributed the damage to the lattice. The evolution of peak frequencies, intensities, and widths of the main Raman bands of CVD graphene is analyzed as a function of defect created by e-beam irradiation. Especially, the D and G peak evolution with increasing radiation dose follows the amorphization trajectory, which suggests transformation of graphene to the nanocrystalline and then to amorphous form. We have also estimated the strain induced by e-beam irradiation in CVD graphene. These results obtained for CVD graphene are in line with previous findings reported for the mechanically exfoliated graphene [D. Teweldebrhan and A. A. Balandin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 013101 (2009)]. The results have important implications for CVD graphene characterization and device fabrication, which rely on the electron microscopy.

  12. On-line coating of glass with tin oxide by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Sopko, J.F. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); Houf, William G.; Chae, Yong Kee; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Li, M. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); McCamy, J.W. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA)

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of tin oxide is a very important manufacturing technique used in the production of low-emissivity glass. It is also the primary method used to provide wear-resistant coatings on glass containers. The complexity of these systems, which involve chemical reactions in both the gas phase and on the deposition surface, as well as complex fluid dynamics, makes process optimization and design of new coating reactors a very difficult task. In 2001 the U.S. Dept. of Energy Industrial Technologies Program Glass Industry of the Future Team funded a project to address the need for more accurate data concerning the tin oxide APCVD process. This report presents a case study of on-line APCVD using organometallic precursors, which are the primary reactants used in industrial coating processes. Research staff at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA, and the PPG Industries Glass Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA collaborated to produce this work. In this report, we describe a detailed investigation of the factors controlling the growth of tin oxide films. The report begins with a discussion of the basic elements of the deposition chemistry, including gas-phase thermochemistry of tin species and mechanisms of chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of tin precursors. These results provide the basis for experimental investigations in which tin oxide growth rates were measured as a function of all major process variables. The experiments focused on growth from monobutyltintrichloride (MBTC) since this is one of the two primary precursors used industrially. There are almost no reliable growth-rate data available for this precursor. Robust models describing the growth rate as a function of these variables are derived from modeling of these data. Finally, the results are used to conduct computational fluid dynamic simulations of both pilot- and full-scale coating reactors. As a result, general conclusions are reached concerning the factors affecting the growth rate in on-line APCVD reactors. In addition, a substantial body of data was generated that can be used to model many different industrial tin oxide coating processes. These data include the most extensive compilation of thermochemistry for gas-phase tin-containing species as well as kinetic expressions describing tin oxide growth rates over a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and reactant concentrations.

  13. Design of a compact ultrahigh vacuum-compatible setup for the analysis of chemical vapor deposition processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Theodor; Nowak, Martin; Zielasek, Volkmar, E-mail: zielasek@uni-bremen.de; Bäumer, Marcus [Institut für Angewandte und Physikalische Chemie, Universität Bremen, Leobener Straße UFT, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Mundloch, Udo; Kohse-Höinghaus, Katharina [Physikalische Chemie I, Fakultät für Chemie, Universität Bielefeld, Universitätsstraße 25, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimizing thin film deposition techniques requires contamination-free transfer from the reactor into an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber for surface science analysis. A very compact, multifunctional Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) reactor for direct attachment to any typical UHV system for thin film analysis was designed and built. Besides compactness, fast, easy, and at the same time ultimately clean sample transfer between reactor and UHV was a major goal. It was achieved by a combination of sample manipulation parts, sample heater, and a shutter mechanism designed to fit all into a NW38 Conflat six-ways cross. The present reactor design is versatile to be employed for all commonly employed variants of CVD, including Atomic Layer Deposition. A demonstration of the functionality of the system is provided. First results of the setup (attached to an Omicron Multiprobe x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy system) on the temperature dependence of Pulsed Spray Evaporation-CVD of Ni films from Ni acetylacetonate as the precursor demonstrate the reactor performance and illustrate the importance of clean sample transfer without breaking vacuum in order to obtain unambiguous results on the quality of CVD-grown thin Ni films. The widely applicable design holds promise for future systematic studies of the fundamental processes during chemical vapor deposition or atomic layer deposition.

  14. The watershed depositon tool : a tool for incorporating atmospheric deposition in water-quality analyses {sup 1}.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwede, D. B.; Dennis, R. L.; Bitz, M. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; NOAA; EPA

    2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tool for providing the linkage between air and water-quality modeling needed for determining the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) and for analyzing related nonpoint-source impacts on watersheds has been developed. Using gridded output of atmospheric deposition from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, the Watershed Deposition Tool (WDT) calculates average per unit area and total deposition to selected watersheds and subwatersheds. CMAQ estimates the wet and dry deposition for all of its gaseous and particulate chemical species, including ozone, sulfur species, nitrogen species, secondary organic aerosols, and hazardous air pollutants at grid scale sizes ranging from 4 to 36 km. An overview of the CMAQ model is provided. The somewhat specialized format of the CMAQ files is not easily imported into standard spatial analysis tools. The WDT provides a graphical user interface that allows users to visualize CMAQ gridded data and perform further analyses on selected watersheds or simply convert CMAQ gridded data to a shapefile for use in other programs. Shapefiles for the 8-digit (cataloging unit) hydrologic unit code polygons for the United States are provided with the WDT; however, other user-supplied closed polygons may be used. An example application of the WDT for assessing the contributions of different source categories to deposition estimates, the contributions of wet and dry deposition to total deposition, and the potential reductions in total nitrogen deposition to the Albemarle-Pamlico basin stemming from future air emissions reductions is used to illustrate the WDT capabilities.

  15. Characteristics of ultra low-k nanoporous and fluorinated silica based films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbasi-Firouzjah, M. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Evin, Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Evin, Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokri, B. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Evin, Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Evin, Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Low dielectric constant (low-k) silica based films were deposited on p-type silicon and polycarbonate substrates by radio frequency (RF) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method at low temperature. A mixture of tetraethoxysilane vapor, oxygen, and tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) was used for the deposition of the films in forms of two structures called as SiO{sub x}C{sub y} and SiO{sub x}C{sub y}F{sub z}. Properties of the films were controlled by amount of porosity and fluorine content in the film matrix. The influence of RF power and CF{sub 4} flow on the elemental composition, deposition rate, surface roughness, leakage current, refractive index, and dielectric constant of the films were characterized. Moreover, optical emission spectroscopy was applied to monitor the plasma process at the different parameters. Electrical characteristics of SiO{sub x}C{sub y} and SiO{sub x}C{sub y}F{sub z} films with metal-oxide-semiconductor structure were investigated using current-voltage analysis to measure the leakage current and breakdown field, as well as capacitance-voltage analysis to obtain the film's dielectric constant. The results revealed that SiO{sub x}C{sub y} films, which are deposited at lower RF power produce more leakage current, meanwhile the dielectric constant and refractive index of these films decreased mainly due to the more porosity in the film structure. By adding CF{sub 4} in the deposition process, fluorine, the most electronegative and the least polarized atom, doped into the silica film and led to decrease in the refractive index and the dielectric constant. In addition, no breakdown field was observed in the electrical characteristics of SiO{sub x}C{sub y}F{sub z} films and the leakage current of these films reduced by increment of the CF{sub 4} flow.

  16. Continuous ultra-thin MoS{sub 2} films grown by low-temperature physical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muratore, C. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio 45469 (United States); Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Hu, J. J.; Bultman, J. E.; Jespersen, M. L. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio 45469 (United States); Wang, B.; Haque, M. A. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, College Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Shamberger, P. J.; McConney, M. E.; Naguy, R. D.; Voevodin, A. A. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States)

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Uniform growth of pristine two dimensional (2D) materials over large areas at lower temperatures without sacrifice of their unique physical properties is a critical pre-requisite for seamless integration of next-generation van der Waals heterostructures into functional devices. This Letter describes a vapor phase growth technique for precisely controlled synthesis of continuous, uniform molecular layers of MoS{sub 2} on silicon dioxide and highly oriented pyrolitic graphite substrates of over several square centimeters at 350?°C. Synthesis of few-layer MoS{sub 2} in this ultra-high vacuum physical vapor deposition process yields materials with key optical and electronic properties identical to exfoliated layers. The films are composed of nano-scale domains with strong chemical binding between domain boundaries, allowing lift-off from the substrate and electronic transport measurements from contacts with separation on the order of centimeters.

  17. Wear Mechanism of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Carbide Insert in Orthogonal Cutting Ti-6Al-4V ELI at High Cutting Speed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gusri, A. I.; Che Hassan, C. H.; Jaharah, A. G. [Mechanical and Material Engineering Department, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600 (Malaysia)

    2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) carbide insert with ISO designation of CCMT 12 04 04 LF, when turning titanium alloys was investigated. There were four layers of coating materials for this insert i.e.TiN-Al2O3-TiCN-TiN. The insert performance was evaluated based on the insert's edge resistant towards the machining parameters used at high cutting speed range of machining Ti-6Al-4V ELI. Detailed study on the wear mechanism at the cutting edge of CVD carbide tools was carried out at cutting speed of 55-95 m/min, feed rate of 0.15-0.35 mm/rev and depth of cut of 0.10-0.20 mm. Wear mechanisms such as abrasive and adhesive were observed on the flank face. Crater wear due to diffusion was also observed on the rake race. The abrasive wear occurred more at nose radius and the fracture on tool were found at the feed rate of 0.35 mm/rev and the depth of cut of 0.20 mm. The adhesion wear takes place after the removal of the coating or coating delaminating. Therefore, adhesion or welding of titanium alloy onto the flank and rake faces demonstrates a strong bond at the workpiece-tool interface.

  18. Hot-filament chemical vapor deposition chamber and process with multiple gas inlets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming; Povolny, Henry S.

    2004-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film deposition method uses a vacuum confinement cup that employs a dense hot filament and multiple gas inlets. At least one reactant gas is introduced into the confinement cup both near and spaced apart from the heated filament. An electrode inside the confinement cup is used to generate plasma for film deposition. The method is used to deposit advanced thin films (such as silicon based thin films) at a high quality and at a high deposition rate.

  19. Improving chemical vapor deposition graphene conductivity using molybdenum trioxide: An in-situ field effect transistor study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Cheng [Department of Physics and Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, 999 Xue Fu Da Dao, Nanchang (China) [Department of Physics and Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, 999 Xue Fu Da Dao, Nanchang (China); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Lin, Jiadan; Xiang, Du [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)] [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Wang, Chaocheng; Wang, Li [Department of Physics and Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, 999 Xue Fu Da Dao, Nanchang (China)] [Department of Physics and Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, 999 Xue Fu Da Dao, Nanchang (China); Chen, Wei [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore) [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543 and Graphene Research Centre, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

    2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    By using in situ field effect transistor characterization integrated with molecular beam epitaxy technique, we demonstrate the strong surface transfer p-type doping effect of single layer chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, through the surface functionalization of molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) layer. After doping, both the hole and electron mobility of CVD graphene are nearly retained, resulting in significant enhancement of graphene conductivity. With coating of 10 nm MoO{sub 3}, the conductivity of CVD graphene can be increased by about 7 times, showing promising application for graphene based electronics and transparent, conducting, and flexible electrodes.

  20. Photoresponse properties of large-area MoS{sub 2} atomic layer synthesized by vapor phase deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Siwei; Qi, Xiang, E-mail: xqi@xtu.edu.cn, E-mail: jxzhong@xtu.edu.cn; Ren, Long; Hao, Guolin; Fan, Yinping; Liu, Yundan; Han, Weijia; Zang, Chen; Li, Jun; Zhong, Jianxin, E-mail: xqi@xtu.edu.cn, E-mail: jxzhong@xtu.edu.cn [Hunan Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, People's Republic of China Laboratory for Quantum Engineering and Micro-Nano Energy Technology, and Faculty of Materials and Optoelectronic Physics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Photoresponse properties of a large area MoS{sub 2} atomic layer synthesized by vapor phase deposition method without any catalyst are studied. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectrum, and photoluminescence spectrum characterizations confirm that the two-dimensional microstructures of MoS{sub 2} atomic layer are of high quality. Photoelectrical results indicate that the as-prepared MoS{sub 2} devices have an excellent sensitivity and a good reproducibility as a photodetector, which is proposed to be ascribed to the potential-assisted charge separation mechanism.

  1. Development of nanodiamond foils for H- stripping to Support the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) using hot filament chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vispute, R D [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Ermer, Henry K [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Sinsky, Phillip [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Seiser, Andrew [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Shaw, Robert W [ORNL; Wilson, Leslie L [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin diamond foils are needed in many particle accelerator experiments regarding nuclear and atomic physics, as well as in some interdisciplinary research. Particularly, nanodiamond texture is attractive for this purpose as it possesses a unique combination of diamond properties such as high thermal conductivity, mechanical strength and high radiation hardness; therefore, it is a potential material for energetic ion beam stripper foils. At the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), the installed set of foils must be able to survive a nominal five-month operation period, without the need for unscheduled costly shutdowns and repairs. Thus, a small foil about the size of a postage stamp is critical to the operation of SNS and similar sources in U.S. laboratories and around the world. We are investigating nanocrystalline, polycrystalline and their admixture films fabricated using a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system for H- stripping to support the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Here we discuss optimization of process variables such as substrate temperature, process gas ratio of H2/Ar/CH4, substrate to filament distance, filament temperature, carburization conditions, and filament geometry to achieve high purity diamond foils on patterned silicon substrates with manageable intrinsic and thermal stresses so that they can be released as free standing foils without curling. An in situ laser reflectance interferometry tool (LRI) is used for monitoring the growth characteristics of the diamond thin film materials. The optimization process has yielded free standing foils with no pinholes. The sp3/sp2 bonds are controlled to optimize electrical resistivity to reduce the possibility of surface charging of the foils. The integrated LRI and HFCVD process provides real time information on the growth of films and can quickly illustrate growth features and control film thickness. The results are discussed in the light of development of nanodiamond foils that will be able to withstand a few MW proton beam and hopefully will be able to be used after possible future upgrades to the SNS to greater than a 3MW beam.

  2. Ultra-narrow ferromagnetic resonance in organic-based thin films grown via low temperature chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, H.; Harberts, M.; Adur, R.; Hammel, P. Chris; Johnston-Halperin, E., E-mail: ejh@physics.osu.edu, E-mail: epstein@physics.osu.edu [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1117 (United States); Lu, Y. [Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1173 (United States); Epstein, A. J., E-mail: ejh@physics.osu.edu, E-mail: epstein@physics.osu.edu [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1117 (United States); Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1173 (United States)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the growth of thin films of the organic-based ferrimagnetic semiconductor V[TCNE]{sub x} (x???2, TCNE: tetracyanoethylene) via chemical vapor deposition. Under optimized growth conditions, we observe a significant increase in magnetic homogeneity, as evidenced by a Curie temperature above 600?K and sharp magnetization switching. Further, ferromagnetic resonance studies reveal a single resonance with full width at half maximum linewidth of 1.4?G, comparable to the narrowest lines measured in inorganic magnetic materials and in contrast to previous studies that showed multiple resonance features. These characteristics are promising for the development of high frequency electronic devices that take advantage of the unique properties of this organic-based material, such as the potential for low cost synthesis combined with low temperature and conformal deposition on a wide variety of substrates.

  3. Graphene chemical vapor deposition at very low pressure: The impact of substrate surface self-diffusion in domain shape

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunha, T. H. R.; Ek-Weis, J.; Lacerda, R. G.; Ferlauto, A. S., E-mail: ferlauto@fisica.ufmg.br [Department of Physics, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte 31270-901 (Brazil)

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The initial stages of graphene chemical vapor deposition at very low pressures (<10{sup ?5?}Torr) were investigated. The growth of large graphene domains (?up to 100??m) at very high rates (up to 3??m{sup 2} s{sup ?1}) has been achieved in a cold-wall reactor using a liquid carbon precursor. For high temperature growth (>900?°C), graphene grain shape and symmetry were found to depend on the underlying symmetry of the Cu crystal, whereas for lower temperatures (<900?°C), mostly rounded grains are observed. The temperature dependence of graphene nucleation density was determined, displaying two thermally activated regimes, with activation energy values of 6?±?1?eV for temperatures ranging from 900?°C to 960?°C and 9?±?1?eV for temperatures above 960?°C. The comparison of such dependence with the temperature dependence of Cu surface self-diffusion suggests that graphene growth at high temperatures and low pressures is strongly influenced by copper surface rearrangement. We propose a model that incorporates Cu surface self-diffusion as an essential process to explain the orientation correlation between graphene and Cu crystals, and which can clarify the difference generally observed between graphene domain shapes in atmospheric-pressure and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition.

  4. MOMENTUM AND THERMAL BOUNDARY-LAYER THICKNESS IN A STAGNATION FLOW CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION REACTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandy, David

    REACTOR DAVID S. DANDY AND JUNGHEUM YUN Department of Chemical Engineering Colorado State University Fort deposition pedestal reactors. Expressions for the velocity and temperature profiles within the boundary

  5. Organic polymer thin films deposited on silicon and copper by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boo, Jin-Hyo

    Chun-Dong, Jangan- Gu, Suwon 440-746, South Korea J. H. Boo Center for Advanced Plasma Surface Technology be grown under various deposition conditions. © 2005 American Vacuum Society. DOI: 10.1116/1.1946714 I as a dielectric and optical coating to inhibit corrosion.1,2 More- over, with increasing integration density

  6. Research on fundamental aspects of inorganic vapor and particle deposition in coal-fired systems. Seventh quarterly technical report, March 6, 1992--June 5, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Parallel research studies are underway on the following interrelated and fundamental subjects; Geometrical Approach to Determining the Sticking Probability of Particles Impacting on Convex Solid Surfaces; Correlations for High Schmidt Number Particle Deposition From Dilute Flowing Rational Engineering Suspensions; Average Capture Probability of Arriving Particles Which Are Distributed With ResPect to ImPact VelocitY and Incidence Angle (Relative to Deposit Substrate); Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Vapor Infiltration of Non-isothermal Granular Deposits; Effective Area/Volume of Populations of `MicroPorous` Aerosol Particles (Compact and `Fractal` Quasispherical Aggregates); Effects of Radiative Heat Transfer on the Coagulation Rates of Combustion-Generated Particles; Structure-Sensitivity of Total Mass Deposition Rates from Combustion Product Streams containing Coagulation-Aged Populations of Aggregated Primary Particles; and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} Chemical Vapor Deposition From Chlorine-containing Coal-Derived Gases.

  7. Semi-insulating crystalline silicon formed by oxygen doping during low-temperature chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semi-insulating crystalline silicon formed by oxygen doping during low-temperature chemical vapor) In this letter we demonstrate the use of oxygen as a dopant in silicon to create semi-insulating, crystalline of the films exhibit classical characteristics of space-charge-limited current associated with insulators

  8. Simulation of chemical vapor infiltration and deposition based on 3D images: a local scale approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    infiltration of ceramic matrix composites is presented. This computational model requires a 3D representation/reaction problems; Random walks; 3D image-based modeling 1. Introduction Ceramic Matrix Composites and Carbon with a matrix. One of the most efficient ones is Chemical Vapor Infiltration (CVI), by which gaseous precursors

  9. Thermodynamic analysis and growth of ZrO2 by chloride chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Timothy J.

    reaction [9­12], and simple chamber designs (e.g., vertical, cold-wall, axisymmetric chamber) to deposit flow injector can be used. A stagnation plane flow injector (for vertical, cold-wall CVD chambers homogeneous nucleation and/ or reactor wall deposition. For example, Holstein [17] de- monstrated that at high

  10. Maskless deposition technique for the physical vapor deposition of thin film and multilayer coatings with subnanometer precision and accuracy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vernon, Stephen P. (Pleasanton, CA); Ceglio, Natale M. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a method for the production of axially symmetric, graded and ungraded thickness thin film and multilayer coatings that avoids the use of apertures or masks to tailor the deposition profile. A motional averaging scheme permits the deposition of uniform thickness coatings independent of the substrate radius. Coating uniformity results from an exact cancellation of substrate radius dependent terms, which occurs when the substrate moves at constant velocity. If the substrate is allowed to accelerate over the source, arbitrary coating profiles can be generated through appropriate selection and control of the substrate center of mass equation of motion. The radial symmetry of the coating profile is an artifact produced by orbiting the substrate about its center of mass; other distributions are obtained by selecting another rotation axis. Consequently there is a direct mapping between the coating thickness and substrate equation of motion which can be used to tailor the coating profile without the use of masks and apertures.

  11. Vapor-Phase Metalation by Atomic Layer Deposition in a Metal-Organic Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    encompass deposition onto micro- and nanopowders14 and coating of nanoparticle films15 as well as aerogel coating of porous materials that exhibit ultrahigh-aspect ratios.12,13 To date, some striking examples

  12. On the possibility to grow zinc oxide-based transparent conducting oxide films by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abrutis, Adulfas, E-mail: adulfas.abrutis@chf.vu.lt; Silimavicus, Laimis; Kubilius, Virgaudas; Murauskas, Tomas; Saltyte, Zita; Kuprenaite, Sabina; Plausinaitiene, Valentina [Faculty of Chemistry, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, LT-03225 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HW-CVD) was applied to grow zinc oxide (ZnO)-based transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films. Indium (In)-doped ZnO films were deposited using a cold wall pulsed liquid injection CVD system with three nichrome wires installed at a distance of 2?cm from the substrate holder. The wires were heated by an AC current in the range of 0–10 A. Zn and In 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionates dissolved in 1,2-dimethoxyethane were used as precursors. The hot wires had a marked effect on the growth rates of ZnO, In-doped ZnO, and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films; at a current of 6–10 A, growth rates were increased by a factor of ?10–20 compared with those of traditional CVD at the same substrate temperature (400?°C). In-doped ZnO films with thickness of ?150?nm deposited on sapphire-R grown at a wire current of 9?A exhibited a resistivity of ?2?×?10{sup ?3} ?cm and transparency of >90% in the visible spectral range. These initial results reveal the potential of HW-CVD for the growth of TCOs.

  13. Microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of nanocrystalline diamond films by bias-enhanced nucleation and bias-enhanced growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, Yueh-Chieh [Institute of Microelectronics, National Cheng Kung University No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Tzeng, Yonhua, E-mail: tzengyo@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Microelectronics, National Cheng Kung University No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University No.1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Auciello, Orlando [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Bioengineering, University of Texas in Dallas, 800 W. Campbell Rd, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Effects of biasing voltage-current relationship on microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films on (100) silicon in hydrogen diluted methane by bias-enhanced nucleation and bias-enhanced growth processes are reported. Three biasing methods are applied to study their effects on nucleation, growth, and microstructures of deposited UNCD films. Method A employs 320?mA constant biasing current and a negative biasing voltage decreasing from ?490?V to ?375?V for silicon substrates pre-heated to 800?°C. Method B employs 400?mA constant biasing current and a decreasing negative biasing voltage from ?375?V to ?390?V for silicon pre-heated to 900?°C. Method C employs ?350?V constant biasing voltage and an increasing biasing current up to 400?mA for silicon pre-heated to 800?°C. UNCD nanopillars, merged clusters, and dense films with smooth surface morphology are deposited by the biasing methods A, B, and C, respectively. Effects of ion energy and flux controlled by the biasing voltage and current, respectively, on nucleation, growth, microstructures, surface morphologies, and UNCD contents are confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission-electron-microscopy, and UV Raman scattering.

  14. ZnO light-emitting diode grown by plasma-assisted metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, W.Z.; Ye, Z.Z.; Zeng, Y.J.; Zhu, L.P.; Zhao, B.H.; Jiang, L.; Lu, J.G.; He, H.P.; Zhang, S.B. [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2006-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a breakthrough in fabricating ZnO homojunction light-emitting diode by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Using NO plasma, we are able to grow p-type ZnO thin films on n-type bulk ZnO substrates. The as-grown films on glass substrates show hole concentration of 10{sup 16}-10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} and mobility of 1-10 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Room-temperature photoluminescence spectra reveal nitrogen-related emissions. A typical ZnO homojunction shows rectifying behavior with a turn-on voltage of about 2.3 V. Electroluminescence at room temperature has been demonstrated with band-to-band emission at I=40 mA and defect-related emissions in the blue-yellow spectrum range.

  15. Controlling single and few-layer graphene crystals growth in a solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papon, Remi; Sharma, Subash; Shinde, Sachin M.; Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Center for Fostering Young and Innovative Researchers, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8555 (Japan)

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Here, we reveal the growth process of single and few-layer graphene crystals in the solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Nucleation and growth of graphene crystals on a polycrystalline Cu foil are significantly affected by the injection of carbon atoms with pyrolysis rate of the carbon source. We observe micron length ribbons like growth front as well as saturated growth edges of graphene crystals depending on growth conditions. Controlling the pyrolysis rate of carbon source, monolayer and few-layer crystals and corresponding continuous films are obtained. In a controlled process, we observed growth of large monolayer graphene crystals, which interconnect and merge together to form a continuous film. On the other hand, adlayer growth is observed with an increased pyrolysis rate, resulting few-layer graphene crystal structure and merged continuous film. The understanding of monolayer and few-layer crystals growth in the developed CVD process can be significant to grow graphene with controlled layer numbers.

  16. Vapor deposition of water on graphitic surfaces: Formation of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lupi, Laura; Kastelowitz, Noah; Molinero, Valeria, E-mail: Valeria.Molinero@utah.edu [Department of Chemistry, The University of Utah, 315 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0850 (United States)

    2014-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbonaceous surfaces are a major source of atmospheric particles and could play an important role in the formation of ice. Here we investigate through molecular simulations the stability, metastability, and molecular pathways of deposition of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, and ice I from water vapor on graphitic and atomless Lennard-Jones surfaces as a function of temperature. We find that bilayer ice is the most stable ice polymorph for small cluster sizes, nevertheless it can grow metastable well above its region of thermodynamic stability. In agreement with experiments, the simulations predict that on increasing temperature the outcome of water deposition is amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water. The deposition nucleation of bilayer ice and ice I is preceded by the formation of small liquid clusters, which have two wetting states: bilayer pancake-like (wetting) at small cluster size and droplet-like (non-wetting) at larger cluster size. The wetting state of liquid clusters determines which ice polymorph is nucleated: bilayer ice nucleates from wetting bilayer liquid clusters and ice I from non-wetting liquid clusters. The maximum temperature for nucleation of bilayer ice on flat surfaces, T{sub B}{sup max} is given by the maximum temperature for which liquid water clusters reach the equilibrium melting line of bilayer ice as wetting bilayer clusters. Increasing water-surface attraction stabilizes the pancake-like wetting state of liquid clusters leading to larger T{sub B}{sup max} for the flat non-hydrogen bonding surfaces of this study. The findings of this study should be of relevance for the understanding of ice formation by deposition mode on carbonaceous atmospheric particles, including soot.

  17. Effects of thermal annealing on the structural, mechanical, and tribological properties of hard fluorinated carbon films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maia da Costa, M.E.H.; Baumvol, I.J.R.; Radke, C.; Jacobsohn, L.G.; Zamora, R.R.M.; Freire, F.L. Jr. [Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Cx. Postal 3807, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 22453-970 (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, 91540-000 (Brazil); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division, P. O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Cx. Postal 3807, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 22453-970 (Brazil)

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hard amorphous fluorinated carbon films (a-C:F) deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition were annealed in vacuum for 30 min in the temperature range of 200-600 deg. C. The structural and compositional modifications were followed by several analytical techniques: Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. Nanoidentation measurements and lateral force microscopy experiments were carried out in order to provide the film hardness and the friction coefficient, respectively. The internal stress and contact angle were also measured. RBS, ERDA, and XPS results indicate that both fluorine and hydrogen losses occur for annealing temperatures higher than 300 deg. C. Raman spectroscopy shows a progressive graphitization upon annealing, while the surface became slightly more hydrophobic as revealed by the increase of the contact angle. Following the surface wettability reduction, a decrease of the friction coefficient was observed. These results highlight the influence of the capillary condensation on the nanoscale friction. The film hardness and the internal stress are constant up to 300 deg. C and decrease for higher annealing temperatures, showing a direct correlation with the atomic density of the films. Since the thickness variation is negligible, the mass loss upon thermal treatment results in amorphous structures with a lower degree of cross-linking, explaining the deterioration of the mechanical properties of the a-C:F films.

  18. CO-CATALYTIC ABSORPTION LAYERS FOR CONTROLLED LASER-INDUCED CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF CARBON NANOTUBES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michaelis, F.B.; Weatherup, R.S.; Bayer, B.C.; Bock, M.C.D; Sugime, H.; Caneva, S.; Robertson, J.; Baumberg, J.J.; Hofmann, S.

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    ,38 by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using a Cambridge Nanotech Savannah system and a 200°C process with tri[methyl]aluminium and water both carried in a N2(20 sccm) flow for 200 cycles 39,40. Ta layers are sputter deposited (100W, 35sccm Ar, 3.5×10-3 mbar... it is optically compensated). Thermal CVD. CNT growth is also carried out in a custom-built cold-wall CVD chamber with a resistive graphite heater element. Samples are heated to ~670°C and annealed for 5 min in a non-reducing (~10-3 mbar vacuum) or reducing...

  19. Process sensing and metrology in gate oxide growth by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition from SiH4 and N2O

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Process sensing and metrology in gate oxide growth by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition from for Advanced Electronic Materials Processing, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7920 Received 7 January 1999; accepted 21 May 1999 Active sampling mass spectrometry has been used for process

  20. Thermal expansion of low-pressure chemical vapor deposition polysilicon films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ballarini, Roberto

    polysilicon films were deposited on the sub- strates by LPCVD in a hot-walled horizontal tube fur- nace with an inner diameter of 225 mm, using SiH4 at a flow rate of 100 sccm and a pressure of 300 mtorr J. Mater

  1. The Progress on Low-Cost, High-Quality, High-Temperature Superconducting Tapes Deposited by the Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoup, S.S.; White, M.K.; Krebs, S.L.; Darnell, N.; King, A.C.; Mattox, D.S.; Campbell, I.H.; Marken, K.R.; Hong, S.; Czabaj, B.; Paranthaman, M.; Christen, H.M.; Zhai, H.-Y. Specht, E.

    2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The innovative Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition (CCVD) process is a non-vacuum technique that is being investigated to enable next generation products in several application areas including high-temperature superconductors (HTS). In combination with the Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrate (RABiTS) technology, the CCVD process has significant promise to provide low-cost, high-quality lengths of YBCO coated conductor. Over 100 meter lengths of both Ni and Ni-W (3 at. Wt.%) substrates with a surface roughness of 12-18 nm were produced. The CCVD technology has been used to deposit both buffer layer coatings as well as YBCO superconducting layers. Buffer layer architecture of strontium titanate (SrTiO{sub 3}) and ceria (CeO{sub 2}) have been deposited by CCVD on textured nickel substrates and optimized to appropriate thicknesses and microstructures to provide templates for growing PLD YBCO with a J{sub c} of 1.1 MA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K and self-field. The CCVD buffer layers have been scaled to meter plus lengths with good epitaxial uniformity along the length. A short sample cut from one of the lengths enabled high critical current density PLD YBCO. Films of CCVD YBCO superconductors have been grown on single crystal substrates with critical current densities over 1 MA/cm{sup 2}. In addition, superconducting YBCO films with an I{sub c} of 60 A/cm-width (J{sub c} = 1.5 MA/cm{sup 2}) were grown on ORNL RABiTS (CeO{sub 2}/YSZ/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ni/Ni-3W) using CCVD process.

  2. Visible Light Photocatalysis with Nitrogen-Doped Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Prepared by Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buzby,S.; Barakat, M.; Lin, H.; Ni, C.; Rykov, S.; Chen, J.; Shah, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized via plasma assisted metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Nitrogen dopant concentration was varied from 0 to 1.61 at. %. The effect of nitrogen ion doping on visible light photocatalysis has been investigated. Samples were analyzed by various analytical techniques such as x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure. Titanium tetraisopropoxide was used as the titanium precursor, while rf-plasma-decomposed ammonia was used as the source for nitrogen doping. The N-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were deposited on stainless steel mesh under a flow of Ar and O2 gases at 600 {sup o}C in a tube reactor. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared N-doped TiO{sub 2} samples was tested by the degradation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) in an aqueous solution using a visible lamp equipped with an UV filter. The efficiency of photocatalytic oxidation of 2-CP was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Results obtained revealed the formation of N-doped TiO{sub 2} samples as TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x}, and a corresponding increase in the visible light photocatalytic activity.

  3. Crystalline SiGe films grown on Si substrates using laser-assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at low temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.-T.; Cheng, J.-H.; Lee, H.-Y. [Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China) and Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Department of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China)

    2007-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Compared with conventional plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, laser-assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (LAPECVD) can be used to deposit crystalline SiGe films on Si substrates at low temperature. In the LAPECVD system, a CO{sub 2} laser with a wavelength of 10.6 {mu}m was utilized to assist the pyrolytical decomposition of SiH{sub 4} and GeH{sub 4} reactant gases. The resultant Si{sub 0.78}Ge{sub 0.22} films were obtained and verified through the use of the Auger electron spectroscopy measurement. As the diffraction pattern of a glancing incident angle X-ray diffraction measurement had indicated, several significant diffraction peaks corresponding to a diamond-cubic structure at (111) (220), and (311) were clearly observed. Crystalline SiGe films were also identified by the electron diffraction pattern of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images.

  4. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Forest Grown via Chemical Vapor Deposition from Iron Catalyst Nanoparticles, by XPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, David S.; Kanyal, Supriya S.; Madaan, Nitesh; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Engelhard, Mark H.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have unique chemical and physical properties. Herein, we report an XPS analysis of a forest of multiwalled CNTs using monochromatic Al K? radiation. Survey scans show only one element: carbon. The carbon 1s peak is centered 284.5 eV. The C 1s envelope also shows the expected ? ? ?* shake-up peak at ca. 291 eV. The valence band and carbon KVV Auger signals are presented. When patterned, the CNT forests can be used as a template for subsequent deposition of metal oxides to make thin layer chromatography plates.1-3

  5. Tooling Factor Calculation In order to yield a more accurate indication of a deposited film's thickness, the rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Philip

    Tooling Factor Calculation In order to yield a more accurate indication of a deposited film's thickness, the rate monitor's tooling factor attempts to compensate for necessary differences member before changing an established tooling factor. 1. Position a sample, masked on a half

  6. Step-edge-induced resistance anisotropy in quasi-free-standing bilayer chemical vapor deposition graphene on SiC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciuk, Tymoteusz [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Cakmakyapan, Semih; Ozbay, Ekmel [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Department of Physics, Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, 06800 Bilkent, Ankara (Turkey); Caban, Piotr; Grodecki, Kacper; Pasternak, Iwona; Strupinski, Wlodek, E-mail: wlodek.strupinski@itme.edu.pl [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Krajewska, Aleksandra [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Gen. S. Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Szmidt, Jan [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The transport properties of quasi-free-standing (QFS) bilayer graphene on SiC depend on a range of scattering mechanisms. Most of them are isotropic in nature. However, the SiC substrate morphology marked by a distinctive pattern of the terraces gives rise to an anisotropy in graphene's sheet resistance, which may be considered an additional scattering mechanism. At a technological level, the growth-preceding in situ etching of the SiC surface promotes step bunching which results in macro steps ~10 nm in height. In this report, we study the qualitative and quantitative effects of SiC steps edges on the resistance of epitaxial graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. We experimentally determine the value of step edge resistivity in hydrogen-intercalated QFS-bilayer graphene to be ~190 ??m for step height hS = 10 nm and provide proof that it cannot originate from mechanical deformation of graphene but is likely to arise from lowered carrier concentration in the step area. Our results are confronted with the previously reported values of the step edge resistivity in monolayer graphene over SiC atomic steps. In our analysis, we focus on large-scale, statistical properties to foster the scalable technology of industrial graphene for electronics and sensor applications.

  7. X-ray diffraction analysis of InGaP/GaAs heterointerfaces grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nittono, T.; Hyuga, F. [NTT System Electronics Laboratories 3-1, Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa, 243-01 (Japan)] [NTT System Electronics Laboratories 3-1, Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa, 243-01 (Japan)

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    InGaP/GaAs heterointerfaces grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition have been characterized by a high-resolution x-ray diffraction analysis of multiple quantum well structures. The flow of AsH{sub 3} to InGaP surface produces an InGaAs-like interfacial layer at the GaAs-on-InGaP interface, indicating P atoms of the InGaP surface are easily replaced by As atoms. The flow of PH{sub 3} to GaAs surface, on the other hand, does not make any detectable interfacial layer, indicating that almost no As atoms of the GaAs surface are replaced by P atoms. It is also found that the flow of trimethylgallium (TMG) to the InGaP surface produces a GaP-like interfacial layer. This interfacial layer is probably formed by the reaction between TMG and excessive P atoms on the InGaP surface or residual PH{sub 3} in the growth chamber. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Mass densification and defect restoration in chemical vapor deposition silicon dioxide film using Ar plasma excited by microwave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawase, Kazumasa, E-mail: Kawase.Kazumasa@ak.MitsubishiElectric.co.jp; Motoya, Tsukasa; Uehara, Yasushi [Advanced Technology R and D Center, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, 8-1-1 Tsukaguchi-honmachi, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-8661 (Japan); Teramoto, Akinobu; Suwa, Tomoyuki; Ohmi, Tadahiro [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) films formed by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) have been treated with Ar plasma excited by microwave. The changes of the mass densities, carrier trap densities, and thicknesses of the CVD-SiO{sub 2} films with the Ar plasma treatments were investigated. The mass density depth profiles were estimated with X-Ray Reflectivity (XRR) analysis using synchrotron radiation. The densities of carrier trap centers due to defects of Si-O bond network were estimated with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) time-dependent measurement. The changes of the thicknesses due to the oxidation of Si substrates were estimated with the XRR and XPS. The mass densities of the CVD-SiO{sub 2} films are increased by the Ar plasma treatments. The carrier trap densities of the films are decreased by the treatments. The thicknesses of the films are not changed by the treatments. It has been clarified that the mass densification and defect restoration in the CVD-SiO{sub 2} films are caused by the Ar plasma treatments without the oxidation of the Si substrates.

  9. Analysis of buoyancy and tube rotation relative to the modified chemical vapor deposition process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, M.; Lin, Y.T.; Greif, R. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The secondary flows resulting from buoyancy effects in respect to the MCVD process have been studied in a rotating horizontal tube using a perturbation analysis. The three-dimensional secondary flow fields have been determined at several axial locations in a tube whose temperature varies in both the axial and circumferential directions for different rotational speeds. For small rotational speeds, buoyancy and axial convection are dominant and the secondary flow patterns are different in the regions near and far from the torch. For moderate rotational speeds, the effects of buoyancy, axial and angular convection are all important in the region far from the torch where there is a spiraling secondary flow. For large rotational speeds, only buoyancy and angular convection effects are important and no spiraling secondary motions occurs far downstream. Compared with thermophoresis, the important role of buoyancy in determining particle trajectories in MCVD is presented. As the rotational speed increases, the importance of the secondary flow decreases and the thermophoretic contribution vecomes more important. It is noted that thermophoresis is considered to be the main cause of particle deposition in the MCVD process.

  10. Comparison of precursor infiltration into polymer thin films via atomic layer deposition and sequential vapor infiltration using in-situ quartz crystal microgravimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padbury, Richard P.; Jur, Jesse S., E-mail: jsjur@ncsu.edu [Department of Textile Engineering, Chemistry and Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous research exploring inorganic materials nucleation behavior on polymers via atomic layer deposition indicates the formation of hybrid organic–inorganic materials that form within the subsurface of the polymer. This has inspired adaptations to the process, such as sequential vapor infiltration, which enhances the diffusion of organometallic precursors into the subsurface of the polymer to promote the formation of a hybrid organic–inorganic coating. This work highlights the fundamental difference in mass uptake behavior between atomic layer deposition and sequential vapor infiltration using in-situ methods. In particular, in-situ quartz crystal microgravimetry is used to compare the mass uptake behavior of trimethyl aluminum in poly(butylene terephthalate) and polyamide-6 polymer thin films. The importance of trimethyl aluminum diffusion into the polymer subsurface and the subsequent chemical reactions with polymer functional groups are discussed.

  11. Elemental diffusion during the droplet epitaxy growth of In(Ga)As/GaAs(001) quantum dots by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Z. B.; Chen, B.; Wang, Y. B.; Liao, X. Z., E-mail: xiaozhou.liao@sydney.edu.au [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Lei, W. [School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia); Tan, H. H.; Jagadish, C. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Zou, J. [Materials Engineering and Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Ringer, S. P. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Droplet epitaxy is an important method to produce epitaxial semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). Droplet epitaxy of III-V QDs comprises group III elemental droplet deposition and the droplet crystallization through the introduction of group V elements. Here, we report that, in the droplet epitaxy of InAs/GaAs(001) QDs using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, significant elemental diffusion from the substrate to In droplets occurs, resulting in the formation of In(Ga)As crystals, before As flux is provided. The supply of As flux suppresses the further elemental diffusion from the substrate and promotes surface migration, leading to large island formation with a low island density.

  12. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  13. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Larson, Ronald A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Goodrich, Lorenzo D. (Shelley, ID); Hall, Harold J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stoddard, Billy D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davis, Sean G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kaser, Timothy G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

  14. A comparison of the marginal adaptation of cathode-arc vapor-deposited titanium and cast base metal copings.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jean C; Lai, Li-Chung; Sheets, Cherilyn G; Earthman, James; Newcomb, Robert

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    titanium reacts with oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, whichdesired titanium coping thickness is achieved, nitrogen gaspurity nitrogen gas was added to the titanium vapor after

  15. Robofurnace: A semi-automated laboratory chemical vapor deposition system for high-throughput nanomaterial synthesis and process discovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliver, C. Ryan; Westrick, William; Koehler, Jeremy; Brieland-Shoultz, Anna; Anagnostopoulos-Politis, Ilias; Cruz-Gonzalez, Tizoc [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Hart, A. John, E-mail: ajhart@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory research and development on new materials, such as nanostructured thin films, often utilizes manual equipment such as tube furnaces due to its relatively low cost and ease of setup. However, these systems can be prone to inconsistent outcomes due to variations in standard operating procedures and limitations in performance such as heating and cooling rates restrict the parameter space that can be explored. Perhaps more importantly, maximization of research throughput and the successful and efficient translation of materials processing knowledge to production-scale systems, relies on the attainment of consistent outcomes. In response to this need, we present a semi-automated lab-scale chemical vapor deposition (CVD) furnace system, called “Robofurnace.” Robofurnace is an automated CVD system built around a standard tube furnace, which automates sample insertion and removal and uses motion of the furnace to achieve rapid heating and cooling. The system has a 10-sample magazine and motorized transfer arm, which isolates the samples from the lab atmosphere and enables highly repeatable placement of the sample within the tube. The system is designed to enable continuous operation of the CVD reactor, with asynchronous loading/unloading of samples. To demonstrate its performance, Robofurnace is used to develop a rapid CVD recipe for carbon nanotube (CNT) forest growth, achieving a 10-fold improvement in CNT forest mass density compared to a benchmark recipe using a manual tube furnace. In the long run, multiple systems like Robofurnace may be linked to share data among laboratories by methods such as Twitter. Our hope is Robofurnace and like automation will enable machine learning to optimize and discover relationships in complex material synthesis processes.

  16. Growth of Large-Area Aligned Molybdenum Nanowires by High Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition: Synthesis, Growth Mechanism, and Device Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    , thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis, as well as structure analysis by electron on the decomposition of MoO2 vapors through condensation of its vapor at high substrate temperatures. The aligned nanowires with H2 gas.6d-f However, the reduction process degrades the crystal- linity of the nanowires

  17. Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of High Silica SiO2-TiO2 Antireflective Thin Films for Glass Based Solar Panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klobukowski, Erik R [ORNL; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E [ORNL; McCamy, James [PPG; Harris, Caroline [PPG; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of SiO2-TiO2 thin films employing [[(tBuO)3Si]2O-Ti(OiPr)2], which can be prepared from commercially available materials, results in antireflective thin films on float glass under industrially relevant manufacturing conditions. It was found that while the deposition temperature had an effect on the SiO2:TiO2 ratio, the thickness was dependent on the time of deposition. This study shows that it is possible to use APCVD employing a single source precursor containing titanium and silicon to produce thin films on float glass with high SiO2:TiO2 ratios.

  18. Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 612 2000 Materials Research Society VOLATILE LIQUID PRECURSORS FOR THE CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . These tungsten oxide films can be used as part of electrochromic windows, mirrors or displays. Physical in microelectronics.5 CVD using both W(CO)6 vapor and oxygen gas, O2, has produced electrochromic films of tungsten

  19. Synthesis of SiO{sub 2}/?-SiC/graphite hybrid composite by low temperature hot filament chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Bi, Kaifeng; Liu, Yanhong; Qin, Fuwen; Liu, Hongzhu [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Bian, Jiming, E-mail: jmbian@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhang, Dong [New Energy Source Research Center of Shenyang Institute of Engineering, Shengyang 110136 (China)] [New Energy Source Research Center of Shenyang Institute of Engineering, Shengyang 110136 (China); Miao, Lihua [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Computer and Mathematical Basic Teaching, Shenyang Medical College, Shenyan 110034 (China)

    2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    ?-SiC thin films were synthesized directly on graphite by hot filament chemical vapor deposition at low temperature. SiH{sub 4} diluted in hydrogen was employed as the silicon source, while graphite was functioned as both substrate and carbon source for the as-grown ?-SiC films. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared analysis indicate that SiO{sub 2}/?-SiC/graphite hybrid composite was formed after post annealing treatment, and its crystalline quality can be remarkably improved under optimized annealing conditions. The possible growth mechanism was proposed based on in situ etching of graphite by reactive hydrogen radicals at the atomic level.

  20. Influence of vicinal sapphire substrate on the properties of N-polar GaN films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhiyu; Zhang, Jincheng, E-mail: jchzhang@xidian.edu.cn; Xu, Shengrui; Chen, Zhibin; Yang, Shuangyong; Tian, Kun; Hao, Yue [Key Lab of Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Technology, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710071 (China); Su, Xujun [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Shi, Xuefang [School of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Xidian University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710071 (China)

    2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of vicinal sapphire substrates on the growth of N-polar GaN films by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition is investigated. Smooth GaN films without hexagonal surface feature are obtained on vicinal substrate. Transmission electron microscope results reveal that basal-plane stacking faults are formed in GaN on vicinal substrate, leading to a reduction in threading dislocation density. Furthermore, it has been found that there is a weaker yellow luminescence in GaN on vicinal substrate than that on (0001) substrate, which might be explained by the different trends of the carbon impurity incorporation.

  1. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive flexible metal substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, P., E-mail: pdutta2@central.uh.edu; Rathi, M.; Gao, Y.; Yao, Y.; Selvamanickam, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Zheng, N.; Ahrenkiel, P. [Department of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, South Dakota 57701 (United States); Martinez, J. [Materials Evaluation Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas 77085 (United States)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate heteroepitaxial growth of single-crystalline-like n and p-type doped GaAs thin films on inexpensive, flexible, and light-weight metal foils by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Single-crystalline-like Ge thin film on biaxially textured templates made by ion beam assisted deposition on metal foil served as the epitaxy enabling substrate for GaAs growth. The GaAs films exhibited strong (004) preferred orientation, sharp in-plane texture, low grain misorientation, strong photoluminescence, and a defect density of ?10{sup 7?}cm{sup ?2}. Furthermore, the GaAs films exhibited hole and electron mobilities as high as 66 and 300?cm{sup 2}/V-s, respectively. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive metal substrates can pave the path for roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible III-V solar cells for the mainstream photovoltaics market.

  2. Veeco Develops a Tool to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Brightness

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the help of DOE funding, Veeco is working on reducing epitaxy costs and increasing LED efficiency by developing a physical vapor deposition (PVD) tool for depositing aluminum nitride buffer layers on LED substrates. PVD, also known as "sputtering," is an alternative to metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). PVD is a purely physical process that involves plasma sputter bombardment rather than a chemical reaction at the surface to be coated, as in MOCVD.

  3. Thermoelectric properties of lattice-matched AlInN alloy grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilchrist, James F.

    Thermoelectric properties of lattice-matched AlInN alloy grown by metal organic chemical vapor Seebeck coefficient and resistance measurement system for thermoelectric materials in the thin disk geometry Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 025101 (2012) High-temperature thermoelectric properties of Cu1­xInTe2

  4. Research on fundamental aspects of inorganic vapor and particle deposition in coal-fired systems. Eighth quarterly technical progress report, June 6, 1992--September 5, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In September 1990 DOE-PETC initiated at the Yale HTCRE Laboratory a systematic three-year research program directed toward providing engineers with the fundamentally-based design/optimization `tools` for economically predicting the dynamics of net deposit growth*, and thermophysical properties of the resulting microparticulate deposits in coal-fired systems. In light of the theoretical `program` based on the notion of ``self-regulation`` set forth in Rosner and Nagarajan (1987), this Task includes investigation of the effects of particle material properties and possible liquid phases on the capture properties of particulate deposits. For this purpose we exploit dynamical `many-body` computer simulation techniques. This approach will provide the required parametric dependencies (on such quantities as incident kinetic energy and angle, mechanical and thermophysical properties of the particles,{hor_ellipsis}) of a dimensionless ensemble-averaged particle capture fraction, relegating the role of direct laboratory experiment to verifying (or rejecting) some crucial features/consequences of the simulation route followed. Our ultimate goal is recommend `sticking` and `erosion` laws of mechanistic origin. The availability of such laws could dramatically increase the reliability of predicted deposition rates of inertially delivered particles, in the simultaneous presence of a condensed liquid phase within the growing particulate, deposit. Equally important, one could also rationally select conditions to avoid. troublesome deposition subject to other operational requirements.

  5. Measurement and modeling of Ar/H2/CH4 arc jet discharge chemical vapor deposition reactors. I. Intercomparison

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    of thin, polycrystalline diamond films, and the results of a two-dimensional r,z computer model domains. dc arc jets offer considerable advantages as a route to deposition of polycrystalline diamond

  6. A three-dimensional analysis of the flow and heat transfer for the modified chemical vapor deposition process including buoyancy, variable properties, and tube rotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Y.T.; Choi, M.; Greif, R. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study has been made of the heat transfer, flow, and particle deposition relative to the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process. The effects of variable properties, buoyancy, and tube rotation have been included in the study. The resulting three-dimensional temperature and velocity fields have been obtained for a range of conditions. The effects of buoyancy result in asymmetric temperature and axial velocity profiles with respect to the tube axis. Variable properties cause significant variations in the axial velocity along the tube and in the secondary flow in the region near the torch. Particle trajectories are shown to be strongly dependent on the tube rotation and are helices for large rotational speeds. The component of secondary flow in the radial direction is compared to the thermophoretic velocity, which is the primary cause of particle deposition in the MCVD process. Over the central portion of the tube the radial component of the secondary flow is most important in determining the motion of the particles.

  7. Microstructure and interface control of GaN/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition: Substrate-orientation dependence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, G.; Chikyow, T. [Advanced Electric Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Chichibu, Shigefusa F. [CANTech, Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    GaN films with single-crystal and polycrystalline structure were deposited on (111) and (100) MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using a substrate modified by chemical etching and thermal passivation. The interface structure and chemical bonding state of the GaN/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} interface was investigated using angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and resulting valence band spectra. Our results indicate that the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffered layer induced by thermal passivation of the (111) substrate remains unchanged during GaN deposition, which is primarily responsible for the epitaxial growth of GaN on (111) MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} substrate. However, for the as-processed (100) substrate, interfacial reactions take place between the formed MgO-terminated surface and GaN films and GaN with a polycrystalline structure on (100) substrate forms. From the interface engineering viewpoint, the appropriate interface modification will allow control of the interface reaction to obtain high-quality GaN films for future optoelectronic devices.

  8. Inversion by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from N- to Ga-polar gallium nitride and its application to multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosalli, A. M.; Van Den Broeck, D. M.; Bedair, S. M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, NCSU, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, NCSU, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Bharrat, D.; El-Masry, N. A. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, NCSU, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)] [Department of Material Science and Engineering, NCSU, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth approach for inverting N-polar to Ga-polar GaN by using a thin inversion layer grown with high Mg flux. The introduction of this inversion layer allowed us to grow p-GaN films on N-polar GaN thin film. We have studied the dependence of hole concentration, surface morphology, and degree of polarity inversion for the inverted Ga-polar surface on the thickness of the inversion layer. We then use this approach to grow a light emitting diode structure which has the MQW active region grown on the advantageous N-polar surface and the p-layer grown on the inverted Ga-polar surface.

  9. Current induced annealing and electrical characterization of single layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition for future interconnects in VLSI circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, Neetu, E-mail: neetu.prasad@south.du.ac.in, E-mail: neetu23686@gmail.com; Kumari, Anita; Bhatnagar, P. K.; Mathur, P. C. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India); Bhatia, C. S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Single layer graphene (SLG) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been investigated for its prospective application as horizontal interconnects in very large scale integrated circuits. However, the major bottleneck for its successful application is its degraded electronic transport properties due to the resist residual trapped in the grain boundaries and on the surface of the polycrystalline CVD graphene during multi-step lithographic processes, leading to increase in its sheet resistance up to 5 M?/sq. To overcome this problem, current induced annealing has been employed, which helps to bring down the sheet resistance to 10?k?/sq (of the order of its initial value). Moreover, the maximum current density of ?1.2?×?10{sup 7?}A/cm{sup 2} has been obtained for SLG (1?×?2.5??m{sup 2}) on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate, which is about an order higher than that of conventionally used copper interconnects.

  10. Toward epitaxially grown two-dimensional crystal hetero-structures: Single and double MoS{sub 2}/graphene hetero-structures by chemical vapor depositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Meng-Yu [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chung-En [Department of Photonics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Wang, Cheng-Hung [Institute of Display, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Su, Chen-Fung; Chen, Chi [Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Si-Chen [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shih-Yen, E-mail: shihyen@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Photonics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Uniform large-size MoS{sub 2}/graphene hetero-structures fabricated directly on sapphire substrates are demonstrated with layer-number controllability by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images provide the direct evidences of layer numbers of MoS{sub 2}/graphene hetero-structures. Photo-excited electron induced Fermi level shift of the graphene channel are observed on the single MoS{sub 2}/graphene hetero-structure transistors. Furthermore, double hetero-structures of graphene/MoS{sub 2}/graphene are achieved by CVD fabrication of graphene layers on top of the MoS{sub 2}, as confirmed by the cross-sectional HRTEM. These results have paved the possibility of epitaxially grown multi-hetero-structures for practical applications.

  11. Direct growth of few-layer graphene on 6H-SiC and 3C-SiC/Si via propane chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Portail, M. [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Ouerghi, A. [CNRS-LPN, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T. [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)

    2010-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose to grow graphene on SiC by a direct carbon feeding through propane flow in a chemical vapor deposition reactor. X-ray photoemission and low energy electron diffraction show that propane allows to grow few-layer graphene (FLG) on 6H-SiC(0001). Surprisingly, FLG grown on (0001) face presents a rotational disorder similar to that observed for FLG obtained by annealing on (000-1) face. Thanks to a reduced growth temperature with respect to the classical SiC annealing method, we have also grown FLG/3C-SiC/Si(111) in a single growth sequence. This opens the way for large-scale production of graphene-based devices on silicon substrate.

  12. Co-Pt core-shell nanostructured catalyst prepared by selective chemical vapor pulse deposition of Pt on Co as a cathode in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Sang-Joon; Chung, Ho-Kyoon [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) and Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Ji-Beom [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) and Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi 440-746, Korea and School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Heeyeop; Seo, Seung-Woo; Min Cho, Sung, E-mail: sungmcho@skku.edu [School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of PtCo/C catalyst for use as a cathode in polymer electrolyte fuel cells was prepared by selective chemical vapor pulse deposition (CVPD) of Pt on the surface of Co. The activity of the prepared catalyst for oxygen reduction was higher than that of a catalyst prepared by sequential impregnation (IMP) with the two metallic components. This catalytic activity difference occurs because the former catalyst has smaller Pt crystallites that produce stronger Pt-Co interactions and have a larger Pt surface area. Consequently, the CVPD catalyst has a great number of Co particles that are in close contact with the added Pt. The Pt surface was also electronically modified by interactions with Co, which were stronger in the CVPD catalyst than in the IMP catalyst, as indicated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry measurements of the catalysts.

  13. Raman Spectroscopy of the Reaction of Thin Films of Solid-State Benzene with Vapor-Deposited Ag, Mg, and Al

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schalnat, Matthew C. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Hawkridge, Adam M. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Pemberton, Jeanne E. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2011-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin films of solid-state benzene at 30 K were reacted with small quantities of vapor-deposited Ag, Mg, and Al under ultrahigh vacuum, and products were monitored using surface Raman spectroscopy. Although Ag and Mg produce small amounts of metal–benzene adduct products, the resulting Raman spectra are dominated by surface enhancement of the normal benzene modes from metallic nanoparticles suggesting rapid Ag or Mg metallization of the film. In contrast, large quantities of Al adduct products are observed. Vibrational modes of the products in all three systems suggest adducts that are formed through a pathway initiated by an electron transfer reaction. The difference in reactivity between these metals is ascribed to differences in ionization potential of the metal atoms; ionization potential values for Ag and Mg are similar but larger than that for Al. These studies demonstrate the importance of atomic parameters, such as ionization potential, in solid-state metal–organic reaction chemistry.

  14. Correlative analysis of the in situ changes of carrier decay and proton induced photoluminescence characteristics in chemical vapor deposition grown GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaubas, E., E-mail: eugenijus.gaubas@ff.vu.lt; Ceponis, T.; Jasiunas, A.; Meskauskaite, D.; Pavlov, J.; Tekorius, A.; Vaitkus, J. [Vilnius University, Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius LT-10222 (Lithuania); Kovalevskij, V.; Remeikis, V. [Centre for Physical Sciences and Technology, Vilnius LT-02300 (Lithuania)

    2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to evaluate carrier densities created by 1.6?MeV protons and to trace radiation damage of the 2.5??m thick GaN epi-layers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique, a correlation between the photoconductivity transients and the steady-state photoluminescence spectra have been examined. Comparison of luminescence spectra induced by proton beam and by laser pulse enabled us to evaluate the efficiency of a single proton generation being of 1?×?10{sup 7}?cm{sup ?3} per 1.6?MeV proton and 40 carrier pairs per micrometer of layer depth. This result indicates that GaN layers can be an efficient material for detection of particle flows. It has been demonstrated that GaN material can also be a rather efficient scintillating material within several wavelength ranges.

  15. Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nano-Structured Sn/C Composite Thin-Film Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevenson, Cynthia; Marcinek, M.; Hardwick, L.J.; Richardson, T.J.; Song, X.; Kostecki, R.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we report results of a novel synthesis method of thin-film composite Sn/C anodes for lithium batteries. Thin layers of graphitic carbon decorated with uniformly distributed Sn nanoparticles were synthesized from a solid organic precursor Sn(IV) tert-butoxide by a one step microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD). The thin-film Sn/C electrodes were electrochemically tested in lithium half cells and produced a reversible capacity of 440 and 297 mAhg{sup -1} at C/25 and 5C discharge rates, respectively. A long term cycling of the Sn/C nanocomposite anodes showed 40% capacity loss after 500 cycles at 1C rate.

  16. Research on fundamental aspects of inorganic vapor and particle deposition in coal-fired systems. Quarterly technical report, December 6, 1991--March 5, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In September 1990 DOE-PETC initiated at the Yale HTCRE Laboratory a systematic three-year research program directed toward providing engineers with the fundamentally-based design/optimization ``tools`` foreconomically predicting the dynamics of net deposit growth, and thermophysical properties of the resulting microparticulate deposits in coal-fired systems. The goal of our research in the area of mineral mattertransport is to advance the capability of making reliable engineering predictions of the dynamics of net deposit growth for surfaces exposed to the particle-laden products of coal combustion. To accomplish thisfor a wide variety of combustor types, coal types, and operating conditions, this capability must be based on a quantitative understanding of each of the important mechanisms of mineral matter transport, as well as the nature of the interactions between these substances and the prevailing ``fireside`` surface of deposits. This level of understanding and predictive capability could be translated into very significant cost reductions for coal-fired equipment design, development and operation. It is also expected that this research activity will not only directly benefit the ash deposition R&D community -- but also generically closely related technologies of importance to DOE (e.g. hot-gas clean-up, particulate solids handling,...).

  17. Epitaxial growth of BaTiO3 thin films at 600 C by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    with an a-axis perpendicular to the substrate plane. Nanoscale energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry processes include deposition over large areas, high throughput, and uniform coverage of nonplanar shapes by a plasma-enhanced MOCVD pro- cess. It is not known if the added energy from the plasma generates structural

  18. Strain effects and microstructural evolution in Ge-Si system materials prepared by ion implantation and by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tu Hailing; Xiao Qinghua; Ma Tongda [General Research Institute for Non-ferrous Metals, No. 2, Xinjiekouwai Street, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Appropriately utilizing some microstructures may be very helpful to acquire desirable Ge-Si system materials. In this work, the Ge-Si system materials have been prepared either by ion implantation or ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHVCVD). The interesting microstructures including half-loop dislocations, SiGe nanoclusters, and dislocation dipoles have been found in these two kinds of Ge-Si system materials. It is demonstrated that the evident surface strain state and adequate surface layer quality have been realized by employing these microstructures. Compared with the dipole dislocations in the Ge-Si systems deposited by UHVCVD on the compliant silicon on insulator, the half-loop dislocations and the SiGe nanoclusters induced by Ge ion implantation and subsequent annealing can relax the SiGe layer more effectively and lead to relatively large strain in the surface silicon. It may provide some new approaches to the control of misfit strains for fabricating desirable Ge-Si system materials.

  19. As-grown deep-level defects in n-GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on freestanding GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Shang; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru [Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Honda, Unhi; Shibata, Tatsunari; Matsumura, Toshiya; Tokuda, Yutaka [Aichi Institute of Technology, Yakusa, Toyota 470-0392 (Japan); Ueda, Hiroyuki; Uesugi, Tsutomu; Kachi, Tetsu [Toyota Central R and D Laboratories, Inc., Yokomichi, Nagakute 480-1192 (Japan)

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Traps of energy levels E{sub c}-0.26 and E{sub c}-0.61 eV have been identified as as-grown traps in n-GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition by using deep level transient spectroscopy of the Schottky contacts fabricated by resistive evaporation. The additional traps of E{sub c}-0.13 and E{sub c}-0.65 eV have been observed in samples whose contacts are deposited by electron-beam evaporation. An increase in concentration of the E{sub c}-0.13 and E{sub c}-0.65 eV traps when approaching the interface between the contact and the GaN film supports our argument that these traps are induced by electron-beam irradiation. Conversely, the depth profiles of as-grown traps show different profiles between several samples with increased or uniform distribution in the near surface below 50 nm. Similar profiles are observed in GaN grown on a sapphire substrate. We conclude that the growth process causes these large concentrations of as-grown traps in the near-surface region. It is speculated that the finishing step in the growth process should be an essential issue in the investigation of the surface state of GaN.

  20. Mechanistic studies of the thermal decomposition of metal carbonyls on Ni(100) surfaces in connection with chemical vapor deposition processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, M.; Zaera, F. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal decomposition of Fe(CO){sub 5}, Cr(CO){sub 6}, Mo(CO){sub 6}, and W(CO){sub 6} on Ni(100) surfaces and under ultrahigh vacuum conditions was studied by using temperature programmed desorption and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. The initial adsorption of those metal carbonyls is mostly molecular at low temperatures, but complete decarbonylation to the naked metal takes place in all cases upon thermal activation. Experiments with coadsorbed isotopically labeled {sup 13}CO provided indirect evidence for a stepwise mechanism for Fe(CO){sub 5} which may include the formation of tetra- and tricarbonyl intermediates on the surface. For Cr(CO){sub 6}, Mo(CO){sub 6}, and W(CO){sub 6}, on the other hand, complete decomposition occurs in a narrow range of temperature, and no intermediate could be isolated on the surface. The deposition of metal films via metal carbonyl activation was studied under steady state conditions as well. Continuous deposition was seen at substrate temperatures as low as 300 K, but the grown films were found to incorporate both carbon and oxygen under most conditions tested and to change their morphology depending on the substrate temperature during deposition. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Vacuum Society}

  1. Direct Growth Graphene on Cu Nanoparticles by Chemical Vapor Deposition as Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrate for Label-Free Detection of Adenosine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Shicai; Jiang, Shouzhen; Wang, Jihua; Wei, Jie; Xu, Shida; Liu, Hanping

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a graphene/Cu nanoparticle hybrids (G/CuNPs) system as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate for adenosine detection. The Cu nanoparticles wrapped around a monolayer graphene shell were directly synthesized on flat quartz by chemical vapor deposition in a mixture of methane and hydrogen. The G/CuNPs showed an excellent SERS enhancement activity for adenosine. The minimum detected concentration of the adenosine in serum was demonstrated as low as 5 nM, and the calibration curve showed a good linear response from 5 to 500 nM. The capability of SERS detection of adenosine in real normal human urine samples based on G/CuNPs was also investigated and the characteristic peaks of adenosine were still recognizable. The reproducible and the ultrasensitive enhanced Raman signals could be due to the presence of an ultrathin graphene layer. The graphene shell was able to enrich and fix the adenosine molecules, which could also efficiently maintain chemical and optical stability of G/CuNPs. Based...

  2. Effects of pressure, temperature, and hydrogen during graphene growth on SiC(0001) using propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Roudon, E.; Lefebvre, D.; Portail, M. [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France)] [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T. [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)] [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene growth from a propane flow in a hydrogen environment (propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition (CVD)) on SiC differentiates from other growth methods in that it offers the possibility to obtain various graphene structures on the Si-face depending on growth conditions. The different structures include the (6{radical}3 Multiplication-Sign 6{radical}3)-R30 Degree-Sign reconstruction of the graphene/SiC interface, which is commonly observed on the Si-face, but also the rotational disorder which is generally observed on the C-face. In this work, growth mechanisms leading to the formation of the different structures are studied and discussed. For that purpose, we have grown graphene on SiC(0001) (Si-face) using propane-hydrogen CVD at various pressure and temperature and studied these samples extensively by means of low energy electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Pressure and temperature conditions leading to the formation of the different structures are identified and plotted in a pressure-temperature diagram. This diagram, together with other characterizations (X-ray photoemission and scanning tunneling microscopy), is the basis of further discussions on the carbon supply mechanisms and on the kinetics effects. The entire work underlines the important role of hydrogen during growth and its effects on the final graphene structure.

  3. Issues associated with the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of ScGaN and YGaN alloys.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koleske, Daniel David; Knapp, James Arthur; Lee, Stephen Roger; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Creighton, James Randall; Cross, Karen Charlene; Thaler, Gerald

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The most energy efficient solid state white light source will likely be a combination of individually efficient red, green, and blue LED. For any multi-color approach to be successful the efficiency of deep green LEDs must be significantly improved. While traditional approaches to improve InGaN materials have yielded incremental success, we proposed a novel approach using group IIIA and IIIB nitride semiconductors to produce efficient green and high wavelength LEDs. To obtain longer wavelength LEDs in the nitrides, we attempted to combine scandium (Sc) and yttrium (Y) with gallium (Ga) to produce ScGaN and YGaN for the quantum well (QW) active regions. Based on linear extrapolation of the proposed bandgaps of ScN (2.15 eV), YN (0.8 eV) and GaN (3.4 eV), we expected that LEDs could be fabricated from the UV (410 nm) to the IR (1600 nm), and therefore cover all visible wavelengths. The growth of these novel alloys potentially provided several advantages over the more traditional InGaN QW regions including: higher growth temperatures more compatible with GaN growth, closer lattice matching to GaN, and reduced phase separation than is commonly observed in InGaN growth. One drawback to using ScGaN and YGaN films as the active regions in LEDs is that little research has been conducted on their growth, specifically, are there metalorganic precursors that are suitable for growth, are the bandgaps direct or indirect, can the materials be grown directly on GaN with a minimal defect formation, as well as other issues related to growth. The major impediment to the growth of ScGaN and YGaN alloys was the low volatility of metalorganic precursors. Despite this impediment some progress was made in incorporation of Sc and Y into GaN which is detailed in this report. Primarily, we were able to incorporate up to 5 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} Y atoms into a GaN film, which are far below the alloy concentrations needed to evaluate the YGaN optical properties. After a no-cost extension was granted on this program, an additional more 'liquid-like' Sc precursor was evaluated and the nitridation of Sc metals on GaN were investigated. Using the Sc precursor, dopant level quantities of Sc were incorporated into GaN, thereby concluding the growth of ScGaN and YGaN films. Our remaining time during the no-cost extension was focused on pulsed laser deposition of Sc metal films on GaN, followed by nitridation in the MOCVD reactor to form ScN. Finally, GaN films were deposited on the ScN thin films in order to study possible GaN dislocation reduction.

  4. Effects of arrival rate and gas pressure on the chemical bonding and composition in titanium nitride films prepared on Si(100) substrates by ion beam and vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuoka, M.; Isotani, S.; Mittani, J.C.R.; Chubaci, J.F.D.; Ogata, K.; Kuratani, N. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, C. P. 66318, 05315-970, Sao Paolo, SP (Brazil); Nissin Electric Company, Ltd., 47, Umezu-Takase-cho, Ukyo-ku, Kyota 615-8686 (Japan)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin titanium nitride films were prepared at room temperature by titanium metal vapor deposition on silicon substrates with simultaneous irradiation by a 2 keV nitrogen ion beam. Arrival rate ratios, ARR(N/Ti), defined as the ratio of the flux of incident atomic nitrogen particles in the ion beam relative to the flux of titanium atoms transported to the substrate, ranged from 0.17 to 2.5. The gas pressure in the vacuum chamber was maintained at 1.3x10{sup -3} or 6.7x10{sup -3} Pa during the deposition and irradiation process. Analyses of Ti 2p x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra indicated the presence of metal Ti{sup 0}, nitride TiN, oxide TiO{sub 2}, oxynitride TiN{sub x}O{sub y}, and carbide TiC phases. The Ti{sup 0} phase was observed exclusively and predominantly in the films prepared at 1.3x10{sup -3} Pa and ARR(N/Ti)=0.17, 0.21, and 0.28, and the TiN phase is major in the others, as confirmed by the x-ray diffractometry analyses. The chemical composition ratio N/Ti in the films prepared at 1.3x10{sup -3} Pa increased linearly with increasing ARR(N/Ti) up to ARR(N/Ti)=0.42 and tended to be constant with further increase in ARR(N/Ti), while this ratio in the films prepared at 6.7x10{sup -3} Pa was almost constant independently of ARR(N/Ti), similar to the constant value observed at 1.3x10{sup -3} Pa and higher ARR(N/Ti). This dependence may be understood by comparison with the flux of evaporated titanium atoms, the flux of nitrogen in the beam, and the impingement rate of nitrogen gas in the vacuum chamber, evaluated through the kinetic theory of gases. On the other hand, titanium is known to be one of the chemically active materials which form stable compounds with gases by chemisorption, this fact leading to considerable incorporation of contaminant oxygen and carbon in the depositing titanium film.

  5. In situ synchrotron based x-ray techniques as monitoring tools for atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devloo-Casier, Kilian, E-mail: Kilian.DevlooCasier@Ugent.be; Detavernier, Christophe; Dendooven, Jolien [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281/S1, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Ludwig, Karl F. [Physics Department, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a thin film deposition technique that has been studied with a variety of in situ techniques. By exploiting the high photon flux and energy tunability of synchrotron based x-rays, a variety of new in situ techniques become available. X-ray reflectivity, grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering, x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are reviewed as possible in situ techniques during ALD. All these techniques are especially sensitive to changes on the (sub-)nanometer scale, allowing a unique insight into different aspects of the ALD growth mechanisms.

  6. Gas-phase transport of WF6 through annular nanopipes in TiN during chemical vapor deposition of W on TiN/Ti/SiO2 structures for integrated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Leslie H.

    Gas-phase transport of WF6 through annular nanopipes in TiN during chemical vapor deposition of W through the 106-nm-thick TiN film. W piles up at the TiN/Ti interface, while F rapidly saturates the TiN-sectional and scanning transmission electron microscopy analyses demonstrate that WF6 penetrates into the TiN layer

  7. SPIN (Version 3. 83): A Fortran program for modeling one-dimensional rotating-disk/stagnation-flow chemical vapor deposition reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coltrin, M.E. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Kee, R.J.; Evans, G.H.; Meeks, E.; Rupley, F.M.; Grcar, J.F. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In rotating-disk reactor a heated substrate spins (at typical speeds of 1000 rpm or more) in an enclosure through which the reactants flow. The rotating disk geometry has the important property that in certain operating regimes{sup 1} the species and temperature gradients normal to the disk are equal everywhere on the disk. Thus, such a configuration has great potential for highly uniform chemical vapor deposition (CVD),{sup 2--5} and indeed commercial rotating-disk CVD reactors are now available. In certain operating regimes, the equations describing the complex three-dimensional spiral fluid motion can be solved by a separation-of-variables transformation{sup 5,6} that reduces the equations to a system of ordinary differential equations. Strictly speaking, the transformation is only valid for an unconfined infinite-radius disk and buoyancy-free flow. Furthermore, only some boundary conditions are consistent with the transformation (e.g., temperature, gas-phase composition, and approach velocity all specified to be independent of radius at some distances above the disk). Fortunately, however, the transformed equations will provide a very good practical approximation to the flow in a finite-radius reactor over a large fraction of the disk (up to {approximately}90% of the disk radius) when the reactor operating parameters are properly chosen, i.e, high rotation rates. In the limit of zero rotation rate, the rotating disk flow reduces to a stagnation-point flow, for which a similar separation-of-variables transformation is also available. Such flow configurations ( pedestal reactors'') also find use in CVD reactors. In this report we describe a model formulation and mathematical analysis of rotating-disk and stagnation-point CVD reactors. Then we apply the analysis to a compute code called SPIN and describe its implementation and use. 31 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Effect of NH{sub 3} on the low pressure chemical vapor deposition of TiO{sub 2} film at low temperature using tetrakis(diethylamino)titanium and oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Xuemei; Takoudis, Christos G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 and Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States)

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of NH{sub 3} on TiO{sub 2} film deposition using tetrakis(diethylamino)titanium (TDEAT) and O{sub 2} as source gases in a low pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor was studied at low temperatures ranging from 100 to 250 deg. C. TiO{sub 2} film is traditionally deposited at temperature above 300 deg. C using oxygen-based Ti precursors, such as titanium tetraisopropoxide. In this study, the authors demonstrate that a combination of both reactive precursors, i.e., TDEAT and NH{sub 3}, is an effective technique for TiO{sub 2} film deposition at lower temperatures, albeit with some nitrogen incorporation. It was found that films can be formed at temperatures as low as 100 deg. C when NH{sub 3} is used. At higher temperatures, the growth rate of TiO{sub 2} films deposited using NH{sub 3} is higher than that of films deposited without NH{sub 3} by up to one order of magnitude. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data show that NH{sub 3} enhances the formation of TiNO and TiN, and x-ray diffraction analysis shows that all as-deposited films have amorphous structure. Both x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy depth profiles show that nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen are uniformly distributed throughout the film. The mechanism of enhancement of growth rate using NH{sub 3} is also discussed.

  9. Ion beam assisted deposition of thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youchison, Dennis L. (Albuquerque, NM); McDonald, Jimmie M. (Albuquerque, NM); Lutz, Thomas J. (Albuquerque, NM); Gallis, Michail A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for depositing thermal barrier coatings on gas turbine blades and vanes using Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EBPVD) combined with Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD).

  10. Double-sided reel-to-reel metal-organic chemical vapor deposition system of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-?} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Fei; Xiong, Jie, E-mail: jiexiong@uestc.edu.cn; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Ruipeng; Zhao, Xiaohui; Tao, Bowan; Li, Yanrong [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Film and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-micrometer thick YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-?} (YBCO) films have been successfully deposited on both sides of LaAlO{sub 3} single crystalline substrates by using a home-made reel-to-reel metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system, which has two opposite symmetrical shower heads and a special-designed heater. This technique can simultaneously fabricate double-sided films with high deposition rate up to 500?nm/min, and lead to doubling current carrying capability of YBCO, especially for coated conductors (CCs). X-ray diffraction analysis showed that YBCO films were well crystallized and highly epitaxial with the full width at half maximum values of 0.2°???0.3° for the rocking curves of (005) YBCO and 1.0° for ?-scans of (103) YBCO. Scanning electron microscope revealed dense, crack-free, slightly rough surface with Ba-Cu-O precipitates. The films showed critical current density (J{sub c}, 77?K, 0?T) of about 1 MA/cm{sup 2}, and overall critical current of 400?A/cm, ascribed to the double-sided structure. Our results also demonstrated that the temperature and composition in the deposition zone were uniform, which made MOCVD preparation of low cost and high performance double-sided YBCO CCs more promising for industrialization.

  11. In-situ deposition of high-k dielectrics on III-V compound semiconductor in MOCVD system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Cheng-Wei, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ deposition of high-k materials to passivate the GaAs in metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system was well demonstrated. Both atomic layer deposition (ALD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods ...

  12. assisted chemical vapor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nanodiamonds (NDs) with 70-80 nm size via bead assisted sonic disintegration (BASD) of a polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition (CVD) film. The NDs display high crystalline...

  13. Room-temperature cw operation of InGaP/InGaAlP visible light laser diodes on GaAs substrates grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishikawa, M.; Ohba, Y.; Sugawara, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Nakanisi, T.

    1986-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Room-temperature cw operation for InGaP/InGaAlP double heterostructure (DH) laser diodes on GaAs substrates was achieved for the first time. The DH wafers were grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using methyl metalorganics. A lasing wavelength of 679 nm and a threshold current of 109 mA at 24C were obtained for an inner stripe structure laser diode with a 250- m-long and 7- m stripe geometry. The laser operated at up to 51C. The characteristic temperature T0 was 87 K at around room temperature. The lowest threshold current density, 5.0 kA/cmS, was obtained with a 20- m stripe width laser diode under room-temperature pulsed operation.

  14. Low trap states in in situ SiN{sub x}/AlN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor structures grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Xing; Ma, Jun; Jiang, Huaxing; Liu, Chao; Lau, Kei May, E-mail: eekmlau@ust.hk [Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the use of SiN{sub x} grown in situ by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition as the gate dielectric for AlN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures. Two kinds of trap states with different time constants were identified and characterized. In particular, the SiN{sub x}/AlN interface exhibits remarkably low trap state densities in the range of 10{sup 11}–10{sup 12?}cm{sup ?2}eV{sup ?1}. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses revealed that the in situ SiN{sub x} layer can provide excellent passivation without causing chemical degradation to the AlN surface. These results imply the great potential of in situ SiN{sub x} as an effective gate dielectric for AlN/GaN MIS devices.

  15. Chemical vapor infiltration using microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devlin, David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Currier, Robert P. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing reinforced ceramic composite articles by means of chemical vapor infiltration and deposition in which an inverted temperature gradient is utilized. Microwave energy is the source of heat for the process.

  16. Photoinitiated chemical vapor depostion [sic] : mechanism and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baxamusa, Salmaan Husain

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photoinitiated chemical vapor deposition (piCVD) is developed as a simple, solventless, and rapid method for the deposition of swellable hydrogels and functional hydrogel copolymers. Mechanistic experiments show that piCVD ...

  17. Measurement and modeling of Ar/H2/CH4 arc jet discharge chemical vapor deposition reactors II: Modeling of the spatial dependence of expanded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    and used to deposit thin films of polycrystalline diamond. This reactor has been the subject of many prior of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond and diamondlike carbon films. The model incorporates gas activation-containing radical species incident on the growing diamond surface C atoms and CH radicals within this reactor

  18. Organic-vapor-liquid-solid deposition with an impinging gas jet Daniel W. Shaw, Kevin Bufkin, Alexandr A. Baronov, Brad L. Johnson, and David L. Patrick

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick, David L.

    -sputter deposition of high-indium-content n-AlInN thin film on p-Si(001) substrate for photovoltaic applications J-assisted processing AIP Advances 2, 032171 (2012) Degradation and passivation of CuInSe2 Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 112108 been used in transistors, light emitting diodes, and photovoltaics;2 as chemical sensors;3

  19. The influence of ammonia on rapid-ther al low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposited TIN, films from tetrakis (dimethylamido) titanium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    , films from tetrakis (dimethylamido) titanium precursor onto InP A. Katz, A. Feingold, S. Nakahara, and SP, using a combined reactive chemistry of ammonia (NH,) gas and tetrakis (dimethylamido) titanium (DMATi to the preview RT-LPMOCVD TN, film deposited using only the DMATi precursor. I. INTRODUCTION Titanium nitride

  20. Real-time process sensing and metrology in amorphous and selective area silicon plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using in situ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Real-time process sensing and metrology in amorphous and selective area silicon plasma enhanced Materials Processing, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 Received 11 July 1996 silicon deposition. The ability of mass spectrometry to observe process faults in real time is also

  1. Effect of reactor pressure on the electrical and structural properties of InN epilayers grown by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nabben, Reinhard

    Effect of reactor pressure on the electrical and structural properties of InN epilayers grown://avspublications.org/jvsta/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Effect of reactor pressure on the electrical and structural properties of InN epilayers grown-atmospheric reactor pressures (2.5­18.5 bar) on the electrical and structural properties of InN epilayers deposited

  2. Harvard University Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD): An Enabler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deposition (CVD) One or more gases or vapors react to form a solid product Reaction started by heat mixing 2 vapors plasma Solid product can be a film particle nanowire nanotube precursor vapors byproduct vapors University Coatings on the Outside of Particles ALD AlN coating ZnS particles Used in electroluminescent back

  3. Precision replenishable grinding tool and manufacturing process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Kerns, John A. (Livermore, CA); Blaedel, Kenneth L. (Livermore, CA); Colella, Nicholas J. (Livermore, CA); Davis, Pete J. (Pleasanton, CA); Juntz, Robert S. (Hayward, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reusable grinding tool consisting of a replaceable single layer of abrasive particles intimately bonded to a precisely configured tool substrate, and a process for manufacturing the grinding tool. The tool substrate may be ceramic or metal and the abrasive particles are preferably diamond, but may be cubic boron nitride. The manufacturing process involves: coating a configured tool substrate with layers of metals, such as titanium, copper and titanium, by physical vapor deposition (PVD); applying the abrasive particles to the coated surface by a slurry technique; and brazing the abrasive particles to the tool substrate by alloying the metal layers. The precision control of the composition and thickness of the metal layers enables the bonding of a single layer or several layers of micron size abrasive particles to the tool surface. By the incorporation of an easily dissolved metal layer in the composition such allows the removal and replacement of the abrasive particles, thereby providing a process for replenishing a precisely machined grinding tool with fine abrasive particles, thus greatly reducing costs as compared to replacing expensive grinding tools.

  4. Precision replenishable grinding tool and manufacturing process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Kerns, J.A.; Blaedel, K.L.; Colella, N.J.; Davis, P.J.; Juntz, R.S.

    1998-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A reusable grinding tool consisting of a replaceable single layer of abrasive particles intimately bonded to a precisely configured tool substrate, and a process for manufacturing the grinding tool are disclosed. The tool substrate may be ceramic or metal and the abrasive particles are preferably diamond, but may be cubic boron nitride. The manufacturing process involves: coating a configured tool substrate with layers of metals, such as titanium, copper and titanium, by physical vapor deposition (PVD); applying the abrasive particles to the coated surface by a slurry technique; and brazing the abrasive particles to the tool substrate by alloying the metal layers. The precision control of the composition and thickness of the metal layers enables the bonding of a single layer or several layers of micron size abrasive particles to the tool surface. By the incorporation of an easily dissolved metal layer in the composition such allows the removal and replacement of the abrasive particles, thereby providing a process for replenishing a precisely machined grinding tool with fine abrasive particles, thus greatly reducing costs as compared to replacing expensive grinding tools. 11 figs.

  5. InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well and LED growth on wafer-bonded sapphire-on-polycrystalline AlN substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Olson, S. M. (Aonex Technologies Inc., Pasadena, CA); Banas, M.; Park, Y. -B. (Aonex Technologies Inc., Pasadena, CA); Ladous, C. (Aonex Technologies Inc., Pasadena, CA); Russell, Michael J.; Thaler, Gerald; Zahler, J. M. (Aonex Technologies Inc., Pasadena, CA); Pinnington, T. (Aonex Technologies Inc., Pasadena, CA); Koleske, Daniel David; Atwater, Harry A. (Aonex Technologies Inc., Pasadena, CA)

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report growth of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well (MQW) and LED structures on a novel composite substrate designed to eliminate the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch problems which impact GaN growth on bulk sapphire. To form the composite substrate, a thin sapphire layer is wafer-bonded to a polycrystalline aluminum nitride (P-AlN) support substrate. The sapphire layer provides the epitaxial template for the growth; however, the thermo-mechanical properties of the composite substrate are determined by the P-AlN. Using these substrates, thermal stresses associated with temperature changes during growth should be reduced an order of magnitude compared to films grown on bulk sapphire, based on published CTE data. In order to test the suitability of the substrates for GaN LED growth, test structures were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using standard process conditions for GaN growth on sapphire. Bulk sapphire substrates were included as control samples in all growth runs. In situ reflectance monitoring was used to compare the growth dynamics for the different substrates. The material quality of the films as judged by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was similar for the composite substrate and the sapphire control samples. Electroluminescence was obtained from the LED structure grown on a P-AlN composite substrate, with a similar peak wavelength and peak width to the control samples. XRD and Raman spectroscopy results confirm that the residual strain in GaN films grown on the composite substrates is dramatically reduced compared to growth on bulk sapphire substrates.

  6. Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition for Optoelectronic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coleman, James J.

    ­1100 nm, visible InGaP and related compounds, and the column III nitrides for blue and ultraviolet la

  7. Quantum cascade laser investigations of CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} interconversion in hydrocarbon/H{sub 2} gas mixtures during microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma Jie; Cheesman, Andrew; Ashfold, Michael N. R. [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Hay, Kenneth G.; Wright, Stephen; Langford, Nigel; Duxbury, Geoffrey [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, John Anderson Building, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Mankelevich, Yuri A. [Skobel'tsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} molecules (and their interconversion) in hydrocarbon/rare gas/H{sub 2} gas mixtures in a microwave reactor used for plasma enhanced diamond chemical vapor deposition (CVD) have been investigated by line-of-sight infrared absorption spectroscopy in the wavenumber range of 1276.5-1273.1 cm{sup -1} using a quantum cascade laser spectrometer. Parameters explored include process conditions [pressure, input power, source hydrocarbon, rare gas (Ar or Ne), input gas mixing ratio], height (z) above the substrate, and time (t) after addition of hydrocarbon to a pre-existing Ar/H{sub 2} plasma. The line integrated absorptions so obtained have been converted to species number densities by reference to the companion two-dimensional (r,z) modeling of the CVD reactor described in Mankelevich et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 104, 113304 (2008)]. The gas temperature distribution within the reactor ensures that the measured absorptions are dominated by CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} molecules in the cool periphery of the reactor. Nonetheless, the measurements prove to be of enormous value in testing, tensioning, and confirming the model predictions. Under standard process conditions, the study confirms that all hydrocarbon source gases investigated (methane, acetylene, ethane, propyne, propane, and butane) are converted into a mixture dominated by CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. The interconversion between these two species is highly dependent on the local gas temperature and the H atom number density, and thus on position within the reactor. CH{sub 4}->C{sub 2}H{sub 2} conversion occurs most efficiently in an annular shell around the central plasma (characterized by 1400CH{sub 4} is favored in the more distant regions where T{sub gas}<1400 K. Analysis of the multistep interconversion mechanism reveals substantial net consumption of H atoms accompanying the CH{sub 4}->C{sub 2}H{sub 2} conversion, whereas the reverse C{sub 2}H{sub 2}->CH{sub 4} process only requires H atoms to drive the reactions; H atoms are not consumed by the overall conversion.

  8. atmospheric dry deposition: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    water vapor, and we confirm such predictions in a numerical model. There have been a number 38 Dual nitrate isotopes in dry deposition: Utility for partitioning NOx source...

  9. Structures and Energetics of Some Potential Intermediates in Titanium Nitride Chemical Vapor Deposition: TiClm(NH2)n, TiClm(NH2)nNH, and TiClm(NH2)nN. An ab Initio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Structures and Energetics of Some Potential Intermediates in Titanium Nitride Chemical Vapor with these basis sets augmented by multiple sets of polarization and diffuse functions using the B3LYP optimized geometries. Bond dissociation energies, heats of atomization, heats of formation, and entropies have been

  10. Vapor spill monitoring method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bianchini, Gregory M. (Livermore, CA); McRae, Thomas G. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

  11. Microwave plasma assisted supersonic gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, III, Jerome J. (New Haven, CT); Halpern, Bret L. (Bethany, CT)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for fabricating thin film materials utilizing high speed gas dynamics relies on supersonic free jets of carrier gas to transport depositing vapor species generated in a microwave discharge to the surface of a prepared substrate where the vapor deposits to form a thin film. The present invention generates high rates of deposition and thin films of unforeseen high quality at low temperatures.

  12. Evaporation monitoring and composition control of alloy systems with widely differing vapor pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anklam, T.M.; Berzins, L.V.; Braun, D.G.; Haynam, C.; McClelland, M.A.; Meier, T.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing sensors and controls to improve and extend electron beam materials processing technology to alloy systems with constituents of widely varying vapor pressure. The approach under development involves using tunable lasers to measure the density and composition of the vapor plume. A laser based vaporizer control system for vaporization of a uranium-iron alloy has been previously demonstrated in multi-hundred hour, high rate vaporization experiments at LLNL. This paper reviews the design and performance of the uranium vaporization sensor and control system and discusses the extension of the technology to monitoring of uranium vaporization. Data is presented from an experiment in which titanium wire was fed into a molten niobium pool. Laser data is compared to deposited film composition and film cross sections. Finally, the potential for using this technique for composition control in melting applications is discussed.

  13. Evaporation monitoring and composition control of alloy systems with widely differing vapor pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anklam, T.M.; Berzins, L.V.; Braun, D.G.; Haynam, C.; McClelland, M.A.; Meier, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing sensors and controls to improve and extend electron beam materials processing technology to alloy systems with constituents of widely varying vapor pressure. The approach under development involves using tunable lasers to measure the density and composition of the vapor plume. A laser based vaporizer control system for vaporization of a uranium-iron alloy has been previously demonstrated in multi-hundred hour, high rate vaporization experiments at LLNL. This paper reviews the design and performance of the uranium vaporization sensor and control system and discusses the extension of the technology to monitoring of titanium vaporization. Data is presented from an experiment in which titanium wire was fed into a molten niobium pool. Laser data is compared to deposited film composition and film cross sections. Finally, the potential for using this technique for composition control in melting applications is discussed.

  14. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research. ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research. Abstract: The generation of calibrated vapor samples of...

  15. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

    1983-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

  16. Method for deposition of a conductor in integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Creighton, J.R.; Dominguez, F.; Johnson, A.W.; Omstead, T.R.

    1997-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for fabricating integrated semiconductor circuits and, more particularly, for the selective deposition of a conductor onto a substrate employing a chemical vapor deposition process. By way of example, tungsten can be selectively deposited onto a silicon substrate. At the onset of loss of selectivity of deposition of tungsten onto the silicon substrate, the deposition process is interrupted and unwanted tungsten which has deposited on a mask layer with the silicon substrate can be removed employing a halogen etchant. Thereafter, a plurality of deposition/etch back cycles can be carried out to achieve a predetermined thickness of tungsten. 2 figs.

  17. Method for deposition of a conductor in integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Creighton, J. Randall (Albuquerque, NM); Dominguez, Frank (Albuquerque, NM); Johnson, A. Wayne (Albuquerque, NM); Omstead, Thomas R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for fabricating integrated semiconductor circuits and, more particularly, for the selective deposition of a conductor onto a substrate employing a chemical vapor deposition process. By way of example, tungsten can be selectively deposited onto a silicon substrate. At the onset of loss of selectivity of deposition of tungsten onto the silicon substrate, the deposition process is interrupted and unwanted tungsten which has deposited on a mask layer with the silicon substrate can be removed employing a halogen etchant. Thereafter, a plurality of deposition/etch back cycles can be carried out to achieve a predetermined thickness of tungsten.

  18. Organic vapor jet printing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

  19. ENHANCED GROWTH RATE AND SILANE UTILIZATION IN AMORPHOUS SILICON AND NANOCRYSTALLINE-SILICON SOLAR CELL DEPOSITION VIA GAS PHASE ADDITIVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridgeway, R.G.; Hegedus, S.S.; Podraza, N.J.

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Products set out to investigate the impact of additives on the deposition rate of both ���µCSi and ���±Si-H films. One criterion for additives was that they could be used in conventional PECVD processing, which would require sufficient vapor pressure to deliver material to the process chamber at the required flow rates. The flow rate required would depend on the size of the substrate onto which silicon films were being deposited, potentially ranging from 200 mm diameter wafers to the 5.7 m2 glass substrates used in GEN 8.5 flat-panel display tools. In choosing higher-order silanes, both disilane and trisilane had sufficient vapor pressure to withdraw gas at the required flow rates of up to 120 sccm. This report presents results obtained from testing at Air Products�¢���� electronic technology laboratories, located in Allentown, PA, which focused on developing processes on a commercial IC reactor using silane and mixtures of silane plus additives. These processes were deployed to compare deposition rates and film properties with and without additives, with a goal of maximizing the deposition rate while maintaining or improving film properties.

  20. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Xiaonan (Golden, CO); Sheldon, Peter (Lakewood, CO)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  1. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

    1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  2. Ge incorporation inside 4H-SiC during Homoepitaxial growth by chemical vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Ge incorporation inside 4H-SiC during Homoepitaxial growth by chemical vapor deposition. Kassem Ilmenau (Germany) Abstract. In this work, we report on the addition of GeH4 gas during homoepitaxial growth of 4H-SiC by chemical vapour deposition. Ge introduction does not affect dramatically the surface

  3. Robust Numerical Simulation of Porosity Evolution in Chemical Vapor In ltration II: Two Dimensional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Shi

    -solid reactions with solid deposition are exempli#12;ed by the fabrication of ceramic matrix composites through #3) process, during which a matrix of ceramic #12;bers is chemically vapor deposited within a porous preform practical approach to fabricate ceramic composites. Among these composites, #12;ber-reinforced composites

  4. Stratified vapor generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Hassani, Vahab (Golden, CO)

    2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A stratified vapor generator (110) comprises a first heating section (H.sub.1) and a second heating section (H.sub.2). The first and second heating sections (H.sub.1, H.sub.2) are arranged so that the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2) is operatively associated with the outlet of the first heating section (H.sub.1). A moisture separator (126) having a vapor outlet (164) and a liquid outlet (144) is operatively associated with the outlet (124) of the second heating section (H.sub.2). A cooling section (C.sub.1) is operatively associated with the liquid outlet (144) of the moisture separator (126) and includes an outlet that is operatively associated with the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2).

  5. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  6. Forced vaporization cooling of HVDC thyristor valves. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scaringe, R.P.; Staub, F.W.; Lazarek, G.M.; Black, S.H.; Abuaf, N.

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cooling of power-dissipating devices by boiling Freon R-113 was investigated. Thermohydraulic instability questions were resolved, and it was shown tht the maximum (critical) heat flux available using this coolant in a forced vaporization cooling mode provides sufficient margin for semiconductor device duty cycles. Analytical predictive tools, experimental data, and empirical correlations were developed for design purposes.

  7. Microwave plasma assisted supersonic gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, J.J. III; Halpern, B.L.

    1993-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for fabricating thin film materials utilizing high speed gas dynamics relies on supersonic free jets of carrier gas to transport depositing vapor species generated in a microwave discharge to the surface of a prepared substrate where the vapor deposits to form a thin film. The present invention generates high rates of deposition and thin films of unforeseen high quality at low temperatures. 5 figures.

  8. To estimate vapor pressure easily

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Yang, H.C. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (USA))

    1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor pressures as functions of temperature for approximately 700 major organic chemical compounds are given. The tabulation also gives the temperature range for which the data are applicable. Minimum and maximum temperatures are denoted by TMIN and TMAX. The Antoine equation that correlates vapor pressure as a function of temperature is described. A representative comparison of calculated and actual data values for vapor pressure is shown for ethyl alcohol. The coefficient tabulation is based on both literature (experimental data) and estimated values.

  9. Water Vapor Experiment Concludes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps1DOE AwardsDNitrateEnergyNews3 Water Vapor

  10. ARM Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProducts (VAP) VAP Update Information on new,Scanning Radar323ARM Water Vapor IOP

  11. Vapor Transport in Dry Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2001-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Water-vapor movement in soils is a complex process, controlled by both diffusion and advection and influenced by pressure and thermal gradients acting across tortuous flow paths. Wide-ranging interest in water-vapor transport includes both theoretical and practical aspects. Just how pressure and thermal gradients enhance water-vapor flow is still not completely understood and subject to ongoing research. Practical aspects include dryland farming (surface mulching), water harvesting (aerial wells), fertilizer placement, and migration of contaminants at waste-sites. The following article describes the processes and practical applications of water-vapor transport, with emphasis on unsaturated (dry) soil systems.

  12. Vaporization of zinc from scrap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The rate of zinc vaporization from galvanized scrap was measured using a thermogravimetric apparatus along with chemical analysis. It is found that the rate of zinc vaporization is very fast in nitrogen and carbon monoxide atmospheres at temperatures higher than 950 C. At lower temperature rate decreases with decreasing temperature and is controlled by the gas phase mass transport. The simultaneous oxidation and vaporization of zinc occurs when the samples were heated in carbon dioxide and air. The current experimental results indicate that almost all of the zinc from scrap vaporizes during the heating process in a very short period of time after the temperature reaches above 850 C.

  13. Synthesis and deposition of metal nanoparticles by gas condensation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maicu, Marina, E-mail: marina.maicu@fep.fraunhofer.de; Glöß, Daniel; Frach, Peter [Fraunhofer Institut für Elektronenstrahl und Plasmatechnik, FEP, Winterbergstraße 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Schmittgens, Ralph; Gerlach, Gerald [Institut für Festkörperelektronik, IFE, TU Dresden, Helmholtz Straße 18, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Hecker, Dominic [Fraunhofer Institut für Elektronenstrahl und Plasmatechnik, FEP, Winterbergstraße 28, 01277 Dresden, Germany and Institut für Festkörperelektronik, IFE, TU Dresden, Helmholtz Straße 18, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, the synthesis of Pt and Ag nanoparticles by means of the inert gas phase condensation of sputtered atomic vapor is presented. The process parameters (power, sputtering time, and gas flow) were varied in order to study the relationship between deposition conditions and properties of the nanoparticles such as their quantity, size, and size distribution. Moreover, the gas phase condensation process can be combined with a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition procedure in order to deposit nanocomposite coatings consisting of metallic nanoparticles embedded in a thin film matrix material. Selected examples of application of the generated nanoparticles and nanocomposites are discussed.

  14. Vapor spill pipe monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

    1983-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

  15. In situ analysis of ash deposits from black liquor combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernath, P. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sinquefield, S.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Oregon State Univ., Eugene, OR (United States); Baxter, L.L.; Sclippa, G.; Rohlfing, C. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Barfield, M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerosols formed during combustion of black liquor cause a significant fire-side fouling problem in pulp mill recovery boilers. The ash deposits reduce heat transfer effectiveness, plug gas passages, and contribute to corrosion. Both vapors and condensation aerosols lead to the formation of such deposits. The high ash content of the fuel and the low dew point of the condensate salts lead to a high aerosol and vapor concentration in most boilers. In situ measurements of the chemical composition of these deposits is an important step in gaining a fundamental understanding of the deposition process. Infrared emission spectroscopy is used to characterize the composition of thin film deposits resulting from the combustion of black liquor and the deposition of submicron aerosols and vapors. New reference spectra of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} pure component films were recorded and compared with the spectra of the black liquor deposit. All of the black liquor emission bands were identified using a combination of literature data and ab initio calculations. Ab initio calculations also predict the locations and intensities of bands for the alkali vapors of interest. 39 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Compositional Variations in Vapor Deposited Samarium Zirconate Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    section of the engine (the combustor and high pressure turbine). The blades at the inlet of the high temperatures instead have relied on the development of thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. The thermal coat applied to the superalloy surface, (ii) a thermally grown oxide layer (TGO) that forms on the bond

  17. Micro Chemical Vapor Deposition for the Synthesis of Nanomaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Qin

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Journal of MicroElectroMechanical Systems, vol. 20, pp. 9-Chair MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) technologiesby MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) technologies many

  18. Vapor deposited samarium zirconate thermal barrier coatings Hengbei Zhao a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    technology for the gas turbine engines used for propulsion and power generation [1]. Through their ability conductivity (~2.1 W m- 1 K- 1 at 1000 T1200 °C [9]), its thermochemical compatibility with the underlying TGO

  19. Graphene growth with giant domains using chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yong, Virginia; Hahn, H. Thomas

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    N. Martensson, Controlling graphene corrugation on lattice-in patterned epitaxial graphene, Science, 2006, 312(5777), 92009, 4(6), 17 A. K. Geim, Graphene: Status and Prospects,

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Partnership, Research & Capabilities, Solid-State Lighting Solid state lighting (SSL), which uses light-emitting diodes (LEDs), has the potential to be 10 times more energy...

  1. A Multiscale Simulator for Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Custom Technologies, Motorola, Inc., Mail Drop M350, 2200 W. Broadway Rd., Mesa, AZ 85202 Timothy that govern the species and energy transport with chemical reactions throughout the reactor chamber, and (2

  2. A Multiscale Simulator for Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Custom Technologies, Motorola, Inc., Mail Drop M350, 2200 W. Broadway Rd., Mesa, AZ 85202 Timothy the equations that govern the species and energy transport with chemical reactions throughout the reactor

  3. Vapor-Wall Deposition in Chambers: Theoretical Considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McVay, Renee C; Cappa, Christopher D; Seinfeld, John H

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aerosol size distribution changes continuously as particles grow by condensation and are lost by coagulation

  4. Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HWCVD) technologies - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football Highdefault Sign InDataCenterCenterPortal

  5. Vapor Retarder Classification - Building America Top Innovation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Top Innovation. See an example of vapor retarder best practices in action. Find other case studies of Building America projects across the country that utilizes vapor retarder...

  6. Enthalpies of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures of Some Deuterated Hydrocarbons. Liquid-Vapor Pressure Isotope Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Enthalpies of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures of Some Deuterated Hydrocarbons. Liquid hydrocarbons and their perdeuterated analogues have been determined by correlation-gas chromatography of cyclohexane-d12 and benzene-d6. Other hydrocarbons studied include the perdeuterated forms of hexane, toluene

  7. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm.

  8. Laser induced thermophoresis and particulate deposition efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cipolla, J.; Morse, T.F.; Wang, C.Y.

    1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of laser radiation and an absorbing aerosol in a tube flow has been considered. The aerosol is produced by external heating of reactants as in the MCVD (Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition) process to produce submicron size particles in the manufacture of optical fiber preforms. These are subsequently deposited by thermophoretic forces on the inner wall of the tube as they are convected by a Poiseuille velocity profile. Axial laser radiation in the tube interacts with the absorbing particles, and the laser heating of the gas induces additional thermophoretic forces that markedly increase the efficiency of particulate deposition. A particle concentration dependent absorption coefficient that appears in the energy equation couples the energy equation to the equation of particle conservation, so that a non-linear set of coupled partial integrodifferential equations must be solved. Numerical solutions for aerosol particle trajectories, and thus deposition efficiencies, have been obtained. It is shown that laser enhanced thermophoresis markedly improves the deposition efficiency.

  9. High strain rate metalworking with vaporizing foil actuator: Control of flyer velocity by varying input energy and foil thickness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivek, A., E-mail: vivek.4@osu.edu; Hansen, S. R.; Daehn, Glenn S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2041, College Road, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrically driven rapid vaporization of thin metallic foils can generate a high pressure which can be used to launch flyers at high velocities. Recently, vaporizing foil actuators have been applied toward a variety of impulse-based metal working operations. In order to exercise control over this useful tool, it is imperative that an understanding of the effect of characteristics of the foil actuator on its ability for mechanical impulse generation is developed. Here, foil actuators made out of 0.0508 mm, 0.0762 mm, and 0.127 mm thick AA1145 were used for launching AA2024-T3 sheets of thickness 0.508 mm toward a photonic Doppler velocimeter probe. Launch velocities ranging between 300 m/s and 1100 m/s were observed. In situ measurement of velocity, current, and voltage assisted in understanding the effect of burst current density and deposited electrical energy on average pressure and velocity with foil actuators of various thicknesses. For the pulse generator, geometry, and flyer used here, the 0.0762 mm thick foil was found to be optimal for launching flyers to high velocities over short distances. Experimenting with annealed foil actuators resulted in no change in the temporal evolution of flyer velocity as compared to foil actuators of full hard temper. A physics-based analytical model was developed and found to have reasonable agreement with experiment.

  10. Tribology Letters Vol. 10, No. 3, 2001 179 Activation of the SiC surface for vapor phase lubrication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gellman, Andrew J.

    above 500 C [2,3,11,12]. Since liquid lubricants cannot withstand such extreme conditions, a number deposition 1. Introduction The lubrication of ceramic surfaces working at extremely high temperatures has lubrication by Fe chemical vapor deposition from Fe(CO)5 Daxing Ren, Dougyong Sung and Andrew J. Gellman

  11. Development of Lithium Deposition Techniques for TFTR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorman, J.; Johnson, D.; Kugel, H.W.; Labik, G.; Lemunyan, G.; et al

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to increase the quantity of lithium deposition into TFTR beyond that of the Pellet Injector while minimizing perturbations to the plasma provides interesting experimental and operational options. Two additional lithium deposition tools were developed for possible application during the 1996 Experimental Schedule: a solid lithium target probe for real-time deposition, and a lithium effusion oven for deposition between discharges. The lithium effusion oven was operated in TFTR to deposit lithium on the Inner Limiter in the absence of plasma. This resulted in the third highest power TFTR discharge.

  12. Development of lithium deposition techniques for TFTR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kugel, H.W.; Gorman, J.; Johnson, D.; Labik, G.; Lemunyan, G.; Mansfield, D.; Timberlake, J.; Vocaturo, M.

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to increase the quantity of lithium deposition into TFTR beyond that of the Pellet Injector while minimizing perturbations to the plasma provides interesting experimental and operational options. Two additional lithium deposition tools were developed for possible application during the 1996 Experimental Schedule: a solid lithium target probe for real-time deposition, and a lithium effusion oven for deposition between discharges. The lithium effusion oven was operated in TFTR to deposit lithium on the Inner Limiter in the absence of plasma. This resulted in the third highest power TFTR discharge.

  13. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ho, Clifford K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  14. Control of pyrophoricity in deposits produced by electron beam evaporation of uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, J.

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A description is given of an apparatus for reducing the pyrophoricity of deposits of a material evaporated within a chamber comprising: a sealed chamber defined by an enclosure; means for providing within said chamber an atmosphere of generally non-reactive nature; a reservoir of a material to ve evaporated; means for directing a vapor of said material from said reservoir into said chamber; at least one surface within said chamber in the path of the directed vapor and on which at least portions of the vaporized material deposits; means for cooling said enclosure to a temperature at which said vapor deposits at a relatively low pyrophoric density; and means for maintaining a temperature for said collection surfaces higher than the enclosure temperature to promote deposition of said material at a relatively higher density.

  15. EFFECT OF FILTER TEMPERATURE ON TRAPPING ZINC VAPOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.

    2011-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    To address the {sup 65}Zn contamination issue in the TEF, a multi-task experimental program was initiated. The first experimental task was completed and is reported in Ref. 1. The results of the second experimental task are reported here. This task examined the effect of filter temperature on trapping efficiency and deposit morphology. Based on the first experimental tasks that examined filter pore size and trapping efficiency, stainless steel filter media with a 20 {micro}m pore size was selected. A series of experiments using these filters was conducted during this second task to determine the effect of filter temperature on zinc vapor trapping efficiency, adhesion and morphology. The tests were conducted with the filters heated to 60, 120, and 200 C; the zinc source material was heated to 400 C for all the experiments to provide a consistent zinc source. The samples were evaluated for mass change, deposit adhesion and morphology. As expected from the physical vapor deposition literature, a difference in deposit morphology and appearance was observed between the three filter temperatures. The filter held at 60 C had the largest average mass gain while the 120 and 200 C filters exhibited similar but lower weight gains. The standard deviations were large and suggest that all three temperatures exhibited comparable gains. No zinc was detected on the backside surface of the filters indicating high efficiency for front and internal trapping. A zinc rich deposit was formed on the surface of the 60 C filter. Based on a simple tape adhesion test, the surface zinc was readily removed from the 60 C filter while less zinc deposit was removed from the 120 and 200 C filter samples. It is surmised that the higher temperatures enable the zinc to deposit within the filter media rather than on the surface. Based on the findings that all three statistically trapped the same quantity of zinc vapor and that the higher temperatures resulted in a more adherent/better trapped product, operating the filters at 120 to 200 C is recommended.

  16. Deposition of dopant impurities and pulsed energy drive-in

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wickboldt, Paul (Walnut Creek, CA); Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA); Ellingboe, Albert R. (Fremont, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor doping process which enhances the dopant incorporation achievable using the Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) technique. The enhanced doping is achieved by first depositing a thin layer of dopant atoms on a semiconductor surface followed by exposure to one or more pulses from either a laser or an ion-beam which melt a portion of the semiconductor to a desired depth, thus causing the dopant atoms to be incorporated into the molten region. After the molten region recrystallizes the dopant atoms are electrically active. The dopant atoms are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or other known deposition techniques.

  17. Deposition of dopant impurities and pulsed energy drive-in

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wickboldt, Paul (Walnut Creek, CA); Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Jose, CA); Ellingboe, Albert R. (Malahide, IE)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor doping process which enhances the dopant incorporation achievable using the Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) technique. The enhanced doping is achieved by first depositing a thin layer of dopant atoms on a semiconductor surface followed by exposure to one or more pulses from either a laser or an ion-beam which melt a portion of the semiconductor to a desired depth, thus causing the dopant atoms to be incorporated into the molten region. After the molten region recrystallizes the dopant atoms are electrically active. The dopant atoms are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or other known deposition techniques.

  18. Deposition of dopant impurities and pulsed energy drive-in

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wickboldt, P.; Carey, P.G.; Smith, P.M.; Ellingboe, A.R.

    1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor doping process which enhances the dopant incorporation achievable using the Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) technique is disclosed. The enhanced doping is achieved by first depositing a thin layer of dopant atoms on a semiconductor surface followed by exposure to one or more pulses from either a laser or an ion-beam which melt a portion of the semiconductor to a desired depth, thus causing the dopant atoms to be incorporated into the molten region. After the molten region recrystallizes the dopant atoms are electrically active. The dopant atoms are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or other known deposition techniques. 2 figs.

  19. Source replenishment device for vacuum deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, R.A.

    1986-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A material source replenishment device for use with a vacuum deposition apparatus is described. The source replenishment device comprises an intermittent motion producing gear arrangement disposed within the vacuum deposition chamber. An elongated rod having one end operably connected to the gearing arrangement is provided with a multiarmed head at the opposite end disposed adjacent the heating element of the vacuum deposition apparatus. An inverted U-shaped source material element is releasably attached to the outer end of each arm member whereby said multiarmed head is moved to locate a first of said material elements above said heating element, whereupon said multiarmed head is lowered to engage said material element with the heating element and further lowered to release said material element on the heating element. After vaporization of said material element, second and subsequent material elements may be provided to the heating element without the need for opening the vacuum deposition apparatus to the atmosphere.

  20. Image Storage in Hot Vapors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Zhao; T. Wang; Y. Xiao; S. F. Yelin

    2007-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We theoretically investigate image propagation and storage in hot atomic vapor. A $4f$ system is adopted for imaging and an atomic vapor cell is placed over the transform plane. The Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of an object in the object plane can thus be transformed into atomic Raman coherence according to the idea of ``light storage''. We investigate how the stored diffraction pattern evolves under diffusion. Our result indicates, under appropriate conditions, that an image can be reconstructed with high fidelity. The main reason for this procedure to work is the fact that diffusion of opposite-phase components of the diffraction pattern interfere destructively.

  1. Vapor explosion in the RIA-ST-4 experiment. [BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Genk, M.S.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A concern in assuring the safety of commercial light water reactors (LWRs) is whether core overheating, during which molten fuel is produced, can lead to massive vaporization of the coolant and shock pressurization of the system due to an energetic molten fuel-coolant interaction (MFCI). The RIA-ST-4 experiment was one of four scoping tests in the Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) Test Series which is being conducted in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) to define an energy deposition failure threshold and to determine modes and consequences of fuel rod failure during a postulated boiling water reactor (BWR) control rod drop accident.

  2. Hydrogen Cars and Water Vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    misidentified as "zero-emissions vehicles." Fuel cell vehicles emit water vapor. A global fleet could have, with discernible effects on people and ecosystems. The broad environmental effects of fuel cell vehicles. This cycle is currently under way with hydrogen fuel cells. As fuel cell cars are suggested as a solution

  3. Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, Barbara K. (Charleston, WV)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatilized metal compounds retard vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

  4. Percussion tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Teddy R.

    2006-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A percussion tool is described and which includes a housing mounting a tool bit; a reciprocally moveable hammer borne by the housing and which is operable to repeatedly strike the tool bit; and a reciprocally moveable piston enclosed within the hammer and which imparts reciprocal movement to the reciprocally moveable hammer.

  5. TULSA UNIVERSITY PARAFFIN DEPOSITION PROJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Volk; Cem Sarica

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As oil and gas production moves to deeper and colder water, subsea multiphase production systems become critical for economic feasibility. It will also become increasingly imperative to adequately identify the conditions for paraffin precipitation and predict paraffin deposition rates to optimize the design and operation of these multiphase production systems. Although several oil companies have paraffin deposition predictive capabilities for single-phase oil flow, these predictive capabilities are not suitable for the multiphase flow conditions encountered in most flowlines and wellbores. For deepwater applications in the Gulf of Mexico, it is likely that multiphase production streams consisting of crude oil, produced water and gas will be transported in a single multiphase pipeline to minimize capital cost and complexity at the mudline. Existing single-phase (crude oil) paraffin deposition predictive tools are clearly inadequate to accurately design these pipelines because they do not account for the second and third phases, namely, produced water and gas. The objective of this program is to utilize the current test facilities at The University of Tulsa, as well as member company expertise, to accomplish the following: enhance our understanding of paraffin deposition in single and two-phase (gas-oil) flows; conduct focused experiments to better understand various aspects of deposition physics; and, utilize knowledge gained from experimental modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for predicting paraffin deposition in single and two-phase flow environments. These refined computer models will then be tested against field data from member company pipelines. The following deliverables are scheduled during the first three projects of the program: (1) Single-Phase Studies, with three different black oils, which will yield an enhanced computer code for predicting paraffin deposition in deepwater and surface pipelines. (2) Two-Phase Studies, with a focus on heat transfer and paraffin deposition at various pipe inclinations, which will be used to enhance the paraffin deposition code for gas-liquid flow in pipes. (3) Deposition Physics and Water Impact Studies, which will address the aging process, improve our ability to characterize paraffin deposits and enhance our understanding of the role water plays in paraffin deposition in deepwater pipelines. As in the previous two studies, knowledge gained in this suite of studies will be integrated into a state-of-the-art three-phase paraffin deposition computer program.

  6. Evaporation system and method for gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, Jerome J. (New Haven, CT); Halpern, Bret L. (Bethany, CT)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for depositing thin films of materials such as metals, oxides and nitrides at low temperature relies on a supersonic free jet of inert carrier gas to transport vapor species generated from an evaporation source to the surface of a substrate. Film deposition vapors are generated from solid film precursor materials, including those in the form of wires or powders. The vapor from these sources is carried downstream in a low pressure supersonic jet of inert gas to the surface of a substrate where the vapors deposit to form a thin film. A reactant gas can be introduced into the gas jet to form a reaction product with the evaporated material. The substrate can be moved from the gas jet past a gas jet containing a reactant gas in which a discharge has been generated, the speed of movement being sufficient to form a thin film which is chemically composed of the evaporated material and reactant gases.

  7. Vapor canister heater for evaporative emissions systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, R.P.; Berg, P.G.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Automotive evaporative emissions systems use a charcoal canister to store evaporative hydrocarobn emissions. These stored vapors are later purged and burned during engine operation. Under certain conditions the engine cannot completely purge the canister of the stored fuel vapors, which results in a decreased vapor storage capacity in the canister. A self-regulating PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) heater has been developed to warm the purge air as it enters the canister, in order to provide thermal energy for increased release of the vapors from charcoal sites. This paper describes the construction and operation of the vapor canister heater as it relates to improved evaporative emission system performance.

  8. Means and method for vapor generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid, in heat transfer contact with a surface heated to a temperature well above the vaporization temperature of the liquid, will undergo a multiphase (liquid-vapor) transformation from 0% vapor to 100% vapor. During this transition, the temperature driving force or heat flux and the coefficients of heat transfer across the fluid-solid interface, and the vapor percentage influence the type of heating of the fluid--starting as "feedwater" heating where no vapors are present, progressing to "nucleate" heating where vaporization begins and some vapors are present, and concluding with "film" heating where only vapors are present. Unstable heating between nucleate and film heating can occur, accompanied by possibly large and rapid temperature shifts in the structures. This invention provides for injecting into the region of potential unstable heating and proximate the heated surface superheated vapors in sufficient quantities operable to rapidly increase the vapor percentage of the multiphase mixture by perhaps 10-30% and thereby effectively shift the multiphase mixture beyond the unstable heating region and up to the stable film heating region.

  9. Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, A.F.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Rambach, G.D.; Randich, E.

    1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated. 8 figs.

  10. Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Rambach, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Randich, Erik (Endinboro, PA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.

  11. Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Rambach, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Randich, Erik (Endinboro, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.

  12. Control of flow through a vapor generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radcliff, Thomas D.

    2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In a Rankine cycle system wherein a vapor generator receives heat from exhaust gases, provision is made to avoid overheating of the refrigerant during ORC system shut down while at the same time preventing condensation of those gases within the vapor generator when its temperature drops below a threshold temperature by diverting the flow of hot gases to ambient and to thereby draw ambient air through the vapor generator in the process. In one embodiment, a bistable ejector is adjustable between one position, in which the hot gases flow through the vapor generator, to another position wherein the gases are diverted away from the vapor generator. Another embodiment provides for a fixed valve ejector with a bias towards discharging to ambient, but with a fan on the downstream side of said vapor generator for overcoming this bias.

  13. Coupling apparatus for a metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Miller, John L. (Dublin, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coupling apparatus for a large bore metal vapor laser is disclosed. The coupling apparatus provides for coupling high voltage pulses (approximately 40 KV) to a metal vapor laser with a high repetition rate (approximately 5 KHz). The coupling apparatus utilizes existing thyratron circuits and provides suitable power input to a large bore metal vapor laser while maintaining satisfactory operating lifetimes for the existing thyratron circuits.

  14. Coupling apparatus for a metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, D.G.; Miller, J.L.

    1993-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Coupling apparatus for a large bore metal vapor laser is disclosed. The coupling apparatus provides for coupling high voltage pulses (approximately 40 KV) to a metal vapor laser with a high repetition rate (approximately 5 KHz). The coupling apparatus utilizes existing thyratron circuits and provides suitable power input to a large bore metal vapor laser while maintaining satisfactory operating lifetimes for the existing thyratron circuits.

  15. Overview of chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Lowden, R.A.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is developing into a commercially important method for the fabrication of continuous filament ceramic composites. Current efforts are focused on the development of an improved understanding of the various processes in CVI and its modeling. New approaches to CVI are being explored, including pressure pulse infiltration and microwave heating. Material development is also proceeding with emphasis on improving the oxidation resistance of the interfacial layer between the fiber and matrix. This paper briefly reviews these subjects, indicating the current state of the science and technology.

  16. Wick for metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, David B. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved wick for a metal vapor laser is made of a refractory metal cylinder, preferably molybdenum or tungsten for a copper laser, which provides the wicking surface. Alternately, the inside surface of the ceramic laser tube can be metalized to form the wicking surface. Capillary action is enhanced by using wire screen, porous foam metal, or grooved surfaces. Graphite or carbon, in the form of chunks, strips, fibers or particles, is placed on the inside surface of the wick to reduce water, reduce metal oxides and form metal carbides.

  17. Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, B.K.

    1991-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Volatilized metal compounds are described which are capable of retarding vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

  18. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1999-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

  19. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Vincent J. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

  20. Queer Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

    2007-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Broadcast Transcript: Chindogu. Did someone say "Bless you?" No need. This is a Japanese word that means "queer tools" and it was coined to describe the Japanese penchant for unusual inventions. From toilet paper rolls that attach to the head...

  1. Workflow Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at NERSC go here. Galaxy - Galaxy is a web based workflow tool that is use by the genomics community. It allows you to define job dependencies via a web based workflow engine....

  2. Tools | JCESR

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tools JCESR Logos Logos are available for download in jpg format. To view the full-size logo file, click the description under the version of the logo you are interested in. When...

  3. Tropospheric water vapor and climate sensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, E.K.; Kirtman, B.P.; Lindzen, R.S. [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States)] [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States)

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimates are made of the effect of changes in tropospheric water vapor on the climate sensitivity to doubled carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) using a coarse resolution atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab mixed layer ocean. The sensitivity of the model to doubled CO{sub 2} is found as the difference between the equilibrium responses for control and doubled CO{sub 2} cases. Clouds are specified to isolate the water vapor feedback. Experiments in which the water vapor distribution is specified rather than internally calculated are used to find the contribution of water vapor in various layers and latitude belts to the sensitivity. The contribution of water vapor in layers of equal mass to the climate sensitivity varies by about a factor of 2 with height, with the largest contribution coming from layers between 450 and 750 mb, and the smallest from layers above 230 mb. The positive feedback on the global mean surface temperature response to doubled CO{sub 2} from water vapor above 750 mb is about 2.6 times as large as that from water vapor below 750 mb. The feedback on global mean surface temperature due to water vapor in the extratropical free troposphere is about 50% larger than the feedback due to the lower-latitude free troposphere water vapor. Several important sources of nonlinearity of the radiative heating rates were identified in the process of constructing the specified cloud and water vapor fields. These are (1) the interaction of clouds and solar radiation, which produces much more reflection of solar radiation for time mean clouds than for the instantaneous clouds; (2) the correlation of clouds and water vapor, which produces less downward longwave radiation at the ground for correlated clouds and water vapor than when these fields are independent; and (3) the interaction of water vapor with long wave radiation, which produces less downward longwave radiation at the ground of the average over instantaneous water vapor distributions than of the time mean water vapor distribution.

  4. TULSA UNIVERSITY PARAFFIN DEPOSITION PROJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cem Sarica; Michael Volk

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As oil and gas production moves to deeper and colder water, subsea multiphase production systems become critical for economic feasibility. It will also become increasingly imperative to adequately identify the conditions for paraffin precipitation and predict paraffin deposition rates to optimize the design and operation of these multi-phase production systems. Although several oil companies have paraffin deposition predictive capabilities for single-phase oil flow, these predictive capabilities are not suitable for the multiphase flow conditions encountered in most flowlines and wellbores. For deepwater applications in the Gulf of Mexico, it is likely that multiphase production streams consisting of crude oil, produced water and gas will be transported in a single multiphase pipeline to minimize capital cost and complexity at the mudline. Existing single-phase (crude oil) paraffin deposition predictive tools are clearly inadequate to accurately design these pipelines, because they do not account for the second and third phases, namely, produced water and gas. The objective of this program is to utilize the current test facilities at The University of Tulsa, as well as member company expertise, to accomplish the following: enhance our understanding of paraffin deposition in single and two-phase (gas-oil) flows; conduct focused experiments to better understand various aspects of deposition physics; and, utilize knowledge gained from experimental modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for predicting paraffin deposition in single and two-phase flow environments. These refined computer models will then be tested against field data from member company pipelines.

  5. Development of chemical vapor composites, CVC materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Industry has a critical need for high-temperature operable ceramic composites that are strong, non-brittle, light weight, and corrosion resistant. Improvements in energy efficiency, reduced emissions and increased productivity can be achieved in many industrial processes with ceramic composites if the reaction temperature and pressure are increased. Ceramic composites offer the potential to meet these material requirements in a variety of industrial applications. However, their use is often restricted by high cost. The Chemical Vapor composite, CVC, process can reduce the high costs and multiple fabrication steps presently required for ceramic fabrication. CVC deposition has the potential to eliminate many difficult processing problems and greatly increase fabrication rates for composites. With CVC, the manufacturing process can control the composites` density, microstructure and composition during growth. The CVC process: can grow or deposit material 100 times faster than conventional techniques; does not require an expensive woven preform to infiltrate; can use high modulus fibers that cannot be woven into a preform; can deposit composites to tolerances of less than 0.025 mm on one surface without further machining.

  6. LNG fire and vapor control system technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

  7. Quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gundel, Lara (Berkeley, CA); Daisey, Joan M. (Walnut Creek, CA); Stevens, Robert K. (Cary, NC)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler for sampling semi-volatile organic gases and particulate components. A semi-volatile organic reversible gas sorbent macroreticular resin agglomerates of randomly packed microspheres with the continuous porous structure of particles ranging in size between 0.05-10 .mu.m for use in an integrated diffusion vapor-particle sampler.

  8. 6, 80698095, 2006 Water vapor in Asian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of Sciences, Beijing, China 2 National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, USA Received: 23 May 2006 vapor from European Center for Medium-Range Weather20 Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses. 1 Introduction Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor (UTWV) is a key greenhouse gas which exerts a major influence on the energy balance

  9. Oxygen-assisted room-temperature deposition of CoPt3 films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hellman, Frances

    Oxygen-assisted room-temperature deposition of CoPt3 films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy B Jolla, California 92093 Received 23 July 2002; accepted 30 September 2002 Trace amounts of oxygen CoPt3 grown by vapor deposition at or slightly above room temperature. Oxygen is known to act

  10. HANFORD CHEMICAL VAPORS WORKER CONCERNS & EXPOSURE EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANDERSON, T.J.

    2006-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical vapor emissions from underground hazardous waste storage tanks on the Hanford site in eastern Washington State are a potential concern because workers enter the tank farms on a regular basis for waste retrievals, equipment maintenance, and surveillance. Tank farm contractors are in the process of retrieving all remaining waste from aging single-shell tanks, some of which date to World War II, and transferring it to newer double-shell tanks. During the waste retrieval process, tank farm workers are potentially exposed to fugitive chemical vapors that can escape from tank headspaces and other emission points. The tanks are known to hold more than 1,500 different species of chemicals, in addition to radionuclides. Exposure assessments have fully characterized the hazards from chemical vapors in half of the tank farms. Extensive sampling and analysis has been done to characterize the chemical properties of hazardous waste and to evaluate potential health hazards of vapors at the ground surface, where workers perform maintenance and waste transfer activities. Worker concerns. risk communication, and exposure assessment are discussed, including evaluation of the potential hazards of complex mixtures of chemical vapors. Concentrations of vapors above occupational exposure limits-(OEL) were detected only at exhaust stacks and passive breather filter outlets. Beyond five feet from the sources, vapors disperse rapidly. No vapors have been measured above 50% of their OELs more than five feet from the source. Vapor controls are focused on limited hazard zones around sources. Further evaluations of vapors include analysis of routes of exposure and thorough analysis of nuisance odors.

  11. Workflow Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengtheningWildfires may contribute more to &83 3.3 Table3WorkToolsTools

  12. Stacked vapor fed amtec modules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sievers, Robert K. (North Huntingdon, PA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention pertains to a stacked AMTEC module. The invention includes a tubular member which has an interior. The member is comprised of a ion conductor that substantially conducts ions relative to electrons, preferably a beta"-alumina solid electrolyte, positioned about the interior. A porous electrode for conducting electrons and allowing sodium ions to pass therethrough, and wherein electrons and sodium ions recombine to form sodium is positioned about the beta"-alumina solid electrolyte. The electrode is operated at a temperature and a pressure that allows the recombined sodium to vaporize. Additionally, an outer current collector grid for distributing electrons throughout the porous electrode is positioned about and contacts the porous electrode. Also included in the invention is transporting means for transporting liquid sodium to the beta"-alumina solid electrolyte of the tubular member. A transition piece is positioned about the interior of the member and contacts the transporting means. The transition piece divides the member into a first cell and a second cell such that each first and second cell has a beta"-alumina solid electrolyte, a first and second porous electrode and a grid. The transition piece conducts electrons from the interior of the tubular member. There is supply means for supplying sodium to the transporting means. Preferably the supply means is a shell which surrounds the tubular member and is operated at a temperature such that the vaporized sodium condenses thereon. Returning means for returning the condensed sodium from the shell to the transporting means provides a continuous supply of liquid sodium to the transporting means. Also, there are first conducting means for conducting electric current from the transition piece which extends through the shell, and second conducting means for conducting electric current to the grid of the first cell which extends through the shell.

  13. Quantitative Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-PhaseGlyoxal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-Phase Glyoxal,Methylglyoxal, and 2,3-Butanedione (Diacetyl) with Quantitative Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-Phase Glyoxal,Methylglyoxal,...

  14. Absolute integrated intensities of vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Absolute integrated intensities of vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide (H202) in the mid-infrared at atmospheric pressure. Absolute integrated intensities of vapor-phase hydrogen...

  15. Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymers for Chemical Vapor Sensing. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Acidic Polymers for Chemical Vapor Sensing. Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymers for Chemical Vapor Sensing. Abstract: A review with 171 references. Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers for...

  16. Recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirza, Zia I. (La Verne, CA); Knell, Everett W. (Los Alamitos, CA); Winter, Bruce L. (Danville, CA)

    1980-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Values are recovered from a hydrocarbon-containing vapor by contacting the vapor with quench liquid consisting essentially of hydrocarbons to form a condensate and a vapor residue, the condensate and quench fluid forming a combined liquid stream. The combined liquid stream is mixed with a viscosity-lowering liquid to form a mixed liquid having a viscosity lower than the viscosity of the combined liquid stream to permit easy handling of the combined liquid stream. The quench liquid is a cooled portion of the mixed liquid. Viscosity-lowering liquid is separated from a portion of the mixed liquid and cycled to form additional mixed liquid.

  17. Downhole tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Muradov, Andrei; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott Steven; Briscoe, Michael A.

    2007-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A double shouldered downhole tool connection comprises box and pin connections having mating threads intermediate mating primary and secondary shoulders. The connection further comprises a secondary shoulder component retained in the box connection intermediate a floating component and the primary shoulders. The secondary shoulder component and the pin connection cooperate to transfer a portion of makeup load to the box connection. The downhole tool may be selected from the group consisting of drill pipe, drill collars, production pipe, and reamers. The floating component may be selected from the group consisting of electronics modules, generators, gyroscopes, power sources, and stators. The secondary shoulder component may comprises an interface to the box connection selected from the group consisting of radial grooves, axial grooves, tapered grooves, radial protrusions, axial protrusions, tapered protrusions, shoulders, and threads.

  18. Photo deposition of metal with far uv radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blum, S.E.; Brown, K.H.

    1984-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for depositing a refractory metal onto a substrate is described wherein a carbonyl compound vapor of the metal in the vicinity of or on the substrate is photodecomposed by ultraviolet radiation of wavelengths less than 200 nm. This causes the release of atoms of the metal, which then condense onto the substrate. In an example, a tungsten layer is photodeposited by this method onto a GaAs semiconductor layer to form a Schottky barrier diode.

  19. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and An Evaluation of Thermophoretic Deposition Rates C.1of estimated thermophoretic deposition velocities, v th+ ,of estimated thermophoretic deposition velocities, v th+ ,

  20. An advanced vapor-compression desalination system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lara Ruiz, Jorge Horacio Juan

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, the two dominant desalination methods are reverse osmosis (RO) and multi-stage flash (MSF). RO requires large capital investment and maintenance, whereas MSF is too energy intensive. An innovative vapor-compression desalination system...

  1. Modeling of LNG Pool Spreading and Vaporization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basha, Omar 1988-

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, a source term model for estimating the rate of spreading and vaporization of LNG on land and sea is introduced. The model takes into account the composition changes of the boiling mixture, the varying thermodynamic properties due...

  2. Solid-Vapor Sorption Refrigeration Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graebel, W.; Rockenfeller, U.; Kirol, L.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SOLID-VAPOR SORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS DR. WILLIAM GRAEBEL DR. UWE ROCKENFELLER MR. LANCE KIROL Engineer President Chief Engineer Rocky Research Rocky Research Rocky Research Boulder city, NV Boulder city, NV Boulder City, NV Abstract.... Complex compounds have a number of advantages as working media, including: 43 SOLID-VAPOR SORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS DR. WILLIAM GRAEBEL Engineer Rocky Research Boulder city, NV DR. UWE ROCKENFELLER President Rocky Research Boulder city, NV MR...

  3. Workflow Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengtheningWildfires may contribute more to &83 3.3 Table3WorkTools

  4. Novel Low Cost Organic Vapor Jet Printing of Striped High Efficiency Phosphorescent OLEDs for White Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Hack

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this program, Universal Display Corporation and University of Michigan proposed to integrate three innovative concepts to meet the DOE's Solid State Lighting (SSL) goals: (1) high-efficiency phosphorescent organic light emitting device (PHOLED{trademark}) technology, (2) a white lighting design that is based on a series of red, green and blue OLED stripes, and (3) the use of a novel cost-effective, high rate, mask-less deposition process called organic vapor jet printing (OVJP). Our PHOLED technology offers up to four-times higher power efficiency than other OLED approaches for general lighting. We believe that one of the most promising approaches to maximizing the efficiency of OLED lighting sources is to produce stripes of the three primary colors at such a pitch (200-500 {mu}m) that they appear as a uniform white light to an observer greater than 1 meter (m) away from the illumination source. Earlier work from a SBIR Phase 1 entitled 'White Illumination Sources Using Striped Phosphorescent OLEDs' suggests that stripe widths of less than 500 {mu}m appear uniform from a distance of 1m without the need for an external diffuser. In this program, we intend to combine continued advances in this PHOLED technology with the striped RGB lighting design to demonstrate a high-efficiency, white lighting source. Using this background technology, the team has focused on developing and demonstrating the novel cost-effective OVJP process to fabricate these high-efficiency white PHOLED light sources. Because this groundbreaking OVJP process is a direct printing approach that enables the OLED stripes to be printed without a shadow mask, OVJP offers very high material utilization and high throughput without the costs and wastage associated with a shadow mask (i.e. the waste of material that deposits on the shadow mask itself). As a direct printing technique, OVJP also has the potential to offer ultra-high deposition rates (> 1,000 Angstroms/second) for any size or shaped features. As a result, we believe that this work will lead to the development of a cost-effective manufacturing solution to produce very-high efficiency OLEDs. By comparison to more common ink-jet printing (IJP), OVJP can also produce well-defined patterns without the need to pattern the substrate with ink wells or to dry/anneal the ink. In addition, the material set is not limited by viscosity and solvent solubility. During the program we successfully demonstrated a 6-inch x 6-inch PHOLED lighting panel consisting of fine-featured red, green and blue (R-G-B) stripes (1mm width) using an OVJP deposition system that was designed, procured and installed into UDC's cleanroom as part of this program. This project will significantly accelerate the DOE's ability to meet its 2015 DOE SSL targets of 70-150 lumens/Watt and less than $10 per 1,000 lumens for high CRI lighting index (76-90). Coupled with a low cost manufacturing path through OVJP, we expect that this achievement will enable the DOE to achieve its 2015 performance goals by the year 2013, two years ahead of schedule. As shown by the technical work performed under this program, we believe that OVJP is a very promising technology to produce low cost, high efficacy, color tunable light sources. While we have made significant progress to develop OVJP technology and build a pilot line tool to study basic aspects of the technology and demonstrate a lighting panel prototype, further work needs to be performed before its full potential and commercial viability can be fully assessed.

  5. Sealable stagnation flow geometries for the uniform deposition of materials and heat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarty, Kevin F. (Livermore, CA); Kee, Robert J. (Livermore, CA); Lutz, Andrew E. (Alamo, CA); Meeks, Ellen (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention employs a constrained stagnation flow geometry apparatus to achieve the uniform deposition of materials or heat. The present invention maximizes uniform fluxes of reactant gases to flat surfaces while minimizing the use of reagents and finite dimension edge effects. This results, among other things, in large area continuous films that are uniform in thickness, composition and structure which is important in chemical vapor deposition processes such as would be used for the fabrication of semiconductors.

  6. Vapor scavenging by atmospheric aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, E.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle growth due to vapor scavenging was studied using both experimental and computational techniques. Vapor scavenging by particles is an important physical process in the atmosphere because it can result in changes to particle properties (e.g., size, shape, composition, and activity) and, thus, influence atmospheric phenomena in which particles play a role, such as cloud formation and long range transport. The influence of organic vapor on the evolution of a particle mass size distribution was investigated using a modified version of MAEROS (a multicomponent aerosol dynamics code). The modeling study attempted to identify the sources of organic aerosol observed by Novakov and Penner (1993) in a field study in Puerto Rico. Experimentally, vapor scavenging and particle growth were investigated using two techniques. The influence of the presence of organic vapor on the particle`s hydroscopicity was investigated using an electrodynamic balance. The charge on a particle was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A prototype apparatus--the refractive index thermal diffusion chamber (RITDC)--was developed to study multiple particles in the same environment at the same time.

  7. Environmentally focused patterning and processing of polymer thin films by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) and oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trujillo, Nathan J. (Nathan Jeffrey)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The new millennium has brought fourth many technological innovations made possible by the advancement of high speed integrated circuits. The materials and energy requirements for a microchip is orders of magnitude higher ...

  8. Apparatus for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flynn, P.L.; Giammarise, A.W.

    1995-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice`s interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas. 2 figs.

  9. Process for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flynn, Paul L. (5139 Fox Park Dr., Fairview, PA 16415); Giammarise, Anthony W. (527 Lincoln Ave., Erie, PA 16505)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance toerosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas.

  10. Process for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flynn, P.L.; Giammarise, A.W.

    1991-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas. 2 figures.

  11. Apparatus for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flynn, Paul L. (Fairview, PA); Giammarise, Anthony W. (Erie, PA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas.

  12. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment: Quarterly technical report, June 1, 1987-August 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, D.E.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our emphasis in the present program is on experimentally validating and developing rational, theoretical methods of predicting the role of inertia and ash particle thermophoresis in determining net deposition rates. We also wish to quantify how simultaneous vapor deposition (e.g., alkali sulfate) can influence the sticking and erosion associated with impacting particles. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Nanocoatings for High-Efficiency Industrial and Tooling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, P; Qu, J.; Higdon, C. (Eaton Corporation)

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This industry-driven project was the result of a successful response by Eaton Corporation to a DOE/ITP Program industry call. It consisted of three phases in which ORNL participated. In addition to Eaton Corporation and ORNL (CRADA), the project team included Ames Laboratory, who developed the underlying concept for aluminum-magnesium-boron based nanocomposite coatings [1], and Greenleaf, a small tooling manufacturer in western Pennsylvania. This report focuses on the portion of this work that was conducted by ORNL in a CRADA with Eaton Corporation. A comprehensive final report for the entire effort, which ended in September 2010, has been prepared by Eaton Corporation. Phase I, “Proof of Concept” ran for one year (September 1, 2006 to September 30, 2007) during which the applicability of AlMgB14 single-phase and nanocomposite coatings on hydraulic material coupons and components as well as on tool inserts was demonstrated.. The coating processes used either plasma laser deposition (PLD) or physical vapor deposition (PVD). During Phase I, ORNL conducted laboratory-scale pin-on-disk and reciprocating pin-on-flat tests of coatings produced by PLD and PVD. Non-coated M2 tool steel was used as a baseline for comparison, and the material for the sliding counterface was Type 52100 bearing steel since it simulated the pump materials. Initial tests were run mainly in a commercial hydraulic fluid named Mobil DTE-24, but some tests were later run in a water-glycol mixture as well. A tribosystem analysis was conducted to define the operating conditions of pump components and to help develop simulative tests in Phase II. Phase II, “Coating Process Scale-up” was intended to use scaled-up process to generate prototype parts. This involved both PLD practices at Ames Lab, and a PVD scale-up study at Eaton using its production capable equipment. There was also a limited scale-up study at Greenleaf for the tooling application. ORNL continued to conduct friction and wear tests on process variants and developed tests to better simulate the applications of interest. ORNL also employed existing lubrication models to better understand hydraulic pump frictional behavior and test results. Phase III, “Functional Testing” focused on finalizing the strategy for commercialization of AlMgB14 coatings for both hydraulic and tooling systems. ORNL continued to provide tribology testing and analysis support for hydraulic pump applications. It included both laboratory-scale coupon testing and the analysis of friction and wear data from full component-level tests performed at Eaton Corp. Laboratory-scale tribology test methods are used to characterize the behavior of nanocomposite coatings prior to running them in full-sized hydraulic pumps. This task also includes developing tribosystems analyses, both to provide a better understanding of the performance of coated surfaces in alternate hydraulic fluids, and to help design useful laboratory protocols. Analysis also includes modeling the lubrication conditions and identifying the physical processes by which wear and friction of the contact interface changes over time. This final report summarizes ORNL’s portion of the nanocomposite coatings development effort and presents both generated data and the analyses that were used in the course of this effort.

  14. Metal vapor target for precise studies of ion-atom collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, W., E-mail: w.chen@gsi.de; Vorobyev, G.; Herfurth, F.; Hillenbrand, P.-M.; Spillmann, U. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Guo, D. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 Gansu (China); Trotsenko, S. [Helmholtz-Institut Jena Fröbelstieg 3, 07743 Jena (Germany); Gumberidze, A. [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI and Research Division, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); FIAS Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Stöhlker, Th. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Jena Fröbelstieg 3, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Although different ion-atom collisions have been studied in various contexts, precise values of cross-sections for many atomic processes were seldom obtained. One of the main uncertainties originates from the value of target densities. In this paper, we describe a unique method to measure a target density precisely with a combination of physical vapor deposition and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. This method is preliminarily applied to a charge transfer cross-section measurement in collisions between highly charged ions and magnesium vapor. The final relative uncertainty of the target density is less than 2.5%. This enables the precise studies of atomic processes in ion-atom collisions, even though in the trial test the deduction of precise capture cross-sections was limited by other systematic errors.

  15. Tools | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Tools Tools logofemp.png The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) offers links to tools that can help agencies reduce energy use and meet federal laws and requirements. Tools...

  16. Vibrational spectra of CO adsorbed on oxide thin films: A tool to probe the surface defects and phase changes of oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savara, Aditya, E-mail: savaraa@ornl.gov [Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Lab, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin films of iron oxide were grown on Pt(111) single crystals using cycles of physical vapor deposition of iron followed by oxidative annealing in an ultrahigh vacuum apparatus. Two procedures were utilized for film growth of ?15–30 ML thick films, where both procedures involved sequential deposition+oxidation cycles. In procedure 1, the iron oxide film was fully grown via sequential deposition+oxidation cycles, and then the fully grown film was exposed to a CO flux equivalent to 8 × 10{sup ?7} millibars, and a vibrational spectrum of adsorbed CO was obtained using infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy. The vibrational spectra of adsorbed CO from multiple preparations using procedure 1 show changes in the film termination structure and/or chemical nature of the surface defects—some of which are correlated with another phase that forms (“phase B”), even before enough of phase B has formed to be easily detected using low energy electron diffraction (LEED). During procedure 2, CO vibrational spectra were obtained between deposition+oxidation cycles, and these spectra show that the film termination structure and/or chemical nature of the surface defects changed as a function of sequential deposition+oxidation cycles. The authors conclude that measurement of vibrational spectra of adsorbed CO on oxide thin films provides a sensitive tool to probe chemical changes of defects on the surface and can thus complement LEED techniques by probing changes not visible by LEED. Increased use of vibrational spectra of adsorbed CO on thin films would enable better comparisons between films grown with different procedures and by different groups.

  17. Method and Apparatus for Concentrating Vapors for Analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Baldwin, David L. (Kennewick, WA); Anheier, Jr., Norman C. (Richland, WA)

    2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for pre-concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the apparatus can be thermally desorbed achieving at least partial separation of vapor mixtures. The apparatus is suitable, e.g., for preconcentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than for direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications.

  18. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Dawson, Jay W. (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  19. Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Dawson, Jay W. (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2006-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

  20. Adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported on: adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks; theoretical investigation of adsorption; estimation of adsorption parameters from transient experiments; transient adsorption experiment -- salinity and noncondensible gas effects; the physics of injection of water into, transport and storage of fluids within, and production of vapor from geothermal reservoirs; injection optimization at the Geysers Geothermal Field; a model to test multiwell data interpretation for heterogeneous reservoirs; earth tide effects on downhole pressure measurements; and a finite-difference model for free surface gravity drainage well test analysis.

  1. Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.

    1988-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself. 4 figs.

  2. Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry (Tracy, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself.

  3. ZnO/Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 solar cells prepared by vapor phase Zn doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan, Kannan; Hasoon, Falah S.; Asher, Sarah E.; Dolan, James; Keane, James C.

    2007-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for making a thin film ZnO/Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 solar cell without depositing a buffer layer and by Zn doping from a vapor phase, comprising: depositing Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 layer on a metal back contact deposited on a glass substrate; heating the Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 layer on the metal back contact on the glass substrate to a temperature range between about 100.degree. C. to about 250.degree. C.; subjecting the heated layer of Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 to an evaporant species from a Zn compound; and sputter depositing ZnO on the Zn compound evaporant species treated layer of Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2.

  4. ZnO/Cu(InGa)Se2 solar cells prepared by vapor phase Zn doping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramanathan, Kannan; Hasoon, Falah S.; Asher, Sarah E.; Dolan, James; Keane, James C.

    2007-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for making a thin film ZnO/Cu(InGa)Se2 solar cell without depositing a buffer layer and by Zn doping from a vapor phase, comprising: depositing Cu(InGa)Se2 layer on a metal back contact deposited on a glass substrate; heating the Cu(InGa)Se2 layer on the metal back contact on the glass substrate to a temperature range between about 100.degree. C. to about 250.degree. C.; subjecting the heated layer of Cu(InGa)Se2 to an evaporant species from a Zn compound; and sputter depositing ZnO on the Zn compound evaporant species treated layer of Cu(InGa)Se2.

  5. Instrument Series: Deposition and Microfabrication Sputter Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    heating for attaining precise and repeatable growth conditions Substrate rotation ­ provides variable-speed offers operational flexibility, efficiency, and control, allowing a range of applications and materials and solid oxide fuel cells and solar cells for energy generation Microfabrication ­ deposition

  6. Solution deposition assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roussillon, Yann; Scholz, Jeremy H; Shelton, Addison; Green, Geoff T; Utthachoo, Piyaphant

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and devices are provided for improved deposition systems. In one embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system is provided for use with a solution and a substrate. The system comprises of a solution deposition apparatus; at least one heating chamber, at least one assembly for holding a solution over the substrate; and a substrate curling apparatus for curling at least one edge of the substrate to define a zone capable of containing a volume of the solution over the substrate. In another embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system for use with a substrate, the system comprising a solution deposition apparatus; at heating chamber; and at least assembly for holding solution over the substrate to allow for a depth of at least about 0.5 microns to 10 mm.

  7. Quaternary Borate Deposits As A Geothermal Exploration Tool In...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    springs, and thus the borates can, and are, serving as a guide to locating otherwise blind geothermal systems. Using borates as an exploation guide, and with key assistance from...

  8. Advanced Chemical Heat Pumps Using Liquid-Vapor Reactions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirol, L.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical heat pumps utilizing liquid-vapor reactions can be configured in forms analogous to electric drive vapor-compression heat pumps and heat activated absorption heat pumps. Basic thermodynamic considerations eliminate some heat pumps and place...

  9. Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, Building America team Building Science Corporation researched some of the ramifications of using exterior, vapor permeable insulation on retrofit walls with vapor permeable cavity insulation. Retrofit strategies are a key factor in reducing exterior building stock consumption.

  10. Vapor intrusion modeling : limitations, improvements, and value of information analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friscia, Jessica M. (Jessica Marie)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor intrusion is the migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a subsurface source into the indoor air of an overlying building. Vapor intrusion models, including the Johnson and Ettinger (J&E) model, can be ...

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    OPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS CONSIDERING ADSORPTION governing the behavior of vapor- dominated geothermal reservoirs. These mechanisms affect both was to determine the most effective injection strategy once these two effects are considered. Geothermal reservoir

  12. Droplet destabilization during Bi catalyzed vapor-liquuid-solid growth of GaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeJarld, M., E-mail: mdejarld@umich.edu; Nothern, D.; Millunchick, J. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan 2300 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105 (United States)

    2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    GaAs nanodiscs are grown in a molecular beam epitaxy chamber via the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism with liquid Bi as the catalyst. Each nanostructure consists of a series of increasingly larger overlapping discs. The structure forms during deposition due to the fact that the catalyst grows until reaching a critical size whereupon it destabilizes, dropping off the disc onto the substrate, where it catalyzes the growth of a new disc of larger radius. It is shown that critical size is limited by the sidewall wetting with a contact angle significantly smaller than the Gibb's criterion.

  13. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Atkinson, David

    2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  14. Vaporization of synthetic fuels. Final report. [Thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sirignano, W.A.; Yao, S.C.; Tong, A.Y.; Talley, D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of transient droplet vaporization in a hot convective environment is examined. The main objective of the present study is to develop an algorithm for the droplet vaporization which is simple enough to be feasibly incorporated into a complete spray combustion analysis and yet will also account for the important physics such as liquid-phase internal circulation, unsteady droplet heating and axisymmetric gas-phase convection. A simplified liquid-phase model has been obtained based on the assumption of the existence of a Hill's spherical vortex inside the droplet together with some approximations made in the governing diffusion equation. The use of the simplified model in a spray situation has also been examined. It has been found that droplet heating and vaporization are essentially unsteady and droplet temperature is nonuniform for a significant portion of its lifetime. It has also been found that the droplet vaporization characteristic can be quite sensitive to the particular liquid-phase and gas-phase models. The results of the various models are compared with the existing experimental data. Due to large scattering in the experimental measurements, particularly the droplet diameter, no definite conclusion can be drawn based on the experimental data. Finally, certain research problems which are related to the present study are suggested for future studies.

  15. Atomic-vapor-laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, J.I.

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper gives a brief history of the scientific considerations leading to the development of laser isotope separation (LIS) processes. The close relationship of LIS to the broader field of laser-induced chemical processes is evaluated in terms of physical criteria to achieve an efficient production process. Atomic-vapor LIS processes under development at Livermore are reviwed. 8 figures.

  16. Program performs vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, V.L.

    1982-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A program designed for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV or 41C calculators solves basic vapor-liquid equilibrium problems, including figuring the dewpoint, bubblepoint, and equilibrium flash. The algorithm uses W.C. Edmister's method for predicting ideal-solution K values.

  17. Effects of capillarity and vapor adsorption in the depletion of vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, Karsten; O'Sullivan, Michael

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs in natural (undisturbed) conditions contain water as both vapor and liquid phases. The most compelling evidence for the presence of distributed liquid water is the observation that vapor pressures in these systems are close to saturated vapor pressure for measured reservoir temperatures (White et al., 1971; Truesdell and White, 1973). Analysis of natural heat flow conditions provides additional, indirect evidence for the ubiquitous presence of liquid. From an analysis of the heat pipe process (vapor-liquid counterflow) Preuss (1985) inferred that effective vertical permeability to liquid phase in vapor-dominated reservoirs is approximately 10{sup 17} m{sup 2}, for a heat flux of 1 W/m{sup 2}. This value appears to be at the high end of matrix permeabilities of unfractured rocks at The Geysers, suggesting that at least the smaller fractures contribute to liquid permeability. For liquid to be mobile in fractures, the rock matrix must be essentially completely liquid-saturated, because otherwise liquid phase would be sucked from the fractures into the matrix by capillary force. Large water saturation in the matrix, well above the irreducible saturation of perhaps 30%, has been shown to be compatible with production of superheated steam (Pruess and Narasimhan, 1982). In response to fluid production the liquid phase will boil, with heat of vaporization supplied by the reservoir rocks. As reservoir temperatures decline reservoir pressures will decline also. For depletion of ''bulk'' liquid, the pressure would decline along the saturated vapor pressure curve, while for liquid held by capillary and adsorptive forces inside porous media, an additional decline will arise from ''vapor pressure lowering''. Capillary pressure and vapor adsorption effects, and associated vapor pressure lowering phenomena, have received considerable attention in the geothermal literature, and also in studies related to geologic disposal of heat generating nuclear wastes, and in the drying of porous materials. Geothermally oriented studies were presented by Chicoine et al. (1977), Hsieh and Ramey (1978, 1981), Herkelrath et al. (1983), and Nghiem and Ramey (1991). Nuclear waste-related work includes papers by Herkelrath and O'Neal (1985), Pollock (1986), Eaton and Bixler (1987), Pruess et al. (1990), Nitao (1990), and Doughty and E'ruess (1991). Applications to industrial drying of porous materials have been discussed by Hamiathy (1969) arid Whitaker (1977). This paper is primarily concerned with evaluating the impact of vapor pressure lowering (VPL) effects on the depletion behavior of vapor-dominated reservoirs. We have examined experimental data on vapor adsorption and capillary pressures in an effort to identify constitutive relationships that would be applicable to the tight matrix rocks of vapor-dominated systems. Numerical simulations have been performed to evaluate the impact of these effects on the depletion of vapor-dominated reservoirs.

  18. Modeling engine oil vaporization and transport of the oil vapor in the piston ring pack on internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Yeunwoo, 1973-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model was developed to study engine oil vaporization and oil vapor transport in the piston ring pack of internal combustion engines. With the assumption that the multi-grade oil can be modeled as a compound of several ...

  19. Development of hybrid organic-inorganic light emitting diodes using conducting polymers deposited by oxidative chemical vapor deposition process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chelawat, Hitesh

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Difficulties with traditional methods of synthesis and film formation for conducting polymers, many of which are insoluble, motivate the development of CVD methods. Indeed, conjugated polymers with rigid linear backbones ...

  20. Ash deposit workshop: Class outline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatt, R. [Commercial Testing & Engineering Co., Lexington, KY (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ash deposits formed from the combustion of coal and other fuels have plagued the steam production industry from the start. The ash fusion test has been around for over eighty years. As steam plant size increased, so have the problems associated with ash deposits. This workshop is designed to cover: (1) The basic types of deposits. (2) Causes of deposits. (3) Analytical procedures for resolving, or at least providing information about deposits and fuels, and (4) Deposit removal and reduction techniques.

  1. Evaporation system and method for gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, J.J.; Halpern, B.L.

    1994-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for depositing thin films of materials such as metals, oxides and nitrides at low temperature relies on a supersonic free jet of inert carrier gas to transport vapor species generated from an evaporation source to the surface of a substrate. Film deposition vapors are generated from solid film precursor materials, including those in the form of wires or powders. The vapor from these sources is carried downstream in a low pressure supersonic jet of inert gas to the surface of a substrate where the vapors deposit to form a thin film. A reactant gas can be introduced into the gas jet to form a reaction product with the evaporated material. The substrate can be moved from the gas jet past a gas jet containing a reactant gas in which a discharge has been generated, the speed of movement being sufficient to form a thin film which is chemically composed of the evaporated material and reactant gases. 8 figs.

  2. Water, Vapor, and Salt Dynamics in a Hot Repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahrami, Davood; Danko, George [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, 1664 N. Virginia St., Reno, NV, 89557 (United States); Walton, John [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University, El Paso, TX, 79968 (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a new model study examining the high temperature nuclear waste disposal concept at Yucca Mountain using MULTIFLUX, an integrated in-drift- and mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic model. The results show that a large amount of vapor flow into the drift is expected during the period of above-boiling temperatures. This phenomenon makes the emplacement drift a water/moisture attractor during the above-boiling temperature operation. The evaporation of the percolation water into the drift gives rise to salt accumulation in the rock wall, especially in the crown of the drift for about 1500 years in the example. The deposited salts over the drift footprint, almost entirely present in the fractures, may enter the drift either by rock fall or by water drippage. During the high temperature operation mode, the barometric pressure variation creates fluctuating relative humidity in the emplacement drift with a time period of approximately 10 days. Potentially wet and dry conditions and condensation on salt-laden drift wall sections may adversely affect the storage environment. Salt accumulations during the above-boiling temperature operation must be sufficiently addressed to fully understand the waste package environment during the thermal period. Until the questions are resolved, a below-boiling repository design is favored where the Alloy-22 will be less susceptible to localized corrosion. (authors)

  3. Metal vapor laser including hot electrodes and integral wick

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA); Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal vapor laser, specifically one utilizing copper vapor, is disclosed herein. This laser utilizes a plasma tube assembly including a thermally insulated plasma tube containing a specific metal, e.g., copper, and a buffer gas therein. The laser also utilizes means including hot electrodes located at opposite ends of the plasma tube for electrically exciting the metal vapor and heating its interior to a sufficiently high temperature to cause the metal contained therein to vaporize and for subjecting the vapor to an electrical discharge excitation in order to lase. The laser also utilizes external wicking arrangements, that is, wicking arrangements located outside the plasma tube.

  4. Metal vapor laser including hot electrodes and integral wick

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, E.R.; Alger, T.W.

    1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal vapor laser, specifically one utilizing copper vapor, is disclosed herein. This laser utilizes a plasma tube assembly including a thermally insulated plasma tube containing a specific metal, e.g., copper, and a buffer gas therein. The laser also utilizes means including hot electrodes located at opposite ends of the plasma tube for electrically exciting the metal vapor and heating its interior to a sufficiently high temperature to cause the metal contained therein to vaporize and for subjecting the vapor to an electrical discharge excitation in order to lase. The laser also utilizes external wicking arrangements, that is, wicking arrangements located outside the plasma tube. 5 figs.

  5. Industrial Heat Pumps Using Solid/Vapor Working Fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockenfeller, U.

    with vapor re-compression recovery systems. The state-of-the-art heat pump equipment employing liquid/vapor working fluids fulfills the requirements only in some applications. The employment of solid/vapor complex compounds leads to 'nore cost effective... allows for firing temperatures much higher than possible with liquid/vapor systems. The high energy density per unit mass and the independence of the vapor pressure from the refrigerant concentration (p = f (T), p "# f( x)) over a wide range leads...

  6. TNA Data Collection Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The TNA Data Collection Tool Instructions provides guidance on how to complete the TNA Data Collection Tool. The TNA Data Collection Tool is an Excel spreadsheet that the organization's designating training POC will use to populate their organizations training needs.

  7. The power tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HAYFIELD, J.P.

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    POWER Tool--Planning, Optimization, Waste Estimating and Resourcing tool, a hand-held field estimating unit and relational database software tool for optimizing disassembly and final waste form of contaminated systems and equipment.

  8. Oxide vapor distribution from a high-frequency sweep e-beam system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, R.; Tassano, P.L.; Tsujimoto, N.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxide vapor distributions have been determined as a function of operating parameters of a high frequency sweep e-beam source combined with a programmable sweep controller. We will show which parameters are significant, the parameters that yield the broadest oxide deposition distribution, and the procedure used to arrive at these conclusions. A design-of-experimental strategy was used with five operating parameters: evaporation rate, sweep speed, sweep pattern (pre-programmed), phase speed (azimuthal rotation of the pattern), profile (dwell time as a function of radial position). A design was chosen that would show which of the parameters and parameter pairs have a statistically significant effect on the vapor distribution. Witness flats were placed symmetrically across a 25 inches diameter platen. The stationary platen was centered 24 inches above the e-gun crucible. An oxide material was evaporated under 27 different conditions. Thickness measurements were made with a stylus profilometer. The information will enable users of the high frequency e-gun systems to optimally locate the source in a vacuum system and understand which parameters have a major effect on the vapor distribution.

  9. Precision micro drilling with copper vapor lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, J.J.; Martinez, M.W.; Warner, B.E.; Dragon, E.P.; Huete, G.; Solarski, M.E.

    1994-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have developed a copper vapor laser based micro machining system using advanced beam quality control and precision wavefront tilting technologies. Micro drilling has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratio up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled on a variety of metals with good quality. For precision trepanned holes, the hole-to-hole size variation is typically within 1% of its diameter. Hole entrance and exit are both well defined with dimension error less than a few microns. Materialography of sectioned holes shows little (sub-micron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone with surface roughness within 1--2 microns.

  10. Atomic vapor spectroscopy in integrated photonic structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritter, Ralf; Pernice, Wolfram; Kübler, Harald; Pfau, Tilman; Löw, Robert

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate an integrated optical chip immersed in atomic vapor providing several waveguide geometries for spectroscopy applications. The narrow-band transmission through a silicon nitride waveguide and interferometer is altered when the guided light is coupled to a vapor of rubidium atoms via the evanescent tail of the waveguide mode. We use grating couplers to couple between the waveguide mode and the radiating wave, which allow for addressing arbitrary coupling positions on the chip surface. The evanescent atom-light interaction can be numerically simulated and shows excellent agreement with our experimental data. This work demonstrates a next step towards miniaturization and integration of alkali atom spectroscopy and provides a platform for further fundamental studies of complex waveguide structures.

  11. Solid-Vapor Sorption Refrigeration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graebel, W.; Rockenfeller, U.; Kirol, L.

    SOLID-VAPOR SORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS DR. WILLIAM GRAEBEL DR. UWE ROCKENFELLER MR. LANCE KIROL Engineer President Chief Engineer Rocky Research Rocky Research Rocky Research Boulder city, NV Boulder city, NV Boulder City, NV Abstract... Complex compound sorption reactions are ideally suited for use in refrigeration cycles as an economically viable alternative to CFC refrigerants. Complex compound refrigeration provides a number of energy-saving advantages over present refrigeration...

  12. DuPont Chemical Vapor Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MOORE, T.L.

    2003-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    DuPont Safety Resources was tasked with reviewing the current chemical vapor control practices and providing preventive recommendations on best commercial techniques to control worker exposures. The increased focus of the tank closure project to meet the 2024 Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestones has surfaced concerns among some CH2MHill employees and other interested parties. CH2MHill is committed to providing a safe working environment for employees and desires to safely manage the tank farm operations using appropriate control measures. To address worker concerns, CH2MHill has chartered a ''Chemical Vapors Project'' to integrate the activities of multiple CH2MHill project teams, and solicit the expertise of external resources, including an independent Industrial Hygiene expert panel, a communications consultant, and DuPont Safety Resources. Over a three-month time period, DuPont worked with CH2MHill ESH&Q, Industrial Hygiene, Engineering, and the independent expert panel to perform the assessment. The process included overview presentations, formal interviews, informal discussions, documentation review, and literature review. DuPont Safety Resources concluded that it is highly unlikely that workers in the tank farms are exposed to chemicals above established standards. Additionally, the conventional and radiological chemistry is understood, the inherent chemical hazards are known, and the risk associated with chemical vapor exposure is properly managed. The assessment highlighted management's commitment to addressing chemical vapor hazards and controlling the associated risks. Additionally, we found the Industrial Hygiene staff to be technically competent and well motivated. The tank characterization data resides in a comprehensive database containing the tank chemical compositions and relevant airborne concentrations.

  13. Vapor-phase heat-transport system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hedstrom, J.C.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vapor-phase heat-transport system is being tested in one of the passive test cells at Los Alamos. The system consists of one selective-surface collector and a condenser inside a water storage tank. The refrigerant, R-11, can be returned to the collector by gravity or with a pump. Results from several operating configurations are presented, together with a comparison with other passive systems. A new self-pumping concept is presented.

  14. Combined rankine and vapor compression cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radcliff, Thomas D.; Biederman, Bruce P.; Brasz, Joost J.

    2005-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An organic rankine cycle system is combined with a vapor compression cycle system with the turbine generator of the organic rankine cycle generating the power necessary to operate the motor of the refrigerant compressor. The vapor compression cycle is applied with its evaporator cooling the inlet air into a gas turbine, and the organic rankine cycle is applied to receive heat from a gas turbine exhaust to heat its boiler within one embodiment, a common condenser is used for the organic rankine cycle and the vapor compression cycle, with a common refrigerant, R-245a being circulated within both systems. In another embodiment, the turbine driven generator has a common shaft connected to the compressor to thereby eliminate the need for a separate motor to drive the compressor. In another embodiment, an organic rankine cycle system is applied to an internal combustion engine to cool the fluids thereof, and the turbo charged air is cooled first by the organic rankine cycle system and then by an air conditioner prior to passing into the intake of the engine.

  15. High volume fuel vapor release valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gimby, D.R.

    1991-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a fuel vapor release valve for use in a vehicle fuel system. It comprises a valve housing 10 placed in a specific longitudinal orientation, the valve housing 10 defining an interior cavity 22 having an inlet 20 for admitting fuel vapor and an outlet 14 for discharging such fuel vapor; a valve member 24 positioned in the cavity 22 for movement between an outlet 14 opening position and an outlet 14 closing position, the valve member 24 including a cap member 34 having a seat surface 36 for mating with the outlet 14 and an orifice 42 extending through the cap member 34 providing a passageway from the outlet 14 to the cavity 22, the orifice 42 extending through the cap member 34 providing a passageway from the outlet 14 to the cavity 22, the orifice 42 having a lesser radius than the outlet 14; the valve member 24 further including a plug member 30 engaged with the cap member 34 for movement between an orifice 42 opening position and an orifice 42 closing position; and, a valve housing tilt responsive means for moving the valve member 24 to an outlet 14 and orifice 42 closing position in response to tilting of the valve 10 about its longitudinal axis whereby, upon the return of the valve 10 to its specified longitudinal orientation, the plug member 30 first moves to an orifice 42 opening position and the cap member 34 subsequently moves to an outlet 14 opening position.

  16. Reactor design for uniform chemical vapor deposition-grown films without substrate rotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wanlass, Mark (Golden, CO)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A quartz reactor vessel for growth of uniform semiconductor films includes a vertical, cylindrical reaction chamber in which a substrate-supporting pedestal provides a horizontal substrate-supporting surface spaced on its perimeter from the chamber wall. A cylindrical confinement chamber of smaller diameter is disposed coaxially above the reaction chamber and receives reaction gas injected at a tangent to the inside chamber wall, forming a helical gas stream that descends into the reaction chamber. In the reaction chamber, the edge of the substrate-supporting pedestal is a separation point for the helical flow, diverting part of the flow over the horizontal surface of the substrate in an inwardly spiraling vortex.

  17. Oxidative chemical vapor deposition of semiconducting polymers and their use In organic photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borrelli, David Christopher

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have received significant interest for their potential low cost, high mechanical flexibility, and unique functionalities. OPVs employing semiconducting polymers in the photoactive layer have ...

  18. Prevention of biofouling in seawater desalination via initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Rong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biofouling, the undesirable settlement and growth of organisms, occurs immediately when a clean surface is immersed in natural seawater. It is a universal problem and the bottleneck for seawater desalination, which reduces ...

  19. Microbridge testing of plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposited silicon oxide films on silicon wafers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that is typically encountered in applications involving microelectromechanical systems (MEMS.016212 PACS number(s): 05.45.-a, 85.85.+j, 62.25.-g, 47.52.+j I. INTRODUCTION Microelectromechanical systems

  20. Low Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition of Zirconium Nitride in a Fluidized Bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arrieta, Marie

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    thick) on uranium-molybdenum (UMo) particulate fuel. Plate-type fuel with U-xMo (x = 3 to 10 wt.%) particle fuel dispersed in an aluminum matrix is under development at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test...

  1. Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition on Living Substrates: Development, Characterization, and Biological Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Tsung-Chan 1982-

    2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    air and at low temperature was developed using a helium dielectric barrier discharge jet (DBD jet). It was demonstrated that various materials, such as polymeric, metallic, and composite films, can be readily synthesized through this technique. Second...

  2. Reactor design for uniform chemical vapor deposition-grown films without substrate rotation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, M.

    1985-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A quartz reactor vessel for growth of uniform semiconductor films includes a vertical, cylindrical reaction chamber in which a substrate-supporting pedestal provides a horizontal substrate-supporting surface spaced on its perimeter from the chamber wall. A cylindrical confinement chamber of smaller diameter is disposed coaxially above the reaction chamber and receives reaction gas injected at a tangent to the inside chamber wall, forming a helical gas stream that descends into the reaction chamber. In the reaction chamber, the edge of the substrate-supporting pedestal is a separation point for the helical flow, diverting part of the flow over the horizontal surface of the substrate in an inwardly spiraling vortex.

  3. Towards improved spinnability of chemical vapor deposition generated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKee, Gregg Sturdivant Burke

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid State Chemistry 177 4394-4398 Lu K. L. , Lago R. M. ,of Solid State Chemistry 177 4394-4398 Coquay P. , De Grave

  4. Chemical vapor deposition and functionalization of fluorocarbon-organosilicon copolymer thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murthy, Shashi Krishna, 1977-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Neural prostheses are micron-scale integrated circuit devices that are under development for the treatment of brain and spinal cord injuries. A key challenge in the fabrication of these silicon- based devices is the ...

  5. Perfluorooctane Sulfonyl Fluoride as an Initiator in Hot-Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition of Fluorocarbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gleason, Karen K.

    of Fluorocarbon Thin Films Hilton G. Pryce Lewis, Jeffrey A. Caulfield, and Karen K. Gleason*, Department pathways available via HFCVD makes it possible to produce polymeric fluorocarbon films spectroscopically

  6. Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition Route to GaN Nanowires with Triangular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong

    -free environment at atmospheric pressure. TMG was kept cool in a -10 °C temperature bath. Nitrogen, used a total nitrogen flow rate of 250 sccm. These were supplied via a 4-mm i.d. quartz tube. Hydrogen and ammonia sources were supplied via a 22-mm i.d. outer quartz tube at a total flow rate of 155 sccm

  7. Understanding the Nanotube Growth Mechanism: A Strategy to Control Nanotube Chirality during Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomez Gualdron, Diego Armando 1983-

    2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    For two decades, single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have captured the attention of the research community, and become one of the flagships of nanotechnology. Due to their remarkable electronic and optical properties, SWCNTs are prime candidates...

  8. An atomic-scale analysis of catalytically-assisted chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    Growth of carbon nanotubes during transition-metal particles catalytically-assisted thermal decomposition of the transition-metal particles and onto the surface of carbon nanotubes, carbon atom attachment to the growing. Carbon nanotubes are generally processed by laser ablation of carbon rods e.g. [7], a direct current arc

  9. A conformal nano-adhesive via initiated chemical vapor deposition for microfluidic devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, Patrick S.

    (ethylene terephthalate) (PET), polycarbonate (PC), and poly(tetrafluoro ethylene) (PTFE). Introduction Microfluidic consumption of reagents and analytes, low cost of manufacture, low consumption of power, high throughput

  10. In-situ formation of multiphase electron beam physical vapor deposited barrier coatings for turbine components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A turbine component (10), such as a turbine blade, is provided which is made of a metal alloy (22) and a base columnar thermal barrier coating (20) on the alloy surface, where a heat resistant ceramic oxide sheath material (32' or 34') covers the columns (28), and the sheath material is the reaction product of a precursor ceramic oxide sheath material and the base thermal barrier coating material.

  11. Chemical Vapor Deposition Based Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers Using a Template Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of battery electrodes.5,10 These microtubular TiS2 electrodes show higher capacities, lower resistance,19 including electrochemistry.20 The use of metal catalysts such as Ni, Fe, Fe-Cu, and Pt has been, and lower susceptibility to slow electron- transfer kinetics than thin film TiS2 electrodes. In the present

  12. Polymers via chemical vapor deposition and their application to organic photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barr, Miles Clark

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is emerging interest in the ability to fabricate organic photovoltaics (OPVs) on flexible, lightweight substrates, which could lower the cost of installation and enable new form factors for deployment. However, ...

  13. Volatile organometallic complexes suitable for use in chemical vapor depositions on metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Giolando, Dean M.

    2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel ligated compounds of tin, titanium, and zinc are useful as metal oxide CVD precursor compounds without the detriments of extreme reactivity yet maintaining the ability to produce high quality metal oxide coating by contact with heated substrates.

  14. Understanding the Nanotube Growth Mechanism: A Strategy to Control Nanotube Chirality during Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomez Gualdron, Diego Armando 1983-

    2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    for the creation of novel and revolutionary electronic, medical, and energy technologies. However, a major stumbling block in the exploitation of nanotube-based technologies is the lack of control of nanotube structure (chirality) during synthesis, which...

  15. Desktop systems for manufacturing carbon nanotube films by chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhn, David S. (David Scott)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit exceptional electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties that could potentially transform such diverse fields as composites, electronics, cooling, energy storage, and biological sensing. ...

  16. Gold catalyzed growth of silicon nanowires by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    , Cambridge CB2 1EW, United Kingdom R. E. Dunin-Borkowski Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy to low-dimensional physics, and they can be used as nanotechnology building blocks to reach higher device-temperature synthesis from its phase diagram, because the Ga­Si system has a very low eutectic temperature.16 However

  17. A dual-laser interferometry system for thin film measurements in thermal vapor deposition applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Allen Shiping

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithography processes harnessing the phase change of the chemically inert carbon dioxide as a resist have been shown as a possible alternative to patterning thin film organic semiconductors and metals. The ability to control ...

  18. In-situ observations during chemical vapor deposition of hexagonal boron nitride on polycrystalline copper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kidambi, Piran R.; Blume, Raoul; Kling, Jens; Wagner, Jakob B.; Baehtz, Carsten; Weatherup, Robert S.; Schlögl, Robert; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Hofmann, Stephan

    2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    during h-BN CVD process. For experiments with air pre-dosing the dosing was performed post H2 annealing i.e. in between step 2 and step 3 in Figure 1. The ISISS end station of FHI MPG at the BESSY II synchrotron was used for In-situ XPS measurements...

  19. Towards improved spinnability of chemical vapor deposition generated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKee, Gregg Sturdivant Burke

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    60 2.3.1.3 Unaligned Ceramic Matrix10 wt%. 2.3.1.3 Unaligned Ceramic Matrix Composites Ceramic-ceramic with approximate composition of 55% fluorophlogopite mica in a borosilicate glass matrix,

  20. Oxidative and initiated chemical vapor deposition for application to organic electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Im, Sung Gap

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the first discovery of polymeric conductors in 1977, the research area of "organic electronics" has grown dramatically. However, methods for forming thin films comprised solely of conductive polymers are limited by ...

  1. Graphene-on-Insulator Transistors Made Using C on Ni Chemical-Vapor Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keast, Craig L.

    Graphene transistors are made by transferring a thin graphene film grown on Ni onto an insulating SiO[subscript 2] substrate. The properties and integration of these graphene-on-insulator transistors are presented and ...

  2. Researchers develop electrodeposition process to deposit coatings on substrates, eliminate the expensive physical vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (CRADA) between NREL and DASS TECH Co., Ltd. of South Korea. Technical Contact: Raghu N. Bhattacharya

  3. Chemical vapor deposition of conjugated polymeric thin films for photonic and electronic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lock, John P

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (cont.) Conjugated polymers have delocalized electrons along the backbone, facilitating electrical conductivity. As thin films, they are integral to organic semiconductor devices emerging in the marketplace, such as flexible ...

  4. Lithium manganese oxide films fabricated by electron beam directed vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    material for high energy den- sity battery applications.7,8 Lithium­transition metal oxide films can.2. After annealing in air at 700 °C, thin films grown with a low jet speed had a cubic spinel structure Li/Li-ion batteries. © 2008 American Vacuum Society. DOI: 10.1116/1.2823488 I. INTRODUCTION Thin film

  5. Epitaxial growth of aligned AlGalnN nanowires by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Han, Jung (Woodbridge, CT); Su, Jie (New Haven, CT)

    2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly ordered and aligned epitaxy of III-Nitride nanowires is demonstrated in this work. <1010> M-axis is identified as a preferential nanowire growth direction through a detailed study of GaN/AlN trunk/branch nanostructures by transmission electron microscopy. Crystallographic selectivity can be used to achieve spatial and orientational control of nanowire growth. Vertically aligned (Al)GaN nanowires are prepared on M-plane AlN substrates. Horizontally ordered nanowires, extending from the M-plane sidewalls of GaN hexagonal mesas or islands demonstrate new opportunities for self-aligned nanowire devices, interconnects, and networks.

  6. Optical characterization of InN layers grown by high-pressure chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nabben, Reinhard

    and optical properties of InN films grown on sapphire and GaN/sapphire templates. Results obtained from Raman analyzed in this contribution were grown on GaN/sapphire and sapphire 0001 substrates by HPCVD, utilizing to optical absorption edge estimates obtained from optical transmission spectra analysis. The analysis shows

  7. Nucleation and growth of carbon nanotubes by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at a very rapid and constant rate 100 nm/s that decreases sharply after the catalyst Co particles become. Experi- ments performed, mostly on individual nanotubes, show that they have extraordinary electrical conditions such as substrate, catalyst, feed gas, and temperature, the growth model proposed by several

  8. Parallel Reacting Flow Calculations for Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactor Design 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Devine, Karen

    , memory, and scalability of distributed memory parallel computers. An unstructured finite element transport from the fluid mechanics and heat transfer. Both works used solution procedures that require the reacting flow model and numerical method and summarize representative calculations using MPSalsa

  9. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon Dioxide by Direct-Current Corona Discharges in Dry Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Junhong

    on the high voltage wire. The wire is 100 mm radius tungsten and the wire- to-plate spacing is 1.5 cm parameters and electrode geometry on the production of ozone.(1­8) Recently, the authors developed a fundamental model of the energy distribution of electrons(9,10) and production and distribution of ozone

  10. System and Method for Sealing a Vapor Deposition Source - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructureProposed Action(Insert DirectiveSynthetic

  11. NREL: Awards and Honors - High-Rate Vapor Transport Deposition for CdTe PV

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Saleshttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gifNREL NREL Refines Method

  12. Method and apparatus for concentrating vapors for analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Baldwin, David L. (Kennewick, WA); Anheier, Jr., Norman C. (Richland, WA)

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A pre-concentration device and a method are disclosed for concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the pre-concentration device are thermally desorbed, achieving at least partial separation of the vapor mixtures. The pre-concentration device is suitable, e.g., for pre-concentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable.

  13. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caddeau, MP

    2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from 15 channels between 170 and 183.310 GHz. Atmospheric emission in this spectral region is primarily due to water vapor, with some influence from liquid water. Channels between 170.0 and 176.0 GHz are particularly sensitive to the presence of liquid water. The sensitivity to water vapor of the 183.31-GHz line is approximately 30 times higher than at the frequencies of the two-channel microwave radiometer (MWR) for a precipitable water vapor (PWV) amount of less than 2.5 mm. Measurements from the GVRP instrument are therefore especially useful during low-humidity conditions (PWV < 5 mm). In addition to integrated water vapor and liquid water, the GVRP can provide low-resolution vertical profiles of water vapor in very dry conditions.

  14. PPPL-3270, Reprint: October 1997, UC-420, 421, 423 Development of Lithium Deposition Techniques for TFTR*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and operational options. Two additional lithium deposition tools were developed for p o s s i b l e application during the 1996 Experimental Schedule: a solid lithium target probe for real-time deposition interesting experimental and operational options. This motivated developmental work on two additional lithium

  15. Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

  16. Heat Recovery in Distillation by Mechanical Vapor Recompression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, F. E.; Zakak, A. I.

    tower energy requirements can be achieved by mechanical vapor recompression. Three design approaches for heating a distillation tower reboiler by mechanical vapor recompression are presented. The advantages of using a screw compressor are discussed... for lowering energy consumption in the distillation process through various heat recovery techniques. (3-8) One such technique utilizes mechanical vapor recompression. (9-12) The principle of this ap proach involves the use of a compressor to recycle...

  17. Recovery of benzene in an organic vapor monitor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krenek, Gregory Joel

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solid adsorbents available (silica gel, activated alumina, etc. ), activated charcoal is most frequently utilized. Activated charcoal has retentivity for sorbed vapors several times that of silica gel and it displays a selectivity for organic vapors... (diffusion rate) of the vapor molecules to the sur- face of the adsorbent. The adsorption process determine how effective the adsorbent collects and holds the contam- inant on the surface of the activated charcoal. Recovery of the contaminant from...

  18. Review of enhanced vapor diffusion in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, S.W.; Ho, C.K.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor diffusion in porous media in the presence of its own liquid has often been treated similar to gas diffusion. The gas diffusion rate in porous media is much lower than in free space due to the presence of the porous medium and any liquid present. However, enhanced vapor diffusion has also been postulated such that the diffusion rate may approach free-space values. Existing data and models for enhanced vapor diffusion, including those in TOUGH2, are reviewed in this paper.

  19. Advanced Chemical Heat Pumps Using Liquid-Vapor Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirol, L.

    ADVANCED CHEMICAL HEAT PUMPS USING LIQUID-VAPOR REACTIONS LANCE KIROL Senior Program Specialist Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Idaho Falls, Idaho . ABSTRACT Chemical heat pumps utilizing liquid-vapor reactions can be configured... in forms analogous to electric drive vapor-compression heat pumps and heat activated absorption heat pumps. Basic thermodynamic considerations eliminate some heat pumps and place restrictive working fluid requirements on others, but two thermodynam...

  20. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, J.M.; Wylie, A.H.

    1996-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus have been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing. 10 figs.

  1. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wylie, Allan H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus has been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing.

  2. Copper vapor laser acoustic thermometry system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galkowski, Joseph J. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A copper vapor laser (CVL) acoustic thermometry system is disclosed. The invention couples an acoustic pulse a predetermined distance into a laser tube by means of a transducer and an alumina rod such that an echo pulse is returned along the alumina rod to the point of entry. The time differential between the point of entry of the acoustic pulse into the laser tube and the exit of the echo pulse is related to the temperature at the predetermined distance within the laser tube. This information is processed and can provide an accurate indication of the average temperature within the laser tube.

  3. Vapor Retarder Classification - Building America Top Innovation |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group current C3EDepartmentDepartment of Energy Photo of a vapor retarder

  4. Category:Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, click here. Category:Conceptual ModelLists forMercury Vapor page? For detailed

  5. acetone vapor sensing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XI, Universit de 7 ATMOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR PROFILES DERIVED FROM REMOTE-SENSING RADIOMETER MEASUREMENTS CiteSeer Summary: The feasibility and preliminary testing of a low...

  6. Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra-Efficient Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra-Efficient Air...

  7. alkali vapor species: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of hexagonal patterns in a nonlinear optical system: Alkali metal vapor in a single-mirror arrangement Physics Websites Summary: Secondary bifurcations of hexagonal patterns in...

  8. alkali atom vapor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    low power requirements, these "chip-scale" atomic Popovic, Zoya 3 Hybrid Optical Pumping of Optically Dense Alkali-Metal Vapor without Quenching Gas M. V. Romalis Physics...

  9. A new vapor pressure equation originating at the critical point

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nuckols, James William

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - tence curve has been developed from critical scaling theory. The agreement between published vapor pressures and vapor pressures predicted by this equation is very good, especially in the critical region where many other vapor pressure equations fail... vapor pressure data f' or Ar, N2, 02H6, and H20, w1th the parameters ai to a being determined by an unweighted least squares curve 5 fit. The method of least squares has been described adequately elsewhere, e. g. Wylie (1966), and the theory w111...

  10. atmospheric water vapor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    greenhouse gas, contributing to approximately two-thirds of the Earth's greenhouse effect Mitchell, 1989; IntergovernmentalA meta-analysis of water vapor...

  11. Hypothetical Thermodynamic Properties. Subcooled Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons William Hanshaw, Marjorie Nutt, and James S. Chickos* Department of Chemistry and liquid vapor pressures from T ) 298.15 K to T ) 510 K of a series of polyaromatic hydrocarbons have been protocols are also made, and agreement generally is quite good. Introduction Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

  12. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Vapor Power Cycles 1 Vapor Power Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    is not a suitable model for steam power cycle since: The turbine has to handle steam with low quality which will cause erosion and wear in turbine blades. It is impractical to design a compressor that handles two vapor expands isentropically in turbine and produces work. 4-1: Const P heat rejection High quality

  13. Glass softening, crystallization, and vaporization of nano-aggregates of Amorphous Solid Water: Fast Scanning Calorimetry studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deepanjan Bhattacharya; Liam OReilly; Vlad Sadtchenko

    2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast scanning calorimetry (FSC) was employed to investigate glass softening dynamics in amorphous solid water (ASW) nano-aggregates with thicknesses ranging from 2 to 20 nm. ASW nano-aggregates were prepared by vapor-deposition on the surface of a tungsten filament near 141 K and then heated at a rate of 100 kK/s. The resulting thermogram complex endo- and exothermal features were analyzed using a simple model. The results of the analysis show that glass softening of ASW nano-aggregates takes place at 160 K and vaporization of ASW nano-aggregates can take place at temperatures as low as 185 K. The results of these studies are discussed in conjunction with results of past studies of glass softening dynamics in water in various confining geometries.

  14. The control of confined vapor phase explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scilly, N.F. [Laporte plc, Widnes (United Kingdom); Owen, O.J.R. [Fine Organics, Ltd., Middlesborough (United Kingdom); Wilberforce, J.K. [Solvay SA, Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The probability of, for example, a fire or explosion occurring during a process operation is related both to the fire-related properties of the materials used, such as flash point, flammable limits etc., i.e. the material or intrinsic factors, and the nature of the operation and the equipment used, i.e. the extrinsic factors. The risk, or frequency of occurrence, of other hazards such as reaction runaway, major toxic release etc. can be determined in a similar manner. For a vapor phase explosion (and a fire) the probability of the event is the product of the probability of generating a flammable atmosphere and the probability of ignition. Firstly, materials may be coded using properties that are relevant to the hazard in question. Secondly, different operations have different degrees of risk and these risks are assigned as Low, Medium, High etc. according to criteria outlined here. Combination of these two factors will then be a measure of the overall risk of the operation with the specified material and may be used to define operating standards. Currently, the hazard/risk of a vapor phase explosions is examined by this method but in due course dust explosions, fires, condensed phase explosions, reaction runaways, physical explosions, major toxic releases and incompatibility will be included.

  15. Vapor and gas sampling of Single-Shell Tank 241-A-101 using the Vapor Sampling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caprio, G.S.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents sampling data resulting from the June 8, 1995, sampling of SST 241-A-101 using the Vapor Sampling System.

  16. Applications (Grid Tools)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buyya, Rajkumar

    Grid Fabric Software Grid Applications Core Grid Middleware User-Level Middleware (Grid Tools) !"# $ %& ' ( ) * #& + '& ' , - . / # ) ) 0 # * 1 PDB CDB Grid Fabric Hardware &+ '' + ) , '1 '1 ' % - * # ( Grid Fabric Software Grid Applications Core Grid Middleware User-Level Middleware (Grid Tools) !"# $ %& ' ( ) * #& + '& ' , - . / # ) ) 0

  17. OOTW COST TOOLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

  18. Adjustable cutting tool holder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinhour, William Lee III; West, Drew; Honeycutt, Steve; Frank, Steven; Krishnamurthy, Kallutla

    2000-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent application describes a device for varying the geometry of a cutting tool for use in machining operations.

  19. Unsteady, high Reynolds number validation cases for a multi-phase CFD analysis tool have been

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunz, Robert Francis

    and constituent volume fraction transport/generation for liquid, condensable vapor and non-condensable gas fields1 Abstract Unsteady, high Reynolds number validation cases for a multi-phase CFD analysis tool have of the effect of cavitation number, Reynolds number and turbulence model has been made. Analysis of the modeled

  20. Simultaneous fog formation and thermophoretic droplet deposition in a turbulent pipe flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, M.; Hauser, G.M. (Fauske and Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL (USA))

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simultaneous aerosol formation by equilibrium condensation and the migration of the resulting droplets to the cold surface by thermophoresis is studied theoretically for a turbulent pipe flow. The problem is one in which a mixture of a vapor and noncondensable gas flows into a section of pipe where the pipe wall is cooled to below the dew point of the vapor. Because the temperature gradient at the pipe wall decays to zero once the gas travels far enough into the pipe, only some fraction of the droplets formed will deposit on the pipe wall. The equations of energy and diffusion suggest that turbulence leads to a discontinuity in the aerosol (fog) concentration at the boundary between the fog and clear regions. Numerical solutions are obtained for CsOH fog formation and deposition in steam flow, a particular case of current practical interest in water reactor safety. The axial and radial variations of the aerosol and vapor concentrations are displayed graphically, as are the location of the fog boundary as a function of axial distance and the efficiency of deposition as a function of the pipe wall temperature.

  1. Uranium deposits of Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country`s nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country`s economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (100 thousand pounds). Brazil`s state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced it has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (600 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) in reserves.

  2. 1-Dimensional Numerical Model of Thermal Conduction and Vapor Diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schörghofer, Norbert

    developed by Samar Khatiwala, 2001 extended to variable thermal properties and irregular grid by Norbert Sch for c. Upper boundary condition: a) Radiation Q + k T z z=0 = T4 z=0 Q is the incoming solar flux of Water Vapor with Phase Transitions developed by Norbert Sch¨orghofer, 2003­2004 3 phases: vapor, free

  3. Fenton Oxidation of TCE Vapors in a Foam Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fenton Oxidation of TCE Vapors in a Foam Reactor Eunsung Kan,a,b Seongyup Kim,a and Marc A.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/ep.10205 Oxidation of dilute TCE vapors in a foam reactor using Fenton's reagent composition of Fenton's reagents, the foam reactor configuration provided a higher rate absorption and greater

  4. ADHESION FORCES BETWEEN MICA SURFACES IN UNDERSATURATED VAPORS OF HYDROCARBONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsuoka, Hiroshige

    ADHESION FORCES BETWEEN MICA SURFACES IN UNDERSATURATED VAPORS OF HYDROCARBONS H. MATSUOKA1 , T] or meniscus force [3], which have been neglected in the conventional and relatively large mechani- cal systems forces between mica surfaces in under- saturated vapors of several kind of hydrocarbon liquids are mea

  5. Analysis of electron-beam vaporization of refractory metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kheshgi, H.S.; Gresho, P.M.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron beam is focussed onto a small area on the surface of a refractory metal to locally raise the temperature and vaporize metal. At high vaporization rates the hot area is on the surface of a churning liquid-metal pool contained in a solid-metal skull which sits in a cooled crucible. Inner workings of the process are revealed by analysis of momentum, energy, and mass transfer. At the surface high temperature causes high vaporization rate and high vapor thrust, depressing the vapor/liquid surface. In the liquid pool surface-tension gradients and thermal buoyancy drive a (typically) chaotic flow. In the solid skull thermal conductivity and contact resistance regulate the rate of heat transfer from pool to crucible. Analyses of these phenomena together reveal process performance sensitivities - e.g., to depression size or to magnitude of surface-tension gradients. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Temperature dependent vapor pressures of chlorinated catechols, syringols, and syringaldehydes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei, Y.D.; Shiu, W.Y.; Boocock, D.G.B. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry] [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry; Wania, F. [WECC Wania Environmental Chemists Corp., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [WECC Wania Environmental Chemists Corp., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The vapor pressures of nine chlorinated catechols, syringols, and syringaldehydes were determined as a function of temperature with a gas chromatographic retention time technique. The vapor pressures at 298.15 K were in the range of 0.02--1 Pa, and the enthalpies of vaporization, between 68 and 82 kJ/mol. The validity of the technique was established by a calibration involving four chlorinated phenols with well-known vapor pressures. Using these data and previously reported solubility data, Henry`s law constants for these substances and some chlorinated guaiacols and veratrols were estimated. The vapor pressure of these substances tends to decrease with increasing polarity and an increasing number of chlorine atoms. Henry`s law constants decrease sharply with increasing polarity, suggesting that methylation can result in a significant increase in a chemical`s potential for volatilization from water.

  7. Multi-chamber deposition system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Richard L. (Roseville, MN); Jeffrey, Frank R. (Shoreview, MN); Westerberg, Roger K. (Cottage Grove, MN)

    1989-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for the simultaneous deposition of different coatings onto a thin web within a large volume vacuum chamber is disclosed which chamber is provided with a plurality of deposition chambers in which the different layers are deposited onto the film as its moves from a supply roll to a finished take-up roll of coated web. The deposition chambers provided within the large vacuum chamber are provided with separate seals which minimize back diffusion of any dopant gas from adjacent deposition chambers.

  8. Multi-chamber deposition system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Richard L. (Roseville, MN); Jeffrey, Frank R. (Shoreview, MN); Westerberg, Roger K. (Cottage Grove, MN)

    1989-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for the simultaneous deposition of different coatings onto a thin web within a large volume vacuum chamber is disclosed which chamber is provided with a plurality of deposition chambers in which the different layers are deposited onto the film as its moves from a supply roll to a finished take-up roll of coated web. The deposition chambers provided within the large vacuum chamber are provided with separate seals which minimize back diffusion of any dopant gas from adjacent deposition chambers.

  9. Developmental of a Vapor Cloud Explosion Risk Analysis Tool Using Exceedance Methodology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alghamdi, Salem

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    . ................................................................ 20 4 Chart for blast overpressure according to the multi-energy method .......... 27 5 Chart for blast duration according to the multi-energy method ................. 28 6 The overall methodology of the program... .......................................................................................... 64 21 The wind rose for the case study ................................................................ 65 22 The side-on overpressure exceedance curve at 56 meters distance............ 68 23 The side-on overpressure exceedance curve...

  10. Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

  11. Monitoring of vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for monitoring vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a high-temperature environment has an excitation source producing electromagnetic radiation, an optical path having an optical probe optically communicating the electromagnetic radiation received at a proximal end to a distal end, a spectrometer or polychromator, a detector, and a positioner coupled to the first optical path. The positioner can slidably move the distal end of the optical probe to maintain the distal end position with respect to an area of a material undergoing combustion. The emitted wavelength can be directed to a detector in a single optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration, in a dual optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration or in a dual optical probe 90.degree. side scattered configuration. The apparatus can be used to monitor an emitted wavelength of energy from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as it fluoresces in a high temperature environment.

  12. Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System: Thermal Storage Using Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: UTRC is developing a new climate-control system for EVs that uses a hybrid vapor compression adsorption system with thermal energy storage. The targeted, closed system will use energy during the battery-charging step to recharge the thermal storage, and it will use minimal power to provide cooling or heating to the cabin during a drive cycle. The team will use a unique approach of absorbing a refrigerant on a metal salt, which will create a lightweight, high-energy-density refrigerant. This unique working pair can operate indefinitely as a traditional vapor compression heat pump using electrical energy, if desired. The project will deliver a hot-and-cold battery that provides comfort to the passengers using minimal power, substantially extending the driving range of EVs.

  13. Gas Separation Using Organic-Vapor-Resistent Membranes In Conjunctin With Organic-Vapor-Selective Membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); He, Zhenjie (Fremont, CA); Da Costa, Andre R. (Menlo Park, CA); Daniels, Ramin (San Jose, CA); Amo, Karl D. (Mountain View, CA); Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA)

    2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for treating a gas mixture containing at least an organic compound gas or vapor and a second gas, such as natural gas, refinery off-gas or air. The process uses two sequential membrane separation steps, one using membrane selective for the organic compound over the second gas, the other selective for the second gas over the organic vapor. The second-gas-selective membranes use a selective layer made from a polymer having repeating units of a fluorinated polymer, and demonstrate good resistance to plasticization by the organic components in the gas mixture under treatment, and good recovery after exposure to liquid aromatic hydrocarbons. The membrane steps can be combined in either order.

  14. Wachs Cutter Tooling Station (4495)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    purchase, build and install Wachs cutter tooling. The Wachs Cutter Tooling Station is similar to previously operated facility tooling and will utilize an existing hydraulic unit....

  15. alkali-metal vapor density: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    system: Alkali metal vapor in a single-mirror arrangement Physics Websites Summary: Secondary bifurcations of hexagonal patterns in a nonlinear optical system: Alkali metal vapor...

  16. Perspectives on Deposition Velocity

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked QuestionsDepartmentGas and| Department ofPersonnel AccountabilityDeposition

  17. Machine tool locator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanlon, John A. (Los Alamos, NM); Gill, Timothy J. (Stanley, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Machine tools can be accurately measured and positioned on manufacturing machines within very small tolerances by use of an autocollimator on a 3-axis mount on a manufacturing machine and positioned so as to focus on a reference tooling ball or a machine tool, a digital camera connected to the viewing end of the autocollimator, and a marker and measure generator for receiving digital images from the camera, then displaying or measuring distances between the projection reticle and the reference reticle on the monitoring screen, and relating the distances to the actual position of the autocollimator relative to the reference tooling ball. The images and measurements are used to set the position of the machine tool and to measure the size and shape of the machine tool tip, and examine cutting edge wear. patent

  18. Certification Status Search Tool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Certification Status Search Tool (SB/DVBE) Illustrated User Manual #12;2 Certification Status Search Tool (SB/DVBE) Rev. 5/14/09 Copyright © 2008 RFP Depot, LLC dba BidSync All Rights Reserved://www.bidsync.com #12;3 Certification Status Search Tool (SB/DVBE) Rev. 5/14/09 Introduction BidSync is a powerful e

  19. Wireline logging tool catalog

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verdier, M.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book provides discussions on wireline logging tools. The contents are resistivity, radioactivity, acoustic, formation dip and borehold geometry, formation sampling, and auxiliary services.

  20. Natural mercury isotope variation in coal deposits and organic soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abir, Biswas; Joel D. Blum; Bridget A. Bergquist; Gerald J. Keeler; Zhouqing Xie [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Department of Geological Sciences

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a need to distinguish among sources of Hg to the atmosphere in order to more fully understand global Hg pollution. In this study we investigate whether coal deposits within the United States, China, and Russia-Kazakhstan, which are three of the five greatest coal-producing regions, have diagnostic Hg isotopic fingerprints that can be used to discriminate among Hg sources. We also investigate the Hg isotopic composition of modern organic soil horizons developed in areas distant from point sources of Hg in North America. Mercury stored in coal deposits displays a wide range of both mass dependent fractionation and mass independent fractionation. {delta}{sup 202}Hg varies in coals by 3{per_thousand} and {Delta}{sup 201}Hg varies by 0.9{per_thousand}. Combining these two Hg isotope signals results in what may be a unique isotopic 'fingerprint' for many coal deposits. Mass independent fractionation of mercury has been demonstrated to occur during photochemical reactions of mercury. This suggests that Hg found in most coal deposits was subjected to photochemical reduction near the Earth's surface prior to deposition. The similarity in MDF and MIF of modern organic soils and coals from North America suggests that Hg deposition from coal may have imprinted an isotopic signature on soils. This research offers a new tool for characterizing mercury inputs from natural and anthropogenic sources to the atmosphere and provides new insights into the geochemistry of mercury in coal and soils. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Controlling the vapor pressure of a mercury lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention described herein discloses a method and apparatus for controlling the Hg vapor pressure within a lamp. This is done by establishing and controlling two temperature zones within the lamp. One zone is colder than the other zone. The first zone is called the cold spot. By controlling the temperature of the cold spot, the Hg vapor pressure within the lamp is controlled. Likewise, by controlling the Hg vapor pressure of the lamp, the intensity and linewidth of the radiation emitted from the lamp is controlled.

  2. In-well vapor stripping drilling and characterization work plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koegler, K.J.

    1994-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This work plan provides the information necessary for drilling, sampling, and hydrologic testing of wells to be completed in support of a demonstration of the in-well vapor stripping system. The in-well vapor stripping system is a remediation technology designed to preferentially extract volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater by converting them to a vapor phase. Air-lift pumping is used to lift and aerate groundwater within the well. The volatiles escaping the aerated water are drawn off by a slight vacuum and treated at the surface while the water is allowed to infiltrate the vadose zone back to the watertable.

  3. Apparatus and process for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flynn, P.L.; Giammarise, A.W.

    1994-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas. 2 figures.

  4. Apparatus and process for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flynn, Paul L. (Fairview, PA); Giammarise, Anthony W. (Erie, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas.

  5. Enhanced Attenuation Technologies: Passive Soil Vapor Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vangelas, K.; Looney, B.; Kamath, R.; Adamson, D.; Newell, C.

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) is an enhanced attenuation (EA) approach that removes volatile contaminants from soil. The extraction is driven by natural pressure gradients between the subsurface and atmosphere (Barometric Pumping), or by renewable sources of energy such as wind or solar power (Assisted PSVE). The technology is applicable for remediating sites with low levels of contamination and for transitioning sites from active source technologies such as active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) to natural attenuation. PSVE systems are simple to design and operate and are more cost effective than active systems in many scenarios. Thus, PSVE is often appropriate as an interim-remedial or polishing strategy. Over the past decade, PSVE has been demonstrated in the U.S. and in Europe. These demonstrations provide practical information to assist in selecting, designing and implementing the technology. These demonstrations indicate that the technology can be effective in achieving remedial objectives in a timely fashion. The keys to success include: (1) Application at sites where the residual source quantities, and associated fluxes to groundwater, are relatively low; (2) Selection of the appropriate passive energy source - barometric pumping in cases with a deep vadose zone and barrier (e.g., clay) layers that separate the subsurface from the atmosphere and renewable energy assisted PSVE in other settings and where higher flow rates are required. (3) Provision of sufficient access to the contaminated vadose zones through the spacing and number of extraction wells. This PSVE technology report provides a summary of the relevant technical background, real-world case study performance, key design and cost considerations, and a scenario-based cost evaluation. The key design and cost considerations are organized into a flowchart that dovetails with the Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics Guidance of the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). The PSVE flowchart provides a structured process to determine if the technology is, or is not, reasonable and defensible for a particular site. The central basis for that decision is the expected performance of PSVE under the site specific conditions. Will PSVE have sufficient mass removal rates to reduce the release, or flux, of contamination into the underlying groundwater so that the site can meet it overall remedial objectives? The summary technical information, case study experiences, and structured decision process provided in this 'user guide' should assist environmental decision-makers, regulators, and engineers in selecting and successfully implementing PSVE at appropriate sites.

  6. New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark J. Bergander

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this project is to confirm on a well-instrumented prototype the theoretically derived claims of higher efficiency and coefficient of performance for geothermal heat pumps based on a new regenerative thermodynamic cycle as comparing to existing technology. In order to demonstrate the improved performance of the prototype, it will be compared to published parameters of commercially available geothermal heat pumps manufactured by US and foreign companies. Other objectives are to optimize the design parameters and to determine the economic viability of the new technology. Background (as stated in the proposal): The proposed technology closely relates to EERE mission by improving energy efficiency, bringing clean, reliable and affordable heating and cooling to the residential and commercial buildings and reducing greenhouse gases emission. It can provide the same amount of heating and cooling with considerably less use of electrical energy and consequently has a potential of reducing our nations dependence on foreign oil. The theoretical basis for the proposed thermodynamic cycle was previously developed and was originally called a dynamic equilibrium method. This theory considers the dynamic equations of state of the working fluid and proposes the methods for modification of T-S trajectories of adiabatic transformation by changing dynamic properties of gas, such as flow rate, speed and acceleration. The substance of this proposal is a thermodynamic cycle characterized by the regenerative use of the potential energy of two-phase flow expansion, which in traditional systems is lost in expansion valves. The essential new features of the process are: (1) The application of two-step throttling of the working fluid and two-step compression of its vapor phase. (2) Use of a compressor as the initial step compression and a jet device as a second step, where throttling and compression are combined. (3) Controlled ratio of a working fluid at the first and second step of compression. In the proposed system, the compressor compresses the vapor only to 50-60% of the final pressure, while the additional compression is provided by a jet device using internal potential energy of the working fluid flow. Therefore, the amount of mechanical energy required by a compressor is significantly reduced, resulting in the increase of efficiency (either COP or EER). The novelty of the cycle is in the equipment and in the way the multi-staging is accomplished. The anticipated result will be a new refrigeration system that requires less energy to accomplish a cooling task. The application of this technology will be for more efficient designs of: (1) Industrial chillers, (2) Refrigeration plants, (3) Heat pumps, (4) Gas Liquefaction plants, (5) Cryogenic systems.

  7. Fluid sampling tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnston, Roger G. (Los Alamos, NM); Garcia, Anthony R. E. (Espanola, NM); Martinez, Ronald K. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    2001-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention includes a rotatable tool for collecting fluid through the wall of a container. The tool includes a fluid collection section with a cylindrical shank having an end portion for drilling a hole in the container wall when the tool is rotated, and a threaded portion for tapping the hole in the container wall. A passageway in the shank in communication with at least one radial inlet hole in the drilling end and an opening at the end of the shank is adapted to receive fluid from the container. The tool also includes a cylindrical chamber affixed to the end of the shank opposite to the drilling portion thereof for receiving and storing fluid passing through the passageway. The tool also includes a flexible, deformable gasket that provides a fluid-tight chamber to confine kerf generated during the drilling and tapping of the hole. The invention also includes a fluid extractor section for extracting fluid samples from the fluid collecting section.

  8. Low Level Heat Recovery Through Heat Pumps and Vapor Recompression 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of each approach as a function of the source and sink temperatures and magnitude of heat flow. Generic heat pumps and vapor recompression designs are explained, costed, estimated in performance, and evaluated as a function of the economic parameters...

  9. Optical Precursors in Rubidium Vapor and Their Relation to Superradiance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenlong

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical precursor is the sharp optical pulse front that does not show delay in absorptive media. In this thesis, optical precursor behavior in rubidium (Rb) vapor was investigated in the picoseconds regime. An amplified femtosecond laser was shaped...

  10. Applications of Mechanical Vapor Recompression to Evaporation and Crystallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Outland, J. S.

    there is no boiler plant available or when electrical power is priced competitively in comparison to steam. Vapor recompression is accomplished using centrifugal, axial-flow, or positive displacement compressors and these compressors can be powered by electricity...

  11. Melt and vapor characteristics in an electron beam evaporator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumenfeld, L.; Fleche, J.L.; Gonella, C. [DCC/DPE/SPEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We compare the free surface temperatures T{sub s}, calculated by two methods, in cerium or copper evaporation experiments. The first method considers properties of the melt: by an empirical law we take into account turbulent thermal convection, instabilities and craterization of the free surface. The second method considers the vapor flow expansion and connects T{sub s} to the measured terminal parallel temperature and the terminal mean parallel velocity of the vapor jet, by Direct Simulation Monte Carlo calculations including an atom-atom inelastic collision algorithm. The agreement between the two approaches is better for cerium than for copper in the high craterization case. The analysis, from the point of view of the properties of the melt, of the terminal parameters of the vapor jet for the high beam powers shows that T{sub s} and the Knudsen number at the vapor source reach a threshold when the beam power increases.

  12. University of Oregon: GPS-based Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Vignola, F.; Andreas, A.

    A partnership with the University of Oregon and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) data to compliment existing resource assessment data collection by the university.

  13. Apparent Temperature Dependence on Localized Atmospheric Water Vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvaggio, Carl

    Apparent Temperature Dependence on Localized Atmospheric Water Vapor Matthew Montanaroa, Carl temperature of the target if not properly accounted for. The temperature error is defined as the difference between the target leaving apparent temperature and observed apparent temperature. The effects

  14. Low Level Heat Recovery Through Heat Pumps and Vapor Recompression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The intent of this paper is to examine the methods and economics of recovering low level heat through heat pumps and vapor recompression. Actual commercially available equipment is considered to determine the near-term and future economic viability...

  15. Systems and methods for generation of hydrogen peroxide vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Love, Adam H; Eckels, Joel Del; Vu, Alexander K; Alcaraz, Armando; Reynolds, John G

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A system according to one embodiment includes a moisture trap for drying air; at least one of a first container and a second container; and a mechanism for at least one of: bubbling dried air from the moisture trap through a hydrogen peroxide solution in the first container for producing a hydrogen peroxide vapor, and passing dried air from the moisture trap into a headspace above a hydrogen peroxide solution in the second container for producing a hydrogen peroxide vapor. A method according one embodiment includes at least one of bubbling dried air through a hydrogen peroxide solution in a container for producing a first hydrogen peroxide vapor, and passing dried air from the moisture trap into a headspace above the hydrogen peroxide solution in a container for producing a second hydrogen peroxide vapor. Additional systems and methods are also presented.

  16. Type B Accident Investigation of the Acid Vapor Inhalation on...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2005, in TA-48, Building RC-1 Room 402 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Type B Accident Investigation of the Acid Vapor Inhalation on June 7, 2005, in TA-48, Building RC-1...

  17. OOTW Force Design Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  18. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cadeddu, Maria

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  19. MATADOR (Methods for the Analysis of Transport And Deposition Of Radionuclides) code description and User's Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avci, H.I.; Raghuram, S.; Baybutt, P.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new computer code called MATADOR (Methods for the Analysis of Transport And Deposition Of Radionuclides) has been developed to replace the CORRAL-2 computer code which was written for the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400). This report is a User's Manual for MATADOR. MATADOR is intended for use in system risk studies to analyze radionuclide transport and deposition in reactor containments. The principal output of the code is information on the timing and magnitude of radionuclide releases to the environment as a result of severely degraded core accidents. MATADOR considers the transport of radionuclides through the containment and their removal by natural deposition and by engineered safety systems such as sprays. It is capable of analyzing the behavior of radionuclides existing either as vapors or aerosols in the containment. The code requires input data on the source terms into the containment, the geometry of the containment, and thermal-hydraulic conditions in the containment.

  20. Atomic layer deposition of molybdenum oxide using bis(tert-butylimido)bis(dimethylamido) molybdenum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertuch, Adam, E-mail: abertuch@ultratech.com; Sundaram, Ganesh [Ultratech/Cambridge NanoTech, 130 Turner Street, Waltham, Massachusetts 02453 (United States); Saly, Mark; Moser, Daniel; Kanjolia, Ravi [SAFC Hitech, 1429 Hilldale Avenue, Haverhill, Massachusetts 01832 (United States)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Molybdenum trioxide films have been deposited using thermal atomic layer deposition techniques with bis(tert-butylimido)bis(dimethylamido)molybdenum. Films were deposited at temperatures from 100 to 300?°C using ozone as the oxidant for the process. The Mo precursor was evaluated for thermal stability and volatility using thermogravimetric analysis and static vapor pressure measurements. Film properties were evaluated with ellipsometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and secondary electron microscopy. The growth rate per cycle was determined to extend from 0.3 to 2.4?Å/cycle with <4% nonuniformity (1-sigma) with-in-wafer across a 150?mm wafer for the investigated temperature range.

  1. Intermediate Vapor Expansion Distillation and Nested Enrichment Cascade Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.

    INTERMEDIATE VAPOR EXPANSION DISTILLATION AND NESTED ENRICHMENT CASCADE DISTILLATION D.. C. Erickson Energy Concepts Company Annapolis, Maryland ABSTRACT Although it is known that incorporating an intermediate reboiler or reflux... condenser in a distillation ~olumn will improve column efficiency by 15 to 100%, there has been little use of this technique to date." Intermediate vapor compression heat pumping was recently introduced as one practical means of achieving this benefit...

  2. Injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers is disclosed. The invention includes the combination of a seeding oscillator with an injection locked oscillator (ILO) for improving the quality, particularly the intensity, of an output laser beam pulse. The present invention includes means for matching the first seeder laser pulses from the seeding oscillator to second laser pulses of a metal vapor laser to improve the quality, and particularly the intensity, of the output laser beam pulse.

  3. Vaporizer design criteria for ethanol fueled internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ariyaratne, Arachchi Rallage

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Properties of Alcohols, Water and Petroleum Fuels. 2 Results of regression analysis. 3 Effect of various parameters on vaporization length. 51 4 Predicted tube length for different fuel requirements (Ten stainless steel tubes, 4. 7 mm ID. ). 60 ix LIST... with quality with increasing heat flux as parameter. 18 5 Reynolds Number Factor, F. 6 Suppression Factor, S. 27 27 7 Flow chart of the algorithm for vaporization length. 8 The single tube heat exchanger. 33 36 9 Thermocouple arrangement along...

  4. Optimal determination of the vapor pressure critical exponent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walton, Clifford Wayne

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , 1969), while scaling theory predicts about 0. 1 (Vicentini-Missoni et al. , 1969; Widom and Rowlinson, 1970). The object of this study was to determine the optimum value of 0 by means of a least squares fit of various nonanalytic vapor pressure... onal : cj ence Foundation, Grant ENG76-00692, is acknowl- edged. vi TABLE OF CONTENTS Page SCOPE. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNII'ICANCE INTRODUCTION Theory. Development of Vapor Pressure Equations PROCEDURE. Curve Fit Method (CFN). Numerical...

  5. Global Solar Opportunity Tool: A Tool for Policy Makers and Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Solar Opportunity Tool: A Tool for Policy Makers and Energy Analysts Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Global Solar Opportunity Tool: A Tool for...

  6. Tank Vapor Characterization Project: Annual status report for FY 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvers, K.L.; Fruchter, J.S.; Huckaby, J.L.; Almeida, T.L.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Pool, K.H.; Simonen, C.A.; Thornton, B.M.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Fiscal Year 1996, staff at the Vapor Analytical Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performed work in support of characterizing the vapor composition of the headspaces of radioactive waste tanks at the Hanford Site. Work performed included support for technical issues and sampling methodologies, upgrades for analytical equipment, analytical method development, preparation of unexposed samples, analyses of tank headspaces samples, preparation of data reports, and operation of the tank vapor database. Progress made in FY 1996 included completion and issuance of 50 analytical data reports. A sampling system comparison study was initiated and completed during the fiscal year. The comparison study involved the vapor sampling system (VSS), a truck-based system, and the in situ vapor sampling system (ISVS), a cart-based system. Samples collected during the study were characterized for inorganic, permanent gases, total non-methane organic compounds and organic speciation by SUMMA{trademark} and TST methods. The study showed comparable sampling results between the systems resulting in the program switching from the VSS to the less expensive ISVS methodology in late May 1996. A temporal study was initiated in January 1996 in order to understand the influences seasonal temperatures changes have on the vapors in the headspace of Hanford waste tanks. A holding time study was initiated in the fourth quarter of FY 1996. Samples were collected from tank S-102 and rushed to the laboratory for time zero analysis. Additional samples will be analyzed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 weeks.

  7. OCTOBER 1990 DEPOSITION AND REMOVAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , shielding, resuspension, indoor deposition, the relative airborne con- centrations indoors and outdoors RESUSPENSION; PLANTS; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTION; REMEDIAL ACTION; SHIELDING; SURFACE CONTAMINATION; URBAN effected by road traffic, and street cleaning the degree of resuspension, i.e. the return of deposited

  8. Tritium deposition patterns in TFTR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Tritium deposition patterns in TFTR Presented by C. H. Skinner with key contributions from Charles, JAERI #12;· TFTR was a limiter machine - no divertor. · Operated with tritium Nov `93 - April `97. · NetV Limiter Temperature @ 28 MW NBI Low density, high temperature edge #12;Tritium deposition patterns in TFTR

  9. Hydride vapor phase epitaxy and characterization of high-quality ScN epilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oshima, Yuichi, E-mail: OSHIMA.Yuichi@nims.go.jp; Víllora, Encarnación G.; Shimamura, Kiyoshi [Environment and Energy Materials Research Division, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The heteroepitaxial growth of ScN films was investigated on various substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). Single crystalline mirror-like ScN(100) and ScN(110) layers were successfully deposited on r- and m-plane sapphire substrates, respectively. Homogeneous stoichiometric films (N/Sc ratio 1.01?±?0.10) up to 40??m in thickness were deposited. Their mosaicity drastically improved with increasing the film thickness. The band gap was determined by optical methods to be 2.06?eV. Impurity concentrations including H, C, O, Si, and Cl were investigated through energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry. As a result, it was found that the presence of impurities was efficiently suppressed in comparison with that of HVPE-grown ScN films reported in the past, which was possible thanks to the home-designed corrosion-free HVPE reactor. Room-temperature Hall measurements indicated that the residual free electron concentrations ranged between 10{sup 18}–10{sup 20}?cm{sup ?3}, which was markedly lower than the reported values. The carrier mobility increased monotonically with the decreasing in carrier concentration, achieving the largest value ever reported, 284?cm{sup 2}?V{sup ?1}?s{sup ?1} at n?=?3.7?×?10{sup 18}?cm{sup ?3}.

  10. Influence of phosphorus content and heat treatment on the machinability of electroless nickel deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syn, C.K.; Dini, J.W.; Taylor, J.S.; Mara, G.L.; Vandervoort, R.R.; Donaldson, R.R.

    1985-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Diamond turning is the use of a single point diamond tool on a precision lathe under very precisely controlled machine and environmental conditions to fabricate finished components. Coatings offer significant advantages for diamond turning applications inasmuch as they can be applied to light weight substrates such as aluminum or beryllium, or unusual substrates such as molybdenum or glass. One of the most used frequently employed coatings for diamond turning applications is electroless nickel. On occasions, electroless nickel deposits are not diamond turnable, e.g., tool life is shortened. This could be a function of phosphorus content, age of the solution, stress in the deposit, additives in the solution, heat treat conditions, etc. Efforts reported in this paper include machinability studies on electroless nickel deposits varying in composition from 1.8-13% phosphorus in the as-deposited condition, and after heating at 200, 400 and 600/sup 0/C.

  11. Minds, Brains and Tools 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Andy

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The selected texts for this discussion were two recent pieces by Dennett (“Things About Things” and “Making Tools for Thinking” – henceforth TAT and MTT respectively) and one oldie-but-goodie (“Styles of Mental Representation”, ...

  12. Friction stir welding tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tolle, Charles R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Clark, Denis E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Barnes, Timothy A. (Ammon, ID)

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A friction stir welding tool is described and which includes a shank portion; a shoulder portion which is releasably engageable with the shank portion; and a pin which is releasably engageable with the shoulder portion.

  13. Sandia Modeling Tool Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by the Energy Department and Western Area Power Administration, this webinar will show attendees about what collaborative, stakeholder-driven modeling is and how the modeling tools and process developed by Sandia can be used in Indian Country.

  14. UNIX Public Tools

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    SATAN, the System Administrator Tool for Analyzing Networks, is a network security analyzer designed by Dan Farmer and Wietse Venema. SATAN scans systems connected to the network noting the...

  15. Smart tool holder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Day, Robert Dean (Los Alamos, NM); Foreman, Larry R. (Los Alamos, NM); Hatch, Douglas J. (Los Alamos, NM); Meadows, Mark S. (Boston, MA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided an apparatus for machining surfaces to accuracies within the nanometer range by use of electrical current flow through the contact of the cutting tool with the workpiece as a feedback signal to control depth of cut.

  16. PPA Tools and Update

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PPA Tools & Update Chandra Shah chandra.shah@nel.gov October 21, 2010 2 | FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT PROGRAM femp.energy.gov * PPA (15 minutes) - Resources - Discussion * URESC (15...

  17. Modeling of Tool Wear and Tool Fracture in Micromilling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shiosaki, Dominic

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    of aluminum and titanium. Finite element analysis and tool modeling compliment experimental data. Cumulative tool wear based on Taylor model shows decreasing tool life with increasing feed rate and increasing cutting speed on aluminum. Inconsistent results...

  18. Optimization of process parameters for pulsed laser milling of micro-channels on AISI H13 tool steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozel, Tugrul

    selection Laser milling process a b s t r a c t This paper focuses on understanding the influence of laser. Whenever metals are used, the laser beam heats, melts and vaporizes the metal (metal sublimation), whileOptimization of process parameters for pulsed laser milling of micro-channels on AISI H13 tool

  19. Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozer, N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    R A T O R Y Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings NilgunUC-1600 Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings NilgunPaper Sol-gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings Nilgun Ozer

  20. Data Mining Tools Irfan Altas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turlach, Berwin A.

    Data Mining Tools Irfan Altas School of Information Studies, Charles Sturt University Wagga Wagga discuss several scalable and parallel discovery and predictive data mining tools. They successfully Data mining tools, thin plate splines, BMARS, revolver, regression, smoothing, addi­ tive models