Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Growth of graphene underlayers by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a simple and very convincing approach to visualizing that subsequent layers of graphene grow between the existing monolayer graphene and the copper catalyst in chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Graphene samples were grown by CVD and then transferred onto glass substrates by the bubbling method in two ways, either direct-transfer (DT) to yield poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/graphene/glass or (2) inverted transfer (IT) to yield graphene/PMMA/glass. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to reveal surface features for both the DT and IT samples. The results from FE-SEM and AFM topographic analyses of the surfaces revealed the underlayer growth of subsequent layers. The subsequent layers in the IT samples are visualized as 3D structures, where the smaller graphene layers lie above the larger layers stacked in a concentric manner. The results support the formation of the so-called “inverted wedding cake” stacking in multilayer graphene growth.

Fabiane, Mopeli; Khamlich, Saleh; Bello, Abdulhakeem; Dangbegnon, Julien; Momodu, Damilola; Manyala, Ncholu, E-mail: ncholu.manyala@up.ac.za [Department of Physics, Institute of Applied Materials, SARChI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028 (South Africa)] [Department of Physics, Institute of Applied Materials, SARChI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028 (South Africa); Charlie Johnson, A. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

2

Understanding the Nanotube Growth Mechanism: A Strategy to Control Nanotube Chirality during Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

during chemical vapor deposition synthesis must focus on controlling the structure of the nucleated nanotube seeds. DFT and RMD simulations demonstrate the viability of using the structures of catalyst particles over which nanotube growth proceeds...

Gomez Gualdron, Diego Armando 1983-

2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

3

Bilayer graphene growth by low pressure chemical vapor deposition on copper foil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Successfully integrating graphene in standard processes for applications in electronics relies on the synthesis of high-quality films. In this work we study Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) growth of bilayer ...

Fang, Wenjing, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Patterned growth of single-walled carbon nanotube arrays from a vapor-deposited Fe catalyst  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Patterned growth of single-walled carbon nanotube arrays from a vapor-deposited Fe catalyst H. B deposition using low-coverage vacuum-deposited iron as a catalyst. Ordered arrays of suspended nanotubes constructed directly on contacting metal electrodes of Pt/Cr patterned with catalysts. Patterning with solid

Golovchenko, Jene A.

5

Self-Limiting Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of Monolayer Graphene from Ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbide,8 to chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of hydrocarbon precursors on transition metals,9-13 economic up to wafer scale,14,15 nickel and copper are the two most commonly used metal substrates. DueC) restricts the growth of graphene to the metal surface.12,17 The uniformity and high quality of the resultant

Maruyama, Shigeo

6

Continuous growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a chemical vapor deposition process for the continuous growth of a carbon single-wall nanotube where a carbon-containing gas composition is contacted with a porous membrane and decomposed in the presence of a catalyst to grow single-wall carbon nanotube material. A pressure differential exists across the porous membrane such that the pressure on one side of the membrane is less than that on the other side of the membrane. The single-wall carbon nanotube growth may occur predominately on the low-pressure side of the membrane or, in a different embodiment of the invention, may occur predominately in between the catalyst and the membrane. The invention also relates to an apparatus used with the carbon vapor deposition process.

Grigorian, Leonid (Raymond, OH); Hornyak, Louis (Evergreen, CO); Dillon, Anne C (Boulder, CO); Heben, Michael J (Denver, CO)

2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

7

Continuous growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a chemical vapor deposition process for the continuous growth of a carbon single-wall nanotube where a carbon-containing gas composition is contacted with a porous membrane and decomposed in the presence of a catalyst to grow single-wall carbon nanotube material. A pressure differential exists across the porous membrane such that the pressure on one side of the membrane is less than that on the other side of the membrane. The single-wall carbon nanotube growth may occur predominately on the low-pressure side of the membrane or, in a different embodiment of the invention, may occur predominately in between the catalyst and the membrane. The invention also relates to an apparatus used with the carbon vapor deposition process.

Grigorian, Leonid; Hornyak, Louis; Dillon, Anne C; Heben, Michael J

2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

8

Cooperative Island Growth of Large Area Single-Crystal Graphene by Chemical Vapor Deposition on Cu  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe a two-step approach for suppressing nucleation of graphene on Cu using chemical vapor deposition. In the first step, as received Cu foils are oxidized in air at temperatures up to 500 C to remove surface impurities and to induce the regrowth of Cu grains during subsequent annealing in H2 flow at 1040 C prior to graphene growth. In the second step, transient reactant cooling is performed by using a brief Ar pulse at the onset of growth to induce collisional deactivation of the carbon growth species. The combination of these two steps results in a three orders of magnitude reduction in the graphene nucleation density, enabling the growth of millimeter-size single crystal graphene grains. A kinetic model shows that suppressing nucleation promotes a cooperative island growth mode that favors the formation of large area single crystal graphene, and it is accompanied by a roughly 3 orders of magnitude increase in the reactive sticking probability of methane compared to that in random nucleation growth.

Regmi, Murari [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rouleau, Christopher [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Chen, Jihua [ORNL; Eastman, Jeffrey [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Eres, Gyula [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

The growth characteristics of microcrystalline Si thin film deposited by atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Microcrystalline silicon thin film was grown by atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (AP-PECVD) ... with a cylindrical rotary electrode supplied with 150 MHz very-high-frequency power. T...

Jung-Dae Kwon

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Low temperature junction growth using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and a process for forming a semi-conductor device, and solar cells (10) formed thereby. The process includes preparing a substrate (12) for deposition of a junction layer (14); forming the junction layer (14) on the substrate (12) using hot wire chemical vapor deposition; and, finishing the semi-conductor device.

Wang, Qi; Page, Matthew; Iwaniczko, Eugene; Wang, Tihu; Yan, Yanfa

2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

11

Growth of crystalline X-Sic on Si at reduced temperatures by chemical vapor deposition from `silacycllobutane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and TPS resulted in single crystal layer" on Si ( 111) only up to a thickness of 2000 h;. Highly orientedGrowth of crystalline X-Sic on Si at reduced temperatures by chemical vapor deposition from grown by SCB at a temperature of 800 "C. The progress of SiC/Si heterojunction devices has been C3HsSiH2

Steckl, Andrew J.

12

Chemical vapor deposition sciences  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a widely used method for depositing thin films of a variety of materials. Applications of CVD range from the fabrication of microelectronic devices to the deposition of protective coatings. New CVD processes are increasingly complex, with stringent requirements that make it more difficult to commercialize them in a timely fashion. However, a clear understanding of the fundamental science underlying a CVD process, as expressed through computer models, can substantially shorten the time required for reactor and process development. Research scientists at Sandia use a wide range of experimental and theoretical techniques for investigating the science of CVD. Experimental tools include optical probes for gas-phase and surface processes, a range of surface analytic techniques, molecular beam methods for gas/surface kinetics, flow visualization techniques and state-of-the-art crystal growth reactors. The theoretical strategy uses a structured approach to describe the coupled gas-phase and gas-surface chemistry, fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer of a CVD process. The software used to describe chemical reaction mechanisms is easily adapted to codes that model a variety of reactor geometries. Carefully chosen experiments provide critical information on the chemical species, gas temperatures and flows that are necessary for model development and validation. This brochure provides basic information on Sandia`s capabilities in the physical and chemical sciences of CVD and related materials processing technologies. It contains a brief description of the major scientific and technical capabilities of the CVD staff and facilities, and a brief discussion of the approach that the staff uses to advance the scientific understanding of CVD processes.

NONE

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

13

Compensator Control For Chemical Vapor Deposition Film Growth Using Reduced Order Design Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in a high pressure chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) reactor that in­ cludes multiple species and controls optoelectronic integrated circuits. This can sometimes be addressed, in part, through open­loop optimization [7 reactor with real­time sensing and control as an innovative feature of this proto­ type reactor. Previous

14

Growth of Fe3N films via chemical vapor deposition of iron acetylacetonate and anhydrous ammonia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Polycrystalline Fe3N films have been grown via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on 50-?m thick polycrystalline Ti substrates using iron acetylacetonate (IAA) and anhydrous ammonia (NH3) in a cold-wall vertical pancake-style reactor. X-ray diffraction data indicated that single phase Fe3N was present in films deposited at and above 600°C; below this temperature no deposition occurred. The composition of the Fe3N films did not vary with changes in the deposition temperature, the NH3 flow rate or the deposition rate at a constant deposition pressure of 100 Torr. The surface macrostructure of the as-deposited films was independent of the deposition temperature and was very similar to that of the uncoated Ti substrate. The microstructure of the films was porous with a thickness variation of ?1 ?m across the surface of the films. Larger grains were produced at 600 and 800°C, while smaller and more uniform grains were produced at 700°C. Energy dispersive X-ray data indicated that films deposited at and above 600°C contained low levels of both carbon and oxygen.

S.L. Roberson; D. Finello; A.D. Banks; R.F. Davis

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Laser photochemical growth of amorphous silicon at low temperatures and comparison with thermal chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pulsed ArF (193 nm) excimer laser radiation has been used to dissociate disilane (Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/, resulting in photochemically controlled deposition of amorphous Si thin films. A high stability HeNe (6328 A) laser was used for precise in situ monitoring of film deposition rates, under varying deposition conditions. A helium window purge nearly eliminated Si film deposition on the chamber windows. With the excimer laser beam parallel to the substrate, deposition of amorphous Si can be controlled entirely by the photon fluence (negligible background thermal growth) at temperatures from room temperature up to /approximately/400/degree/C. Reasonable photolytic deposition rate (>1 A/sec) are combined with 'digital' control of film thickness (/approx gt/0.02 A/laser pulse). Activation energies of 1.50 (+-0.1) eV and 0.09 (+-0.02) eV were found for pyrolytic and photolytic deposition, respectively. 15 refs., 3 figs.

Eres, D.; Lowndes, D.H.; Geohegan, D.B.; Mashburn, D.N.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

The growth of CdTe/GaAs heteroepitaxial films by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A process for the growth of CdTe/GaAs heteroepitaxialfilms using metal–organic chemical vapor deposition(MOCVD) has been developed. The initial results of the determination of the deposition mechanism are reported. A pilot production demonstration using experimentally determined operating conditions has been completed. This is the first reported pilot production of CdTe/GaAs using 2 in. diam GaAs substrates in a multiple slice commercially manufactured MOCVD system. The results reported therein demonstrate that MOCVD is a reliable reproducible production worthy process for preparation of CdTe/GaAs heterostructures. These results are applicable to a wide variety of CdTe based device technologies including IR detection fiber optics solar cells and others.

Philip L. Anderson

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Atomic-level investigation of the growth of Si/Ge by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Si and Ge films can be prepared under ultrahigh vacuum conditions by chemical vapor deposition using disilane and digermane as source gases. These gases offer a high sticking probability, and are suitable for atomic layer epitaxy. Using synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy, we have examined the surface processes associated with the heteroepitaxial growth of Ge/Si. The measured surface-induced shifts and chemical shifts of the Si 2p and Ge 3d core levels allow us to identify the surface species and to determine the surface chemical composition, and this information is correlated with the atomic features observed by scanning tunneling microscopy. Issues related to precursor dissociation, attachment to dangling bonds, diffusion, surface segregation, growth morphology, and pyrolytic reaction pathways will be discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Vacuum Society.}

Lin, D. [Institute of Physics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, Republic of (China)] [Institute of Physics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, Republic of (China); Miller, T.; Chiang, T. [Department of Physics and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Vapor deposition of hardened niobium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

Blocher, Jr., John M. (Columbus, OH); Veigel, Neil D. (Columbus, OH); Landrigan, Richard B. (Columbus, OH)

1983-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

19

Ultrahigh growth rate of epitaxial silicon by chemical vapor deposition at low temperature with neopentasilane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- iane SiH4 to disilane Si2H6 , to trisilane, Si3H8 2 leads to increased epitaxy growth rates at the same growth rate was 0.6 nm/min, and the disilane growth rate was 8 nm/min. In this work, we explored the use

20

Real-time optical diagnostics of graphene growth induced by pulsed chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics and mechanisms of graphene growth on Ni films at 720 -880 C have been measured using fast pulses of acetylene and real-time optical diagnostics. In situ UV-Raman spectroscopy was used to unambiguously detect isothermal graphene growth at high temperatures, measure the growth kinetics with ~ 1s temporal resolution, and estimate the fractional precipitation upon cooldown for the first time. Optical reflectivity and videography provided much faster temporal resolution. Both the growth kinetics and the fractional isothermal precipitation were found to be governed by the C2H2 partial pressure in the CVD pulse for a given film thickness and temperature, with up to ~ 94% of graphene growth occurring isothermally within 1 second at 800 C at high partial pressures. At lower partial pressures, isothermal graphene growth is shown to continue 10 seconds after the gas pulse. These flux-dependent growth kinetics are described in the context of a dissolution/precipitation model, where carbon rapidly dissolves into the Ni film and later precipitates driven by gradients in the chemical potential. The combination of pulsed-CVD and real-time optical diagnostics opens new opportunities to understand and control the fast, sub-second growth of graphene on various substrates at high temperatures.

Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL; Regmi, Murari [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Thonnard, Norbert [ORNL; Eres, Gyula [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Vacuum vapor deposition gun assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vapor deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, a hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

Zeren, Joseph D. (Boulder, CO)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Epitaxial growth of aligned AlGalnN nanowires by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Highly ordered and aligned epitaxy of III-Nitride nanowires is demonstrated in this work. <1010> M-axis is identified as a preferential nanowire growth direction through a detailed study of GaN/AlN trunk/branch nanostructures by transmission electron microscopy. Crystallographic selectivity can be used to achieve spatial and orientational control of nanowire growth. Vertically aligned (Al)GaN nanowires are prepared on M-plane AlN substrates. Horizontally ordered nanowires, extending from the M-plane sidewalls of GaN hexagonal mesas or islands demonstrate new opportunities for self-aligned nanowire devices, interconnects, and networks.

Han, Jung (Woodbridge, CT); Su, Jie (New Haven, CT)

2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

23

Growth of magnesium oxide thin lms using single molecular precursors by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Growth of magnesium oxide thin ®lms using single molecular precursors by metal±organic chemical precursors; Silicon; Sapphire 1. Introduction Magnesium oxide (MgO) thin ®lms have attracted much attention MgO ®lms on Si(100) above 6508C by thermal CVD. Murayama and Shionoya [12] used magnesium 2

Boo, Jin-Hyo

24

Vapor deposition of tantalum and tantalum compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tantalum, and many of its compounds, can be deposited as coatings with techniques ranging from pure, thermal chemical vapor deposition to pure physical vapor deposition. This review concentrates on chemical vapor deposition techniques. The paper takes a historical approach. The authors review classical, metal halide-based techniques and current techniques for tantalum chemical vapor deposition. The advantages and limitations of the techniques will be compared. The need for new lower temperature processes and hence new precursor chemicals will be examined and explained. In the last section, they add some speculation as to possible new, low-temperature precursors for tantalum chemical vapor deposition.

Trkula, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Epitaxial growth of Si1 ? xGex alloys and Ge on Si(100) by electron-cyclotron-resonance Ar plasma chemical vapor deposition without substrate heating  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract By using electron-cyclotron-resonance (ECR) Ar-plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) without substrate heating, the epitaxial growth process of Si1 ? xGex alloy and Ge films deposited directly on dilute-HF-treated Si(100) was investigated. From the reflection high energy electron diffraction patterns of the deposited Si1 ? xGex alloy (x = 0.50, 0.75) and Ge films on Si(100), it is confirmed that epitaxial growth can be realized without substrate heating, and that crystallinity degradation at larger film thickness is observed. The X-ray diffraction peak of the epitaxial films reveals the existence of large compressive strain, which is induced by lattice matching with the Si(100) substrate at smaller film thicknesses, as well as strain relaxation behavior at larger film thicknesses. The Ge fraction of Si1 ? xGex thin film is in good agreement with the normalized GeH4 partial pressure. The Si1 ? xGex deposition rate increases with an increase of GeH4 partial pressure. The GeH4 partial pressure dependence of partial deposition rates [(Si or Ge fraction) × (Si1 ? xGex thickness) / (deposition time)] shows that the Si partial deposition rate is slightly enhanced by the existence of Ge. From these results, it is proposed that the ECR-plasma CVD process can be utilized for Ge fraction control in highly-strained heterostructure formation of group IV semiconductors.

Naofumi Ueno; Masao Sakuraba; Junichi Murota; Shigeo Sato

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Growth of High Aspect Ratio Nanometer-Scale Magnets with Chemical Vapor Deposition and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...50 pA). A contamination coating around a denser Fig. 4...deposit with the contamination coating is thus stable against oxidation...of nanoscale filaments and thin film nucleation and growth theory...Instruments-ARIS 5100 UHV-STM. 13. An optical microscope provides a view...

Andrew D. Kent; Thomas M. Shaw; Stephan von Molnár; David D. Awschalom

1993-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

27

Optimization of InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattice growth by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition for use in infrared emitters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have prepared InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattices (SLSs) by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition using a variety of growth conditions. Presence of an InGaAsSb interface layer was indicated by x-ray diffraction. This interface effect was minimized by optimizing the purge times, reactant flows, and growth conditions. The optimized growth conditions involved the use of low pressure, short purge times between the growth of the layers, and no reactant flow during the purges. Electron diffraction indicates that CuPt-type compositional ordering occurs in InAs{sub 1{minus}x}Sb{sub x} alloys and SLSs which explains an observed bandgap reduction from previously accepted alloy values.

Biefeld, R.M.; Baucom, K.C.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Kurtz, S.R.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran polymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis develops a platform for deposition of polymer thin films that can be further tailored by chemical surface modification. First, we explore chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran films using ...

Olsson, Ylva Kristina

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Epitaxial growth of CdTe thin film on cube-textured Ni by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CdTe thin film has been grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on Ni(100) substrate. Using x-ray pole figure measurements we observed the epitaxial relationship of {111}CdTe// {001}Ni with [110]CdTe//[010]Ni and [112] CdTe//[100]Ni. The 12 diffraction peaks in the (111) pole figure of CdTe film and their relative positions with respect to the four peak positions in the (111) pole figure of Ni substrate are consistent with four equivalent orientational domains of CdTe with three to four superlattice match of about 0.7% in the [110] direction of CdTe and the [010] direction of Ni. The electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) images show that the CdTe domains are 30 degrees orientated from each other.

GIARE, C [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); RAO, S [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); RILEY, M [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); CHEN, L [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Goyal, Amit [ORNL; BHAT, I [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); LU, T [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); WANG, G [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Direct growth of few-layer graphene on 6H-SiC and 3C-SiC/Si via propane chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose to grow graphene on SiC by a direct carbon feeding through propane flow in a chemical vapor deposition reactor. X-ray photoemission and low energy electron diffraction show that propane allows to grow few-layer graphene (FLG) on 6H-SiC(0001). Surprisingly, FLG grown on (0001) face presents a rotational disorder similar to that observed for FLG obtained by annealing on (000-1) face. Thanks to a reduced growth temperature with respect to the classical SiC annealing method, we have also grown FLG/3C-SiC/Si(111) in a single growth sequence. This opens the way for large-scale production of graphene-based devices on silicon substrate.

Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Portail, M. [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Ouerghi, A. [CNRS-LPN, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T. [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)

2010-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

31

Effects of pressure, temperature, and hydrogen during graphene growth on SiC(0001) using propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphene growth from a propane flow in a hydrogen environment (propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition (CVD)) on SiC differentiates from other growth methods in that it offers the possibility to obtain various graphene structures on the Si-face depending on growth conditions. The different structures include the (6{radical}3 Multiplication-Sign 6{radical}3)-R30 Degree-Sign reconstruction of the graphene/SiC interface, which is commonly observed on the Si-face, but also the rotational disorder which is generally observed on the C-face. In this work, growth mechanisms leading to the formation of the different structures are studied and discussed. For that purpose, we have grown graphene on SiC(0001) (Si-face) using propane-hydrogen CVD at various pressure and temperature and studied these samples extensively by means of low energy electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Pressure and temperature conditions leading to the formation of the different structures are identified and plotted in a pressure-temperature diagram. This diagram, together with other characterizations (X-ray photoemission and scanning tunneling microscopy), is the basis of further discussions on the carbon supply mechanisms and on the kinetics effects. The entire work underlines the important role of hydrogen during growth and its effects on the final graphene structure.

Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Roudon, E.; Lefebvre, D.; Portail, M. [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France)] [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T. [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)] [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

32

Chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A single chamber continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor is described for depositing continuously on flat substrates, for example, epitaxial layers of semiconductor materials. The single chamber reactor is formed into three separate zones by baffles or tubes carrying chemical source material and a carrier gas in one gas stream and hydrogen gas in the other stream without interaction while the wafers are heated to deposition temperature. Diffusion of the two gas streams on heated wafers effects the epitaxial deposition in the intermediate zone and the wafers are cooled in the final zone by coolant gases. A CVD reactor for batch processing is also described embodying the deposition principles of the continuous reactor.

Berkman, Samuel (Florham Park, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Chemical vapor deposition of amorphous semiconductor films. Final subcontract report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from higher order silanes has been studied for fabricating amorphous hydrogenated silicon thin-film solar cells. Intrinsic and doped a-Si:H films were deposited in a reduced-pressure, tubular-flow reactor, using disilane feed-gas. Conditions for depositing intrinsic films at growth rates up to 10 A/s were identified. Electrical and optical properties, including dark conductivity, photoconductivity, activation energy, optical absorption, band-gap and sub-band-gap absorption properties of CVD intrinsic material were characterized. Parameter space for depositing intrinsic and doped films, suitable for device analysis, was identified.

Rocheleau, R.E.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

High Growth Rate of Epitaxial Silicon-Carbon Alloys by High-Order Silane Precursor and Chemical Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rates typically achieved by disilane and silane, respectively, at 575o C. The rate at present is limited precursor HOS than disilane in CVD, even at lower temperatures. Our current growth rates of Si1-yCy alloys

35

Thermal decomposition of ethanol and growth of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes by alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal decomposition of ethanol and growth of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes. In this study, we have investigated the thermal decomposition of ethanol at various temperatures, as well National Meeting, San Francisco, CA, September 10-14, 2006 1/1 PRES 29 - Thermal decomposition of ethanol

Maruyama, Shigeo

36

OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A HIGH PRESSURE ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION REACTOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A HIGH PRESSURE ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION REACTOR K.J. BACHMANN of computer simulations as an optimal design tool which lessens the costs in time and effort in experimental vapor deposition (HPOMCVD) reactor for use in thin film crystal growth. The advantages of such a reactor

37

On the optimization of a dc arcjet diamond chemical vapor deposition reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On the optimization of a dc arcjet diamond chemical vapor deposition reactor S. W. Reevea) and W. A precursor in our dc arcjet reactor.1 Based on conclusions drawn from that work, an optimization strategy diamond film growth in a dc arcjet chemical vapor deposition reactor has been developed. Introducing

Dandy, David

38

The Growth of InGaAsN for High Efficiency Solar Cells by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

InGaAsN alloys are a promising material for increasing the efficiency of multi-junction solar cells now used for satellite power systems. However, the growth of these dilute N containing alloys has been challenging with further improvements in material quality needed before the solar cell higher efficiencies are realized. Nitrogen/V ratios exceeding 0.981 resulted in lower N incorporation and poor surface morphologies. The growth rate was found to depend on not only the total group III transport for a fixed N/V ratio but also on the N/V ratio. Carbon tetrachloride and dimethylzinc were effective for p-type doping. Disilane was not an effective n-type dopant while SiCl4 did result in n-type material but only a narrow range of electron concentrations (2-5e17cm{sup -3}) were achieved.

ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.; BANKS,JAMES C.; GEE,JAMES M.; JONES,ERIC D.; KURTZ,STEVEN R.

1999-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

39

Chemical vapor deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon from disilane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors describe hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films deposited at growth rates of 1 to 30 A/s by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from disilane source gas at 24 torr total pressure in a tubular reactor. The effects of substrate temperature and gas holding time (flow rate) on film growth rate and effluent gas composition were measured at temperatures ranging from 360{sup 0} to 485{sup 0}C and gas holding times from 3 to 62s. Effluent gases determined by gas chromatography included silane, disilane and other higher order silanes. A chemical reaction engineering model, based on a silylene (SiH/sub 2/) insertion gas phase reaction network and film growth from both SiH/sub 2/ and high molecular weight silicon species, Si/sub n/H/sub 2n/, was developed. The model predictions were in good agreement with experimentally determined growth rates and effluent gas compositions.

Bogaert, R.J.; Russell, T.W.F.; Klein, M.T. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Rocheleau, R.E.; Baron, B.N. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (USA). Inst. of Energy Conversion)

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Reliable Growth of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays by Chemical Vapor Deposition and In-situ Measurement of Fundamental Growth Kinetics in Oxygen-free Conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for deposition. Electric resistance is widely used as a heatsilicon susceptor as an electric resistance placed inside a

IN, JUNG BIN

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Chemical vapor deposition of group IIIB metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coatings of Group IIIB metals and compounds thereof are formed by chemical vapor deposition, in which a heat decomposable organometallic compound of the formula given in the patent where M is a Group IIIB metal, such as lanthanum or yttrium and R is a lower alkyl or alkenyl radical containing from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms, with a heated substrate which is above the decomposition temperature of the organometallic compound. The pure metal is obtained when the compound of the formula 1 is the sole heat decomposable compound present and deposition is carried out under nonoxidizing conditions. Intermetallic compounds such as lanthanum telluride can be deposited from a lanthanum compound of formula 1 and a heat decomposable tellurium compound under nonoxidizing conditions.

Erbil, A.

1989-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

42

All graphene electromechanical switch fabricated by chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate an electromechanical switch comprising two polycrystalline graphene films; each deposited using ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition. The top film is pulled into electrical contact with the bottom film ...

Milaninia, Kaveh M.

43

Strain relaxation in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The growth of single layer graphene by chemical vapor deposition on polycrystalline Cu substrates induces large internal biaxial compressive strain due to thermal expansion mismatch. Raman backscattering spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to study the strain relaxation during and after the transfer process from Cu foil to SiO{sub 2}. Interestingly, the growth of graphene results in a pronounced ripple structure on the Cu substrate that is indicative of strain relaxation of about 0.76% during the cooling from the growth temperature. Removing graphene from the Cu substrates and transferring it to SiO{sub 2} results in a shift of the 2D phonon line by 27?cm{sup ?1} to lower frequencies. This translates into additional strain relaxation. The influence of the processing steps, used etching solution and solvents on strain, is investigated.

Troppenz, Gerald V., E-mail: gerald.troppenz@helmholtz-berlin.de; Gluba, Marc A.; Kraft, Marco; Rappich, Jörg; Nickel, Norbert H. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Institut für Silizium Photovoltaik, Kekuléstr. 5, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

2013-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

44

Laser techniques for studying chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is widely used to produce thin films for microelectronics, protective coatings and other materials processing applications. Despite the large number of applications, however, little is known about the fundamental chemistry and physics of most CVD processes. CVD recipes have generally been determined empirically, but as process requirements become more stringent, a more basic understanding will be needed to improve reactor design and speed process optimization. In situ measurements of the reacting gas are important steps toward gaining such an understanding, both from the standpoint of characterizing the reactor and testing models of a CVD process. Our work, a coordinated program of experimental and theoretical research in the fundamental mechanisms of CVD, illustrates the application of laser techniques to the understanding of a CVD system. We have used a number of laser-based techniques to probe CVD systems and have compared our measurements with predictions from computer models, primarily for the silane CVD system. The silane CVD model solves the two-dimensional, steady-state boundary layer equations of fluid flow coupled to 26 elementary chemical reactions describing the thermal decomposition of silane and the subsequent reactions of intermediate species that result in the deposition of a silicon film.

Ho, P.; Breiland, W.G.; Coltrin, M.E.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Growth of manganese filled carbon nanofibers in the vapor phase  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report the vapor phase growth of partially filled graphitic fibers, 20-30 nm in diameter and up to a micron in length, during a manganese catalyzed carbon electric arc discharge. The fiber morphology resembles that of catalytic chemical vapor deposited carbon filaments but the inside hollow contains intermittent precipitates and continuous filling of Mn that at times occupy >50% of fiber lengths. Transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss line spectra show that the fillings form as solid cores and may correspond to pure metal.

P. M. Ajayan; C. Colliex; J. M. Lambert; P. Bernier; L. Barbedette; M. Tence; O. Stephan

1994-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

46

Epitaxial growth of B-doped Si on Si(100) by electron-cyclotron-resonance Ar plasma chemical vapor deposition in a SiH4–B2H6–H2 gas mixture without substrate heating  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Characteristics of B-doped Si epitaxial growth on Si(100) by using electron-cyclotron-resonance Ar plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition without substrate heating in a SiH4–B2H6–H2–Ar gas mixture were investigated. B concentration in the deposited films increases with decreasing microwave power for plasma generation. At the microwave power of 125 W, the B concentration increases up to 5 × 1021 cm? 3. Deposition rate of the B-doped Si tends to be enhanced at the higher B2H6 partial pressure. Resistivity of the B-doped Si film tends to increase with decreasing the microwave power. Referring Irvin curve, in the case of 200 W, the carrier concentration is estimated to be at least about 1017 cm? 3 at the B concentration of 1021 cm? 3. After heat treatment in N2 atmosphere at 200 °C and 300 °C for 2 h, the resistivity drastically decreases to the value which corresponds to carrier concentration of around 1019 cm? 3. From Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurement, it is found that hydrogen incorporated in the as-deposited film desorbed by the heat treatment.

Yusuke Abe; Masao Sakuraba; Junichi Murota

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Chemical vapor deposition of amorphous silicon films from disilane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amorphous silicon films for fabrication of solar cells have been deposited by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from disilane (Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/) using a tubular flow reactor. A mathematical description for the CVD reactor was developed and solved by a numerical procedure. The proposed chemical reaction network for the model is based on silylene (SiH/sub 2/) insertion in the gas phase and film growth from SiH/sub 2/ and silicon polymers (Si/sub n/N/sub 2n/, n approx. 10). Estimates of the rate constants have been obtained for trisilane decomposition, silicon polymer formation, and polymer dehydrogenation. The silane unimolecular decomposition rate constants were corrected for pressure effects. The model behavior is compared to the experimental results over the range of conditions: reactor temperature (360 to 485/sup 0/C), pressures (2 to 48 torr), and gas holding time (1 to 70 s). Within the above range of conditions, film growth rate varies from 0.01 to 30 A/s. Results indicate that silicon polymers are the main film precursors for gas holding times greater than 3 s. Film growth by silylene only becomes important at short holding times, large inert gas dilution, and positions near the beginning of the reactor hot zone.

Bogaert, R.J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Initiated chemical vapor deposition of functional polyacrylic thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) was explored as a novel method for synthesis of functional polyacrylic thin films. The process introduces a peroxide initiator, which can be decomposed at low temperatures (<200?C) ...

Mao, Yu, 1975-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Enabling integration of vapor-deposited polymer thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) is a versatile, one-step process for synthesizing conformal and functional polymer thin films on a variety of substrates. This thesis emphasizes the development of tools to further ...

Petruczok, Christy D. (Christy Danielle)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Ion-beam-induced epitaxial vapor-phase growth: A molecular-dynamics study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Low-energy ions which bombard a vapor-deposited film of low adatom mobility during growth mobilize surface atoms in the vicinity of the ion impact, causing a modification in the evolving microstructure. In a two-dimensional molecular-dynamics simulation where inert-gas ions strike a growing film of Lennard-Jones particles, it is demonstrated that ion bombardment during growth causes the filling of voids quenched in during vapor condensation and induces homoepitaxial growth. The dependence of film density and degree of homoepitaxial growth on the ion-to-vapor arrival rate ratio and ion energy is studied in detail.

Karl-Heinz Müller

1987-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

51

Cobalt Ultrathin Film Catalyzed Ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cobalt Ultrathin Film Catalyzed Ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) using a cobalt ultrathin film (1 nm) as the catalyst and ethanol as carbon feedstock flow during the growth. The trace amount of self-contained water (0.2-5 wt %) in ethanol may act

Hone, James

52

An atomic-scale analysis of catalytically-assisted chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An atomic-scale analysis of catalytically-assisted chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes M Growth of carbon nanotubes during transition-metal particles catalytically-assisted thermal decomposition of various nanotube surface and edge reactions (e.g. adsorption of hydrocarbons and hydrogen onto the surface

Grujicic, Mica

53

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

1988-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

55

Chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An aluminum oxide film is deposited on a heated substrate by CVD from one or more alkylaluminum alkoxide compounds having composition R.sub.n Al.sub.2 (OR').sub.6-n, wherein R and R' are alkyl groups and n is in the range of 1 to 5.

Gordon, Roy (Cambridge, MA); Kramer, Keith (Cleveland, OH); Liu, Xinye (Cambridge, MA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Investigations of chemical vapor deposition of GaN using synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors apply synchrotron x-ray analysis techniques to probe the surface structure of GaN films during synthesis by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Their approach is to observe the evolution of surface structure and morphology in real time using grazing incidence x-ray scattering (GIXS). This technique combines the ability of x-rays to penetrate the chemical vapor deposition environment for in situ measurements, with the sensitivity of GIXS to atomic scale structure. In this paper they present examples from some of their studies of growth modes and surface evolution as a function of process conditions that illustrate the capabilities of synchrotron x-ray analysis during MOCVD growth. They focus on studies of the homoepitaxial growth mode, island coarsening dynamics, and effects of impurities.

Thompson, C.; Stephenson, G. B.; Eastman, J. A.; Munkholm, A.; Auciello, O.; Murty, M. V. R.; Fini, P.; DenBaars, S. P.; Speck, J. S.

2000-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

57

Process sensing and metrology in gate oxide growth by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition from SiH4 and N2O  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SiO2 film. An optimal process window had been previously identified at a total pressure of 5 Torr, but also quantitative metrology for the film deposition process. © 1999 American Vacuum Society. S0734-211X the wafer. Radiative heating of the wafer was achieved through a quartz window by an array of halogen lamps

Rubloff, Gary W.

58

The chemical vapor deposition of zirconium carbide onto ceramic substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zirconium carbide is an attractive ceramic material due to its unique properties such as high melting point, good thermal conductivity, and chemical resistance. The controlled preparation of zirconium carbide films of superstoichiometric, stoichiometric, and substoichiometric compositions has been achieved utilizing zirconium tetrachloride and methane precursor gases in an atmospheric pressure high temperature chemical vapor deposition system.

Glass, John A, Jr.; Palmisiano, Nick, Jr.; Welsh, R. Edward

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of carbon-free ZnO using...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of carbon-free ZnO using the bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato)zinc precursor. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of carbon-free...

60

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic vapor deposited Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Articles Surfactant-Catalyzed Chemical Vapor Deposition of Copper Thin Films Eui Seong Hwang... and demonstrated for deposition of copper thin films from ... Source:...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Chemical vapor deposition of boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deposition conditions and film properties for a variety of boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon films and silicon-carbon films produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are discussed. Deposition gases include monosilane, disilane, trisilane, and acetylene. Two types of optically wide band-gap p layers are obtained. One of these window p layers (without carbon) has been extensively tested in photovoltaic devices. Remarkably, this p layer can be deposited between about 200 to 300 /sup 0/C. A typical open circuit voltage in an all CVD p-i-n device is 0.70--0.72 V, and in a hybrid device where the i and n layers are deposited by glow discharge, 0.8--0.83 V.

Ellis F.B. Jr.; Delahoy, A.E.

1985-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

62

Growth-induced magnetic anisotropy and clustering in vapor-deposited Co-Pt alloy films A. L. Shapiro, P. W. Rooney, M. Q. Tran, and F. Hellman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Shapiro, P. W. Rooney, M. Q. Tran, and F. Hellman Department of Physics, University of California to 800 °C. Films grown at moderate temperatures 200­400 °C exhibit remarkable growth-induced properties chemical order develops, such that below 800 °C, near the Co0.50Pt0.50 composition, CoxPt1 x exhibits Cu

Hellman, Frances

63

Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

64

Selective deposition of silicon and silicon-germanium alloys by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Selective deposition of SiGe alloys by rapid thermal deposition has been studied using a commercially available Rapid Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (RTCVD) cluster tool. The precursors used in this work were dichlorosilane and germane diluted in either hydrogen or argon. An initial characterization was performed to find the appropriate temperature and GeH{sub 4} flow ranges to deposit epitaxial layers with low surface roughness. For layers with higher germanium concentration lower deposition temperatures are required to minimize surface roughness. The effects of the dilutant gas on the deposition were examined. An H{sub 2} dilutant affects the deposition by consuming chlorine released by the SiCl{sub 2}H{sub 2} and forming HCl. When Ar is used as the dilutant, more chlorine is available for other reactions that can result in etching of the silicon surface. Finally, the effects of pre-deposition treatment were determined. When compared to a wet HF dip, a gas/vapor phase HF/methanol native oxide removal treatment appears to increase the initiation time for the epitaxial deposition reaction. This is most likely due to increased fluorine termination of the surface. When a wet HF or HF/methanol native oxide removal is followed by a UV-Cl{sub 2} process, the deposition reaction initiation time is reduced. The UV-Cl{sub 2} process was also found to etch silicon through the native oxide.

Grant, J.M.; Ang, M.; Allen, L.R. [Sharp Microelectronics Technology, Inc., Camas, WA (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Initiated chemical vapor deposition of polymeric thin films : mechanism and applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a novel technique for depositing polymeric thin films. It is able to deposit thin films of application-specific polymers in one step without using any solvents. Its uniqueness ...

Chan, Kelvin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

Norton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Chemical vapor deposition of amorphous semiconductor films. Semiannual report, 1 May 1984-31 October 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the results of research done by the Institute of Energy Conversion for the Solar Energy Research Institute in 1984 on high-efficiency, stable, amorphous silicon solar cells, fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from disilane at high growth rates. The kinetics of CVD with higher order silanes were modelled for a tubular reactor with static substrates. A gas-phase reaction network was adopted, based on published silylene insertion and decomposition pathways. Mass balances for hydrogen and all saturated silanes through octasilane were derived. Boron-doped a-Si:H p-layers were deposited by CVD at 200/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/C. Band gap and conductivity depended strongly on the diborane fraction in the feed gas, independent of substrate temperature. The effects of intrinsic layer deposition temperature and growth rate on material properties and device performance were studied. Cell parameters of p-i-n cells were correlated with i-layer deposition temperature and growth rate. Fill factor and short-circuit current depended on deposition conditions, while open-circuit voltage did not. Effects of diborane additions to the feed gas during i-layer deposition were studied. Experimental evidence and calculations indicate high resistance at the back contact.

Baron, B.N.; Rocheleau, R.E.; Hegedus, S.S.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Unusual thermopower of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on thermopower (TEP) and resistance measurements of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Unlike the conventional resistance of pristine graphene, the gate-dependent TEP shows a large electron-hole asymmetry. This can be accounted for by inhomogeneity of the CVD-graphene where individual graphene regions contribute with different TEPs. At the high magnetic field and low temperature, the TEP has large fluctuations near the Dirac point associated with the disorder in the CVD-graphene. TEP measurements reveal additional characteristics of CVD-graphene, which are difficult to obtain from the measurement of resistance alone.

Nam, Youngwoo, E-mail: youngwoo.nam@chalmers.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Sun, Jie; Lindvall, Niclas; Yurgens, August [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Jae Yang, Seung; Rae Park, Chong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Woo Park, Yung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

69

High rate deposition of microcrystalline silicon films by high-pressure radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (?c-Si:H) thin films were prepared by high-pressure radio-frequency (13.56 MHz) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf-PECVD) with a screened plasma. The deposition ra...

BingQing Zhou; MeiFang Zhu; FengZhen Liu…

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Role of gas phase reactions in subatmospheric chemical-vapor deposition ozone/TEOS processes for oxide deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-vapor deposition. Our results for oxide deposition show optimum process window around 200 Torr for producing films a po- tentially optimum process window in which film properties, deposition rates, film uniformity requires high quality dielectric films that can be deposited rapidly and conformally on high aspect ratio

Rubloff, Gary W.

71

Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetic Nanowires Prepared by Chemical Vapor Deposition.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Various metal silicide and germanide magnetic nanowires were synthesized using a home-built CVD [chemical vapor deposition] system. The morphology, composition, and magnetic properties of the… (more)

Tang, Siwei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

The growth of vapor bubble and relaxation between two-phase bubble flow  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the behavior of the bubble growth and relaxation between vapor and superheated...

S. Mohammadein; Rama Subba Reddy Gorla

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Oxidative chemical vapor deposition of conductive polymers for use in novel photovoltaic device architectures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), (PEDOT), deposited via oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) has been investigated for use in organic electronic devices. The oCVD process as well as the ...

Howden, Rachel M. (Rachel Mary)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition on Living Substrates: Development, Characterization, and Biological Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation proposed the idea of “plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on living substrates (PECVD on living substrates)” to bridge the gap between the thin film deposition technology and the biological and living substrates. This study...

Tsai, Tsung-Chan 1982-

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

75

Field emission properties of chemical vapor deposited individual graphene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Here, we report field emission (FE) properties of a chemical vapor deposited individual graphene investigated by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. Free-standing bilayer graphene is mounted on a cathode microprobe and FE processes are investigated varying the vacuum gap of cathode and anode. The threshold field for 10?nA current were found to be 515, 610, and 870?V/?m for vacuum gap of 400, 300, and 200?nm, respectively. It is observed that the structural stability of a high quality bilayer graphene is considerably stable during emission process. By contacting the nanoprobe with graphene and applying a bias voltage, structural deformation and buckling are observed with significant rise in temperature owing to Joule heating effect. The finding can be significant for practical application of graphene related materials in emitter based devices as well as understanding the contact resistance influence and heating effect.

Zamri Yusop, Mohd [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, 466-8555 Nagoya (Japan); Department of Materials, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, 466-8555 Nagoya (Japan); Center for Fostering Young and Innovative Researchers, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, 466-8555 Nagoya (Japan); Yaakob, Yazid; Takahashi, Chisato; Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, 466-8555 Nagoya (Japan)

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

76

Disilane: A new silicon doping source in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of GaAs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Disilane (Si2H6) is presented as a new silicon doping source in the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of GaAs together with comparison results obtained using the conventional silane (SiH4) doping source. The dopingcharacteristics of disilane were studied over a wide range of growth conditions: temperature gas phase stoichiometry and disilane concentration in the growth ambient. Silicon incorporation by means of disilane pyrolysis showed no temperature dependence in sharp contrast to the strong temperature activated dependence found when employing silane. The decomposition reaction of disilane proved to be very efficient reducing the amount of dopant gas required by about two orders of magnitude at the lower growth temperatures. Electrical measurements on disilane?doped GaAs yield the same high mobilities as obtained in silane?doped GaAs films indicative of low compensation.

T. F. Kuech; B. S. Meyerson; E. Veuhoff

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Researchers develop electrodeposition process to deposit coatings on substrates, eliminate the expensive physical vapor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the expensive physical vapor deposition step, and improve device quality. CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) solar cells have composition was adjusted by physical vapor deposition method. At present, we are fabricating CIGS-based solar). 2 R. N. Bhattacharya, W. Batchelor, J. F. Hiltner, and J. R. Sites, Appl. Phys. Lett., 75, 1431

78

Nickel catalyst faceting in plasma-enhanced direct current chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanofibers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Nickel catalyst faceting in plasma-enhanced direct current chemical vapor deposition of carbon vapor deposition with Ni catalysts on the top of nanofibers. Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the morphology and crystallography of Ni catalysts, which are essential for the nucleation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

79

Tunneling characteristics in chemical vapor deposited graphene hexagonal boron nitride graphene junctions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Tunneling characteristics in chemical vapor deposited graphene ­ hexagonal boron nitride ­ graphene junctions T. Roy1 , L. Liu2 , S. de la Barrera,3 B. Chakrabarti1,4 , Z. R. Hesabi1 , C. A. Joiner1 Abstract: Large area chemical vapor deposited graphene and hexagonal boron nitride was used to fabricate

Feenstra, Randall

80

Computational Analysis and Optimization of a Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactor with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computational Analysis and Optimization of a Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactor with Large and optimization of a three- dimensional model of a horizontal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor used National Laboratories February 9, 2004 Abstract A computational analysis and optimization is presented

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Plasma and Ion Assistance in Physical Vapor Deposition: AHistorical Perspective  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deposition of films using plasma or plasma-assist can betraced back surprisingly far, namely to the 18th century for arcs and tothe 19th century for sputtering. However, only since the 1960s thecoatings community considered other processes than evaporation for largescale commercial use. Ion Plating was perhaps the first importantprocess, introducing vapor ionization and substrate bias to generate abeam of ions arriving on the surface of the growing film. Ratherindependently, cathodic arc deposition was established as an energeticcondensation process, first in the former Soviet Union in the 1970s, andin the 1980s in the Western Hemisphere. About a dozen various ion-basedcoating technologies evolved in the last decades, all characterized byspecific plasma or ion generation processes. Gridded and gridless ionsources were taken from space propulsion and applied to thin filmdeposition. Modeling and simulation have helped to make plasma and ionseffects to be reasonably well understood. Yet--due to the complex, oftennon-linear and non-equilibrium nature of plasma and surfaceinteractions--there is still a place for the experience plasma"sourcerer."

Anders, Andre

2007-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

82

Thermal Stability and Substitutional Carbon Incorporation far above Solid-Solubility in Si1-xCx and Si1-x-yGexCy Layers Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cx and Si1-x-yGexCy Layers Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition using Disilane M. S. Carroll*, J. C. Sturm on (100) silicon substrates by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) with disilane source gas and disilane is known to produce higher silicon epitaxial growth rates for similar partial

83

Charged impurity-induced scatterings in chemical vapor deposited graphene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the effects of defect scatterings on the electric transport properties of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene by measuring the carrier density dependence of the magneto-conductivity. To clarify the dominant scattering mechanism, we perform extensive measurements on large-area samples with different mobility to exclude the edge effect. We analyze our data with the major scattering mechanisms such as short-range static scatters, short-range screened Coulomb disorders, and weak-localization (WL). We establish that the charged impurities are the predominant scatters because there is a strong correlation between the mobility and the charge impurity density. Near the charge neutral point (CNP), the electron-hole puddles that are induced by the charged impurities enhance the inter-valley scattering, which is favorable for WL observations. Away from the CNP, the charged-impurity-induced scattering is weak because of the effective screening by the charge carriers. As a result, the local static structural defects govern the charge transport. Our findings provide compelling evidence for understanding the scattering mechanisms in graphene and pave the way for the improvement of fabrication techniques to achieve high-quality CVD graphene.

Li, Ming-Yang; Tang, Chiu-Chun [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Ling, D. C. [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui Dist., New Taipei 25137, Taiwan (China); Li, L. J. [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Sciences of Matters, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

84

Atmospheric pressure plasma chemical vapor deposition system for high-rate deposition of functional materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The atmospheric pressure plasmachemical vapor deposition(CVD) system has been developed to fabricate functional thin films at very high deposition rate. The atmospheric pressure plasma in which high-density radicals are created has been effectively used to depositthin films. Combination of the newly designed rotary electrode and the 150 MHz very high frequency power supply makes it possible not only to generate the high-density atmospheric pressure plasma but also to avoid ion bombardment against the film. By virtue of these noble characteristics of the system high quality films can be fabricated at an unprecedented high deposition rate. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the atmospheric pressure plasmaCVD system hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a- Si:H ) films were prepared in gas mixtures containing He H 2 and SiH 4 . The results showed that homogeneous a- Si:H films grew when substrates were heated at 200?°C. Extremely high deposition rate which was more than 100 times faster than that of the conventional low-pressure plasma CVD technique was realized.

Y. Mori; K. Yoshii; H. Kakiuchi; K. Yasutake

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Iron (III) Chloride doping of large-area chemical vapor deposition graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemical doping is an effective method of reducing the sheet resistance of graphene. This thesis aims to develop an effective method of doping large area Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) graphene using Iron (III) Chloride ...

Song, Yi, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

CO-CATALYTIC ABSORPTION LAYERS FOR CONTROLLED LASER-INDUCED CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF CARBON NANOTUBES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The concept of co-catalytic layer structures for controlled laser-induced chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes is established, in which a thin Ta support layer chemically aids the initial Fe catalyst reduction. This enables a significant...

Michaelis, F.B.; Weatherup, R.S.; Bayer, B.C.; Bock, M.C.D; Sugime, H.; Caneva, S.; Robertson, J.; Baumberg, J.J.; Hofmann, S.

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

87

Single- and few-layer graphene by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition on nickel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) process is used to fabricate graphene based films consisting of one to several graphene layers across their area. Polycrystalline Ni thin films are used and the graphene ...

Reina Ceeco, Alfonso

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of TiN from tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium and ammonia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pressure chemical vapor deposition. Experiments were conducted in a belt furnace; static experiments, in particular, is used for tool coating, solar-control films, and micro- electronic applications. Optically

89

Properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon prepared by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films were prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from mixtures of silane, disilane, trisilane, and higher polysilanes in hydrogen carrier gas at 1 atm total pressure, at substrate temperatures from 420--530 /sup 0/C. Experimental parameters are explained and properties as a function of these parameters are shown. The measurements include hydrogen content (by IR), optical, electrical, and photovoltaic properties of the material. In most respects, the CVD material closely resembles the a-Si:H usually prepared by glow discharge. The following differences have been noted: (1) the CVD a-Si:H shows no IR absorption at 840--850 cm/sup -1/, which is consistent with the expected better thermal stability of the CVD material because of the much higher substrate temperatures in the CVD process than in the glow discharge process. (2) The band gap of CVD a-Si:H is lower by about 0.1 eV than glow discharge a-Si:H of the same hydrogen content. Thus, the band gap of CVD a-Si:H is better matched to the solar spectrum than is glow discharge a-Si:H. (3) All three IR absorption bands due to hydrogen are about 20% narrower in the CVD a-Si:H, suggesting a simpler structure. (4) The temperature dependence of the dark conductivity of CVD a-Si:H fits a curve for a single activation energy, in contrast to the more complicated temperature dependence often found in glow discharge a-Si:H, in which two different activation energies are seen at high and low temperatures. This suggests that the conduction mechanism is also simpler in the CVD a-Si:H.

Ellis, F.B. Jr.; Gordon, R.G.; Paul, W.; Yacobi, B.G.

1984-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

90

Optimization of the chemical vapor deposition process for carbon nanotubes fabrication  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization of the chemical vapor deposition process for carbon nanotubes fabrication M. Grujicica-phase chemistry and surface chemistry model is developed to analyze, at the reactor length scale, chemical vapor (carrier gas) in the presence of cobalt catalytic particles in a cylindrical reactor. The model allows

Grujicic, Mica

91

Silicon nucleation and film evolution on silicon dioxide using disilane: Rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition of very smooth silicon at high deposition rates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An investigation of Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} and H{sub 2} for rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) of silicon on SiO{sub 2} has been performed at temperatures ranging from 590 to 900 C and pressures ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 Torr. Deposition at 590 C yields amorphous silicon films with the corresponding ultrasmooth surface with a deposition rate of 68 nm/min. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy of a sample deposited at 625 C and 1 Torr reveals a bilayer structure which is amorphous at the growth surface and crystallized at the oxide interface. Higher temperatures yield polycrystalline films where the surface roughness depends strongly on both deposition pressure and temperature. Silane-based amorphous silicon deposition in conventional systems yields the expected ultrasmooth surfaces, but at greatly reduced deposition rates unsuitable for single-wafer processing. However, disilane, over the process window considered here, yields growth rates high enough to be appropriate for single-wafer manufacturing, thus providing a viable means for deposition of very smooth silicon films on SiO{sub 2} in a single-wafer environment.

Violette, K.E.; Oeztuerk, M.C.; Christensen, K.N.; Maher, D.M. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Preparation of membranes using solvent-less vapor deposition followed by in-situ polymerization  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system of fabricating a composite membrane from a membrane substrate using solvent-less vapor deposition followed by in-situ polymerization. A first monomer and a second monomer are directed into a mixing chamber in a deposition chamber. The first monomer and the second monomer are mixed in the mixing chamber providing a mixed first monomer and second monomer. The mixed first monomer and second monomer are solvent-less vapor deposited onto the membrane substrate in the deposition chamber. The membrane substrate and the mixed first monomer and second monomer are heated to produce in-situ polymerization and provide the composite membrane.

O'Brien, Kevin C. (San Ramon, CA); Letts, Stephan A. (San Ramon, CA); Spadaccini, Christopher M. (Oakland, CA); Morse, Jeffrey C. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Buckley, Steven R. (Modesto, CA); Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); Wilson, Keith B. (San Ramon, CA)

2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

93

Solar-induced chemical vapor deposition of diamond-type carbon films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved chemical vapor deposition method for depositing transparent continuous coatings of sp[sup 3]-bonded diamond-type carbon films, comprises: (a) providing a volatile hydrocarbon gas/H[sub 2] reactant mixture in a cold wall vacuum/chemical vapor deposition chamber containing a suitable substrate for said films, at pressure of about 1 to 50 Torr; and (b) directing a concentrated solar flux of from about 40 to about 60 watts/cm[sup 2] through said reactant mixture to produce substrate temperatures of about 750 C to about 950 C to activate deposition of the film on said substrate. 11 figs.

Pitts, J.R.; Tracy, C.E.; King, D.E.; Stanley, J.T.

1994-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

94

Solar-induced chemical vapor deposition of diamond-type carbon films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved chemical vapor deposition method for depositing transparent continuous coatings of sp.sup.3 -bonded diamond-type carbon films, comprising: a) providing a volatile hydrocarbon gas/H.sub.2 reactant mixture in a cold wall vacuum/chemical vapor deposition chamber containing a suitable substrate for said films, at pressure of about 1 to 50 Torr; and b) directing a concentrated solar flux of from about 40 to about 60 watts/cm.sup.2 through said reactant mixture to produce substrate temperatures of about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. to activate deposition of the film on said substrate.

Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); King, David E. (Lakewood, CO); Stanley, James T. (Beaverton, OR)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

As-deposited low-strain LPCVD (low-pressure, chemical-vapor-deposition) polysilicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As-deposited polysilicon films with very low residual strain (lower than 5 x 10/sup -5/) are obtained by a low-pressure, chemical-vapor-deposition (LPCVD) process. Straight polysilicon bridges 300 ..mu..m long, 1.2 ..mu..m thick, and 2 to 20 ..mu..m wide, made using this process. No buckling has been observed in any of the nearly one thousand bridges of this type made in two separate process runs. In addition, no problems of sticking between the bridges and the substrate were encountered with these structures. The polysilicon films from which the beams were fabricated were deposited by pyrolyzing silane at 605/degree/C on a phosphosilicate-glass (PSG) layer (8 wt % P). The PSG layer serves as a sacrificial layer to be subsequently etched away to free the bridge. Our research is aimed at obtaining an understanding of these relationships through consideration of the role of interfacial stresses and the kinetics of initial crystalline nucleation. The technique for producing these low-strain films is significant, however, because no high-temperature annealing steps are required to produce them. 4 refs., 4 figs.

Fan, L.S.; Muller, R.S.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Structure control of carbon nanotubes using radio-frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon nanotube structures such as tube diameter, growth site, and formation density are controlled using radio-frequency (RF, 13.56 MHz) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) method. We have produced uniformly well-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) grown over the large scale area and linearly arrayed \\{MWNTs\\} grown in a selected area without any highly-sophisticated patterning process. In our RF-PECVD experiment, furthermore, individually grown single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) or their thin bundles are synthesized for the first time within the scope of the PECVD methods. These results indicate that PECVD method provides the high potential for the further development of nano-technology.

T. Kato; G.-H. Jeong; T. Hirata; R. Hatakeyama

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

On-line coating of glass with tin oxide by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of tin oxide is a very important manufacturing technique used in the production of low-emissivity glass. It is also the primary method used to provide wear-resistant coatings on glass containers. The complexity of these systems, which involve chemical reactions in both the gas phase and on the deposition surface, as well as complex fluid dynamics, makes process optimization and design of new coating reactors a very difficult task. In 2001 the U.S. Dept. of Energy Industrial Technologies Program Glass Industry of the Future Team funded a project to address the need for more accurate data concerning the tin oxide APCVD process. This report presents a case study of on-line APCVD using organometallic precursors, which are the primary reactants used in industrial coating processes. Research staff at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA, and the PPG Industries Glass Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA collaborated to produce this work. In this report, we describe a detailed investigation of the factors controlling the growth of tin oxide films. The report begins with a discussion of the basic elements of the deposition chemistry, including gas-phase thermochemistry of tin species and mechanisms of chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of tin precursors. These results provide the basis for experimental investigations in which tin oxide growth rates were measured as a function of all major process variables. The experiments focused on growth from monobutyltintrichloride (MBTC) since this is one of the two primary precursors used industrially. There are almost no reliable growth-rate data available for this precursor. Robust models describing the growth rate as a function of these variables are derived from modeling of these data. Finally, the results are used to conduct computational fluid dynamic simulations of both pilot- and full-scale coating reactors. As a result, general conclusions are reached concerning the factors affecting the growth rate in on-line APCVD reactors. In addition, a substantial body of data was generated that can be used to model many different industrial tin oxide coating processes. These data include the most extensive compilation of thermochemistry for gas-phase tin-containing species as well as kinetic expressions describing tin oxide growth rates over a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and reactant concentrations.

Allendorf, Mark D.; Sopko, J.F. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); Houf, William G.; Chae, Yong Kee; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Li, M. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); McCamy, J.W. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA)

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Pulsed plasma-Used injection sources for remote plasma activated chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pulsed plasma- Used injection sources for remote plasma activated chemical vapor deposition Mark J, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (Received 21 October 1992; accepted for publication 12 January 1993) Remote plasma the substrate is immersed in the plasma. This selectivity can be compromised if the deposition gases, which

Kushner, Mark

99

Chemical vapor deposition of W-Si-N and W-B-N  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of depositing a ternary, refractory based thin film on a substrate by chemical vapor deposition employing precursor sources of tungsten comprising WF[sub 6], either silicon or boron, and nitrogen. The result is a W-Si-N or W-B-N thin film useful for diffusion barrier and micromachining applications. 10 figs.

Fleming, J.G.; Roherty-Osmun, E.L.; Smith, P.M.; Custer, J.S.; Jones, R.V.; Nicolet, M.; Madar, R.; Bernard, C.

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

100

Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures of organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides,e.g., transition metal carbonyl, such as nickel carbonyl and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit. 1 fig.

Mullendore, A.W.

1988-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Chemical-vapor deposition of complex oxides: materials and process development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report of a six-month, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) part of the Advanced Materials Laboratory (AML). The demand for higher performance and lower cost in electronics is driving the need for advanced materials and consequent process integration. Ceramic thin-film technology is becoming more important in the manufacture of microelectronic devices, photovoltaics, optoelectronics, magneto-optics, sensors, microwave, and radio frequency communication devices, and high-Tc superconducting tapes. A flexible processing approach for potential large-scale manufacturing of novel electronic ceramic thin films is desirable. Current thin- film deposition technologies based on physical vapor-deposition techniques are limited in scale potential and have limited control of processing parameters. The lack of control over multiple process parameters inhibits the versatility and reproducibility of the physical vapor deposition processes applied to complex oxides. Chemical vapor deposition is emerging as a viable approach for large- scale manufacturing of electronic materials. Specifically, the ability to control more processing parameters with chemical vapor deposition than with other processing techniques provides the reliability and material property reproducibility required by manufacturing. This project sought to investigate the chemical vapor deposition of complex oxides.

Muenchausen, R.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Improved process for the preparation of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites by chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A specially designed apparatus provides a steep thermal gradient across the thickness of fibrous preform. A flow of gaseous ceramic matrix material is directed into the fibrous preform at the cold surface. The deposition of the matrix occurs progressively from the hot surface of the fibrous preform toward the cold surface. Such deposition prevents the surface of the fibrous preform from becoming plugged. As a result thereof, the flow of reactant matrix gases into the uninfiltrated (undeposited) portion of the fibrous preform occurs throughout the deposition process. The progressive and continuous deposition of ceramic matrix within the fibrous preform provides for a significant reduction in process time over known chemical vapor deposition processes.

Lackey, W.J. Jr.; Caputo, A.J.

1984-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

103

System and Method for Sealing a Vapor Deposition Source - Energy...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

costs and minimizes system downtime for cleaning Applications and Industries Thin film solar Deposition of any thin film Patents and Patent Applications ID Number Title and...

104

Thermal Decomposition of Molecules Relevant to Combustion and Chemical Vapor Deposition by Flash Pyrolysis Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Small Molecules by Flash Pyrolysis, University ofwas performed using flash pyrolysis vacuum-ultraviolet time-Vapor Deposition by Flash Pyrolysis Time-of-Flight Mass

Lemieux, Jessy Mario

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Room-temperature high radio-frequency source power effects on silicon nitride films deposited by using a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Silicon nitride films were deposited at room temperature using a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. In this study, the effects of radio frequency (RF) source power ranging from 200 W to ... charact...

Byungwhan Kim; Suyeon Kim

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Simple method for preparing hydrogenated amorphous silicon films by chemical vapor deposition at atmospheric pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An inexpensive one-step method is presented for fabricating hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films with good photovoltaic properties using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from a mixture of silane, disilane, trisilane, and higher polysilanes in hydrogen at one atmosphere total pressure. The gas mixture is generated by the action of dilute acid on magnesium silicide and used immediately in the CVD process. Thus, elaborate techniques for handling, transporting or storing the pyrophoric polysilanes are avoided. In addition, the method requires no expensive vacuum or electrical equipment. The conditions necessary for high (approx. =10%) hydrogen incorporation and very high deposition rates (50-100 A/sec) are explained. Experimental parameters are explained and properties as a function of these parameters are shown. The measurements include hydrogen content, optical, electrical and photovoltaic properties of the a-Si:H films. A chemical kinetic model is presented for this and other silane and polysilane CVD systems between about 400 and 600/sup 0/C. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions are considered. The model is derived from homogeneous gas-phase silane and polysilane chemistry and predicts, in agreement with our experiments, that the homogeneous gas-phase chemistry determines the a-Si:H film growth rate under a variety of conditions. The model is sufficiently predictive to be useful in determining appropriate experimental conditions. Stable solar cells are proposed for a-Si:H and fluorine doped tin oxide which can be produced by CVD at very high deposition rates. The unstable a-Si:H/tin oxide interface is eliminated by a very thin layer of titanium nitride and oxide between the a-Si:H and tin oxide.

Ellis, F.B. Jr.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Direct chemical vapor deposition of graphene on dielectric surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A substrate is provided that has a metallic layer on a substrate surface of a substrate. A film made of a two dimensional (2-D) material, such as graphene, is deposited on a metallic surface of the metallic layer. The metallic layer is dewet and/or removed to provide the film on the substrate surface.

Zhang, Yuegang; Ismach, Ariel

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

108

Influence of gas composition on wafer temperature in a tungsten chemical vapor deposition reactor: Experimental measurements, model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of gas composition on wafer temperature in a tungsten chemical vapor deposition reactor-wafer, lamp-heated chemical vapor deposition system were used to study the wafer temperature response to gas composition. A physically based simulation procedure for the process gas and wafer temperature was developed

Rubloff, Gary W.

109

CRYSTALLINE SILICON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS FROM THE POROUS SILICON PROCESS APPLYING CONVECTION ASSISTED CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CRYSTALLINE SILICON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS FROM THE POROUS SILICON PROCESS APPLYING CONVECTION ASSISTED CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION Barbara Terheiden,1* Thomas Kunz,2 Ingo Burkert2 , Renate Horbelt,1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany ABSTRACT: Convection assisted chemical vapor deposition (CoCVD) is applied

110

Epitaxial graphene prepared by chemical vapor deposition on single crystal thin iridium films on sapphire  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Epitaxial graphene prepared by chemical vapor deposition on single crystal thin iridium films Cedex 9, France (Dated: 15 March 2011) Uniform single layer graphene was grown on single-crystal Ir. These graphene layers have a single crystallographic orientation and a very low density of defects, as shown

Boyer, Edmond

111

High-rate chemical vapor deposition of nanocrystalline silicon carbide films by radio frequency thermal plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-rate chemical vapor deposition of nanocrystalline silicon carbide films by radio frequency Semiconductor, Eden Prairie, MN, USA Received 10 July 2002; accepted 14 July 2002 Abstract Silicon carbide films; Nanomaterials; Silicon carbide; Thermal plasmas; Thin films; Si tetrachlorine precursor Silicon carbide has

Zachariah, Michael R.

112

Initiated chemical vapor deposition of fluoropolymer coatings for the surface modification of complex geometries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a one-step, soventless process that can be used to produce polymeric thin films. The iCVD technique has been used to polymerize a wide variety of vinyl monomers such as glycidyl ...

Gupta, Malancha, 1980-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Z .Thin Solid Films 392 2001 231 235 Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of electrochromic tungsten oxide films Roy G. Gordona,U , Sean Barryb , Jeffrey T. Bartona , Randy N.R. Broomhall oxide, WO , is a coloring layer commonly used in electrochromic windows and displays. Successful: Chemical vapor deposition; Tungsten; Oxides; Electrochromism 1. Introduction Tungsten oxide is a key

114

Ionized physical vapor deposition of integrated circuit interconnects* J. Hopwood,a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

alloy silicide gate level and several metal-SiO2 interlayer dielectric ILD levels joined together metal layers. By the year 2007 it is predicted that logic circuits will use 6 to 7 interconnected metal physical vapor deposition I-PVD . The technique economically creates a unidirectional flux of metal which

115

Formation of Nickel Silicide from Direct-Liquid-Injection Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Nickel Nitride Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Published April 28, 2010. Metal silicides such as TiSi2 and CoSi2 have been commonly used as the contactsFormation of Nickel Silicide from Direct-Liquid-Injection Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Nickel Nitride as the intermediate for subsequent conversion into nickel silicide NiSi , which is a key material for source, drain

116

Vapor Deposition of Ruthenium from an Amidinate Precursor Huazhi Li,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vapor Deposition of Ruthenium from an Amidinate Precursor Huazhi Li,a Damon B. Farmer,b Roy G School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA October 11, 2007. Thin films of ruthenium have many current and potential appli- cations. They can be used

117

Vapor Deposition of Ruthenium from an Amidinate Precursor Huazhi Li,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vapor Deposition of Ruthenium from an Amidinate Precursor Huazhi Li,a Damon B. Farmer,b Roy G. Gordon* ,a Youbo Lin,b Joost Vlassakb a Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology and b School and potential applications. They can be used as electrodes for capacitors, in which their high work function

118

Parallel Reacting Flow Calculations for Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactor Design 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM 87185­1111 (To be published in Proceedings of the International at the synthesis of two important research areas: 3D flow and transport modeling of reactors and the simulationParallel Reacting Flow Calculations for Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactor Design 1 Andrew G

Devine, Karen

119

Chemical Vapor Deposition-Derived Graphene with Electrical Performance of Exfoliated Graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemical Vapor Deposition-Derived Graphene with Electrical Performance of Exfoliated Graphene a scalable method to produce large-area graphene, CVD-grown graphene has heretofore exhibited inferior of CVD-grown graphene in which two important sources of disorder, namely grain boundaries and processing

Hone, James

120

Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition Route to GaN Nanowires with Triangular  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition Route to GaN Nanowires with Triangular Cross Sections Tevye widths of 15-200 nm. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the wires were single as a carrier gas, was percolated through the TMG precursor and coupled with a second nitrogen line to give

Yang, Peidong

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Growth of cubic SiC thin films on Si,,001... by high vacuum chemical vapor deposition using 1,3-disilabutane and an investigation of the effect of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Korea K.-W. Lee, M. M. Sung, and Y. Kim Thin by sublimation and liquid phase epitaxial growth is not commer- cially available in sizes above 2 in. Moreover

Boo, Jin-Hyo

122

In situ mass spectrometric study of pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) thin film deposition with metallorganic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pyrite, FeS{sub 2}, thin films have been prepared by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition using tert-butyl disulfide (TBDS) and iron(III) acetylacetonate [Fe(acac){sub 3}] as the precursors and H{sub 2} as co-reactant. The reaction mechanism is studied with in situ mass spectrometry. The thermal decomposition of TBDS and Fe(acac){sub 3} has been investigated, as well as the synthesis of FeS{sub 2}. A complicated gas-phase reaction chain occurs in the deposition reaction. In the first 1--2 cm of the deposition zone, thick rough films are formed, but further downstream in the reactor a smooth FeS{sub 2} film is deposited. This remarkable change in morphology is accounted for in the proposed reaction mechanism.

Reijnen, L.; Meester, B.; Goossens, A.; Schoonman, J.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Delta-doping of boron atoms by photoexcited chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Boron delta-doped structures in Si crystals were fabricated by means of photoexcited chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Core electronic excitation with high-energy photons ranging from vacuum ultraviolet to soft x rays decomposes B{sub 2}H{sub 6} molecules into fragments. Combined with in situ monitoring by spectroscopic ellipsometry, limited number of boron hydrides can be delivered onto a Si(100) surface by using the incubation period before the formation of a solid boron film. The boron-covered surface is subsequently embedded in a Si cap layer by Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} photo-excited CVD. The crystallinity of the Si cap layer depended on its thickness and the substrate temperature. The evaluation of the boron depth profile by secondary ion mass spectroscopy revealed that boron atoms were confined within the delta-doped layer at a concentration of 2.5 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} with a full width at half maximum of less than 9 nm, while the epitaxial growth of a 130-nm-thick Si cap layer was sustained at 420 deg. C.

Akazawa, Housei [NTT Microsystem Integration Laboratories, 3-1 Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

124

Progress Toward Meeting NIF Specifications for Vapor Deposited Polyimide Ablator Coatings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We are developing an evaporative coating technique for deposition of thick polyimide (PI) ablator layers on ICF targets. The PI coating technique utilizes stoichiometrically controlled fluxes from two Knudsen cell evaporators containing a dianhydride and a diamine to deposit a polyamic acid (PAA) coating. Heating the PAA coating to 300 deg. C converts the PAA coating to a polyimide. Coated shells are rough due to particles on the substrate mandrels and from damage to the coating caused by the agitation used to achieve a uniform coating. We have developed a smoothing process that exposes an initially rough PAA coated shell to solvent vapor using gas levitation. We found that after smoothing the coatings developed a number of wide (low-mode) defects. We have identified two major contributors to low-mode roughness: surface hydrolysis, and deformation during drying/curing. By minimizing air exposure prior to vapor smoothing, avoiding excess solvent sorption during vapor smoothing, and using slow drying we are able to deposit and vapor smooth coatings 160 {mu}m thick with a surface roughness less than 20 nm RMS.

Letts, Stephan A.; Anthamatten, Mitchell; Buckley, Steven R.; Fearon, Evelyn; Nissen, April E.H.; Cook, Robert C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States)

2004-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

125

Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said substrate.

Ott, K.C.; Kodas, T.T.

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

126

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon films produced by chemical vapor deposition: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is a technologically important semiconductor, well-suited for solar photovoltaic energy conversion and thin film device applications. While the glow discharge technique is widely used for the deposition of a-Si:H films, this work is focused on the use of the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique, i.e., the thermal decomposition of disilane and higher silanes, for the deposition of a-Si:H films. A simple technique for the preparation of disilane and higher silanes by using an electric discharge in monosilane under atmospheric pressure has been developed, and the discharge product can be used directly for the deposition process. The important parameters of the CVD process including the substrate temperature, the composition and flow rate of the reaction mixture, and the nature of the diluent gas for disilane, have also been investigated. The deposition rate of a-Si:H films in a helium atmosphere is considerably higher than that in a hydrogen atmosphere, and the CVD process in a helium atmosphere is well-suited for the deposition of thick a-Si:H films. The a-Si:H films deposited under various conditions have been characterized by the photoconductivity, dissolution rate, optical absorption, mechanical stress, gap state density, minority carrier diffusion length, and stability measurements. On the basis of these measurements, a-Si:H films deposited by the thermal decomposition of disilane in a helium atmosphere exhibit better structural and electronic properties than those deposited in a hydrogen atmosphere.

Not Available

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Growth, microstructure and electrical properties of sputter-deposited...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Growth, microstructure and electrical properties of sputter-deposited hafnium oxide (HfO2) thin films grown using HfO2 ceramic Growth, microstructure and electrical properties of...

128

Development of Nb{sub 3}Sn Cavity Vapor Diffusion Deposition System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nb{sub 3}Sn is a BCS superconductors with the superconducting critical temperature higher than that of niobium, so theoretically it surpasses the limitations of niobium in RF fields. The feasibility of technology has been demonstrated at 1.5 GHz with Nb{sub 3}Sn vapor deposition technique at Wuppertal University. The benefit at these frequencies is more pronounced at 4.2 K, where Nb{sub 3}Sn coated cavities show RF resistances an order of magnitude lower than that of niobium. At Jefferson Lab we started the development of Nb{sub 3}Sn vapor diffusion deposition system within an R\\&D development program towards compact light sources. Here we present the current progress of the system development.

Eremeev, Grigory V.; Macha, Kurt M.; Clemens, William A.; Park, HyeKyoung; Williams, R. Scott

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diamond was studied as a possible radiation hard technology for use in future high radiation environments. With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2010, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2015, all LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is installed and operational in all LHC experiments. As a result, this material is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the super-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications.

Rainer Wallny

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

130

Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diamond was studied as a possible radiation hard technology for use in future high radiation environments. With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2009, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2013, all LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is installed in all LHC experiments. As a result, this material is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the super-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications.

Harris Kagan; K.K. Gan; Richard Kass

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

131

Electrochromic properties of iron oxide thin films prepared by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Iron oxide thin films were prepared by chemical vapor deposition. The source material was iron (III) acetylacetonate. The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were produced at a substrate temperature above 200 C. The films deposited at a substrate temperature above 300 C were polycrystalline {beta}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Reduction and oxidation of the amorphous films in a 0.3 M LiClO{sub 4} propylene carbonate solution caused desirable changes in optical absorption. Coulometry indicated that the coloration efficiency was 6.0 to 6.5 cm{sup 2}/C.

Maruyama, Toshiro; Kanagawa, Tetsuya [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Metal organic chemical vapor deposition of 111-v compounds on silicon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Expitaxial composite comprising thin films of a Group III-V compound semiconductor such as gallium arsenide (GaAs) or gallium aluminum arsenide (GaAlAs) on single crystal silicon substrates are disclosed. Also disclosed is a process for manufacturing, by chemical deposition from the vapor phase, epitaxial composites as above described, and to semiconductor devices based on such epitaxial composites. The composites have particular utility for use in making light sensitive solid state solar cells.

Vernon, Stanley M. (Wellesley, MA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

The influence of prestrained metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial gallium-nitride templates on hydride vapor phase epitaxial growth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have varied the strain situation in metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial (MOVPE) grown gallium-nitride (GaN) by exchanging the nucleation layer and by inserting a submono-Si x N y -interlayer in the first few hundred nanometers of growth on sapphire substrates. The influence on the MOVPE template and subsequent hydride vapor phase epitaxial (HVPE) growth could be shown by in-situ measurements of the sample curvature. Using the results of these investigations we have established a procedure to confine the curvature development in MOVPE and HVPE growth to a minimum. By increasing the layer thickness in HVPE we could create self-separated freestanding GaN layers with small remaining curvature.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Characterization of Chemically Vapor Deposited Silicon Nitride Films from Disilane and Ammonia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Amorphous silicon nitride films a:SiNx were prepared by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) from disilane ( Si2H6) and ammonia ( NH3). Most of the depositions were performed at 600° C with various NH3/Si2H6 gas ratios ranging from 4 to 50. Different deposits with composition (x= N/Si) ranging from silicon-rich to stoichiometric silicon nitride were characterized by means of infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ellipsometry, electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and their structure analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Transmission infrared measurements showed low hydrogen content (x= N/Si) and density of the films were correlated with their refractive index and discussed.

Redhouane Henda; Larbi Laanab; Emmanuel Scheid; Robert Fourmeaux

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of graphene on copper substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A plasma enhanced vapor deposition process is used to synthesize graphene from a hydrogen/methane gas mixture on copper samples. The graphene samples were transferred onto SiO{sub 2} substrates and characterized by Raman spectroscopic mapping and atomic force microscope topographical mapping. Analysis of the Raman bands shows that the deposited graphene is clearly SLG and that the sheets are deposited on large areas of several mm{sup 2}. The defect density in the graphene sheets is calculated using Raman measurements and the influence of the process pressure on the defect density is measured. Furthermore the origin of these defects is discussed with respect to the process parameters and hence the plasma environment.

Woehrl, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.woehrl@uni-due.de; Schulz, Stephan [Faculty of Chemistry and CENIDE, University Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)] [Faculty of Chemistry and CENIDE, University Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Ochedowski, Oliver; Gottlieb, Steven [Faculty of Physics and CENIDE, University Duisburg Essen, Lotharstraße 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)] [Faculty of Physics and CENIDE, University Duisburg Essen, Lotharstraße 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Shibasaki, Kosuke [Institute of Materials Science, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)] [Institute of Materials Science, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

136

Graphene growth with giant domains using chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

N. Martensson, Controlling graphene corrugation on lattice-in patterned epitaxial graphene, Science, 2006, 312(5777), 92009, 4(6), 17 A. K. Geim, Graphene: Status and Prospects,

Yong, Virginia; Hahn, H. Thomas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Vapor-deposited non-crystalline phase vs ordinary glasses and supercooled liquids: evidence for significant thermodynamic and kinetic differences  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vapor deposition of molecules on a substrate often results in glassy materials of high kinetic stability and low enthalpy. The extraordinary properties of such glasses are attributed to high rates of surface diffusion during sample deposition, which makes it possible for constituents to find a configuration of much lower energy on a typical laboratory time scale1,2,7. The exact structure of the resulting phase is often assumed to be identical to that obtained by aging of ordinary glass over exceedingly long times. Using Fast Scanning Calorimetry technique, we show that out-of-equilibrium relaxation kinetics and possibly the enthalpy of vapor-deposited films of toluene, an archetypical fragile glass former, are distinct from those of ordinary supercooled phase even when the deposition takes place at temperatures above the glass softening. These observations provide support to the conjecture that the vapor-deposition may result in formation of non-crystalline phase of unique structural, thermodynamic, and kinetic properties.

Deepanjan Bhattacharya; Vlad Sadtchenko

2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

138

Low-pressure chemical vapor deposition of amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices. Annual technical progress report, 1 May 1984-30 April 1985  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Intrinsic and doped a-Si:H films were deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for disilane. Intrinsic layers were deposited at growth rates as high as 50 A/s. A chemical reaction engineering model that quantitatively describes the CVD reactor behavior has been developed. CVD intrinsic material was characterized by measurements of impurities, optical band gap, photoconductivity, activation energy, diffusion length, and density of states. Photovoltaic cells of the p-i-n type with efficiencies of 4% and 3.6% were fabricated using CVD intrinsic layers deposited at 1 A/s and 9 A/s, respectively. A maximum short-circuit current of 11 mA/cm/sup 2/ under 87.5 MW/cm/sup 2/ ELH illumination was obtained with boron-compensated CVD intrinsic material. Efficiency-limiting mechanisms in CVD cells were quantitatively analyzed and related to fundamental properties.

Baron, B.N.; Rocheleau, R.E.; Hegedus, S.S.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Tunable carbon nanotube-tungsten carbide nanoparticles heterostructures by vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simple, versatile route for the synthesis of carbon nanotube (CNT)-tungsten carbide nanoparticles heterostructures was set up via vapor deposition process. For the first time, amorphous CNTs (?-CNTs) were used to immobilized tungsten carbide nanoparticles. By adjusting the synthesis and annealing temperature, ?-CNTs/amorphous tungsten carbide, ?-CNTs/W{sub 2}C, and CNTs/W{sub 2}C/WC heterostructures were prepared. This approach provides an efficient method to attach other metal carbides and other nanoparticles to carbon nanotubes with tunable properties.

Xia, Min; Guo, Hongyan; Ge, Changchun [Institute of Special Ceramics and Powder Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing (China); Institute of Powder Metallurgy and Advanced Ceramics, Southwest Jiaotong University, 111, 1st Section, Northern 2nd Ring Road, Chengdu (China); Yan, Qingzhi, E-mail: qzyan@ustb.edu.cn; Lang, Shaoting [Institute of Special Ceramics and Powder Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing (China)

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

140

Tunneling characteristics in chemical vapor deposited graphene–hexagonal boron nitride–graphene junctions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large area chemical vapor deposited graphene and hexagonal boron nitride was used to fabricate graphene–hexagonal boron nitride–graphene symmetric field effect transistors. Gate control of the tunneling characteristics is observed similar to previously reported results for exfoliated graphene–hexagonal boron nitride–graphene devices. Density-of-states features are observed in the tunneling characteristics of the devices, although without large resonant peaks that would arise from lateral momentum conservation. The lack of distinct resonant behavior is attributed to disorder in the devices, and a possible source of the disorder is discussed.

Roy, T.; Hesabi, Z. R.; Joiner, C. A.; Vogel, E. M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Liu, L.; Gu, G. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Tennessee, 1520 Middle Drive, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Barrera, S. de la; Feenstra, R. M. [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Chakrabarti, B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Rd., Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Selective charge doping of chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene by interface modification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The doping and scattering effect of substrate on the electronic properties of chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene are revealed. Wet etching the underlying SiO{sub 2} of graphene and depositing self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of organosilane between graphene and SiO{sub 2} are used to modify various substrates for CVD graphene transistors. Comparing with the bare SiO{sub 2} substrate, the carrier mobility of CVD graphene on modified substrate is enhanced by almost 5-fold; consistently the residual carrier concentration is reduced down to 10{sup 11}?cm{sup ?2}. Moreover, scalable and reliable p- and n-type graphene and graphene p-n junction are achieved on various silane SAMs with different functional groups.

Wang, Shengnan, E-mail: wang.shengnan@lab.ntt.co.jp; Suzuki, Satoru; Furukawa, Kazuaki; Orofeo, Carlo M.; Takamura, Makoto; Hibino, Hiroki [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)] [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

142

Photochemical vapor deposition of amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices. Semiannual subcontract report, 1 May 1985-31 October 1985  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Intrinsic, p-type, and n-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin-films have been deposited by mercury-sensitized photochemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD) from disilane. The photochemical reactor design includes two chambers separated by a movable uv-transparent Teflon curtain to eliminate deposition on the reactor window. Glass/TCO/p-i-n/metal photovoltaic devices were fabricated by photo-CVD. The efficiency at 87.5 MW/cm/sup 2/(ELH) was 5.1%.

Baron, B.N.; Rocheleau, R.E.; Hegedus, S.S.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Stress induced phase transition in Gd2O3 films by ion beam assisted reactive electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The structural evolution of thick polycrystalline gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) films deposited by reactive electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) is investigated. High deposition rates (> 5 Å/s) lead to the growth of mixed phase films which are of the cubic phase near the film/substrate interface before forming monoclinic phase as distance from the interface increases. By decreasing the deposition rate to phase. The growth of the thermodynamically stable cubic phase under these conditions is attributed to both higher surface mobility of the adatoms during growth and to increased tensile stress within the film. Ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) was then performed to introduce compressive stress into the film resulting in the formation of the monoclinic phase. Wafer curvature, X-ray diffraction, confocal Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy are utilized to characterize the film and present evidence for the existence of a stress-induced phase transition in the Gd2O3 films.

Daniel A. Grave; Michael P. Schmitt; Joshua A. Robinson; Douglas E. Wolfe

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Photochemical vapor deposition of undoped and n-type amorphous silicon films produced from disilane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon films have been deposited by mercury photosensitized decomposition (photochemical vapor deposition: photo-CVD) of disilane at a substrate temperature below 300 /sup 0/C. The structural and optical properties of undoped films are very similar to those of films deposited by rf glow discharge decomposition. The electronic property measurement shows that the conductivity strongly depends on the substrate temperature during deposition. The photoconductivity reaches 5.7 x 10/sup -3/ (..cap omega.. cm)/sup -1/ (AM1,100 mW/cm/sup 2/) at a substrate temperature of 200 /sup 0/C. The dark conductivity is 10/sup -6/--10/sup -8/ (..cap omega.. cm)/sup -1/ and the Fermi level is located near the middle of the gap. n-type doping has been also achieved by adding phosphine as an impurity to disilane. Furthermore, a p-i-n a-Si solar cell was fabricated using photo-CVD undoped and P-doped films. The initial cell showed a conversion efficiency of 4.39% under AM1 insolation.

Inoue, T.; Konagai, M.; Takahashi, K.

1983-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

145

Characterization and tribological application of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films prepared by radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) technique  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were successfully prepared on glass substrates and surfaces of selenium drums via radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method. The...

Ning Cao; Zhen-yi Fei; Yong-xin Qi; Wen-wen Chen…

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Vapor-deposited /sup 235/UO/sub 2/ layers for an ultra-high-sensitivity fission counter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After evaluating the properties of uranium oxide coatings prepared by electrodeposition, painting and physical vapor deposition, the vapor deposition method was selected as being preferable for preparing coatings on aluminum electrodes having a total area of 5 m/sup 2/. The electrodes were used in an experimental fission chamber designed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use as a neutron flux monitor the Clinch River Breeder Reactor. Initial testing of the Ultra-High Sensitivity Fission Counter (UHSFC) indicated that a tenfold increase in sensitivity was achieved as compared to commercially available fission counters. Techniques used in vapor coating and characterizing the /sup 235/UO/sub 2/ deposits on the large-area curved substrates are described.

Adair, H.L.; Byrum, B.L.; Dailey, J.M.; Gibson, J.R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Chemical vapor deposition of refractory ternary nitrides for advanced diffusion barriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Refractory ternary nitride films for diffusion barriers in microelectronics have been grown using chemical vapor deposition. Thin films of titanium-silicon-nitride, tungsten-boron-nitride, and tungsten-silicon-nitride of various compositions have been deposited on 150 mm Si wafers. The microstructure of the films are either fully amorphous for the tungsten based films, or nauocrystalline TiN in an amorphous matrix for titanium-silicon-nitride. All films exhibit step coverages suitable for use in future microelectronics generations. Selected films have been tested as diffusion barriers between copper and silicon, and generally perform extremely weH. These fiIms are promising candidates for advanced diffusion barriers for microelectronics applications. The manufacturing of silicon wafers into integrated circuits uses many different process and materials. The manufacturing process is usually divided into two parts: the front end of line (FEOL) and the back end of line (BEOL). In the FEOL the individual transistors that are the heart of an integrated circuit are made on the silicon wafer. The responsibility of the BEOL is to wire all the transistors together to make a complete circuit. The transistors are fabricated in the silicon itself. The wiring is made out of metal, currently aluminum and tungsten, insulated by silicon dioxide, see Figure 1. Unfortunately, silicon will diffuse into aluminum, causing aluminum spiking of junctions, killing transistors. Similarly, during chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of tungsten from ~fj, the reactivity of the fluorine can cause "worn-holes" in the silicon, also destroying transistors. The solution to these problems is a so-called diffusion barrier, which will allow current to pass from the transistors to the wiring, but will prevent reactions between silicon and the metal.

Custer, Jonathan S.; Fleming, James G.; Roherty-Osmun, Elizabeth; Smith, Paul Martin

1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

148

Thermal treatment induced change of diluted oxygen doped ZnTe films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper the authors report the growth of diluted oxygen doped ZnTe films (ZnTe:O) by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The effect of a post thermal annealing on the properties of the highly mismatched films has been investigated. It is found that the in-situ doping leads to an effective incorporation of oxygen into ZnTe films with different occupation configurations either on Zn or on Te site. The subsequent annealing process in a vacuum ambient leads to an enhancement of the oxygen incorporation into the ZnTe:O films due to the diffusion of the residual oxygen while the annealing with the same as-grown sample covered on top of the surface (denoted as “face-to-face” annealing in the text) is beneficial to the improvement of the film quality with manifest intermediate band emission at around 1.9?eV as revealed by the low-temperature photoluminescence. This study indicates that the mass-productive MOCVD technique may be suitable for the growth of highly mismatched ZnTe:O films for the application of the intermediate band solar cell.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

The optimization of interfaces in InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattices grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have prepared InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattice (SLS) semiconductors by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) under a variety of conditions. Presence of an InGaAsSb interface layer is indicated by x-ray diffraction patterns. Optimized growth conditions involved the use of low pressure, short purge times, and no reactant flow during the purges. MOCVD was used to prepare an optically pumped, single heterostructure InAsSb/InGaAs SLS/InPSb laser which emitted at 3.9 {mu}m with a maximum operating temperature of approximately 100 K.

Biefeld, R.M.; Baucom, K.C.; Kurtz, S.R.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

150

Study of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films and the application to p-channel thin film transistor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The material and process characteristics of boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (PECVD) have been studied. The goal is to apply the high quality films...

Nominanda, Helinda

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

151

Gas-phase silicon atom densities in the chemical vapor deposition of silicon from silane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Silicon atom number density profiles have been measured using laser-induced fluorescence during the chemical vapor deposition of silicon from silane. Measurements were obtained in a rotating-disk reactor as a function of silane partial pressure and the amount of hydrogen added to the carrier gas. Absolute number densities were obtained using an atomic absorption technique. Results were compared with calculated density profiles from a model of the coupled fluid flow, gas-phase and surface chemistry for an infinite-radius rotating disk. An analysis of the reaction mechanism showed that the unimolecular decomposition of SiH{sub 2} is not the dominant source of Si atoms. Profile shapes and positions, and all experimental trends are well matched by the calculations. However, the calculated number density is up to 100 times smaller than measured.

Coltrin, M.E.; Breiland, W.G.; Ho, P.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

152

In situ nitrogen-doped graphene grown from polydimethylsiloxane by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to its unique electronic properties and wide spectrum of promising applications, graphene has attracted much attention from scientists in various fields. Control and engineering of graphene’s semiconducting properties is considered to be the key of its applications in electronic devices. Here, we report a novel method to prepare in situ nitrogen-doped graphene by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) as a solid carbon source. Based on this approach, the concentration of nitrogen-doping can be easily controlled via the flow rate of nitrogen during the CVD process. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the nitrogen atoms doped into graphene lattice were mainly in the forms of pyridinic and pyrrolic structures. Moreover, first-principles calculations show that the incorporated nitrogen atoms can lead to p-type doping of graphene. This in situ approach provides a promising strategy to prepare graphene with controlled electronic properties.

Wang, Chundong; Zhou, Yungang; He, Lifang; Ng, Tsz-Wai; Hong, Guo; Wu, Qi-Hui; Gao, Fei; Lee, Chun-Sing; Zhang, Wenjun

2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

153

Life cycle cost study for coated conductor manufacture by metal organic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to calculate the cost of producing high temperature superconducting wire by the Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) process. The technology status is reviewed from the literature and a plant conceptual design is assumed for the cost calculation. The critical issues discussed are the high cost of the metal organic precursors, the material utilization efficiency and the capability of the final product as measured by the critical current density achieved. Capital, operating and material costs are estimated and summed as the basis for calculating the cost per unit length of wire. Sensitivity analyses of key assumptions are examined to determine their effects on the final wire cost. Additionally, the cost of wire on the basis of cost per kiloampere per meter is calculated for operation at lower temperatures than the liquid nitrogen boiling temperature. It is concluded that this process should not be ruled out on the basis of high cost of precursors alone.

Chapman, J.N.

1999-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

154

Electrochemistry of chemical vapor deposited tungsten films with relevance to chemical mechanical polishing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electrochemical behavior of chemically vapor deposited tungsten films in solutions of interest to tungsten chemical mechanical polishing has been investigated using dc potentiodynamic polarization, linear polarization, and Tafel methods. It was found that in the absence of an oxidizer, the tungsten surface was passivated most effectively at acidic pH values. At pH 2 or 4, a WO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3} duplex oxide layer of less than 50 A thickness was detected over the tungsten layer by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The oxide layer formed at pH 2 was much thicker, and had better passivity compared to the oxide formed at pH 4. Addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at pH 2 or 4 resulted in a dramatic increase in tungsten dissolution.

Kneer, E.A.; Raghunath, C.; Raghavan, S. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Jeon, J.S. [Advanced Micro Devices Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Essential role of catalyst in vapor-liquid-solid growth of compounds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mechanism of the solidification of compound materials, such as oxide crystals, in a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) system is investigated by model molecular dynamics simulation. A simple model for the VLS growth of a compound crystal is proposed to clarify the general mechanism of how a liquid solvent catalyzes the growth rate. We find that the nucleation process at the solid surface is responsible for limiting the growth rate, and that the solvent catalyzes the nucleation by reducing the critical nucleation size at the liquid-solid interface. Our theoretical suggestion that the ratio of the vapor-solid (VS) growth rate to the VLS growth rate strongly depends on the supply rate qualitatively agrees well with the experimental result. Finally, we simulate the entire process of VLS nanowire formation.

Masaru Suzuki; Yoshiki Hidaka; Takeshi Yanagida; Annop Klamchuen; Masaki Kanai; Tomoji Kawai; Shoichi Kai

2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

156

Chemical vapor deposition of amorphous semiconductor films. Semiannual report, 1 May 1983-31 October 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents an analysis of intrinsic and phosphorus-doped n-type amorphous silicon films deposited by LPCVD from disilane in a laminar flow tubular reactor. These films were analyzed using SIMs, ESR measurements, optical absorption, and conductivity in light and dark. CVD deposited i layers were used to make platinum Schottky barrier devices and hybrid cells utilizing glow discharge deposited layers in both the ITO/nip/Mo and ITO/pin/Mo configurations. The highest efficiency of hybrid cells with the ITO/ni(CVD)/p(GD)/Mo structure was approximately 1.5%. The highest efficiencies were obtained with thin i layers. The highest efficiency for the ITO/p(GD)/in(CVD)/Mo configuration was 4.0%. A chemical model was developed describing the gas phase reactions and film growth; the model quantitatively describes the effluent composition when the measured growth rate is input. Kinetic rate expressions and constants for growth from higher silanes are being determined for a wide range of reaction conditions.

Not Available

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Gas jet assisted vapor deposition of yttria stabilized zirconia D. D. Hass and H. N. G. Wadleya  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas jet assisted vapor deposition of yttria stabilized zirconia D. D. Hass and H. N. G. Wadleya February 2009 A gas jet assisted electron beam evaporation process for synthesizing yttria stabilized zirconia YSZ coatings has recently been reported. The process uses a rarefied inert gas jet to entrain

Wadley, Haydn

158

Reactor design for uniform chemical vapor deposition-grown films without substrate rotation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A reactor vessel is described for chemical vapor deposition of a uniform semiconductor film on a substrate, comprising: a generally cylindrical reaction chamber for receiving a substrate and a flow of reaction gas capable of depositing a film on the substrate under the conditions of the chamber, the chamber having upper and lower portion and being oriented about a vertical axis; a supporting means having a substrate support surface generally perpendicular to the vertical axis for carrying the substrate within the lower portion of the reaction chamber in a predetermined relative position with respect to the upper portion of the reaction chamber, the upper portion including a cylindrically shaped confinement chamber. The confinement chamber has a smaller diameter than the lower portion of the reaction chamber and is positioned above the substrate support surface; and a means for introducing a reaction gas into the confinement chamber in a nonaxial direction so as to direct the reaction gas into the lower portion of the reaction chamber with a non-axial flow having a rotational component with respect to the vertical axis. In this way the reaction gas defines an inward vortex flow pattern with respect to the substrate surface.

Wanlass, M.

1987-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

159

Step-edge-induced resistance anisotropy in quasi-free-standing bilayer chemical vapor deposition graphene on SiC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The transport properties of quasi-free-standing (QFS) bilayer graphene on SiC depend on a range of scattering mechanisms. Most of them are isotropic in nature. However, the SiC substrate morphology marked by a distinctive pattern of the terraces gives rise to an anisotropy in graphene's sheet resistance, which may be considered an additional scattering mechanism. At a technological level, the growth-preceding in situ etching of the SiC surface promotes step bunching which results in macro steps ?10?nm in height. In this report, we study the qualitative and quantitative effects of SiC steps edges on the resistance of epitaxial graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. We experimentally determine the value of step edge resistivity in hydrogen-intercalated QFS-bilayer graphene to be ?190???m for step height h{sub S}?=?10?nm and provide proof that it cannot originate from mechanical deformation of graphene but is likely to arise from lowered carrier concentration in the step area. Our results are confronted with the previously reported values of the step edge resistivity in monolayer graphene over SiC atomic steps. In our analysis, we focus on large-scale, statistical properties to foster the scalable technology of industrial graphene for electronics and sensor applications.

Ciuk, Tymoteusz [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Cakmakyapan, Semih; Ozbay, Ekmel [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Department of Physics, Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, 06800 Bilkent, Ankara (Turkey); Caban, Piotr; Grodecki, Kacper; Pasternak, Iwona; Strupinski, Wlodek, E-mail: wlodek.strupinski@itme.edu.pl [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Krajewska, Aleksandra [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Gen. S. Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Szmidt, Jan [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland)

2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

160

Photochemical vapor deposition of amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices: Annual subcontract report, 1 May 1985-30 April 1986  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Intrinsic, p-type, and n-type a-Si:H and p-type a-SiC:H thin-films have been deposited by Hg-sensitized photochemical vapor depositions (photo-CVD) from disilane. The photochemical reactor design includes two chambers separated by a movable uv-transparent Teflon curtain, which eliminates deposition on the reactor window. Photovoltaic devices of the type glass/TCO/p-i-n/metal were fabricated by photo-CVD. The device efficiency obtained at 87.5 mW/cm/sup 2/ and ELH illumination was 6.4%.

Baron, B.N.; Rocheleau, R.E.; Hegedus, S.S.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Optical coatings of variable refractive index and high laser-resistance from physical-vapor-deposited perfluorinated amorphous polymer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Variable index optical single-layers, optical multilayer, and laser-resistant coatings were made from a perfluorinated amorphous polymer material by physical vapor deposition. This was accomplished by physically vapor depositing a polymer material, such as bulk Teflon AF2400, for example, to form thin layers that have a very low refractive index (.about.1.10-1.31) and are highly transparent from the ultra-violet through the near infrared regime, and maintain the low refractive index of the bulk material. The refractive index can be varied by simply varying one process parameter, either the deposition rate or the substrate temperature. The thus forming coatings may be utilized in anti-reflectors and graded anti-reflection coatings, as well as in optical layers for laser-resistant coatings at optical wavelengths of less than about 2000 nm.

Chow, Robert (Livermore, CA); Loomis, Gary E. (Livermore, CA); Thomas, Ian M. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Optical coatings of variable refractive index and high laser-resistance from physical-vapor-deposited perfluorinated amorphous polymer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Variable index optical single-layers, optical multilayer, and laser-resistant coatings were made from a perfluorinated amorphous polymer material by physical vapor deposition. This was accomplished by physically vapor depositing a polymer material, such as bulk Teflon AF2400, for example, to form thin layers that have a very low refractive index (ca. 1.10--1.31) and are highly transparent from the ultra-violet through the near infrared regime, and maintain the low refractive index of the bulk material. The refractive index can be varied by simply varying one process parameter, either the deposition rate or the substrate temperature. The thus forming coatings may be utilized in anti-reflectors and graded anti-reflection coatings, as well as in optical layers for laser-resistant coatings at optical wavelengths of less than about 2000 nm. 2 figs.

Chow, R.; Loomis, G.E.; Thomas, I.M.

1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

163

Formation of Nickel Silicide from Direct-liquid-injection Chemical-vapor-deposited Nickel Nitride Films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Smooth, continuous, and highly conformal nickel nitride (NiN{sub x}) films were deposited by direct liquid injection (DLI)-chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using a solution of bis(N,N{prime}-di-tert-butylacetamidinato)nickel(II) in tetrahydronaphthalene as the nickel (Ni) source and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the coreactant gas. The DLI-CVD NiNx films grown on HF-last (100) silicon and on highly doped polysilicon substrates served as the intermediate for subsequent conversion into nickel silicide (NiSi), which is a key material for source, drain, and gate contacts in microelectronic devices. Rapid thermal annealing in the forming gas of DLI-CVD NiNx films formed continuous NiSi films at temperatures above 400 C. The resistivity of the NiSi films was 15{mu}{Omega} cm, close to the value for bulk crystals. The NiSi films have remarkably smooth and sharp interfaces with underlying Si substrates, thereby producing contacts for transistors with a higher drive current and a lower junction leakage. Resistivity and synchrotron X-ray diffraction in real-time during annealing of NiNx films showed the formation of a NiSi film at about 440 C, which is morphologically stable up to about 650 C. These NiSi films could find applications in future nanoscale complementary metal oxide semiconductor devices or three-dimensional metal-oxide-semiconductor devices such as Fin-type field effect transistors for the 22 nm technology node and beyond.

Li, Z.; Gordon, R; Li, H; Shenai, D; Lavoie, C

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Gas-phase reaction study of disilane pyrolysis: Applications to low pressure chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The gas-phase thermal reactions during disilane decomposition at low pressure chemical vapor deposition conditions were studied from 300 to 1,000 K using resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and multiphoton ionization (MPI). REMPI of gas-phase Si, mass 28, was detected from 640 to 840 K and 1 to 10 Torr, with a maximum signal intensity between 700 to 720 K. During disilane decomposition, no SiH (427.8 nm), SiH[sub 2] (494-515 nm), or SiH[sub 3] (419.0 nm) was detected. MPI of higher silanes, silenes, and silylenes were detected through mass fragments 2, 32, and 60; these species reached a maximum signal intensity 20 degrees prior to the mass-28 maximum. Modeling studies that included a detailed low pressure gas-phase kinetic scheme predict relative gas-phase partial pressures generated during disilane pyrolysis. The model predicted experimental trends in the Si partial pressure and the higher silane, silene, and silylene partial pressures.

Johannes, J.E.; Ekerdt, J.G. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Effect of e-beam irradiation on graphene layer grown by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have grown graphene by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and transferred it onto Si/SiO{sub 2} substrates to make tens of micron scale devices for Raman spectroscopy study. The effect of electron beam (e-beam) irradiation of various doses (600 to 12 000 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}) on CVD grown graphene has been examined by using Raman spectroscopy. It is found that the radiation exposures result in the appearance of the strong disorder D band attributed the damage to the lattice. The evolution of peak frequencies, intensities, and widths of the main Raman bands of CVD graphene is analyzed as a function of defect created by e-beam irradiation. Especially, the D and G peak evolution with increasing radiation dose follows the amorphization trajectory, which suggests transformation of graphene to the nanocrystalline and then to amorphous form. We have also estimated the strain induced by e-beam irradiation in CVD graphene. These results obtained for CVD graphene are in line with previous findings reported for the mechanically exfoliated graphene [D. Teweldebrhan and A. A. Balandin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 013101 (2009)]. The results have important implications for CVD graphene characterization and device fabrication, which rely on the electron microscopy.

Iqbal, M. Z.; Kumar Singh, Arun; Iqbal, M. W.; Seo, Sunae; Eom, Jonghwa [Department of Physics and Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

166

High-temperature stress measurement on chemical-vapor-deposited tungsten silicide and tungsten films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stresses in chemical-vapor-deposited tungsten silicide and tungsten films at high temperatures were measured. Tungsten silicide films were formed from WF/sub 6/ and SiH/sub 4/ or Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/. Tungsten films were formed from WF/sub 6/ and H/sub 2/. The stress in tungsten silicide films is tensile and in the order of 10/sup 9/--10/sup 10/ dynes/cm/sup 2/. For a composition ratio of Si/Wless than or equal to2.6, the stress of a film of more than 1000 A has a maximum at about 500 /sup 0/C. On the other hand, for a composition Si/W>2.9, the stress has no maximum. The maximum of the stress is caused by crystallization of the film. The stress has two components. One component is related to the difference of the thermal expansion coefficients between the film and the Si substrate. Another is related to the film crystallization. It was found that the stress concentrates in the portion of the film nearest the substrate. The stress in tungsten films also reaches a maximum at 550 /sup 0/C, similar to the tungsten silicide films. However, the cause of this behavior is not clear.

Shioya, Y.; Ikegami, K.; Maeda, M.; Yanagida, K.

1987-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

167

Step-coverage simulation for tetraethoxysilane and ozone atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simulation model for atmospheric pressure (AP) CVD has bee developed using one-dimensional diffusion and mass conservation equations. The model was applied to trench step-coverage of the tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and O[sub 3] CVD, in which it was not necessary to consider lateral diffusion because of narrow (and deep) trenches. For nondoped silicate glass (NSG), the step-coverage of a 4.5 aspect ratio trench showed a good fit if a sticking probability of 0.0039 was assumed for the 0.6% ozone (in oxygen) deposition and of 0.0026 for the 6% ozone deposition (both 400 C). The reaction rate constant was compared with the diffusion mass-transfer coefficient, and the reaction proved to be limited by diffusion of the reactant, TEOS, which directly participated in the CVD reaction. For the 2 m/o phosphosilicate glass (PSG) step-coverage, which had a slight overhang, the model matched the obtained results well only when an active growth species with a high sticking probability of 1.0 was added to the growth species of nondoped oxide. This analytical simulation method satisfactorily explains the experimental data.

Fujino, K. (Semiconductor Process Lab., Toyko (Japan)); Egashira, Y.; Shimogaki, Y.; Komiyama, H. (Univ. of Tokyo, (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Growth mode evolution of hafnium oxide by atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HfO{sub 2} thin films were deposited using tetrakis-ethylmethylamido hafnium and H{sub 2}O as precursors on silicon by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The morphology and microstructures at different ALD cycles were characterized by atomic force microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Based on the height–height correlation function and power spectral density function, quantitative analysis of surface morphologies was performed. Three characteristic dimensions (?{sub 1}, ?{sub 2}, and ?{sub 3}) corresponding to three surface structures, islands, local and global fluctuations, were identified. The evolution of ALD growth mode at range of the three critical scales was investigated, respectively. It suggests the transformation of growth mode from quasi two-dimensional layer-by-layer to three-dimensional island for global fluctuations.

Nie, Xianglong; Ma, Fei; Ma, Dayan, E-mail: madayan@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Xu, Kewei [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China and Department of Physics and Opt-electronic Engineering, Xi'an University of Arts and Science, Xi'an 710065, Shaanxi (China)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

169

The influence of ice nucleation mode and ice vapor growth on simulation of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The influence of ice nucleation mode and ice vapor growth on simulation of The influence of ice nucleation mode and ice vapor growth on simulation of arctic mixed-phase clouds Avramov, Alexander The Pennsylvania State University Category: Modeling Mixed-phase arctic stratus clouds are the predominant cloud type in the Arctic . Perhaps one of the most intriguing of their features is that they tend to have liquid tops that precipitate ice. Despite the fact that this situation is colloidally unstable, these cloud systems are quite long lived - from a few days to over a couple of weeks. Previous studies have suggested that this longevity may be due to a paucity of ice nucleating aerosols (ice nuclei, or IN) in the Arctic. Such studies have shown that small changes in IN concentrations can cause large changes in the amount of liquid water within a mixed-phase stratus deck. We use the Regional

170

Development of nanodiamond foils for H- stripping to Support the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) using hot filament chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thin diamond foils are needed in many particle accelerator experiments regarding nuclear and atomic physics, as well as in some interdisciplinary research. Particularly, nanodiamond texture is attractive for this purpose as it possesses a unique combination of diamond properties such as high thermal conductivity, mechanical strength and high radiation hardness; therefore, it is a potential material for energetic ion beam stripper foils. At the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), the installed set of foils must be able to survive a nominal five-month operation period, without the need for unscheduled costly shutdowns and repairs. Thus, a small foil about the size of a postage stamp is critical to the operation of SNS and similar sources in U.S. laboratories and around the world. We are investigating nanocrystalline, polycrystalline and their admixture films fabricated using a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system for H- stripping to support the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Here we discuss optimization of process variables such as substrate temperature, process gas ratio of H2/Ar/CH4, substrate to filament distance, filament temperature, carburization conditions, and filament geometry to achieve high purity diamond foils on patterned silicon substrates with manageable intrinsic and thermal stresses so that they can be released as free standing foils without curling. An in situ laser reflectance interferometry tool (LRI) is used for monitoring the growth characteristics of the diamond thin film materials. The optimization process has yielded free standing foils with no pinholes. The sp3/sp2 bonds are controlled to optimize electrical resistivity to reduce the possibility of surface charging of the foils. The integrated LRI and HFCVD process provides real time information on the growth of films and can quickly illustrate growth features and control film thickness. The results are discussed in the light of development of nanodiamond foils that will be able to withstand a few MW proton beam and hopefully will be able to be used after possible future upgrades to the SNS to greater than a 3MW beam.

Vispute, R D [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Ermer, Henry K [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Sinsky, Phillip [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Seiser, Andrew [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Shaw, Robert W [ORNL; Wilson, Leslie L [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Controlled Vapor Phase Growth of Single Crystalline, Two-Dimensional GaSe Crystals with High Photoresponse  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract Compared with their bulk counterparts, atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) crystals exhibit new physical properties, and have the potential to enable next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, controlled synthesis of large uniform monolayer and multi-layer 2D crystals is still challenging. Here, we report the controlled synthesis of 2D GaSe crystals on SiO2/Si substrates using a vapor phase deposition method. For the first time, uniform, large (up to ~60 m in lateral size), single-crystalline, triangular monolayer GaSe crystals were obtained and their atomic resolution structure were characterized. The size, density, shape, thickness, and uniformity of the 2D GaSe crystals were shown to be controllable by growth duration, growth region, growth temperature, and argon carrier gas flow rate. The theoretical modeling of the electronic structure and Raman spectroscopy demonstrate a direct-to-indirect bandgap transition and progressive confinement-induced bandgap shifts for 2D GaSe crystals. The 2D GaSe crystals show p-type semiconductor characteristics and high photoresponsivity (~1.7 A/W under white light illumination) comparable to exfoliated GaSe nanosheets. These 2D GaSe crystals are potentially useful for next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices such as photodetectors and field-effect transistors.

Li, Xufan [ORNL; Lin, Ming-Wei [ORNL; Zhang, Huidong [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C [ORNL; Ma, Cheng [ORNL; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL; Yoon, Mina [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Xiao, Kai [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Towards improved spinnability of chemical vapor deposition generated multi-walled carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

P. J. F. 1999 Carbon nanotubes and related structures: newof vapor grown carbon nanotubes and single wall nanotubes, Eto Carbon Materials in Carbon Nanotubes: Preparation and

McKee, Gregg Sturdivant Burke

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Forced convection and transport effects during hyperbaric laser chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work explores mass transport processes during HP-LCYD, including the transverse forced-flow of precursor gases through a nozzle to enhance fiber growth rates. The use of laser trapping and suspension of nano-scale particles in the precursor flow is also described, providing insights into the nature of the gas flow, including jetting from the fiber tip and thermodiffusion processes near the reaction zone. The effects of differing molecular-weight buffer gases is also explored in conjunction with the Soret effect, and it is found that nucleation at the deposit surface (and homogeneous nucleation in the gas phase) can be enhanced/ retarded, depending on the buffer gas molecular weight. To demonstrate that extensive microstructures can be grown simultaneously, three-dimensional fiber arrays are also grown in-parallel using diffractive optics--without delatory effects from neighboring reaction sites.

Maxwell, James L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chavez, Craig A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Espinoza, Miguel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Black, Marcie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maskaly, Karlene [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boman, Mats [UPPSALA UNIV

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Diameter and wall number control of carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We analyze the relationship between the average wall number (N) and the diameter (d) for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) grown by chemical vapour deposition. It is found that N depends linearly on d for diameters in the range of 2.5–10?nm, while single wall nanotubes predominate for diameters under about 2.1?nm. The linear relationship is found to depend somewhat on the growth conditions. It is also verified that the mean diameter depends on the diameter of the originating catalyst nanoparticle, and thus on the initial catalyst thickness where a thin film catalyst is used. This simplifies the characterisation of CNTs by electron microscopy. We also find a linear relationship between nanotube diameter and initial catalyst film thickness.

Xie, Rongsi; Zhong, Guofang, E-mail: gz222@cam.ac.uk; Zhang, Can; Chen, Bingan; Santiago Esconjauregui, C.; Robertson, John [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

175

Condensed phase conversion and growth of nanorods and other materials instead of from vapor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Compositions, systems and methods are described for condensed phase conversion and growth of nanorods and other materials. A method includes providing a condensed phase matrix material; and activating the condensed phase matrix material to produce a plurality of nanorods by condensed phase conversion and growth from the condensed phase matrix material instead of from vapor. The compositions are very strong. The compositions and methods provide advantages because they allow (1) formation rates of nanostructures necessary for reasonable production rates, and (2) the near net shaped production of component structures.

Geohegan, David B. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Puretzky, Alex A. (Knoxville, TN); Fan, Xudong (Oak Ridge, TN)

2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

176

Low-Temperature Chemical-Vapor-Deposition of Silicon-Nitride Film from Hexachloro-Disilane and Hydrazine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have successfully deposited SiNx:H films at temperatures as low as 350°C by the chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) method using hexachloro-disilane (Si2Cl6) and hydrazine (N2H4). The atomic ratio (N/Si) of the film deposited at 400°C was 1.26 with a total hydrogen content of about 30 at.%. The breakdown-field strength was 5.3 MV/cm at a leakage-current density of 1 µA/cm2, and the low-field resistivity was more than 1015 ?cm. Amorphous-silicon thin-film transistors equipped with this film as the gate dielectric showed clear transfer characteristics.

Wen-Chang Yeh; Ryoichi Ishihara; Shunsuke Morishita; Masakiyo Matsumura

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method of forming vanadium oxide films and vanadium oxide thin-films prepared thereby  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is disclosed of forming a vanadium oxide film on a substrate utilizing plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The method includes positioning a substrate within a plasma reaction chamber and then forming a precursor gas comprised of a vanadium-containing chloride gas in an inert carrier gas. This precursor gas is then mixed with selected amounts of hydrogen and oxygen and directed into the reaction chamber. The amounts of precursor gas, oxygen and hydrogen are selected to optimize the final properties of the vanadium oxide film An rf plasma is generated within the reaction chamber to chemically react the precursor gas with the hydrogen and the oxygen to cause deposition of a vanadium oxide film on the substrate while the chamber deposition pressure is maintained at about one torr or less. Finally, the byproduct gases are removed from the plasma reaction chamber.

Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Turner, John A. (Littleton, CO); Liu, Ping (Lakewood, CO)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

The influence of convective heat transfer on flow stability in rotating disk chemical vapor deposition reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flow and heat transfer of NH{sub 3} and He were studied in a rotating disk system with applications to chemical vapor deposition reactors. Flow field and disk heat flux were obtained over a range of operating conditions. Comparisons of disk convective heat transfer were made to infinite rotating disk results to appraise uniformity of transport to the disk. Important operating variables include disk spin rate, disk and enclosure temperatures, flow rate, composition, pressure, and gas mixture temperature at the reactor inlet. These variables were studied over ranges of the spin Reynolds number, Re{omega}; disk mixed convection parameter, MCP{sub w}; and wall mixed convection parameter, MCP{sub w}. Results obtained for NH{sub 3} show that increasing Re{omega} from 314.5 to 3145 increases the uniformity of rotating disk heat flux and results in thinner thermal boundary layers at the disk surface. At Re{omega}=314.5, increasing MCP{sub d} to 15 leads to significant departure from the infinite disk result with nonuniform disk heat fluxes and recirculating flow patterns; flow becomes increasingly complex at larger values of MCP{sub d}. At Re{omega} of 3145, results are closer to the infinite disk for MCP{sub d} up to 15. For large negative (hot walls) and positive (cold walls) values of MCP{sub w}, flow recirculates and there is significant deviation from the infinite disk result; nonuniformities occur at both values of Re{omega}. The influence of MCP{sub w} on flow stability is increased at larger MCP{sub d} and lower Re{omega}. To determine the influence of viscosity and thermal conductivity variation with temperature, calculations were made with He and NH{sub 3}; He transport property variation is low relative to NH{sub 3}. Results show that the flow of NH{sub 3} is less stable than that of He as MCP{sub d} is increased for MCP{sub w}=0 and Re{omega}=314.5. 16 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Winters, W.S.; Evans, G.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Grief, R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Growth of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present growth and characterization of visible and near-infrared vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Discussions on the growth issue of VCSEL materials include growth rate and composition control using an {ital in}{ital situ} normal-incidence reflectometer, comprehensive p- and n-type doping study in AlGaAs by CCl{sub 4} and Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} over the entire composition range, and optimization of ultra-high material uniformity. We also demonstrate our recent achievements of all-AlGaAs VCSELs which include the first room-temperature continuous- wave demonstration of 700-nm red VCSELs and high-efficiency and low- threshold voltage 850-nm VCSELs.

Hou, H.Q.; Hammons, B.E.; Crawford, M.H.; Lear, K.L.; Choquette, K.D.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Method and apparatus for removing and preventing window deposition during photochemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD) processes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Unwanted build-up of the film deposited on the transparent light-transmitting window of a photochemical vacuum deposition (photo-CVD) chamber is eliminated by flowing an etchant into the part of the photolysis region in the chamber immediately adjacent the window and remote from the substrate and from the process gas inlet. The respective flows of the etchant and the process gas are balanced to confine the etchant reaction to the part of the photolysis region proximate to the window and remote from the substrate. The etchant is preferably one that etches film deposit on the window, does not etch or affect the window itself, and does not produce reaction by-products that are deleterious to either the desired film deposited on the substrate or to the photolysis reaction adjacent the substrate. 3 figs.

Tsuo, S.; Langford, A.A.

1989-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Method and apparatus for removing and preventing window deposition during photochemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD) processes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Unwanted build-up of the film deposited on the transparent light-transmitting window of a photochemical vacuum deposition (photo-CVD) chamber is eliminated by flowing an etchant into the part of the photolysis region in the chamber immediately adjacent the window and remote from the substrate and from the process gas inlet. The respective flows of the etchant and the process gas are balanced to confine the etchant reaction to the part of the photolysis region proximate to the window and remote from the substrate. The etchant is preferably one that etches film deposit on the window, does not etch or affect the window itself, and does not produce reaction by-products that are deleterious to either the desired film deposited on the substrate or to the photolysis reaction adjacent the substrate.

Tsuo, Simon (Lakewood, CO); Langford, Alison A. (Boulder, CO)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

GaN nanorod light emitting diodes with suspended graphene transparent electrodes grown by rapid chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ordered and dense GaN light emitting nanorods are studied with polycrystalline graphene grown by rapid chemical vapor deposition as suspended transparent electrodes. As the substitute of indium tin oxide, the graphene avoids complex processing to fill up the gaps between nanorods and subsequent surface flattening and offers high conductivity to improve the carrier injection. The as-fabricated devices have 32% improvement in light output power compared to conventional planar GaN-graphene diodes. The suspended graphene remains electrically stable up to 300?°C in air. The graphene can be obtained at low cost and high efficiency, indicating its high potential in future applications.

Xu, Kun; Xu, Chen, E-mail: xuchen58@bjut.edu.cn; Deng, Jun; Zhu, Yanxu; Guo, Weiling; Mao, Mingming; Xun, Meng; Chen, Maoxing; Zheng, Lei [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronics Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100124 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronics Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100124 (China); Xie, Yiyang [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductor, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductor, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Sun, Jie, E-mail: jie.sun@chalmers.se [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronics Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100124 (China) [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronics Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100124 (China); Mikroteknologi och Nanovetenskap, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola AB, Göteborg 41296 (Sweden)

2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

183

Improving chemical vapor deposition graphene conductivity using molybdenum trioxide: An in-situ field effect transistor study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

By using in situ field effect transistor characterization integrated with molecular beam epitaxy technique, we demonstrate the strong surface transfer p-type doping effect of single layer chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, through the surface functionalization of molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) layer. After doping, both the hole and electron mobility of CVD graphene are nearly retained, resulting in significant enhancement of graphene conductivity. With coating of 10 nm MoO{sub 3}, the conductivity of CVD graphene can be increased by about 7 times, showing promising application for graphene based electronics and transparent, conducting, and flexible electrodes.

Han, Cheng [Department of Physics and Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, 999 Xue Fu Da Dao, Nanchang (China) [Department of Physics and Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, 999 Xue Fu Da Dao, Nanchang (China); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Lin, Jiadan; Xiang, Du [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)] [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Wang, Chaocheng; Wang, Li [Department of Physics and Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, 999 Xue Fu Da Dao, Nanchang (China)] [Department of Physics and Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, 999 Xue Fu Da Dao, Nanchang (China); Chen, Wei [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore) [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543 and Graphene Research Centre, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

184

Pressure dependence of phonons and excitons in InSe films prepared by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The pressure dependence of the Raman spectra of phase-pure InSe thin films prepared by the low-pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition technique has been studied using a diamond-anvil high-pressure cell. Enhancement in the intensities of the Raman modes has been observed as a result of pressure-induced “tuning” of the energy of the M1-type hyperbolic exciton in InSe at ?2.54 eV through discrete incident laser photon energies. The pressure coefficients of the phonon modes and of the hyperbolic exciton in InSe have been determined.

In-Hwan Choi and Peter Y. Yu

2003-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

185

An in situ investigation of Si[sub x]Ge[sub 1-x] chemical vapor deposition by differential reflectance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An investigation of the surface kinetic processes of low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) of Si, Ge, and Si[sub x]Ge[sub 1[minus]x] was carried out using time-resolved differential reflectance measurements. The source gas (disilane, digermane, or mixtures of these two diluted in a helium carrier) was delivered to a heated substrate by a fast-acting modulated molecular jet valve. Thin film growth was studied in the range of 400-500[degrees]C on Si and Ge (001) substrates. The kinetics of chemisorption and of by-product desorption were determined from the surface differential reflectance signal obtained using p-polarized, high-stability HeNe probe laser. Both chemisorption and by-product desorption were fond to obey first-order kinetics. Chemisorption of the parent molecules was found to be relatively efficient and weakly temperature dependent. For pure Si and Ge, by-product desorption occurred through a single first-order reaction. Two first-order desorption steps were inferred for the Si[sub x]Ge[sub 1[minus]x] alloy surfaces. These reactions are believed to be H[sub 2] desorption from Si-like and Ge-like surface sites. However, the activation energy of the more rapid of these two steps actually decreases as the Si content of the film increases. Generally, the films were of high crystalline quality and were very well aligned with the substrate. Preferential incorporation of digermane into the film produced an alloy composition that was Ge-rich relative to the gas composition. The primary accomplishment of this work is the demonstration that the active surface layer of the Si[sub x]Ge[sub 1[minus]x] system can be monitored in situ by an optical probe under typical LPCVD conditions. The results indicate that the rate-limiting step in Si or Ge LPCVD obeys simple first-order kinetics. Further work is needed to understand fully the rate-limiting surface reaction in Si[sub x]Ge[sub 1[minus]x] LPCVD.

Sharp, J.W.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Distributed Porosity as a Control Parameter for Oxide Thermal Barriers Made by Physical Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anthony G. Evans* Materials Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 Thermal barrier and generating new thermal resistance solutions, as appropri- ate. A continuum heat flow analysis is usedDistributed Porosity as a Control Parameter for Oxide Thermal Barriers Made by Physical Vapor

Wadley, Haydn

187

Semi-insulating crystalline silicon formed by oxygen doping during low-temperature chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Semi-insulating crystalline silicon formed by oxygen doping during low-temperature chemical vapor) In this letter we demonstrate the use of oxygen as a dopant in silicon to create semi-insulating, crystalline of the films exhibit classical characteristics of space-charge-limited current associated with insulators

188

Raman and electron microscopic studies of Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} alloy nanowires grown by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} alloy nanowires (SiGeNWs) were grown by Au-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition and studied by Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in TEM (TEM-EDS). The relationship between the growth parameters and the structure of the SiGeNWs was clarified by systematically changing the growth conditions over a wide range. Raman and TEM-EDS results demonstrated that the SiGeNWs consist of a lower Ge composition core and a higher Ge composition shell epitaxially grown on the surface of the core. The effects of oxidation on the structure of the SiGeNWs were studied. It was found that oxidation leads to segregation of the Ge atoms at the interface between the SiGeNWs and SiO{sub 2}, which in turn results in a large inhomogeneity in Ge composition. Oxidation at a very low rate in a diluted oxygen gas atmosphere is required to avoid the formation of Ge particles and minimize the inhomogeneity.

Kawashima, Takahiro; Imamura, Goh; Fujii, Minoru; Hayashi, Shinji; Saitoh, Tohru; Komori, Kazunori [Advanced Devices Development Center, Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd., 3-1-1 Yagumo-Nakamachi, Moriguchi, Osaka 570-8501 (Japan); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Image Devices Development Center, Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd., 3-1-1 Yagumo-Nakamachi, Moriguchi, Osaka 570-8501 (Japan)

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

Si deposition rates in a two-dimensional CVD (chemical vapor deposition) reactor and comparisons with model calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deposition rates are presented for silicon from silane in a helium carrier gas using a tubular CVD reactor with a two-dimensional flow geometry. Measured surface-temperature profiles, inlet gas velocities, total pressures, and silane/helium concentrations are reported, providing exact boundary conditions that can be used in a two-dimensional numerical CVD model. Comparisons are made between this data and two variations of a model by Coltrin, Kee, and Miller in which different empirical expressions for the silane and disilane reactive sticking coefficient are used.

Breiland, W.G.; Coltrin, M.E.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Vapor-transport growth of high optical quality WSe{sub 2} monolayers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides are atomically thin direct-gap semiconductors that show a variety of novel electronic and optical properties with an optically accessible valley degree of freedom. While they are ideal materials for developing optical-driven valleytronics, the restrictions of exfoliated samples have limited exploration of their potential. Here, we present a physical vapor transport growth method for triangular WSe{sub 2} sheets of up to 30 ?m in edge length on insulating SiO{sub 2} substrates. Characterization using atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy reveals that they are uniform, monolayer crystals. Low temperature photoluminescence shows well resolved and electrically tunable excitonic features similar to those in exfoliated samples, with substantial valley polarization and valley coherence. The monolayers grown using this method are therefore of high enough optical quality for routine use in the investigation of optoelectronics and valleytronics.

Clark, Genevieve [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Wu, Sanfeng; Rivera, Pasqual; Finney, Joseph; Nguyen, Paul; Cobden, David H. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Xu, Xiaodong, E-mail: xuxd@uw.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Low-temperature catalyst activator: mechanism of dense carbon nanotube forest growth studied using synchrotron radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mechanism of dense vertically aligned carbon nanotube growth achieved by a recently developed thermal chemical vapor deposition method was studied using synchrotron radiation spectroscopic techniques.

Takashima, A.

2014-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

192

Photoluminescence microscopy of carbon nanotubes grown by chemical vapor deposition: Influence of external dielectric screening on optical transition energies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Photoluminescence (PL) laser microscopy was applied to determine optical transition energies E11 and E22 of individual semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) suspended on top of carbon nanotube “forests,” grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on silicon substrates. A uniform increase of E11 and E22 energies by 40–55 and 24–48meV, respectively, was found for 19 different (n,m) nanotube species suspended in air or a vacuum—relative to SWNTs in a reference water-surfactant dispersion. CVD-grown SWNTs embedded in paraffin oil and 1-methylnaphthalene show nearly the same PL peak positions as SWNTs in aqueous dispersion, indicating similar dielectric screening of excitons in SWNTs in these media.

Oliver Kiowski; Sergei Lebedkin; Frank Hennrich; Sharali Malik; Harald Rösner; Katharina Arnold; Christoph Sürgers; Manfred M. Kappes

2007-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

193

Amorphous-Silicon Thin-Film Transistors Using Chemical Vapor Deposition of Disilane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Amorphous silicon layers have been deposited by low pressure chemical vapour deposition at 450°C using disilane as the only source gas. Simple inverted staggered thin-film transistors were made with thermal silicon dioxide as the gate insulator. Field-effect mobilities for electrons and holes were 1.4 cm2/V s and 0.1 cm2/V s, respectively. In order to obtain these high mobilities the transistor structures were carefully annealed in a hydrogen-radical rich ambient.

Paul A. Breddels; Hiroshi Kanoh; Osamu Sugiura; Masakiyo Matsumura

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Designing Turbine Endwalls for Deposition Resistance with 1,400 °C Combustor Exit Temperatures and Syngas Water Vapor Levels„The Ohio State University  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Designing Turbine Endwalls for Designing Turbine Endwalls for Deposition Resistance with 1,400 °C Combustor Exit Temperatures and Syngas Water Vapor Levels-The Ohio State University Background This University Turbine Systems Research (UTSR) project will explore a critical need for innovative turbine endwall designs that could increase turbine durability and mitigate the adverse effects of residue deposition from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). The Ohio State University (OSU), in cooperation with Brigham Young University (BYU),

195

Performance and analysis of amorphous silicon p-i-n solar cells made by chemical-vapor deposition from disilane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The photovoltaic performance of amorphous silicon p-i-n solar cells made by chemical-vapor deposition (CVD) from disilane is reported and analyzed. Intrinsic layers were deposited at rates from 0.2 to 50 A/s at temperatures from 380 to 460 /sup 0/C with and without boron doping. Device performance was insensitive to substantial differences in disilane purity. A cell efficiency of 4% was achieved. The primary limitation to higher efficiency was low fill factor (<50%) due to high series resistance (>18 ..cap omega.. cm/sup 2/). Analysis of the series resistance indicated a contact-related resistance of 4--12 ..cap omega.. cm/sup 2/ and a photoconductive resistance composed of intrinsic layer thickness-independent (10 ..cap omega.. cm/sup 2/) and thickness-dependent terms. Analysis of the voltage dependence of the current collection indicated a fill factor of 60% would be expected in the absence of series resistance. The maximum short-circuit current of 12.5 mA/cm/sup 2/ (normalized to 100 mW/cm/sup 2/) resulted with a boron-doped i layer deposited at 440 /sup 0/C at 3.3 A/s. Modeling of the collection efficiency indicated collection widths up to 0.33 ..mu..m for boron-doped and 0.24 ..mu..m for undoped p-i-n devices. In order to achieve high-efficiency cells using CVD from disilane, the limitations imposed by low photoconductivity, a high density of states, and restricted cell design imposed by the high deposition temperatures would have to be overcome.

Hegedus, S.S.; Rocheleau, R.E.; Buchanan, W.; Baron, B.N.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Pulsed chemical vapor deposition of Cu{sub 2}S into a porous TiO{sub 2} matrix  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chalcocite (Cu{sub 2}S) has been deposited via pulsed chemical vapor deposition (PCVD) into a porous TiO{sub 2} matrix using hydrogen sulfide and a metal-organic precursor. The precursor used is similar to the more common Cu(hfac)(tmvs) precursor, but it is fluorine free and exhibits increased thermal stability. The simultaneous exposure of the substrate to the copper precursor and hydrogen sulfide resulted in nonuniform Cu{sub 2}S films with a temperature independent deposition rate implying gas phase reaction kinetics. The exposure of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} and planar ZnO to alternating cycles of the copper precursor and hydrogen sulfide resulted in a PCVD film that penetrated fully into the porous TiO{sub 2} layer with a constant deposition rate of 0.08 nm/cycle over a temperature range of 150-400 deg. C The chalcocite (Cu{sub 2}S) stoichiometry was confirmed with extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements (EXAFS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Calculations of the EXAFS spectrum for different Cu{sub x}S phases show that EXAFS is sensitive to the different phase stoichiometries. Optical absorption measurements of CVD thin films using photothermal deflection spectroscopy show the presence of a metallic copper-poor phase for gas phase nucleated films less than 100 nm thick and a copper-rich semiconducting phase for thicknesses greater than 100 nm with a direct band gap of 1.8 eV and an indirect bandgap of 1.2 eV.

Carbone, I.; Zhou, Q.; Vollbrecht, B.; Yang, L.; Medling, S.; Bezryadina, A.; Bridges, F.; Alers, G. B.; Norman, J. T.; Kinmen, T. [Department of Physics, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Air Products Inc., 1969 Palomar Oaks Way, Carlsbad, California 92011 (United States); Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

197

Characterization of photoluminescent (Y{sub 1{minus}x}Eu{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3} thin-films prepared by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Europium doped yttrium oxide, (Y{sub 1{minus}x}Eu{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3}, thin-films were deposited on silicon and sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The films were grown in a MOCVD chamber reacting yttrium and europium tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5,-heptanedionates) precursors in an oxygen atmosphere at low pressures (5 Torr) and low substrate temperatures (500--700 C). The films deposited at 500 C were flat and composed of nanocrystalline regions of cubic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, grown in a textured [100] or [110] orientation to the substrate surface. Films deposited at 600 C developed from the flat, nanocrystalline morphology into a plate-like growth morphology oriented in the [111] with increasing deposition time. Monoclinic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} was observed in x-ray diffraction for deposition temperatures {ge}600 C on both (111) Si and (001) sapphire substrates. This was also confirmed by the photoluminescent emission spectra.

McKittrick, J.; Bacalski, C.F.; Hirata, G.A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Hubbard, K.M.; Pattillo, S.G.; Salazar, K.V.; Trkula, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

The Progress on Low-Cost, High-Quality, High-Temperature Superconducting Tapes Deposited by the Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The innovative Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition (CCVD) process is a non-vacuum technique that is being investigated to enable next generation products in several application areas including high-temperature superconductors (HTS). In combination with the Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrate (RABiTS) technology, the CCVD process has significant promise to provide low-cost, high-quality lengths of YBCO coated conductor. Over 100 meter lengths of both Ni and Ni-W (3 at. Wt.%) substrates with a surface roughness of 12-18 nm were produced. The CCVD technology has been used to deposit both buffer layer coatings as well as YBCO superconducting layers. Buffer layer architecture of strontium titanate (SrTiO{sub 3}) and ceria (CeO{sub 2}) have been deposited by CCVD on textured nickel substrates and optimized to appropriate thicknesses and microstructures to provide templates for growing PLD YBCO with a J{sub c} of 1.1 MA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K and self-field. The CCVD buffer layers have been scaled to meter plus lengths with good epitaxial uniformity along the length. A short sample cut from one of the lengths enabled high critical current density PLD YBCO. Films of CCVD YBCO superconductors have been grown on single crystal substrates with critical current densities over 1 MA/cm{sup 2}. In addition, superconducting YBCO films with an I{sub c} of 60 A/cm-width (J{sub c} = 1.5 MA/cm{sup 2}) were grown on ORNL RABiTS (CeO{sub 2}/YSZ/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ni/Ni-3W) using CCVD process.

Shoup, S.S.; White, M.K.; Krebs, S.L.; Darnell, N.; King, A.C.; Mattox, D.S.; Campbell, I.H.; Marken, K.R.; Hong, S.; Czabaj, B.; Paranthaman, M.; Christen, H.M.; Zhai, H.-Y. Specht, E.

2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

199

Prevention of biofouling in seawater desalination via initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biofouling, the undesirable settlement and growth of organisms, occurs immediately when a clean surface is immersed in natural seawater. It is a universal problem and the bottleneck for seawater desalination, which reduces ...

Yang, Rong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Implications of the toxicity of tetramethyltin, dimethyl tin dichloride, and tin tetrachloride in selecting a suitable tin precursor in the chemical vapor deposition of tin oxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Potential health hazards in the chemical vapor deposition of tin oxide films from tetramethylin dimethylin dichloride and tin tetrachloride have to be balanced against the benefits to solar cell fabrication. Concerns regarding the toxicity costs and physical properties of and the quality of the tin oxide films produced with these tin precursors are outlined. (AIP)

Roy G. Gordon; James W. Prescia

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Surface roughening in low-pressure chemical vapor deposition Jason T. Drotar, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, and G.-C. Wang  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface roughening in low-pressure chemical vapor deposition Jason T. Drotar, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu September 2001 We examine, using (2 1)-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations, the roughening behavior roughens logarithmically with time and that the scaling exponents are, for most sets of conditions, close

Wang, Gwo-Ching

202

Optimization of the Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesis of Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes on FeCo(Ni)/SiO2 Aerogel Catalysts by Statistical Design of Experiments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on optimizing the catalytic chemical vapor deposition synthesis of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) from ethene over supported transition metal SiO2 nanocomposite aerogels using the statistical design of experiments (DOE) approach. ... The NIST/SEMATECH e-Handbook of Statistical Methods, http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/ is acknowledged for DoE-related information. ...

László Vanyorek; Danilo Loche; Hajnalka Katona; Maria Francesca Casula; Anna Corrias; Zoltán Kónya; Ákos Kukovecz; Imre Kiricsi

2011-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

203

Current Issues and Problems in the Chemical Vapor Deposition of Diamond  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...FOR DIAMOND COATINGS, JOURNAL...TO DIAMOND COATINGS, THIN SOLID...SAVVIDES, N, OPTICAL-CONSTANTS...DIAMOND CERAMIC COATING OF THE FUTURE...AND THEIR APPLICATION AS OVERCOATS ON THIN-FILM MEDIA FOR...EFFECT IN THE CVD GROWTH OF...

Walter A. Yarbrough; Russell Messier

1990-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

204

Nanoscale Growth Twins in Sputtered Copper Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.............................................................. 7 I.1.3. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) .................................... 8 I.2. Fabrication of copper thin films .................................................... 12... to the exposure of the film growth surface to the solution, impurities may be introduced. I.1.3. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) CVD is a chemical process used to produce high-purity, high-performance thin films and often used in the semiconductor industry...

Anderoglu, Osman

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

205

Plasma-enriched chemical vapor deposition of silicon nitride on silicon carbide fibers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Near stoichiometric Si:N coatings were deposited by means of PECVD on SCS-6 SiC fibers which contained a carbon-rich coating. Weight loss associated with oxidation of the outer carbon-rich coating of the as-received SiC fibers was greatly reduced for the Si:N coated SiC fibers even after 10 h heat-treatment in oxygen at 800{degrees}C. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) was used to obtain elemental compositions of the as-received and Si:N coated SiC fibers after heat-treatment. Negligible amounts of oxygen were found at the carbon-rich coating of the heat-treated Si:N coated SiC fiber. These results clearly prove the effectiveness of PECVD silicon nitride coating as an oxygen diffusion barrier.

Stinespring, C.D.; Collazos, D.F.; Gupta, R.K. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

206

Reactor design for uniform chemical vapor deposition-grown films without substrate rotation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A quartz reactor vessel for growth of uniform semiconductor films includes a vertical, cylindrical reaction chamber in which a substrate-supporting pedestal provides a horizontal substrate-supporting surface spaced on its perimeter from the chamber wall. A cylindrical confinement chamber of smaller diameter is disposed coaxially above the reaction chamber and receives reaction gas injected at a tangent to the inside chamber wall, forming a helical gas stream that descends into the reaction chamber. In the reaction chamber, the edge of the substrate-supporting pedestal is a separation point for the helical flow, diverting part of the flow over the horizontal surface of the substrate in an inwardly spiraling vortex.

Wanlass, Mark (Golden, CO)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Reactor design for uniform chemical vapor deposition-grown films without substrate rotation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A quartz reactor vessel for growth of uniform semiconductor films includes a vertical, cylindrical reaction chamber in which a substrate-supporting pedestal provides a horizontal substrate-supporting surface spaced on its perimeter from the chamber wall. A cylindrical confinement chamber of smaller diameter is disposed coaxially above the reaction chamber and receives reaction gas injected at a tangent to the inside chamber wall, forming a helical gas stream that descends into the reaction chamber. In the reaction chamber, the edge of the substrate-supporting pedestal is a separation point for the helical flow, diverting part of the flow over the horizontal surface of the substrate in an inwardly spiraling vortex.

Wanlass, M.

1985-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

208

Laser-induced fluorescence measurements and kinetic analysis of Si atom formation in a rotating disk chemical vapor deposition reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An extensive set of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements of Si atoms during the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of silicon from silane and disilane in a research rotating disk reactor are presented. The experimental results are compared in detail with predictions from a numerical model of CVD from silane and disilane that treats the fluid flow coupled to gas-phase and gas-surface chemistry. The comparisons showed that the unimolecular decomposition of SiH[sub 2] could not account for the observed gas-phase Si atom density profiles. The H[sub 3]SiSiH [leftrightarrow] Si + SiH[sub 4] and H[sub 3]SiSiH + SiH[sub 2] [leftrightarrow] Si + Si[sub 2]H[sub 6] reactions are proposed as the primary Si atom production routes. The model is in good agreement with the measured shapes of the Si atom profiles and the trends in Si atom density with susceptor temperature, pressure, and reactant gas mixture. 33 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

Ho, P.; Coltrin, M.E.; Breiland, W.G. (Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1994-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

209

The Effect of High Temperature Annealing on the Grain Characteristics of a Thin Chemical Vapor Deposition Silicon Carbide Layer.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The unique combination of thermo-mechanical and physiochemical properties of silicon carbide (SiC) provides interest and opportunity for its use in nuclear applications. One of the applications of SiC is as a very thin layer in the TRi-ISOtropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles for high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs). This SiC layer, produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), is designed to withstand the pressures of fission and transmutation product gases in a high temperature, radiation environment. Various researchers have demonstrated that macroscopic properties can be affected by changes in the distribution of grain boundary plane orientations and misorientations [1 - 3]. Additionally, various researchers have attributed the release behavior of Ag through the SiC layer as a grain boundary diffusion phenomenon [4 - 6]; further highlighting the importance of understanding the actual grain characteristics of the SiC layer. Both historic HTGR fission product release studies and recent experiments at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) [7] have shown that the release of Ag-110m is strongly temperature dependent. Although the maximum normal operating fuel temperature of a HTGR design is in the range of 1000-1250°C, the temperature may reach 1600°C under postulated accident conditions. The aim of this specific study is therefore to determine the magnitude of temperature dependence on SiC grain characteristics, expanding upon initial studies by Van Rooyen et al, [8; 9].

Isabella J van Rooyen; Philippus M van Rooyen; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Activity and Evolution of Vapor Deposited Pt-Pd Oxygen Reduction Catalysts for Solid Acid Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of hydrogen fuel cells based on the crystalline solid proton conductor CsH2PO4 is circumscribed by the mass activity of platinum oxygen reduction catalysts in the cathode. Here we report on the first application of an alloy catalyst in a solid acid fuel cell, and demonstrate an activity 4.5 times greater than Pt at 0.8 V. These activity enhancements were obtained with platinum-palladium alloys that were vapor-deposited directly on CsH2PO4 at 210 C. Catalyst mass activity peaks at a composition of 84 at% Pd, though smaller activity enhancements are observed for catalyst compositions exceeding 50 at% Pd. Prior to fuel cell testing, Pd-rich catalysts display lattice parameter expansions of up to 2% due to the presence of interstitial carbon. After fuel cell testing, a Pt-Pd solid solution absent of lattice dilatation and depleted in carbon is recovered. The structural evolution of the catalysts is correlated with catalyst de-activation.

Papandrew, Alexander B [ORNL; Chisholm, Calum R [ORNL; Zecevic, strahinja [LiOx, Inc., Pasadena, California 91106, United States; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Zawodzinski, Thomas A [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices prepared by chemical and photochemical vapor deposition of higher order silanes. Technical progress report, 1 September 1984-28 February 1985  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the preparation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films and photovoltaic devices by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from higher order silanes, and the properties of such films and devices. The research is directed at exploring new, improved deposition techniques to produce a-Si:H. The improvement could stem from ease of deposition (lower cost and/or better reproducibility), from material improvement (higher efficiency and/or better stability under illumination), or from innovative materials that improve device performance. Research efforts have focused, therefore, on photo-CVD techniques; thermal CVD has been emphasized. This report summarizes the properties of the experimental thermal CVD films and the reasons for terminating the research in this area. In addition, the results for deposition by mercury-sensitized decomposition of disilane are presented. These results indicate that this technique is a very promising alternative to the glow-discharge method.

Delahoy, A.E.; Ellis, F.B. Jr.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices prepared by chemical and photochemical vapor deposition of higher order silanes. Annual subcontract progress report, 1 September 1984-31 August 1985  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the preparation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films and photovoltaic devices by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from higher order silanes and the properties of such films and devices. The research explored new deposition techniques that could produce a-Si:H superior to that achieved by the glow-discharge method. For example, the improvement could stem from ease of deposition (lower cost and/or better reproducibility), from material improvement (higher efficiency and/or better stability under illumination), or from innovative materials that improve device performance. Research focused on photo-CVD techniques; thermal CVD deemphasized. This report presents results for deposition by mercury-sensitized decomposition of disilane. These results indicate that this technique is a very promising alternative to the glow-discharge method.

Delahoy, A.E.; Ellis, F.B. Jr.

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Properties of chemical vapor deposited tungsten silicide films using reaction of WF/sub 6/ and Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tungsten silicide films were formed by the chemical vapor deposition method using the reaction WF/sub 6/ and Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/. The deposition rate, resistivity, composition, stress, crystal structure, and content of impurities were studied and compared with tungsten silicide films deposited by reaction of WF/sub 6/ and SiH/sub 4/. The tungsten silicide films made using Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/ have a higher deposition rate and higher Si concentration than those made by using SiH/sub 4/ at the same substrate temperature. For these reasons, the tungsten silicide films made by using Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/ were found to have a resistivity that is a little higher and, after annealing, a stress that is smaller than that made by SiH/sub 4/.

Shioya, Y.; Ikegami, K.; Kobayashi, I.; Maeda, M.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

IRRADIATION GROWTH IN ZIRCONIUM AT LOW TEMPERATURES BY DIRECT ATHERMAL DEPOSITION OF VACANCIES AT EXTENDED SINKS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IRRADIATION GROWTH IN ZIRCONIUM AT LOW TEMPERATURES BY DIRECT ATHERMAL DEPOSITION OF VACANCIES that at high temperatures (where vacancies are mobile) growth can be accounted for using a combination of : #12 vacancies and self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) as proposed by Woo and Gosele [5,6]. This theory seems

Motta, Arthur T.

215

Issues associated with the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of ScGaN and YGaN alloys.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The most energy efficient solid state white light source will likely be a combination of individually efficient red, green, and blue LED. For any multi-color approach to be successful the efficiency of deep green LEDs must be significantly improved. While traditional approaches to improve InGaN materials have yielded incremental success, we proposed a novel approach using group IIIA and IIIB nitride semiconductors to produce efficient green and high wavelength LEDs. To obtain longer wavelength LEDs in the nitrides, we attempted to combine scandium (Sc) and yttrium (Y) with gallium (Ga) to produce ScGaN and YGaN for the quantum well (QW) active regions. Based on linear extrapolation of the proposed bandgaps of ScN (2.15 eV), YN (0.8 eV) and GaN (3.4 eV), we expected that LEDs could be fabricated from the UV (410 nm) to the IR (1600 nm), and therefore cover all visible wavelengths. The growth of these novel alloys potentially provided several advantages over the more traditional InGaN QW regions including: higher growth temperatures more compatible with GaN growth, closer lattice matching to GaN, and reduced phase separation than is commonly observed in InGaN growth. One drawback to using ScGaN and YGaN films as the active regions in LEDs is that little research has been conducted on their growth, specifically, are there metalorganic precursors that are suitable for growth, are the bandgaps direct or indirect, can the materials be grown directly on GaN with a minimal defect formation, as well as other issues related to growth. The major impediment to the growth of ScGaN and YGaN alloys was the low volatility of metalorganic precursors. Despite this impediment some progress was made in incorporation of Sc and Y into GaN which is detailed in this report. Primarily, we were able to incorporate up to 5 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} Y atoms into a GaN film, which are far below the alloy concentrations needed to evaluate the YGaN optical properties. After a no-cost extension was granted on this program, an additional more 'liquid-like' Sc precursor was evaluated and the nitridation of Sc metals on GaN were investigated. Using the Sc precursor, dopant level quantities of Sc were incorporated into GaN, thereby concluding the growth of ScGaN and YGaN films. Our remaining time during the no-cost extension was focused on pulsed laser deposition of Sc metal films on GaN, followed by nitridation in the MOCVD reactor to form ScN. Finally, GaN films were deposited on the ScN thin films in order to study possible GaN dislocation reduction.

Koleske, Daniel David; Knapp, James Arthur; Lee, Stephen Roger; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Creighton, James Randall; Cross, Karen Charlene; Thaler, Gerald

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Calibrated vapor generator source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

1995-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

217

Low Temperature Direct Growth of Graphene Films on Transparent Substrates by Chemical Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

graphene in fields like electronics and optoelectronics.useful for electronics, optoelectronics and photovoltaic

Antoine, Geoffrey Sandosh Jeffy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

High Growth Rate Deposition of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon-Germanium Films and Devices Using ECR-PECVD  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon germanium films (a-SiGe:H) and devices have been extensively studied because of the tunable band gap for matching the solar spectrum and mature the fabrication techniques. a-SiGe:H thin film solar cells have great potential for commercial manufacture because of very low cost and adaptability to large-scale manufacturing. Although it has been demonstrated that a-SiGe:H thin films and devices with good quality can be produced successfully, some issues regarding growth chemistry have remained yet unexplored, such as the hydrogen and inert-gas dilution, bombardment effect, and chemical annealing, to name a few. The alloying of the SiGe introduces above an order-of-magnitude higher defect density, which degrades the performance of the a-SiGe:H thin film solar cells. This degradation becomes worse when high growth-rate deposition is required. Preferential attachment of hydrogen to silicon, clustering of Ge and Si, and columnar structure and buried dihydride radicals make the film intolerably bad. The work presented here uses the Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (ECR-PECVD) technique to fabricate a-SiGe:H films and devices with high growth rates. Helium gas, together with a small amount of H{sub 2}, was used as the plasma species. Thickness, optical band gap, conductivity, Urbach energy, mobility-lifetime product, I-V curve, and quantum efficiency were characterized during the process of pursuing good materials. The microstructure of the a-(Si,Ge):H material was probed by Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy. They found that the advantages of using helium as the main plasma species are: (1) high growth rate--the energetic helium ions break the reactive gas more efficiently than hydrogen ions; (2) homogeneous growth--heavy helium ions impinging on the surface promote the surface mobility of the reactive radicals, so that heteroepitaxy growth as clustering of Ge and Si, columnar structure are reduced; (3) surface hydrogen removal--heavier and more energetic helium ions break the Si-H much easier than hydrogen ions. The preferential attachment of Si-H to Ge-H is reduced. They also found that with the small amount of hydrogen put into the plasma, the superior properties of a-(Si,Ge):H made from pure hydrogen dilution plasma were still maintained. These hydrogen ions help to remove the subsurface weakly bonded hydrogen and buried hydrogen. They also help to passivate the Ge-dangling bond.

Yong Liu

2002-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

219

Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 612 2000 Materials Research Society VOLATILE LIQUID PRECURSORS FOR THE CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. These tungsten oxide films can be used as part of electrochromic windows, mirrors or displays. Physical in microelectronics.5 CVD using both W(CO)6 vapor and oxygen gas, O2, has produced electrochromic films of tungsten

220

Initial Structure and Growth Dynamics of YBa2Cu3O7-? during Pulsed Laser Deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The initial heteroepitaxial growth of YBa2Cu3O7-? films on SrTiO3(001) substrates during pulsed laser deposition shows a growth-mode transition and a change of growth unit. The growth starts with two blocks, each two-thirds the size of the complete unit cell. The first of these blocks grows in a step-flow fashion, whereas the second grows in the layer-by-layer mode. Subsequent deposition occurs layer-by-layer of complete unit cells. These results suggest that the surface diffusion in the heteroepitaxial case is strongly influenced by the competition with formation energies, which is important for the fabrication of heteroepitaxial devices on the unit cell scale.

V. Vonk; K. J. I. Driessen; M. Huijben; G. Rijnders; D. H. A. Blank; H. Rogalla; S. Harkema; H. Graafsma

2007-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Rapid assessment of mid-infrared refractive index anisotropy using a prism coupler: chemical vapor deposited ZnS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A state-of-the-art mid-infrared prism coupler was used to study the refractive index properties of forward-looking-infrared (FLIR) grade zinc sulfide samples prepared with unique planar grain orientations and locations with respect to the CVD growth axis. This study was motivated by prior photoluminescence and x-ray diffraction measurements that suggested refractive index may vary according to grain orientation. Measurements were conducted to provide optical dispersion and thermal index (dn/dT) data at discrete laser wavelengths between 0.633 and 10.591 {mu}m at two temperature set points (30 C and 90 C). Refractive index measurements between samples exhibited an average standard deviation comparable to the uncertainty of the prism coupler measurement (0.0004 refractive index units), suggesting that the variation in refractive index as a function of planar grain orientation and CVD deposition time is negligible, and should have no impact on subsequent optical designs. Measured dispersion data at mid-infrared wavelengths was found to agree well with prior published measurements.

Qiao, Hong (Amy) [Amy; Lipschultz, Kristen A.; Anheier, Norman C.; McCloy, John S.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of GaN on Si(111): Stress control and application to field-effect transistors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two schemes of nucleation and growth of gallium nitride on Si(111) substrates are investigated and the structural and electrical properties of the resulting films are reported. Gallium nitride films grown using a 10{endash}500 nm-thick AlN buffer layer deposited at high temperature ({similar_to}1050{degree}C) are found to be under 260{endash}530 MPa of tensile stress and exhibit cracking, the origin of which is discussed. The threading dislocation density in these films increases with increasing AlN thickness, covering a range of 1.1 to {gt}5.8{times}10{sup 9}cm{sup {minus}2}. Films grown using a thick, AlN-to-GaN graded buffer layer are found to be under compressive stress and are completely crack free. Heterojunction field effect transistors fabricated on such films result in well-defined saturation and pinch-off behavior with a saturated current of {similar_to}525 mA/mm and a transconductance of {similar_to}100 mS/mm in dc operation. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Marchand, H.; Zhao, L.; Zhang, N.; Moran, B.; Coffie, R.; Mishra, U. K.; Speck, J. S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Freitas, J. A.

2001-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

223

The relationship between structural evolution and electrical percolation of the initial stages of tungsten chemical vapor deposition on polycrystalline TiN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents experimental results and a geometric model of the evolution of sheet resistance and surface morphology during the transition from nucleation to percolation of tungsten chemical vapor deposition over ultrathin polycrystalline titanium nitride (TiN). We observed two mechanisms of reduction in sheet resistance. At deposition temperatures higher than 310 deg. C, percolation effect is formed at {approx}35% of surface coverage, {theta}, and characterized with a sharp drop in resistance. At temperature below 310 deg. C, a reduction in resistance occurs in two steps. The first step occurs when {theta} = 35% and the second step at {theta} = 85%. We suggest a geometric model in which the electrical percolation pass is modulated by the thickness threshold of the islands at the instant of collision.

Rozenblat, A. [Micron Semiconductors Israel Ltd., Qiryat-Gat 82109 (Israel); Department of Physical Electronics, Electrical Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Haimson, S. [Material Science Program, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Shacham-Diamand, Y. [Department of Physical Electronics, Electrical Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Horvitz, D. [Micron Semiconductors Israel Ltd., Qiryat-Gat 82109 (Israel)

2012-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

224

Low-band-gap, amorphous-silicon-based alloys by chemical vapor deposition: Annual subcontract report, 1 October 1985-31 January 1986  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research was conducted to determine the potential of photochemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD) for producing high-quality, low-band-gap amorphous silicon germanium alloys for use in high-efficiency, multijunction, thin-film photovoltaic solar cells. A photo-CVD reactor for mercury-sensitized photolysis of silane-germane and disilane-germane mixtures was developed. Alloy thin films of undoped a-Si/sub 1-x/Ge/sub x/:H were deposited using mercury vapor mixed with SiH/sub 4/ or Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/, GeH/sub 4/, and diluent gas of Ar, He, or H/sub 2/. Materials properties were characterized by measurements of Ge content, optical transmission and reflection, and dark and photo-conductivity. Opto-electronic properties of photo-CVD a-Si/sub 1-x/Ge/sub x/:H were found to be comparable to glow discharge and sputtered materials. Moreover, p-i-n solar cells with low-band-gap i-layers were able to be fabricated by photo-CVD.

Baron, B.N.; Jackson, S.C.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Process and Hardware for Deposition of Complex Thin-film Alloys...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

For example, a ternary alloy of Cd1-xMgxTe can be made by feeding Mg vapor to a CdTe CSS deposition source. Many other material combinations are possible for growth of thin...

226

Synthesis of carbon nanotubes on diamond-like carbon by the hot filament plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by laser ablation of carbon rods, direct current arc-discharge between electrodes, or by chemical vapor emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high resolution transmission scanning electron micro- scopy natural oxide. The synthesis of the DLC films was carried out using 13.56 MHz RF-PECVD. Prior to the DLC

Hong, Byungyou

227

Diode-laser-based atomic absorption monitor using frequency-modulation spectroscopy for physical vapor deposition process control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diode-laser-based atomic absorption monitor using frequency-modulation spectroscopy for physical, and the dynamic events occur- ring as vapors condense on a substrate. Atomic absorption AA spectroscopy also been measured by means of the Doppler frequency shifts of the atomic absorption with respect

Fejer, Martin M.

228

Use of SiBN and SiBON films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition from borazine as interconnection dielectrics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thin films of silicon boron nitride (SiBN) of typical composition Si{sub 0.09}B{sub 0.39}N{sub 0.51} and silicon boron oxynitride (SiBON) of typical composition Si{sub 0.16}B{sub 0.29}O{sub 0.41}N{sub 0.14} were prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and the properties of these films were evaluated with respect to their suitability as interconnection dielectrics in microelectronic fabrication. Films were deposited on 125 mm silicon substrates in a parallel-plate reactor at a substrate temperature of 400 C and a plasma power of 0.5 W/cm{sup 2}. Boron nitride, for comparison of electrical properties, was deposited from borazine (B{sub 3}N{sub 3}H{sub 6}); silicon boron nitride was deposited from borazine, disilane (Si{sub 2}H{sub 6}), and ammonia (NH{sub 3}); silicon boron oxynitride was deposited from borazine, disilane, ammonia, and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). Metal-insulator-metal capacitors were fabricated and electrical measurements indicated that all three films had excellent dielectric properties with dielectric constants of 4.1, 4.7, and 3.9 for BN, SiBN, and SiBON, respectively. Tests of conformality indicated that deposition into trenches with an aspect ratio of 4:1 gave conformality greater than 70%. Silicon boron oxynitride was shown to be an excellent barrier to the diffusion of copper. A planar, single level metal-insulator structure was constructed using a SiBN/SiBON insulator with copper metallization.

Kane, W.F.; Cohen, S.A.; Hummel, J.P.; Luther, B. [IBM Research Div., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). T.J. Watson Research Center; Beach, D.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Div.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Low-band-gap, amorphous-silicon-based alloys by photochemical vapor deposition: Final report, 1 October 1985--30 November 1986  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thin films of hydrogenated amorphous silicon-germanium alloys were deposited by mercury-sensitized photochemical vapor deposition using a novel photo-CVD reactor. Thin films of a-Si/sub 1-x/Ge/sub x/:H with 0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 1 and 1.0 less than E/sub g/ less than 1.8 eV were deposited from mixtures of silane and disilane with germane and inert gas diluents at substrate temperatures from 160/degree/ to 200/degree/C. Alloy films were characterized by measurements of photo- and dark conductivity, electron mobility-lifetime product, sub-band-gap absorption, and density of states. Dilution with hydrogen increased the photoconductivity to 10/sup /minus/5/ Scm and mobility-lifetime product to 6 /times/ 10/sup /minus/8/ cm/sup 2/V for alloys having a band gap of 1.4 eV.

Baron, B.N.; Hegedus, S.S.; Jackson, S.C.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Phase-Controlled Growth of Metastable Fe5Si3 Nanowires by a Vapor Transport Method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to produce other metal-rich silicide nanostructures for future spintronic devices. Introduction Iron. Depending on the concentration ratio of FeI2(g) to SiI4(g), different phases of iron silicides are formed. The growth of nanowires is facilitated by the initial nucleation of silicide particles on the substrate

Kim, Bongsoo

231

Current induced annealing and electrical characterization of single layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition for future interconnects in VLSI circuits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single layer graphene (SLG) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been investigated for its prospective application as horizontal interconnects in very large scale integrated circuits. However, the major bottleneck for its successful application is its degraded electronic transport properties due to the resist residual trapped in the grain boundaries and on the surface of the polycrystalline CVD graphene during multi-step lithographic processes, leading to increase in its sheet resistance up to 5 M?/sq. To overcome this problem, current induced annealing has been employed, which helps to bring down the sheet resistance to 10?k?/sq (of the order of its initial value). Moreover, the maximum current density of ?1.2?×?10{sup 7?}A/cm{sup 2} has been obtained for SLG (1?×?2.5??m{sup 2}) on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate, which is about an order higher than that of conventionally used copper interconnects.

Prasad, Neetu, E-mail: neetu.prasad@south.du.ac.in, E-mail: neetu23686@gmail.com; Kumari, Anita; Bhatnagar, P. K.; Mathur, P. C. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India); Bhatia, C. S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

232

In situ metal-organic chemical vapor deposition atomic-layer deposition of aluminum oxide on GaAs using trimethyaluminum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IPA is chosen as the oxygen source for the ALD in the MOCVD. Second, IPA will not react precursor pulse time. b Dependence of ALD Al2O3 growth rate on temperature. The pulse time for TMA and IPA

233

Role of hydrogen desorption in the chemical-vapor deposition of Si(100) epitaxial films using disilane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy study of the role of hydrogen desorption in epitaxial film growth on the Si(100) surface is presented. Following disilane adsorption, epitaxial growth is shown to be driven by the rebonding of the disilane fragments induced by H2 desorption. This requires the decomposition of only the higher surface hydrides and occurs between 640 and 670 K. The epitaxial layer formed in this manner has a 2×1 monohydride structure. Continuous exposure to disilane at 690 K resulted in multilayer epitaxial growth, the surface of which remains largely H passivated. This latter growth is in part due to a direct reaction between disilane and the monohydride surface.

John J. Boland

1991-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

234

Pulsed Helium Ion Beam Induced Deposition: A Means to High Growth Rates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sub-nanometer beam of a helium ion microscope was used to study and optimize helium-ion beam induced deposition of PtC nanopillars with the (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}Pt(CPCH{sub 3}) precursor. The beam current, beam dwell time, precursor refresh time, and beam focus have been independently varied. Continuous beam exposure resulted in narrow but short pillars, while pulsed exposure resulted in thinner and higher ones. Furthermore, at short dwell times the deposition efficiency was very high, especially for a defocused beam. Efficiencies were measured up to 20 times the value for continuous exposure conditions. The interpretation of the experimental data was aided by a Monte Carlo simulation of the deposition. The results indicate that two regimes are operational in ion beam induced deposition (IBID). In the first one, the adsorbed precursor molecules originally present in the beam interaction region decompose. After the original precursor layer is consumed, further depletion is averted and growth continues by the supply of molecules via adsorption and surface diffusion. Depletion around the beam impact site can be distinguished from depletion on the flanges of the growing pillars. The Monte Carlo simulations for low precursor surface coverage reproduce measured growth rates, but predict considerably narrower pillars, especially at short dwell times. Both the experiments and the simulations show that the pillar width rapidly increases with increasing beam diameter. Optimal writing strategy, good beam focusing, and rapid beam positioning are needed for efficient and precise fabrication of extended and complex nanostructures by He-IBID.

Alkemade, Paul F. A. [Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands; Miro, Hozanna [Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands; Van Veldhoven, Emile [TNO Van Leeuwenhoek Laboratory; Maas, Diederick [TNO Van Leeuwenhoek Laboratory; Smith, Daryl [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rack, P. D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Growth mechanism of atomic layer deposition of zinc oxide: A density functional theory approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic layer deposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) using diethylzinc (DEZ) and water is studied using density functional theory. The reaction pathways between the precursors and ZnO surface sites are discussed. Both reactions proceed by the formation of intermediate complexes on the surface. The Gibbs free energy of the formation of these complexes is positive at temperatures above ?120?°C and ?200?°C for DEZ and water half-reactions, respectively. Spectroscopic ellipsometry results show that the growth per cycle changes at approximately the same temperatures.

Afshar, Amir; Cadien, Kenneth C., E-mail: kcadien@ualberta.ca [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

236

Effect of buffer layer growth temperature on epitaxial GaN films deposited by magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Epitaxial GaN films were deposited by reactive sputtering of a GaAs target in 100 % nitrogen at 700 deg. C on ZnO buffer layers grown at different substrate temperatures over sapphire substrates. High resolution X-ray diffraction measurements and the corresponding analysis show that the growth temperature of buffer layers significantly affects the micro-structural parameters of GaN epilayer, such as lateral coherence length, tilt and twist, while the vertical coherence length remains unaffected. The optimum substrate temperature for buffer layer growth has been found to be 300 deg. C. High epitaxial quality GaN film grown on such a buffer layer exhibited micro strain of 1.8x10{sup -4} along with screw and edge type dislocation densities of 7.87x10{sup 9} and 1.16x10{sup 11}, respectively.

Mohanta, P.; Singh, D.; Kumar, R.; Ganguli, T.; Srinivasa, R. S.; Major, S. S. [Center For Research in Nano-Technology and Science (India); Semiconductor Laser Section, RRCAT, Indore-452013 (India); Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science (India); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai - 400076 (India)

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

237

ENHANCED GROWTH RATE AND SILANE UTILIZATION IN AMORPHOUS SILICON AND NANOCRYSTALLINE-SILICON SOLAR CELL DEPOSITION VIA GAS PHASE ADDITIVES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air Products set out to investigate the impact of additives on the deposition rate of both ���µCSi and ���±Si-H films. One criterion for additives was that they could be used in conventional PECVD processing, which would require sufficient vapor pressure to deliver material to the process chamber at the required flow rates. The flow rate required would depend on the size of the substrate onto which silicon films were being deposited, potentially ranging from 200 mm diameter wafers to the 5.7 m2 glass substrates used in GEN 8.5 flat-panel display tools. In choosing higher-order silanes, both disilane and trisilane had sufficient vapor pressure to withdraw gas at the required flow rates of up to 120 sccm. This report presents results obtained from testing at Air Products�¢���� electronic technology laboratories, located in Allentown, PA, which focused on developing processes on a commercial IC reactor using silane and mixtures of silane plus additives. These processes were deployed to compare deposition rates and film properties with and without additives, with a goal of maximizing the deposition rate while maintaining or improving film properties.

Ridgeway, R.G.; Hegedus, S.S.; Podraza, N.J.

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

238

Fundamental studies of the mechanisms of slag deposit formation: Studies on initiation, growth and sintering in the formation of utility boiler deposits: Topical technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three laboratory-scale devices were utilized to investigate the mechanisms of the initiation, growth and sintering process involved in the formation of boiler deposits. Sticking apparatus investigations were conducted to study deposit initiation by comparing the adhesion behavior of the ash drops on four types of steel-based heat exchanger materials under the conditions found in a utility boiler and an entrained slagging gasifier. In addition, the adhesion behavior of the ash drops on a reduced steel surface were investigated. All the ash drops studied in this investigation were produced from bituminous coals.

Tangsathitkulchai, M.; Austin, L.G.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Nanocrystalline-Si-dot multi-layers fabrication by chemical vapor deposition with H-plasma surface treatment and evaluation of structure and quantum confinement effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

100-nm-thick nanocrystalline silicon (nano-Si)-dot multi-layers on a Si substrate were fabricated by the sequential repetition of H-plasma surface treatment, chemical vapor deposition, and surface oxidation, for over 120 times. The diameter of the nano-Si dots was 5–6 nm, as confirmed by both the transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The annealing process was important to improve the crystallinity of the nano-Si dot. We investigated quantum confinement effects by Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Based on the experimental results, we simulated the Raman spectrum using a phenomenological model. Consequently, the strain induced in the nano-Si dots was estimated by comparing the experimental and simulated results. Taking the estimated strain value into consideration, the band gap modulation was measured, and the diameter of the nano-Si dots was calculated to be 5.6 nm by using PL. The relaxation of the q ? 0 selection rule model for the nano-Si dots is believed to be important to explain both the phenomena of peak broadening on the low-wavenumber side observed in Raman spectra and the blue shift observed in PL measurements.

Kosemura, Daisuke, E-mail: d-kose@isc.meiji.ac.jp; Mizukami, Yuki; Takei, Munehisa; Numasawa, Yohichiroh; Ogura, Atsushi [School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan)] [School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan); Ohshita, Yoshio [Toyota Technological Institute, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)] [Toyota Technological Institute, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

240

Pulsed Laser Deposition | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pulsed Laser Deposition Pulsed Laser Deposition EMSL's pulsed laser deposition (PLD) system is designed for epitaxial growth of oxide, ceramic, or synthetic mineral thin films and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Effects of nitrogen on the growth and optical properties of ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ZnO thin films were grown using pulsed laser deposition by ablating a Zn target in various mixtures of O2 and N2. The presence of N2 during deposition was found to affect the growth of the ZnO thin films and their optical properties. Small N2 concentrations during growth led to strong acceptor-related photoluminescence (PL), while larger concentrations affected both the intensity and temperature dependence of the emission peaks. In addition, the PL properties of the annealed ZnO thin films are associated with the N2 concentration during their growth. The possible role of nitrogen in ZnO growth and annealing is discussed.

J B Cui; M A Thomas; Y C Soo; H Kandel; T P Chen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Graphene Growth and Device Integration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

screens, photonic applications, energy generation, and batteries [3], [12], [13]. The first graphene filmsINVITED P A P E R Graphene Growth and Device Integration This paper describes one of the emerging methods for growing grapheneVthe chemical vapor deposition methodVwhich is based on a catalytic reaction

243

Growth mechanism and properties of ZnO nanorods synthesized by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and ul- traviolet (UV) optoelectronic devices. ZnO can be found easily as n-type because of Zn. Trans- parent electrodes in optoelectronic devices should have high visible transmittance, low

Cao, Hui

244

Quantum Chemical Simulations Reveal Acetylene-Based Growth Mechanisms in the Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nonequilibrium quantum chemical molecular dynamics (QM/MD) simulation of early stages in the nucleation process of carbon nanotubes from acetylene feedstock on an Fe38 cluster was performed based on the density-functional tight-binding (DFTB) potential. Representative chemical reactions were studied by complimentary static DFTB and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Oligomerization and cross-linking reactions between carbon chains were found as the main reaction pathways similar to that suggested in previous experimental work. The calculations highlight the inhibiting effect of hydrogen for the condensation of carbon ring networks, and a propensity for hydrogen disproportionation, thus enriching the hydrogen content in already hydrogen-rich species and abstracting hydrogen content in already hydrogen-deficient clusters. The ethynyl radical C2H was found as a reactive, yet continually regenerated species, facilitating hydrogen transfer reactions across the hydrocarbon clusters. The nonequilibrium QM/MD simulations show the prevalence of a pentagon-first nucleation mechanism where hydrogen may take the role of one arm of an sp2 carbon Y-junction. The results challenge the importance of the metal carbide formation for SWCNT cap nucleation in the VLS model and suggest possible alternative routes following hydrogen-abstraction acetylene addition (HACA)-like mechanisms commonly discussed in combustion synthesis.

Eres, Gyula [ORNL] [ORNL; Wang, Ying [Nagoya University, Japan] [Nagoya University, Japan; Gao, Xingfa [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China] [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; Qian, Hu-Jun [Jilin University, Changchun] [Jilin University, Changchun; Ohta, Yasuhito [Fukui Institute of Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8103, Japan] [Fukui Institute of Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8103, Japan; Wu, Xiaona [Nagoya University, Japan] [Nagoya University, Japan; Morokuma, Keiji [Fukui Institute of Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8103, Japan] [Fukui Institute of Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8103, Japan; Irle, Stephan [WPI-Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules and Department of Chemistry, Nagoya University, Japan] [WPI-Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules and Department of Chemistry, Nagoya University, Japan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Reducing dislocations in semiconductors utilizing repeated thermal cycling during multistage epitaxial growth  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Dislocation densities are reduced in growing semiconductors from the vapor phase by employing a technique of interrupting growth, cooling the layer so far deposited, and then repeating the process until a high quality active top layer is achieved. The method of interrupted growth, coupled with thermal cycling, permits dislocations to be trapped in the initial stages of epitaxial growth.

Fan, John C. C. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Tsaur, Bor-Yeu (Arlington, MA); Gale, Ronald P. (Bedford, MA); Davis, Frances M. (Framingham, MA)

1986-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

246

Reducing dislocations in semiconductors utilizing repeated thermal cycling during multistage epitaxial growth  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Dislocation densities are reduced in growing semiconductors from the vapor phase by employing a technique of interrupting growth, cooling the layer so far deposited, and then repeating the process until a high quality active top layer is achieved. The method of interrupted growth, coupled with thermal cycling, permits dislocations to be trapped in the initial stages of epitaxial growth.

Fan, John C. C. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Tsaur, Bor-Yeu (Arlington, MA); Gale, Ronald P. (Bedford, MA); Davis, Frances M. (Framingham, MA)

1992-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

247

In situ growth of p and n-type graphene thin films and diodes by pulsed laser deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the in situ growth of p and n-type graphene thin films by ultraviolet pulsed laser deposition in the presence of argon and nitrogen, respectively. Electron microscopy and Raman studies confirmed the growth, while temperature dependent electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient studies confirmed the polarity type of graphene films. Nitrogen doping at different sites of the honeycomb structure, responsible for n-type conduction, is identified using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, for films grown in nitrogen. A diode-like rectifying behavior is exhibited by p-n junction diodes fabricated using the graphene films.

Sarath Kumar, S. R.; Nayak, Pradipta K.; Hedhili, M. N.; Khan, M. A.; Alshareef, H. N., E-mail: husam.alshareef@kaust.edu.sa [Materials Science and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia)

2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

248

Growth direction of oblique angle electron beam deposited silicon monoxide thin films identified by optical second-harmonic generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oblique angle deposited (OAD) silicon monoxide (SiO) thin films forming tilted columnar structures have been characterized by second-harmonic generation. It was found that OAD SiO leads to a rotationally anisotropic second-harmonic response, depending on the optical angle of incidence. A model for the observed dependence of the second-harmonic signal on optical angle of incidence allows extraction of the growth direction of OAD films. The optically determined growth directions show convincing agreement with cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy images. In addition to a powerful characterization tool, these results demonstrate the possibilities for designing nonlinear optical devices through SiO OAD.

Vejling Andersen, Søren; Lund Trolle, Mads; Pedersen, Kjeld [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej 4A, DK-9220 Aalborg Øst (Denmark)] [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej 4A, DK-9220 Aalborg Øst (Denmark)

2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

249

Germania-glass-core silica-glass-cladding modified chemical-vapor deposition optical fibers: optical losses, photorefractivity, and Raman amplification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Germania-glass-core silica-glass-cladding single-mode fibers (?n as great as 0.143) with a minimum loss of 20 dB/km at 1.85 µm were fabricated by modified chemical-vapor...

Mashinsky, V M; Neustruev, V B; Dvoyrin, V V; Vasiliev, S A; Medvedkov, O I; Bufetov, I A; Shubin, A V; Dianov, E M; Guryanov, A N; Khopin, V F; Salgansky, M Yu

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Diamond growth with CF4 addition inhot-filament chemical vapour deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tetrafluoromethane (CF4) was added to standard CH4/H2 mixtures ... in hot-filament-assisted chemical vapour deposition. CF4 concentrations in the range of 0.3% ... a small fraction (CF4 was thermally di...

E. J CORAT; V. J TRAVA-AIROLDI; N. F LEITE; M. C. A NONO…

251

Formation and Growth of Wax Deposit in the Pipelining of Crude Oils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work presents a model for the turbulent flow of a waxy crude oil in a pipeline, in which deposition is taken into account ... of heavy molecular weight compounds, usually called waxes. When a sufficiently lo...

S. Correra; D. Merino-Garcia; A. Fasano…

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Growth of microcrystalline Si:H and (Si,Ge):H on polyamide substrates using ECR deposition techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors report on the growth of good quality micro-crystalline Si:H and (Si,Ge):H films on polyamide substrates using a remote plasma ECR deposition technique. They find that under conditions that lead to significant ion bombardment of the substrate, the films are microcrystalline even at relatively low deposition temperatures of about 250 C. A critical factor in inducing microcrystallinity is the presence of a metal coating layer on polyamide. In the absence of such a coating, the films are amorphous, probably because the uncoated polyamide substrate charges up and prevents any further ion bombardment. The quality of the films was measured using both Raman spectroscopy and by studying the activation energy and low-energy absorption coefficient of the films. The sub-gap absorption coefficient was found to follow the crystalline Si absorption curve quite well. The addition of germane to the gas phase shifted the absorption curve to smaller energies.

Erickson, K.; Dalal, V.L.; Chumanov, G.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated. 8 figs.

Jankowski, A.F.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Rambach, G.D.; Randich, E.

1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

254

Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.

Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Rambach, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Randich, Erik (Endinboro, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.

Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Rambach, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Randich, Erik (Endinboro, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Nucleation and growth of MgO atomic layer deposition: A real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The atomic layer deposition (ALD) of MgO thin films from bis(cyclopentadienyl) magnesium and H{sub 2}O was studied using in-situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), ex-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction. It is found that the initial growth is not linear during the first ten cycles, and magnesium silicate forms spontaneously on the SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates at 250 °C. Submonolayer sensitivity of SE is demonstrated by the analysis of each half-cycle and self-limiting adsorption, revealing characteristic features of hetero- and homo-MgO ALD processes.

Wang, Han; Fu, Kan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269. (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269. (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

257

Modeling of film growth by cluster deposition: The effect of size and energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The density of cluster-assembled thin films depends heavily on the size of the deposited clusters as well as the energy with which they impact the substrate. Using molecular-dynamics simulations we have quantitatively studied variations in the density of thin films grown by deposition of clusters, with diameters between 1 and 9 nm, and at energies ranging from 2 meV to 10 eV per cluster atom. A model explaining the behavior of smaller clusters is presented, and a threshold limit in cluster size, where deviation from this model occurs, is determined. The deviation is shown to be due to a lessened sintering between clusters.

K. Meinander and K. Nordlund

2009-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

258

Organic-vapor-liquid-solid deposition with an impinging gas jet Daniel W. Shaw, Kevin Bufkin, Alexandr A. Baronov, Brad L. Johnson, and David L. Patrick  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and David L. Patrick1,a) 1 Department of Chemistry, Western Washington University, 516 High St., Bellingham tetracene were deposited by sublimation into a flow of argon carrier gas directed at an indium

Patrick, David L.

259

Non-equilibrium deposition of phase pure Cu{sub 2}O thin films at reduced growth temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) is actively studied as a prototypical material for energy conversion and electronic applications. Here we reduce the growth temperature of phase pure Cu{sub 2}O thin films to 300?°C by intentionally controlling solely the kinetic parameter (total chamber pressure, P{sub tot}) at fixed thermodynamic condition (0.25 mTorr pO{sub 2}). A strong non-monotonic effect of P{sub tot} on Cu-O phase formation is found using high-throughput combinatorial-pulsed laser deposition. This discovery creates new opportunities for the growth of Cu{sub 2}O devices with low thermal budget and illustrates the importance of kinetic effects for the synthesis of metastable materials with useful properties.

Subramaniyan, Archana, E-mail: asubrama@mymail.mines.edu [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Perkins, John D.; Lany, Stephan; Stevanovic, Vladan; Ginley, David S.; Zakutayev, Andriy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); O’Hayre, Ryan P. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Effect of deposition and treatment conditions on growth of nanometer PtSi heterostructure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-X I. INTRODUCTION Transition metal silicides have received a great deal of attention due to their use in a number of devices.1­4 Platinum silicide PtSi is an important metal silicide which is widely of silicides are intensely affected by the deposition and technological parameters. It is also confirmed

Zheng, Yufeng

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

In-situ deposition of high-k dielectrics on III-V compound semiconductor in MOCVD system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In situ deposition of high-k materials to passivate the GaAs in metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system was well demonstrated. Both atomic layer deposition (ALD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods ...

Cheng, Cheng-Wei, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Nucleation and growth of the first phase in sputter-deposited Nb/Al multilayer thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation of the first phase in the reaction of sputter-deposited Nb/Al multilayer thin films has been studied by power-compensated and heat-flux differential scanning calorimetry, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The modulation periods of the films are in the range of 10--500 nm. Both types of calorimetric measurements, performed at a constant heating rate, show the presence of two peaks (A and B) for the formation of the single product phase, NbAl{sub 3}. Isothermal calorimetric scans show that peak A is associated with a nucleation and growth type transformation. The formation of NbAl{sub 3} is thus interpreted as a two-stage process of nucleation and lateral growth to coalescence (peak A) followed by normal growth until the consumption of one or both reactants (peak B). Transmission electron microscopy investigations of samples annealed into the first stage of NbAl{sub 3} formation show the presence of this phase at the Nb/Al interface and its preferential growth along the grain boundaries of the Al layer. The latter highlights the role of reactant phase grain structure in product phase formation.

Barmak, K.; Vivekanand, S.; Ma, F. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials and Engineering; Michaelsen, C. [GKSS Research Center, Geesthacht (Germany). Inst. of Materials Research

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

263

Manufacture of Thin-Film Solar Cells:? Modeling and Control of Cu(InGa)Se2 Physical Vapor Deposition onto a Moving Substrate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It was developed at ITN Energy Systems in Littleton, CO, and Global Solar Energy in Tucson, AZ;3 the experimental deposition system described in this paper does not have an XRF sensor installed. ... The main advantage of the finite difference approach is that it is a continuous technique and, therefore, is better suited for including mass transfer or reaction kinetics. ... Because the decoupled deposition process is only single-input?single-output with simple constraints (flow rates cannot be negative), internal model control can potentially combine the advantages of unconstrained MPC, but avoid its disadvantages. ...

S. Tobias Junker; Robert W. Birkmire; Francis J. Doyle; III

2003-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

264

Nanowire-templated lateral epitaxial growth of non-polar group III nitrides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for growing high quality, nonpolar Group III nitrides using lateral growth from Group III nitride nanowires. The method of nanowire-templated lateral epitaxial growth (NTLEG) employs crystallographically aligned, substantially vertical Group III nitride nanowire arrays grown by metal-catalyzed metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) as templates for the lateral growth and coalescence of virtually crack-free Group III nitride films. This method requires no patterning or separate nitride growth step.

Wang, George T. (Albuquerque, NM); Li, Qiming (Albuquerque, NM); Creighton, J. Randall (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

265

Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration Title Aerogel composites using chemical vapor infiltration Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 1995 Authors Hunt, Arlon J., Michael R. Ayers, and Wanqing Cao Journal Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids Volume 185 Pagination 227-232 Abstract A new method to produce novel composite materials based on the use of aerogels as a starting material is described. Using chemical vapor infiltration, a variety of solid materials were thermally deposited into the open pore structure of aerogel. The resulting materials possess new and unusual properties including photoluminescence, magnetism and altered optical properties. An important characteristic of this preparation process is the very small size of the deposits that gives rise to new behaviors. Silicon deposits exhibit photoluminescence, indicating quantum confinement. Two or more phases may be deposited simultaneously and one or both chemically or thermally reacted to produce new structures.

266

Crystal growth and roughening of solid D{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Near the triple point, growth shapes of vapor deposited hexagonal close packed D{sub 2} crystals reveal two crystal orientations contain facets which persist up to the melt. This observation is in contrast with previous experiments on rare gas solids and H{sub 2} where the highest T{sub r} measured is 0.8 T{sub tp}.

Kozioziemski, B.J.; Collins, G.W.; Bernat, T.P.

1997-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

267

Interactions between radical growth precursors on plasma-deposited silicon thin-film surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a detailed analysis of the interactions between growth precursors, SiH{sub 3} radicals, on surfaces of silicon thin films. The analysis is based on a synergistic combination of density functional theory calculations on the hydrogen-terminated Si(001)-(2x1) surface and molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations of film growth on surfaces of MD-generated hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films. In particular, the authors find that two interacting growth precursors may either form disilane (Si{sub 2}H{sub 6}) and desorb from the surface, or disproportionate, resulting in the formation of a surface dihydride (adsorbed SiH{sub 2} species) and gas-phase silane (SiH{sub 4}). The reaction barrier for disilane formation is found to be strongly dependent on the local chemical environment on the silicon surface and reduces (or vanishes) if one/both of the interacting precursors is/are in a ''fast diffusing state,'' i.e., attached to fivefold coordinated surface Si atoms. Finally, activation energy barriers in excess of 1 eV are obtained for two chemisorbed (i.e., bonded to a fourfold coordinated surface Si atom) SiH{sub 3} radicals. Activation energy barriers for disproportionation follow the same tendency, though, in most cases, higher barriers are obtained compared to disilane formation reactions starting from the same initial configuration. MD simulations confirm that disilane formation and disproportionation reactions also occur on a-Si:H growth surfaces, preferentially in configurations where at least one of the SiH{sub 3} radicals is in a ''diffusive state.'' Our results are in agreement with experimental observations and results of plasma process simulators showing that the primary source for disilane in low-power plasmas may be the substrate surface.

Bakos, Tamas; Valipa, Mayur S.; Maroudas, Dimitrios [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003-3110 (United States)

2007-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

268

Growth of epitaxial PrO sub 2 thin films on hydrogen terminated Si (111) by pulsed laser deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new epitaxial oxide, PrO{sub 2}, has been grown on Si (111) by pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction shows that films are oriented with the PrO{sub 2}(111) direction parallel to the substrate (111). The full width at half maximum for the omega rocking curve on the PrO{sub 2} (222) peak is as low as 0.75{degree}, while phi scans indicate {ital in}-{ital plane} epitaxial alignment to better than one degree. In the best quality films, epitaxy is almost pure type-{ital b} epitaxy which is characteristic of epitaxial CaF{sub 2} on Si. To achieve epitaxy, it is essential to remove the native silicon oxide from the substrate prior to film growth. This is done at room temperature using a wet-chemical hydrogen-termination procedure.

Fork, D.K. (Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, Palo Alto, CA (USA) Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (USA)); Fenner, D.B. (Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, Palo Alto, CA (USA) Santa Clara University, Physics Department, Santa Clara, CA (USA)); Geballe, T.H. (Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (USA))

1990-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

269

Graphene layer growth on silicon substrates with nickel film by pulse arc plasma deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon layer has been grown on a Ni/SiO{sub 2}/Si(111) substrate under high vacuum pressure by pulse arc plasma deposition. From the results of Raman spectroscopy for the sample, it is found that graphene was formed by ex-situ annealing of sample grown at room temperature. Furthermore, for the sample grown at high temperature, graphene formation was shown and optimum temperature was around 1000 Degree-Sign C. Transmission electron microscopy observation of the sample suggests that the graphene was grown from step site caused by grain of Ni film. The results show that the pulse arc plasma technique has the possibility for acquiring homogenous graphene layer with controlled layer thickness.

Fujita, K.; Banno, K.; Aryal, H. R.; Egawa, T. [Research Center for Nano-Device and System, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-Ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

270

Epitaxial growth of 3C-SiC by pulsed laser deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The attractiveness of SiC as an advanced semiconducting material derives from its many superior properties such as high breakdown voltage, high saturated electron drift velocity, high thermal conductivity and resistance to high temperature effects. The authors have grown thin films of SiC by pulsed laser deposition on silicon (100) and vicinal and non-vicinal 6H SiC (0001) substrates using a quadrupled YAG laser and a high purity dense polycrystalline SiC target. Epitaxy on all three substrate types was confirmed by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. Composition of the films was measured by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and Scanning Auger Microprobe.

Cosgrove, J.E.; Rosenthal, P.A.; Hamblen, D.; Fenner, D.B. [Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, CT (United States); Yang, C. [Santa Clara Univ., CA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

271

Large-scale 2D electronics based on single-layer MoS[subscript 2] grown by chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2D nanoelectronics based on single-layer MoS[subscript 2] offers great advantages for both conventional and ubiquitous applications. This paper discusses the large-scale CVD growth of single-layer MoS[subscript 2] and ...

Wang, H.

272

Chemistry, phase formation, and catalytic activity of thin palladium-containing oxide films synthesized by plasma-assisted physical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemistry, microstructure, and catalytic activity of thin films incorporating palladium were studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopies, X-ray diffraction, spectrophotometry, 4-point probe and catalytic tests. The films were synthesized using pulsed filtered cathodic arc and magnetron sputter deposition, i.e. techniques far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Catalytic particles were formed by thermally cycling thin films of the Pd-Pt-O system. The evolution and phase formation in such films as a function of temperature were discussed in terms of the stability of PdO and PtO2 in air. The catalytic efficiency was found to be strongly affected by the chemical composition, with oxidized palladium definitely playing a major role in the combustion of methane. Reactive sputter deposition of thin films in the Pd-Zr-Y-O system allowed us forming microstructures ranging from nanocrystalline zirconia to palladium nanoparticles embedded in a (Zr,Y)4Pd2O matrix. The sequence of phase formation is put in relation to simple thermodynamic considerations.

Anders, Andre

2010-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

273

A quantum chemical study of ZrO2 atomic layer deposition growth reactions on the SiO2 surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A quantum chemical study of ZrO2 atomic layer deposition growth reactions on the SiO2 surface Department, Ford Research Laboratory, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI 48121, USA c Department of Chemistry to replace silicon oxide (SiO2) as the gate dielectric for future generation metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS

Garfunkel, Eric

274

Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Carbon Coatings on LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 for Li-Ion Battery Composite Cathodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we report results of a novel synthesis method of thin film conductive carbon coatings on LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} cathode active material powders for lithium-ion batteries. Thin layers of graphitic carbon were produced from a solid organic precursor, anthracene, by a one-step microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) method. The structure and morphology of the carbon coatings were examined using SEM, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy. The composite LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} electrodes were electrochemically tested in lithium half coin cells. The composite cathodes made of the carbon-coated LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} powder showed superior electrochemical performance and increased capacity compared to standard composite LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} electrodes.

Doeff, M.M.; Kostecki, R.; Marcinek, M.; Wilcoc, J.D.

2008-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

275

Effects of oxygen on the growth characteristics of carbon nanotubes on conductive substrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effects of oxygen on Fe-catalyzed carbon nanotube (CNT) growth on Ta substrates was studied. CNTs were grown on Fe thin-film catalysts deposited on silicon substrates via exposure to C?H? in a thermal chemical vapor ...

Bonaparte, Ryan K

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Carbon monoxide-assisted growth of carbon nanotubes Y.H. Tang a,b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon monoxide-assisted growth of carbon nanotubes Y.H. Tang a,b , Y.F. Zheng a , C.S. Lee a , N was used to synthesize carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a hot-®lament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system in the formation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT)s. The CNTs synthesized from carbon monoxide validate

Zheng, Yufeng

277

In Situ Synchrotron Based X-ray Fluorescence and Scattering Measurements During Atomic Layer Deposition: Initial Growth of HfO2 on Si and Ge Substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The initial growth of HfO{sub 2} was studied by means of synchrotron based in situ x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS). HfO{sub 2} was deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)hafnium and H{sub 2}O on both oxidized and H-terminated Si and Ge surfaces. XRF quantifies the amount of deposited material during each ALD cycle and shows an inhibition period on H-terminated substrates. No inhibition period is observed on oxidized substrates. The evolution of film roughness was monitored using GISAXS. A correlation is found between the inhibition period and the onset of surface roughness.

K Devloo-Casier; J Dendooven; K Ludwig; G Lekens; J DHaen; C Detavernier

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

278

In Situ X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Spectroscopy of ZnO Nanowire Growth During Chemical Bath Deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical bath deposition (CBD) offers a simple and inexpensive route to deposit semiconductor nanostructures, but lack of fundamental understanding and control of the underlying chemistry has limited its versatility. Here we report the first use of in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy during CBD, enabling detailed investigation of both reaction mechanisms and kinetics of ZnO nanowire growth from zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) precursors. Time-resolved X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra were used to quantify Zn(II) speciation in both solution and solid phases. ZnO crystallizes directly from [Zn(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 2+} without long-lived intermediates. Using ZnO nanowire deposition as an example, this study establishes in situ XANES spectroscopy as an excellent quantitative tool to understand CBD of nanomaterials.

McPeak, Kevin M.; Becker, Matthew A.; Britton, Nathan G.; Majidi, Hasti; Bunker, Bruce A.; Baxter, Jason B. (Drexel); (Notre)

2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

279

Growth behavior and properties of atomic layer deposited tin oxide on silicon from novel tin(II)acetylacetonate precursor and ozone  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, a novel liquid tin(II) precursor, tin(II)acetylacetonate [Sn(acac){sub 2}], was used to deposit tin oxide films on Si(100) substrate, using a custom-built hot wall atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor. Three different oxidizers, water, oxygen, and ozone, were tried. Resulting growth rates were studied as a function of precursor dosage, oxidizer dosage, reactor temperature, and number of ALD cycles. The film growth rate was found to be 0.1?±?0.01?nm/cycle within the wide ALD temperature window of 175–300?°C using ozone; no film growth was observed with water or oxygen. Characterization methods were used to study the composition, interface quality, crystallinity, microstructure, refractive index, surface morphology, and resistivity of the resulting films. X-ray photoelectron spectra showed the formation of a clean SnO{sub x}–Si interface. The resistivity of the SnO{sub x} films was calculated to be 0.3?? cm. Results of this work demonstrate the possibility of introducing Sn(acac){sub 2} as tin precursor to deposit conducting ALD SnO{sub x} thin films on a silicon surface, with clean interface and no formation of undesired SiO{sub 2} or other interfacial reaction products, for transparent conducting oxide applications.

Kannan Selvaraj, Sathees [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Feinerman, Alan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Takoudis, Christos G., E-mail: takoudis@uic.edu [Departments of Bioengineering and Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

280

Polarity determination for MOCVD growth of GaN on Si(111) by convergent beam electron diffraction[Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The polarity of laterally epitaxially overgrown (LEO) GaN on Si(111) with an AlN buffer layer grown by MOCVD has been studied by convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED). The LEO GaN was studied by cross-section and plan-view transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The threading dislocation density is less than 10{sup 8} cm{sup {minus}2} and no inversion domains were observed. CBED patterns were obtained at 200 kV for the <1 {bar 1} 00> zone. Simulation was done by many-beam solution with 33 zero-order beams. The comparison of experimental CBED patterns and simulated patterns indicates that the polarity of GaN on Si(111) is Ga face.

Zhao, L.; Marchand, H.; Fini, P.; Denbaars, S.P.; Mishra, U.K.; Speck, J.S.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Growth of highly tensile-strained Ge on relaxed InxGa1-xAs by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.3142386 In the past decade, optoelectronic devices based and near ultraviolet.10,11 For optoelectronic devices, one important physical feature is the radiative

282

Measurement and modeling of Ar ? H 2 ? C H 4 arc jet discharge chemical vapor deposition reactors II: Modeling of the spatial dependence of expanded plasma parameters and species number densities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Detailed methodology and results are presented for a two-dimensional ( r z ) computer model applicable to dc arc jet reactors operating on argon/hydrogen/hydrocarbon gas mixtures and used for chemical vapor deposition of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond and diamondlike carbon films. The model incorporates gas activation expansion into the low pressure reactor chamber and the chemistry of the neutral and charged species. It predicts the spatial variation of temperature flow velocities and number densities of 25 neutral and 14 charged species and the dependence of these parameters on the operating conditions of the reactor such as flows of H 2 and C H 4 and input power. Selected outcomes of the model are compared with experimental data in the accompanying paper [C. J. Rennick et al. J. Appl. Phys.102 063309 (2007)]. Two-dimensional spatial maps of the number densities of key radical and molecular species in the reactor derived from the model provide a summary of the complicated chemical processing that occurs. In the vortex region beyond the plume the key transformations are C H 4 ? C H 3 ? C 2 H 2 ? large hydrocarbons; in the plume or the transition zone to the cooler regions the chemical processing involves C 2 H x ? ( C H y and C H z ) C 3 H x ? ( C H y and C 2 H z ) ( C 2 H y and C 2 H z ) ? C 4 H x ? ( C H y and C 3 H z ) . Depending on the local gas temperature T g and the H ? H 2 ratio the equilibria of H-shifting reactions favor C CH and C 2 species (in the hot H-rich axial region of the plume) or C H 2 C 2 H and C 2 H 2 species (at the outer boundary of the transition zone). Deductions are drawn about the most abundant C-containing radical species incident on the growing diamond surface (C atoms and CH radicals) within this reactor and the importance of chemistry involving charged species is discussed. Modifications to the boundary conditions and model reactor geometry allow its application to a lower power arc jet reactor operated and extensively studied by Jeffries and co-workers at SRI International and comparisons are drawn with the reported laser induced fluorescence data from these studies.

Yu. A. Mankelevich; M. N. R. Ashfold; A. J. Orr-Ewing

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Growth of CdTe Films on Amorphous Substrates Using CaF2 Nanorods as a Buffer Layer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Growth of CdTe Films on Amorphous Substrates Using CaF2 Nanorods as a Buffer Layer NICHOLAS LICAUSI biaxially textured CdTe films were grown on biaxial CaF2 buffer layers. The CaF2 nanorods were grown by oblique angle vapor deposition and possessed a {111}h121i biaxial texture. The CdTe film was deposited

Wang, Gwo-Ching

284

Growth, microstructure and electrical properties of sputter-deposited hafnium oxide (HfO2) thin films grown using HfO2 ceramic target  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hafnium oxide (HfO?) thin films have been made by radio-frequency (rf) magnetron-sputtering onto Si(100) substrates under varying growth temperature (Ts). HfO? ceramic target has been employed for sputtering while varying the Ts from room temperature to 500?C during deposition. The effect of Ts on the growth and microstructure of deposited HfO? films has been studied using grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS). The results indicate that the effect of Ts is significant on the growth, surface and interface structure, morphology and chemical composition of the HfO? films. Structural characterization indicates that the HfO? films grown at Ts<200 ?C are amorphous while films grown at Ts>200 ?C are nanocrystalline. An amorphous-to-crystalline transition occurs at Ts=200 ?C. Nanocrystalline HfO? films crystallized in a monoclinic structure with a (-111) orientation. XPS measurements indicated the high surface-chemical quality and stoichiometric nature of the grown HfO? films. An interface layer (IL) formation occurs due to reaction at the HfO?-Si interface for HfO? films deposited at Ts>200 ?C. The thickness of IL increases with increasing Ts. XPS and EDS at the HfO?-Si cross-section indicate the IL is a (Hf, Si)-O compound. The electrical characterization using capacitance-voltage measurements indicate that the dielectric constant decreases from 25 to 16 with increasing Ts.

Aguirre, B.; Vemuri, R. S.; Zubia, David; Engelhard, Mark H.; Shutthanandan, V.; Kamala Bharathi, K.; Ramana, Chintalapalle V.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Emissivity Correcting Pyrometry of Semiconductor Growth  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Emissivity Correcting Pyrometry of Semiconductor Growth Emissivity Correcting Pyrometry of Semiconductor Growth by W. G. Breiland, L. A. Bruskas, A. A. Allerman, and T. W. Hargett Motivation-Temperature is a critical factor in the growth of thin films by either chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). It is particularly important in compound semiconductor growth because one is often challenged to grow materials with specific chemical compositions in order to maintain stringent lattice-matching conditions or to achieve specified bandgap values. Optical pyrometry can be used to measure surface temperatures, but the thin film growth causes significant changes in the emissivity of the surface, leading to severe errors in the pyrometer measurement. To avoid these errors, emissivity changes must be measured and

286

ARM Water Vapor IOP  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ARM Water Vapor IOP The SGP CART site will host the third ARM water vapor IOP on September 18-October 8, 2000. The CART site is home to a powerful array of instruments capable of...

287

Surface modeling of thin film growth: A study of silicon oxide deposition from tetraethoxysilane and silicon deposition from disilane on the Si(100) surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this thesis, surface reactions brought about by the pyrolysis of adsorbed TEOS, the modeling of this reaction with ethanol, and the photolysis of adsorbed disilane have been investigated under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, using mainly temperature programmed desorption (TPD). TEOS molecularly desorbs at about 195K when adsorbed on clean Si(100) at low temperatures. When adsorbed at 300K, the primary surface species produced is a mixture of ethoxysiloxanes. Upon heating the surface in vacuum, the adsorbed ethoxysiloxanes decompose the evolve ethylene and hydrogen, with trace production of acetylene and acetaldehyde. In a parallel study, the adsorption and subsequent deposition of ethanol (C[sub 2]H[sub 5]OH, C[sub 2]D[sub 5]OD, and CH[sub 3]CD[sub 2]OH) on Si(100) has been shown to model the TEOS system. The molecular desorption temperature is ca. 150K. When adsorbed at 200K, ethanol dissociatively chemisorbs as an ethoxide and the monohydride species. The adlayer decomposes at higher temperature to evolve ethylene, hydrogen, acetaldehyde, and acetylene. The adsorption and decomposition of ethanol on Si(100)-2x1:H has also been studied in gathering additional information about the competition between distinct decomposition mechanisms, and the nature of the reaction site. In the Si[sub 2]H[sub 6]/Si(100) system, with no UV irradiation, disilane adsorption at 120K produces a chemisorbed SiH[sub x] (x = 1 - 3) layer and, for high exposures, a disilane multilayer. Upon heating the surface in vacuum, molecular desorption is observed at ca. 150K, while hydrogen and silane are evolved at much higher temperatures. For Si[sub 2]H[sub 6] exposure during photo-irradiation, the desorption yields of hydrogen and silane are enhanced. Model studies using the partially and fully deuterated Si(100)-2x1:D surface reveals that the photo-induced surface reaction is dominated by an insertion reaction by the photo-generated silylene species.

Cho, Hee-Chuen.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Nanostructured silicon thin films deposited by PECVD in the presence of silicon nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanostructured silicon thin films have been deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at low substrate temperature (100 C) in the presence of silicon nanoparticles. The nanostructure of the films was revealed by transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, which showed ordered silicon domains (1--2 nm) embedded in an amorphous silicon matrix. These ordered domains are due to the particles created in the discharge that contribute to the film growth. One consequence of the incorporation of nanoparticles is the accelerated crystallization of the nanostructured silicon thin films when compared to standard a-Si:H, as shown by the electrical characterization during the annealing.

Viera, G.; Cabarrocas, P.R.; Hamma, S.; Sharma, S.N.; Costa, J.; Bertran, E.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Deposition of thin silicon layers on transferred large area graphene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Physical vapor deposition of Si onto transferred graphene is investigated. At elevated temperatures, Si nucleates preferably on wrinkles and multilayer graphene islands. In some cases, however, Si can be quasi-selectively grown only on the monolayer graphene regions while the multilayer islands remain uncovered. Experimental insights and ab initio calculations show that variations in the removal efficiency of carbon residuals after the transfer process can be responsible for this behavior. Low-temperature Si seed layer results in improved wetting and enables homogeneous growth. This is an important step towards realization of electronic devices in which graphene is embedded between two Si layers.

Lupina, Grzegorz, E-mail: lupina@ihp-microelectronics.com; Kitzmann, Julia; Lukosius, Mindaugas; Dabrowski, Jarek; Wolff, Andre; Mehr, Wolfgang [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany)] [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany)

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

290

Growth mechanism of graphene on platinum: Surface catalysis and carbon segregation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A model of the graphene growth mechanism of chemical vapor deposition on platinum is proposed and verified by experiments. Surface catalysis and carbon segregation occur, respectively, at high and low temperatures in the process, representing the so-called balance and segregation regimes. Catalysis leads to self-limiting formation of large area monolayer graphene, whereas segregation results in multilayers, which evidently “grow from below.” By controlling kinetic factors, dominantly monolayer graphene whose high quality has been confirmed by quantum Hall measurement can be deposited on platinum with hydrogen-rich environment, quench cooling, tiny but continuous methane flow and about 1000?°C growth temperature.

Sun, Jie, E-mail: jie.sun@chalmers.se; Lindvall, Niclas; Yurgens, August [Quantum Device Physics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Nam, Youngwoo [Quantum Device Physics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Cole, Matthew T. [Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, CB3 0FA Cambridge (United Kingdom); Teo, Kenneth B. K. [AIXTRON Nanoinstruments Ltd., Swavesey, CB24 4FQ Cambridge (United Kingdom); Woo Park, Yung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

291

Growth of Epitaxial gamma-Al2O3 Films on Rigid Single-Crystal Ceramic Substrates and Flexible, Single-Crystal-Like Metallic Substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Epitaxial -Al2O3 thin films were grown on diverse substrates using pulsed laser deposition. The high quality of epitaxial growth and cubic structure of -Al2O3 films was confirmed by x-ray diffraction. SrTiO3 and MgO single crystal substrates were used to optimize the growth conditions for epitaxial -Al2O3 film. Under the optimized conditions, epitaxial -Al2O3 thin films were grown on flexible, single-crystal-like, metallic templates. These included untextured Hastelloy substrates with a biaxially textured MgO layer deposited using ion-beam-assisted-deposition and biaxially textured Ni-W metallic tapes with epitaxially grown and a biaxially textured, MgO buffer layer. These biaxially textured, -Al2O3 films on flexible, single-crystal-like substrates are promising for subsequent epitaxial growth of various complex oxide films used for electrical, magnetic and electronic device applications.

Shin, Junsoo [ORNL; Goyal, Amit [ORNL; Wee, Sung Hun [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Vapor spill monitoring method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

Bianchini, Gregory M. (Livermore, CA); McRae, Thomas G. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

ARM - Water Vapor  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water Vapor Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global...

294

Effects of acidic deposition on nutrient uptake, nutrient cycling and growth processes of vegetation in the spruce-fir ecosystem  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes progress in three years of field research designed to evaluate biological and chemical indicators of the current and future health of the Southern Appalachian spruce-fir ecosystem. The emphasis of this research has been on the identification and understanding of mechanisms through which current levels of acidic deposition are impacting ecosystem processes. The identification of these principal mechanisms and key biological indicators of change was designed to improve our capabilities to detect, monitor, and assess the effects of air quality regulations and attendant future air quality changes on ecosystem response. Individual research tasks focused on the following research areas: (1) the significance of foliar uptake of atmospheric sources of nitrogen in relationship to plant utilization of N from available soil reserves; (2) linkages between atmospheric inputs to the soil surface, solution chemistry, and decomposition in the upper organic soil horizons; (3) effects of soil solution chemistry on uptake of cations and aluminum by fine roots; and (4) the effects of varying rates of calcium supply on carbon metabolism of Fraser fir and red spruce, and the relationship between calcium levels in wood cells and integrity of wood formed in bole and branches. Each of the individual tasks was designed to focus upon a mechanism or process that we consider critical to understanding chemical and biological linkages. These linkages will be important determinants in understanding the basis of past and potential future responses of the high elevation Southern Appalachian Forest to acidic deposition and other co-occurring environmental stresses. This report contains (1) background and rationale for the research undertaken in 1992-94; (2) a summary of principal research findings; (3) publications from this research; and (4) characterization of data sets produced by this research which will be the basis of future research, analyses and/or publications.

McLaughlin, S.B.; Garten, C.T.; Wullschleger, S.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1996-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

295

III-V Nanowire Array Growth by Selective Area Epitaxy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

III-V semiconductor nanowires are unique material phase due to their high aspect ratio, large surface area, and strong quantum confinement. This affords the opportunity to control charge transport and optical properties for electrical and photonic applications. Nanoscale selective area metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth (NS-SAG) is a promising technique to maximize control of nanowire diameter and position, which are essential for device application. In this work, InP and GaAs nanowire arrays are grown by NS-SAG. We observe enhanced sidewall growth and array uniformity disorder in high growth rate condition. Disorder in surface morphology and array uniformity of InP nanowire array is explained by enhanced growth on the sidewall and stacking faults. We also find that AsH{sub 3} decomposition on the sidewall affects the growth behavior of GaAs nanowire arrays.

Chu, Hyung-Joon; Stewart, Lawrence [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California (United States); Yeh, Tingwei [Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, University of Southern California 3651 Watt Way, VHE-314, Los Angeles, CA90089 (United States); Dapkus, P. Daniel [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California (United States); Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, University of Southern California 3651 Watt Way, VHE-314, Los Angeles, CA90089 (United States)

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

296

Gasoline vapor recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a gasoline distribution network wherein gasoline is drawn from a gasoline storage tank and pumped into individual vehicles and wherein the gasoline storage tank is refilled periodically from a gasoline tanker truck, a method of recovering liquid gasoline from gasoline vapor that collects in the headspace of the gasoline storage tank as the liquid gasoline is drawn therefrom, said method comprising the steps of: (a) providing a source of inert gas; (b) introducing inert gas into the gasoline storage tank as liquid gasoline is drawn therefrom so that liquid gasoline drawn from the tank is displaced by inert gas and gasoline vapor mixes with the inert gas in the headspace of the tank; (c) collecting the inert gas/gasoline vapor mixture from the headspace of the gasoline storage tank as the tank is refilled from a gasoline tanker truck; (d) cooling the inert gas/gasoline vapor mixture to a temperature sufficient to condense the gasoline vapor in the mixture to liquid gasoline but not sufficient to liquify the inert gas in the mixture; (e) separating the condensed liquid gasoline from the inert gas; and delivering the condensed liquid gasoline to a remote location for subsequent use.

Lievens, G.; Tiberi, T.P.

1993-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

297

Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of silicon dioxide films using plasma-activated triisopropylsilane as a precursor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) process was developed as a growth technique of SiO{sub 2} thin films using a plasma-activated triisopropylsilane [TIPS, ((iPr){sub 3}SiH)] precursor. TIPS was activated by an argon plasma at the precursor injection stage of the process. Using the activated TIPS, it was possible to control the growth rate per cycle of the deposited films by adjusting the plasma ignition time. The PEALD technique allowed deposition of SiO{sub 2} films at temperatures as low as 50?°C without carbon impurities. In addition, films obtained with plasma ignition times of 3?s and 10?s had similar values of root-mean-square surface roughness. In order to evaluate the suitability of TIPS as a precursor for low-temperature deposition of SiO{sub 2} films, the vapor pressure of TIPS was measured. The thermal stability and the reactivity of the gas-phase TIPS with respect to water vapor were also investigated by analyzing the intensity changes of the C–H and Si–H peaks in the Fourier-transform infrared spectrum of TIPS.

Jeon, Ki-Moon [Vacuum Center, Division of Industrial Metrology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon 305-340, South Korea and Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Dae Jeon University, Daejeon 300-716 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jae-Su [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Dae Jeon University, Daejeon 300-716 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Ju-Young [Vacuum Center, Division of Industrial Metrology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon 305-340, South Korea and Department of Nano and Bio Surface Science, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Jun Lee, Sang [Center of Nanomaterials Characterization, Division of Industrial Metrology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon 305-340, South Korea and Department of Nano Science, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sang-Woo, E-mail: swkang@kriss.re.kr [Vacuum Center, Division of Industrial Metrology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon 305-340, South Korea and Department of Advanced Device Technology, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

298

Infrared laser-based monitoring of the silane dissociation during deposition of silicon thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The silane dissociation efficiency, or depletion fraction, is an important plasma parameter by means of which the film growth rate and the amorphous-to-microcrystalline silicon transition regime can be monitored in situ. In this letter we implement a homebuilt quantum cascade laser-based absorption spectrometer to measure the silane dissociation efficiency in an industrial plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. This infrared laser-based diagnostic technique is compact, sensitive, and nonintrusive. Its resolution is good enough to resolve Doppler-broadened rotovibrational absorption lines of silane. The latter feature various absorption strengths, thereby enabling depletion measurements over a wide range of process conditions.

Bartlome, R.; Feltrin, A.; Ballif, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics Laboratory, Rue A.-L. Breguet 2, 2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland)

2009-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

299

Electrolyte vapor condenser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

1983-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

300

Electrolyte vapor condenser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well.

Sederquist, Richard A. (Newington, CT); Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Sawyer, Richard D. (Canton, CT)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Deposition of Plasma Polymer Films by an Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is a proven ... . The application of non-thermal low pressure plasmas containing organic compounds for thin film deposition by plasma polymerization is well known1.... Th...

Rüdiger Foest; Florian Sigeneger; Martin Schmidt

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Vacuum arc deposition devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The vacuum arc is a high-current, low-voltage electrical discharge which produces a plasma consisting of vaporized and ionized electrode material. In the most common cathodic arc deposition systems, the arc concentrates at minute cathode spots on the cathode surface and the plasma is emitted as a hypersonic jet, with some degree of contamination by molten droplets [known as macroparticles (MPs)] of the cathode material. In vacuum arc deposition systems, the location and motion of the cathode spots are confined to desired surfaces by an applied magnetic field and shields around undesired surfaces. Substrates are mounted on a holder so that they intercept some portion of the plasma jet. The substrate often provides for negative bias to control the energy of depositing ions and heating or cooling to control the substrate temperature. In some systems, a magnetic field is used to guide the plasma around an obstacle which blocks the MPs. These elements are integrated with a deposition chamber, cooling, vacuum gauges and pumps, and power supplies to produce a vacuum arc deposition system.

Boxman, R.L.; Zhitomirsky, V.N. [Electrical Discharge and Plasma Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, P.O. Box 39040, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

303

Organic vapor jet printing system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

Forrest, Stephen R

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

304

Graphene Monolayer Rotation on Ni(111) Facilities Bilayer Graphene Growth  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synthesis of bilayer graphene by chemical vapor deposition is of importance for graphene-based field effect devices. Here, we demonstrate that bilayer graphene preferentially grows by carbon-segregation under graphene sheets that are rotated relative to a Ni(111) substrate. Rotated graphene monolayer films can be synthesized at growth temperatures above 650 C on a Ni(111) thin-film. The segregated second graphene layer is in registry with the Ni(111) substrate and this suppresses further C-segregation, effectively self-limiting graphene formation to two layers.

Batzill M.; Sutter P.; Dahal, A.; Addou, R.

2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

305

Method for deposition of a conductor in integrated circuits  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for fabricating integrated semiconductor circuits and, more particularly, for the selective deposition of a conductor onto a substrate employing a chemical vapor deposition process. By way of example, tungsten can be selectively deposited onto a silicon substrate. At the onset of loss of selectivity of deposition of tungsten onto the silicon substrate, the deposition process is interrupted and unwanted tungsten which has deposited on a mask layer with the silicon substrate can be removed employing a halogen etchant. Thereafter, a plurality of deposition/etch back cycles can be carried out to achieve a predetermined thickness of tungsten.

Creighton, J. Randall (Albuquerque, NM); Dominguez, Frank (Albuquerque, NM); Johnson, A. Wayne (Albuquerque, NM); Omstead, Thomas R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor Mercury Vapor Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Mercury Vapor Details Activities (23) Areas (23) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Lab Analysis Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Fluid Lab Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Fluid Lab Analysis Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Anomalously high concentrations can indicate high permeability or conduit for fluid flow Hydrological: Field wide soil sampling can generate a geometrical approximation of fluid circulation Thermal: High concentration in soils can be indicative of active hydrothermal activity Dictionary.png Mercury Vapor: Mercury is discharged as a highly volatile vapor during hydrothermal

307

Stratified vapor generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A stratified vapor generator (110) comprises a first heating section (H.sub.1) and a second heating section (H.sub.2). The first and second heating sections (H.sub.1, H.sub.2) are arranged so that the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2) is operatively associated with the outlet of the first heating section (H.sub.1). A moisture separator (126) having a vapor outlet (164) and a liquid outlet (144) is operatively associated with the outlet (124) of the second heating section (H.sub.2). A cooling section (C.sub.1) is operatively associated with the liquid outlet (144) of the moisture separator (126) and includes an outlet that is operatively associated with the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2).

Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Hassani, Vahab (Golden, CO)

2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

308

Success Story: Chrome Deposit Corporation  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This case study describes how Chrome Deposit Corporation was able to reduce plant-wide energy use, minimize its environmental impact, and improve energy management practices amidst ongoing growth.

309

Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

310

Solid–Liquid–Vapor Equilibrium Models for Cryogenic Biogas Upgrading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In cryogenic upgrading processes involving dry ice formation, accurate predictions of solid–liquid, solid–vapor, and solid–liquid–vapor equilibria are fundamental for a correct design of the heat exchanger surface in order to achieve the desired biomethane purity. ... Moreover, the liquefied biogas production process, particularly interesting for cryogenic upgrading processes due to the low temperature of the obtained biomethane, requires an accurate knowledge of carbon dioxide solubility in liquid methane to avoid solid deposition. ... For some applications demanding a high energy content gas, namely vehicle fuels and injection in the natural gas grid, the biogas has to be upgraded into biomethane. ...

Mauro Riva; Marco Campestrini; Joseph Toubassy; Denis Clodic; Paolo Stringari

2014-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

311

Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Home Air Sealing for New Home Construction Insulation Types of Insulation Insulation and Air Sealing Products and Services External Resources Find a Local AirVapor Barrier...

312

Deposition and characterization of polycrystalline silicon films on glass for thin film solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors deposit phosphorus-doped, amorphous Si by low pressure chemical vapor deposition and subsequently crystallize the films by furnace annealing at a temperature of 600 C. Optical in-situ monitoring allows one to control the crystallization process. Phosphorus doping leads to faster crystallization and a grain size enhancement with a maximum grain size of 15 {micro}m. Using transmission electron microscopy they find a log-normal grain size distribution in their films. They demonstrate that this distribution not only arises from solid phase crystallization of amorphous Si but also from other crystallization processes based on random nucleation and growth. The log-normal grain size distribution seems to be a general feature of polycrystalline semiconductors.

Bergmann, R.B.; Krinke, J.; Strunk, H.P.; Werner, J.H.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Diamond film growth argon-carbon plasmas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and system are disclosed for manufacturing diamond film. The method involves forming a carbonaceous vapor, providing a gas stream of argon, hydrogen and hydrocarbon and combining the gas with the carbonaceous vapor, passing the combined carbonaceous vapor and gas carrier stream into a chamber, forming a plasma in the chamber causing fragmentation of the carbonaceous and deposition of a diamond film on a substrate. 29 figs.

Gruen, D.M.; Krauss, A.R.; Liu, S.Z.; Pan, X.Z.; Zuiker, C.D.

1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

314

Diamond film growth from fullerene precursors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and system are disclosed for manufacturing diamond film. The method involves forming a fullerene vapor, providing a noble gas stream and combining the gas with the fullerene vapor, passing the combined fullerene vapor and noble gas carrier stream into a chamber, forming a plasma in the chamber causing fragmentation of the fullerene and deposition of a diamond film on a substrate. 10 figs.

Gruen, D.M.; Liu, S.; Krauss, A.R.; Pan, X.

1997-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

315

Vapor spill pipe monitor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

1983-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

316

Structure/processing relationships in vapor-liquid-solid nanowire epitaxy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The synthesis of Si and III-V nanowires using the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism and low-cost Si substrates was investigated. The VLS mechanism allows fabrication of heterostructures which are not readily ...

Boles, Steven Tyler

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Hydrogen Cars and Water Vapor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This cycle is currently under way with hydrogen fuel cells. As fuel cell cars are suggested as a solutionHydrogen Cars and Water Vapor D.W.KEITHANDA.E.FARRELL'S POLICY FORUM "Rethinking hydrogen cars" (18 misidentified as "zero-emissions vehicles." Fuel cell vehicles emit water vapor. A global fleet could have

Colorado at Boulder, University of

318

Fuel vapor control device  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fuel vapor control device is described having a valve opening and closing a passage connecting a carburetor and a charcoal canister according to a predetermined temperature. A first coil spring formed by a ''shape memory effect'' alloy is provided to urge the valve to open the passage when the temperature is high. A second coil spring urges the valve to close the passage. A solenoid is provided to urge an armature against the valve to close the passage against the force of the first coil spring when the engine is running. The solenoid heats the first coil spring to generate a spring force therein when the engine is running. When the engine is turned off, the solenoid is deactivated, and the force of the first spring overcomes the force of the second spring to open the passage until such time as the temperature of the first spring drops below the predetermined temperature.

Ota, I.; Nishimura, Y.; Nishio, S.; Yogo, K.

1987-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

319

The Dust Settles on Water Vapor Feedback  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...To understand water vapor feedback...shifts in the atmospheric circulation...caused a positive water vapor feedback...temperature. Condensation, evaporation...shifts in the atmospheric circulation...caused a positive water vapor feedback...temperature. Condensation, evaporation...

Anthony D. Del Genio

2002-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

320

InGaAs heterostructure formation in catalyst-free GaAs nanopillars by selective-area metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate axial GaAs/InGaAs/GaAs heterostructures embedded in GaAs nanopillars via catalyst-free selective-area metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Structural characterization by transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) indicates formation of axial In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As (x{approx}0.20) inserts with thicknesses from 36 to 220 nm with {+-}10% variation and graded Ga:In transitions controlled by In segregation. Using the heterointerfaces as markers, the vertical growth rate is determined to increase linearly during growth. Photoluminescence from 77 to 290 K and EDS suggest the presence of strain in the shortest inserts. This capability to control the formation of axial nanopillar heterostructures is crucial for optimized device integration.

Shapiro, J. N.; Lin, A.; Wong, P. S.; Scofield, A. C.; Tu, C.; Senanayake, P. N.; Mariani, G.; Liang, B. L.; Huffaker, D. L. [Department of Electrical Engineering and California Nano-Systems Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

2010-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Vapor deposited samarium zirconate thermal barrier coatings Hengbei Zhao a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal barrier coatings The rare earth zirconates (M2Zr2O7, M=LaGd) have a low intrinsic thermal conductivity and high temperature phase stability making them attractive candidates for thermal barrier coating conditions and the coating composition, structure, texture, pore morphology, and thermal conductivity

Wadley, Haydn

322

Noncatalytic synthesis of carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new method is proposed to obtain uniform arrays of multiwall carbon nanotubes without catalysts. Nanotubes have been formed by carbon condensation from a hydrogen-methane gas mixture activated by a dc discharge. Structural and morphological investigations of the obtained material were performed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. It is shown that the obtained nanotubes contain no impurities that could act as catalysts. Based on these experimental data, it is concluded that the nanotube synthesis under study is noncatalytic. Possible mechanisms of this synthesis are considered.

Ismagilov, R. R., E-mail: ismagil@polly.phys.msu.ru; Shvets, P. V.; Kharin, A. Yu.; Obraztsov, A. N. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

323

Micro Chemical Vapor Deposition for the Synthesis of Nanomaterials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

image in Figure 2.17(c) (FLIR® A320 Camera, the emissivitysame from the IR camera (FLIR® A320) and the thermal couple.thermal cameras (for example, FLIR® systems). However, the

Zhou, Qin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Air-gap sacrificial materials by initiated chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

P(neopentyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) copolymer, abbreviated as P(npMAco-EGDA), was selected as the potential air-gap sacrificial material among possible combination of twenty monomers and four ...

Lee, Long Hua

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Cathodic Arc Plasma Deposition  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Cathodic Arc Plasma Deposition Cathodic Arc Plasma Deposition André Anders Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, 1 Cyclotron Road, Mailstop 53, Berkeley, California 94720 aanders@lbl.gov Abstract Cathodic arc plasma deposition is one of oldest coatings technologies. Over the last two decades it has become the technology of choice for hard, wear resistant coatings on cutting and forming tools, corrosion resistant and decorative coatings on door knobs, shower heads, jewelry, and many other substrates. The history, basic physics of cathodic arc operation, the infamous macroparticle problem and common filter solutions are reviewed. Cathodic arc plasmas stand out due to their high degree of ionization, with important consequences for film nucleation, growth, and efficient utilization of substrate bias. The

326

Hydride vapor phase epitaxy and characterization of high-quality ScN epilayers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The heteroepitaxial growth of ScN films was investigated on various substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). Single crystalline mirror-like ScN(100) and ScN(110) layers were successfully deposited on r- and m-plane sapphire substrates, respectively. Homogeneous stoichiometric films (N/Sc ratio 1.01?±?0.10) up to 40??m in thickness were deposited. Their mosaicity drastically improved with increasing the film thickness. The band gap was determined by optical methods to be 2.06?eV. Impurity concentrations including H, C, O, Si, and Cl were investigated through energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry. As a result, it was found that the presence of impurities was efficiently suppressed in comparison with that of HVPE-grown ScN films reported in the past, which was possible thanks to the home-designed corrosion-free HVPE reactor. Room-temperature Hall measurements indicated that the residual free electron concentrations ranged between 10{sup 18}–10{sup 20}?cm{sup ?3}, which was markedly lower than the reported values. The carrier mobility increased monotonically with the decreasing in carrier concentration, achieving the largest value ever reported, 284?cm{sup 2}?V{sup ?1}?s{sup ?1} at n?=?3.7?×?10{sup 18}?cm{sup ?3}.

Oshima, Yuichi, E-mail: OSHIMA.Yuichi@nims.go.jp; Víllora, Encarnación G.; Shimamura, Kiyoshi [Environment and Energy Materials Research Division, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

327

Vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process involving vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials for creating high aspect ratio (i.e., length much greater than diameter), isolated cylindrical holes in dielectric materials that have been exposed to high-energy atomic particles. The process includes cleaning the surface of the tracked material and exposing the cleaned surface to a vapor of a suitable etchant. Independent control of the temperatures of the vapor and the tracked materials provide the means to vary separately the etch rates for the latent track region and the non-tracked material. As a rule, the tracked regions etch at a greater rate than the non-tracked regions. In addition, the vapor-etched holes can be enlarged and smoothed by subsequent dipping in a liquid etchant. The 20-1000 nm diameter holes resulting from the vapor etching process can be useful as molds for electroplating nanometer-sized filaments, etching gate cavities for deposition of nano-cones, developing high-aspect ratio holes in trackable resists, and as filters for a variety of molecular-sized particles in virtually any liquid or gas by selecting the dielectric material that is compatible with the liquid or gas of interest.

Musket, Ronald G. (Danville, CA); Porter, John D. (Berkeley, CA); Yoshiyama, James M. (Fremont, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Category:Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Mercury Vapor page? For detailed information on Mercury Vapor as exploration techniques,...

329

Time-resolved photoluminescence, positron annihilation, and Al0.23Ga0.77N/GaN heterostructure growth studies on low defect density polar and nonpolar freestanding GaN substrates grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Time-resolved photoluminescence(TRPL) and positron annihilation measurements as well as Al0.23Ga0.77N/GaN heterostructuregrowth by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy were carried out on very low defect density polar c-plane and nonpolar m-plane freestanding GaN (FS-GaN) substrates grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Room-temperature photoluminescence(PL) lifetime for the near-band-edge (NBE) excitonic emission of the FS-GaN substrates increases with increasing positron diffusion length (L +); i.e. decreasing gross concentration of charged and neutral point defects and complexes. The best undoped c-plane FS-GaN exhibits record-long L + being 116?nm. The fast component of the PL lifetime for its NBE emission increases with temperature rise up to 100?K and levels off at approximately 1.1?ns. The result implies a saturation in thermal activation of nonradiative recombination centers. The surface and interface roughnesses for a Si-doped Al0.23Ga0.77N/GaN/Al0.18Ga0.82N/GaN heterostructure are improved by the use of FS-GaN substrates in comparison with the structure fabricated on a standard GaN template. The emission signals related to the recombination of a two-dimensional electron gas and excited holes are recognized for an Al0.23Ga0.77N/GaN single heterostructuregrown on the c-plane FS-GaN substrate.

S. F. Chichibu; K. Hazu; Y. Ishikawa; M. Tashiro; H. Namita; S. Nagao; K. Fujito; A. Uedono

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Aerosynthesis: Growths of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers with Air DC Plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNF) have been synthesized in a mixture of acetone and air using catalytic DC plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Typically, ammonia or hydrogen is used as etchant gas in the mixture to remove carbon that otherwise passivates the catalyst surface and impedes growth. Our demonstration of using air as the etchant gas opens up a possibility that ion etching could be sufficient to maintain the catalytic activity state during synthesis. It also demonstrates the path toward growing VACNFs in open atmosphere.

Kodumagulla, A [North Carolina State University; Varanasi, V [North Carolina State University; Pearce, Ryan [North Carolina State University; Wu, W-C [North Carolina State University; Hensley, Dale K [ORNL; Tracy, Joseph B [North Carolina State University; McKnight, Timothy E [ORNL; Melechko, Anatoli [North Carolina State University

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Numerical simulations of particle growth in a silicon-CVD fluidized bed reactor via a CFD–PBM coupled model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A Eulerian–Eulerian two-fluid model coupled with population balance equations was applied to simulate the evolution of silicon particle growth by chemical vapor deposition of silane pyrolysis in a three-dimensional slugging fluidized bed reactor using FLUENT. The simulation of the particle growth considering surface deposition, cluster scavenging, aggregation and wall deposition was carried out after the verification of flow and heat transfer characteristics based on the well-accepted correlations. The results showed that the scavenging effect was responsible for the particle growth, and the growth rate agreed well with the experimental data by Tejero-Ezpeleta et al. (2004) when the scavenging factor was set to 0.1 under the condition of 923 K and atmospheric pressure. Moreover, the formation of light silicon hydrides by silane homogeneous pyrolysis in the dilute phase was also investigated in the form of CHMEKIN mechanism, which showed that disilane turned to be the main silicon hydride and the silane conversion was underestimated by 12.5%. Finally, the effects of operating conditions on the growth rate were studied in detail with the observation of defluidization phenomenon during the evolution of particle growth.

Si-Si Liu; Wen-De Xiao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Atmospheric plasma deposition of diamond-like carbon coatings Angela M. Ladwig a,b,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric plasma deposition of diamond-like carbon coatings Angela M. Ladwig a,b, , Ronald D Available online xxxx Keywords: Atmospheric pressure plasma Diamond-like carbon deposition DLC PECVD The atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of diamond-like carbon (DLC) has been

Hicks, Robert F.

333

Initiation of atomic layer deposition of metal oxides on polymer substrates by water plasma pretreatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The role of surface hydroxyl content in atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide (AO) on polymers is demonstrated by performing an atomic layer deposition of AO onto a variety of polymer types, before and after pretreatment in a plasma struck in water vapor. The treatment and deposition reactions are performed in situ in a high vacuum chamber that is interfaced to an x-ray photoelectron spectrometer to prevent adventitious exposure to atmospheric contaminants. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to follow the surface chemistries of the polymers, including theformation of surface hydroxyls and subsequent growth of AO by ALD. Using dimethyl aluminum isopropoxide and water as reactants, ALD is obtained for water-plasma-treated poly(styrene) (PS), poly(propylene) (PP), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN). For PS, PP, and PEN, initial growth rates of AO on the native (untreated) polymers are at least an order of magnitude lower than on the same polymer surface following the plasma treatment. By contrast, native PVA is shown to initiate ALD of AO as a result of the presence of intrinsic surface hydroxyls that are derived from the repeat unit of this polymer.

Steven Brandt, E.; Grace, Jeremy M. [Eastman Kodak Company, 1999 Lake Avenue, Rochester, New York 14650-2022 (United States)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

334

Effect of growth temperature on the CVD grown Fe filled multi-walled carbon nanotubes using a modified photoresist  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fe filled carbon nanotubes were synthesized by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition using a simple mixture of iron(III) acetylacetonate (Fe(acac){sub 3}) with a conventional photoresist and the effect of growth temperature (550-950 {sup o}C) on Fe filled nanotubes has been studied. Scanning electron microscopy results show that, as the growth temperature increases from 550 to 950 {sup o}C, the average diameter of the nanotubes increases while their number density decreases. High resolution transmission electron microscopy along with energy dispersive X-ray investigation shows that the nanotubes have a multi-walled structure with partial Fe filling for all growth temperatures. The graphitic nature of the nanotubes was observed via X-ray diffraction pattern. Raman analysis demonstrates that the degree of graphitization of the carbon nanotubes depends upon the growth temperature.

Sengupta, Joydip [Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)] [Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Jana, Avijit; Pradeep Singh, N.D. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)] [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Jacob, Chacko, E-mail: cxj14_holiday@yahoo.com [Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)] [Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

335

Computational study of wax deposition in pipeline  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Wax deposition in subsea pipelines is one of the flow assurance problems for oil and gas production. In contrast to many studies about single phase wax deposition gas-oil wax deposition studies are very limited. The wax deposition mechanism and model prediction are restricted by many factors such as hydrodynamic and thermal when multiphase flow is involved. Wax deposition modeling becomes complicated under multiphase flowing conditions. wax deposition is depended by the flow pattern. The stratified flow is one of the most common flow patterns in the actual subsea gas-oil flowing conditions. In this work numerical methods are used to study wax deposition in oil-gas stratified flow through a pipe. Based on the flow analysis about stratified flow the non-isothermal heat and mass transfer is calculated. The temperature profile of the oil and the concentration profile of wax in oil are obtained. The change of the oil-gas interface i.e. the liquid holdup throughout the pipe must be taken into the heat and mass balance. The valid wax deposition surface must be taken into the wax deposition modeling by establishing function of the liquid holdup and the wetted area by oil. The molecular diffusion is as the deposition mechanism. The increase of the wax fraction in the deposit as a function of time depends on the mass flux from the oil deposit interface into the gel and the growth of the deposit thickness depends on the difference between the mass flux from the bulk oil to the oil deposit interface and the mass flux from the interface into the deposit. In addition the growth of the wax deposit as a function of time along with the effect oil flow rate gas flow rate and the inlet temperature are discussed. The presence of gas significantly reduces the severity of wax deposition by altering the heat and mass transfer characteristics.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Automation, Control and Modeling of Compound Semiconductor Thin-Film Growth  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the results of a laboratory-directed research and development (LDRD) project on control and agile manufacturing in the critical metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) materials growth processes essential to high-speed microelectronics and optoelectronic components. This effort is founded on a modular and configurable process automation system that serves as a backbone allowing integration of process-specific models and sensors. We have developed and integrated MOCVD- and MBE-specific models in this system, and demonstrated the effectiveness of sensor-based feedback control in improving the accuracy and reproducibility of semiconductor heterostructures. In addition, within this framework we have constructed ''virtual reactor'' models for growth processes, with the goal of greatly shortening the epitaxial growth process development cycle.

Breiland, W.G.; Coltrin, M.E.; Drummond, T.J.; Horn, K.M.; Hou, H.Q.; Klem, J.F.; Tsao, J.Y.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Pulsed Laser Deposition of Photoresponsive Two-Dimensional GaSe Nanosheet Networks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Here we explore pulsed laser deposition (PLD), a well known and versatile synthesis method principally used for epitaxial oxide thin film growth, for the synthesis of functional metal chalcogenide (GaSe) nanosheet networks by stoichiometric transfer of laser vaporized material from bulk GaSe targets in Ar background gas. Uniform coverage of interconnected, crystalline, few-layer, photoresponsive GaSe nanosheets in both in-plane and out-of-plane orientations were achieved under different ablation plume conditions over ~1.5 cm2 areas. Plume propagation was characterized by in situ ICCD-imaging. High (1 Torr) Ar background gas pressures were found to be crucial for the stoichiometric growth of GaSe nanosheet networks. Individual 1-3 layer GaSe triangular nanosheets of ~ 200 nm domain size were formed within 30 laser pulses, coalescing to form nanosheet networks in as few as 100 laser pulses. The thickness of the deposited networks increased linearly with pulse number, adding layers in a two-dimensional (2D) growth mode while maintaining a surface roughness of 2 GaSe layers for increasing overall thickness. Field effect transistors using these interconnected crystalline GaSe networks showed p-type semiconducting characteristics with mobilities reaching as high as 0.1 cm2V-1s-1. Spectrally-resolved photoresponsivities and external quantum efficiencies ranged from 0.4 AW-1 and 100% at 700 nm, to 1.4 AW-1 and 600 % at 240 nm, respectively. Pulsed laser deposition under these conditions appears to provide a versatile and rapid approach to stoichiometrically transfer and deposit photoresponsive networks of 2D nanosheets with digital thickness control and substrate-scale uniformity for a variety of applications.

Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud [ORNL; Gresback, Ryan G [ORNL; Tian, Mengkun [ORNL; Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL; Eres, Gyula [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Xiao, Kai [ORNL; McGuire, Michael A [ORNL; Duscher, Gerd [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Geohegan, David B [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Substrate effect on CdTe layers grown by metalorganic vapor phase N. V. Sochinskiia),b)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Substrate effect on CdTe layers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy N. V. Sochinskiia for publication 30 December 1996 CdTe layers were grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy MOVPE on different substrates like sapphire, GaAs, and CdTe wafers. The growth was carried out at the temperature 340 °C

Viña, Luis

339

The Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Some Primary Amines of Pharmaceutical Importance by Correlation Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by Correlation Gas Chromatography Chase Gobble, Nigam Rath, and James Chickos* Department of Chemistry Information ABSTRACT: Vapor pressures, vaporization, and sublimation enthalpies of several pharmaceuticals and boiling temperatures when available. Sublimation enthalpies and vapor pressures are also evaluated for 1

Chickos, James S.

340

Deposition Process  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pulsed Plasma Processing Pulsed Plasma Processing NEW: Downloadable: Invited Talk "Pulsed Metal Plasmas," presented at the 2006 AVS Meeting, San Francisco, California, November 15, 2006. (PDF, file size 8 MB). Plasma Sources for Window Coatings Deposition processes for low-emittance and solar control coatings can be improved through the use of advanced plasma technology developed at LBNL. A new type of constricted glow-discharge plasma source was selected for the 1997 R&D 100 Award. Invented by LBNL researchers Andre Anders, Mike Rubin, and Mike Dickinson, the source was designed to be compatible with industrial vacuum deposition equipment and practice. Construction is simple, rugged and inexpensive. It can operate indefinitely over a wide range of chamber pressure without any consumable parts such as filaments or grids. Several different gases including Argon, Oxygen and Nitrogen have been tested successfully.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

VAPORIZATION THERMODYNAMICS OF KCl. COMBINING VAPOR PRESSURE AND GRAVIMETRIC DATA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.B. Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119899, Russia Bonnell D.W., Hastie J.W. National temperature chemistry situations, vapor pressures are typically less than 100 kPa. The molar volume is p = 101325 Pa). The subscript trs denotes that the changeisfor a transition, typically sublimation

Rudnyi, Evgenii B.

342

Deposition of dopant impurities and pulsed energy drive-in  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor doping process which enhances the dopant incorporation achievable using the Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) technique. The enhanced doping is achieved by first depositing a thin layer of dopant atoms on a semiconductor surface followed by exposure to one or more pulses from either a laser or an ion-beam which melt a portion of the semiconductor to a desired depth, thus causing the dopant atoms to be incorporated into the molten region. After the molten region recrystallizes the dopant atoms are electrically active. The dopant atoms are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or other known deposition techniques.

Wickboldt, Paul (Walnut Creek, CA); Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Jose, CA); Ellingboe, Albert R. (Malahide, IE)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Deposition of dopant impurities and pulsed energy drive-in  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor doping process which enhances the dopant incorporation achievable using the Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) technique. The enhanced doping is achieved by first depositing a thin layer of dopant atoms on a semiconductor surface followed by exposure to one or more pulses from either a laser or an ion-beam which melt a portion of the semiconductor to a desired depth, thus causing the dopant atoms to be incorporated into the molten region. After the molten region recrystallizes the dopant atoms are electrically active. The dopant atoms are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or other known deposition techniques.

Wickboldt, Paul (Walnut Creek, CA); Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA); Ellingboe, Albert R. (Fremont, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

VAPORIZATION OF TUNGSTEN-METAL IN STEAM AT HIGH TEMPERATURES.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The vaporization of tungsten from the APT spallation target dominates the radiological source term for unmitigated target overheating accidents. Chemical reactions of tungsten with steam which persist to tungsten temperatures as low as 800 C result in the formation of a hydrated tungsten-oxide which has a high vapor pressure and is readily convected in a flowing atmosphere. This low-temperature vaporization reaction essentially removes the oxide film that forms on the tungsten-metal surface as soon as it forms, leaving behind a fresh metallic surface for continued oxidation and vaporization. Experiments were conducted to measure the oxidative vaporization rates of tungsten in steam as part of the effort to quantify the MT radiological source term for severe target accidents. Tests were conducted with tungsten rods (1/8 inch diameter, six inches long) heated to temperatures from approximately 700 C to 1350 C in flowing steam which was superheated to 140 C. A total of 19 experiments was conducted. Fifteen tests were conducted by RF induction heating of single tungsten rods held vertical in a quartz glass retort. Four tests were conducted in a vertically-mounted tube furnace for the low temperature range of the test series. The aerosol which was generated and transported downstream from the tungsten rods was collected by passing the discharged steam through a condenser. This procedure insured total collection of the steam along with the aerosol from the vaporization of the rods. The results of these experiments revealed a threshold temperature for tungsten vaporization in steam. For the two tests at the lowest temperatures which were tested, approximately 700 C, the tungsten rods were observed to oxidize without vaporization. The remainder of the tests was conducted over the temperature range of 800 C to 1350 C. In these tests, the rods were found to have lost weight due to vaporization of the tungsten and the missing weight was collected in the downstream condensate system. The aerosol formed a fine white smoke of tungsten-oxide which was visible to the eye as it condensed in the laminar boundary layer of steam which flowed along the surface of the rod. The aerosol continued to flow as a smoke tube downstream of the rod, flowing coaxially along the centerline axis of the quartz glass tube and depositing by impaction along the outside of a bend and at sudden area contractions in the piping. The vaporization rate data from the 17 experiments which exceeded the vaporization threshold temperature are shown in Figure 5 in the form of vaporization rates (g/cm{sup 2} s) vs. inverse temperature (K{sup {minus}1}). Two correlations to the present data are presented and compared to a published correlation by Kilpatrick and Lott. The differences are discussed.

GREENE,G.A.; FINFROCK,C.C.

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Carbon Nanotube Growth Using Ni Catalyst in Different Layouts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes have been grown using Ni as catalyst by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system (PECVD) in various pre-patterned substrates. Ni was thermally evaporated on silicon substrates ...

Nguyen, H. Q.

346

van der Waals Epitaxy of MoS2 Layers Using Graphene As Growth Templates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a method for synthesizing MoS{sub 2}/Graphene hybrid heterostructures with a growth template of graphene-covered Cu foil. Compared to other recent reports, a much lower growth temperature of 400 C is required for this procedure. The chemical vapor deposition of MoS{sub 2} on the graphene surface gives rise to single crystalline hexagonal flakes with a typical lateral size ranging from several hundred nanometers to several micrometers. The precursor (ammonium thiomolybdate) together with solvent was transported to graphene surface by a carrier gas at room temperature, which was then followed by post annealing. At an elevated temperature, the precursor self-assembles to form MoS{sub 2} flakes epitaxially on the graphene surface via thermal decomposition. With higher amount of precursor delivered onto the graphene surface, a continuous MoS{sub 2} film on graphene can be obtained. This simple chemical vapor deposition method provides a unique approach for the synthesis of graphene heterostructures and surface functionalization of graphene. The synthesized two-dimensional MoS{sub 2}/Graphene hybrids possess great potential toward the development of new optical and electronic devices as well as a wide variety of newly synthesizable compounds for catalysts.

Shi, Yumeng [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Zhou, Wu [Vanderbilt University; Lu, Ang-Yu [Academia Sinica, Hefei, China; Fang, Wenjing [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Lee, Yi-Hsien [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Hsu, Allen Long [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Kim, Soo Min [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Kim, Ki Kang [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Yang, Hui Ying [Singapore University of Technology and Design; Liang, Lain-Jong [Academia Sinica, Hefei, China; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C [ORNL; Kong, Jing [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Chemical deposition methods using supercritical fluid solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for depositing a film of a desired material on a substrate comprises dissolving at least one reagent in a supercritical fluid comprising at least one solvent. Either the reagent is capable of reacting with or is a precursor of a compound capable of reacting with the solvent to form the desired product, or at least one additional reagent is included in the supercritical solution and is capable of reacting with or is a precursor of a compound capable of reacting with the first reagent or with a compound derived from the first reagent to form the desired material. The supercritical solution is expanded to produce a vapor or aerosol and a chemical reaction is induced in the vapor or aerosol so that a film of the desired material resulting from the chemical reaction is deposited on the substrate surface. In an alternate embodiment, the supercritical solution containing at least one reagent is expanded to produce a vapor or aerosol which is then mixed with a gas containing at least one additional reagent. A chemical reaction is induced in the resulting mixture so that a film of the desired material is deposited.

Sievers, Robert E. (Boulder, CO); Hansen, Brian N. (Boulder, CO)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium Deposition by in situ Electrochemical Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium...

349

LNG Vaporizer Utilizing Vacuum Steam Condensing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This report concerns the field test results of a new type of peak-shaving LNG vaporizer (VSV) whose heat source is ... heat of vacuum steam to vaporize and superheat LNG within heat transfer tubes. Prior to the.....

Y. Miyata; M. Hanamure; H. Kujirai; Y. Sato…

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Running-Film Vaporizer for LNG  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Advances in welding technology and steel fabrication techniques have permitted the development of a new concept in cryogenic vaporizers—the running-film plate vaporizer. Although similar in heat transfer philosop...

H. H. West; G. L. Puckett

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Vapor Retarder Classification- Building America Top Innovation  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Building America Innovations profile describes research in vapor retarders. Since 2006 the IRC has permitted Class III vapor retarders like latex paint (see list above) in all climate zones under certain conditions thanks to research by Building America teams.

352

Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Volatilized metal compounds retard vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

Warren, Barbara K. (Charleston, WV)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Processing of CuInSe{sub 2}-based solar cells: Characterization of deposition processes in terms of chemical reaction analyses. Phase 2 Annual Report, 6 May 1996--5 May 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes research performed by the University of Florida during Phase 2 of this subcontract. First, to study CIGS, researchers adapted a contactless, nondestructive technique previously developed for measuring photogenerated excess carrier lifetimes in SOI wafers. This dual-beam optical modulation (DBOM) technique was used to investigate the differences between three alternative methods of depositing CdS (conventional chemical-bath deposition [CBD], metal-organic chemical vapor deposition [MOCVD], and sputtering). Second, a critical assessment of the Cu-In-Se thermochemical and phase diagram data using standard CALPHAD procedures is being performed. The outcome of this research will produce useful information on equilibrium vapor compositions (required annealing ambients, Sex fluxes from effusion cells), phase diagrams (conditions for melt-assisted growth), chemical potentials (driving forces for diffusion and chemical reactions), and consistent solution models (extents of solid solutions and extending phase diagrams). Third, an integrated facility to fabricate CIS PV devices was established that includes migration-enhanced epitaxy (MEE) for deposition of CIS, a rapid thermal processing furnace for absorber film formation, sputtering of ZnO, CBD or MOCVD of CdS, metallization, and pattern definition.

Anderson, T.

1999-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

354

Molybdenum enhanced low-temperature deposition of crystalline silicon nitride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for chemical vapor deposition of crystalline silicon nitride is described which comprises the steps of: introducing a mixture of a silicon source, a molybdenum source, a nitrogen source, and a hydrogen source into a vessel containing a suitable substrate; and thermally decomposing the mixture to deposit onto the substrate a coating comprising crystalline silicon nitride containing a dispersion of molybdenum silicide. 5 figures.

Lowden, R.A.

1994-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

355

Vapor Pressures and Heats of Vaporization of Primary Coal Tars  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

/ PC92544-18 / PC92544-18 VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS FINAL REPORT Grant Dates: August, 1992 - November, 1996 Principal Authors: Eric M. Suuberg (PI) and Vahur Oja Report Submitted: April, 1997 Revised: July, 1997 Grant Number: DE-FG22-92PC92544 Report Submitted by: ERIC M. SUUBERG DIVISION OF ENGINEERING BROWN UNIVERSITY PROVIDENCE, RI 02912 TEL. (401) 863-1420 Prepared For: U. S. DEPT. OF ENERGY FEDERAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CENTER P.O. BOX 10940 PITTSBURGH, PA 15236 DR. KAMALENDU DAS, FETC, MORGANTOWN , WV TECHNICAL PROJECT OFFICER "US/DOE Patent Clearance is not required prior to the publication of this document" ii United States Government Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any

356

Means and method for vapor generation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid, in heat transfer contact with a surface heated to a temperature well above the vaporization temperature of the liquid, will undergo a multiphase (liquid-vapor) transformation from 0% vapor to 100% vapor. During this transition, the temperature driving force or heat flux and the coefficients of heat transfer across the fluid-solid interface, and the vapor percentage influence the type of heating of the fluid--starting as "feedwater" heating where no vapors are present, progressing to "nucleate" heating where vaporization begins and some vapors are present, and concluding with "film" heating where only vapors are present. Unstable heating between nucleate and film heating can occur, accompanied by possibly large and rapid temperature shifts in the structures. This invention provides for injecting into the region of potential unstable heating and proximate the heated surface superheated vapors in sufficient quantities operable to rapidly increase the vapor percentage of the multiphase mixture by perhaps 10-30% and thereby effectively shift the multiphase mixture beyond the unstable heating region and up to the stable film heating region.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Growth and electrical characterisation of {delta}-doped boron layers on (111) diamond surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition protocol for the growth of {delta}-doping of boron in diamond is presented, using the (111) diamond plane as a substrate for diamond growth. AC Hall effect measurements have been performed on oxygen terminated {delta}-layers and desirable sheet carrier densities ({approx}10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}) for field-effect transistor application are reported with mobilities in excess of what would expected for equivalent but thicker heavily boron-doped diamond films. Temperature-dependent impedance spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements show that the grown layers have metallic-like electrical properties with high cut-off frequencies and low thermal impedance activation energies with estimated boron concentrations of approximately 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}.

Edgington, Robert; Jackman, Richard B. [London Centre for Nanotechnology, and Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, 17-19 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Sato, Syunsuke; Ishiyama, Yuichiro; Kawarada, Hiroshi [Department of Electronic and Photonic Systems, Waseda University, Okubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Morris, Richard [Advanced SIMS Projects, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Ambipolar silicon nanowire FETs with stenciled-deposited metal gate Davide Sacchetto  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ambipolar silicon nanowire FETs with stenciled-deposited metal gate Davide Sacchetto , Veronica Keywords: Schottky barrier Ambipolarity Si nanowire Stencil lithography FET Silicide a b s t r a c t We chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) of amorphous Si (a-Si) and SiO2 layers as well as metal gate patterning

De Micheli, Giovanni

359

Low energy ion beam assisted deposition of a spin valve J. J. Quan,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low energy ion beam assisted deposition of a spin valve J. J. Quan,a S. A. Wolf, and H. N. G. Wadley Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science interfacial structures can be created using low energy, ion assisted vapor deposition techniques with ion

Wadley, Haydn

360

Time-resolved surface infrared spectroscopy during atomic layer deposition of TiO{sub 2} using tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium and water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic layer deposition of titanium dioxide using tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium (TDMAT) and water vapor is studied by reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) with a time resolution of 120?ms. At 190?°C and 240?°C, a decrease in the absorption from adsorbed TDMAT is observed without any evidence of an adsorbed product. Ex situ measurements indicate that this behavior is not associated with an increase in the impurity concentration or a dramatic change in the growth rate. A desorbing decomposition product is consistent with these observations. RAIRS also indicates that dehydroxylation of the growth surface occurs only among one type of surface hydroxyl groups. Molecular water is observed to remain on the surface and participates in reactions even at a relatively high temperature (110?°C) and with long purge times (30?s)

Sperling, Brent A., E-mail: brent.sperling@nist.gov; Hoang, John; Kimes, William A.; Maslar, James E. [Chemical Sciences Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Dr., Stop 8320, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8320 (United States); Steffens, Kristen L. [Biomolecular Measurement Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Dr., Stop 8362, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8362 (United States); Nguyen, Nhan V. [Semiconductor and Dimensional Metrology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Dr., Stop 8120, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8120 (United States)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Atomic absorption monitor for deposition process control of aluminum at 394 nm using frequency-doubled diode laser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atomic absorption monitor for deposition process control of aluminum at 394 nm using frequency November 1995 A monitor for Al vapor density based on atomic absorption AA using a frequency of atomic absorption AA as a monitor for thickness and composition control in physical vapor deposi- tion

Fejer, Martin M.

362

Wick for metal vapor laser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved wick for a metal vapor laser is made of a refractory metal cylinder, preferably molybdenum or tungsten for a copper laser, which provides the wicking surface. Alternately, the inside surface of the ceramic laser tube can be metalized to form the wicking surface. Capillary action is enhanced by using wire screen, porous foam metal, or grooved surfaces. Graphite or carbon, in the form of chunks, strips, fibers or particles, is placed on the inside surface of the wick to reduce water, reduce metal oxides and form metal carbides.

Duncan, David B. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Non-Vapor Compression HVAC Technologies Report  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

While vapor-compression technologies have served heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) needs very effectively, and have been the dominant HVAC technology for close to 100 years, the conventional refrigerants used in vapor-compression equipment contribute to global climate change when released to the atmosphere. The Building Technologies Office is evaluating low-global warming potential (GWP) alternatives to vapor-compression technologies.

364

Ash aerosol formation from oxy-coal combustion and its relation to ash deposit chemistry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Ash aerosol and ash deposit formation during oxy-coal combustion were explored through experiments in a self-sustained 100 kW rated down-fired oxy-fuel combustor. Inlet oxidant conditions consisted of 50% inlet oxygen with CO2 (hereafter denoted as OXY50 conditions). A Berner low pressure impactor (BLPI), a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) were used to obtain size segregated ash aerosol samples and to determine the particle size distributions (PSD). A novel surface temperature controlled ash deposition probe system that allowed inside and outside deposits to be separated was used to collect the ash deposits. The ash aerosol \\{PSDs\\} given by the BLPI and those produced by SMPS/APS were consistent with each other. Data suggested that oxy-coal combustion under these conditions did not change the formation mechanisms controlling the bulk ash aerosol composition, but it did increase the formation of ultra-fine particles initially formed through metal vaporization, due to increased vaporization of silicon at the higher combustion temperature. The smaller particles contained within the deposits had higher Si and lower Na and S concentrations under OXY50 conditions than for air combustion. Moreover, the ash aerosol composition for particle sizes less than 2.4 ?m was related to the composition of the inside deposits. A higher Na in the ash aerosol resulted in higher Na in inside deposits with comparable absolute Na concentrations in both those aerosol particles and those inside deposits particles. The contribution of S and Si to the inside deposits showed that S in the vaporization modes together with Si in the ultrafine vaporization mode, contributed significantly to the composition of the inside deposits. These results provided direct evidence that prediction of the chemistry of the initial deposit layer (but not of the bulk deposits) required knowledge of the size segregated chemistry of the ash aerosol.

Zhonghua Zhan; Andrew Fry; Yanwei Zhang; Jost O.L. Wendt

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Unified moving-boundary model with fluctuations for unstable diffusive growth Matteo Nicoli  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

examples are found in thin-film production by chemical vapor deposition and electrochemical deposition. The model also incorporates noise terms that account for fluctuations in the diffusive and attachment that are sometimes solv- able. For instance, electrochemical deposition ECD of met- als 4,5 has been and still is 6

Cuerno, Rodolfo

366

Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) Exploration Activity Details Location Unspecified Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Surface soil-mercury surveys are an inexpensive and useful exploration tool for geothermal resources. ---- Surface geochemical surveys for mercury were conducted in 16 areas in 1979-1981 by ARCO Oil and Gas Company as part of its geothermal evaluation program. Three techniques used together have proved satisfactory in evaluating surface mercury data. These are contouring, histograms and cumulative frequency plots of the data. Contouring geochemical data and constructing histograms are standard

367

Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Volatilized metal compounds are described which are capable of retarding vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

Warren, B.K.

1991-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

368

Growth and characterizations of GaN micro-rods on graphene films for flexible light emitting diodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the growth of GaN micro-rods and coaxial quantum-well heterostructures on graphene films, together with structural and optical characterization, for applications in flexible optical devices. Graphene films were grown on Cu foil by means of chemical vapor deposition, and used as the substrates for the growth of the GaN micro-rods, which were subsequently transferred onto SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates. Highly Si-doped, n-type GaN micro-rods were grown on the graphene films using metal–organic chemical vapor deposition. The growth and vertical alignment of the GaN micro-rods, which is a critical factor for the fabrication of high-performance light-emitting diodes (LEDs), were characterized using electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The GaN micro-rods exhibited promising photoluminescence characteristics for optoelectronic device applications, including room-temperature stimulated emission. To fabricate flexible LEDs, In{sub x}Ga{sub 1–x}N/GaN multiple quantum wells and a p-type GaN layer were deposited coaxially on the GaN micro-rods, and transferred onto Ag-coated polymer substrates using lift-off. Ti/Au and Ni/Au metal layers were formed to provide electrical contacts to the n-type and p-type GaN regions, respectively. The micro-rod LEDs exhibited intense emission of visible light, even after transfer onto the flexible polymer substrate, and reliable operation was achieved following numerous cycles of mechanical deformation.

Chung, Kunook; Beak, Hyeonjun; Tchoe, Youngbin; Oh, Hongseok; Yi, Gyu-Chul, E-mail: gcyi@snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Institute of Applied Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Hyobin; Kim, Miyoung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

Novick, Vincent J.; Johnson, Stanley A.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

1999-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

371

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

Novick, Vincent J. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) value-added product (VAP) computes precipitable water vapor using neural network techniques from data measured by the GVR. The GVR reports time-series measurements of brightness temperatures for four channels located at 183.3 ± 1, 3, 7, and 14 GHz.

Koontz, A; Cadeddu, M

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

373

Revealing the surface and bulk regimes of isothermal graphene growth on Ni with in situ kinetic measurements and modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In situ optical diagnostics are used to reveal the isothermal nucleation and growth mechanisms of graphene on Ni across a wide temperature range (560 C < T < 840 C) by chemical vapor deposition from single, sub-second pulses of acetylene. An abrupt, two-orders of magnitude change in growth times (~ 100s to 1s) is revealed at T = 680 C. Below and above this temperature, similar sigmoidal kinetics are measured and attributed to autocatalytic growth reactions but by two different mechanisms, surface assembly and dissolution/precipitation, respectively. These data are used to develop a simple and general kinetic model for graphene growth that includes the nucleation phase and includes the effects of carbon solubility in metals, describes delayed nucleation, and allows the interpretation of the competition between surface and bulk growth modes. The sharp transition in growth kinetics at T = 680 C is explained by a change in defect site density required for nucleation due to a transition in the carbon-induced mobility of the Ni surface. The easily-implemented optical reflectivity diagnostics and the simple kinetic model described here allow a pathway to optimize the growth of graphene on metals with arbitrary carbon solubility.

Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Merkulov, Igor A [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL; Eres, Gyula [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Observation of photoluminescence from Al1 xInxN heteroepitaxial films grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Observation of photoluminescence from Al1 xInxN heteroepitaxial films grown by metalorganic vapor have observed photoluminescence of Al1 xInxN films. The films were grown on GaN by atmospheric pressure-temperature deposited AlN buffer layer. Photoluminescence, absorption, and x-ray diffraction measurements have shown

Wetzel, Christian M.

375

Quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler for sampling semi-volatile organic gases and particulate components. A semi-volatile organic reversible gas sorbent macroreticular resin agglomerates of randomly packed microspheres with the continuous porous structure of particles ranging in size between 0.05-10 .mu.m for use in an integrated diffusion vapor-particle sampler.

Gundel, Lara (Berkeley, CA); Daisey, Joan M. (Walnut Creek, CA); Stevens, Robert K. (Cary, NC)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

LNG fire and vapor control system technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Demonstration of a vapor density monitoring system using UV radiation generated from quasi-phasematched SHG waveguide devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many industrial applications require non-intrusive diagnostics for process monitoring and control. One example is the physical vapor deposition of titanium alloys. In this paper we present a system based on laser absorption spectroscopy for monitoring titanium vapor. Appropriate transitions for monitoring high rate vaporization of titanium require extension of available IR diode technology to the UV. The heart of this vapor density monitoring system is the 390nm radiation generated from quasi-phase matched interactions within periodically poled waveguides. In this paper, key system components of a UV laser absorption spectroscopy based system specific for titanium density monitoring are described. Analysis is presented showing the minimum power levels necessary from the ultraviolet laser source. Performance data for prototype systems using second harmonic generation (SHG) waveguide technology is presented. Application of this technology to other alloy density monitoring systems is discussed.

Galanti, S.A.; Berzins, L.V.; Brown, J.B.; Tamosaitis, R.S.; Bortz, M.L.; Day, T.; Fejer, M.M.; Wang, W.

1996-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

378

Molecular Layer Deposition on Carbon Nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

They were fabricated by compressing a CNT aerogel produced as an output from a chemical vapor deposition furnace. ... The CNT3 specimens may be harder in general to coat due to their smaller diameter in comparison to the other materials. ... (1) Data tables for mechanical test results parallel and perpendicular to the CNT sheet orientation; (2) additional SEM and TEM images of coated CNT materials; (3) additional EDS spectra of MLD coatings on CNTs, and comparison to Al2O3 ALD coating on CNTs. ...

Joseph J. Brown; Robert A. Hall; Paul E. Kladitis; Steven M. George; Victor M. Bright

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

379

ARM - Field Campaign - Water Vapor IOP  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Water Vapor IOP 2000.09.18 - 2000.10.08 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb Data Availability Yes For data sets, see below. Description Scientific hypothesis: 1. Microwave radiometer (MWR) observations of the 22 GHz water vapor line can accurately constrain the total column amount of water vapor (assuming a calibration accuracy of 0.5 degC or better, which translates into 0.35 mm PWV). 2. Continuous profiling by Raman lidar provides a stable reference for handling sampling problems and observes a fixed column directly above the site only requiring a single height- independent calibration factor. 3. Agreement between the salt-bath calibrated in-situ probes, chilled

380

Energy balance in laser-irradiated vaporizing droplets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The interactions of vaporizing aerosols with a high energy laser beam are analyzed in the diffusive vaporization regime. This is the regime in which diffusive mass transport and...

Zardecki, Andrew; Armstrong, Robert L

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Ground Gravity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Ground Gravity Survey At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et...

382

Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymers for Chemical Vapor Sensing. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Acidic Polymers for Chemical Vapor Sensing. Hydrogen-Bond Acidic Polymers for Chemical Vapor Sensing. Abstract: A review with 171 references. Hydrogen-bond acidic polymers for...

383

RAMAN AND IR STUDY OF NARROW BANDGAP A-SIGE AND C-SIGE FILMS DEPOSITED USING DIFFERENT HYDROGEN DILUTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) with a fixed germane to disilane ratio of 0.72 and a wide range], cathode deposition [2], and using disilane- germane mixture without H dilution [3] in PECVD process. A gas mixture of disilane, germane and hydrogen was used with a fixed germane to disilane ratio of 0

Deng, Xunming

384

Oxygen-assisted room-temperature deposition of CoPt3 films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen-assisted room-temperature deposition of CoPt3 films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy B Jolla, California 92093 Received 23 July 2002; accepted 30 September 2002 Trace amounts of oxygen CoPt3 grown by vapor deposition at or slightly above room temperature. Oxygen is known to act

Hellman, Frances

385

Methods for improved growth of group III nitride buffer layers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are disclosed for growing high crystal quality group III-nitride epitaxial layers with advanced multiple buffer layer techniques. In an embodiment, a method includes forming group III-nitride buffer layers that contain aluminum on suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. A hydrogen halide or halogen gas is flowing into the growth zone during deposition of buffer layers to suppress homogeneous particle formation. Some combinations of low temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) and high temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) may be used to improve crystal quality and morphology of subsequently grown group III-nitride epitaxial layers. The buffer may be deposited on the substrate, or on the surface of another buffer. The additional buffer layers may be added as interlayers in group III-nitride layers (e.g., GaN, AlGaN, AlN).

Melnik, Yurity; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

386

Recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing vapors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Values are recovered from a hydrocarbon-containing vapor by contacting the vapor with quench liquid consisting essentially of hydrocarbons to form a condensate and a vapor residue, the condensate and quench fluid forming a combined liquid stream. The combined liquid stream is mixed with a viscosity-lowering liquid to form a mixed liquid having a viscosity lower than the viscosity of the combined liquid stream to permit easy handling of the combined liquid stream. The quench liquid is a cooled portion of the mixed liquid. Viscosity-lowering liquid is separated from a portion of the mixed liquid and cycled to form additional mixed liquid.

Mirza, Zia I. (La Verne, CA); Knell, Everett W. (Los Alamitos, CA); Winter, Bruce L. (Danville, CA)

1980-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

387

Growth Energetics of Carbon Nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The growth energetics of carbon nanotubes during arc discharge conditions are investigated. Ab initio molecular dynamics calcualtions show that the electric field alone cannot stabilize the growth of open metallic tubes. The addition of atoms and small clusters to tubes were studied using realistic atomic potentials. Deposition on tubes narrower than Å3 nm leads to nucleation of curved defects (adjacent pentagon pairs) and eventual tube closure, while deposition on wider tubes favors the formation of hexagons and isolated pentagons, thereby promoting open-ended growth.

A. Maiti; C. J. Brabec; C. M. Roland; J. Bernholc

1994-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

388

Dendrite-Free Lithium Deposition with Self-Aligned Nanorod Structure...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with Self-Aligned Nanorod Structure. Dendrite-Free Lithium Deposition with Self-Aligned Nanorod Structure. Abstract: Suppressing lithium (Li) dendrite growth is one of the most...

389

Sandy Depositional Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Why is the study of sandy depositional systems central to the understanding of sand and sandstone? From earliest times geologists have wanted to know where and under what conditions a sandstone was deposited—t...

F. J. Pettijohn; Paul Edwin Potter; Raymond Siever

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Chemical vapor detection using nanomechanical platform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For high sensitive and multiplexed chemical analysis, an opto-mechanical detection platform has been built. To check the performance of the platform, we performed water vapor response measurements for ... sensors...

S. H. Lim

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Vapor Power Systems MAE 4263 Final Exam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vapor Power Systems MAE 4263 Final Exam Wednesday, May 5, 2004 Prof. P.M. Moretti Key Instructions, then think, then write! 1. What is the dewpoint of the exhaust of your car, if the gasoline consists2 so that the mole fraction of water vapor is yH2 O = 9 9 + 8 + 47 = 0:14063 pH2 O = 0:14063 14

392

Optical monitor for water vapor concentration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma. 5 figs.

Kebabian, P.

1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

393

Optical monitor for water vapor concentration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma.

Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Growth process of microcrystalline silicon studied by combined photoluminescence and Raman investigations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon on glass substrates leads to formation of silicon amorphous films with partial crystallization of nano-grains in the amorphous matrix. We studied the transition of amorphous to microcrystalline silicon during such deposition. Formation of silicon nano-grains was detected by means of photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy. The crystalline fraction and the mean size of the nano-grains were estimated by the position and the intensity of the peaks in the Raman spectrum. We showed that the fraction of crystalline silicon in the layers and the size of the nano-grains are strongly dependent on the growth conditions. The photoluminescence spectra exhibit distinct features related to recombination in the amorphous and in the crystalline phases. A significant narrowing of the photoluminescence peak related to the amorphous phase with increasing crystalline fraction indicates a structural modification in the amorphous silicon. It suggests an ordering process occurring before the start of the actual crystallization. A peak at about 1.4 eV was associated with isolated nano-crystalline grains within the amorphous matrix. A correlation between the peak energy and grain size was found, indicating effects of carrier quantum confinement. The experimental results confirm the established theoretical models for growth of microcrystalline silicon films.

Klossek, A.; Mankovics, D.; Ratzke, M. [Brandenburg University of Technology, Konrad-Wachsmann-Allee 1, D-03046 Cottbus (Germany)] [Brandenburg University of Technology, Konrad-Wachsmann-Allee 1, D-03046 Cottbus (Germany); Arguirov, T.; Kittler, M. [Brandenburg University of Technology, Konrad-Wachsmann-Allee 1, D-03046 Cottbus (Germany) [Brandenburg University of Technology, Konrad-Wachsmann-Allee 1, D-03046 Cottbus (Germany); IHP Microelectronics, Im Technologiepark 25, D-15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Kirner, S.; Gabriel, O.; Stannowski, B.; Schlatmann, R. [Competence Centre Thin-Film- and Nanotechnology for Photovoltaics Berlin, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Berlin (Germany)] [Competence Centre Thin-Film- and Nanotechnology for Photovoltaics Berlin, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Friedrich, F. [Competence Centre Thin-Film- and Nanotechnology for Photovoltaics Berlin, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Berlin (Germany) [Competence Centre Thin-Film- and Nanotechnology for Photovoltaics Berlin, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Department of Semiconductor Devices, Technische Universität Berlin, Sekr. E2, Einsteinufer 19, D-10587 Berlin (Germany)

2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

395

Original article Growth stresses in tension wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original article Growth stresses in tension wood: role of microfibrils and lignification T Okuyama the growth stress generation in the region of normal and tension woods. growth stress/ tension wood in normal and ten- sion wood. The compressive stress from the deposition of lignin controls the level

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

396

Vapor Pressures and Vaporization, Sublimation, and Fusion Enthalpies of Some Fatty Acids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vapor Pressures and Vaporization, Sublimation, and Fusion Enthalpies of Some Fatty Acids Joe A. Wilson and James S. Chickos* Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of MissouriSt. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63121, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Sublimation enthalpies

Chickos, James S.

397

Vapor Pressures and Vaporization Enthalpies of a Series of Dialkyl Phthalates by Correlation Gas Chromatography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chromatography Chase Gobble and James Chickos* Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis Missouri 63121, United States Sergey P. Verevkin Department of Physical Chemistry: Experimental vapor pressures, vaporization, fusion and sublimation enthalpies of a number of dialkyl

Chickos, James S.

398

Environmentally focused patterning and processing of polymer thin films by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) and oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The new millennium has brought fourth many technological innovations made possible by the advancement of high speed integrated circuits. The materials and energy requirements for a microchip is orders of magnitude higher ...

Trujillo, Nathan J. (Nathan Jeffrey)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Growth of Large-Area Single- and Bi-Layer Graphene by Controlled Carbon Precipitation on Polycrystalline Ni Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report graphene films composed mostly of one or two layers of graphene grown by controlled carbon precipitation on the surface of polycrystalline Ni thin films during atmospheric chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Controlling ...

Reina, Alfonso

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Growth of SiGe film by using a single-wafer rapid thermal processing UHV/CVD system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ultra-high-vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV/CVD) system displays excellent performance for the...T was 5.4 GHz with fmax 7.5 GHz under VCB=3 V, IC=10 mA.

Wentao Huang; Changchun Chen; Xiyou Li; Xiaoyi Xiong…

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

direct_deposit_111609  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

PROTECT YOUR BANKING INFORMATION: PROTECT YOUR BANKING INFORMATION: DO NOT complete this form until you are ready to submit it to the Payroll Department. DIRECT DEPOSIT REQUEST Directions: 1. Provide required information neatly, legibly; 2. If Checking Account Direct Deposit, include a voided check. a. DO NOT submit a deposit slip! 3. If Savings Account Direct Deposit, include a copy of savings card. 4. Sign this form; 5. Inter-office mail it to Craft Payroll at "P238." DIRECT DEPOSITION AUTHORIZATION I hereby authorize Los Alamos National Laboratory, hereinafter called The Laboratory, to initiate credit entries and, if necessary, debit entries and adjustments for any credit entries in error to my account listed on this form. If deposit is for:

402

ARM - Field Campaign - Water Vapor IOP  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Water Vapor IOP 1996.09.10 - 1996.09.30 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb For data sets, see below. Summary SCHEDULE This IOP will be conducted from September 10 - 30, 1996 (coincident with the Fall ARM-UAV IOP). Instruments that do not require supervision will be operated continuously during this period. Instruments that do require supervision are presently planned to be operated for 8-hour periods each day. Because it is necessary to cover as broad a range of environmental conditions as possible, the daily 8-hour period will be shifted across the diurnal cycle as deemed appropriate during the IOP (but will be maintained as a contiguous 8-hour block).

403

atmospheric water vapor | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

atmospheric water vapor atmospheric water vapor Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for 2-axis tracking concentrating collectors for Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. (Purpose): Provide information on the solar resource potential for the data domain. The insolation values represent the average solar energy available to a concentrating collector, such as a dish collector, which tracks the sun continuously. Source NREL Date Released July 31st, 2006 (8 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords atmospheric water vapor Carribean Islands Central America DNI GIS Mexico NREL GEF solar SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 247.8 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 370.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review

404

atmoshperic water vapor | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

atmoshperic water vapor atmoshperic water vapor Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Monthly Average Solar Resource for flat-plate collectors tilted at latitude for China. Source NREL Date Released April 12th, 2005 (9 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords atmoshperic water vapor China GEF GIS NREL solar SWERA TILT UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 625.6 KiB) text/csv icon Download Data (csv, 704.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 01/01/1985 - 12/31/1991 License License Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL) Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote Usefulness of the dataset Average vote Your vote Ease of access

405

Growth of carbon nanotubes using nanocrystalline carbon catalyst Yong Seob Park a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

], hydrogen storage, chemical sensors, and composite reinforcing materials [4]. CNTs are known to have better metal catalyst layers by the hot filament plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (HF- PECVD) system and pure (99.99%) argon. Prior to the nc-C film deposition, the process chamber was pumped down to a base

Hong, Byungyou

406

Spores from Devonian Deposits  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... IN a well-illustrated paper on "Spores from Devonian Deposits, Mimerdalen, Spitsbergen" (Norsk. Polarinstitutt Skrifter, No. 132, 1964), Jorunn Os Vigran deals with the dispersed ...

1965-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

407

EMSL - ion deposition  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

deposition en Physical Properties of Ambient and Laboratory-Generated Secondary Organic Aerosol. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsphysical-properties-ambient-and-labora...

408

EMSL - Deposition and Microfabrication  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ion beam for nanolithography and deposition and manipulation of structures at the nano scale* Microfabrication suite for designing and etching complex patterns into varied...

409

Vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program has developed, in cooperation with Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory, the equipment and expertise to characterize gases and vapors in the high-level radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in south central Washington State. This capability has been demonstrated by the characterization of the tank 241-C-103 headspace. This tank headspace is the first, and for many reasons is expected to be the most problematic, that will be characterized (Osborne 1992). Results from the most recent and comprehensive sampling event, sample job 7B, are presented for the purpose of providing scientific bases for resolution of vapor issues associated with tank 241-C-103. This report is based on the work of Clauss et al. 1994, Jenkins et al. 1994, Ligotke et al. 1994, Mahon et al. 1994, and Rasmussen and Einfeld 1994. No attempt has been made in this report to evaluate the implications of the data presented, such as the potential impact of headspace gases and vapors to tank farm workers health. That and other issues will be addressed elsewhere. Key to the resolution of worker health issues is the quantitation of compounds of toxicological concern. The Toxicology Review Panel, a panel of Pacific Northwest Laboratory experts in various areas, of toxicology, has chosen 19 previously identified compounds as being of potential toxicological concern. During sample job 7B, the sampling and analytical methodology was validated for this preliminary list of compounds of toxicological concern. Validation was performed according to guidance provided by the Tank Vapor Conference Committee, a group of analytical chemists from academic institutions and national laboratories assembled and commissioned by the Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program.

Huckaby, J.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Story, M.S. [Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc. Richland, WA (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Apparatus for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas.

Flynn, Paul L. (Fairview, PA); Giammarise, Anthony W. (Erie, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Apparatus for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice`s interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas. 2 figs.

Flynn, P.L.; Giammarise, A.W.

1995-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

412

Process for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance toerosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas.

Flynn, Paul L. (5139 Fox Park Dr., Fairview, PA 16415); Giammarise, Anthony W. (527 Lincoln Ave., Erie, PA 16505)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Deposition of WNxCy thin films for diffusion barrier application using the dimethylhydrazido (2-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thickness to the barrier scheme as well as an additional processing step. Binary transition metal compounds 13 April 2009 Available online xxxx Keywords: Chemical vapor deposition Metallization Tungsten nitride carbide Diffusion barrier X-ray diffraction Auger electron spectroscopy Tungsten nitride carbide

Anderson, Timothy J.

414

Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself. 4 figs.

Alger, T.

1988-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

415

Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Dawson, Jay W. (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA)

2006-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

416

Diode pumped alkali vapor fiber laser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus is provided for producing near-diffraction-limited laser light, or amplifying near-diffraction-limited light, in diode pumped alkali vapor photonic-band-gap fiber lasers or amplifiers. Laser light is both substantially generated and propagated in an alkali gas instead of a solid, allowing the nonlinear and damage limitations of conventional solid core fibers to be circumvented. Alkali vapor is introduced into the center hole of a photonic-band-gap fiber, which can then be pumped with light from a pump laser and operated as an oscillator with a seed beam, or can be configured as an amplifier.

Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Dawson, Jay W. (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA)

2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

417

Fluctuation growth and spinodal decomposition in heavy ion reactions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The liquid/vapor phase diagram of a Hamiltonian-based model for nuclear dynamics (Quasiparticle dynamics) is determined. Finite size effects in the coexistence region and the time scale for fluctuation growth associated with spinodal decomposition are quantitatively investigated. For finite nuclei, no direct link is found between the phase diagram and either the rate of fluctuation growth or its density dependence.

David H. Boal and James N. Glosli

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Solution deposition assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and devices are provided for improved deposition systems. In one embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system is provided for use with a solution and a substrate. The system comprises of a solution deposition apparatus; at least one heating chamber, at least one assembly for holding a solution over the substrate; and a substrate curling apparatus for curling at least one edge of the substrate to define a zone capable of containing a volume of the solution over the substrate. In another embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system for use with a substrate, the system comprising a solution deposition apparatus; at heating chamber; and at least assembly for holding solution over the substrate to allow for a depth of at least about 0.5 microns to 10 mm.

Roussillon, Yann; Scholz, Jeremy H; Shelton, Addison; Green, Geoff T; Utthachoo, Piyaphant

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

419

Environmental Chemistry at Vapor/Water Interfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental Chemistry at Vapor/Water Interfaces: Insights from Vibrational Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy Aaron M. Jubb, Wei Hua, and Heather C. Allen Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State/0505-0107$20.00 Keywords salts, lipids, atmospheric chemistry, ion binding, oxidation Abstract The chemistry that occurs

420

Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

Atkinson, David

2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Program performs vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A program designed for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV or 41C calculators solves basic vapor-liquid equilibrium problems, including figuring the dewpoint, bubblepoint, and equilibrium flash. The algorithm uses W.C. Edmister's method for predicting ideal-solution K values.

Rice, V.L.

1982-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

422

Synchroton X-Ray Studies of Liquid-Vapor Interfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The variation of density across the liquid-vapor interface from essentially zero density far out in the vapor phase to a homogeneous density deep in the liquid phase can be determined by X-ray reflectivity mea...

J. Als-Nielsen

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Vapor intrusion modeling : limitations, improvements, and value of information analyses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vapor intrusion is the migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a subsurface source into the indoor air of an overlying building. Vapor intrusion models, including the Johnson and Ettinger (J&E) model, can be ...

Friscia, Jessica M. (Jessica Marie)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Estimating the Atmospheric Water Vapor Content from Sun Photometer Measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The differential absorption technique for estimating columnar water vapor values from the analysis of sunphotometric measurements with wide- and narrowband interferential filters centered near 0.94 ?m is discussed and adapted. Water vapor line ...

Artemio Plana-Fattori; Michel Legrand; Didier Tanré; Claude Devaux; Anne Vermeulen; Philippe Dubuisson

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

OPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

given by U.S. Department of Energy, Geothermal Division. #12;vii Table of Contents ABSTRACTOPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS CONSIDERING ADSORPTION governing the behavior of vapor- dominated geothermal reservoirs. These mechanisms affect both

Stanford University

426

Pulsed laser deposited Si on multilayer graphene as anode material for lithium ion batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pulsed laser deposition and chemical vapor deposition were used to deposit very thin silicon on multilayer graphene (MLG) on a nickel foam substrate for application as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The as-grown material was directly fabricated into an anode without a binder and tested in a half-cell configuration. Even under stressful voltage limits that accelerate degradation the Si-MLG films displayed higher stability than Si-only electrodes. Post-cycling images of the anodes reveal the differences between the two material systems and emphasize the role of the graphene layers in improving adhesion and electrochemical stability of the Si.

Gouri Radhakrishnan; Brendan Foran; Michael V. Quinzio; Miles J. Brodie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Heteroepitaxy of group IV-VI nitrides by atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heteroepitaxial growth of selected group IV-VI nitrides on various orientations of sapphire (?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is demonstrated using atomic layer deposition. High quality, epitaxial films are produced at significantly lower temperatures than required by conventional deposition methods. Characterization of electrical and superconducting properties of epitaxial films reveals a reduced room temperature resistivity and increased residual resistance ratio for films deposited on sapphire compared to polycrystalline samples deposited concurrently on fused quartz substrates.

Klug, Jeffrey A., E-mail: jklug@anl.gov; Groll, Nickolas R.; Pellin, Michael J.; Proslier, Thomas, E-mail: prolier@anl.gov [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)] [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Becker, Nicholas G.; Cao, Chaoyue; Zasadzinski, John F. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States) [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Physics, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); Weimer, Matthew S. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States) [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States)

2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

428

Apparent Temperature Dependence on Localized Atmospheric Water Vapor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Apparent Temperature Dependence on Localized Atmospheric Water Vapor Matthew Montanaroa, Carl), hence water vapor is the primary constituent of concern. The tower generates a localized water vapor, Office B108, Aiken, SC, USA ABSTRACT The atmosphere is a critical factor in remote sensing. Radiance from

Salvaggio, Carl

429

Investigation of the relaxation behavior of Si1?xCx alloys during epitaxial UHV-CVD growth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, the epitaxial growth of Si1?xCx alloys using an Ultra High Vacuum Chemical Vapor Deposition (UHV-CVD) system was studied. Si1?xCx layers were grown in a temperature range of 550–650 °C and characterized using rocking curve X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) as well as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). It was found that with increasing carbon precursor flow (Methylsilane) the amount of substitutional carbon rises up to a critical value. After a maximum in substitutional carbon content is reached, a further increase of carbon fraction leads to a reduction of the strain. By FT-IR, the non-substitutional carbon was determined to form 3C-SiC precipitates already during growth. A strong correlation between the increase of Methylsilane flow and the formation of coherent precipitates even at low carbon fractions was observed. A low deposition temperature was found to promote the precipitation of 3C-SiC.

I. Ostermay; T. Kammler; A. Naumann; J.W. Bartha; P. Kücher

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Perspectives on Deposition Velocity  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Deposition Deposition Velocity ... Going down the rabbit hole to explain that sinking feeling Brian DiNunno, Ph.D. Project Enhancement Corporation June 6 th , 2012 Discussion Framework ï‚— Development of the HSS Deposition Velocity Safety Bulletin ï‚— Broader discussion of appropriate conservatism within dispersion modeling and DOE-STD-3009 DOE-STD-3009 Dose Comparison "General discussion is provided for source term calculation and dose estimation, as well as prescriptive guidance for the latter. The intent is that calculations be based on reasonably conservative estimates of the various input parameters." - DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A.3 DOE-STD-3009 Dispersion

431

Advanced Membrane Systems: Recovering Wasteful and Hazardous Fuel Vapors at the Gasoline Tank  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Case study covering Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. and its membrane vapor processor that recovers fuel vapors from gasoline refueling.

432

EMSL: Capabilities: Deposition and Microfabrication  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Deposition and Microfabrication Deposition and Microfabrication Additional Information Meet the Deposition and Microfabrication Experts Related EMSL User Projects Deposition and Microfabrication Tools are Applied to all Science Themes Deposition and Microfabrication brochure Designed to augment research important to a variety of disciplines, EMSL's Deposition and Microfabrication Capability tackles serious scientific challenges from a microscopic perspective. From deposition instruments that emphasize oxide films and interfaces to a state-of-the-art microfabrication suite, EMSL has equipment to tailor surfaces, as diverse as single-crystal thin films or nanostructures, or create the microenvironments needed for direct experimentation at micron scales. Users benefit from coupling deposition and microfabrication applications

433

Electrophoretic deposition of biomaterials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Wilson 2003). The use of citric acid as a dispersant allowed the deposition of thin...poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles embedded...stent for local drug delivery. Polyacrylic acid was used as surfactant because...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Water, Vapor, and Salt Dynamics in a Hot Repository  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a new model study examining the high temperature nuclear waste disposal concept at Yucca Mountain using MULTIFLUX, an integrated in-drift- and mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic model. The results show that a large amount of vapor flow into the drift is expected during the period of above-boiling temperatures. This phenomenon makes the emplacement drift a water/moisture attractor during the above-boiling temperature operation. The evaporation of the percolation water into the drift gives rise to salt accumulation in the rock wall, especially in the crown of the drift for about 1500 years in the example. The deposited salts over the drift footprint, almost entirely present in the fractures, may enter the drift either by rock fall or by water drippage. During the high temperature operation mode, the barometric pressure variation creates fluctuating relative humidity in the emplacement drift with a time period of approximately 10 days. Potentially wet and dry conditions and condensation on salt-laden drift wall sections may adversely affect the storage environment. Salt accumulations during the above-boiling temperature operation must be sufficiently addressed to fully understand the waste package environment during the thermal period. Until the questions are resolved, a below-boiling repository design is favored where the Alloy-22 will be less susceptible to localized corrosion. (authors)

Bahrami, Davood; Danko, George [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, 1664 N. Virginia St., Reno, NV, 89557 (United States); Walton, John [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University, El Paso, TX, 79968 (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Precision micro drilling with copper vapor lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have developed a copper vapor laser based micro machining system using advanced beam quality control and precision wavefront tilting technologies. Micro drilling has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratio up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled on a variety of metals with good quality. For precision trepanned holes, the hole-to-hole size variation is typically within 1% of its diameter. Hole entrance and exit are both well defined with dimension error less than a few microns. Materialography of sectioned holes shows little (sub-micron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone with surface roughness within 1--2 microns.

Chang, J.J.; Martinez, M.W.; Warner, B.E.; Dragon, E.P.; Huete, G.; Solarski, M.E.

1994-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

436

Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment.

Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA); Moses, Edward I. (Castro Valley, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Polycrystal diamond growth in a microwave plasma torch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diamond films of different structures were deposited on quartz, WC-Co, and molybdenum substrates in a microwave plasma torch discharge in an argon-hydrogen-methane gas mixture in a sealed chamber at pressures close to atmospheric by using the chemical vapor deposition technique. Images of diamond polycrystal films and separate crystals, as well as results of Raman spectroscopy, are presented. The spectra of optical plasma radiation recorded during film deposition demonstrate the presence of intense H{sub {alpha}} hydrogen and C{sub 2} radical bands known as Swan bands.

Sergeichev, K. F.; Lukina, N. A.; Bolshakov, A. P.; Ralchenko, V. G.; Arutyunyan, N. R.; Vlasov, I. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov Institute of General Physics (Russian Federation)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

438

Jumping-Catalyst Dynamics in Nanowire Growth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nanowire growth is generally considered a steady-state process, but oscillatory phenomena are known to often play a fundamental role. Here we identify a natural sequence of distinct growth modes, in two of which the catalyst droplet jumps periodically on and off a crystal facet. The oscillatory modes result from a mismatch between catalyst size and wire diameter; they enable growth of straight smooth-sided wires even when the droplet is too small to span the wire tip. Jumping-catalyst growth modes are seen both in computer simulations of vapor-liquid-solid growth, and in movies of Si nanowire growth obtained by in situ microscopy. Our simulations also provide new insight into nanowire kinking.

K.?W. Schwarz; J. Tersoff; S. Kodambaka; F.?M. Ross

2014-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

439

Saddle-field glow-discharge deposition of amorphous semiconductors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors present a dc saddle-field glow-discharge deposition procedure which combines the positive attributes of the conventional dc and rf glow-discharge techniques. Preliminary mass spectra analyses of both silane and methane glow-discharges demonstrates that ions constitute a significant fraction of the species reaching the film surface. Growth rate analyses suggest that ions play a significant role in the saddle-field glow-discharge deposition of amorphous semiconducting films.

Gaspari, F.; Sidhu, L.S.; O`Leary, S.K.; Zukotynski, S. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

440

Instrument Series: Deposition and Microfabrication  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Deposition and Microfabrication Deposition and Microfabrication Sputter Deposition System Only available at EMSL, the Discovery ® Deposition System has been customized to be a fully automated multi-functional "hybrid" instrument with several modes for thin film processing, including multi-target sputtering, effusion cell deposition, electron beam deposition, and in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) materials characterization. Unlike most systems, the Discovery ® Deposition System's unique configuration offers operational flexibility, efficiency, and control, allowing a range of applications and materials to be processed simultaneously. Because it is software controlled, users can provide their own "recipes" and have a complete log of what happens throughout the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Method for crystal growth control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The growth of a crystalline body of a selected material is controlled so that the body has a selected cross-sectional shape. The apparatus is of the type which includes the structure normally employed in known capillary die devices as well as means for observing at least the portion of the surfaces of the growing crystalline body and the meniscus (of melt material from which the body is being pulled) including the solid/liquid/vapor junction in a direction substantially perpendicular to the meniscus surface formed at the junction when the growth of the crystalline body is under steady state conditions. The cross-sectional size of the growing crystalline body can be controlled by determining which points exhibit a sharp change in the amount of reflected radiation of a preselected wavelength and controlling the speed at which the body is being pulled or the temperature of the growth pool of melt so as to maintain those points exhibiting a sharp change at a preselected spatial position relative to a predetermined reference position. The improvement comprises reference object means positioned near the solid/liquid/vapor junction and capable of being observed by the means for observing so as to define said reference position so that the problems associated with convection current jitter are overcome.

Yates, Douglas A. (Burlington, MA); Hatch, Arthur E. (Waltham, MA); Goldsmith, Jeff M. (Medford, MA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Porous GaN nanowires synthesized using thermal chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Seo a , Jeunghee Park a,*, Hyunik Yang b , Bongsoo Kim c a Department of Chemistry, Korea University-791, Republic of Korea c Department of Chemistry, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon nanotube-confined reaction [4], arc discharge [5], laser ablation [6], sublimation [7], pyrolysis [8

Kim, Bongsoo

443

Unsteady mixed convection in horizontal ducts with applications to chemical vapor deposition processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mixed convection in a horizontal rectangular duct of aspect ratio 4 heated from below with cold side walls was studied numerically for a non-Boussinesq fluid. Results are presented for a reduced temperature of 2.33 and a Rayleigh number of 130,700. The resulting flow field at Re = 25 consisted of four steady longitudinal vortices, symmetric about the duct centerline, with a leading transverse roll cell. A reduction to Re = 10 resulted in the introduction of traveling transverse waves. A further reduction Re = 5 resulted in a loss of symmetry about the duct centerline plane. Further work is underway to verify the Re = 5 results.

Spall, R.E. [Univ. of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering] [Univ. of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Light-emitting nanocrystalline silicon by low-pressure chemical-vapor deposition of disilane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Porous silicon is an attractive material for silicon optoelectronics. The great advantage of porous silicon lies on the simple way of production which makes silicon nanostructures easily available. After sever...

C. Manfredotti; F. Fizzotti; G. Amato

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Chemical Vapor Deposition Epitaxy of Silicon-based Materials using Neopentasilane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of dichlorosilane, silane, disilane, and neopentasilane vs. inverse temperature observed in our lab on Si(100 dichlorosilane is not observable, and that for silane and disilane were 0.6 and 8 ECS Transactions, 16 (10) 799 sources of dichlorosilane (DCS), silane, disilane and neopentasilane (NPS) precursor on (100) silicon

446

Highly Efficient Field Emission from Carbon Nanotube?Nanohorn Hybrids Prepared by Chemical Vapor Deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

§ Research and Development Department, NEC Lighting, Ltd., 3-1 Nichiden, Minakuchi, Koga, 528-8501, Japan ... However, the poor dispersibility of CNTs in solutions due to entanglement and bundling results in inhomogeneous distribution of CNTs in the electrodes, leading to patchy light emission. ... (25, 26) Their potential applications as catalyst supports,(25, 26) capacitor electrodes,(27) and drug carriers(28, 29) in medical fields have also been studied. ...

Ryota Yuge; Jin Miyawaki; Toshinari Ichihashi; Sadanori Kuroshima; Tsutomu Yoshitake; Tetsuya Ohkawa; Yasushi Aoki; Sumio Iijima; Masako Yudasaka

2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

447

Oxidative and initiated chemical vapor deposition for application to organic electronics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Since the first discovery of polymeric conductors in 1977, the research area of "organic electronics" has grown dramatically. However, methods for forming thin films comprised solely of conductive polymers are limited by ...

Im, Sung Gap

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

A kinetic model of diamond nucleation and silicon carbide interlayer formation during chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A kinetic model of diamond nucleation and silicon carbide interlayer formation during chemical February 2005 Available online 7 April 2005 Abstract The presence of thin silicon carbide intermediate of carbon atoms into the silicon carbide layer and the morphology and orientation of the diamond film

Dandy, David

449

Graphene-on-Insulator Transistors Made Using C on Ni Chemical-Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graphene transistors are made by transferring a thin graphene film grown on Ni onto an insulating SiO[subscript 2] substrate. The properties and integration of these graphene-on-insulator transistors are presented and ...

Keast, Craig L.

450

The Vapor Deposition and Oxidation of Platinum-and Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Multilayers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rates by disrupting thermal transport processes. Novel metal­ceramic multilayer's combining thin metal layers with low thermal conductivity oxide ceramics offer a potential approach for impeding both­200-mm-thick low thermal conductivity ceramic outer layer (the top coat), a 10­20-mm-thick, aluminum

Wadley, Haydn

451

Volatilities of Actinide and Lanthanide N,NDimethylaminodiboranate Chemical Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Supercomputing Institute, and Chemical Theory Center, University of Minnesota, 207 Pleasant Street SE, Switzerland § The School of Chemical Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews for technological applications such as capacitors, field effect transistors, displays, thermoelectric devices, light

Girolami, Gregory S.

452

Low Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition of Zirconium Nitride in a Fluidized Bed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thick) on uranium-molybdenum (UMo) particulate fuel. Plate-type fuel with U-xMo (x = 3 to 10 wt.%) particle fuel dispersed in an aluminum matrix is under development at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test...

Arrieta, Marie

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

453

Oxidative chemical vapor deposition of semiconducting polymers and their use In organic photovoltaics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have received significant interest for their potential low cost, high mechanical flexibility, and unique functionalities. OPVs employing semiconducting polymers in the photoactive layer have ...

Borrelli, David Christopher

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Growing carbon nanotubes by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

observed from multiwalled carbon nanotubes produced by arc discharge.6 Recent experimental studies have of nanocarbon on large scales ever since it was first observed at the cathode in an electric arc evaporation experi- ment where the anode had been consumed.1 In addition to the refinement of the arc discharge

Qin, Lu-Chang

455

Towards improved spinnability of chemical vapor deposition generated multi-walled carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for electric fields, such as those present in arc- dischargeelectric field during synthesis, such as that present in the arc-discharge

McKee, Gregg Sturdivant Burke

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Electrical optimization of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition chamber cleaning plasmas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fluorinated gas discharges are widely used by the semiconductor industry in etching and chamber cleaning applications but the performance of these discharges varies in unpredictable ways for unknown reasons believed to be electrical in origin. To investigate possible mechanisms for this behavior we have measured the electrical characteristics of NF 3 /Ar CF 4 /O 2 /Ar and C 2 F 6 /O 2 /Ar chamber cleaning plasmas at 6.7–267 Pa in a 13.56 MHz capacitively coupled parallel-plate reactor using radio-frequency current and voltage probes and optical emission spectroscopy. From the measurements power losses in the external circuitry surrounding the discharge were determined. Furthermore using the measurements and equivalent circuit models the mechanisms by which power was absorbed within the discharge itself were investigated. Power was absorbed most efficiently at particular values of the discharge impedance. These optimal impedances occur in the middle of a transition from capacitive impedances at low pressures to resistive impedances at high pressures. These results illustrate that the plasma impedance is a useful parameter for monitoring and optimizing plasma processes in highly electronegative gases.

M. A. Sobolewski; J. G. Langan; B. S. Felker

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Chemical vapor deposition of conjugated polymeric thin films for photonic and electronic applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(cont.) Conjugated polymers have delocalized electrons along the backbone, facilitating electrical conductivity. As thin films, they are integral to organic semiconductor devices emerging in the marketplace, such as flexible ...

Lock, John P

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Unique Magnetic Properties of Single Crystal ?-Fe2O3 Nanowires Synthesized by Flame Vapor Deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Portions of this research were carried out at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, a Directorate of SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and an Office of Science User Facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science by Stanford University. ... by application of an external permanent magnet; no metal leaching from the catalyst is found, and the spent catalyst could be recycled for the aerobic oxidn. of benzyl alc. ... Understanding the correlation between magnetic properties and nanostructure involves collaborative efforts between chemists, physicists, and materials scientists to study both fundamental properties and potential applications. ...

Pratap M. Rao; Xiaolin Zheng

2011-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

459

Chem. Mater. 1994, 6, 2279-2287 2279 Chemical Vapor Deposition of Zinc from Diallyl Zinc  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-containingmaterials such as the 11-VI compound semiconductors used in the manufac- ture of light emitting diodes and solar cell. The organic byproducts generated under CVD conditions are 1,5- hexadiene (76 mol %), 2-methyl-1,Cpentadiene (14 mol %), and propene (10 mol %); except for the pentadiene product, analogous hydrocarbons

Girolami, Gregory S.

460

Evaluating the In Vitro Corrosion Behavior and Cytotoxicity of Vapor Deposited Magnesium Alloys.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Magnesium alloys are emerging as a promising class of bioabsorbable implant materials due to magnesium’s biocompatibility and propensity for corrosion. These alloys are useful for… (more)

Petrilli, John

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Lithium manganese oxide films fabricated by electron beam directed vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

material for high energy den- sity battery applications.7,8 Lithium­transition metal oxide films can.2. After annealing in air at 700 °C, thin films grown with a low jet speed had a cubic spinel structure Li/Li-ion batteries. © 2008 American Vacuum Society. DOI: 10.1116/1.2823488 I. INTRODUCTION Thin film

Wadley, Haydn

462

In-situ observations during chemical vapor deposition of hexagonal boron nitride on polycrystalline copper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-characterised the Cu catalyst exposed to ammonia (NH3, i.e. a nitrogen and hydrogen source without B) instead of borazine under similar pressures. For this ammonia exposure no expansion in the Cu lattice constant is found. As ammonia is known to dissociate on Cu... 1s (Figure 5a,b,c) and valence band (Supporting Figure S4) regions.12 We find that before CVD the as loaded Cu foil surface is heavily oxidized due to storage and transportation in ambient air (before step 1).12 Following an anneal (step 2) in H2...

Kidambi, Piran R.; Blume, Raoul; Kling, Jens; Wagner, Jakob B.; Baehtz, Carsten; Weatherup, Robert S.; Schlögl, Robert; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Hofmann, Stephan

2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

463

Plasma and Ion Assistance in Physical Vapor Deposition: A Historical Perspective  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for energetic ion surface engineering. Ionized gases hadions. The development is far from being concluded given the increasing need of surface engineering

Anders, Andre

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Formation of Polycyanoacrylate?Silica Nanocomposites by Chemical Vapor Deposition of Cyanoacrylates on Aerogels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

While an improvement over untreated aerogels was observed, it is likely that the low molecular weights of the polycyanoacrylate making up the coating limited improvement in mechanical strength relative to the unmodified aerogel. ... Sol?gel preparations, CVD apparatus, NMR spectrum of solid state CVD coated aerogel, and data table of results from coatings (PDF). ...

Dylan J. Boday; Kimberly A. DeFriend; Kennard V. Wilson, Jr.; David Coder; Douglas A. Loy

2008-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

465

Current Issues and Problems in the Chemical Vapor Deposition of Diamond  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...SEMICONDUCTORS DIAMOND, GALLIUM NITRIDE AND SILICON-CARBIDE...FROM METHANE HYDROGEN WATER MIXED GAS-USING A MICROWAVE...diamond and cubic boron nitride (c-BN; Bora-zon...be related to a high solubility or mobility for C on...

Walter A. Yarbrough; Russell Messier

1990-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

466

Selective Chemical Vapor Deposition of Manganese Self-Aligned Capping Layer for Cu Interconnections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

could not be broken apart. This Mn-enhanced binding strength of Cu to insulators is observed for all and nitrides. An adhesive tape is usually sufficient to remove copper films from these surfaces. Quantitative reliability because cobalt on the dielectric can increase leakage and lower the breakdown voltage.4 Cobalt

467

Direct Spinning of Carbon Nanotube Fibers from Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...types of fiber and to the spin coating of rotating objects in general...high-purity nanotubes to form an aerogel (19) in the furnace hot zone...macroscopic objects by spin coating differently shaped formers...nanotubes and the thickness of the coatings can be reasonably controlled...

Ya-Li Li; Ian A. Kinloch; Alan H. Windle

2004-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

468

Titanium Diboride Thin Films by Low-Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition from the Single Source Precursor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

metallic ceramic whose properties surpass those of transition metal nitride and carbide counterparts:1, and excellent corrosion resistance toward molten metals. In addition, it has a low electrical resistivity of 6 µ

Girolami, Gregory S.

469

Atmospheric distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and deposition to Galveston Bay, Texas, USA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Estimates of the atmospheric deposition to Galveston Bay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are made using precipitation and meteorological data that were collected continuously from 2 February 1995 to 6 August 1996 at Seabrook, TX, USA. Particulate and vapor phase \\{PAHs\\} in ambient air and particulate and dissolved phases in rain samples were collected and analyzed. More than 95% of atmospheric \\{PAHs\\} were in the vapor phase and about 73% of \\{PAHs\\} in the rain were in the dissolved phase. Phenanthrene and napthalene were the dominant compounds in air vapor and rain dissolved phases, respectively, while 5 and 6 ring PAH were predominant in the particulate phase of both air and rain samples. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 4 to 161 ng m?3 in air samples and from 50 to 312 ng l?1 in rain samples. Temporal variability in total PAH air concentrations were observed, with lower concentrations in the spring and fall (4–34 ng m ?3) compared to the summer and winter (37–161 ng m?3). \\{PAHs\\} in the air near Galveston Bay are derived from both combustion and petroleum vaporization. Gas exchange from the atmosphere to the surface water is estimated to be the major deposition process for \\{PAHs\\} (1211 ?g m? 2 yr? 1), relative to wet deposition (130 ?g m?2 yr? 1) and dry deposition (99 ?g m?2 yr? 1). Annual deposition of \\{PAHs\\} directly to Galveston Bay from the atmosphere is estimated as 2  t yr?1.

June-Soo Park; Terry L. Wade; Stephen Sweet

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Thermally induced dispersion mechanisms for aluminum-based plate-type fuels under rapid transient energy deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thermally induced dispersion model was developed to analyze for dispersive potential and determine onset of fuel plate dispersion for Al-based research and test reactor fuels. Effect of rapid energy deposition in a fuel plate was simulated. Several data types for Al-based fuels tested in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor in Japan and in the Transient Reactor Test in Idaho were reviewed. Analyses of experiments show that onset of fuel dispersion is linked to a sharp rise in predicted strain rate, which futher coincides with onset of Al vaporization. Analysis also shows that Al oxidation and exothermal chemical reaction between the fuel and Al can significantly affect the energy deposition characteristics, and therefore dispersion onset connected with Al vaporization, and affect onset of vaporization.

Georgevich, V.; Taleyarkham, R.P.; Navarro-Valenti, S.; Kim, S.H.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

471

Raman spectroscopic study of carbon nanotubes prepared using Fe/ZnO-palm olein-chemical vapour deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized using Fe/ZnO catalyst by a dual-furnace thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method at 800-1000°C using nitrogen gas with a constant flow rate of 150 sccm/min as a gas carrier. Palm olein ...

Syazwan Afif Mohd Zobir; Suriani Abu Bakar; Saifollah Abdullah; Zulkarnain Zainal; Siti Halimah Sarijo; Mohamad Rusop

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

ARM - Field Campaign - Fall 1997 Water Vapor IOP  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water Vapor IOP Water Vapor IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Fall 1997 Water Vapor IOP 1997.09.15 - 1997.10.05 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb For data sets, see below. Summary The Water Vapor IOP was conducted as a follow-up to a predecessor IOP on water vapor held in September 1996. This IOP relied heavily on both ground-based guest and CART instrumentation and in-situ aircraft and tethered sonde/kite measurements. Primary operational hours were from 6 p.m. Central until at least midnight, with aircraft support normally from about 9 p.m. until midnight when available. However, many daytime measurements were made to support this IOP. The first Water Vapor IOP primarily concentrated on the atmosphere's lowest

473

G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) Handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The G-Band Vapor Radiometer Profiler (GVRP) provides time-series measurements of brightness temperatures from 15 channels between 170 and 183.310 GHz. Atmospheric emission in this spectral region is primarily due to water vapor, with some influence from liquid water. Channels between 170.0 and 176.0 GHz are particularly sensitive to the presence of liquid water. The sensitivity to water vapor of the 183.31-GHz line is approximately 30 times higher than at the frequencies of the two-channel microwave radiometer (MWR) for a precipitable water vapor (PWV) amount of less than 2.5 mm. Measurements from the GVRP instrument are therefore especially useful during low-humidity conditions (PWV < 5 mm). In addition to integrated water vapor and liquid water, the GVRP can provide low-resolution vertical profiles of water vapor in very dry conditions.

Caddeau, MP

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

474

Vapor port and groundwater sampling well  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus has been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing.

Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wylie, Allan H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Storing images in warm atomic vapor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reversible and coherent storage of light in atomic medium is a key-stone of future quantum information applications. In this work, arbitrary two-dimensional images are slowed and stored in warm atomic vapor for up to 30 $\\mu$s, utilizing electromagnetically induced transparency. Both the intensity and the phase patterns of the optical field are maintained. The main limitation on the storage resolution and duration is found to be the diffusion of atoms. A techniqueanalogous to phase-shift lithography is employed to diminish the effect of diffusion on the visibility of the reconstructed image.

M. Shuker; O. Firstenberg; R. Pugatch; A. Ron; N. Davidson

2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

476

E-Print Network 3.0 - ag zr system Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5 > >> 1 Journal of Crystal Growth 307 (2007) 302308 Equilibrium analysis of zirconium carbide CVD growth Summary: C films grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The equilibrium...

477

Recovery of benzene in an organic vapor monitor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solid adsorbents available (silica gel, activated alumina, etc. ), activated charcoal is most frequently utilized. Activated charcoal has retentivity for sorbed vapors several times that of silica gel and it displays a selectivity for organic vapors... (diffusion rate) of the vapor molecules to the sur- face of the adsorbent. The adsorption process determine how effective the adsorbent collects and holds the contam- inant on the surface of the activated charcoal. Recovery of the contaminant from...

Krenek, Gregory Joel

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

478

Mercury Vapor At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mercury Vapor At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) Mercury Vapor At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Haleakala Volcano Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Haleakala Volcano Area Exploration Technique Mercury Vapor Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes The field survey program on the northwest rift zone consisted of soil mercury and radon emanometry surveys, groundwater temperature and chemistry studies, Schlumberger resistivity soundings and self-potential profiles. Geophysical and geochemical surveys along this rift (southwest) were limited by difficult field conditions and access limitations. The geophysical program consisted of one Schlumberger sounding, one

479

Mercury Vapor At Vale Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Vale Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Exploration Activity Details...

480

Mercury Vapor At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Exploration Activity...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Mercury Vapor At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck,...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Exploration Activity...

482

Mercury Vapor At Desert Peak Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Desert Peak Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Exploration Activity Details...

483

Mercury Vapor At Socorro Mountain Area (Kooten, 1987) | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Socorro Mountain Area (Kooten, 1987) Exploration Activity Details Location...

484

Mercury Vapor At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Varekamp...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Exploration...

485

Thermal Performance of a Double-Tube Type Lng Vaporizer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This report concerns the confirmed test results and method of analysis of the thermal performance of a double-tube type LNG vaporizer (DTV). The DTV is a...

Y. Miyata; T. Miura; S. Kasahara; H. Shohtani…

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Optimal Control of Vapor Extraction of Heavy Oil.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Vapor extraction (Vapex) process is an emerging technology for viscous oil recovery that has gained much attention in the oil industry. However, the oil production… (more)

Muhamad, Hameed (Author)