Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

DIAMOND CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION Nucleation and Early Growth Stages  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a reality. Epi- taxial diamond has been grown on diamond and cubic-BN. Polycrystalline diamond films haveDIAMOND CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION Nucleation and Early Growth Stages by Huimin Liu David S. Dandy of high-quality diamond coatings on preshaped parts and synthesis of free-standing shapes of diamond

Dandy, David

2

Real-time growth rate metrology for a tungsten chemical vapor deposition process by acoustic sensing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to a production-scale tungsten chemical vapor deposition cluster tool for in situ process sensing. Process gasesReal-time growth rate metrology for a tungsten chemical vapor deposition process by acoustic to achieve run-to-run process control of the deposited tungsten film thickness. © 2001 American Vacuum

Rubloff, Gary W.

3

Growth of graphene underlayers by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a simple and very convincing approach to visualizing that subsequent layers of graphene grow between the existing monolayer graphene and the copper catalyst in chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Graphene samples were grown by CVD and then transferred onto glass substrates by the bubbling method in two ways, either direct-transfer (DT) to yield poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/graphene/glass or (2) inverted transfer (IT) to yield graphene/PMMA/glass. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to reveal surface features for both the DT and IT samples. The results from FE-SEM and AFM topographic analyses of the surfaces revealed the underlayer growth of subsequent layers. The subsequent layers in the IT samples are visualized as 3D structures, where the smaller graphene layers lie above the larger layers stacked in a concentric manner. The results support the formation of the so-called “inverted wedding cake” stacking in multilayer graphene growth.

Fabiane, Mopeli; Khamlich, Saleh; Bello, Abdulhakeem; Dangbegnon, Julien; Momodu, Damilola; Manyala, Ncholu, E-mail: ncholu.manyala@up.ac.za [Department of Physics, Institute of Applied Materials, SARChI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028 (South Africa)] [Department of Physics, Institute of Applied Materials, SARChI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028 (South Africa); Charlie Johnson, A. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

4

Understanding the Nanotube Growth Mechanism: A Strategy to Control Nanotube Chirality during Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

during chemical vapor deposition synthesis must focus on controlling the structure of the nucleated nanotube seeds. DFT and RMD simulations demonstrate the viability of using the structures of catalyst particles over which nanotube growth proceeds...

Gomez Gualdron, Diego Armando 1983-

2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

5

Bilayer graphene growth by low pressure chemical vapor deposition on copper foil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Successfully integrating graphene in standard processes for applications in electronics relies on the synthesis of high-quality films. In this work we study Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) growth of bilayer ...

Fang, Wenjing, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Self-Limiting Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of Monolayer Graphene from Ethanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbide,8 to chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of hydrocarbon precursors on transition metals,9-13 economic up to wafer scale,14,15 nickel and copper are the two most commonly used metal substrates. DueC) restricts the growth of graphene to the metal surface.12,17 The uniformity and high quality of the resultant

Maruyama, Shigeo

7

Diamond growth on WC-Co substrates by hot filament chemical vapor deposition: Effect of filamentsubstrate separation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polycrystalline diamond films have been grown by hot filament (HF) chemical vapor deposition on WC-Co bar is an established technique for growing hard, wear- resistant polycrystalline diamond films on a range of substratesDiamond growth on WC-Co substrates by hot filament chemical vapor deposition: Effect of filament

Bristol, University of

8

Continuous growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a chemical vapor deposition process for the continuous growth of a carbon single-wall nanotube where a carbon-containing gas composition is contacted with a porous membrane and decomposed in the presence of a catalyst to grow single-wall carbon nanotube material. A pressure differential exists across the porous membrane such that the pressure on one side of the membrane is less than that on the other side of the membrane. The single-wall carbon nanotube growth may occur predominately on the low-pressure side of the membrane or, in a different embodiment of the invention, may occur predominately in between the catalyst and the membrane. The invention also relates to an apparatus used with the carbon vapor deposition process.

Grigorian, Leonid; Hornyak, Louis; Dillon, Anne C; Heben, Michael J

2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

9

Continuous growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a chemical vapor deposition process for the continuous growth of a carbon single-wall nanotube where a carbon-containing gas composition is contacted with a porous membrane and decomposed in the presence of a catalyst to grow single-wall carbon nanotube material. A pressure differential exists across the porous membrane such that the pressure on one side of the membrane is less than that on the other side of the membrane. The single-wall carbon nanotube growth may occur predominately on the low-pressure side of the membrane or, in a different embodiment of the invention, may occur predominately in between the catalyst and the membrane. The invention also relates to an apparatus used with the carbon vapor deposition process.

Grigorian, Leonid (Raymond, OH); Hornyak, Louis (Evergreen, CO); Dillon, Anne C (Boulder, CO); Heben, Michael J (Denver, CO)

2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

10

Cooperative Island Growth of Large Area Single-Crystal Graphene by Chemical Vapor Deposition on Cu  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe a two-step approach for suppressing nucleation of graphene on Cu using chemical vapor deposition. In the first step, as received Cu foils are oxidized in air at temperatures up to 500 C to remove surface impurities and to induce the regrowth of Cu grains during subsequent annealing in H2 flow at 1040 C prior to graphene growth. In the second step, transient reactant cooling is performed by using a brief Ar pulse at the onset of growth to induce collisional deactivation of the carbon growth species. The combination of these two steps results in a three orders of magnitude reduction in the graphene nucleation density, enabling the growth of millimeter-size single crystal graphene grains. A kinetic model shows that suppressing nucleation promotes a cooperative island growth mode that favors the formation of large area single crystal graphene, and it is accompanied by a roughly 3 orders of magnitude increase in the reactive sticking probability of methane compared to that in random nucleation growth.

Regmi, Murari [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Rouleau, Christopher [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Chen, Jihua [ORNL; Eastman, Jeffrey [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Eres, Gyula [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Low temperature junction growth using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system and a process for forming a semi-conductor device, and solar cells (10) formed thereby. The process includes preparing a substrate (12) for deposition of a junction layer (14); forming the junction layer (14) on the substrate (12) using hot wire chemical vapor deposition; and, finishing the semi-conductor device.

Wang, Qi; Page, Matthew; Iwaniczko, Eugene; Wang, Tihu; Yan, Yanfa

2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

12

Growth of crystalline X-Sic on Si at reduced temperatures by chemical vapor deposition from `silacycllobutane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and TPS resulted in single crystal layer" on Si ( 111) only up to a thickness of 2000 h;. Highly orientedGrowth of crystalline X-Sic on Si at reduced temperatures by chemical vapor deposition from grown by SCB at a temperature of 800 "C. The progress of SiC/Si heterojunction devices has been C3HsSiH2

Steckl, Andrew J.

13

Compensator Control For Chemical Vapor Deposition Film Growth Using Reduced Order Design Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in a high pressure chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) reactor that in­ cludes multiple species and controls optoelectronic integrated circuits. This can sometimes be addressed, in part, through open­loop optimization [7 reactor with real­time sensing and control as an innovative feature of this proto­ type reactor. Previous

14

Vapor deposition of hardened niobium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

Blocher, Jr., John M. (Columbus, OH); Veigel, Neil D. (Columbus, OH); Landrigan, Richard B. (Columbus, OH)

1983-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

15

Thermodynamic analysis and growth of ZrO2 by chloride chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reaction [9­12], and simple chamber designs (e.g., vertical, cold-wall, axisymmetric chamber) to deposit flow injector can be used. A stagnation plane flow injector (for vertical, cold-wall CVD chambers homogeneous nucleation and/ or reactor wall deposition. For example, Holstein [17] de- monstrated that at high

Anderson, Timothy J.

16

Vapor deposition of thin films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Sattelberger, Alfred P. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Growth of Large-Area Aligned Molybdenum Nanowires by High Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition: Synthesis, Growth Mechanism, and Device Application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis, as well as structure analysis by electron on the decomposition of MoO2 vapors through condensation of its vapor at high substrate temperatures. The aligned nanowires with H2 gas.6d-f However, the reduction process degrades the crystal- linity of the nanowires

Wang, Zhong L.

18

Epitaxial growth of aligned AlGalnN nanowires by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Highly ordered and aligned epitaxy of III-Nitride nanowires is demonstrated in this work. <1010> M-axis is identified as a preferential nanowire growth direction through a detailed study of GaN/AlN trunk/branch nanostructures by transmission electron microscopy. Crystallographic selectivity can be used to achieve spatial and orientational control of nanowire growth. Vertically aligned (Al)GaN nanowires are prepared on M-plane AlN substrates. Horizontally ordered nanowires, extending from the M-plane sidewalls of GaN hexagonal mesas or islands demonstrate new opportunities for self-aligned nanowire devices, interconnects, and networks.

Han, Jung (Woodbridge, CT); Su, Jie (New Haven, CT)

2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

19

Growth of magnesium oxide thin lms using single molecular precursors by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Growth of magnesium oxide thin ®lms using single molecular precursors by metal±organic chemical precursors; Silicon; Sapphire 1. Introduction Magnesium oxide (MgO) thin ®lms have attracted much attention MgO ®lms on Si(100) above 6508C by thermal CVD. Murayama and Shionoya [12] used magnesium 2

Boo, Jin-Hyo

20

Optimization of InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattice growth by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition for use in infrared emitters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have prepared InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattices (SLSs) by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition using a variety of growth conditions. Presence of an InGaAsSb interface layer was indicated by x-ray diffraction. This interface effect was minimized by optimizing the purge times, reactant flows, and growth conditions. The optimized growth conditions involved the use of low pressure, short purge times between the growth of the layers, and no reactant flow during the purges. Electron diffraction indicates that CuPt-type compositional ordering occurs in InAs{sub 1{minus}x}Sb{sub x} alloys and SLSs which explains an observed bandgap reduction from previously accepted alloy values.

Biefeld, R.M.; Baucom, K.C.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Kurtz, S.R.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran polymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis develops a platform for deposition of polymer thin films that can be further tailored by chemical surface modification. First, we explore chemical vapor deposition of functionalized isobenzofuran films using ...

Olsson, Ylva Kristina

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Epitaxial growth of CdTe thin film on cube-textured Ni by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CdTe thin film has been grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on Ni(100) substrate. Using x-ray pole figure measurements we observed the epitaxial relationship of {111}CdTe// {001}Ni with [110]CdTe//[010]Ni and [112] CdTe//[100]Ni. The 12 diffraction peaks in the (111) pole figure of CdTe film and their relative positions with respect to the four peak positions in the (111) pole figure of Ni substrate are consistent with four equivalent orientational domains of CdTe with three to four superlattice match of about 0.7% in the [110] direction of CdTe and the [010] direction of Ni. The electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) images show that the CdTe domains are 30 degrees orientated from each other.

GIARE, C [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); RAO, S [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); RILEY, M [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); CHEN, L [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Goyal, Amit [ORNL; BHAT, I [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); LU, T [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); WANG, G [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Direct growth of few-layer graphene on 6H-SiC and 3C-SiC/Si via propane chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose to grow graphene on SiC by a direct carbon feeding through propane flow in a chemical vapor deposition reactor. X-ray photoemission and low energy electron diffraction show that propane allows to grow few-layer graphene (FLG) on 6H-SiC(0001). Surprisingly, FLG grown on (0001) face presents a rotational disorder similar to that observed for FLG obtained by annealing on (000-1) face. Thanks to a reduced growth temperature with respect to the classical SiC annealing method, we have also grown FLG/3C-SiC/Si(111) in a single growth sequence. This opens the way for large-scale production of graphene-based devices on silicon substrate.

Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Portail, M. [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Ouerghi, A. [CNRS-LPN, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T. [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)

2010-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

24

Effects of pressure, temperature, and hydrogen during graphene growth on SiC(0001) using propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphene growth from a propane flow in a hydrogen environment (propane-hydrogen chemical vapor deposition (CVD)) on SiC differentiates from other growth methods in that it offers the possibility to obtain various graphene structures on the Si-face depending on growth conditions. The different structures include the (6{radical}3 Multiplication-Sign 6{radical}3)-R30 Degree-Sign reconstruction of the graphene/SiC interface, which is commonly observed on the Si-face, but also the rotational disorder which is generally observed on the C-face. In this work, growth mechanisms leading to the formation of the different structures are studied and discussed. For that purpose, we have grown graphene on SiC(0001) (Si-face) using propane-hydrogen CVD at various pressure and temperature and studied these samples extensively by means of low energy electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Pressure and temperature conditions leading to the formation of the different structures are identified and plotted in a pressure-temperature diagram. This diagram, together with other characterizations (X-ray photoemission and scanning tunneling microscopy), is the basis of further discussions on the carbon supply mechanisms and on the kinetics effects. The entire work underlines the important role of hydrogen during growth and its effects on the final graphene structure.

Michon, A.; Vezian, S.; Roudon, E.; Lefebvre, D.; Portail, M. [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France)] [CNRS-CRHEA, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Zielinski, M.; Chassagne, T. [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)] [NOVASiC, Savoie Technolac, Arche Bat 4, BP267, 73375 Le Bourget du Lac (France)

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

25

Chemical vapor deposition of antimicrobial polymer coatings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There is large and growing interest in making a wide variety of materials and surfaces antimicrobial. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD), a solventless low-temperature process, is used to form thin films of polymers ...

Martin, Tyler Philip, 1977-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Chemical vapor deposition of mullite coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention is directed to the creation of crystalline mullite coatings having uniform microstructure by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The process comprises the steps of establishing a flow of reactants which will yield mullite in a CVD reactor, and depositing a crystalline coating from the reactant flow. The process will yield crystalline coatings which are dense and of uniform thickness.

Sarin, Vinod (Lexington, MA); Mulpuri, Rao (Boston, MA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A single chamber continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor is described for depositing continuously on flat substrates, for example, epitaxial layers of semiconductor materials. The single chamber reactor is formed into three separate zones by baffles or tubes carrying chemical source material and a carrier gas in one gas stream and hydrogen gas in the other stream without interaction while the wafers are heated to deposition temperature. Diffusion of the two gas streams on heated wafers effects the epitaxial deposition in the intermediate zone and the wafers are cooled in the final zone by coolant gases. A CVD reactor for batch processing is also described embodying the deposition principles of the continuous reactor.

Berkman, Samuel (Florham Park, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Epitaxial growth of BaTiO3 thin films at 600 C by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with an a-axis perpendicular to the substrate plane. Nanoscale energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry processes include deposition over large areas, high throughput, and uniform coverage of nonplanar shapes by a plasma-enhanced MOCVD pro- cess. It is not known if the added energy from the plasma generates structural

Wang, Zhong L.

29

Polymer electrolyte fuel cell electrodes grown by vapor deposition techniques Pascal Brault*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polymer electrolyte fuel cell electrodes grown by vapor deposition techniques Pascal Brault Abstract: Polymer fuel cell electrode growth using vapor deposition techniques is reviewed. The supports process: sputtering, CVD, PECVD, MOCVD. In each case, up-to-date fuel cell performances are highlighted

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

30

OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A HIGH PRESSURE ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION REACTOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A HIGH PRESSURE ORGANOMETALLIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION REACTOR K.J. BACHMANN of computer simulations as an optimal design tool which lessens the costs in time and effort in experimental vapor deposition (HPOMCVD) reactor for use in thin film crystal growth. The advantages of such a reactor

31

On the optimization of a dc arcjet diamond chemical vapor deposition reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On the optimization of a dc arcjet diamond chemical vapor deposition reactor S. W. Reevea) and W. A precursor in our dc arcjet reactor.1 Based on conclusions drawn from that work, an optimization strategy diamond film growth in a dc arcjet chemical vapor deposition reactor has been developed. Introducing

Dandy, David

32

Thermal decomposition of ethanol and growth of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes by alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal decomposition of ethanol and growth of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes. In this study, we have investigated the thermal decomposition of ethanol at various temperatures, as well National Meeting, San Francisco, CA, September 10-14, 2006 1/1 PRES 29 - Thermal decomposition of ethanol

Maruyama, Shigeo

33

Elemental diffusion during the droplet epitaxy growth of In(Ga)As/GaAs(001) quantum dots by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Droplet epitaxy is an important method to produce epitaxial semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). Droplet epitaxy of III-V QDs comprises group III elemental droplet deposition and the droplet crystallization through the introduction of group V elements. Here, we report that, in the droplet epitaxy of InAs/GaAs(001) QDs using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, significant elemental diffusion from the substrate to In droplets occurs, resulting in the formation of In(Ga)As crystals, before As flux is provided. The supply of As flux suppresses the further elemental diffusion from the substrate and promotes surface migration, leading to large island formation with a low island density.

Chen, Z. B.; Chen, B.; Wang, Y. B.; Liao, X. Z., E-mail: xiaozhou.liao@sydney.edu.au [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Lei, W. [School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia); Tan, H. H.; Jagadish, C. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Zou, J. [Materials Engineering and Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Ringer, S. P. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

34

Apparatus and method for photochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photochemical vapor deposition apparatus includes a reactor housing having a window in one wall above a reaction chamber in the housing. A transparent curtain divides the reaction chamber into a reaction zone and a flush zone. At least one substrate is mounted in the reaction zone in light communication with the window so that ultraviolet radiation may penetrate through the window into the reaction zone. The window is kept clear by a gas flowing through the flush zone.

Jackson, Scott C. (Wilmington, DE); Rocheleau, Richard E. (Wilmington, DE)

1987-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

35

Chemical vapor deposition of group IIIB metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coatings of Group IIIB metals and compounds thereof are formed by chemical vapor deposition, in which a heat decomposable organometallic compound of the formula given in the patent where M is a Group IIIB metal, such as lanthanum or yttrium and R is a lower alkyl or alkenyl radical containing from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms, with a heated substrate which is above the decomposition temperature of the organometallic compound. The pure metal is obtained when the compound of the formula 1 is the sole heat decomposable compound present and deposition is carried out under nonoxidizing conditions. Intermetallic compounds such as lanthanum telluride can be deposited from a lanthanum compound of formula 1 and a heat decomposable tellurium compound under nonoxidizing conditions.

Erbil, A.

1989-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

36

All graphene electromechanical switch fabricated by chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate an electromechanical switch comprising two polycrystalline graphene films; each deposited using ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition. The top film is pulled into electrical contact with the bottom film ...

Milaninia, Kaveh M.

37

Strain relaxation in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The growth of single layer graphene by chemical vapor deposition on polycrystalline Cu substrates induces large internal biaxial compressive strain due to thermal expansion mismatch. Raman backscattering spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to study the strain relaxation during and after the transfer process from Cu foil to SiO{sub 2}. Interestingly, the growth of graphene results in a pronounced ripple structure on the Cu substrate that is indicative of strain relaxation of about 0.76% during the cooling from the growth temperature. Removing graphene from the Cu substrates and transferring it to SiO{sub 2} results in a shift of the 2D phonon line by 27?cm{sup ?1} to lower frequencies. This translates into additional strain relaxation. The influence of the processing steps, used etching solution and solvents on strain, is investigated.

Troppenz, Gerald V., E-mail: gerald.troppenz@helmholtz-berlin.de; Gluba, Marc A.; Kraft, Marco; Rappich, Jörg; Nickel, Norbert H. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Institut für Silizium Photovoltaik, Kekuléstr. 5, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

2013-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

38

Direct Growth Graphene on Cu Nanoparticles by Chemical Vapor Deposition as Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrate for Label-Free Detection of Adenosine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a graphene/Cu nanoparticle hybrids (G/CuNPs) system as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate for adenosine detection. The Cu nanoparticles wrapped around a monolayer graphene shell were directly synthesized on flat quartz by chemical vapor deposition in a mixture of methane and hydrogen. The G/CuNPs showed an excellent SERS enhancement activity for adenosine. The minimum detected concentration of the adenosine in serum was demonstrated as low as 5 nM, and the calibration curve showed a good linear response from 5 to 500 nM. The capability of SERS detection of adenosine in real normal human urine samples based on G/CuNPs was also investigated and the characteristic peaks of adenosine were still recognizable. The reproducible and the ultrasensitive enhanced Raman signals could be due to the presence of an ultrathin graphene layer. The graphene shell was able to enrich and fix the adenosine molecules, which could also efficiently maintain chemical and optical stability of G/CuNPs. Based...

Xu, Shicai; Jiang, Shouzhen; Wang, Jihua; Wei, Jie; Xu, Shida; Liu, Hanping

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Initiated chemical vapor deposition of functional polyacrylic thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) was explored as a novel method for synthesis of functional polyacrylic thin films. The process introduces a peroxide initiator, which can be decomposed at low temperatures (<200?C) ...

Mao, Yu, 1975-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Enabling integration of vapor-deposited polymer thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) is a versatile, one-step process for synthesizing conformal and functional polymer thin films on a variety of substrates. This thesis emphasizes the development of tools to further ...

Petruczok, Christy D. (Christy Danielle)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

An atomic-scale analysis of catalytically-assisted chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An atomic-scale analysis of catalytically-assisted chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes M Growth of carbon nanotubes during transition-metal particles catalytically-assisted thermal decomposition of various nanotube surface and edge reactions (e.g. adsorption of hydrocarbons and hydrogen onto the surface

Grujicic, Mica

42

Cobalt Ultrathin Film Catalyzed Ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cobalt Ultrathin Film Catalyzed Ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) using a cobalt ultrathin film (1 nm) as the catalyst and ethanol as carbon feedstock flow during the growth. The trace amount of self-contained water (0.2-5 wt %) in ethanol may act

Hone, James

43

Chemical vapor deposition thin films as biopassivation coatings and directly patternable dielectrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Organosilicon thin films deposited by pulsed plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PPECVD) and hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) were investigated as potential biopassivation coatings for neural probes. ...

Pryce Lewis, Hilton G. (Hilton Gavin), 1973-

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

The development of chemically vapor deposited mullite coatings for the corrosion protection of SiC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Crystalline mullite coatings have been chemically vapor deposited onto SiC substrates to enhance the corrosion and oxidation resistance of the substrate. Current research has been divided into three distinct areas: (1) Development of the deposition processing conditions for increased control over coating`s growth rate, microstructure, and morphology; (2) Analysis of the coating`s crystal structure and stability; (3) The corrosion resistance of the CVD mullite coating on SiC.

Auger, M.; Hou, P.; Sengupta, A.; Basu, S.; Sarin, V. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

E-Print Network 3.0 - arc vapor deposition Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

has been produced... al Vaporization and melting of materials in fusion devices 325 ENERGY DEPOSITED (Jcm21 Figure 3... VAPORIZATION AND MELTING OF MATERIALS IN FUSION...

46

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

1988-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

47

Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

Brian, Riley (Willimantic, CT); Szreders, Bernard E. (Oakdale, CT)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Process sensing and metrology in gate oxide growth by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition from SiH4 and N2O  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SiO2 film. An optimal process window had been previously identified at a total pressure of 5 Torr, but also quantitative metrology for the film deposition process. © 1999 American Vacuum Society. S0734-211X the wafer. Radiative heating of the wafer was achieved through a quartz window by an array of halogen lamps

Rubloff, Gary W.

49

Chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An aluminum oxide film is deposited on a heated substrate by CVD from one or more alkylaluminum alkoxide compounds having composition R.sub.n Al.sub.2 (OR').sub.6-n, wherein R and R' are alkyl groups and n is in the range of 1 to 5.

Gordon, Roy (Cambridge, MA); Kramer, Keith (Cleveland, OH); Liu, Xinye (Cambridge, MA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Amine functionalization by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) for interfacial adhesion and film cohesion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Amine functional polymer thin films provide a versatile platform for subsequent functionalization because of their diverse reactivity. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a polymer chemical vapor deposition ...

Xu, Jingjing, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of carbon-free ZnO using...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of carbon-free ZnO using the bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato)zinc precursor. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of carbon-free...

52

Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

53

Initiated chemical vapor deposition of polymeric thin films : mechanism and applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a novel technique for depositing polymeric thin films. It is able to deposit thin films of application-specific polymers in one step without using any solvents. Its uniqueness ...

Chan, Kelvin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

Norton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Chemical vapor deposited diamond-on-diamond powder composites (LDRD final report)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Densifying non-mined diamond powder precursors with diamond produced by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is an attractive approach for forming thick diamond deposits that avoids many potential manufacturability problems associated with predominantly chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes. The authors developed techniques for forming diamond powder precursors and densified these precursors in a hot filament-assisted reactor and a microwave plasma-assisted reactor. Densification conditions were varied following a fractional factorial statistical design. A number of conclusions can be drawn as a result of this study. High density diamond powder green bodies that contain a mixture of particle sizes solidify more readily than more porous diamond powder green bodies with narrow distributions of particle sizes. No composite was completely densified although all of the deposits were densified to some degree. The hot filament-assisted reactor deposited more material below the exterior surface, in the interior of the powder deposits; in contrast, the microwave-assisted reactor tended to deposit a CVD diamond skin over the top of the powder precursors which inhibited vapor phase diamond growth in the interior of the powder deposits. There were subtle variations in diamond quality as a function of the CVI process parameters. Diamond and glassy carbon tended to form at the exterior surface of the composites directly exposed to either the hot filament or the microwave plasma. However, in the interior, e.g. the powder/substrate interface, diamond plus diamond-like-carbon formed. All of the diamond composites produced were grey and relatively opaque because they contained flawed diamond, diamond-like-carbon and glassy carbon. A large amount of flawed and non-diamond material could be removed by post-CVI oxygen heat treatments. Heat treatments in oxygen changed the color of the composites to white.

Panitz, J.K.; Hsu, W.L.; Tallant, D.R.; McMaster, M.; Fox, C.; Staley, D.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Chemical Vapor Deposited Zinc Sulfide. SPIE Press Monograph  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zinc sulfide has shown unequaled utility for infrared windows that require a combination of long-wavelength infrared transparency, mechanical durability, and elevated-temperature performance. This book reviews the physical properties of chemical vapor deposited ZnS and their relationship to the CVD process that produced them. An in-depth look at the material microstructure is included, along with a discussion of the material's optical properties. Finally, because the CVD process itself is central to the development of this material, a brief history is presented.

McCloy, John S.; Tustison, Randal W.

2013-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

57

Unusual thermopower of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on thermopower (TEP) and resistance measurements of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Unlike the conventional resistance of pristine graphene, the gate-dependent TEP shows a large electron-hole asymmetry. This can be accounted for by inhomogeneity of the CVD-graphene where individual graphene regions contribute with different TEPs. At the high magnetic field and low temperature, the TEP has large fluctuations near the Dirac point associated with the disorder in the CVD-graphene. TEP measurements reveal additional characteristics of CVD-graphene, which are difficult to obtain from the measurement of resistance alone.

Nam, Youngwoo, E-mail: youngwoo.nam@chalmers.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Sun, Jie; Lindvall, Niclas; Yurgens, August [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Jae Yang, Seung; Rae Park, Chong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Woo Park, Yung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

58

The aging of tungsten filaments and its effect on wire surface kinetics in hot-wire chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

desorption kinetics. In particular, the Si signal exhibits a high temperature activation energy consistent vapor deposition growth have been measured by quadrupole mass spectrometry. New wires produce Si with previous measurements; the activation energy for the SiH3 signal suggests its formation is catalyzed. Aged

Atwater, Harry

59

Role of gas phase reactions in subatmospheric chemical-vapor deposition ozone/TEOS processes for oxide deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-vapor deposition. Our results for oxide deposition show optimum process window around 200 Torr for producing films a po- tentially optimum process window in which film properties, deposition rates, film uniformity requires high quality dielectric films that can be deposited rapidly and conformally on high aspect ratio

Rubloff, Gary W.

60

Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetic Nanowires Prepared by Chemical Vapor Deposition.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Various metal silicide and germanide magnetic nanowires were synthesized using a home-built CVD [chemical vapor deposition] system. The morphology, composition, and magnetic properties of the… (more)

Tang, Siwei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Chemical vapor deposition of organosilicon composite thin films for porous low-k dielectrics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pulsed plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition has produced organosilicon thin films with the potential use as low dielectric constant interconnect materials in microelectronic circuits. Both diethylsilane and ...

Ross, April Denise, 1977-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Oxidative chemical vapor deposition of conductive polymers for use in novel photovoltaic device architectures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), (PEDOT), deposited via oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) has been investigated for use in organic electronic devices. The oCVD process as well as the ...

Howden, Rachel M. (Rachel Mary)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition on Living Substrates: Development, Characterization, and Biological Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation proposed the idea of “plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on living substrates (PECVD on living substrates)” to bridge the gap between the thin film deposition technology and the biological and living substrates. This study...

Tsai, Tsung-Chan 1982-

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

64

Field emission properties of chemical vapor deposited individual graphene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Here, we report field emission (FE) properties of a chemical vapor deposited individual graphene investigated by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. Free-standing bilayer graphene is mounted on a cathode microprobe and FE processes are investigated varying the vacuum gap of cathode and anode. The threshold field for 10?nA current were found to be 515, 610, and 870?V/?m for vacuum gap of 400, 300, and 200?nm, respectively. It is observed that the structural stability of a high quality bilayer graphene is considerably stable during emission process. By contacting the nanoprobe with graphene and applying a bias voltage, structural deformation and buckling are observed with significant rise in temperature owing to Joule heating effect. The finding can be significant for practical application of graphene related materials in emitter based devices as well as understanding the contact resistance influence and heating effect.

Zamri Yusop, Mohd [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, 466-8555 Nagoya (Japan); Department of Materials, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, 466-8555 Nagoya (Japan); Center for Fostering Young and Innovative Researchers, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, 466-8555 Nagoya (Japan); Yaakob, Yazid; Takahashi, Chisato; Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, 466-8555 Nagoya (Japan)

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

65

Carbon impurities on graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition on platinum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report nanocrystalline carbon impurities coexisting with graphene synthesized via chemical vapor deposition on platinum. For certain growth conditions, we observe micron-size island-like impurity layers which can be mistaken for second graphene layers in optical microscopy or scanning electron microscopy. The island orientation depends on the crystalline orientation of the Pt, as shown by electron backscatter diffraction, indicating growth of carbon at the platinum surface below graphene. Dark-field transmission electron microscopy indicates that in addition to uniform single-crystal graphene, our sample is decorated with nanocrystalline carbon impurities with a spatially inhomogeneous distribution. The impurity concentration can be reduced significantly by lowering the growth temperature. Raman spectra show a large D peak, however, electrical characterization shows high mobility (?8000?cm{sup 2}/Vs), indicating a limitation for Raman spectroscopy in characterizing the electronic quality of graphene.

Ping, Jinglei; Fuhrer, Michael S., E-mail: michael.fuhrer@monash.edu [Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4111, USA and School of Physics, Monash University, 3800 Victoria (Australia)

2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

66

Lithium phosphorous oxynitride films synthesized by a plasma-assisted directed vapor deposition approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lithium phosphorous oxynitride films synthesized by a plasma-assisted directed vapor deposition vapor deposition approach has been explored for the synthesis of lithium phosphorous oxynitride Lipon the ionic transport properties of these films. This enabled the synthesis of electrolyte films with lithium

Wadley, Haydn

67

Low temperature chemical vapor deposition of Co thin films from Co2(CO)8  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low temperature chemical vapor deposition of Co thin films from Co2(CO)8 D.-X. Yea,*, S. Pimanpanga chemical vapor deposition with a metallorganic Co2(CO)8 precursor. After Ar sputtering of the surface, Co2(CO)8, has been extensively used in cobalt CVD and is attractive, since Co is in its elemental

Wang, Gwo-Ching

68

Tunneling characteristics in chemical vapor deposited graphene hexagonal boron nitride graphene junctions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Tunneling characteristics in chemical vapor deposited graphene ­ hexagonal boron nitride ­ graphene junctions T. Roy1 , L. Liu2 , S. de la Barrera,3 B. Chakrabarti1,4 , Z. R. Hesabi1 , C. A. Joiner1 Abstract: Large area chemical vapor deposited graphene and hexagonal boron nitride was used to fabricate

Feenstra, Randall

69

Computational Analysis and Optimization of a Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactor with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computational Analysis and Optimization of a Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactor with Large and optimization of a three- dimensional model of a horizontal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor used National Laboratories February 9, 2004 Abstract A computational analysis and optimization is presented

70

Researchers develop electrodeposition process to deposit coatings on substrates, eliminate the expensive physical vapor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the expensive physical vapor deposition step, and improve device quality. CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) solar cells have composition was adjusted by physical vapor deposition method. At present, we are fabricating CIGS-based solar). 2 R. N. Bhattacharya, W. Batchelor, J. F. Hiltner, and J. R. Sites, Appl. Phys. Lett., 75, 1431

71

Plasma and Ion Assistance in Physical Vapor Deposition: AHistorical Perspective  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deposition of films using plasma or plasma-assist can betraced back surprisingly far, namely to the 18th century for arcs and tothe 19th century for sputtering. However, only since the 1960s thecoatings community considered other processes than evaporation for largescale commercial use. Ion Plating was perhaps the first importantprocess, introducing vapor ionization and substrate bias to generate abeam of ions arriving on the surface of the growing film. Ratherindependently, cathodic arc deposition was established as an energeticcondensation process, first in the former Soviet Union in the 1970s, andin the 1980s in the Western Hemisphere. About a dozen various ion-basedcoating technologies evolved in the last decades, all characterized byspecific plasma or ion generation processes. Gridded and gridless ionsources were taken from space propulsion and applied to thin filmdeposition. Modeling and simulation have helped to make plasma and ionseffects to be reasonably well understood. Yet--due to the complex, oftennon-linear and non-equilibrium nature of plasma and surfaceinteractions--there is still a place for the experience plasma"sourcerer."

Anders, Andre

2007-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

72

Low temperature atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of group 14 oxide films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Depositions of high quality SiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2} films from the reaction of homoleptic amido precursors M(NMe{sub 2})4 (M = Si,Sn) and oxygen were carried out in an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition r. The films were deposited on silicon, glass and quartz substrates at temperatures of 250 to 450C. The silicon dioxide films are stoichiometric (O/Si = 2.0) with less than 0.2 atom % C and 0.3 atom % N and have hydrogen contents of 9 {plus_minus} 5 atom %. They are deposited with growth rates from 380 to 900 {angstrom}/min. The refractive indexes of the SiO{sub 2} films are 1.46, and infrared spectra show a possible Si-OH peak at 950 cm{sup {minus}1}. X-Ray diffraction studies reveal that the SiO{sub 2} film deposited at 350C is amorphous. The tin oxide films are stoichiometric (O/Sn = 2.0) and contain less than 0.8 atom % carbon, and 0.3 atom % N. No hydrogen was detected by elastic recoil spectroscopy. The band gap for the SnO{sub 2} films, as estimated from transmission spectra, is 3.9 eV. The resistivities of the tin oxide films are in the range 10{sup {minus}2} to 10{sup {minus}3} {Omega}cm and do not vary significantly with deposition temperature. The tin oxide film deposited at 350C is cassitterite with some (101) orientation.

Hoffman, D.M. [Houston Univ., TX (United States); Atagi, L.M. [Houston Univ., TX (United States)]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chu, Wei-Kan; Liu, Jia-Rui; Zheng, Zongshuang [Houston Univ., TX (United States); Rubiano, R.R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Springer, R.W.; Smith, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

CO-CATALYTIC ABSORPTION LAYERS FOR CONTROLLED LASER-INDUCED CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF CARBON NANOTUBES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The concept of co-catalytic layer structures for controlled laser-induced chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes is established, in which a thin Ta support layer chemically aids the initial Fe catalyst reduction. This enables a significant...

Michaelis, F.B.; Weatherup, R.S.; Bayer, B.C.; Bock, M.C.D; Sugime, H.; Caneva, S.; Robertson, J.; Baumberg, J.J.; Hofmann, S.

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

74

Iron (III) Chloride doping of large-area chemical vapor deposition graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemical doping is an effective method of reducing the sheet resistance of graphene. This thesis aims to develop an effective method of doping large area Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) graphene using Iron (III) Chloride ...

Song, Yi, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of TiN from tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium and ammonia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pressure chemical vapor deposition. Experiments were conducted in a belt furnace; static experiments, in particular, is used for tool coating, solar-control films, and micro- electronic applications. Optically

76

Single- and few-layer graphene by ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition on nickel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) process is used to fabricate graphene based films consisting of one to several graphene layers across their area. Polycrystalline Ni thin films are used and the graphene ...

Reina Ceeco, Alfonso

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Optimization of the chemical vapor deposition process for carbon nanotubes fabrication  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization of the chemical vapor deposition process for carbon nanotubes fabrication M. Grujicica-phase chemistry and surface chemistry model is developed to analyze, at the reactor length scale, chemical vapor (carrier gas) in the presence of cobalt catalytic particles in a cylindrical reactor. The model allows

Grujicic, Mica

78

Solar-induced chemical vapor deposition of diamond-type carbon films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved chemical vapor deposition method for depositing transparent continuous coatings of sp[sup 3]-bonded diamond-type carbon films, comprises: (a) providing a volatile hydrocarbon gas/H[sub 2] reactant mixture in a cold wall vacuum/chemical vapor deposition chamber containing a suitable substrate for said films, at pressure of about 1 to 50 Torr; and (b) directing a concentrated solar flux of from about 40 to about 60 watts/cm[sup 2] through said reactant mixture to produce substrate temperatures of about 750 C to about 950 C to activate deposition of the film on said substrate. 11 figs.

Pitts, J.R.; Tracy, C.E.; King, D.E.; Stanley, J.T.

1994-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

79

Solar-induced chemical vapor deposition of diamond-type carbon films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved chemical vapor deposition method for depositing transparent continuous coatings of sp.sup.3 -bonded diamond-type carbon films, comprising: a) providing a volatile hydrocarbon gas/H.sub.2 reactant mixture in a cold wall vacuum/chemical vapor deposition chamber containing a suitable substrate for said films, at pressure of about 1 to 50 Torr; and b) directing a concentrated solar flux of from about 40 to about 60 watts/cm.sup.2 through said reactant mixture to produce substrate temperatures of about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. to activate deposition of the film on said substrate.

Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); King, David E. (Lakewood, CO); Stanley, James T. (Beaverton, OR)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Preparation of membranes using solvent-less vapor deposition followed by in-situ polymerization  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system of fabricating a composite membrane from a membrane substrate using solvent-less vapor deposition followed by in-situ polymerization. A first monomer and a second monomer are directed into a mixing chamber in a deposition chamber. The first monomer and the second monomer are mixed in the mixing chamber providing a mixed first monomer and second monomer. The mixed first monomer and second monomer are solvent-less vapor deposited onto the membrane substrate in the deposition chamber. The membrane substrate and the mixed first monomer and second monomer are heated to produce in-situ polymerization and provide the composite membrane.

O'Brien, Kevin C. (San Ramon, CA); Letts, Stephan A. (San Ramon, CA); Spadaccini, Christopher M. (Oakland, CA); Morse, Jeffrey C. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Buckley, Steven R. (Modesto, CA); Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); Wilson, Keith B. (San Ramon, CA)

2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Fabrication of nanostructure by physical vapor deposition with glancing angle deposition technique and its applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A nanostructural thin film is one of the highly exploiting research areas particularly in applications in sensor, photocatalytic, and solar-cell technologies. In the past two decades, the integration of glancing-angle deposition (GLAD) technique to physical vapor deposition (PVD) process has gained significant attention for well-controlled multidimensional nanomorphologies because of fast, simple, cost-effective, and mass-production capability. The performance and functional properties of the coated thin films generally depend upon their nanostructural compositions, i.e., large aspect ratio, controllable porosity, and shape. Such structural platforms make the fabricated thin films very practical for several realistic applications. We therefore present morphological and nanostructural properties of various deposited materials, which included metals, i.e., silver (Ag), and oxide compounds, i.e., tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}), titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), and indium tin oxide (ITO). Different PVD techniques based on DC magnetron sputtering and electron-beam evaporation, both with the integrated GLAD component, were discussed. We further explore engineered nanostructures which enable controls of optical, electrical, and mechanical properties. These improvements led to several practical applications in surface-enhanced Raman, smart windows, gas sensors, self-cleaning materials and transparent conductive oxides (TCO)

Horprathum, M., E-mail: mati.horprathum@nectec.or.th; Eiamchai, P., E-mail: mati.horprathum@nectec.or.th; Patthanasettakul, V.; Limwichean, S.; Nuntawong, N.; Chindaudom, P. [Optical Thin-Film Laboratory National Electronics and Computer Technology Center, Pathumthani, 12120 (Thailand); Kaewkhao, J. [Center of Excellence in Glass Technology and Materials Science (CEGM), Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Chananonnawathorn, C. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, 12121 (Thailand)

2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

82

As-deposited low-strain LPCVD (low-pressure, chemical-vapor-deposition) polysilicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As-deposited polysilicon films with very low residual strain (lower than 5 x 10/sup -5/) are obtained by a low-pressure, chemical-vapor-deposition (LPCVD) process. Straight polysilicon bridges 300 ..mu..m long, 1.2 ..mu..m thick, and 2 to 20 ..mu..m wide, made using this process. No buckling has been observed in any of the nearly one thousand bridges of this type made in two separate process runs. In addition, no problems of sticking between the bridges and the substrate were encountered with these structures. The polysilicon films from which the beams were fabricated were deposited by pyrolyzing silane at 605/degree/C on a phosphosilicate-glass (PSG) layer (8 wt % P). The PSG layer serves as a sacrificial layer to be subsequently etched away to free the bridge. Our research is aimed at obtaining an understanding of these relationships through consideration of the role of interfacial stresses and the kinetics of initial crystalline nucleation. The technique for producing these low-strain films is significant, however, because no high-temperature annealing steps are required to produce them. 4 refs., 4 figs.

Fan, L.S.; Muller, R.S.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

On-line coating of glass with tin oxide by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of tin oxide is a very important manufacturing technique used in the production of low-emissivity glass. It is also the primary method used to provide wear-resistant coatings on glass containers. The complexity of these systems, which involve chemical reactions in both the gas phase and on the deposition surface, as well as complex fluid dynamics, makes process optimization and design of new coating reactors a very difficult task. In 2001 the U.S. Dept. of Energy Industrial Technologies Program Glass Industry of the Future Team funded a project to address the need for more accurate data concerning the tin oxide APCVD process. This report presents a case study of on-line APCVD using organometallic precursors, which are the primary reactants used in industrial coating processes. Research staff at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA, and the PPG Industries Glass Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA collaborated to produce this work. In this report, we describe a detailed investigation of the factors controlling the growth of tin oxide films. The report begins with a discussion of the basic elements of the deposition chemistry, including gas-phase thermochemistry of tin species and mechanisms of chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of tin precursors. These results provide the basis for experimental investigations in which tin oxide growth rates were measured as a function of all major process variables. The experiments focused on growth from monobutyltintrichloride (MBTC) since this is one of the two primary precursors used industrially. There are almost no reliable growth-rate data available for this precursor. Robust models describing the growth rate as a function of these variables are derived from modeling of these data. Finally, the results are used to conduct computational fluid dynamic simulations of both pilot- and full-scale coating reactors. As a result, general conclusions are reached concerning the factors affecting the growth rate in on-line APCVD reactors. In addition, a substantial body of data was generated that can be used to model many different industrial tin oxide coating processes. These data include the most extensive compilation of thermochemistry for gas-phase tin-containing species as well as kinetic expressions describing tin oxide growth rates over a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and reactant concentrations.

Allendorf, Mark D.; Sopko, J.F. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); Houf, William G.; Chae, Yong Kee; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Li, M. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); McCamy, J.W. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA)

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Chemical vapor deposition of W-Si-N and W-B-N  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of depositing a ternary, refractory based thin film on a substrate by chemical vapor deposition employing precursor sources of tungsten comprising WF.sub.6, either silicon or boron, and nitrogen. The result is a W--Si--N or W--B--N thin film useful for diffusion barrier and micromachining applications.

Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Roherty-Osmun, Elizabeth Lynn (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Paul M. (Albuquerque, NM); Custer, Jonathan S. (Albuquerque, NM); Jones, Ronald V. (Albuquerque, NM); Nicolet, Marc-A. (Pasadena, CA); Madar, Roland (Eybens, FR); Bernard, Claude (Brie et Angonnes, FR)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Chemical vapor deposition of W-Si-N and W-B-N  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of depositing a ternary, refractory based thin film on a substrate by chemical vapor deposition employing precursor sources of tungsten comprising WF[sub 6], either silicon or boron, and nitrogen. The result is a W-Si-N or W-B-N thin film useful for diffusion barrier and micromachining applications. 10 figs.

Fleming, J.G.; Roherty-Osmun, E.L.; Smith, P.M.; Custer, J.S.; Jones, R.V.; Nicolet, M.; Madar, R.; Bernard, C.

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

86

Development of a spatially controllable chemical vapor deposition reactor with combinatorial processing capabilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Development of a spatially controllable chemical vapor deposition reactor with combinatorial these limitations, a novel CVD reactor system has been developed that can explicitly control the spatial profile flexibility, we introduced a new CVD reactor concept that enables control of film deposition characteristics

Rubloff, Gary W.

87

Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon Dioxide by Direct-Current Corona Discharges in Dry Air  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon Dioxide by Direct-Current Corona Discharges in Dry Air, Si4O4(CH3)8) widely used as additives in personal care products. In both photocopiers and air in indoor air, the gas-phase processes limit the rate of deposition. KEY WORDS: Corona plasma; corona

Chen, Junhong

88

Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures or organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides, e.g., transition metal carbonyl such as nickel carbonyl, and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit.

Mullendore, Arthur W. (Sandia Park, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Process for the preparation of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites by chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for preparing fiber-reinforced ceramic composites. A specially designed apparatus provides a steep thermal gradient across the thickness of a fibrous preform. A flow of gaseous ceramic matrix material is directed into the fibrous preform at the cold surface. The deposition of the matrix occurs progressively from the hot surface of the fibrous preform toward the cold surface. Such deposition prevents the surface of the fibrous preform from becoming plugged. As a result thereof, the flow of reactant matrix gases into the uninfiltrated (undeposited) portion of the fibrous preform occurs throughout the deposition process. The progressive and continuous deposition of ceramic matrix within the fibrous preform provides for a significant reduction in process time over known chemical vapor deposition processes.

Lackey, Jr., Walter J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Caputo, Anthony J. (Knoxville, TN)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Improved process for the preparation of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites by chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A specially designed apparatus provides a steep thermal gradient across the thickness of fibrous preform. A flow of gaseous ceramic matrix material is directed into the fibrous preform at the cold surface. The deposition of the matrix occurs progressively from the hot surface of the fibrous preform toward the cold surface. Such deposition prevents the surface of the fibrous preform from becoming plugged. As a result thereof, the flow of reactant matrix gases into the uninfiltrated (undeposited) portion of the fibrous preform occurs throughout the deposition process. The progressive and continuous deposition of ceramic matrix within the fibrous preform provides for a significant reduction in process time over known chemical vapor deposition processes.

Lackey, W.J. Jr.; Caputo, A.J.

1984-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

91

Thermal Decomposition of Molecules Relevant to Combustion and Chemical Vapor Deposition by Flash Pyrolysis Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Small Molecules by Flash Pyrolysis, University ofwas performed using flash pyrolysis vacuum-ultraviolet time-Vapor Deposition by Flash Pyrolysis Time-of-Flight Mass

Lemieux, Jessy Mario

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Analysis of gallium arsenide deposition in a horizontal chemical vapor deposition reactor using massively parallel computations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A numerical analysis of the deposition of gallium from trimethylgallium (TMG) and arsine in a horizontal CVD reactor with tilted susceptor and a three inch diameter rotating substrate is performed. The three-dimensional model includes complete coupling between fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and species transport, and is solved using an unstructured finite element discretization on a massively parallel computer. The effects of three operating parameters (the disk rotation rate, inlet TMG fraction, and inlet velocity) and two design parameters (the tilt angle of the reactor base and the reactor width) on the growth rate and uniformity are presented. The nonlinear dependence of the growth rate uniformity on the key operating parameters is discussed in detail. Efficient and robust algorithms for massively parallel reacting flow simulations, as incorporated into our analysis code MPSalsa, make detailed analysis of this complicated system feasible.

Salinger, A.G.; Shadid, J.N.; Hutchinson, S.A. [and others

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Research on fundamental aspects of inorganic vapor and particle deposition in coal-fired systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Parallel research studies are underway on the following interrelated and fundamental subjects; Geometrical Approach to Determining the Sticking Probability of Particles Impacting on Convex Solid Surfaces; Correlations for High Schmidt Number Particle Deposition From Dilute Flowing Rational Engineering Suspensions; Average Capture Probability of Arriving Particles Which Are Distributed With ResPect to ImPact VelocitY and Incidence Angle (Relative to Deposit Substrate); Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Vapor Infiltration of Non-isothermal Granular Deposits; Effective Area/Volume of Populations of 'MicroPorous' Aerosol Particles (Compact and 'Fractal' Quasispherical Aggregates); Effects of Radiative Heat Transfer on the Coagulation Rates of Combustion-Generated Particles; Structure-Sensitivity of Total Mass Deposition Rates from Combustion Product Streams containing Coagulation-Aged Populations of Aggregated Primary Particles; and Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4] Chemical Vapor Deposition From Chlorine-containing Coal-Derived Gases.

Rosner, D.E.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Nitrogen doping of chemical vapor deposition grown graphene on 4H-SiC (0001)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present optical, electrical, and structural properties of nitrogen-doped graphene grown on the Si face of 4H-SiC (0001) by chemical vapor deposition method using propane as the carbon precursor and N{sub 2} as the nitrogen source. The incorporation of nitrogen in the carbon lattice was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy shows carrier behavior characteristic for massless Dirac fermions and confirms the presence of a graphene monolayer in the investigated nitrogen-doped samples. The structural and electronic properties of the material were investigated by Raman spectroscopy. A systematical analysis of the graphene Raman spectra, including D, G, and 2D bands, was performed. In the case of nitrogen-doped samples, an electron concentration on the order of 5–10 × 10{sup 12}?cm{sup ?2} was estimated based upon Raman and Hall effect measurements and no clear dependence of the carrier concentration on nitrogen concentration used during growth was observed. This high electron concentration can be interpreted as both due to the presence of nitrogen in graphitic-like positions of the graphene lattice as well as to the interaction with the substrate. A greater intensity of the Raman D band and increased inhomogeneity, as well as decreased electron mobility, observed for nitrogen-doped samples, indicate the formation of defects and a modification of the growth process induced by nitrogen doping.

Urban, J. M.; Binder, J.; Wysmo?ek, A. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Ho?a 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); D?browski, P.; Strupi?ski, W. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wólczy?ska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Kopciuszy?ski, M.; Ja?ochowski, M. [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sk?odowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sk?odowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Klusek, Z. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of ?ód?, ul. Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 ?ód? (Poland); Baranowski, J. M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Ho?a 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wólczy?ska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland)

2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

95

SPATIALLY ORGANIZED PARYLENE NANOWIRES FABRICATED BY OBLIQUE ANGLE VAPOR DEPOSITION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

surfaces by functionalization through two methods: (i) electroless method of creating a porous Nickel 50-80 nm thin nickel film can be obtained by electroless deposition on the pary

Demirel, Melik C.

96

Graphene chemical vapor deposition at very low pressure: The impact of substrate surface self-diffusion in domain shape  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The initial stages of graphene chemical vapor deposition at very low pressures (<10{sup ?5?}Torr) were investigated. The growth of large graphene domains (?up to 100??m) at very high rates (up to 3??m{sup 2} s{sup ?1}) has been achieved in a cold-wall reactor using a liquid carbon precursor. For high temperature growth (>900?°C), graphene grain shape and symmetry were found to depend on the underlying symmetry of the Cu crystal, whereas for lower temperatures (<900?°C), mostly rounded grains are observed. The temperature dependence of graphene nucleation density was determined, displaying two thermally activated regimes, with activation energy values of 6?±?1?eV for temperatures ranging from 900?°C to 960?°C and 9?±?1?eV for temperatures above 960?°C. The comparison of such dependence with the temperature dependence of Cu surface self-diffusion suggests that graphene growth at high temperatures and low pressures is strongly influenced by copper surface rearrangement. We propose a model that incorporates Cu surface self-diffusion as an essential process to explain the orientation correlation between graphene and Cu crystals, and which can clarify the difference generally observed between graphene domain shapes in atmospheric-pressure and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition.

Cunha, T. H. R.; Ek-Weis, J.; Lacerda, R. G.; Ferlauto, A. S., E-mail: ferlauto@fisica.ufmg.br [Department of Physics, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte 31270-901 (Brazil)

2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

97

Ceramic-metallic coatings by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EB-PVD) process is considered to be a technology that has overcome some of the difficulties or problems associated with the chemical vapor deposition (CVD), physical vapor deposition (PVD) and metal spray processes. The EB-PVD process offers many desirable characteristics such as relatively high deposition rates (up to 100-150 {mu}m/minute with an evaporation rate {approx}10-15 Kg/hour,) dense coatings, precise compositional control, columnar and poly-crystalline microstructure, low contamination, and high thermal efficiency. Various metallic and ceramic coatings (oxides, carbides, nitrides) can be deposited at relatively low temperatures. Even elements with low vapor pressure such as molybdenum, tungsten, and carbon are readily evaporated by this process. In addition, EB-PVD is capable of producing multi-layered laminated metallic/ceramic coatings on large components by changing the EB-PVD processing conditions such as ingot composition, part manipulation, and electron beam energy. Attachment of an ion assisted beam source to the EB-PVD offers additional benefits such as dense coatings with improved adhesion. In addition, textured coatings can be obtained that are desirable in many applications such as cutting tools. This laboratory has started a new thrust in the coating area by the EB-PVD process. The microstructure of thermal barrier ceramic coatings (i.e., yttria stabilized zirconia) developed by the EB-PVD process will be presented.

Wolfe, D.E.; Singh, J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

98

Influence of gas composition on wafer temperature in a tungsten chemical vapor deposition reactor: Experimental measurements, model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of gas composition on wafer temperature in a tungsten chemical vapor deposition reactor-wafer, lamp-heated chemical vapor deposition system were used to study the wafer temperature response to gas composition. A physically based simulation procedure for the process gas and wafer temperature was developed

Rubloff, Gary W.

99

Direct chemical vapor deposition of graphene on dielectric surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A substrate is provided that has a metallic layer on a substrate surface of a substrate. A film made of a two dimensional (2-D) material, such as graphene, is deposited on a metallic surface of the metallic layer. The metallic layer is dewet and/or removed to provide the film on the substrate surface.

Zhang, Yuegang; Ismach, Ariel

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

100

Z .Thin Solid Films 392 2001 231 235 Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of electrochromic tungsten oxide films Roy G. Gordona,U , Sean Barryb , Jeffrey T. Bartona , Randy N.R. Broomhall oxide, WO , is a coloring layer commonly used in electrochromic windows and displays. Successful: Chemical vapor deposition; Tungsten; Oxides; Electrochromism 1. Introduction Tungsten oxide is a key

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Formation of Nickel Silicide from Direct-Liquid-Injection Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Nickel Nitride Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Published April 28, 2010. Metal silicides such as TiSi2 and CoSi2 have been commonly used as the contactsFormation of Nickel Silicide from Direct-Liquid-Injection Chemical-Vapor-Deposited Nickel Nitride as the intermediate for subsequent conversion into nickel silicide NiSi , which is a key material for source, drain

102

Vapor Deposition of Ruthenium from an Amidinate Precursor Huazhi Li,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vapor Deposition of Ruthenium from an Amidinate Precursor Huazhi Li,a Damon B. Farmer,b Roy G School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA October 11, 2007. Thin films of ruthenium have many current and potential appli- cations. They can be used

103

Vapor Deposition of Ruthenium from an Amidinate Precursor Huazhi Li,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vapor Deposition of Ruthenium from an Amidinate Precursor Huazhi Li,a Damon B. Farmer,b Roy G. Gordon* ,a Youbo Lin,b Joost Vlassakb a Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology and b School and potential applications. They can be used as electrodes for capacitors, in which their high work function

104

Vapor phase deposition of oligo,,phenylene ethynylene... molecules for use in molecular electronic devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, many groups have made headway fab- ricating molecular electronic test devices.1­18 These devices exceptions,22,23 the field of mo- lecular electronics is plagued by problems including a lack of deviceVapor phase deposition of oligo,,phenylene ethynylene... molecules for use in molecular electronic

Bean, John C.

105

Initiated chemical vapor deposition of fluoropolymer coatings for the surface modification of complex geometries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a one-step, soventless process that can be used to produce polymeric thin films. The iCVD technique has been used to polymerize a wide variety of vinyl monomers such as glycidyl ...

Gupta, Malancha, 1980-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Chemical Vapor Deposition-Derived Graphene with Electrical Performance of Exfoliated Graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemical Vapor Deposition-Derived Graphene with Electrical Performance of Exfoliated Graphene a scalable method to produce large-area graphene, CVD-grown graphene has heretofore exhibited inferior of CVD-grown graphene in which two important sources of disorder, namely grain boundaries and processing

Hone, James

107

Field emission properties of phosphorus doped microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition diamond films by ion implantation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2002; published 5 February 2003 Phosphorus doped polycrystalline diamond films were grown using ion the electrical char- acteristics of diamond FEAs to lower the operating voltage. Polycrystalline diamond hasField emission properties of phosphorus doped microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition diamond

Lee, Jong Duk

108

High-rate chemical vapor deposition of nanocrystalline silicon carbide films by radio frequency thermal plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-rate chemical vapor deposition of nanocrystalline silicon carbide films by radio frequency Semiconductor, Eden Prairie, MN, USA Received 10 July 2002; accepted 14 July 2002 Abstract Silicon carbide films; Nanomaterials; Silicon carbide; Thermal plasmas; Thin films; Si tetrachlorine precursor Silicon carbide has

Zachariah, Michael R.

109

Epitaxial graphene prepared by chemical vapor deposition on single crystal thin iridium films on sapphire  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Epitaxial graphene prepared by chemical vapor deposition on single crystal thin iridium films Cedex 9, France (Dated: 15 March 2011) Uniform single layer graphene was grown on single-crystal Ir. These graphene layers have a single crystallographic orientation and a very low density of defects, as shown

Boyer, Edmond

110

Synthesis of high-quality monolayer and bilayer graphene on copper using chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exfoliation of graphite [1], sublimation of epitaxial SiC [4], and catalyst-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) [5­9]. However, mechanical exfoliation of graphite can only supply small-size graphene (see Fig than that of graphene obtained via exfoli- ation of graphite as summarized in Fig. 1. While many

111

Ionized physical vapor deposition of integrated circuit interconnects* J. Hopwood,a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ionized physical vapor deposition of integrated circuit interconnects* J. Hopwood,a) Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 Received 19 November 1997; accepted 25 November 1997 Interconnects to the interconnection of semiconductor devices while the remaining 10 percent is due to transistor-related delay

112

Growth of cubic SiC thin films on Si,,001... by high vacuum chemical vapor deposition using 1,3-disilabutane and an investigation of the effect of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Korea K.-W. Lee, M. M. Sung, and Y. Kim Thin by sublimation and liquid phase epitaxial growth is not commer- cially available in sizes above 2 in. Moreover

Boo, Jin-Hyo

113

Conjugate heat transfer and particle transport in outside vapor deposition process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A numerical study of conjugate heat transfer and particle transport has been carried out for the outside vapor deposition process. A buoyant jet flow impinging on a two-layered cylinder has been analyzed including heat conduction occurring through the two-layered cylinder, which consists of the original target rod and the deposited porous layers. Temperature and flow fields have been obtained by an iterative method, and thermophoretic particle deposition has been studied. Of particular interest are the effects of the thickness of deposited layers, the torch speed, the rotation speed of the cylinder, and the distance between the torch and the cylinder on the heat transfer and particle deposition. Effects of variable properties and tube rotation are also included.

Choi, M.; Song, Y.; Kang, S.H. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Validating optical emission spectroscopy as a diagnostic of microwave activated CH4/Ar/H2 plasmas used for diamond chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

chemical vapor deposition of polycrystalline diamond. Several tracer species are monitored in order to gain used for diamond chemical vapor deposition Jie Ma,1 Michael N. R. Ashfold,1,a and Yuri A. Mankelevich2 spectroscopic methods used to diagnose microwave MW plasmas used for diamond chemical vapor deposition CVD . Zhu

Bristol, University of

115

Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said substrate.

Ott, K.C.; Kodas, T.T.

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

116

Growth, microstructure and electrical properties of sputter-deposited...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Growth, microstructure and electrical properties of sputter-deposited hafnium oxide (HfO2) thin films grown using HfO2 ceramic Growth, microstructure and electrical properties of...

117

Pore evolution during high pressure atomic vapor deposition D. D. Hass Y. Y. Yang H. N. G. Wadley  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The development of physical vapor deposition systems that employ inert gas jets to entrain and deposit atomic conditions can contain a higher volume fraction of porosity and a different pore morphology to coatings created by conventional, low pressure (\\10-4 Pa) deposition processes. A recent direct simulation Monte

Wadley, Haydn

118

Development of Nb{sub 3}Sn Cavity Vapor Diffusion Deposition System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nb{sub 3}Sn is a BCS superconductors with the superconducting critical temperature higher than that of niobium, so theoretically it surpasses the limitations of niobium in RF fields. The feasibility of technology has been demonstrated at 1.5 GHz with Nb{sub 3}Sn vapor deposition technique at Wuppertal University. The benefit at these frequencies is more pronounced at 4.2 K, where Nb{sub 3}Sn coated cavities show RF resistances an order of magnitude lower than that of niobium. At Jefferson Lab we started the development of Nb{sub 3}Sn vapor diffusion deposition system within an R\\&D development program towards compact light sources. Here we present the current progress of the system development.

Eremeev, Grigory V.; Macha, Kurt M.; Clemens, William A.; Park, HyeKyoung; Williams, R. Scott

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Metal organic chemical vapor deposition of 111-v compounds on silicon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Expitaxial composite comprising thin films of a Group III-V compound semiconductor such as gallium arsenide (GaAs) or gallium aluminum arsenide (GaAlAs) on single crystal silicon substrates are disclosed. Also disclosed is a process for manufacturing, by chemical deposition from the vapor phase, epitaxial composites as above described, and to semiconductor devices based on such epitaxial composites. The composites have particular utility for use in making light sensitive solid state solar cells.

Vernon, Stanley M. (Wellesley, MA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films: Growth and properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low-temperature (?200?°C) epitaxial growth yields precise thickness, doping, and thermal-budget control, which enables advanced-design semiconductor devices. In this paper, we use plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to grow homo-epitaxial layers and study the different growth modes on crystalline silicon substrates. In particular, we determine the conditions leading to epitaxial growth in light of a model that depends only on the silane concentration in the plasma and the mean free path length of surface adatoms. For such growth, we show that the presence of a persistent defective interface layer between the crystalline silicon substrate and the epitaxial layer stems not only from the growth conditions but also from unintentional contamination of the reactor. Based on our findings, we determine the plasma conditions to grow high-quality bulk epitaxial films and propose a two-step growth process to obtain device-grade material.

Demaurex, Bénédicte, E-mail: benedicte.demaurex@epfl.ch; Bartlome, Richard; Seif, Johannes P.; Geissbühler, Jonas; Ballif, Christophe; De Wolf, Stefaan [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory, Maladière 71B, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Alexander, Duncan T. L.; Jeangros, Quentin [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Interdisciplinary Centre for Electron Microscopy (CIME), Station 12, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of graphene on copper substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A plasma enhanced vapor deposition process is used to synthesize graphene from a hydrogen/methane gas mixture on copper samples. The graphene samples were transferred onto SiO{sub 2} substrates and characterized by Raman spectroscopic mapping and atomic force microscope topographical mapping. Analysis of the Raman bands shows that the deposited graphene is clearly SLG and that the sheets are deposited on large areas of several mm{sup 2}. The defect density in the graphene sheets is calculated using Raman measurements and the influence of the process pressure on the defect density is measured. Furthermore the origin of these defects is discussed with respect to the process parameters and hence the plasma environment.

Woehrl, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.woehrl@uni-due.de; Schulz, Stephan [Faculty of Chemistry and CENIDE, University Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)] [Faculty of Chemistry and CENIDE, University Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Straße 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Ochedowski, Oliver; Gottlieb, Steven [Faculty of Physics and CENIDE, University Duisburg Essen, Lotharstraße 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)] [Faculty of Physics and CENIDE, University Duisburg Essen, Lotharstraße 1, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Shibasaki, Kosuke [Institute of Materials Science, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)] [Institute of Materials Science, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

122

Graphene growth with giant domains using chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

N. Martensson, Controlling graphene corrugation on lattice-in patterned epitaxial graphene, Science, 2006, 312(5777), 92009, 4(6), 17 A. K. Geim, Graphene: Status and Prospects,

Yong, Virginia; Hahn, H. Thomas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Thermal conductivity of ultra-thin chemical vapor deposited hexagonal boron nitride films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal conductivity of freestanding 10?nm and 20?nm thick chemical vapor deposited hexagonal boron nitride films was measured using both steady state and transient techniques. The measured value for both thicknesses, about 100?±?10?W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?1}, is lower than the bulk basal plane value (390?W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?1}) due to the imperfections in the specimen microstructure. Impressively, this value is still 100 times higher than conventional dielectrics. Considering scalability and ease of integration, hexagonal boron nitride grown over large area is an excellent candidate for thermal management in two dimensional materials-based nanoelectronics.

Alam, M. T.; Haque, M. A., E-mail: mah37@psu.edu [Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Bresnehan, M. S.; Robinson, J. A. [Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA and The Center for Two-Dimensional and Layered Materials, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)] [Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA and The Center for Two-Dimensional and Layered Materials, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

124

Tunable carbon nanotube-tungsten carbide nanoparticles heterostructures by vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simple, versatile route for the synthesis of carbon nanotube (CNT)-tungsten carbide nanoparticles heterostructures was set up via vapor deposition process. For the first time, amorphous CNTs (?-CNTs) were used to immobilized tungsten carbide nanoparticles. By adjusting the synthesis and annealing temperature, ?-CNTs/amorphous tungsten carbide, ?-CNTs/W{sub 2}C, and CNTs/W{sub 2}C/WC heterostructures were prepared. This approach provides an efficient method to attach other metal carbides and other nanoparticles to carbon nanotubes with tunable properties.

Xia, Min; Guo, Hongyan; Ge, Changchun [Institute of Special Ceramics and Powder Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing (China); Institute of Powder Metallurgy and Advanced Ceramics, Southwest Jiaotong University, 111, 1st Section, Northern 2nd Ring Road, Chengdu (China); Yan, Qingzhi, E-mail: qzyan@ustb.edu.cn; Lang, Shaoting [Institute of Special Ceramics and Powder Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing (China)

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

125

III-nitride quantum cascade detector grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quantum cascade (QC) detectors in the GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N material system grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition are designed, fabricated, and characterized. Only two material compositions, i.e., GaN as wells and Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N as barriers are used in the active layers. The QC detectors operates around 4??m, with a peak responsivity of up to ?100??A/W and a detectivity of up to 10{sup 8} Jones at the background limited infrared performance temperature around 140?K.

Song, Yu, E-mail: yusong@princeton.edu; Huang, Tzu-Yung; Badami, Pranav; Gmachl, Claire [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Bhat, Rajaram; Zah, Chung-En [Corning Incorporated, Corning, New York 14831 (United States)

2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

126

Tunneling characteristics in chemical vapor deposited graphene–hexagonal boron nitride–graphene junctions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large area chemical vapor deposited graphene and hexagonal boron nitride was used to fabricate graphene–hexagonal boron nitride–graphene symmetric field effect transistors. Gate control of the tunneling characteristics is observed similar to previously reported results for exfoliated graphene–hexagonal boron nitride–graphene devices. Density-of-states features are observed in the tunneling characteristics of the devices, although without large resonant peaks that would arise from lateral momentum conservation. The lack of distinct resonant behavior is attributed to disorder in the devices, and a possible source of the disorder is discussed.

Roy, T.; Hesabi, Z. R.; Joiner, C. A.; Vogel, E. M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Liu, L.; Gu, G. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Tennessee, 1520 Middle Drive, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Barrera, S. de la; Feenstra, R. M. [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Chakrabarti, B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Rd., Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

127

Selective charge doping of chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene by interface modification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The doping and scattering effect of substrate on the electronic properties of chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene are revealed. Wet etching the underlying SiO{sub 2} of graphene and depositing self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of organosilane between graphene and SiO{sub 2} are used to modify various substrates for CVD graphene transistors. Comparing with the bare SiO{sub 2} substrate, the carrier mobility of CVD graphene on modified substrate is enhanced by almost 5-fold; consistently the residual carrier concentration is reduced down to 10{sup 11}?cm{sup ?2}. Moreover, scalable and reliable p- and n-type graphene and graphene p-n junction are achieved on various silane SAMs with different functional groups.

Wang, Shengnan, E-mail: wang.shengnan@lab.ntt.co.jp; Suzuki, Satoru; Furukawa, Kazuaki; Orofeo, Carlo M.; Takamura, Makoto; Hibino, Hiroki [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)] [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

128

Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the LHC upgrades in 2013, and further LHC upgrades scheduled in 2018, most LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require more radiation hard technologies than presently available. At present all LHC experiments now have some form of diamond detector. As a result Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of all LHC experiments. Moreover CVD diamond is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the HL-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications. Our accomplishments include: • Developed a two U.S.companies to produce electronic grade diamond, • Worked with companies and acquired large area diamond pieces, • Performed radiation hardness tests using various proton energies: 70 MeV (Cyric, Japan), 800 MeV (Los Alamos), and 24 GeV (CERN).

Kagan, Harris; Kass, Richard; Gan, K.K.

2014-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

129

Research on fundamental aspects of inorganic vapor and particle deposition in coal-fired systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September 1990 DOE-PETC initiated at the Yale HTCRE Laboratory a systematic three-year research program directed toward providing engineers with the fundamentally-based design/optimization tools'' foreconomically predicting the dynamics of net deposit growth, and thermophysical properties of the resulting microparticulate deposits in coal-fired systems. The goal of our research in the area of mineral mattertransport is to advance the capability of making reliable engineering predictions of the dynamics of net deposit growth for surfaces exposed to the particle-laden products of coal combustion. To accomplish thisfor a wide variety of combustor types, coal types, and operating conditions, this capability must be based on a quantitative understanding of each of the important mechanisms of mineral matter transport, as well as the nature of the interactions between these substances and the prevailing fireside'' surface of deposits. This level of understanding and predictive capability could be translated into very significant cost reductions for coal-fired equipment design, development and operation. It is also expected that this research activity will not only directly benefit the ash deposition R D community -- but also generically closely related technologies of importance to DOE (e.g. hot-gas clean-up, particulate solids handling,...).

Rosner, D.E.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Synthesis of SiO{sub 2}/?-SiC/graphite hybrid composite by low temperature hot filament chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

?-SiC thin films were synthesized directly on graphite by hot filament chemical vapor deposition at low temperature. SiH{sub 4} diluted in hydrogen was employed as the silicon source, while graphite was functioned as both substrate and carbon source for the as-grown ?-SiC films. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared analysis indicate that SiO{sub 2}/?-SiC/graphite hybrid composite was formed after post annealing treatment, and its crystalline quality can be remarkably improved under optimized annealing conditions. The possible growth mechanism was proposed based on in situ etching of graphite by reactive hydrogen radicals at the atomic level.

Zhang, Zhikun; Bi, Kaifeng; Liu, Yanhong; Qin, Fuwen; Liu, Hongzhu [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Bian, Jiming, E-mail: jmbian@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhang, Dong [New Energy Source Research Center of Shenyang Institute of Engineering, Shengyang 110136 (China)] [New Energy Source Research Center of Shenyang Institute of Engineering, Shengyang 110136 (China); Miao, Lihua [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Computer and Mathematical Basic Teaching, Shenyang Medical College, Shenyan 110034 (China)

2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

131

The optimization of interfaces in InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattices grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have prepared InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattice (SLS) semiconductors by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) under a variety of conditions. Presence of an InGaAsSb interface layer is indicated by x-ray diffraction patterns. Optimized growth conditions involved the use of low pressure, short purge times, and no reactant flow during the purges. MOCVD was used to prepare an optically pumped, single heterostructure InAsSb/InGaAs SLS/InPSb laser which emitted at 3.9 {mu}m with a maximum operating temperature of approximately 100 K.

Biefeld, R.M.; Baucom, K.C.; Kurtz, S.R.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

132

Study of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films and the application to p-channel thin film transistor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The material and process characteristics of boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (PECVD) have been studied. The goal is to apply the high quality films...

Nominanda, Helinda

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Research on fundamental aspects of inorganic vapor and particle deposition in coal-fired systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September 1990 DOE-PETC initiated at the Yale HTCRE Laboratory a systematic three-year research program directed toward providing engineers with the fundamentally-based design/optimization 'tools' for economically predicting the dynamics of net deposit growth*, and thermophysical properties of the resulting microparticulate deposits in coal-fired systems. In light of the theoretical 'program' based on the notion of self-regulation'' set forth in Rosner and Nagarajan (1987), this Task includes investigation of the effects of particle material properties and possible liquid phases on the capture properties of particulate deposits. For this purpose we exploit dynamical 'many-body' computer simulation techniques. This approach will provide the required parametric dependencies (on such quantities as incident kinetic energy and angle, mechanical and thermophysical properties of the particles,[hor ellipsis]) of a dimensionless ensemble-averaged particle capture fraction, relegating the role of direct laboratory experiment to verifying (or rejecting) some crucial features/consequences of the simulation route followed. Our ultimate goal is recommend 'sticking' and 'erosion' laws of mechanistic origin. The availability of such laws could dramatically increase the reliability of predicted deposition rates of inertially delivered particles, in the simultaneous presence of a condensed liquid phase within the growing particulate, deposit. Equally important, one could also rationally select conditions to avoid. troublesome deposition subject to other operational requirements.

Rosner, D.E.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Carbon nanowalls grown by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition during the carbonization of polyacrylonitrile fibers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We used microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) to carbonize an electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor to form carbon fibers. Scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the fibers at different evolution stages. It was found that MPECVD-carbonized PAN fibers do not exhibit any significant change in the fiber diameter, whilst conventionally carbonized PAN fibers show a 33% reduction in the fiber diameter. An additional coating of carbon nanowalls (CNWs) was formed on the surface of the carbonized PAN fibers during the MPECVD process without the assistance of any metallic catalysts. The result presented here may have a potential to develop a novel, economical, and straightforward approach towards the mass production of carbon fibrous materials containing CNWs.

Li Jiangling; Su Shi; Kundrat, Vojtech; Abbot, Andrew M.; Ye, Haitao [School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Zhou Lei [Department of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Mushtaq, Fajer [Department of Mechanical Engineering, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8092 (Switzerland); Ouyang Defang [School of Life and Health Science, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom); James, David; Roberts, Darren [Thermo Fisher Scientific, Stafford House, Hemel Hempstead HP2 7GE (United Kingdom)

2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

135

Bifacial solar cell with SnS absorber by vapor transport deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The SnS absorber layer in solar cell devices was produced by vapor transport deposition (VTD), which is a low-cost manufacturing method for solar modules. The performance of solar cells consisting of Si/Mo/SnS/ZnO/indium tin oxide (ITO) was limited by the SnS layer's surface texture and field-dependent carrier collection. For improved performance, a fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate was used in place of the Mo to smooth the topography of the VTD SnS and to make bifacial solar cells, which are potentially useful for multijunction applications. A bifacial SnS solar cell consisting of glass/FTO/SnS/CdS/ZnO/ITO demonstrated front- and back-side power conversion efficiencies of 1.2% and 0.2%, respectively.

Wangperawong, Artit [Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Hsu, Po-Chun; Yee, Yesheng; Herron, Steven M.; Clemens, Bruce M.; Cui, Yi; Bent, Stacey F., E-mail: sbent@stanford.edu [Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

136

Life cycle cost study for coated conductor manufacture by metal organic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to calculate the cost of producing high temperature superconducting wire by the Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) process. The technology status is reviewed from the literature and a plant conceptual design is assumed for the cost calculation. The critical issues discussed are the high cost of the metal organic precursors, the material utilization efficiency and the capability of the final product as measured by the critical current density achieved. Capital, operating and material costs are estimated and summed as the basis for calculating the cost per unit length of wire. Sensitivity analyses of key assumptions are examined to determine their effects on the final wire cost. Additionally, the cost of wire on the basis of cost per kiloampere per meter is calculated for operation at lower temperatures than the liquid nitrogen boiling temperature. It is concluded that this process should not be ruled out on the basis of high cost of precursors alone.

Chapman, J.N.

1999-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

137

A study of heat transfer and particle motion relative to the modified chemical vapor deposition process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heat transfer and particle motion relative to the modified chemical vapor deposition process have been studied for general values of the torch speed. Three-dimensional temperature fields have been obtained over the entire cross section of the tube and the effects of tube rotation and localized torch heating in the axial and circumferential directions have been studied. The particle trajectories have been calculated from a formulation that includes the contributions from forced flow, i.e., Poiseuille flow in the axial direction, rigid body rotation about the tube axis, and thermophoretic contributions in the axial, radial, and angular directions. The particle trajectories are helices and are shown to be strongly dependent on the tube rotation.

Choi, M.; Greif, R. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)); Baum, H.R. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States))

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Vapor deposition of platinum alloyed nickel aluminide coatings Z. Yu , K.P. Dharmasena, D.D. Hass, H.N.G. Wadley  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vapor deposition of platinum alloyed nickel aluminide coatings Z. Yu , K.P. Dharmasena, D.D. Hass at high temperature. It requires the chemical vapor deposition of aluminum on a nickel rich superalloy substrate that has been pre-coated with several microns of electrodeposited platinum. Here, we show

Wadley, Haydn

139

Gas jet assisted vapor deposition of yttria stabilized zirconia D. D. Hass and H. N. G. Wadleya  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas jet assisted vapor deposition of yttria stabilized zirconia D. D. Hass and H. N. G. Wadleya February 2009 A gas jet assisted electron beam evaporation process for synthesizing yttria stabilized zirconia YSZ coatings has recently been reported. The process uses a rarefied inert gas jet to entrain

Wadley, Haydn

140

Preparation of amorphous electrochromic tungsten oxide and molybdenum oxide by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Preliminary experiments have been performed to probe the feasibility of using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE--CVD) to prepare electrochromic thin films of tungsten oxide and molybdenum oxide by plasma reaction of WF/sub 6/, W(CO)/sub 6/, and Mo(CO)/sub 6/ with oxygen. Thin films produced in a 300 W, electrodeless, radio-frequency (rf), capacitive discharge were found to be electrochromic when tested with either liquid or solid electrolytes. Optical spectroscopy was performed on two electrochromic coatings after Li/sup +/ ion insertion from a propylene carbonate liquid electrolyte. Broad absorption peaks at --900 nm for WO/sub 3/ and 600 nm for MoO/sub 3/ were observed. Optical results for PE--CVD MoO/sub 3/ films differ from those reported for evaporated MoO/sub 3/ films which have an absorption peak at --800 nm. The shorter wavelength absorption in the PE--CVD MoO/sub 3/ films offers the potential for fabricating electrochromic devices with higher contrast ratios and less color change. Optical emission spectroscopy, Auger, and x-ray diffraction analyses indicate these thin film deposits to be predominantly amorphous tungsten and molybdenum oxides.

Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Reactor design for uniform chemical vapor deposition-grown films without substrate rotation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A reactor vessel is described for chemical vapor deposition of a uniform semiconductor film on a substrate, comprising: a generally cylindrical reaction chamber for receiving a substrate and a flow of reaction gas capable of depositing a film on the substrate under the conditions of the chamber, the chamber having upper and lower portion and being oriented about a vertical axis; a supporting means having a substrate support surface generally perpendicular to the vertical axis for carrying the substrate within the lower portion of the reaction chamber in a predetermined relative position with respect to the upper portion of the reaction chamber, the upper portion including a cylindrically shaped confinement chamber. The confinement chamber has a smaller diameter than the lower portion of the reaction chamber and is positioned above the substrate support surface; and a means for introducing a reaction gas into the confinement chamber in a nonaxial direction so as to direct the reaction gas into the lower portion of the reaction chamber with a non-axial flow having a rotational component with respect to the vertical axis. In this way the reaction gas defines an inward vortex flow pattern with respect to the substrate surface.

Wanlass, M.

1987-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

142

Synthesis of multiferroic Er-Fe-O thin films by atomic layer and chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

R-Fe-O (R?=?rare earth) compounds have recently attracted high interest as potential new multiferroic materials. Here, we report a method based on the solid-state reaction between Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe layers, respectively grown by atomic layer deposition and chemical vapor deposition, to synthesize Er-Fe-O thin films. The reaction is induced by thermal annealing and evolution of the formed phases is followed by in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Dominant ErFeO{sub 3} and ErFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} phases develop following subsequent thermal annealing processes at 850?°C in air and N{sub 2}. Structural, chemical, and morphological characterization of the layers are conducted through X-ray diffraction and reflectivity, time-of-flight secondary ion-mass spectrometry, and atomic force microscopy. Magnetic properties are evaluated by magnetic force microscopy, conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer, being consistent with the presence of the phases identified by X-ray diffraction. Our results constitute a first step toward the use of cost-effective chemical methods for the synthesis of this class of multiferroic thin films.

Mantovan, R., E-mail: roberto.mantovan@mdm.imm.cnr.it; Vangelista, S.; Wiemer, C.; Lamperti, A.; Tallarida, G. [Laboratorio MDM IMM-CNR, I-20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Chikoidze, E.; Dumont, Y. [GEMaC, Université de Versailles St. Quentin en Yvelines-CNRS, Versailles (France); Fanciulli, M. [Laboratorio MDM IMM-CNR, I-20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

143

Characterization of diamond-like nanocomposite thin films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) thin films, comprising the networks of a-C:H and a-Si:O were deposited on pyrex glass or silicon substrate using gas precursors (e.g., hexamethyldisilane, hexamethyldisiloxane, hexamethyldisilazane, or their different combinations) mixed with argon gas, by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Surface morphology of DLN films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic result shows that the films contain nanoparticles within the amorphous structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the structural change within the DLN films. The hardness and friction coefficient of the films were measured by nanoindentation and scratch test techniques, respectively. FTIR and XPS studies show the presence of C-C, C-H, Si-C, and Si-H bonds in the a-C:H and a-Si:O networks. Using Raman spectroscopy, we also found that the hardness of the DLN films varies with the intensity ratio I{sub D}/I{sub G}. Finally, we observed that the DLN films has a better performance compared to DLC, when it comes to properties like high hardness, high modulus of elasticity, low surface roughness and low friction coefficient. These characteristics are the critical components in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and emerging nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).

Santra, T. S.; Liu, C. H. [Institute of Nanoengineering and Microsystems (NEMS), National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30043 (China); Bhattacharyya, T. K. [Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India); Patel, P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Barik, T. K. [School of Applied Sciences, Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia 721657, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal (India)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

144

Climate Dependency of Tree Growth Suppressed by Acid Deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

uptake). These soil changes coincided with decreased diameter growth and a suppression of climateClimate Dependency of Tree Growth Suppressed by Acid Deposition Effects on Soils in Northwest Russia G R E G O R Y B . L A W R E N C E , * , A N D R E I G . L A P E N I S , D A N B E R G G R E N

Lapenas, Andrei G.

145

Step-edge-induced resistance anisotropy in quasi-free-standing bilayer chemical vapor deposition graphene on SiC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The transport properties of quasi-free-standing (QFS) bilayer graphene on SiC depend on a range of scattering mechanisms. Most of them are isotropic in nature. However, the SiC substrate morphology marked by a distinctive pattern of the terraces gives rise to an anisotropy in graphene's sheet resistance, which may be considered an additional scattering mechanism. At a technological level, the growth-preceding in situ etching of the SiC surface promotes step bunching which results in macro steps ?10?nm in height. In this report, we study the qualitative and quantitative effects of SiC steps edges on the resistance of epitaxial graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. We experimentally determine the value of step edge resistivity in hydrogen-intercalated QFS-bilayer graphene to be ?190???m for step height h{sub S}?=?10?nm and provide proof that it cannot originate from mechanical deformation of graphene but is likely to arise from lowered carrier concentration in the step area. Our results are confronted with the previously reported values of the step edge resistivity in monolayer graphene over SiC atomic steps. In our analysis, we focus on large-scale, statistical properties to foster the scalable technology of industrial graphene for electronics and sensor applications.

Ciuk, Tymoteusz [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Cakmakyapan, Semih; Ozbay, Ekmel [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Department of Physics, Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, 06800 Bilkent, Ankara (Turkey); Caban, Piotr; Grodecki, Kacper; Pasternak, Iwona; Strupinski, Wlodek, E-mail: wlodek.strupinski@itme.edu.pl [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Krajewska, Aleksandra [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Gen. S. Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Szmidt, Jan [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland)

2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

146

Optical coatings of variable refractive index and high laser-resistance from physical-vapor-deposited perfluorinated amorphous polymer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Variable index optical single-layers, optical multilayer, and laser-resistant coatings were made from a perfluorinated amorphous polymer material by physical vapor deposition. This was accomplished by physically vapor depositing a polymer material, such as bulk Teflon AF2400, for example, to form thin layers that have a very low refractive index (.about.1.10-1.31) and are highly transparent from the ultra-violet through the near infrared regime, and maintain the low refractive index of the bulk material. The refractive index can be varied by simply varying one process parameter, either the deposition rate or the substrate temperature. The thus forming coatings may be utilized in anti-reflectors and graded anti-reflection coatings, as well as in optical layers for laser-resistant coatings at optical wavelengths of less than about 2000 nm.

Chow, Robert (Livermore, CA); Loomis, Gary E. (Livermore, CA); Thomas, Ian M. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Optical coatings of variable refractive index and high laser-resistance from physical-vapor-deposited perfluorinated amorphous polymer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Variable index optical single-layers, optical multilayer, and laser-resistant coatings were made from a perfluorinated amorphous polymer material by physical vapor deposition. This was accomplished by physically vapor depositing a polymer material, such as bulk Teflon AF2400, for example, to form thin layers that have a very low refractive index (ca. 1.10--1.31) and are highly transparent from the ultra-violet through the near infrared regime, and maintain the low refractive index of the bulk material. The refractive index can be varied by simply varying one process parameter, either the deposition rate or the substrate temperature. The thus forming coatings may be utilized in anti-reflectors and graded anti-reflection coatings, as well as in optical layers for laser-resistant coatings at optical wavelengths of less than about 2000 nm. 2 figs.

Chow, R.; Loomis, G.E.; Thomas, I.M.

1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

148

Formation of Nickel Silicide from Direct-liquid-injection Chemical-vapor-deposited Nickel Nitride Films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Smooth, continuous, and highly conformal nickel nitride (NiN{sub x}) films were deposited by direct liquid injection (DLI)-chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using a solution of bis(N,N{prime}-di-tert-butylacetamidinato)nickel(II) in tetrahydronaphthalene as the nickel (Ni) source and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the coreactant gas. The DLI-CVD NiNx films grown on HF-last (100) silicon and on highly doped polysilicon substrates served as the intermediate for subsequent conversion into nickel silicide (NiSi), which is a key material for source, drain, and gate contacts in microelectronic devices. Rapid thermal annealing in the forming gas of DLI-CVD NiNx films formed continuous NiSi films at temperatures above 400 C. The resistivity of the NiSi films was 15{mu}{Omega} cm, close to the value for bulk crystals. The NiSi films have remarkably smooth and sharp interfaces with underlying Si substrates, thereby producing contacts for transistors with a higher drive current and a lower junction leakage. Resistivity and synchrotron X-ray diffraction in real-time during annealing of NiNx films showed the formation of a NiSi film at about 440 C, which is morphologically stable up to about 650 C. These NiSi films could find applications in future nanoscale complementary metal oxide semiconductor devices or three-dimensional metal-oxide-semiconductor devices such as Fin-type field effect transistors for the 22 nm technology node and beyond.

Li, Z.; Gordon, R; Li, H; Shenai, D; Lavoie, C

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Massively parallel computation of 3D flow and reactions in chemical vapor deposition reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Computer modeling of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) reactors can greatly aid in the understanding, design, and optimization of these complex systems. Modeling is particularly attractive in these systems since the costs of experimentally evaluating many design alternatives can be prohibitively expensive, time consuming, and even dangerous, when working with toxic chemicals like Arsine (AsH{sub 3}): until now, predictive modeling has not been possible for most systems since the behavior is three-dimensional and governed by complex reaction mechanisms. In addition, CVD reactors often exhibit large thermal gradients, large changes in physical properties over regions of the domain, and significant thermal diffusion for gas mixtures with widely varying molecular weights. As a result, significant simplifications in the models have been made which erode the accuracy of the models` predictions. In this paper, the authors will demonstrate how the vast computational resources of massively parallel computers can be exploited to make possible the analysis of models that include coupled fluid flow and detailed chemistry in three-dimensional domains. For the most part, models have either simplified the reaction mechanisms and concentrated on the fluid flow, or have simplified the fluid flow and concentrated on rigorous reactions. An important CVD research thrust has been in detailed modeling of fluid flow and heat transfer in the reactor vessel, treating transport and reaction of chemical species either very simply or as a totally decoupled problem. Using the analogy between heat transfer and mass transfer, and the fact that deposition is often diffusion limited, much can be learned from these calculations; however, the effects of thermal diffusion, the change in physical properties with composition, and the incorporation of surface reaction mechanisms are not included in this model, nor can transitions to three-dimensional flows be detected.

Salinger, A.G.; Shadid, J.N.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Hennigan, G.L.; Devine, K.D.; Moffat, H.K.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Effect of e-beam irradiation on graphene layer grown by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have grown graphene by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and transferred it onto Si/SiO{sub 2} substrates to make tens of micron scale devices for Raman spectroscopy study. The effect of electron beam (e-beam) irradiation of various doses (600 to 12 000 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}) on CVD grown graphene has been examined by using Raman spectroscopy. It is found that the radiation exposures result in the appearance of the strong disorder D band attributed the damage to the lattice. The evolution of peak frequencies, intensities, and widths of the main Raman bands of CVD graphene is analyzed as a function of defect created by e-beam irradiation. Especially, the D and G peak evolution with increasing radiation dose follows the amorphization trajectory, which suggests transformation of graphene to the nanocrystalline and then to amorphous form. We have also estimated the strain induced by e-beam irradiation in CVD graphene. These results obtained for CVD graphene are in line with previous findings reported for the mechanically exfoliated graphene [D. Teweldebrhan and A. A. Balandin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 013101 (2009)]. The results have important implications for CVD graphene characterization and device fabrication, which rely on the electron microscopy.

Iqbal, M. Z.; Kumar Singh, Arun; Iqbal, M. W.; Seo, Sunae; Eom, Jonghwa [Department of Physics and Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

151

High-temperature stress measurement on chemical-vapor-deposited tungsten silicide and tungsten films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stresses in chemical-vapor-deposited tungsten silicide and tungsten films at high temperatures were measured. Tungsten silicide films were formed from WF/sub 6/ and SiH/sub 4/ or Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/. Tungsten films were formed from WF/sub 6/ and H/sub 2/. The stress in tungsten silicide films is tensile and in the order of 10/sup 9/--10/sup 10/ dynes/cm/sup 2/. For a composition ratio of Si/Wless than or equal to2.6, the stress of a film of more than 1000 A has a maximum at about 500 /sup 0/C. On the other hand, for a composition Si/W>2.9, the stress has no maximum. The maximum of the stress is caused by crystallization of the film. The stress has two components. One component is related to the difference of the thermal expansion coefficients between the film and the Si substrate. Another is related to the film crystallization. It was found that the stress concentrates in the portion of the film nearest the substrate. The stress in tungsten films also reaches a maximum at 550 /sup 0/C, similar to the tungsten silicide films. However, the cause of this behavior is not clear.

Shioya, Y.; Ikegami, K.; Maeda, M.; Yanagida, K.

1987-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

152

Step-coverage simulation for tetraethoxysilane and ozone atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simulation model for atmospheric pressure (AP) CVD has bee developed using one-dimensional diffusion and mass conservation equations. The model was applied to trench step-coverage of the tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and O[sub 3] CVD, in which it was not necessary to consider lateral diffusion because of narrow (and deep) trenches. For nondoped silicate glass (NSG), the step-coverage of a 4.5 aspect ratio trench showed a good fit if a sticking probability of 0.0039 was assumed for the 0.6% ozone (in oxygen) deposition and of 0.0026 for the 6% ozone deposition (both 400 C). The reaction rate constant was compared with the diffusion mass-transfer coefficient, and the reaction proved to be limited by diffusion of the reactant, TEOS, which directly participated in the CVD reaction. For the 2 m/o phosphosilicate glass (PSG) step-coverage, which had a slight overhang, the model matched the obtained results well only when an active growth species with a high sticking probability of 1.0 was added to the growth species of nondoped oxide. This analytical simulation method satisfactorily explains the experimental data.

Fujino, K. (Semiconductor Process Lab., Toyko (Japan)); Egashira, Y.; Shimogaki, Y.; Komiyama, H. (Univ. of Tokyo, (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Growth mode evolution of hafnium oxide by atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HfO{sub 2} thin films were deposited using tetrakis-ethylmethylamido hafnium and H{sub 2}O as precursors on silicon by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The morphology and microstructures at different ALD cycles were characterized by atomic force microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Based on the height–height correlation function and power spectral density function, quantitative analysis of surface morphologies was performed. Three characteristic dimensions (?{sub 1}, ?{sub 2}, and ?{sub 3}) corresponding to three surface structures, islands, local and global fluctuations, were identified. The evolution of ALD growth mode at range of the three critical scales was investigated, respectively. It suggests the transformation of growth mode from quasi two-dimensional layer-by-layer to three-dimensional island for global fluctuations.

Nie, Xianglong; Ma, Fei; Ma, Dayan, E-mail: madayan@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Xu, Kewei [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China and Department of Physics and Opt-electronic Engineering, Xi'an University of Arts and Science, Xi'an 710065, Shaanxi (China)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

154

Design of a compact ultrahigh vacuum-compatible setup for the analysis of chemical vapor deposition processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optimizing thin film deposition techniques requires contamination-free transfer from the reactor into an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber for surface science analysis. A very compact, multifunctional Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) reactor for direct attachment to any typical UHV system for thin film analysis was designed and built. Besides compactness, fast, easy, and at the same time ultimately clean sample transfer between reactor and UHV was a major goal. It was achieved by a combination of sample manipulation parts, sample heater, and a shutter mechanism designed to fit all into a NW38 Conflat six-ways cross. The present reactor design is versatile to be employed for all commonly employed variants of CVD, including Atomic Layer Deposition. A demonstration of the functionality of the system is provided. First results of the setup (attached to an Omicron Multiprobe x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy system) on the temperature dependence of Pulsed Spray Evaporation-CVD of Ni films from Ni acetylacetonate as the precursor demonstrate the reactor performance and illustrate the importance of clean sample transfer without breaking vacuum in order to obtain unambiguous results on the quality of CVD-grown thin Ni films. The widely applicable design holds promise for future systematic studies of the fundamental processes during chemical vapor deposition or atomic layer deposition.

Weiss, Theodor; Nowak, Martin; Zielasek, Volkmar, E-mail: zielasek@uni-bremen.de; Bäumer, Marcus [Institut für Angewandte und Physikalische Chemie, Universität Bremen, Leobener Straße UFT, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Mundloch, Udo; Kohse-Höinghaus, Katharina [Physikalische Chemie I, Fakultät für Chemie, Universität Bielefeld, Universitätsstraße 25, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

155

Condensed phase conversion and growth of nanorods and other materials instead of from vapor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Compositions, systems and methods are described for condensed phase conversion and growth of nanorods and other materials. A method includes providing a condensed phase matrix material; and activating the condensed phase matrix material to produce a plurality of nanorods by condensed phase conversion and growth from the condensed phase matrix material instead of from vapor. The compositions are very strong. The compositions and methods provide advantages because they allow (1) formation rates of nanostructures necessary for reasonable production rates, and (2) the near net shaped production of component structures.

Geohegan, David B. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Puretzky, Alex A. (Knoxville, TN); Fan, Xudong (Oak Ridge, TN)

2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

156

Development of nanodiamond foils for H- stripping to Support the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) using hot filament chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thin diamond foils are needed in many particle accelerator experiments regarding nuclear and atomic physics, as well as in some interdisciplinary research. Particularly, nanodiamond texture is attractive for this purpose as it possesses a unique combination of diamond properties such as high thermal conductivity, mechanical strength and high radiation hardness; therefore, it is a potential material for energetic ion beam stripper foils. At the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), the installed set of foils must be able to survive a nominal five-month operation period, without the need for unscheduled costly shutdowns and repairs. Thus, a small foil about the size of a postage stamp is critical to the operation of SNS and similar sources in U.S. laboratories and around the world. We are investigating nanocrystalline, polycrystalline and their admixture films fabricated using a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system for H- stripping to support the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Here we discuss optimization of process variables such as substrate temperature, process gas ratio of H2/Ar/CH4, substrate to filament distance, filament temperature, carburization conditions, and filament geometry to achieve high purity diamond foils on patterned silicon substrates with manageable intrinsic and thermal stresses so that they can be released as free standing foils without curling. An in situ laser reflectance interferometry tool (LRI) is used for monitoring the growth characteristics of the diamond thin film materials. The optimization process has yielded free standing foils with no pinholes. The sp3/sp2 bonds are controlled to optimize electrical resistivity to reduce the possibility of surface charging of the foils. The integrated LRI and HFCVD process provides real time information on the growth of films and can quickly illustrate growth features and control film thickness. The results are discussed in the light of development of nanodiamond foils that will be able to withstand a few MW proton beam and hopefully will be able to be used after possible future upgrades to the SNS to greater than a 3MW beam.

Vispute, R D [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Ermer, Henry K [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Sinsky, Phillip [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Seiser, Andrew [Blue Wave Semiconductors; Shaw, Robert W [ORNL; Wilson, Leslie L [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Robofurnace: A semi-automated laboratory chemical vapor deposition system for high-throughput nanomaterial synthesis and process discovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory research and development on new materials, such as nanostructured thin films, often utilizes manual equipment such as tube furnaces due to its relatively low cost and ease of setup. However, these systems can be prone to inconsistent outcomes due to variations in standard operating procedures and limitations in performance such as heating and cooling rates restrict the parameter space that can be explored. Perhaps more importantly, maximization of research throughput and the successful and efficient translation of materials processing knowledge to production-scale systems, relies on the attainment of consistent outcomes. In response to this need, we present a semi-automated lab-scale chemical vapor deposition (CVD) furnace system, called “Robofurnace.” Robofurnace is an automated CVD system built around a standard tube furnace, which automates sample insertion and removal and uses motion of the furnace to achieve rapid heating and cooling. The system has a 10-sample magazine and motorized transfer arm, which isolates the samples from the lab atmosphere and enables highly repeatable placement of the sample within the tube. The system is designed to enable continuous operation of the CVD reactor, with asynchronous loading/unloading of samples. To demonstrate its performance, Robofurnace is used to develop a rapid CVD recipe for carbon nanotube (CNT) forest growth, achieving a 10-fold improvement in CNT forest mass density compared to a benchmark recipe using a manual tube furnace. In the long run, multiple systems like Robofurnace may be linked to share data among laboratories by methods such as Twitter. Our hope is Robofurnace and like automation will enable machine learning to optimize and discover relationships in complex material synthesis processes.

Oliver, C. Ryan; Westrick, William; Koehler, Jeremy; Brieland-Shoultz, Anna; Anagnostopoulos-Politis, Ilias; Cruz-Gonzalez, Tizoc [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Hart, A. John, E-mail: ajhart@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

158

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic vapor deposited Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

S. S. - School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University Collection: Plasma Physics and Fusion 8 Influence of substrate temperature on the stability of glasses prepared by vapor...

159

Towards improved spinnability of chemical vapor deposition generated multi-walled carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

P. J. F. 1999 Carbon nanotubes and related structures: newof vapor grown carbon nanotubes and single wall nanotubes, Eto Carbon Materials in Carbon Nanotubes: Preparation and

McKee, Gregg Sturdivant Burke

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Inversion by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from N- to Ga-polar gallium nitride and its application to multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition growth approach for inverting N-polar to Ga-polar GaN by using a thin inversion layer grown with high Mg flux. The introduction of this inversion layer allowed us to grow p-GaN films on N-polar GaN thin film. We have studied the dependence of hole concentration, surface morphology, and degree of polarity inversion for the inverted Ga-polar surface on the thickness of the inversion layer. We then use this approach to grow a light emitting diode structure which has the MQW active region grown on the advantageous N-polar surface and the p-layer grown on the inverted Ga-polar surface.

Hosalli, A. M.; Van Den Broeck, D. M.; Bedair, S. M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, NCSU, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, NCSU, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Bharrat, D.; El-Masry, N. A. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, NCSU, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)] [Department of Material Science and Engineering, NCSU, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Characteristics of ultra low-k nanoporous and fluorinated silica based films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low dielectric constant (low-k) silica based films were deposited on p-type silicon and polycarbonate substrates by radio frequency (RF) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method at low temperature. A mixture of tetraethoxysilane vapor, oxygen, and tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) was used for the deposition of the films in forms of two structures called as SiO{sub x}C{sub y} and SiO{sub x}C{sub y}F{sub z}. Properties of the films were controlled by amount of porosity and fluorine content in the film matrix. The influence of RF power and CF{sub 4} flow on the elemental composition, deposition rate, surface roughness, leakage current, refractive index, and dielectric constant of the films were characterized. Moreover, optical emission spectroscopy was applied to monitor the plasma process at the different parameters. Electrical characteristics of SiO{sub x}C{sub y} and SiO{sub x}C{sub y}F{sub z} films with metal-oxide-semiconductor structure were investigated using current-voltage analysis to measure the leakage current and breakdown field, as well as capacitance-voltage analysis to obtain the film's dielectric constant. The results revealed that SiO{sub x}C{sub y} films, which are deposited at lower RF power produce more leakage current, meanwhile the dielectric constant and refractive index of these films decreased mainly due to the more porosity in the film structure. By adding CF{sub 4} in the deposition process, fluorine, the most electronegative and the least polarized atom, doped into the silica film and led to decrease in the refractive index and the dielectric constant. In addition, no breakdown field was observed in the electrical characteristics of SiO{sub x}C{sub y}F{sub z} films and the leakage current of these films reduced by increment of the CF{sub 4} flow.

Abbasi-Firouzjah, M. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Evin, Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Evin, Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokri, B. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Evin, Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Evin, Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

162

The influence of convective heat transfer on flow stability in rotating disk chemical vapor deposition reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flow and heat transfer of NH{sub 3} and He were studied in a rotating disk system with applications to chemical vapor deposition reactors. Flow field and disk heat flux were obtained over a range of operating conditions. Comparisons of disk convective heat transfer were made to infinite rotating disk results to appraise uniformity of transport to the disk. Important operating variables include disk spin rate, disk and enclosure temperatures, flow rate, composition, pressure, and gas mixture temperature at the reactor inlet. These variables were studied over ranges of the spin Reynolds number, Re{omega}; disk mixed convection parameter, MCP{sub w}; and wall mixed convection parameter, MCP{sub w}. Results obtained for NH{sub 3} show that increasing Re{omega} from 314.5 to 3145 increases the uniformity of rotating disk heat flux and results in thinner thermal boundary layers at the disk surface. At Re{omega}=314.5, increasing MCP{sub d} to 15 leads to significant departure from the infinite disk result with nonuniform disk heat fluxes and recirculating flow patterns; flow becomes increasingly complex at larger values of MCP{sub d}. At Re{omega} of 3145, results are closer to the infinite disk for MCP{sub d} up to 15. For large negative (hot walls) and positive (cold walls) values of MCP{sub w}, flow recirculates and there is significant deviation from the infinite disk result; nonuniformities occur at both values of Re{omega}. The influence of MCP{sub w} on flow stability is increased at larger MCP{sub d} and lower Re{omega}. To determine the influence of viscosity and thermal conductivity variation with temperature, calculations were made with He and NH{sub 3}; He transport property variation is low relative to NH{sub 3}. Results show that the flow of NH{sub 3} is less stable than that of He as MCP{sub d} is increased for MCP{sub w}=0 and Re{omega}=314.5. 16 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Winters, W.S.; Evans, G.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Grief, R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Atomic layer deposition of TiN films Growth and electrical behavior down to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atomic layer deposition of TiN films Growth and electrical behavior down to sub-nanometer scale Hao Van Bui #12;ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF TiN FILMS GROWTH AND ELECTRICAL BEHAVIOR DOWN TO SUBD. Thesis - University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands Title: Atomic layer deposition of TiN films

164

Method and apparatus for removing and preventing window deposition during photochemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD) processes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Unwanted build-up of the film deposited on the transparent light-transmitting window of a photochemical vacuum deposition (photo-CVD) chamber is eliminated by flowing an etchant into the part of the photolysis region in the chamber immediately adjacent the window and remote from the substrate and from the process gas inlet. The respective flows of the etchant and the process gas are balanced to confine the etchant reaction to the part of the photolysis region proximate to the window and remote from the substrate. The etchant is preferably one that etches film deposit on the window, does not etch or affect the window itself, and does not produce reaction by-products that are deleterious to either the desired film deposited on the substrate or to the photolysis reaction adjacent the substrate. 3 figs.

Tsuo, S.; Langford, A.A.

1989-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

165

Method and apparatus for removing and preventing window deposition during photochemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD) processes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Unwanted build-up of the film deposited on the transparent light-transmitting window of a photochemical vacuum deposition (photo-CVD) chamber is eliminated by flowing an etchant into the part of the photolysis region in the chamber immediately adjacent the window and remote from the substrate and from the process gas inlet. The respective flows of the etchant and the process gas are balanced to confine the etchant reaction to the part of the photolysis region proximate to the window and remote from the substrate. The etchant is preferably one that etches film deposit on the window, does not etch or affect the window itself, and does not produce reaction by-products that are deleterious to either the desired film deposited on the substrate or to the photolysis reaction adjacent the substrate.

Tsuo, Simon (Lakewood, CO); Langford, Alison A. (Boulder, CO)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

GaN nanorod light emitting diodes with suspended graphene transparent electrodes grown by rapid chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ordered and dense GaN light emitting nanorods are studied with polycrystalline graphene grown by rapid chemical vapor deposition as suspended transparent electrodes. As the substitute of indium tin oxide, the graphene avoids complex processing to fill up the gaps between nanorods and subsequent surface flattening and offers high conductivity to improve the carrier injection. The as-fabricated devices have 32% improvement in light output power compared to conventional planar GaN-graphene diodes. The suspended graphene remains electrically stable up to 300?°C in air. The graphene can be obtained at low cost and high efficiency, indicating its high potential in future applications.

Xu, Kun; Xu, Chen, E-mail: xuchen58@bjut.edu.cn; Deng, Jun; Zhu, Yanxu; Guo, Weiling; Mao, Mingming; Xun, Meng; Chen, Maoxing; Zheng, Lei [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronics Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100124 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronics Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100124 (China); Xie, Yiyang [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductor, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductor, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Sun, Jie, E-mail: jie.sun@chalmers.se [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronics Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100124 (China) [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronics Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100124 (China); Mikroteknologi och Nanovetenskap, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola AB, Göteborg 41296 (Sweden)

2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

167

Photoresponse properties of large-area MoS{sub 2} atomic layer synthesized by vapor phase deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Photoresponse properties of a large area MoS{sub 2} atomic layer synthesized by vapor phase deposition method without any catalyst are studied. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectrum, and photoluminescence spectrum characterizations confirm that the two-dimensional microstructures of MoS{sub 2} atomic layer are of high quality. Photoelectrical results indicate that the as-prepared MoS{sub 2} devices have an excellent sensitivity and a good reproducibility as a photodetector, which is proposed to be ascribed to the potential-assisted charge separation mechanism.

Luo, Siwei; Qi, Xiang, E-mail: xqi@xtu.edu.cn, E-mail: jxzhong@xtu.edu.cn; Ren, Long; Hao, Guolin; Fan, Yinping; Liu, Yundan; Han, Weijia; Zang, Chen; Li, Jun; Zhong, Jianxin, E-mail: xqi@xtu.edu.cn, E-mail: jxzhong@xtu.edu.cn [Hunan Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Energy Materials and Devices, People's Republic of China Laboratory for Quantum Engineering and Micro-Nano Energy Technology, and Faculty of Materials and Optoelectronic Physics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

168

Improving chemical vapor deposition graphene conductivity using molybdenum trioxide: An in-situ field effect transistor study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

By using in situ field effect transistor characterization integrated with molecular beam epitaxy technique, we demonstrate the strong surface transfer p-type doping effect of single layer chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, through the surface functionalization of molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) layer. After doping, both the hole and electron mobility of CVD graphene are nearly retained, resulting in significant enhancement of graphene conductivity. With coating of 10 nm MoO{sub 3}, the conductivity of CVD graphene can be increased by about 7 times, showing promising application for graphene based electronics and transparent, conducting, and flexible electrodes.

Han, Cheng [Department of Physics and Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, 999 Xue Fu Da Dao, Nanchang (China) [Department of Physics and Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, 999 Xue Fu Da Dao, Nanchang (China); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Lin, Jiadan; Xiang, Du [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)] [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Wang, Chaocheng; Wang, Li [Department of Physics and Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, 999 Xue Fu Da Dao, Nanchang (China)] [Department of Physics and Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, 999 Xue Fu Da Dao, Nanchang (China); Chen, Wei [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore) [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543 and Graphene Research Centre, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

169

Structural, compositional, and photoluminescence characterization of thermal chemical vapor deposition-grown Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} microtips  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The catalytic growth of Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} using guided-stream thermal chemical vapor deposition has been investigated within the parameter range of acicular growth to obtain uniform microtips with a high crystalline quality. The cubic anti-bixbyite crystal structure of Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} microtips and its related phonon mode are revealed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The surface morphologies of pure and surface-oxidized Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} microtips are depicted by scanning electron microscopy and show the crack formation on the surface-oxidized Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} microtips. The spatial element distribution map confirms the VLS growth mechanism for Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} microtips and reveals the depth profile of zinc, nitrogen, oxygen, and nickel elements. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} microtips show a sharp infrared band-to-band emission peak at 1.34?eV with a full width at half maximum of ?100?meV and a very broad oxygen-related defect band emission peak centered at ?0.85?eV.

Wei, Pai-Chun, E-mail: pcwei68@gmail.com, E-mail: tsengcm@phys.sinica.edu.tw; Chang, Chung-Chieh; Hsu, Chia-Hao [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Tong, Shih-Chang; Shen, Ji-Lin [Department of Physics, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Chuan-Ming, E-mail: pcwei68@gmail.com, E-mail: tsengcm@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Tao-Yuan 32001, Taiwan (China)

2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

170

Simulation of chemical vapor infiltration and deposition based on 3D images: a local scale approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

infiltration of ceramic matrix composites is presented. This computational model requires a 3D representation/reaction problems; Random walks; 3D image-based modeling 1. Introduction Ceramic Matrix Composites and Carbon with a matrix. One of the most efficient ones is Chemical Vapor Infiltration (CVI), by which gaseous precursors

Boyer, Edmond

171

Semi-insulating crystalline silicon formed by oxygen doping during low-temperature chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Semi-insulating crystalline silicon formed by oxygen doping during low-temperature chemical vapor) In this letter we demonstrate the use of oxygen as a dopant in silicon to create semi-insulating, crystalline of the films exhibit classical characteristics of space-charge-limited current associated with insulators

172

Distributed Porosity as a Control Parameter for Oxide Thermal Barriers Made by Physical Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anthony G. Evans* Materials Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 Thermal barrier and generating new thermal resistance solutions, as appropri- ate. A continuum heat flow analysis is usedDistributed Porosity as a Control Parameter for Oxide Thermal Barriers Made by Physical Vapor

Wadley, Haydn

173

Research on fundamental aspects of inorganic vapor and particle deposition in coal-fired systems. Seventh quarterly technical report, March 6, 1992--June 5, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Parallel research studies are underway on the following interrelated and fundamental subjects; Geometrical Approach to Determining the Sticking Probability of Particles Impacting on Convex Solid Surfaces; Correlations for High Schmidt Number Particle Deposition From Dilute Flowing Rational Engineering Suspensions; Average Capture Probability of Arriving Particles Which Are Distributed With ResPect to ImPact VelocitY and Incidence Angle (Relative to Deposit Substrate); Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Vapor Infiltration of Non-isothermal Granular Deposits; Effective Area/Volume of Populations of `MicroPorous` Aerosol Particles (Compact and `Fractal` Quasispherical Aggregates); Effects of Radiative Heat Transfer on the Coagulation Rates of Combustion-Generated Particles; Structure-Sensitivity of Total Mass Deposition Rates from Combustion Product Streams containing Coagulation-Aged Populations of Aggregated Primary Particles; and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} Chemical Vapor Deposition From Chlorine-containing Coal-Derived Gases.

Rosner, D.E.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Vapor-transport growth of high optical quality WSe{sub 2} monolayers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides are atomically thin direct-gap semiconductors that show a variety of novel electronic and optical properties with an optically accessible valley degree of freedom. While they are ideal materials for developing optical-driven valleytronics, the restrictions of exfoliated samples have limited exploration of their potential. Here, we present a physical vapor transport growth method for triangular WSe{sub 2} sheets of up to 30 ?m in edge length on insulating SiO{sub 2} substrates. Characterization using atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy reveals that they are uniform, monolayer crystals. Low temperature photoluminescence shows well resolved and electrically tunable excitonic features similar to those in exfoliated samples, with substantial valley polarization and valley coherence. The monolayers grown using this method are therefore of high enough optical quality for routine use in the investigation of optoelectronics and valleytronics.

Clark, Genevieve [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Wu, Sanfeng; Rivera, Pasqual; Finney, Joseph; Nguyen, Paul; Cobden, David H. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Xu, Xiaodong, E-mail: xuxd@uw.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Vapor-Phase Metalation by Atomic Layer Deposition in a Metal-Organic Framework  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

encompass deposition onto micro- and nanopowders14 and coating of nanoparticle films15 as well as aerogel coating of porous materials that exhibit ultrahigh-aspect ratios.12,13 To date, some striking examples

176

ZnO light-emitting diode grown by plasma-assisted metal organic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report a breakthrough in fabricating ZnO homojunction light-emitting diode by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Using NO plasma, we are able to grow p-type ZnO thin films on n-type bulk ZnO substrates. The as-grown films on glass substrates show hole concentration of 10{sup 16}-10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} and mobility of 1-10 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Room-temperature photoluminescence spectra reveal nitrogen-related emissions. A typical ZnO homojunction shows rectifying behavior with a turn-on voltage of about 2.3 V. Electroluminescence at room temperature has been demonstrated with band-to-band emission at I=40 mA and defect-related emissions in the blue-yellow spectrum range.

Xu, W.Z.; Ye, Z.Z.; Zeng, Y.J.; Zhu, L.P.; Zhao, B.H.; Jiang, L.; Lu, J.G.; He, H.P.; Zhang, S.B. [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

2006-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

177

Vapor deposition of water on graphitic surfaces: Formation of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbonaceous surfaces are a major source of atmospheric particles and could play an important role in the formation of ice. Here we investigate through molecular simulations the stability, metastability, and molecular pathways of deposition of amorphous ice, bilayer ice, and ice I from water vapor on graphitic and atomless Lennard-Jones surfaces as a function of temperature. We find that bilayer ice is the most stable ice polymorph for small cluster sizes, nevertheless it can grow metastable well above its region of thermodynamic stability. In agreement with experiments, the simulations predict that on increasing temperature the outcome of water deposition is amorphous ice, bilayer ice, ice I, and liquid water. The deposition nucleation of bilayer ice and ice I is preceded by the formation of small liquid clusters, which have two wetting states: bilayer pancake-like (wetting) at small cluster size and droplet-like (non-wetting) at larger cluster size. The wetting state of liquid clusters determines which ice polymorph is nucleated: bilayer ice nucleates from wetting bilayer liquid clusters and ice I from non-wetting liquid clusters. The maximum temperature for nucleation of bilayer ice on flat surfaces, T{sub B}{sup max} is given by the maximum temperature for which liquid water clusters reach the equilibrium melting line of bilayer ice as wetting bilayer clusters. Increasing water-surface attraction stabilizes the pancake-like wetting state of liquid clusters leading to larger T{sub B}{sup max} for the flat non-hydrogen bonding surfaces of this study. The findings of this study should be of relevance for the understanding of ice formation by deposition mode on carbonaceous atmospheric particles, including soot.

Lupi, Laura; Kastelowitz, Noah; Molinero, Valeria, E-mail: Valeria.Molinero@utah.edu [Department of Chemistry, The University of Utah, 315 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0850 (United States)

2014-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

178

Pulsed chemical vapor deposition of Cu{sub 2}S into a porous TiO{sub 2} matrix  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chalcocite (Cu{sub 2}S) has been deposited via pulsed chemical vapor deposition (PCVD) into a porous TiO{sub 2} matrix using hydrogen sulfide and a metal-organic precursor. The precursor used is similar to the more common Cu(hfac)(tmvs) precursor, but it is fluorine free and exhibits increased thermal stability. The simultaneous exposure of the substrate to the copper precursor and hydrogen sulfide resulted in nonuniform Cu{sub 2}S films with a temperature independent deposition rate implying gas phase reaction kinetics. The exposure of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} and planar ZnO to alternating cycles of the copper precursor and hydrogen sulfide resulted in a PCVD film that penetrated fully into the porous TiO{sub 2} layer with a constant deposition rate of 0.08 nm/cycle over a temperature range of 150-400 deg. C The chalcocite (Cu{sub 2}S) stoichiometry was confirmed with extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements (EXAFS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Calculations of the EXAFS spectrum for different Cu{sub x}S phases show that EXAFS is sensitive to the different phase stoichiometries. Optical absorption measurements of CVD thin films using photothermal deflection spectroscopy show the presence of a metallic copper-poor phase for gas phase nucleated films less than 100 nm thick and a copper-rich semiconducting phase for thicknesses greater than 100 nm with a direct band gap of 1.8 eV and an indirect bandgap of 1.2 eV.

Carbone, I.; Zhou, Q.; Vollbrecht, B.; Yang, L.; Medling, S.; Bezryadina, A.; Bridges, F.; Alers, G. B.; Norman, J. T.; Kinmen, T. [Department of Physics, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Air Products Inc., 1969 Palomar Oaks Way, Carlsbad, California 92011 (United States); Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St., Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

179

Study on plasma assisted metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of Zr,,C,N... and Ti,,C,N... thin films and in situ plasma diagnostics with optical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

films and in situ plasma diagnostics with optical emission spectroscopy S. J. Cho, S.-H. Nam, C.-K. JungStudy on plasma assisted metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of Zr,,C,N... and Ti,,C,N... thin C,N films were synthesized by pulsed dc plasma assisted metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

Boo, Jin-Hyo

180

Characterization of photoluminescent (Y{sub 1{minus}x}Eu{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3} thin-films prepared by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Europium doped yttrium oxide, (Y{sub 1{minus}x}Eu{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3}, thin-films were deposited on silicon and sapphire substrates by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The films were grown in a MOCVD chamber reacting yttrium and europium tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5,-heptanedionates) precursors in an oxygen atmosphere at low pressures (5 Torr) and low substrate temperatures (500--700 C). The films deposited at 500 C were flat and composed of nanocrystalline regions of cubic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, grown in a textured [100] or [110] orientation to the substrate surface. Films deposited at 600 C developed from the flat, nanocrystalline morphology into a plate-like growth morphology oriented in the [111] with increasing deposition time. Monoclinic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} was observed in x-ray diffraction for deposition temperatures {ge}600 C on both (111) Si and (001) sapphire substrates. This was also confirmed by the photoluminescent emission spectra.

McKittrick, J.; Bacalski, C.F.; Hirata, G.A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Hubbard, K.M.; Pattillo, S.G.; Salazar, K.V.; Trkula, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

The Progress on Low-Cost, High-Quality, High-Temperature Superconducting Tapes Deposited by the Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The innovative Combustion Chemical Vapor Deposition (CCVD) process is a non-vacuum technique that is being investigated to enable next generation products in several application areas including high-temperature superconductors (HTS). In combination with the Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrate (RABiTS) technology, the CCVD process has significant promise to provide low-cost, high-quality lengths of YBCO coated conductor. Over 100 meter lengths of both Ni and Ni-W (3 at. Wt.%) substrates with a surface roughness of 12-18 nm were produced. The CCVD technology has been used to deposit both buffer layer coatings as well as YBCO superconducting layers. Buffer layer architecture of strontium titanate (SrTiO{sub 3}) and ceria (CeO{sub 2}) have been deposited by CCVD on textured nickel substrates and optimized to appropriate thicknesses and microstructures to provide templates for growing PLD YBCO with a J{sub c} of 1.1 MA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K and self-field. The CCVD buffer layers have been scaled to meter plus lengths with good epitaxial uniformity along the length. A short sample cut from one of the lengths enabled high critical current density PLD YBCO. Films of CCVD YBCO superconductors have been grown on single crystal substrates with critical current densities over 1 MA/cm{sup 2}. In addition, superconducting YBCO films with an I{sub c} of 60 A/cm-width (J{sub c} = 1.5 MA/cm{sup 2}) were grown on ORNL RABiTS (CeO{sub 2}/YSZ/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ni/Ni-3W) using CCVD process.

Shoup, S.S.; White, M.K.; Krebs, S.L.; Darnell, N.; King, A.C.; Mattox, D.S.; Campbell, I.H.; Marken, K.R.; Hong, S.; Czabaj, B.; Paranthaman, M.; Christen, H.M.; Zhai, H.-Y. Specht, E.

2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

182

Prevention of biofouling in seawater desalination via initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biofouling, the undesirable settlement and growth of organisms, occurs immediately when a clean surface is immersed in natural seawater. It is a universal problem and the bottleneck for seawater desalination, which reduces ...

Yang, Rong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Characterization of amorphous hydrogenated carbon nitride films prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using a helical resonator discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amorphous hydrogenated carbon nitride thin films (a-CN{sub x}:H) have been prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of N{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} gases using a helical resonator discharge. The structural and optical properties of the deposited a-CN{sub x}:H films have been systematically studied as a function of the substrate temperature and radio frequency (rf) substrate bias. The chemical structure and elemental composition of the a-CN{sub x}:H films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. The optical properties of the films were evaluated using transmission ultraviolet{endash}visible spectroscopy. The morphology of the films was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The FT-IR and XPS studies demonstrate the presence of carbon{endash}nitrogen bonds with hydrogenated components in the films. The film composition ratio N/C was found to vary from 0.127 to 0.213 depending on the deposition conditions. The Raman spectra, showing the G and D bands, indicate that the a-CN{sub x}:H films have a graphitic structure. It can be found that the optical band-gap E{sub g} of a-CN{sub x}:H films is associated with graphitic clusters, while the decrease in E{sub g} is correlated with an increase in the size and number of graphitic clusters. Combining the results of Raman and optical measurements, it can be concluded that a progressive graphitization of the films occurs with increasing the substrate temperature and rf substrate bias power, corresponding to bias voltage. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Kim, J.H.; Ahn, D.H. [LG Electronics Research Center, 16 Woomyeon-Dong, Seocho-Gu, Seoul 137-140 (Korea)] [LG Electronics Research Center, 16 Woomyeon-Dong, Seocho-Gu, Seoul 137-140 (Korea); Kim, Y.H.; Baik, H.K. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-ku, Seoul 120-749 (Korea)] [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-ku, Seoul 120-749 (Korea)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Nanoscale Growth Twins in Sputtered Copper Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.............................................................. 7 I.1.3. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) .................................... 8 I.2. Fabrication of copper thin films .................................................... 12... to the exposure of the film growth surface to the solution, impurities may be introduced. I.1.3. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) CVD is a chemical process used to produce high-purity, high-performance thin films and often used in the semiconductor industry...

Anderoglu, Osman

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

185

Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Forest Grown via Chemical Vapor Deposition from Iron Catalyst Nanoparticles, by XPS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have unique chemical and physical properties. Herein, we report an XPS analysis of a forest of multiwalled CNTs using monochromatic Al K? radiation. Survey scans show only one element: carbon. The carbon 1s peak is centered 284.5 eV. The C 1s envelope also shows the expected ? ? ?* shake-up peak at ca. 291 eV. The valence band and carbon KVV Auger signals are presented. When patterned, the CNT forests can be used as a template for subsequent deposition of metal oxides to make thin layer chromatography plates.1-3

Jensen, David S.; Kanyal, Supriya S.; Madaan, Nitesh; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Engelhard, Mark H.; Linford, Matthew R.

2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

186

Plasma-enriched chemical vapor deposition of silicon nitride on silicon carbide fibers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Near stoichiometric Si:N coatings were deposited by means of PECVD on SCS-6 SiC fibers which contained a carbon-rich coating. Weight loss associated with oxidation of the outer carbon-rich coating of the as-received SiC fibers was greatly reduced for the Si:N coated SiC fibers even after 10 h heat-treatment in oxygen at 800{degrees}C. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) was used to obtain elemental compositions of the as-received and Si:N coated SiC fibers after heat-treatment. Negligible amounts of oxygen were found at the carbon-rich coating of the heat-treated Si:N coated SiC fiber. These results clearly prove the effectiveness of PECVD silicon nitride coating as an oxygen diffusion barrier.

Stinespring, C.D.; Collazos, D.F.; Gupta, R.K. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

187

Reactor design for uniform chemical vapor deposition-grown films without substrate rotation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A quartz reactor vessel for growth of uniform semiconductor films includes a vertical, cylindrical reaction chamber in which a substrate-supporting pedestal provides a horizontal substrate-supporting surface spaced on its perimeter from the chamber wall. A cylindrical confinement chamber of smaller diameter is disposed coaxially above the reaction chamber and receives reaction gas injected at a tangent to the inside chamber wall, forming a helical gas stream that descends into the reaction chamber. In the reaction chamber, the edge of the substrate-supporting pedestal is a separation point for the helical flow, diverting part of the flow over the horizontal surface of the substrate in an inwardly spiraling vortex.

Wanlass, Mark (Golden, CO)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Reactor design for uniform chemical vapor deposition-grown films without substrate rotation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A quartz reactor vessel for growth of uniform semiconductor films includes a vertical, cylindrical reaction chamber in which a substrate-supporting pedestal provides a horizontal substrate-supporting surface spaced on its perimeter from the chamber wall. A cylindrical confinement chamber of smaller diameter is disposed coaxially above the reaction chamber and receives reaction gas injected at a tangent to the inside chamber wall, forming a helical gas stream that descends into the reaction chamber. In the reaction chamber, the edge of the substrate-supporting pedestal is a separation point for the helical flow, diverting part of the flow over the horizontal surface of the substrate in an inwardly spiraling vortex.

Wanlass, M.

1985-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

189

Analysis of buoyancy and tube rotation relative to the modified chemical vapor deposition process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The secondary flows resulting from buoyancy effects in respect to the MCVD process have been studied in a rotating horizontal tube using a perturbation analysis. The three-dimensional secondary flow fields have been determined at several axial locations in a tube whose temperature varies in both the axial and circumferential directions for different rotational speeds. For small rotational speeds, buoyancy and axial convection are dominant and the secondary flow patterns are different in the regions near and far from the torch. For moderate rotational speeds, the effects of buoyancy, axial and angular convection are all important in the region far from the torch where there is a spiraling secondary flow. For large rotational speeds, only buoyancy and angular convection effects are important and no spiraling secondary motions occurs far downstream. Compared with thermophoresis, the important role of buoyancy in determining particle trajectories in MCVD is presented. As the rotational speed increases, the importance of the secondary flow decreases and the thermophoretic contribution vecomes more important. It is noted that thermophoresis is considered to be the main cause of particle deposition in the MCVD process.

Choi, M.; Lin, Y.T.; Greif, R. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

The Effect of High Temperature Annealing on the Grain Characteristics of a Thin Chemical Vapor Deposition Silicon Carbide Layer.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The unique combination of thermo-mechanical and physiochemical properties of silicon carbide (SiC) provides interest and opportunity for its use in nuclear applications. One of the applications of SiC is as a very thin layer in the TRi-ISOtropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles for high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs). This SiC layer, produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), is designed to withstand the pressures of fission and transmutation product gases in a high temperature, radiation environment. Various researchers have demonstrated that macroscopic properties can be affected by changes in the distribution of grain boundary plane orientations and misorientations [1 - 3]. Additionally, various researchers have attributed the release behavior of Ag through the SiC layer as a grain boundary diffusion phenomenon [4 - 6]; further highlighting the importance of understanding the actual grain characteristics of the SiC layer. Both historic HTGR fission product release studies and recent experiments at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) [7] have shown that the release of Ag-110m is strongly temperature dependent. Although the maximum normal operating fuel temperature of a HTGR design is in the range of 1000-1250°C, the temperature may reach 1600°C under postulated accident conditions. The aim of this specific study is therefore to determine the magnitude of temperature dependence on SiC grain characteristics, expanding upon initial studies by Van Rooyen et al, [8; 9].

Isabella J van Rooyen; Philippus M van Rooyen; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Activity and Evolution of Vapor Deposited Pt-Pd Oxygen Reduction Catalysts for Solid Acid Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of hydrogen fuel cells based on the crystalline solid proton conductor CsH2PO4 is circumscribed by the mass activity of platinum oxygen reduction catalysts in the cathode. Here we report on the first application of an alloy catalyst in a solid acid fuel cell, and demonstrate an activity 4.5 times greater than Pt at 0.8 V. These activity enhancements were obtained with platinum-palladium alloys that were vapor-deposited directly on CsH2PO4 at 210 C. Catalyst mass activity peaks at a composition of 84 at% Pd, though smaller activity enhancements are observed for catalyst compositions exceeding 50 at% Pd. Prior to fuel cell testing, Pd-rich catalysts display lattice parameter expansions of up to 2% due to the presence of interstitial carbon. After fuel cell testing, a Pt-Pd solid solution absent of lattice dilatation and depleted in carbon is recovered. The structural evolution of the catalysts is correlated with catalyst de-activation.

Papandrew, Alexander B [ORNL; Chisholm, Calum R [ORNL; Zecevic, strahinja [LiOx, Inc., Pasadena, California 91106, United States; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Zawodzinski, Thomas A [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Mass densification and defect restoration in chemical vapor deposition silicon dioxide film using Ar plasma excited by microwave  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) films formed by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) have been treated with Ar plasma excited by microwave. The changes of the mass densities, carrier trap densities, and thicknesses of the CVD-SiO{sub 2} films with the Ar plasma treatments were investigated. The mass density depth profiles were estimated with X-Ray Reflectivity (XRR) analysis using synchrotron radiation. The densities of carrier trap centers due to defects of Si-O bond network were estimated with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) time-dependent measurement. The changes of the thicknesses due to the oxidation of Si substrates were estimated with the XRR and XPS. The mass densities of the CVD-SiO{sub 2} films are increased by the Ar plasma treatments. The carrier trap densities of the films are decreased by the treatments. The thicknesses of the films are not changed by the treatments. It has been clarified that the mass densification and defect restoration in the CVD-SiO{sub 2} films are caused by the Ar plasma treatments without the oxidation of the Si substrates.

Kawase, Kazumasa, E-mail: Kawase.Kazumasa@ak.MitsubishiElectric.co.jp; Motoya, Tsukasa; Uehara, Yasushi [Advanced Technology R and D Center, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, 8-1-1 Tsukaguchi-honmachi, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-8661 (Japan); Teramoto, Akinobu; Suwa, Tomoyuki; Ohmi, Tadahiro [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan)

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Properties of chemical vapor deposited tungsten silicide films using reaction of WF/sub 6/ and Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tungsten silicide films were formed by the chemical vapor deposition method using the reaction WF/sub 6/ and Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/. The deposition rate, resistivity, composition, stress, crystal structure, and content of impurities were studied and compared with tungsten silicide films deposited by reaction of WF/sub 6/ and SiH/sub 4/. The tungsten silicide films made using Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/ have a higher deposition rate and higher Si concentration than those made by using SiH/sub 4/ at the same substrate temperature. For these reasons, the tungsten silicide films made by using Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/ were found to have a resistivity that is a little higher and, after annealing, a stress that is smaller than that made by SiH/sub 4/.

Shioya, Y.; Ikegami, K.; Kobayashi, I.; Maeda, M.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

IRRADIATION GROWTH IN ZIRCONIUM AT LOW TEMPERATURES BY DIRECT ATHERMAL DEPOSITION OF VACANCIES AT EXTENDED SINKS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IRRADIATION GROWTH IN ZIRCONIUM AT LOW TEMPERATURES BY DIRECT ATHERMAL DEPOSITION OF VACANCIES that at high temperatures (where vacancies are mobile) growth can be accounted for using a combination of : #12 vacancies and self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) as proposed by Woo and Gosele [5,6]. This theory seems

Motta, Arthur T.

195

Ion Beam Deposition of Thin Films: Growth Processes and Nanostructure Formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ion beam deposition is a process far from thermodynamic equilibrium and is in particular suited to grow metastable thin films with diamond-like properties, such as tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) and cubic boron nitride (c-BN). In this contribution the atomistic description of the deposition and growth processes are reviewed and compared to experimental results, obtained from mass selected ion beam deposition. The focus will be set to the nucleation and growth processes of boron nitride as a model system for ion based thin film formation. Furthermore, recent examples for nanostructure formation in ion deposited compound thin films will be presented. Ion beam deposited metal-carbon nano-composite thin films exhibit a variety of different morphologies such as rather homogeneous nanocluster distributions embedded in an a-C matrix, but also the self-organized formation of nanoscale multilayer structures.

Hofsaess, Hans C. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany)

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Calibrated vapor generator source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

1995-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

197

Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of High Silica SiO2-TiO2 Antireflective Thin Films for Glass Based Solar Panels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of SiO2-TiO2 thin films employing [[(tBuO)3Si]2O-Ti(OiPr)2], which can be prepared from commercially available materials, results in antireflective thin films on float glass under industrially relevant manufacturing conditions. It was found that while the deposition temperature had an effect on the SiO2:TiO2 ratio, the thickness was dependent on the time of deposition. This study shows that it is possible to use APCVD employing a single source precursor containing titanium and silicon to produce thin films on float glass with high SiO2:TiO2 ratios.

Klobukowski, Erik R [ORNL; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E [ORNL; McCamy, James [PPG; Harris, Caroline [PPG; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Low Temperature Direct Growth of Graphene Films on Transparent Substrates by Chemical Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

graphene in fields like electronics and optoelectronics.useful for electronics, optoelectronics and photovoltaic

Antoine, Geoffrey Sandosh Jeffy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Control of carbon nanotube growth directions and morphology by direct current plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pierard, A. Fonseca, Z. Konya, I. Willems, G. Van Tendeloo,D. Mehn, G. Galbaes, Z. Konya, I. Kiricsi, Catal. Today 76,

AuBuchon, Joseph Francis

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Heteroepitaxial Growth of NSMO on Silicon by Pulsed Laser Deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following is the optimized pulsed laser deposition (PLD) procedure by which we prepared the final samples that were sent to LLNL. These samples are epitaxial multilayer structures of Si/YSZ/CeO/NSMO, where the abbreviations are explained in the following table. In this heterostructure, YSZ serves as a buffer layer to prevent deleterious chemical reactions, and also serves to de-oxygenate the amorphous SiO{sub 2} layer to generate a crystalline template for epitaxy. CeO and BTO serve as template layers to minimize the effects of thermal and lattice mismatch strains, respectively. More details on the buffer and template layer scheme are included in the manuscript [Yong et al., 2008] attached to this report.

Kolagani, R; Friedrich, S

2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 612 2000 Materials Research Society VOLATILE LIQUID PRECURSORS FOR THE CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. These tungsten oxide films can be used as part of electrochromic windows, mirrors or displays. Physical in microelectronics.5 CVD using both W(CO)6 vapor and oxygen gas, O2, has produced electrochromic films of tungsten

202

Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of GaN on Si(111): Stress control and application to field-effect transistors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two schemes of nucleation and growth of gallium nitride on Si(111) substrates are investigated and the structural and electrical properties of the resulting films are reported. Gallium nitride films grown using a 10{endash}500 nm-thick AlN buffer layer deposited at high temperature ({similar_to}1050{degree}C) are found to be under 260{endash}530 MPa of tensile stress and exhibit cracking, the origin of which is discussed. The threading dislocation density in these films increases with increasing AlN thickness, covering a range of 1.1 to {gt}5.8{times}10{sup 9}cm{sup {minus}2}. Films grown using a thick, AlN-to-GaN graded buffer layer are found to be under compressive stress and are completely crack free. Heterojunction field effect transistors fabricated on such films result in well-defined saturation and pinch-off behavior with a saturated current of {similar_to}525 mA/mm and a transconductance of {similar_to}100 mS/mm in dc operation. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Marchand, H.; Zhao, L.; Zhang, N.; Moran, B.; Coffie, R.; Mishra, U. K.; Speck, J. S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Freitas, J. A.

2001-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

203

Rapid assessment of mid-infrared refractive index anisotropy using a prism coupler: chemical vapor deposited ZnS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A state-of-the-art mid-infrared prism coupler was used to study the refractive index properties of forward-looking-infrared (FLIR) grade zinc sulfide samples prepared with unique planar grain orientations and locations with respect to the CVD growth axis. This study was motivated by prior photoluminescence and x-ray diffraction measurements that suggested refractive index may vary according to grain orientation. Measurements were conducted to provide optical dispersion and thermal index (dn/dT) data at discrete laser wavelengths between 0.633 and 10.591 {mu}m at two temperature set points (30 C and 90 C). Refractive index measurements between samples exhibited an average standard deviation comparable to the uncertainty of the prism coupler measurement (0.0004 refractive index units), suggesting that the variation in refractive index as a function of planar grain orientation and CVD deposition time is negligible, and should have no impact on subsequent optical designs. Measured dispersion data at mid-infrared wavelengths was found to agree well with prior published measurements.

Qiao, Hong (Amy) [Amy; Lipschultz, Kristen A.; Anheier, Norman C.; McCloy, John S.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Diode-laser-based atomic absorption monitor using frequency-modulation spectroscopy for physical vapor deposition process control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Diode-laser-based atomic absorption monitor using frequency-modulation spectroscopy for physical, and the dynamic events occur- ring as vapors condense on a substrate. Atomic absorption AA spectroscopy also been measured by means of the Doppler frequency shifts of the atomic absorption with respect

Fejer, Martin M.

205

Bundles of carbon nanotubes generated by vapor-phase growth Maohui Ge and Klaus Sattler  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

show that another hollow carbon structure is possible to form under such high density conditions. We report the observation of assemblies of carbon nano- tubes in the form of bundles. The bundles. It is located horizontally on the flat graphite substrate. It is separated from other deposited carbon nano

Sattler, Klaus

206

Research on fundamental aspects of inorganic vapor and particle deposition in coal-fired systems. Quarterly technical report, December 6, 1991--March 5, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September 1990 DOE-PETC initiated at the Yale HTCRE Laboratory a systematic three-year research program directed toward providing engineers with the fundamentally-based design/optimization ``tools`` foreconomically predicting the dynamics of net deposit growth, and thermophysical properties of the resulting microparticulate deposits in coal-fired systems. The goal of our research in the area of mineral mattertransport is to advance the capability of making reliable engineering predictions of the dynamics of net deposit growth for surfaces exposed to the particle-laden products of coal combustion. To accomplish thisfor a wide variety of combustor types, coal types, and operating conditions, this capability must be based on a quantitative understanding of each of the important mechanisms of mineral matter transport, as well as the nature of the interactions between these substances and the prevailing ``fireside`` surface of deposits. This level of understanding and predictive capability could be translated into very significant cost reductions for coal-fired equipment design, development and operation. It is also expected that this research activity will not only directly benefit the ash deposition R&D community -- but also generically closely related technologies of importance to DOE (e.g. hot-gas clean-up, particulate solids handling,...).

Rosner, D.E.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Condensed phase conversion and growth of nanorods instead of from vapor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Compositions, systems and methods are described for condensed phase conversion and growth of nanorods and other materials. A method includes providing a condensed phase matrix material; and activating the condensed phase matrix material to produce a plurality of nanorods by condensed phase conversion and growth from the condensed chase matrix material instead of from vacor. The compositions are very strong. The compositions and methods provide advantages because they allow (1) formation rates of nanostructures necessary for reasonable production rates, and (2) the near net shaped production of component structures.

Geohegan, David B.; Seals, Roland D.; Puretzky, Alex A.; Fan, Xudong

2005-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

208

Measurement and modeling of Ar/H2/CH4 arc jet discharge chemical vapor deposition reactors. I. Intercomparison  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of thin, polycrystalline diamond films, and the results of a two-dimensional r,z computer model domains. dc arc jets offer considerable advantages as a route to deposition of polycrystalline diamond

Bristol, University of

209

A three-dimensional analysis of the flow and heat transfer for the modified chemical vapor deposition process including buoyancy, variable properties, and tube rotation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study has been made of the heat transfer, flow, and particle deposition relative to the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process. The effects of variable properties, buoyancy, and tube rotation have been included in the study. The resulting three-dimensional temperature and velocity fields have been obtained for a range of conditions. The effects of buoyancy result in asymmetric temperature and axial velocity profiles with respect to the tube axis. Variable properties cause significant variations in the axial velocity along the tube and in the secondary flow in the region near the torch. Particle trajectories are shown to be strongly dependent on the tube rotation and are helices for large rotational speeds. The component of secondary flow in the radial direction is compared to the thermophoretic velocity, which is the primary cause of particle deposition in the MCVD process. Over the central portion of the tube the radial component of the secondary flow is most important in determining the motion of the particles.

Lin, Y.T.; Choi, M.; Greif, R. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Phase-Controlled Growth of Metastable Fe5Si3 Nanowires by a Vapor Transport Method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to produce other metal-rich silicide nanostructures for future spintronic devices. Introduction Iron. Depending on the concentration ratio of FeI2(g) to SiI4(g), different phases of iron silicides are formed. The growth of nanowires is facilitated by the initial nucleation of silicide particles on the substrate

Kim, Bongsoo

211

Research on fundamental aspects of inorganic vapor and particle deposition in coal-fired systems. Eighth quarterly technical progress report, June 6, 1992--September 5, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September 1990 DOE-PETC initiated at the Yale HTCRE Laboratory a systematic three-year research program directed toward providing engineers with the fundamentally-based design/optimization `tools` for economically predicting the dynamics of net deposit growth*, and thermophysical properties of the resulting microparticulate deposits in coal-fired systems. In light of the theoretical `program` based on the notion of ``self-regulation`` set forth in Rosner and Nagarajan (1987), this Task includes investigation of the effects of particle material properties and possible liquid phases on the capture properties of particulate deposits. For this purpose we exploit dynamical `many-body` computer simulation techniques. This approach will provide the required parametric dependencies (on such quantities as incident kinetic energy and angle, mechanical and thermophysical properties of the particles,{hor_ellipsis}) of a dimensionless ensemble-averaged particle capture fraction, relegating the role of direct laboratory experiment to verifying (or rejecting) some crucial features/consequences of the simulation route followed. Our ultimate goal is recommend `sticking` and `erosion` laws of mechanistic origin. The availability of such laws could dramatically increase the reliability of predicted deposition rates of inertially delivered particles, in the simultaneous presence of a condensed liquid phase within the growing particulate, deposit. Equally important, one could also rationally select conditions to avoid. troublesome deposition subject to other operational requirements.

Rosner, D.E.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Co-Pt core-shell nanostructured catalyst prepared by selective chemical vapor pulse deposition of Pt on Co as a cathode in polymer electrolyte fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new type of PtCo/C catalyst for use as a cathode in polymer electrolyte fuel cells was prepared by selective chemical vapor pulse deposition (CVPD) of Pt on the surface of Co. The activity of the prepared catalyst for oxygen reduction was higher than that of a catalyst prepared by sequential impregnation (IMP) with the two metallic components. This catalytic activity difference occurs because the former catalyst has smaller Pt crystallites that produce stronger Pt-Co interactions and have a larger Pt surface area. Consequently, the CVPD catalyst has a great number of Co particles that are in close contact with the added Pt. The Pt surface was also electronically modified by interactions with Co, which were stronger in the CVPD catalyst than in the IMP catalyst, as indicated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry measurements of the catalysts.

Seo, Sang-Joon; Chung, Ho-Kyoon [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) and Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Ji-Beom [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) and Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi 440-746, Korea and School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Heeyeop; Seo, Seung-Woo; Min Cho, Sung, E-mail: sungmcho@skku.edu [School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

213

Current induced annealing and electrical characterization of single layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition for future interconnects in VLSI circuits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single layer graphene (SLG) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been investigated for its prospective application as horizontal interconnects in very large scale integrated circuits. However, the major bottleneck for its successful application is its degraded electronic transport properties due to the resist residual trapped in the grain boundaries and on the surface of the polycrystalline CVD graphene during multi-step lithographic processes, leading to increase in its sheet resistance up to 5 M?/sq. To overcome this problem, current induced annealing has been employed, which helps to bring down the sheet resistance to 10?k?/sq (of the order of its initial value). Moreover, the maximum current density of ?1.2?×?10{sup 7?}A/cm{sup 2} has been obtained for SLG (1?×?2.5??m{sup 2}) on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate, which is about an order higher than that of conventionally used copper interconnects.

Prasad, Neetu, E-mail: neetu.prasad@south.du.ac.in, E-mail: neetu23686@gmail.com; Kumari, Anita; Bhatnagar, P. K.; Mathur, P. C. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India); Bhatia, C. S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

214

Toward epitaxially grown two-dimensional crystal hetero-structures: Single and double MoS{sub 2}/graphene hetero-structures by chemical vapor depositions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uniform large-size MoS{sub 2}/graphene hetero-structures fabricated directly on sapphire substrates are demonstrated with layer-number controllability by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images provide the direct evidences of layer numbers of MoS{sub 2}/graphene hetero-structures. Photo-excited electron induced Fermi level shift of the graphene channel are observed on the single MoS{sub 2}/graphene hetero-structure transistors. Furthermore, double hetero-structures of graphene/MoS{sub 2}/graphene are achieved by CVD fabrication of graphene layers on top of the MoS{sub 2}, as confirmed by the cross-sectional HRTEM. These results have paved the possibility of epitaxially grown multi-hetero-structures for practical applications.

Lin, Meng-Yu [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chung-En [Department of Photonics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Wang, Cheng-Hung [Institute of Display, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Su, Chen-Fung; Chen, Chi [Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Si-Chen [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shih-Yen, E-mail: shihyen@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Photonics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

215

In situ metal-organic chemical vapor deposition atomic-layer deposition of aluminum oxide on GaAs using trimethyaluminum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IPA is chosen as the oxygen source for the ALD in the MOCVD. Second, IPA will not react precursor pulse time. b Dependence of ALD Al2O3 growth rate on temperature. The pulse time for TMA and IPA

216

A Phase Diagram of Low Temperature Epitaxial Silicon Grown by Hot-wire Chemical Vapor Deposition for Photovoltaic Devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Photovoltaic Devices Christine Esber Richardson, Brendan M. Kayes, Matthew J. Dicken, and Harry A. Atwater-grained templates is one strategy for the fast, low- temperature growth of large-grained films with hydrogen). Figure 1: Schematic of proposed photovoltaic device incorporating epitaxial Si growth on a large

Atwater, Harry

217

Self-assembled Fe nanowires using organometallic chemical vapor deposition and CaF2 masks on stepped Si,,111...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

using other methods, such as pyrolysis.7 After the first Fe monolayer is deposited, the selective are created by growing 1­2 monolayers of CaF2 at a substrate temperature of 600 °C, flashing to 830 °C a few

Himpsel, Franz J.

218

Growth mechanism of atomic layer deposition of zinc oxide: A density functional theory approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic layer deposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) using diethylzinc (DEZ) and water is studied using density functional theory. The reaction pathways between the precursors and ZnO surface sites are discussed. Both reactions proceed by the formation of intermediate complexes on the surface. The Gibbs free energy of the formation of these complexes is positive at temperatures above ?120?°C and ?200?°C for DEZ and water half-reactions, respectively. Spectroscopic ellipsometry results show that the growth per cycle changes at approximately the same temperatures.

Afshar, Amir; Cadien, Kenneth C., E-mail: kcadien@ualberta.ca [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

219

ENHANCED GROWTH RATE AND SILANE UTILIZATION IN AMORPHOUS SILICON AND NANOCRYSTALLINE-SILICON SOLAR CELL DEPOSITION VIA GAS PHASE ADDITIVES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air Products set out to investigate the impact of additives on the deposition rate of both ���µCSi and ���±Si-H films. One criterion for additives was that they could be used in conventional PECVD processing, which would require sufficient vapor pressure to deliver material to the process chamber at the required flow rates. The flow rate required would depend on the size of the substrate onto which silicon films were being deposited, potentially ranging from 200 mm diameter wafers to the 5.7 m2 glass substrates used in GEN 8.5 flat-panel display tools. In choosing higher-order silanes, both disilane and trisilane had sufficient vapor pressure to withdraw gas at the required flow rates of up to 120 sccm. This report presents results obtained from testing at Air Products�¢���� electronic technology laboratories, located in Allentown, PA, which focused on developing processes on a commercial IC reactor using silane and mixtures of silane plus additives. These processes were deployed to compare deposition rates and film properties with and without additives, with a goal of maximizing the deposition rate while maintaining or improving film properties.

Ridgeway, R.G.; Hegedus, S.S.; Podraza, N.J.

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

220

Catalyst proximity effects on the growth rate of Si nanowires S. T. Boles,1,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and a silane precursor in a cold-wall chemical vapor deposition CVD system, where the precursor decomposition and experimental design, we have identified a fundamental aspect of growth of Si nanowires using the VLS mechanism

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

MOCVD growth of In GaP-based heterostructures for light emitting devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work, we examine fundamental materials processes in the growth of indium gallium phosphide (InGaP) via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). In particular, we realize improvements in the epitaxial integration ...

McGill, Lisa Megan, 1975-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Nanocrystalline-Si-dot multi-layers fabrication by chemical vapor deposition with H-plasma surface treatment and evaluation of structure and quantum confinement effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

100-nm-thick nanocrystalline silicon (nano-Si)-dot multi-layers on a Si substrate were fabricated by the sequential repetition of H-plasma surface treatment, chemical vapor deposition, and surface oxidation, for over 120 times. The diameter of the nano-Si dots was 5–6 nm, as confirmed by both the transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The annealing process was important to improve the crystallinity of the nano-Si dot. We investigated quantum confinement effects by Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Based on the experimental results, we simulated the Raman spectrum using a phenomenological model. Consequently, the strain induced in the nano-Si dots was estimated by comparing the experimental and simulated results. Taking the estimated strain value into consideration, the band gap modulation was measured, and the diameter of the nano-Si dots was calculated to be 5.6 nm by using PL. The relaxation of the q ? 0 selection rule model for the nano-Si dots is believed to be important to explain both the phenomena of peak broadening on the low-wavenumber side observed in Raman spectra and the blue shift observed in PL measurements.

Kosemura, Daisuke, E-mail: d-kose@isc.meiji.ac.jp; Mizukami, Yuki; Takei, Munehisa; Numasawa, Yohichiroh; Ogura, Atsushi [School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan)] [School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan); Ohshita, Yoshio [Toyota Technological Institute, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)] [Toyota Technological Institute, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

223

Gas-phase transport of WF6 through annular nanopipes in TiN during chemical vapor deposition of W on TiN/Ti/SiO2 structures for integrated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas-phase transport of WF6 through annular nanopipes in TiN during chemical vapor deposition of W through the 106-nm-thick TiN film. W piles up at the TiN/Ti interface, while F rapidly saturates the TiN-sectional and scanning transmission electron microscopy analyses demonstrate that WF6 penetrates into the TiN layer

Allen, Leslie H.

224

SPIN (Version 3. 83): A Fortran program for modeling one-dimensional rotating-disk/stagnation-flow chemical vapor deposition reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In rotating-disk reactor a heated substrate spins (at typical speeds of 1000 rpm or more) in an enclosure through which the reactants flow. The rotating disk geometry has the important property that in certain operating regimes{sup 1} the species and temperature gradients normal to the disk are equal everywhere on the disk. Thus, such a configuration has great potential for highly uniform chemical vapor deposition (CVD),{sup 2--5} and indeed commercial rotating-disk CVD reactors are now available. In certain operating regimes, the equations describing the complex three-dimensional spiral fluid motion can be solved by a separation-of-variables transformation{sup 5,6} that reduces the equations to a system of ordinary differential equations. Strictly speaking, the transformation is only valid for an unconfined infinite-radius disk and buoyancy-free flow. Furthermore, only some boundary conditions are consistent with the transformation (e.g., temperature, gas-phase composition, and approach velocity all specified to be independent of radius at some distances above the disk). Fortunately, however, the transformed equations will provide a very good practical approximation to the flow in a finite-radius reactor over a large fraction of the disk (up to {approximately}90% of the disk radius) when the reactor operating parameters are properly chosen, i.e, high rotation rates. In the limit of zero rotation rate, the rotating disk flow reduces to a stagnation-point flow, for which a similar separation-of-variables transformation is also available. Such flow configurations ( pedestal reactors'') also find use in CVD reactors. In this report we describe a model formulation and mathematical analysis of rotating-disk and stagnation-point CVD reactors. Then we apply the analysis to a compute code called SPIN and describe its implementation and use. 31 refs., 4 figs.

Coltrin, M.E. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Kee, R.J.; Evans, G.H.; Meeks, E.; Rupley, F.M.; Grcar, J.F. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Reducing dislocations in semiconductors utilizing repeated thermal cycling during multistage epitaxial growth  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Dislocation densities are reduced in growing semiconductors from the vapor phase by employing a technique of interrupting growth, cooling the layer so far deposited, and then repeating the process until a high quality active top layer is achieved. The method of interrupted growth, coupled with thermal cycling, permits dislocations to be trapped in the initial stages of epitaxial growth.

Fan, John C. C. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Tsaur, Bor-Yeu (Arlington, MA); Gale, Ronald P. (Bedford, MA); Davis, Frances M. (Framingham, MA)

1986-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

226

Reducing dislocations in semiconductors utilizing repeated thermal cycling during multistage epitaxial growth  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Dislocation densities are reduced in growing semiconductors from the vapor phase by employing a technique of interrupting growth, cooling the layer so far deposited, and then repeating the process until a high quality active top layer is achieved. The method of interrupted growth, coupled with thermal cycling, permits dislocations to be trapped in the initial stages of epitaxial growth.

Fan, John C. C. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Tsaur, Bor-Yeu (Arlington, MA); Gale, Ronald P. (Bedford, MA); Davis, Frances M. (Framingham, MA)

1992-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

227

Growth mechanism and properties of ZnO nanorods synthesized by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and ul- traviolet (UV) optoelectronic devices. ZnO can be found easily as n-type because of Zn. Trans- parent electrodes in optoelectronic devices should have high visible transmittance, low

Cao, Hui

228

Quantum Chemical Simulations Reveal Acetylene-Based Growth Mechanisms in the Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nonequilibrium quantum chemical molecular dynamics (QM/MD) simulation of early stages in the nucleation process of carbon nanotubes from acetylene feedstock on an Fe38 cluster was performed based on the density-functional tight-binding (DFTB) potential. Representative chemical reactions were studied by complimentary static DFTB and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Oligomerization and cross-linking reactions between carbon chains were found as the main reaction pathways similar to that suggested in previous experimental work. The calculations highlight the inhibiting effect of hydrogen for the condensation of carbon ring networks, and a propensity for hydrogen disproportionation, thus enriching the hydrogen content in already hydrogen-rich species and abstracting hydrogen content in already hydrogen-deficient clusters. The ethynyl radical C2H was found as a reactive, yet continually regenerated species, facilitating hydrogen transfer reactions across the hydrocarbon clusters. The nonequilibrium QM/MD simulations show the prevalence of a pentagon-first nucleation mechanism where hydrogen may take the role of one arm of an sp2 carbon Y-junction. The results challenge the importance of the metal carbide formation for SWCNT cap nucleation in the VLS model and suggest possible alternative routes following hydrogen-abstraction acetylene addition (HACA)-like mechanisms commonly discussed in combustion synthesis.

Eres, Gyula [ORNL] [ORNL; Wang, Ying [Nagoya University, Japan] [Nagoya University, Japan; Gao, Xingfa [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China] [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; Qian, Hu-Jun [Jilin University, Changchun] [Jilin University, Changchun; Ohta, Yasuhito [Fukui Institute of Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8103, Japan] [Fukui Institute of Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8103, Japan; Wu, Xiaona [Nagoya University, Japan] [Nagoya University, Japan; Morokuma, Keiji [Fukui Institute of Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8103, Japan] [Fukui Institute of Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8103, Japan; Irle, Stephan [WPI-Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules and Department of Chemistry, Nagoya University, Japan] [WPI-Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules and Department of Chemistry, Nagoya University, Japan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Ion beam assisted deposition of thermal barrier coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and apparatus for depositing thermal barrier coatings on gas turbine blades and vanes using Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EBPVD) combined with Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD).

Youchison, Dennis L. (Albuquerque, NM); McDonald, Jimmie M. (Albuquerque, NM); Lutz, Thomas J. (Albuquerque, NM); Gallis, Michail A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

230

Initial growth, refractive index, and crystallinity of thermal and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition AlN films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have studied and compared the initial growth and properties of AlN films deposited on Si(111) by thermal and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) using trimethylaluminum and either ammonia or a N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} mixture as precursors. In-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry was employed to monitor the growth and measure the refractive index of the films during the deposition. The authors found that an incubation stage only occurred for thermal ALD. The linear growth for plasma-enhanced ALD (PEALD) started instantly from the beginning due to the higher nuclei density provided by the presence of plasma. The authors observed the evolution of the refractive index of AlN during the growth, which showed a rapid increase up to a thickness of about 30?nm followed by a saturation. Below this thickness, higher refractive index values were obtained for AlN films grown by PEALD, whereas above that the refractive index was slightly higher for thermal ALD films. X-ray diffraction characterization showed a wurtzite crystalline structure with a (101{sup ¯}0) preferential orientation obtained for all the layers with a slightly better crystallinity for films grown by PEALD.

Van Bui, Hao, E-mail: H.VanBui@utwente.nl; Wiggers, Frank B.; Gupta, Anubha; Nguyen, Minh D.; Aarnink, Antonius A. I.; Jong, Michel P. de; Kovalgin, Alexey Y., E-mail: A.Y.Kovalgin@utwente.nl [MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P. O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Growth direction of oblique angle electron beam deposited silicon monoxide thin films identified by optical second-harmonic generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oblique angle deposited (OAD) silicon monoxide (SiO) thin films forming tilted columnar structures have been characterized by second-harmonic generation. It was found that OAD SiO leads to a rotationally anisotropic second-harmonic response, depending on the optical angle of incidence. A model for the observed dependence of the second-harmonic signal on optical angle of incidence allows extraction of the growth direction of OAD films. The optically determined growth directions show convincing agreement with cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy images. In addition to a powerful characterization tool, these results demonstrate the possibilities for designing nonlinear optical devices through SiO OAD.

Vejling Andersen, Søren; Lund Trolle, Mads; Pedersen, Kjeld [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej 4A, DK-9220 Aalborg Øst (Denmark)] [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej 4A, DK-9220 Aalborg Øst (Denmark)

2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

232

"Fractal Growth Modeling of Electrochemical Deposition in Solid Freeform Fabrication," J. G. Zhou, Z. He and J. Guo, Proceedings of the Tenth Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, Texas, August, 1999.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"Fractal Growth Modeling of Electrochemical Deposition in Solid Freeform Fabrication," J. G. Zhou, August, 1999. FRACTAL GROWTH MODELING OF ELECTROCHEMICAL DEPOSITION IN SOLID FREEFORM FABRICATION Jack G deposition among metal particles during ECLD-SFF is a fractal growth process. The fractal dimension

Zhou, Jack

233

Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated. 8 figs.

Jankowski, A.F.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Rambach, G.D.; Randich, E.

1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

234

Nucleation and growth of MgO atomic layer deposition: A real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The atomic layer deposition (ALD) of MgO thin films from bis(cyclopentadienyl) magnesium and H{sub 2}O was studied using in-situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), ex-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction. It is found that the initial growth is not linear during the first ten cycles, and magnesium silicate forms spontaneously on the SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates at 250 °C. Submonolayer sensitivity of SE is demonstrated by the analysis of each half-cycle and self-limiting adsorption, revealing characteristic features of hetero- and homo-MgO ALD processes.

Wang, Han; Fu, Kan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269. (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269. (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

Non-equilibrium deposition of phase pure Cu{sub 2}O thin films at reduced growth temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) is actively studied as a prototypical material for energy conversion and electronic applications. Here we reduce the growth temperature of phase pure Cu{sub 2}O thin films to 300?°C by intentionally controlling solely the kinetic parameter (total chamber pressure, P{sub tot}) at fixed thermodynamic condition (0.25 mTorr pO{sub 2}). A strong non-monotonic effect of P{sub tot} on Cu-O phase formation is found using high-throughput combinatorial-pulsed laser deposition. This discovery creates new opportunities for the growth of Cu{sub 2}O devices with low thermal budget and illustrates the importance of kinetic effects for the synthesis of metastable materials with useful properties.

Subramaniyan, Archana, E-mail: asubrama@mymail.mines.edu [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Perkins, John D.; Lany, Stephan; Stevanovic, Vladan; Ginley, David S.; Zakutayev, Andriy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); O’Hayre, Ryan P. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

In-situ deposition of high-k dielectrics on III-V compound semiconductor in MOCVD system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In situ deposition of high-k materials to passivate the GaAs in metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system was well demonstrated. Both atomic layer deposition (ALD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods ...

Cheng, Cheng-Wei, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Organic-vapor-liquid-solid deposition with an impinging gas jet Daniel W. Shaw, Kevin Bufkin, Alexandr A. Baronov, Brad L. Johnson, and David L. Patrick  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and David L. Patrick1,a) 1 Department of Chemistry, Western Washington University, 516 High St., Bellingham tetracene were deposited by sublimation into a flow of argon carrier gas directed at an indium

Patrick, David L.

238

Effect of deposition and treatment conditions on growth of nanometer PtSi heterostructure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-X I. INTRODUCTION Transition metal silicides have received a great deal of attention due to their use in a number of devices.1­4 Platinum silicide PtSi is an important metal silicide which is widely of silicides are intensely affected by the deposition and technological parameters. It is also confirmed

Zheng, Yufeng

239

Growth of controllable ZnO film by atomic layer deposition technique via inductively coupled plasma treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An inductively coupled plasma technique (ICP), namely, remote-plasma treatment was introduced to ionize the water molecules as the precursor for the deposition of ZnO film via the atomic layer deposition processes. Compared with the H{sub 2}O gas as the precursor for the ALD growth, the ionized water molecules can provide a lesser energy to uniformly stabilize oxidization processes, resulting in a better film quality with a higher resistivity owing to less formation of intrinsic defects at a lower growth temperature. The relationship between resistivity and formation mechanisms have been discussed and investigated through analyses of atomic force microscopy, photonluminescence, and absorption spectra, respectively. Findings indicate that the steric hindrance of the ligands plays an important rule for the ALD-ZnO film sample with the ICP treatment while the limited number of bonding sites will be dominant for the ALD-ZnO film without the ICP treatment owing to decreasing of the reactive sites via the ligand-exchange reaction during the dissociation process. Finally, the enhanced aspect-ratio into the anodic aluminum oxide with the better improved uniform coating of ZnO layer after the ICP treatment was demonstrated, providing an important information for a promising application in electronics based on ZnO ALD films.

Huang, Hsin-Wei; Chang, Wen-Chih; Lin, Su-Jien; Chueh, Yu-Lun [Department of Materials Science Engineering and Center For Nanotechnology, Material Science, and Microsystem, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

240

Nanowire-templated lateral epitaxial growth of non-polar group III nitrides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for growing high quality, nonpolar Group III nitrides using lateral growth from Group III nitride nanowires. The method of nanowire-templated lateral epitaxial growth (NTLEG) employs crystallographically aligned, substantially vertical Group III nitride nanowire arrays grown by metal-catalyzed metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) as templates for the lateral growth and coalescence of virtually crack-free Group III nitride films. This method requires no patterning or separate nitride growth step.

Wang, George T. (Albuquerque, NM); Li, Qiming (Albuquerque, NM); Creighton, J. Randall (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Measurement and modeling of Ar/H2/CH4 arc jet discharge chemical vapor deposition reactors II: Modeling of the spatial dependence of expanded  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and used to deposit thin films of polycrystalline diamond. This reactor has been the subject of many prior of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond and diamondlike carbon films. The model incorporates gas activation-containing radical species incident on the growing diamond surface C atoms and CH radicals within this reactor

Bristol, University of

242

Real-time process sensing and metrology in amorphous and selective area silicon plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using in situ  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Real-time process sensing and metrology in amorphous and selective area silicon plasma enhanced Materials Processing, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 Received 11 July 1996 silicon deposition. The ability of mass spectrometry to observe process faults in real time is also

Rubloff, Gary W.

243

Photoinitiated chemical vapor depostion [sic] : mechanism and applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photoinitiated chemical vapor deposition (piCVD) is developed as a simple, solventless, and rapid method for the deposition of swellable hydrogels and functional hydrogel copolymers. Mechanistic experiments show that piCVD ...

Baxamusa, Salmaan Husain

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric plasma deposition Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition CVD . Both processes gave films... and optoelectronics.3 Recently, the low temperature 400 C atmospheric pressure chemical vapor...

245

Effects of phosphorus implantation and subsequent growth on diamond Euo Sik Choa,*, Cheon An Leea  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

]. Espe- cially, polycrystalline diamond films grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD, and their fabrication is easy and economical. Polycrystalline diamond film has a rough surface and a lot of defectsEffects of phosphorus implantation and subsequent growth on diamond Euo Sik Choa,*, Cheon An Leea

Lee, Jong Duk

246

MOVPE growth of semipolar III-nitride semiconductors on CVD graphene Priti Gupta n  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MOVPE growth of semipolar III-nitride semiconductors on CVD graphene Priti Gupta n , A.A. Rahman pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy B1. Graphene B1. Nitrides B2. Semiconducting III­V materials a b on graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition. GaN, AlGaN alloys, and InN layers are grown using an Al

Deshmukh, Mandar M.

247

Carbon monoxide-assisted growth of carbon nanotubes Y.H. Tang a,b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon monoxide-assisted growth of carbon nanotubes Y.H. Tang a,b , Y.F. Zheng a , C.S. Lee a , N was used to synthesize carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a hot-®lament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system in the formation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT)s. The CNTs synthesized from carbon monoxide validate

Zheng, Yufeng

248

Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part I: Maximum Solar Heating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

November 2004) ABSTRACT The effects of solar heating and infrared cooling on the vapor depositional growth of as much as 45 min. Including infrared cooling as well as solar heating in the LES and microphysical bin Solar Heating CHRISTOPHER M. HARTMAN AND JERRY Y. HARRINGTON Department of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania

Harrington, Jerry Y.

249

Effects of oxygen on the growth characteristics of carbon nanotubes on conductive substrates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effects of oxygen on Fe-catalyzed carbon nanotube (CNT) growth on Ta substrates was studied. CNTs were grown on Fe thin-film catalysts deposited on silicon substrates via exposure to C?H? in a thermal chemical vapor ...

Bonaparte, Ryan K

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Analysis of calorimetric measurements of grain growth L. C. Chena) and F. Spaepen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solidification4 or vapor deposition,' or in some of the materials prepared by gas condensation and compaction,6Analysis of calorimetric measurements of grain growth L. C. Chena) and F. Spaepen Division. The Kissinger' analysis of the shift of the transformation peaks as a function of heating rate is perhaps

Spaepen, Frans A.

251

In Situ Synchrotron Based X-ray Fluorescence and Scattering Measurements During Atomic Layer Deposition: Initial Growth of HfO2 on Si and Ge Substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The initial growth of HfO{sub 2} was studied by means of synchrotron based in situ x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS). HfO{sub 2} was deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)hafnium and H{sub 2}O on both oxidized and H-terminated Si and Ge surfaces. XRF quantifies the amount of deposited material during each ALD cycle and shows an inhibition period on H-terminated substrates. No inhibition period is observed on oxidized substrates. The evolution of film roughness was monitored using GISAXS. A correlation is found between the inhibition period and the onset of surface roughness.

K Devloo-Casier; J Dendooven; K Ludwig; G Lekens; J DHaen; C Detavernier

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

252

Growth behavior and properties of atomic layer deposited tin oxide on silicon from novel tin(II)acetylacetonate precursor and ozone  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, a novel liquid tin(II) precursor, tin(II)acetylacetonate [Sn(acac){sub 2}], was used to deposit tin oxide films on Si(100) substrate, using a custom-built hot wall atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor. Three different oxidizers, water, oxygen, and ozone, were tried. Resulting growth rates were studied as a function of precursor dosage, oxidizer dosage, reactor temperature, and number of ALD cycles. The film growth rate was found to be 0.1?±?0.01?nm/cycle within the wide ALD temperature window of 175–300?°C using ozone; no film growth was observed with water or oxygen. Characterization methods were used to study the composition, interface quality, crystallinity, microstructure, refractive index, surface morphology, and resistivity of the resulting films. X-ray photoelectron spectra showed the formation of a clean SnO{sub x}–Si interface. The resistivity of the SnO{sub x} films was calculated to be 0.3?? cm. Results of this work demonstrate the possibility of introducing Sn(acac){sub 2} as tin precursor to deposit conducting ALD SnO{sub x} thin films on a silicon surface, with clean interface and no formation of undesired SiO{sub 2} or other interfacial reaction products, for transparent conducting oxide applications.

Kannan Selvaraj, Sathees [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Feinerman, Alan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Takoudis, Christos G., E-mail: takoudis@uic.edu [Departments of Bioengineering and Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

253

E-Print Network 3.0 - arc deposition technology Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

role in the Summary: deposition 2 and filtered cathodic vacuum arc 3.such as optical window coatings, scratch resistive... by different types of vapor deposition...

254

Polarity determination for MOCVD growth of GaN on Si(111) by convergent beam electron diffraction[Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The polarity of laterally epitaxially overgrown (LEO) GaN on Si(111) with an AlN buffer layer grown by MOCVD has been studied by convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED). The LEO GaN was studied by cross-section and plan-view transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The threading dislocation density is less than 10{sup 8} cm{sup {minus}2} and no inversion domains were observed. CBED patterns were obtained at 200 kV for the <1 {bar 1} 00> zone. Simulation was done by many-beam solution with 33 zero-order beams. The comparison of experimental CBED patterns and simulated patterns indicates that the polarity of GaN on Si(111) is Ga face.

Zhao, L.; Marchand, H.; Fini, P.; Denbaars, S.P.; Mishra, U.K.; Speck, J.S.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Growth of highly tensile-strained Ge on relaxed InxGa1-xAs by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.3142386 In the past decade, optoelectronic devices based and near ultraviolet.10,11 For optoelectronic devices, one important physical feature is the radiative

256

E-Print Network 3.0 - asssited chemical vapor Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

nitride, chemical vapor ... Source: Dandy, David - Department of Chemical Engineering, Colorado State University Collection: Materials Science 14 DEPOSITION OF ELECTRON BEAM...

257

E-Print Network 3.0 - all-hot-wire chemical vapor Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

nitride, chemical vapor ... Source: Dandy, David - Department of Chemical Engineering, Colorado State University Collection: Materials Science 10 DEPOSITION OF ELECTRON BEAM...

258

Sandia National Laboratories: chemical vapor deposition  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1development Sandia, NREL Release Wavearc-faultbestmonoxidefacility inflowchemical

259

Growth of tungsten oxide on carbon nanowalls templates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? Tungsten oxide deposited on carbon nanowalls by hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique. ? This composite has two-dimensional uniform morphology with a crystalline structure of monoclinic tungsten trioxide. ? Surface photoelectric voltage measurements show that this product has photoresponse properties. - Abstract: In the present work we present a simple approach for coupling tungsten oxide with carbon nanowalls. The two-dimensional carbon nanowalls with open boundaries were grown using plasma enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition, and the subsequent tungsten oxide growth was performed in the same equipment by direct heating of a tungsten filament. The tungsten oxide coating is found to have uniform morphology with a crystalline structure of monoclinic tungsten trioxide. Surface photoelectric voltage measurements show that this product has photoresponse properties. The method of synthesis described here provides an operable route to the production of two-dimensional tungsten oxide nanocomposites.

Wang, Hua, E-mail: wanghua@dlou.edu.cn [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); College of Fisheries and Life Science, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian 116023 (China); Su, Yan [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Chen, Shuo, E-mail: shuochen@dlut.edu.cn [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Quan, Xie [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

260

Growth of CdTe Films on Amorphous Substrates Using CaF2 Nanorods as a Buffer Layer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Growth of CdTe Films on Amorphous Substrates Using CaF2 Nanorods as a Buffer Layer NICHOLAS LICAUSI biaxially textured CdTe films were grown on biaxial CaF2 buffer layers. The CaF2 nanorods were grown by oblique angle vapor deposition and possessed a {111}h121i biaxial texture. The CdTe film was deposited

Wang, Gwo-Ching

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Growth, microstructure and electrical properties of sputter-deposited hafnium oxide (HfO2) thin films grown using HfO2 ceramic target  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hafnium oxide (HfO?) thin films have been made by radio-frequency (rf) magnetron-sputtering onto Si(100) substrates under varying growth temperature (Ts). HfO? ceramic target has been employed for sputtering while varying the Ts from room temperature to 500?C during deposition. The effect of Ts on the growth and microstructure of deposited HfO? films has been studied using grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS). The results indicate that the effect of Ts is significant on the growth, surface and interface structure, morphology and chemical composition of the HfO? films. Structural characterization indicates that the HfO? films grown at Ts<200 ?C are amorphous while films grown at Ts>200 ?C are nanocrystalline. An amorphous-to-crystalline transition occurs at Ts=200 ?C. Nanocrystalline HfO? films crystallized in a monoclinic structure with a (-111) orientation. XPS measurements indicated the high surface-chemical quality and stoichiometric nature of the grown HfO? films. An interface layer (IL) formation occurs due to reaction at the HfO?-Si interface for HfO? films deposited at Ts>200 ?C. The thickness of IL increases with increasing Ts. XPS and EDS at the HfO?-Si cross-section indicate the IL is a (Hf, Si)-O compound. The electrical characterization using capacitance-voltage measurements indicate that the dielectric constant decreases from 25 to 16 with increasing Ts.

Aguirre, B.; Vemuri, R. S.; Zubia, David; Engelhard, Mark H.; Shutthanandan, V.; Kamala Bharathi, K.; Ramana, Chintalapalle V.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

atmospheric dry deposition: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

water vapor, and we confirm such predictions in a numerical model. There have been a number 38 Dual nitrate isotopes in dry deposition: Utility for partitioning NOx source...

263

Development of chemical vapor composites, CVC materials. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Industry has a critical need for high-temperature operable ceramic composites that are strong, non-brittle, light weight, and corrosion resistant. Improvements in energy efficiency, reduced emissions and increased productivity can be achieved in many industrial processes with ceramic composites if the reaction temperature and pressure are increased. Ceramic composites offer the potential to meet these material requirements in a variety of industrial applications. However, their use is often restricted by high cost. The Chemical Vapor composite, CVC, process can reduce the high costs and multiple fabrication steps presently required for ceramic fabrication. CVC deposition has the potential to eliminate many difficult processing problems and greatly increase fabrication rates for composites. With CVC, the manufacturing process can control the composites` density, microstructure and composition during growth. The CVC process: can grow or deposit material 100 times faster than conventional techniques; does not require an expensive woven preform to infiltrate; can use high modulus fibers that cannot be woven into a preform; can deposit composites to tolerances of less than 0.025 mm on one surface without further machining.

NONE

1998-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

264

Deposition of thin silicon layers on transferred large area graphene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Physical vapor deposition of Si onto transferred graphene is investigated. At elevated temperatures, Si nucleates preferably on wrinkles and multilayer graphene islands. In some cases, however, Si can be quasi-selectively grown only on the monolayer graphene regions while the multilayer islands remain uncovered. Experimental insights and ab initio calculations show that variations in the removal efficiency of carbon residuals after the transfer process can be responsible for this behavior. Low-temperature Si seed layer results in improved wetting and enables homogeneous growth. This is an important step towards realization of electronic devices in which graphene is embedded between two Si layers.

Lupina, Grzegorz, E-mail: lupina@ihp-microelectronics.com; Kitzmann, Julia; Lukosius, Mindaugas; Dabrowski, Jarek; Wolff, Andre; Mehr, Wolfgang [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany)] [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany)

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

265

Growth mechanism of graphene on platinum: Surface catalysis and carbon segregation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A model of the graphene growth mechanism of chemical vapor deposition on platinum is proposed and verified by experiments. Surface catalysis and carbon segregation occur, respectively, at high and low temperatures in the process, representing the so-called balance and segregation regimes. Catalysis leads to self-limiting formation of large area monolayer graphene, whereas segregation results in multilayers, which evidently “grow from below.” By controlling kinetic factors, dominantly monolayer graphene whose high quality has been confirmed by quantum Hall measurement can be deposited on platinum with hydrogen-rich environment, quench cooling, tiny but continuous methane flow and about 1000?°C growth temperature.

Sun, Jie, E-mail: jie.sun@chalmers.se; Lindvall, Niclas; Yurgens, August [Quantum Device Physics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Nam, Youngwoo [Quantum Device Physics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Cole, Matthew T. [Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, CB3 0FA Cambridge (United Kingdom); Teo, Kenneth B. K. [AIXTRON Nanoinstruments Ltd., Swavesey, CB24 4FQ Cambridge (United Kingdom); Woo Park, Yung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

266

Structures and Energetics of Some Potential Intermediates in Titanium Nitride Chemical Vapor Deposition: TiClm(NH2)n, TiClm(NH2)nNH, and TiClm(NH2)nN. An ab Initio  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structures and Energetics of Some Potential Intermediates in Titanium Nitride Chemical Vapor with these basis sets augmented by multiple sets of polarization and diffuse functions using the B3LYP optimized geometries. Bond dissociation energies, heats of atomization, heats of formation, and entropies have been

Schlegel, H. Bernhard

267

Growth mechanisms of carbon nanotrees with branched carbon nanofibers synthesized by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be interesting for future applications in nanoelectronic devices and also composite materials. hal-008807221 Growth mechanisms of carbon nanotrees with branched carbon nanofibers synthesized by plasma , Didier Pribat*, 3 1 State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science

Boyer, Edmond

268

Growth of Epitaxial gamma-Al2O3 Films on Rigid Single-Crystal Ceramic Substrates and Flexible, Single-Crystal-Like Metallic Substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Epitaxial -Al2O3 thin films were grown on diverse substrates using pulsed laser deposition. The high quality of epitaxial growth and cubic structure of -Al2O3 films was confirmed by x-ray diffraction. SrTiO3 and MgO single crystal substrates were used to optimize the growth conditions for epitaxial -Al2O3 film. Under the optimized conditions, epitaxial -Al2O3 thin films were grown on flexible, single-crystal-like, metallic templates. These included untextured Hastelloy substrates with a biaxially textured MgO layer deposited using ion-beam-assisted-deposition and biaxially textured Ni-W metallic tapes with epitaxially grown and a biaxially textured, MgO buffer layer. These biaxially textured, -Al2O3 films on flexible, single-crystal-like substrates are promising for subsequent epitaxial growth of various complex oxide films used for electrical, magnetic and electronic device applications.

Shin, Junsoo [ORNL; Goyal, Amit [ORNL; Wee, Sung Hun [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Vapor spill monitoring method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

Bianchini, Gregory M. (Livermore, CA); McRae, Thomas G. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Vapor scavenging by atmospheric aerosol particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Particle growth due to vapor scavenging was studied using both experimental and computational techniques. Vapor scavenging by particles is an important physical process in the atmosphere because it can result in changes to particle properties (e.g., size, shape, composition, and activity) and, thus, influence atmospheric phenomena in which particles play a role, such as cloud formation and long range transport. The influence of organic vapor on the evolution of a particle mass size distribution was investigated using a modified version of MAEROS (a multicomponent aerosol dynamics code). The modeling study attempted to identify the sources of organic aerosol observed by Novakov and Penner (1993) in a field study in Puerto Rico. Experimentally, vapor scavenging and particle growth were investigated using two techniques. The influence of the presence of organic vapor on the particle`s hydroscopicity was investigated using an electrodynamic balance. The charge on a particle was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A prototype apparatus--the refractive index thermal diffusion chamber (RITDC)--was developed to study multiple particles in the same environment at the same time.

Andrews, E.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Microwave plasma assisted supersonic gas jet deposition of thin film materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for fabricating thin film materials utilizing high speed gas dynamics relies on supersonic free jets of carrier gas to transport depositing vapor species generated in a microwave discharge to the surface of a prepared substrate where the vapor deposits to form a thin film. The present invention generates high rates of deposition and thin films of unforeseen high quality at low temperatures.

Schmitt, III, Jerome J. (New Haven, CT); Halpern, Bret L. (Bethany, CT)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Effect of Electronic Excitation on Thin Film Growth  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of nanosecond pulsed laser excitation on surface diffusion during growth of Ge on Si(100) at 250 degrees C was studied. In Situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) was used to measure the surface diffusion coefficient while ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to probe the structure and morphology of the grown quantum dots. The results show that laser excitation of the substrate increases the surface diffusion during growth of Ge on Si(100), changes the growth morphology, improves crystalline structure of the grown quantum dots, and decreases their size distribution. A purely electronic mechanism of enhanced surface diffusion of the deposited Ge is proposed. Ge quantum dots were grown on Si(100)-(2x1) by pulsed laser deposition at various substrate temperatures using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser. In-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction and ex-situ atomic force microscopy were used to analyze the fim structure and morphology. The morphology of germanium islands on silicon was studied at differect coverages. The results show that femtosecond pulsed laser depositon reduces the minimum temperature for epitaxial growth of Ge quantum dots to ~280 degrees C, which is 120 degrees C lower then previously observed in nanosecond pulsed laser deposition and more than 200 degrees C lower than that reported for molecular beam epitaxy and chemical vapor deposition.

Elsayed-Ali, Hani E. [Old Dominion University

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

273

Instrument Series: Deposition and Microfabrication Sputter Deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sensors ­ thin film growth of functional material systems for developing highly sensitive and portable chemical and biological sensors Energy sources ­ development of thin film materials systems for research and solid oxide fuel cells and solar cells for energy generation Microfabrication ­ deposition

274

Gasoline vapor recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a gasoline distribution network wherein gasoline is drawn from a gasoline storage tank and pumped into individual vehicles and wherein the gasoline storage tank is refilled periodically from a gasoline tanker truck, a method of recovering liquid gasoline from gasoline vapor that collects in the headspace of the gasoline storage tank as the liquid gasoline is drawn therefrom, said method comprising the steps of: (a) providing a source of inert gas; (b) introducing inert gas into the gasoline storage tank as liquid gasoline is drawn therefrom so that liquid gasoline drawn from the tank is displaced by inert gas and gasoline vapor mixes with the inert gas in the headspace of the tank; (c) collecting the inert gas/gasoline vapor mixture from the headspace of the gasoline storage tank as the tank is refilled from a gasoline tanker truck; (d) cooling the inert gas/gasoline vapor mixture to a temperature sufficient to condense the gasoline vapor in the mixture to liquid gasoline but not sufficient to liquify the inert gas in the mixture; (e) separating the condensed liquid gasoline from the inert gas; and delivering the condensed liquid gasoline to a remote location for subsequent use.

Lievens, G.; Tiberi, T.P.

1993-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

275

Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of silicon dioxide films using plasma-activated triisopropylsilane as a precursor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) process was developed as a growth technique of SiO{sub 2} thin films using a plasma-activated triisopropylsilane [TIPS, ((iPr){sub 3}SiH)] precursor. TIPS was activated by an argon plasma at the precursor injection stage of the process. Using the activated TIPS, it was possible to control the growth rate per cycle of the deposited films by adjusting the plasma ignition time. The PEALD technique allowed deposition of SiO{sub 2} films at temperatures as low as 50?°C without carbon impurities. In addition, films obtained with plasma ignition times of 3?s and 10?s had similar values of root-mean-square surface roughness. In order to evaluate the suitability of TIPS as a precursor for low-temperature deposition of SiO{sub 2} films, the vapor pressure of TIPS was measured. The thermal stability and the reactivity of the gas-phase TIPS with respect to water vapor were also investigated by analyzing the intensity changes of the C–H and Si–H peaks in the Fourier-transform infrared spectrum of TIPS.

Jeon, Ki-Moon [Vacuum Center, Division of Industrial Metrology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon 305-340, South Korea and Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Dae Jeon University, Daejeon 300-716 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jae-Su [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Dae Jeon University, Daejeon 300-716 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Ju-Young [Vacuum Center, Division of Industrial Metrology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon 305-340, South Korea and Department of Nano and Bio Surface Science, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Jun Lee, Sang [Center of Nanomaterials Characterization, Division of Industrial Metrology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon 305-340, South Korea and Department of Nano Science, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sang-Woo, E-mail: swkang@kriss.re.kr [Vacuum Center, Division of Industrial Metrology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon 305-340, South Korea and Department of Advanced Device Technology, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

276

Evaporation monitoring and composition control of alloy systems with widely differing vapor pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing sensors and controls to improve and extend electron beam materials processing technology to alloy systems with constituents of widely varying vapor pressure. The approach under development involves using tunable lasers to measure the density and composition of the vapor plume. A laser based vaporizer control system for vaporization of a uranium-iron alloy has been previously demonstrated in multi-hundred hour, high rate vaporization experiments at LLNL. This paper reviews the design and performance of the uranium vaporization sensor and control system and discusses the extension of the technology to monitoring of uranium vaporization. Data is presented from an experiment in which titanium wire was fed into a molten niobium pool. Laser data is compared to deposited film composition and film cross sections. Finally, the potential for using this technique for composition control in melting applications is discussed.

Anklam, T.M.; Berzins, L.V.; Braun, D.G.; Haynam, C.; McClelland, M.A.; Meier, T.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Evaporation monitoring and composition control of alloy systems with widely differing vapor pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing sensors and controls to improve and extend electron beam materials processing technology to alloy systems with constituents of widely varying vapor pressure. The approach under development involves using tunable lasers to measure the density and composition of the vapor plume. A laser based vaporizer control system for vaporization of a uranium-iron alloy has been previously demonstrated in multi-hundred hour, high rate vaporization experiments at LLNL. This paper reviews the design and performance of the uranium vaporization sensor and control system and discusses the extension of the technology to monitoring of titanium vaporization. Data is presented from an experiment in which titanium wire was fed into a molten niobium pool. Laser data is compared to deposited film composition and film cross sections. Finally, the potential for using this technique for composition control in melting applications is discussed.

Anklam, T.M.; Berzins, L.V.; Braun, D.G.; Haynam, C.; McClelland, M.A.; Meier, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

278

Electrolyte vapor condenser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

1983-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

279

Electrolyte vapor condenser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well.

Sederquist, Richard A. (Newington, CT); Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Sawyer, Richard D. (Canton, CT)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Graphene Monolayer Rotation on Ni(111) Facilities Bilayer Graphene Growth  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synthesis of bilayer graphene by chemical vapor deposition is of importance for graphene-based field effect devices. Here, we demonstrate that bilayer graphene preferentially grows by carbon-segregation under graphene sheets that are rotated relative to a Ni(111) substrate. Rotated graphene monolayer films can be synthesized at growth temperatures above 650 C on a Ni(111) thin-film. The segregated second graphene layer is in registry with the Ni(111) substrate and this suppresses further C-segregation, effectively self-limiting graphene formation to two layers.

Batzill M.; Sutter P.; Dahal, A.; Addou, R.

2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Biomimetic thin film deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biological mineral deposition for the formation of bone, mollusk shell and other hard tissues provides materials scientists with illustrative materials processing strategies. This presentation will review the key features of biomineralization and how these features can be of technical importance. We have adapted existing knowledge of biomineralization to develop a unique method of depositing inorganic thin films and coating. Our approach to thin film deposition is to modify substrate surfaces to imitate the proteins found in nature that are responsible for controlling mineral deposition. These biomimetic surfaces control the nucleation and growth of the mineral from a supersaturated aqueous solution. This has many processing advantages including simple processing equipment, environmentally benign reagents, uniform coating of highly complex shapes, and enhanced adherence of coating. Many different types of metal oxide, hydroxide, sulfide and phosphate materials with useful mechanical, optical, electronic and biomedical properties can be deposited.

Rieke, P.R.; Graff, G.E.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.; Baskaran, S.; Song, L.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Fryxell, G.E.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Vacuum arc deposition devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The vacuum arc is a high-current, low-voltage electrical discharge which produces a plasma consisting of vaporized and ionized electrode material. In the most common cathodic arc deposition systems, the arc concentrates at minute cathode spots on the cathode surface and the plasma is emitted as a hypersonic jet, with some degree of contamination by molten droplets [known as macroparticles (MPs)] of the cathode material. In vacuum arc deposition systems, the location and motion of the cathode spots are confined to desired surfaces by an applied magnetic field and shields around undesired surfaces. Substrates are mounted on a holder so that they intercept some portion of the plasma jet. The substrate often provides for negative bias to control the energy of depositing ions and heating or cooling to control the substrate temperature. In some systems, a magnetic field is used to guide the plasma around an obstacle which blocks the MPs. These elements are integrated with a deposition chamber, cooling, vacuum gauges and pumps, and power supplies to produce a vacuum arc deposition system.

Boxman, R.L.; Zhitomirsky, V.N. [Electrical Discharge and Plasma Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, P.O. Box 39040, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

283

Organic vapor jet printing system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

Forrest, Stephen R

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

284

Enthalpies of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures of Some Deuterated Hydrocarbons. Liquid-Vapor Pressure Isotope Effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

* Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of MissourisSt. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63121 Liquid vapor pressure isotope effects have generally been observed, pD > pH.12 Vapor pressure and sublimation

Chickos, James S.

285

Method for deposition of a conductor in integrated circuits  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for fabricating integrated semiconductor circuits and, more particularly, for the selective deposition of a conductor onto a substrate employing a chemical vapor deposition process. By way of example, tungsten can be selectively deposited onto a silicon substrate. At the onset of loss of selectivity of deposition of tungsten onto the silicon substrate, the deposition process is interrupted and unwanted tungsten which has deposited on a mask layer with the silicon substrate can be removed employing a halogen etchant. Thereafter, a plurality of deposition/etch back cycles can be carried out to achieve a predetermined thickness of tungsten. 2 figs.

Creighton, J.R.; Dominguez, F.; Johnson, A.W.; Omstead, T.R.

1997-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

286

Method for deposition of a conductor in integrated circuits  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for fabricating integrated semiconductor circuits and, more particularly, for the selective deposition of a conductor onto a substrate employing a chemical vapor deposition process. By way of example, tungsten can be selectively deposited onto a silicon substrate. At the onset of loss of selectivity of deposition of tungsten onto the silicon substrate, the deposition process is interrupted and unwanted tungsten which has deposited on a mask layer with the silicon substrate can be removed employing a halogen etchant. Thereafter, a plurality of deposition/etch back cycles can be carried out to achieve a predetermined thickness of tungsten.

Creighton, J. Randall (Albuquerque, NM); Dominguez, Frank (Albuquerque, NM); Johnson, A. Wayne (Albuquerque, NM); Omstead, Thomas R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Stratified vapor generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A stratified vapor generator (110) comprises a first heating section (H.sub.1) and a second heating section (H.sub.2). The first and second heating sections (H.sub.1, H.sub.2) are arranged so that the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2) is operatively associated with the outlet of the first heating section (H.sub.1). A moisture separator (126) having a vapor outlet (164) and a liquid outlet (144) is operatively associated with the outlet (124) of the second heating section (H.sub.2). A cooling section (C.sub.1) is operatively associated with the liquid outlet (144) of the moisture separator (126) and includes an outlet that is operatively associated with the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2).

Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Hassani, Vahab (Golden, CO)

2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

288

ARM - Water Vapor  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmr DocumentationProductsaodsasheniraodAlaskaVisiting theWater Vapor

289

VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Robust Numerical Simulation of Porosity Evolution in Chemical Vapor In ltration II: Two Dimensional  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-solid reactions with solid deposition are exempli#12;ed by the fabrication of ceramic matrix composites through #3) process, during which a matrix of ceramic #12;bers is chemically vapor deposited within a porous preform practical approach to fabricate ceramic composites. Among these composites, #12;ber-reinforced composites

Jin, Shi

291

Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

292

Diamond film growth argon-carbon plasmas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and system are disclosed for manufacturing diamond film. The method involves forming a carbonaceous vapor, providing a gas stream of argon, hydrogen and hydrocarbon and combining the gas with the carbonaceous vapor, passing the combined carbonaceous vapor and gas carrier stream into a chamber, forming a plasma in the chamber causing fragmentation of the carbonaceous and deposition of a diamond film on a substrate. 29 figs.

Gruen, D.M.; Krauss, A.R.; Liu, S.Z.; Pan, X.Z.; Zuiker, C.D.

1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

293

Diamond film growth from fullerene precursors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and system are disclosed for manufacturing diamond film. The method involves forming a fullerene vapor, providing a noble gas stream and combining the gas with the fullerene vapor, passing the combined fullerene vapor and noble gas carrier stream into a chamber, forming a plasma in the chamber causing fragmentation of the fullerene and deposition of a diamond film on a substrate. 10 figs.

Gruen, D.M.; Liu, S.; Krauss, A.R.; Pan, X.

1997-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

294

ARM Water Vapor IOP  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)Productssondeadjustsondeadjust DocumentationARM Participation in SuomiNet The ARM62ARM Water Vapor IOP

295

Water Vapor Experiment Concludes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and Materials Disposition3 Water Vapor Experiment Concludes The

296

To estimate vapor pressure easily  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vapor pressures as functions of temperature for approximately 700 major organic chemical compounds are given. The tabulation also gives the temperature range for which the data are applicable. Minimum and maximum temperatures are denoted by TMIN and TMAX. The Antoine equation that correlates vapor pressure as a function of temperature is described. A representative comparison of calculated and actual data values for vapor pressure is shown for ethyl alcohol. The coefficient tabulation is based on both literature (experimental data) and estimated values.

Yaws, C.L.; Yang, H.C. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (USA))

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Vaporization of zinc from scrap  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The rate of zinc vaporization from galvanized scrap was measured using a thermogravimetric apparatus along with chemical analysis. It is found that the rate of zinc vaporization is very fast in nitrogen and carbon monoxide atmospheres at temperatures higher than 950 C. At lower temperature rate decreases with decreasing temperature and is controlled by the gas phase mass transport. The simultaneous oxidation and vaporization of zinc occurs when the samples were heated in carbon dioxide and air. The current experimental results indicate that almost all of the zinc from scrap vaporizes during the heating process in a very short period of time after the temperature reaches above 850 C.

Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

298

Vapor spill pipe monitor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

1983-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

299

Structure/processing relationships in vapor-liquid-solid nanowire epitaxy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The synthesis of Si and III-V nanowires using the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism and low-cost Si substrates was investigated. The VLS mechanism allows fabrication of heterostructures which are not readily ...

Boles, Steven Tyler

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Microwave plasma assisted supersonic gas jet deposition of thin film materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for fabricating thin film materials utilizing high speed gas dynamics relies on supersonic free jets of carrier gas to transport depositing vapor species generated in a microwave discharge to the surface of a prepared substrate where the vapor deposits to form a thin film. The present invention generates high rates of deposition and thin films of unforeseen high quality at low temperatures. 5 figures.

Schmitt, J.J. III; Halpern, B.L.

1993-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Method for rapid, controllable growth and thickness, of epitaxial silicon films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing epitaxial silicon films on a c-Si wafer substrate using hot wire chemical vapor deposition by controlling the rate of silicon deposition in a temperature range that spans the transition from a monohydride to a hydrogen free silicon surface in a vacuum, to obtain phase-pure epitaxial silicon film of increased thickness is disclosed. The method includes placing a c-Si substrate in a HWCVD reactor chamber. The method also includes supplying a gas containing silicon at a sufficient rate into the reaction chamber to interact with the substrate to deposit a layer containing silicon thereon at a predefined growth rate to obtain phase-pure epitaxial silicon film of increased thickness.

Wang, Qi (Littleton, CO); Stradins, Paul (Golden, CO); Teplin, Charles (Boulder, CO); Branz, Howard M. (Boulder, CO)

2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

302

Fuel vapor control device  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fuel vapor control device is described having a valve opening and closing a passage connecting a carburetor and a charcoal canister according to a predetermined temperature. A first coil spring formed by a ''shape memory effect'' alloy is provided to urge the valve to open the passage when the temperature is high. A second coil spring urges the valve to close the passage. A solenoid is provided to urge an armature against the valve to close the passage against the force of the first coil spring when the engine is running. The solenoid heats the first coil spring to generate a spring force therein when the engine is running. When the engine is turned off, the solenoid is deactivated, and the force of the first spring overcomes the force of the second spring to open the passage until such time as the temperature of the first spring drops below the predetermined temperature.

Ota, I.; Nishimura, Y.; Nishio, S.; Yogo, K.

1987-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

303

Hydride vapor phase epitaxy and characterization of high-quality ScN epilayers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The heteroepitaxial growth of ScN films was investigated on various substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). Single crystalline mirror-like ScN(100) and ScN(110) layers were successfully deposited on r- and m-plane sapphire substrates, respectively. Homogeneous stoichiometric films (N/Sc ratio 1.01?±?0.10) up to 40??m in thickness were deposited. Their mosaicity drastically improved with increasing the film thickness. The band gap was determined by optical methods to be 2.06?eV. Impurity concentrations including H, C, O, Si, and Cl were investigated through energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry. As a result, it was found that the presence of impurities was efficiently suppressed in comparison with that of HVPE-grown ScN films reported in the past, which was possible thanks to the home-designed corrosion-free HVPE reactor. Room-temperature Hall measurements indicated that the residual free electron concentrations ranged between 10{sup 18}–10{sup 20}?cm{sup ?3}, which was markedly lower than the reported values. The carrier mobility increased monotonically with the decreasing in carrier concentration, achieving the largest value ever reported, 284?cm{sup 2}?V{sup ?1}?s{sup ?1} at n?=?3.7?×?10{sup 18}?cm{sup ?3}.

Oshima, Yuichi, E-mail: OSHIMA.Yuichi@nims.go.jp; Víllora, Encarnación G.; Shimamura, Kiyoshi [Environment and Energy Materials Research Division, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

304

Vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process involving vapor etching of nuclear tracks in dielectric materials for creating high aspect ratio (i.e., length much greater than diameter), isolated cylindrical holes in dielectric materials that have been exposed to high-energy atomic particles. The process includes cleaning the surface of the tracked material and exposing the cleaned surface to a vapor of a suitable etchant. Independent control of the temperatures of the vapor and the tracked materials provide the means to vary separately the etch rates for the latent track region and the non-tracked material. As a rule, the tracked regions etch at a greater rate than the non-tracked regions. In addition, the vapor-etched holes can be enlarged and smoothed by subsequent dipping in a liquid etchant. The 20-1000 nm diameter holes resulting from the vapor etching process can be useful as molds for electroplating nanometer-sized filaments, etching gate cavities for deposition of nano-cones, developing high-aspect ratio holes in trackable resists, and as filters for a variety of molecular-sized particles in virtually any liquid or gas by selecting the dielectric material that is compatible with the liquid or gas of interest.

Musket, Ronald G. (Danville, CA); Porter, John D. (Berkeley, CA); Yoshiyama, James M. (Fremont, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Micro Chemical Vapor Deposition for the Synthesis of Nanomaterials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

image in Figure 2.17(c) (FLIR® A320 Camera, the emissivitysame from the IR camera (FLIR® A320) and the thermal couple.thermal cameras (for example, FLIR® systems). However, the

Zhou, Qin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Air-gap sacrificial materials by initiated chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

P(neopentyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) copolymer, abbreviated as P(npMAco-EGDA), was selected as the potential air-gap sacrificial material among possible combination of twenty monomers and four ...

Lee, Long Hua

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Vapor-Wall Deposition in Chambers: Theoretical Considerations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aerosol size distribution changes continuously as particles grow by condensation and are lost by coagulation

McVay, Renee C; Cappa, Christopher D; Seinfeld, John H

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Vapor deposited samarium zirconate thermal barrier coatings Hengbei Zhao a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal barrier coatings The rare earth zirconates (M2Zr2O7, M=LaGd) have a low intrinsic thermal conductivity and high temperature phase stability making them attractive candidates for thermal barrier coating conditions and the coating composition, structure, texture, pore morphology, and thermal conductivity

Wadley, Haydn

309

Compositional Variations in Vapor Deposited Samarium Zirconate Coatings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) and a low thermal conductivity. Zirconia stabilized with 7-8 wt % yttria (7YSZ) is currently the industry 7YSZ, as they possess a low thermal conductivity, have a very high melting point, and are phase of the requirements for the Degree Master of Science (Materials Science and Engineering) by Toni Kember December 2011

Wadley, Haydn

310

Micro Chemical Vapor Deposition for the Synthesis of Nanomaterials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Journal of MicroElectroMechanical Systems, vol. 20, pp. 9-Chair MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) technologiesby MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) technologies many

Zhou, Qin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HWCVD) technologies - Energy Innovation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinement plasmas inPortalAll NERSCResearch CenterPortal

312

Sandia National Laboratories: metal organic chemical vapor deposition  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1developmentturbine bladelifetime is the cumulativeissues

313

Ge-related faceting and segregation during the growth of metastable (GaAs){sub 1{minus}x}(Ge{sub 2}){sub x} alloy layers by metal{endash}organic vapor-phase epitaxy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

(GaAs){sub 1{minus}x}(Ge{sub 2}){sub x} alloy layers, 0{lt}x{lt}0.22, have been grown by metal{endash}organic vapor-phase epitaxy on vicinal (001) GaAs substrates. Transmission electron microscopy revealed pronounced phase separation in these layers, resulting in regions of GaAs-rich zinc-blende and Ge-rich diamond cubic material that appears to lead to substantial band-gap narrowing. For x=0.1 layers, the phase-separated microstructure consisted of intersecting sheets of Ge-rich material on {l_brace}115{r_brace}B planes surrounding cells of GaAs-rich material, with little evidence of antiphase boundaries. Atomic force microscopy revealed {l_brace}115{r_brace}B surface faceting associated with the phase separation. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Norman, A.G.; Olson, J.M.; Geisz, J.F.; Moutinho, H.R.; Mason, A.; Al-Jassim, M.M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)] [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Vernon, S.M. [Spire Corporation, One Patriots Park, Bedford, Massachusetts 01730 (United States)] [Spire Corporation, One Patriots Park, Bedford, Massachusetts 01730 (United States)

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Passive vapor extraction feasibility study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft{sup 3}/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm.

Rohay, V.J.

1994-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

315

In situ analysis of ash deposits from black liquor combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aerosols formed during combustion of black liquor cause a significant fire-side fouling problem in pulp mill recovery boilers. The ash deposits reduce heat transfer effectiveness, plug gas passages, and contribute to corrosion. Both vapors and condensation aerosols lead to the formation of such deposits. The high ash content of the fuel and the low dew point of the condensate salts lead to a high aerosol and vapor concentration in most boilers. In situ measurements of the chemical composition of these deposits is an important step in gaining a fundamental understanding of the deposition process. Infrared emission spectroscopy is used to characterize the composition of thin film deposits resulting from the combustion of black liquor and the deposition of submicron aerosols and vapors. New reference spectra of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} pure component films were recorded and compared with the spectra of the black liquor deposit. All of the black liquor emission bands were identified using a combination of literature data and ab initio calculations. Ab initio calculations also predict the locations and intensities of bands for the alkali vapors of interest. 39 refs., 9 figs.

Bernath, P. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sinquefield, S.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Oregon State Univ., Eugene, OR (United States); Baxter, L.L.; Sclippa, G.; Rohlfing, C. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Barfield, M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Roll-to-roll atomic layer deposition process for flexible electronics encapsulation applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At present flexible electronic devices are under extensive development and, among them, flexible organic light-emitting diode displays are the closest to a large market deployment. One of the remaining unsolved challenges is high throughput production of impermeable flexible transparent barrier layers that protect sensitive light-emitting materials against ambient moisture. The present studies deal with the adaptation of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) process to high-throughput roll-to-roll production using the spatial ALD concept. We report the development of such a process for the deposition of 20?nm thickness Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} diffusion barrier layers on 500?mm wide polymer webs. The process uses trimethylaluminum and water as precursors at a substrate temperature of 105?°C. The observation of self-limiting film growth behavior and uniformity of thickness confirms the ALD growth mechanism. Water vapor transmission rates for 20?nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates were measured as a function of substrate residence time, that is, time of exposure of the substrate to one precursor zone. Moisture permeation levels measured at 38?°C/90% relative humidity by coulometric isostatic–isobaric method were below the detection limit of the instrument (<5?×?10{sup ?4}?g/m{sup 2} day) for films coated at web moving speed of 0.25?m/min. Measurements using the Ca test indicated water vapor transmission rates ?5?×?10{sup ?6} g/m{sup 2} day. Optical measurements on the coated web showed minimum transmission of 80% in the visible range that is the same as the original PEN substrate.

Maydannik, Philipp S., E-mail: philipp.maydannik@lut.fi; Kääriäinen, Tommi O.; Lahtinen, Kimmo; Cameron, David C. [Advanced Surface Technology Research Laboratory, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, 50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Söderlund, Mikko; Soininen, Pekka [Beneq Oy, P.O. Box 262, 01511 Vantaa (Finland); Johansson, Petri; Kuusipalo, Jurkka [Tampere University of Technology, Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, P.O. Box 589, 33101 Tampere (Finland); Moro, Lorenza; Zeng, Xianghui [Samsung Cheil Industries, San Jose R and D Center, 2186 Bering Drive, San Jose, California 95131 (United States)

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

Ho, Clifford K. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

318

Laser induced thermophoresis and particulate deposition efficiency  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction of laser radiation and an absorbing aerosol in a tube flow has been considered. The aerosol is produced by external heating of reactants as in the MCVD (Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition) process to produce submicron size particles in the manufacture of optical fiber preforms. These are subsequently deposited by thermophoretic forces on the inner wall of the tube as they are convected by a Poiseuille velocity profile. Axial laser radiation in the tube interacts with the absorbing particles, and the laser heating of the gas induces additional thermophoretic forces that markedly increase the efficiency of particulate deposition. A particle concentration dependent absorption coefficient that appears in the energy equation couples the energy equation to the equation of particle conservation, so that a non-linear set of coupled partial integrodifferential equations must be solved. Numerical solutions for aerosol particle trajectories, and thus deposition efficiencies, have been obtained. It is shown that laser enhanced thermophoresis markedly improves the deposition efficiency.

Cipolla, J.; Morse, T.F.; Wang, C.Y.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Spatially resolved energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopic method for in-situ evaluation of mechanical properties during the growth of a C - Pt composite nanowire  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A core-shell type C-Pt composite nanowire is fabricated using focused ion and electron beam induced chemical vapor deposition techniques. Using information from spatially resolved energy dispersive x-ray spectra, we detect the resonance vibration in the C-Pt composite nanowire. We use this method to measure the Young's moduli of the constituents (C, Pt) of the composite nanowire and also estimate the density of the FEB CVD grown Pt shell surrounding the C core. By measuring the resonance characteristics of the composite nanowire we estimate a Pt shell growth rate of ?0.9 nms{sup ?1}. The study is analyzed to suggest that the Pt shell growth mechanism is primarily governed by the sticking coefficient of the organometallic vapor on the C nanowire core.

Banerjee, Amit; Banerjee, S. S., E-mail: satyajit@iitk.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, 208016 (India)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

320

Tribology Letters Vol. 10, No. 3, 2001 179 Activation of the SiC surface for vapor phase lubrication  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

above 500 C [2,3,11,12]. Since liquid lubricants cannot withstand such extreme conditions, a number deposition 1. Introduction The lubrication of ceramic surfaces working at extremely high temperatures has lubrication by Fe chemical vapor deposition from Fe(CO)5 Daxing Ren, Dougyong Sung and Andrew J. Gellman

Gellman, Andrew J.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Growth mechanisms study of microcrystalline silicon deposited by SiH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} plasma using tailored voltage waveforms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of Tailored Voltage Waveforms is a technique wherein one uses non-sinusoidal waveforms with a period equivalent to RF frequencies to excite a plasma. It has been shown to be an effective technique to decouple maximum Ion Bombardment Energy (IBE) from the ion flux at the surface of the electrodes. In this paper, we use it for the first time as a way to scan through the IBE in order to study the growth mechanism of hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon using a SiH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} chemistry. We find that at critical energies, a stepwise increase in the amorphous to microcrystalline transition thickness is observed, as detected by Real Time Spectroscopic Ellipsometry. The same energy thresholds (30?eV and 70?eV) are found to be very influential on the final surface morphology of the samples, as observed by Atomic Force Microscopy. These thresholds correspond to SiH{sub x}{sup +} bulk displacement (30?eV) and H{sub x}{sup +} (70?eV) surface displacement energies. A model is therefore proposed to account for the impact of these ions on the morphology of ?c-Si:H growth.

Bruneau, B., E-mail: bastien.bruneau@polytechnique.edu; Johnson, E. V. [LPICM-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Wang, J. [LPICM-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); ICARE China-Europe Institute for Clean and Renewable Energy at Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, 430074 Wuhan (China); Dornstetter, J.-C. [LPICM-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); TOTAL New Energies, 24 cours Michelet, 92069 Paris La Défense Cedex (France)

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

322

Substrate effect on CdTe layers grown by metalorganic vapor phase N. V. Sochinskiia),b)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Substrate effect on CdTe layers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy N. V. Sochinskiia for publication 30 December 1996 CdTe layers were grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy MOVPE on different substrates like sapphire, GaAs, and CdTe wafers. The growth was carried out at the temperature 340 °C

Viña, Luis

323

The Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Some Primary Amines of Pharmaceutical Importance by Correlation Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by Correlation Gas Chromatography Chase Gobble, Nigam Rath, and James Chickos* Department of Chemistry Information ABSTRACT: Vapor pressures, vaporization, and sublimation enthalpies of several pharmaceuticals and boiling temperatures when available. Sublimation enthalpies and vapor pressures are also evaluated for 1

Chickos, James S.

324

Control of pyrophoricity in deposits produced by electron beam evaporation of uranium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A description is given of an apparatus for reducing the pyrophoricity of deposits of a material evaporated within a chamber comprising: a sealed chamber defined by an enclosure; means for providing within said chamber an atmosphere of generally non-reactive nature; a reservoir of a material to ve evaporated; means for directing a vapor of said material from said reservoir into said chamber; at least one surface within said chamber in the path of the directed vapor and on which at least portions of the vaporized material deposits; means for cooling said enclosure to a temperature at which said vapor deposits at a relatively low pyrophoric density; and means for maintaining a temperature for said collection surfaces higher than the enclosure temperature to promote deposition of said material at a relatively higher density.

Clifford, J.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Annual report, April 1981 - May 1982 : laser induced deposition of thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process has been demonstrated with Si thin films. In this process, reactant gases are heated by absorbing light energy emitted from an IR laser. No other surfaces are heated by the ...

Gattuso, Todd Richard

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Carbon Nanotube Growth Using Ni Catalyst in Different Layouts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes have been grown using Ni as catalyst by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system (PECVD) in various pre-patterned substrates. Ni was thermally evaporated on silicon substrates ...

Nguyen, H. Q.

327

VAPORIZATION THERMODYNAMICS OF KCl. COMBINING VAPOR PRESSURE AND GRAVIMETRIC DATA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.B. Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119899, Russia Bonnell D.W., Hastie J.W. National temperature chemistry situations, vapor pressures are typically less than 100 kPa. The molar volume is p = 101325 Pa). The subscript trs denotes that the changeisfor a transition, typically sublimation

Rudnyi, Evgenii B.

328

VAPORIZATION OF TUNGSTEN-METAL IN STEAM AT HIGH TEMPERATURES.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The vaporization of tungsten from the APT spallation target dominates the radiological source term for unmitigated target overheating accidents. Chemical reactions of tungsten with steam which persist to tungsten temperatures as low as 800 C result in the formation of a hydrated tungsten-oxide which has a high vapor pressure and is readily convected in a flowing atmosphere. This low-temperature vaporization reaction essentially removes the oxide film that forms on the tungsten-metal surface as soon as it forms, leaving behind a fresh metallic surface for continued oxidation and vaporization. Experiments were conducted to measure the oxidative vaporization rates of tungsten in steam as part of the effort to quantify the MT radiological source term for severe target accidents. Tests were conducted with tungsten rods (1/8 inch diameter, six inches long) heated to temperatures from approximately 700 C to 1350 C in flowing steam which was superheated to 140 C. A total of 19 experiments was conducted. Fifteen tests were conducted by RF induction heating of single tungsten rods held vertical in a quartz glass retort. Four tests were conducted in a vertically-mounted tube furnace for the low temperature range of the test series. The aerosol which was generated and transported downstream from the tungsten rods was collected by passing the discharged steam through a condenser. This procedure insured total collection of the steam along with the aerosol from the vaporization of the rods. The results of these experiments revealed a threshold temperature for tungsten vaporization in steam. For the two tests at the lowest temperatures which were tested, approximately 700 C, the tungsten rods were observed to oxidize without vaporization. The remainder of the tests was conducted over the temperature range of 800 C to 1350 C. In these tests, the rods were found to have lost weight due to vaporization of the tungsten and the missing weight was collected in the downstream condensate system. The aerosol formed a fine white smoke of tungsten-oxide which was visible to the eye as it condensed in the laminar boundary layer of steam which flowed along the surface of the rod. The aerosol continued to flow as a smoke tube downstream of the rod, flowing coaxially along the centerline axis of the quartz glass tube and depositing by impaction along the outside of a bend and at sudden area contractions in the piping. The vaporization rate data from the 17 experiments which exceeded the vaporization threshold temperature are shown in Figure 5 in the form of vaporization rates (g/cm{sup 2} s) vs. inverse temperature (K{sup {minus}1}). Two correlations to the present data are presented and compared to a published correlation by Kilpatrick and Lott. The differences are discussed.

GREENE,G.A.; FINFROCK,C.C.

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Deposition of dopant impurities and pulsed energy drive-in  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor doping process which enhances the dopant incorporation achievable using the Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) technique. The enhanced doping is achieved by first depositing a thin layer of dopant atoms on a semiconductor surface followed by exposure to one or more pulses from either a laser or an ion-beam which melt a portion of the semiconductor to a desired depth, thus causing the dopant atoms to be incorporated into the molten region. After the molten region recrystallizes the dopant atoms are electrically active. The dopant atoms are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or other known deposition techniques.

Wickboldt, Paul (Walnut Creek, CA); Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Jose, CA); Ellingboe, Albert R. (Malahide, IE)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Deposition of dopant impurities and pulsed energy drive-in  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor doping process which enhances the dopant incorporation achievable using the Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) technique. The enhanced doping is achieved by first depositing a thin layer of dopant atoms on a semiconductor surface followed by exposure to one or more pulses from either a laser or an ion-beam which melt a portion of the semiconductor to a desired depth, thus causing the dopant atoms to be incorporated into the molten region. After the molten region recrystallizes the dopant atoms are electrically active. The dopant atoms are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or other known deposition techniques.

Wickboldt, Paul (Walnut Creek, CA); Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA); Ellingboe, Albert R. (Fremont, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Deposition of dopant impurities and pulsed energy drive-in  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semiconductor doping process which enhances the dopant incorporation achievable using the Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) technique is disclosed. The enhanced doping is achieved by first depositing a thin layer of dopant atoms on a semiconductor surface followed by exposure to one or more pulses from either a laser or an ion-beam which melt a portion of the semiconductor to a desired depth, thus causing the dopant atoms to be incorporated into the molten region. After the molten region recrystallizes the dopant atoms are electrically active. The dopant atoms are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or other known deposition techniques. 2 figs.

Wickboldt, P.; Carey, P.G.; Smith, P.M.; Ellingboe, A.R.

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

332

Source replenishment device for vacuum deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A material source replenishment device for use with a vacuum deposition apparatus is described. The source replenishment device comprises an intermittent motion producing gear arrangement disposed within the vacuum deposition chamber. An elongated rod having one end operably connected to the gearing arrangement is provided with a multiarmed head at the opposite end disposed adjacent the heating element of the vacuum deposition apparatus. An inverted U-shaped source material element is releasably attached to the outer end of each arm member whereby said multiarmed head is moved to locate a first of said material elements above said heating element, whereupon said multiarmed head is lowered to engage said material element with the heating element and further lowered to release said material element on the heating element. After vaporization of said material element, second and subsequent material elements may be provided to the heating element without the need for opening the vacuum deposition apparatus to the atmosphere.

Hill, R.A.

1986-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium Deposition by in situ Electrochemical Direct Visualization of Initial SEI Morphology and Growth Kinetics During Lithium...

334

Chemical deposition methods using supercritical fluid solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for depositing a film of a desired material on a substrate comprises dissolving at least one reagent in a supercritical fluid comprising at least one solvent. Either the reagent is capable of reacting with or is a precursor of a compound capable of reacting with the solvent to form the desired product, or at least one additional reagent is included in the supercritical solution and is capable of reacting with or is a precursor of a compound capable of reacting with the first reagent or with a compound derived from the first reagent to form the desired material. The supercritical solution is expanded to produce a vapor or aerosol and a chemical reaction is induced in the vapor or aerosol so that a film of the desired material resulting from the chemical reaction is deposited on the substrate surface. In an alternate embodiment, the supercritical solution containing at least one reagent is expanded to produce a vapor or aerosol which is then mixed with a gas containing at least one additional reagent. A chemical reaction is induced in the resulting mixture so that a film of the desired material is deposited.

Sievers, Robert E. (Boulder, CO); Hansen, Brian N. (Boulder, CO)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Hydrogen Cars and Water Vapor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

misidentified as "zero-emissions vehicles." Fuel cell vehicles emit water vapor. A global fleet could have, with discernible effects on people and ecosystems. The broad environmental effects of fuel cell vehicles. This cycle is currently under way with hydrogen fuel cells. As fuel cell cars are suggested as a solution

Colorado at Boulder, University of

336

Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Volatilized metal compounds retard vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

Warren, Barbara K. (Charleston, WV)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Processing of CuInSe{sub 2}-based solar cells: Characterization of deposition processes in terms of chemical reaction analyses. Phase 2 Annual Report, 6 May 1996--5 May 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes research performed by the University of Florida during Phase 2 of this subcontract. First, to study CIGS, researchers adapted a contactless, nondestructive technique previously developed for measuring photogenerated excess carrier lifetimes in SOI wafers. This dual-beam optical modulation (DBOM) technique was used to investigate the differences between three alternative methods of depositing CdS (conventional chemical-bath deposition [CBD], metal-organic chemical vapor deposition [MOCVD], and sputtering). Second, a critical assessment of the Cu-In-Se thermochemical and phase diagram data using standard CALPHAD procedures is being performed. The outcome of this research will produce useful information on equilibrium vapor compositions (required annealing ambients, Sex fluxes from effusion cells), phase diagrams (conditions for melt-assisted growth), chemical potentials (driving forces for diffusion and chemical reactions), and consistent solution models (extents of solid solutions and extending phase diagrams). Third, an integrated facility to fabricate CIS PV devices was established that includes migration-enhanced epitaxy (MEE) for deposition of CIS, a rapid thermal processing furnace for absorber film formation, sputtering of ZnO, CBD or MOCVD of CdS, metallization, and pattern definition.

Anderson, T.

1999-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

338

Vapor explosion in the RIA-ST-4 experiment. [BWR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A concern in assuring the safety of commercial light water reactors (LWRs) is whether core overheating, during which molten fuel is produced, can lead to massive vaporization of the coolant and shock pressurization of the system due to an energetic molten fuel-coolant interaction (MFCI). The RIA-ST-4 experiment was one of four scoping tests in the Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) Test Series which is being conducted in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) to define an energy deposition failure threshold and to determine modes and consequences of fuel rod failure during a postulated boiling water reactor (BWR) control rod drop accident.

El-Genk, M.S.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Modeling precursor diffusion and reaction of atomic layer deposition in porous structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a technique for depositing thin films of materials with a precise thickness control and uniformity using the self-limitation of the underlying reactions. Usually, it is difficult to predict the result of the ALD process for given external parameters, e.g., the precursor exposure time or the size of the precursor molecules. Therefore, a deeper insight into ALD by modeling the process is needed to improve process control and to achieve more economical coatings. In this paper, a detailed, microscopic approach based on the model developed by Yanguas-Gil and Elam is presented and additionally compared with the experiment. Precursor diffusion and second-order reaction kinetics are combined to identify the influence of the porous substrate's microstructural parameters and the influence of precursor properties on the coating. The thickness of the deposited film is calculated for different depths inside the porous structure in relation to the precursor exposure time, the precursor vapor pressure, and other parameters. Good agreement with experimental results was obtained for ALD zirconiumdioxide (ZrO{sub 2}) films using the precursors tetrakis(ethylmethylamido)zirconium and O{sub 2}. The derivation can be adjusted to describe other features of ALD processes, e.g., precursor and reactive site losses, different growth modes, pore size reduction, and surface diffusion.

Keuter, Thomas, E-mail: t.keuter@fz-juelich.de; Menzler, Norbert Heribert; Mauer, Georg; Vondahlen, Frank; Vaßen, Robert; Buchkremer, Hans Peter [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-1), 52425 Jülich (Germany)

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Molybdenum enhanced low-temperature deposition of crystalline silicon nitride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for chemical vapor deposition of crystalline silicon nitride is described which comprises the steps of: introducing a mixture of a silicon source, a molybdenum source, a nitrogen source, and a hydrogen source into a vessel containing a suitable substrate; and thermally decomposing the mixture to deposit onto the substrate a coating comprising crystalline silicon nitride containing a dispersion of molybdenum silicide. 5 figures.

Lowden, R.A.

1994-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Vapor canister heater for evaporative emissions systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Automotive evaporative emissions systems use a charcoal canister to store evaporative hydrocarobn emissions. These stored vapors are later purged and burned during engine operation. Under certain conditions the engine cannot completely purge the canister of the stored fuel vapors, which results in a decreased vapor storage capacity in the canister. A self-regulating PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) heater has been developed to warm the purge air as it enters the canister, in order to provide thermal energy for increased release of the vapors from charcoal sites. This paper describes the construction and operation of the vapor canister heater as it relates to improved evaporative emission system performance.

Bishop, R.P.; Berg, P.G.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Ambipolar silicon nanowire FETs with stenciled-deposited metal gate Davide Sacchetto  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ambipolar silicon nanowire FETs with stenciled-deposited metal gate Davide Sacchetto , Veronica Keywords: Schottky barrier Ambipolarity Si nanowire Stencil lithography FET Silicide a b s t r a c t We chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) of amorphous Si (a-Si) and SiO2 layers as well as metal gate patterning

De Micheli, Giovanni

343

Time-resolved surface infrared spectroscopy during atomic layer deposition of TiO{sub 2} using tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium and water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic layer deposition of titanium dioxide using tetrakis(dimethylamido)titanium (TDMAT) and water vapor is studied by reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) with a time resolution of 120?ms. At 190?°C and 240?°C, a decrease in the absorption from adsorbed TDMAT is observed without any evidence of an adsorbed product. Ex situ measurements indicate that this behavior is not associated with an increase in the impurity concentration or a dramatic change in the growth rate. A desorbing decomposition product is consistent with these observations. RAIRS also indicates that dehydroxylation of the growth surface occurs only among one type of surface hydroxyl groups. Molecular water is observed to remain on the surface and participates in reactions even at a relatively high temperature (110?°C) and with long purge times (30?s)

Sperling, Brent A., E-mail: brent.sperling@nist.gov; Hoang, John; Kimes, William A.; Maslar, James E. [Chemical Sciences Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Dr., Stop 8320, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8320 (United States); Steffens, Kristen L. [Biomolecular Measurement Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Dr., Stop 8362, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8362 (United States); Nguyen, Nhan V. [Semiconductor and Dimensional Metrology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Dr., Stop 8120, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8120 (United States)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

344

Atomic absorption monitor for deposition process control of aluminum at 394 nm using frequency-doubled diode laser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atomic absorption monitor for deposition process control of aluminum at 394 nm using frequency November 1995 A monitor for Al vapor density based on atomic absorption AA using a frequency of atomic absorption AA as a monitor for thickness and composition control in physical vapor deposi- tion

Fejer, Martin M.

345

Heteroepitaxial growth of GaN/Si (111) junctions in ammonia-free atmosphere: Charge transport, optoelectronic, and photovoltaic properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the catalyst-free growth of gallium nitride (GaN) nanostructures on n-Si (111) substrates using physical vapor deposition via thermal evaporation of GaN powder at 1150 Degree-Sign C in the absence of NH{sub 3} gas. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis indicate that the growth rate of GaN nanostructures varies with deposition time. Photoluminescence spectra showed the suppression of the UV emission and the enhancement of the visible band emission with increasing the deposition time. The fabricated GaN nanostructures exhibited p-type behavior at the GaN/Si interface, which can be related to the diffusion of Ga into the Si substrate. The obtained lowest reflection and highest transmittance over a wide wavelength range (450-750 nm) indicate the high quality of the fabricated GaN films. Hall-effect measurements showed that all fabricated films have p-type behavior with decreasing electron concentration from 10{sup 21} to 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} and increasing the electron mobility from 50 to 225 cm{sup 2}/V s with increasing the growth time. The fabricated solar cell based on the 1 h-deposited GaN nanostructures on n-Si (111) substrate showed a well-defined rectifying behavior with a rectification ratio larger than 8.32 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} in dark. Upon illumination (30 mW/cm{sup 2}), the 1 h-deposited heterojunction solar cell device showed a conversion efficiency of 5.78%. The growth of GaN in the absence of NH{sub 3} gas has strong effect on the morphological, optical, and electrical properties and consequently on the efficiency of the solar cell devices made of such layers.

Saron, K. M. A.; Hashim, M. R. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800 (Malaysia); Allam, Nageh K. [Energy Materials Laboratory (EML), Department of Physics, School of Sciences and Engineering, The American University in Cairo, New Cairo 11835 (Egypt)

2013-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

346

Pulsed Laser CVD Investigations of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Growth Dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nucleation and rapid growth of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were explored by pulsed-laser assisted chemical vapor deposition (PLA-CVD). A special high-power, Nd:YAG laser system with tunable pulse width (> 0.5 ms) was implemented to rapidly heat (>30,000 C/s) metal catalyst-covered substrates to different growth temperatures for very brief (sub-second) and controlled time periods as measured by in situ optical pyrometry. Utilizing growth directly on transmission electron microscopy grids, exclusively SWNTs were found to grow under rapid heating conditions, with a minimum nucleation time of >0.10 s. By measuring the length of nanotubes grown by single laser pulses, extremely fast growth rates (up to 100 microns/s) were found to result from the rapid heating and cooling induced by the laser treatment. Subsequent laser pulses were found not to incrementally continue the growth of these nanotubes, but instead activate previously inactive catalyst nanoparticles to grow new nanotubes. Localized growth of nanotubes with variable density was demonstrated through this process, and was applied for the reliable direct-write synthesis of SWNTs onto pre-patterned, catalyst-covered metal electrodes for the synthesis of SWNT field-effect transistors.

Geohegan, David B [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Zuqin [ORNL] [ORNL; Styers-Barnett, David J [ORNL] [ORNL; Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL] [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL] [ORNL; Yuan, Dongning [Duke University] [Duke University; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL] [ORNL; Xiao, Kai [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Jie [Duke University] [Duke University

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Control of flow through a vapor generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a Rankine cycle system wherein a vapor generator receives heat from exhaust gases, provision is made to avoid overheating of the refrigerant during ORC system shut down while at the same time preventing condensation of those gases within the vapor generator when its temperature drops below a threshold temperature by diverting the flow of hot gases to ambient and to thereby draw ambient air through the vapor generator in the process. In one embodiment, a bistable ejector is adjustable between one position, in which the hot gases flow through the vapor generator, to another position wherein the gases are diverted away from the vapor generator. Another embodiment provides for a fixed valve ejector with a bias towards discharging to ambient, but with a fan on the downstream side of said vapor generator for overcoming this bias.

Radcliff, Thomas D.

2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

348

Unified moving-boundary model with fluctuations for unstable diffusive growth Matteo Nicoli  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

examples are found in thin-film production by chemical vapor deposition and electrochemical deposition. The model also incorporates noise terms that account for fluctuations in the diffusive and attachment that are sometimes solv- able. For instance, electrochemical deposition ECD of met- als 4,5 has been and still is 6

Cuerno, Rodolfo

349

Wick for metal vapor laser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved wick for a metal vapor laser is made of a refractory metal cylinder, preferably molybdenum or tungsten for a copper laser, which provides the wicking surface. Alternately, the inside surface of the ceramic laser tube can be metalized to form the wicking surface. Capillary action is enhanced by using wire screen, porous foam metal, or grooved surfaces. Graphite or carbon, in the form of chunks, strips, fibers or particles, is placed on the inside surface of the wick to reduce water, reduce metal oxides and form metal carbides.

Duncan, David B. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Overview of chemical vapor infiltration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is developing into a commercially important method for the fabrication of continuous filament ceramic composites. Current efforts are focused on the development of an improved understanding of the various processes in CVI and its modeling. New approaches to CVI are being explored, including pressure pulse infiltration and microwave heating. Material development is also proceeding with emphasis on improving the oxidation resistance of the interfacial layer between the fiber and matrix. This paper briefly reviews these subjects, indicating the current state of the science and technology.

Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Lowden, R.A.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Growth and characterizations of GaN micro-rods on graphene films for flexible light emitting diodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the growth of GaN micro-rods and coaxial quantum-well heterostructures on graphene films, together with structural and optical characterization, for applications in flexible optical devices. Graphene films were grown on Cu foil by means of chemical vapor deposition, and used as the substrates for the growth of the GaN micro-rods, which were subsequently transferred onto SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates. Highly Si-doped, n-type GaN micro-rods were grown on the graphene films using metal–organic chemical vapor deposition. The growth and vertical alignment of the GaN micro-rods, which is a critical factor for the fabrication of high-performance light-emitting diodes (LEDs), were characterized using electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The GaN micro-rods exhibited promising photoluminescence characteristics for optoelectronic device applications, including room-temperature stimulated emission. To fabricate flexible LEDs, In{sub x}Ga{sub 1–x}N/GaN multiple quantum wells and a p-type GaN layer were deposited coaxially on the GaN micro-rods, and transferred onto Ag-coated polymer substrates using lift-off. Ti/Au and Ni/Au metal layers were formed to provide electrical contacts to the n-type and p-type GaN regions, respectively. The micro-rod LEDs exhibited intense emission of visible light, even after transfer onto the flexible polymer substrate, and reliable operation was achieved following numerous cycles of mechanical deformation.

Chung, Kunook; Beak, Hyeonjun; Tchoe, Youngbin; Oh, Hongseok; Yi, Gyu-Chul, E-mail: gcyi@snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Institute of Applied Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Hyobin; Kim, Miyoung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Volatilized metal compounds are described which are capable of retarding vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

Warren, B.K.

1991-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

353

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

Novick, Vincent J.; Johnson, Stanley A.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

1999-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

355

Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vapor sample detection method where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample.

Novick, Vincent J. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Tilted domain growth of metalorganic chemical vapor (MOCVD)-grown  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layered NbS2 andThe1A:decisional. 1 B O N N E V I L L E P O

357

Robust Numerical Simulation of Porosity Evolution in Chemical Vapor Infiltration I: Two Space  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

infiltration (CVI) process is an important approach to fabricating ceramic matrix composite(CMC's). Two. In CVI a vapor precursor of the matrix material, such as methyl­ trichlorosilane (MTS), diffuses through the inter­fiber void. As matrix growth progresses, avenues for gas transport become more tortuous and begin

Jin, Shi

358

Tropospheric water vapor and climate sensitivity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Estimates are made of the effect of changes in tropospheric water vapor on the climate sensitivity to doubled carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) using a coarse resolution atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab mixed layer ocean. The sensitivity of the model to doubled CO{sub 2} is found as the difference between the equilibrium responses for control and doubled CO{sub 2} cases. Clouds are specified to isolate the water vapor feedback. Experiments in which the water vapor distribution is specified rather than internally calculated are used to find the contribution of water vapor in various layers and latitude belts to the sensitivity. The contribution of water vapor in layers of equal mass to the climate sensitivity varies by about a factor of 2 with height, with the largest contribution coming from layers between 450 and 750 mb, and the smallest from layers above 230 mb. The positive feedback on the global mean surface temperature response to doubled CO{sub 2} from water vapor above 750 mb is about 2.6 times as large as that from water vapor below 750 mb. The feedback on global mean surface temperature due to water vapor in the extratropical free troposphere is about 50% larger than the feedback due to the lower-latitude free troposphere water vapor. Several important sources of nonlinearity of the radiative heating rates were identified in the process of constructing the specified cloud and water vapor fields. These are (1) the interaction of clouds and solar radiation, which produces much more reflection of solar radiation for time mean clouds than for the instantaneous clouds; (2) the correlation of clouds and water vapor, which produces less downward longwave radiation at the ground for correlated clouds and water vapor than when these fields are independent; and (3) the interaction of water vapor with long wave radiation, which produces less downward longwave radiation at the ground of the average over instantaneous water vapor distributions than of the time mean water vapor distribution.

Schneider, E.K.; Kirtman, B.P.; Lindzen, R.S. [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States)] [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States)

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Observation of photoluminescence from Al1 xInxN heteroepitaxial films grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Observation of photoluminescence from Al1 xInxN heteroepitaxial films grown by metalorganic vapor have observed photoluminescence of Al1 xInxN films. The films were grown on GaN by atmospheric pressure-temperature deposited AlN buffer layer. Photoluminescence, absorption, and x-ray diffraction measurements have shown

Wetzel, Christian M.

360

Quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A quantitative organic vapor-particle sampler for sampling semi-volatile organic gases and particulate components. A semi-volatile organic reversible gas sorbent macroreticular resin agglomerates of randomly packed microspheres with the continuous porous structure of particles ranging in size between 0.05-10 .mu.m for use in an integrated diffusion vapor-particle sampler.

Gundel, Lara (Berkeley, CA); Daisey, Joan M. (Walnut Creek, CA); Stevens, Robert K. (Cary, NC)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Thermophilic Biotrickling Filtration of Ethanol Vapors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermophilic Biotrickling Filtration of Ethanol Vapors H U U B H . J . C O X , T H O M A S S E X of ethanol vapors in biotrickling filters for air pollution control was investigated. Two reactors were adaptation phase, the removal of ethanol was similar in both reactors. At a bed contact time of 57 s

362

LNG fire and vapor control system technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

HANFORD CHEMICAL VAPORS WORKER CONCERNS & EXPOSURE EVALUATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical vapor emissions from underground hazardous waste storage tanks on the Hanford site in eastern Washington State are a potential concern because workers enter the tank farms on a regular basis for waste retrievals, equipment maintenance, and surveillance. Tank farm contractors are in the process of retrieving all remaining waste from aging single-shell tanks, some of which date to World War II, and transferring it to newer double-shell tanks. During the waste retrieval process, tank farm workers are potentially exposed to fugitive chemical vapors that can escape from tank headspaces and other emission points. The tanks are known to hold more than 1,500 different species of chemicals, in addition to radionuclides. Exposure assessments have fully characterized the hazards from chemical vapors in half of the tank farms. Extensive sampling and analysis has been done to characterize the chemical properties of hazardous waste and to evaluate potential health hazards of vapors at the ground surface, where workers perform maintenance and waste transfer activities. Worker concerns. risk communication, and exposure assessment are discussed, including evaluation of the potential hazards of complex mixtures of chemical vapors. Concentrations of vapors above occupational exposure limits-(OEL) were detected only at exhaust stacks and passive breather filter outlets. Beyond five feet from the sources, vapors disperse rapidly. No vapors have been measured above 50% of their OELs more than five feet from the source. Vapor controls are focused on limited hazard zones around sources. Further evaluations of vapors include analysis of routes of exposure and thorough analysis of nuisance odors.

ANDERSON, T.J.

2006-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

364

Photobiomolecular deposition of metallic particles and films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The method of the invention is based on the unique electron-carrying function of a photocatalytic unit such as the photosynthesis system I (PSI) reaction center of the protein-chlorophyll complex isolated from chloroplasts. The method employs a photo-biomolecular metal deposition technique for precisely controlled nucleation and growth of metallic clusters/particles, e.g., platinum, palladium, and their alloys, etc., as well as for thin-film formation above the surface of a solid substrate. The photochemically mediated technique offers numerous advantages over traditional deposition methods including quantitative atom deposition control, high energy efficiency, and mild operating condition requirements.

Hu, Zhong-Cheng

2005-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

365

Quantitative Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-PhaseGlyoxal...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-Phase Glyoxal,Methylglyoxal, and 2,3-Butanedione (Diacetyl) with Quantitative Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-Phase Glyoxal,Methylglyoxal,...

366

Absolute integrated intensities of vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Absolute integrated intensities of vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide (H202) in the mid-infrared at atmospheric pressure. Absolute integrated intensities of vapor-phase hydrogen...

367

Vapor Pressure measurements for dichlorosilane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with applications requiring precise control of the placement and thickness of layers of pure silicon. Chlorosilanes are a group of silanes that contain chlorine. Some of the more common chlorosilanes are dichlorosilane (SiH, Cl, ), uichlorosilane (SiHC1... applications is manufactured by reaction of silanes or chlorosilanes to deposit pure silicon. The stringent purity requirements of the semiconductor industry require extremely high purity levels in the manufactured silicon and, as a prerequisite...

Morris, Tony Knimbula

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

E-Print Network 3.0 - assisted vapour deposition Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) for the growth of thin films of In 0 :Sn... in a nitrogen-oxygen atmosphere, thin films are deposited on hot 410-SOOC glass and (111) silicon...

369

Methods for improved growth of group III nitride buffer layers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are disclosed for growing high crystal quality group III-nitride epitaxial layers with advanced multiple buffer layer techniques. In an embodiment, a method includes forming group III-nitride buffer layers that contain aluminum on suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. A hydrogen halide or halogen gas is flowing into the growth zone during deposition of buffer layers to suppress homogeneous particle formation. Some combinations of low temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) and high temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) may be used to improve crystal quality and morphology of subsequently grown group III-nitride epitaxial layers. The buffer may be deposited on the substrate, or on the surface of another buffer. The additional buffer layers may be added as interlayers in group III-nitride layers (e.g., GaN, AlGaN, AlN).

Melnik, Yurity; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

Oxygen-assisted room-temperature deposition of CoPt3 films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen-assisted room-temperature deposition of CoPt3 films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy B Jolla, California 92093 Received 23 July 2002; accepted 30 September 2002 Trace amounts of oxygen CoPt3 grown by vapor deposition at or slightly above room temperature. Oxygen is known to act

Hellman, Frances

371

In-growth of an electrically active defect in high-purity silicon after proton irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Defect-related energy levels in the lower half of the band gap of silicon have been studied with transient-capacitance techniques in high-purity, carbon and oxygen lean, plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition grown, n-and p-type silicon layers after 2-MeV proton irradiations at temperatures at or just below room temperature. The in-growth of a distinct line in deep-level transient spectroscopy spectra, corresponding to a level in the band gap at E{sub V} + 0.357 eV where E{sub V} is the energy of the valence band edge, takes place for anneal temperatures at around room temperature with an activation energy of 0.95 ± 0.08 eV. The line disappears at an anneal temperature of around 450 K. The corresponding defect is demonstrated not to contain boron, carbon, oxygen, or phosphorus. Possible defect candidates are discussed.

Nylandsted Larsen, A.; Juul Pedersen, H.; Christian Petersen, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Privitera, V. [CNR-IMM, Institute of Microelectronics and Microsystems, Catania (Italy)] [CNR-IMM, Institute of Microelectronics and Microsystems, Catania (Italy); Gurimskaya, Y.; Mesli, A. [IM2NP, CNRS (UMR 7334) and Université Aix-Marseille, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)] [IM2NP, CNRS (UMR 7334) and Université Aix-Marseille, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

372

Numerical simulations of epitaxial growth process in MOVPE reactor as a tool for design of modern semiconductors for high power electronics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present study numerical simulations of epitaxial growth of gallium nitride in Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy reactor AIX-200/4RF-S is addressed. Epitaxial growth means crystal growth that progresses while inheriting the laminar structure and the orientation of substrate crystals. One of the technological problems is to obtain homogeneous growth rate over the main deposit area. Since there are many agents influencing reaction on crystal area such as temperature, pressure, gas flow or reactor geometry, it is difficult to design optimal process. According to the fact that it's impossible to determine experimentally the exact distribution of heat and mass transfer inside the reactor during crystal growth, modeling is the only solution to understand the process precisely. Numerical simulations allow to understand the epitaxial process by calculation of heat and mass transfer distribution during growth of gallium nitride. Including chemical reactions in numerical model allows to calculate the growth rate of the substrate and estimate the optimal process conditions for obtaining the most homogeneous product.

Skibinski, Jakub; Wejrzanowski, Tomasz [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Woloska 141, 02507 Warsaw (Poland); Caban, Piotr [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01919 Warsaw (Poland); Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering Woloska, 141, 02507 Warsaw (Poland)

2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

373

Optical monitor for water vapor concentration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma.

Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Infrared study on room-temperature atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2} using tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)hafnium and remote plasma-excited oxidizing agents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Room-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) of HfO{sub 2} was examined using tetrakis (ethylmethylamino)hafnium (TEMAH) and remote plasma-excited water and oxygen. A growth rate of 0.26?nm/cycle at room temperature was achieved, and the TEMAH adsorption and its oxidization on HfO{sub 2} were investigated by multiple internal reflection infrared absorption spectroscopy. It was observed that saturated adsorption of TEMAH occurs at exposures of ?1?×?10{sup 5}?L (1 L?=?1?×?10{sup ?6} Torr s) at room temperature, and the use of remote plasma-excited water and oxygen vapor is effective in oxidizing the TEMAH molecules on the HfO{sub 2} surface, to produce OH sites. The infrared study suggested that Hf–OH plays a role as an adsorption site for TEMAH. The reaction mechanism of room temperature HfO{sub 2} ALD is discussed in this paper.

Kanomata, Kensaku [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510, Japan and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 5-3-1 Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Ohba, Hisashi; Pungboon Pansila, P.; Ahmmad, Bashir; Kubota, Shigeru; Hirahara, Kazuhiro; Hirose, Fumihiko, E-mail: fhirose@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan)

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Particle deposition in ventilation ducts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and An Evaluation of Thermophoretic Deposition Rates C.1of estimated thermophoretic deposition velocities, v th+ ,of estimated thermophoretic deposition velocities, v th+ ,

Sippola, Mark R.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Growth process of microcrystalline silicon studied by combined photoluminescence and Raman investigations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon on glass substrates leads to formation of silicon amorphous films with partial crystallization of nano-grains in the amorphous matrix. We studied the transition of amorphous to microcrystalline silicon during such deposition. Formation of silicon nano-grains was detected by means of photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy. The crystalline fraction and the mean size of the nano-grains were estimated by the position and the intensity of the peaks in the Raman spectrum. We showed that the fraction of crystalline silicon in the layers and the size of the nano-grains are strongly dependent on the growth conditions. The photoluminescence spectra exhibit distinct features related to recombination in the amorphous and in the crystalline phases. A significant narrowing of the photoluminescence peak related to the amorphous phase with increasing crystalline fraction indicates a structural modification in the amorphous silicon. It suggests an ordering process occurring before the start of the actual crystallization. A peak at about 1.4 eV was associated with isolated nano-crystalline grains within the amorphous matrix. A correlation between the peak energy and grain size was found, indicating effects of carrier quantum confinement. The experimental results confirm the established theoretical models for growth of microcrystalline silicon films.

Klossek, A.; Mankovics, D.; Ratzke, M. [Brandenburg University of Technology, Konrad-Wachsmann-Allee 1, D-03046 Cottbus (Germany)] [Brandenburg University of Technology, Konrad-Wachsmann-Allee 1, D-03046 Cottbus (Germany); Arguirov, T.; Kittler, M. [Brandenburg University of Technology, Konrad-Wachsmann-Allee 1, D-03046 Cottbus (Germany) [Brandenburg University of Technology, Konrad-Wachsmann-Allee 1, D-03046 Cottbus (Germany); IHP Microelectronics, Im Technologiepark 25, D-15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Kirner, S.; Gabriel, O.; Stannowski, B.; Schlatmann, R. [Competence Centre Thin-Film- and Nanotechnology for Photovoltaics Berlin, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Berlin (Germany)] [Competence Centre Thin-Film- and Nanotechnology for Photovoltaics Berlin, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Friedrich, F. [Competence Centre Thin-Film- and Nanotechnology for Photovoltaics Berlin, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Berlin (Germany) [Competence Centre Thin-Film- and Nanotechnology for Photovoltaics Berlin, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Department of Semiconductor Devices, Technische Universität Berlin, Sekr. E2, Einsteinufer 19, D-10587 Berlin (Germany)

2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

377

Original article Growth stresses in tension wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original article Growth stresses in tension wood: role of microfibrils and lignification T Okuyama the growth stress generation in the region of normal and tension woods. growth stress/ tension wood in normal and ten- sion wood. The compressive stress from the deposition of lignin controls the level

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

378

Growth of Large-Area Single- and Bi-Layer Graphene by Controlled Carbon Precipitation on Polycrystalline Ni Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report graphene films composed mostly of one or two layers of graphene grown by controlled carbon precipitation on the surface of polycrystalline Ni thin films during atmospheric chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Controlling ...

Reina, Alfonso

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Vapor Pressures and Vaporization, Sublimation, and Fusion Enthalpies of Some Fatty Acids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vapor Pressures and Vaporization, Sublimation, and Fusion Enthalpies of Some Fatty Acids Joe A. Wilson and James S. Chickos* Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of MissouriSt. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63121, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Sublimation enthalpies

Chickos, James S.

380

Vapor Pressures and Vaporization Enthalpies of a Series of Dialkyl Phthalates by Correlation Gas Chromatography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chromatography Chase Gobble and James Chickos* Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis Missouri 63121, United States Sergey P. Verevkin Department of Physical Chemistry: Experimental vapor pressures, vaporization, fusion and sublimation enthalpies of a number of dialkyl

Chickos, James S.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

CONTROLLED GROWTH OF CARBON NANOTUBES ON CONDUCTIVE METAL SUBSTRATES FOR ENERGY STORAGE APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The impressive mechanical and electronic properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) make them ideally suited for use in a variety of nanostructured devices, especially in the realm of energy production and storage. In particular, vertically-aligned CNT “forests” have been the focus of increasing investigation for use in supercapacitor electrodes and as hydrogen adsorption substrates. Vertically-aligned CNT growth was attempted on metal substrates by waterassisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD). CNT growth was catalyzed by iron-molybdenum (FeMo) nanoparticle catalysts synthesized by a colloidal method, which were then spin-coated onto Inconel® foils. The substrates were loaded into a custom-built CVD apparatus, where CNT growth was initiated by heating the substrates to 750 °C under the fl ow of He, H2, C2H4 and a controlled amount of water vapor. The resultant CNTs were characterized by a variety of methods including Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the growth parameters were varied in an attempt to optimize the purity and growth yield of the CNTs. The surface area and hydrogen adsorption characteristics of the CNTs were quantifi ed by the Brunauer- Emmett-Teller (BET) and Sieverts methods, and their capacitance was measured via cyclic voltammetry. While vertically-aligned CNT growth could not be verifi ed, TEM and SEM analysis indicated that CNT growth was still obtained, resulting in multiwalled CNTs of a wide range in diameter along with some amorphous carbon impurities. These microscopy fi ndings were reinforced by Raman spectroscopy, which resulted in a G/D ratio ranging from 1.5 to 3 across different samples, suggestive of multiwalled CNTs. Changes in gas fl ow rates and water concentration during CNT growth were not found to have a discernable effect on the purity of the CNTs. The specifi c capacitance of a CNT/FeMo/Inconel® electrode was found to be 3.2 F/g, and the BET surface area of a characteristic CNT sample was measured to be 232 m2/g with a cryogenic (77K) hydrogen storage of 0.85 wt%. This level of hydrogen adsorption is slightly higher than that predicted by the Chahine rule, indicating that these CNTs may bind hydrogen more strongly than other carbonaceous materials. More work is needed to confi rm and determine the reason for increased hydrogen adsorption in these CNTs, and to test them for use as catalyst support networks. This study demonstrates the feasibility of producing CNTs for energy storage applications using water-assisted CVD.

Brown, P.; Engtrakul, C.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Environmentally focused patterning and processing of polymer thin films by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) and oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The new millennium has brought fourth many technological innovations made possible by the advancement of high speed integrated circuits. The materials and energy requirements for a microchip is orders of magnitude higher ...

Trujillo, Nathan J. (Nathan Jeffrey)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program has developed, in cooperation with Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory, the equipment and expertise to characterize gases and vapors in the high-level radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in south central Washington State. This capability has been demonstrated by the characterization of the tank 241-C-103 headspace. This tank headspace is the first, and for many reasons is expected to be the most problematic, that will be characterized (Osborne 1992). Results from the most recent and comprehensive sampling event, sample job 7B, are presented for the purpose of providing scientific bases for resolution of vapor issues associated with tank 241-C-103. This report is based on the work of Clauss et al. 1994, Jenkins et al. 1994, Ligotke et al. 1994, Mahon et al. 1994, and Rasmussen and Einfeld 1994. No attempt has been made in this report to evaluate the implications of the data presented, such as the potential impact of headspace gases and vapors to tank farm workers health. That and other issues will be addressed elsewhere. Key to the resolution of worker health issues is the quantitation of compounds of toxicological concern. The Toxicology Review Panel, a panel of Pacific Northwest Laboratory experts in various areas, of toxicology, has chosen 19 previously identified compounds as being of potential toxicological concern. During sample job 7B, the sampling and analytical methodology was validated for this preliminary list of compounds of toxicological concern. Validation was performed according to guidance provided by the Tank Vapor Conference Committee, a group of analytical chemists from academic institutions and national laboratories assembled and commissioned by the Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program.

Huckaby, J.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Story, M.S. [Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc. Richland, WA (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Method and Apparatus for Concentrating Vapors for Analysis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method are disclosed for pre-concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the apparatus can be thermally desorbed achieving at least partial separation of vapor mixtures. The apparatus is suitable, e.g., for preconcentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than for direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications.

Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Baldwin, David L. (Kennewick, WA); Anheier, Jr., Norman C. (Richland, WA)

2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

385

Deposition of WNxCy thin films for diffusion barrier application using the dimethylhydrazido (2-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thickness to the barrier scheme as well as an additional processing step. Binary transition metal compounds 13 April 2009 Available online xxxx Keywords: Chemical vapor deposition Metallization Tungsten nitride carbide Diffusion barrier X-ray diffraction Auger electron spectroscopy Tungsten nitride carbide

Anderson, Timothy J.

386

Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself. 4 figs.

Alger, T.

1988-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

387

Apparatus for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas.

Flynn, Paul L. (Fairview, PA); Giammarise, Anthony W. (Erie, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Apparatus for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice`s interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas. 2 figs.

Flynn, P.L.; Giammarise, A.W.

1995-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

389

Process for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance toerosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas.

Flynn, Paul L. (5139 Fox Park Dr., Fairview, PA 16415); Giammarise, Anthony W. (527 Lincoln Ave., Erie, PA 16505)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Process for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas. 2 figures.

Flynn, P.L.; Giammarise, A.W.

1991-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

391

FORMATION OF COSMIC CRYSTALS IN HIGHLY SUPERSATURATED SILICATE VAPOR PRODUCED BY PLANETESIMAL BOW SHOCKS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several lines of evidence suggest that fine silicate crystals observed in primitive meteorite and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) nucleated in a supersaturated silicate vapor followed by crystalline growth. We investigated evaporation of {mu}m-sized silicate particles heated by a bow shock produced by a planetesimal orbiting in the gas in the early solar nebula and condensation of crystalline silicate from the vapor thus produced. Our numerical simulation of shock-wave heating showed that these {mu}m-sized particles evaporate almost completely when the bow shock is strong enough to cause melting of chondrule precursor dust particles. We found that the silicate vapor cools very rapidly with expansion into the ambient unshocked nebular region; for instance, the cooling rate is estimated to be as high as 2000 K s{sup -1} for a vapor heated by a bow shock associated with a planetesimal of radius 1 km. The rapid cooling of the vapor leads to nonequilibrium gas-phase condensation of dust at temperatures much lower than those expected from the equilibrium condensation. It was found that the condensation temperatures are lower by a few hundred K or more than the equilibrium temperatures. This explains the results of the recent experimental studies of condensation from a silicate vapor that condensation in such large supercooling reproduces morphologies similar to those of silicate crystals found in meteorites. Our results strongly suggest that the planetesimal bow shock is one of the plausible sites for formation of not only chondrules but also other cosmic crystals in the early solar system.

Miura, H.; Yamada, J.; Tsukamoto, K.; Nozawa, J. [Department of Earth Sciences, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-3, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Tanaka, K. K.; Yamamoto, T. [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Nakamoto, T., E-mail: miurah@m.tohoku.ac.j [Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

392

Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment: Quarterly technical report, June 1, 1987-August 31, 1987  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our emphasis in the present program is on experimentally validating and developing rational, theoretical methods of predicting the role of inertia and ash particle thermophoresis in determining net deposition rates. We also wish to quantify how simultaneous vapor deposition (e.g., alkali sulfate) can influence the sticking and erosion associated with impacting particles. 6 refs., 2 figs.

Rosner, D.E.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Growth and electrical rectification in axial in-situ doped p-n junction germanium nanowires  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, we demonstrate the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth and electrical properties of axial in-situ doped p-n junction Ge nanowires (NWs). In-situ doping of the NWs was accomplished by introducing dopant gases (diborane and phosphine) together with GeH{sub 4} in the growth process. By changing dopant sources during growth, a p-n junction can be realized along the axis of the NWs. Metal contacts to the wires were defined using e-beam lithography patterning, followed by 100 nm Ni sputter deposition and lift-off. Four-point measurements of the fabricated devices at room temperature and at 77 K clearly show rectification with on/off current ratio up to two orders of magnitude when the bias is applied across the p-n junction. The ideality factor of the junction current points to a significant generation-recombination contribution. The Ohmic characteristics in the p and n regions outside the junction make it possible to estimate the doping levels. We also observed backgate control of the NW junction current.

Picraux, Samuel T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dayeh, Shadi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zaslavsky, Alexander [BROWN U; Le, Son T [BROWN U

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

ZnO/Cu(InGa)Se2 solar cells prepared by vapor phase Zn doping  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for making a thin film ZnO/Cu(InGa)Se2 solar cell without depositing a buffer layer and by Zn doping from a vapor phase, comprising: depositing Cu(InGa)Se2 layer on a metal back contact deposited on a glass substrate; heating the Cu(InGa)Se2 layer on the metal back contact on the glass substrate to a temperature range between about 100.degree. C. to about 250.degree. C.; subjecting the heated layer of Cu(InGa)Se2 to an evaporant species from a Zn compound; and sputter depositing ZnO on the Zn compound evaporant species treated layer of Cu(InGa)Se2.

Ramanathan, Kannan; Hasoon, Falah S.; Asher, Sarah E.; Dolan, James; Keane, James C.

2007-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

395

Vapor intrusion modeling : limitations, improvements, and value of information analyses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vapor intrusion is the migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a subsurface source into the indoor air of an overlying building. Vapor intrusion models, including the Johnson and Ettinger (J&E) model, can be ...

Friscia, Jessica M. (Jessica Marie)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this project, Building America team Building Science Corporation researched some of the ramifications of using exterior, vapor permeable insulation on retrofit walls with vapor permeable cavity insulation. Retrofit strategies are a key factor in reducing exterior building stock consumption.

Not Available

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Desalination Using Vapor-Compression Distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and MSF, this research investigates a high-efficiency mechanical vapor-compression distillation system that employs an improved water flow arrangement. The incoming salt concentration was 0.15% salt for brackish water and 3.5% salt for seawater, whereas...

Lubis, Mirna R.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

398

Reductive Dehalogenation of Trichloroethene Vapors in an  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to treat trichloroethene (TCE) from waste gases generated by soil vapor extraction or dual-phase extraction through the recirculating liquid as a source of hydrogen, the electron donor for Dehalococcoides strains (DPE) (4). However, these techniques result in a waste gas stream that needs further treatment. Several

399

Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

Atkinson, David

2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

400

Vaporization of synthetic fuels. Final report. [Thesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The problem of transient droplet vaporization in a hot convective environment is examined. The main objective of the present study is to develop an algorithm for the droplet vaporization which is simple enough to be feasibly incorporated into a complete spray combustion analysis and yet will also account for the important physics such as liquid-phase internal circulation, unsteady droplet heating and axisymmetric gas-phase convection. A simplified liquid-phase model has been obtained based on the assumption of the existence of a Hill's spherical vortex inside the droplet together with some approximations made in the governing diffusion equation. The use of the simplified model in a spray situation has also been examined. It has been found that droplet heating and vaporization are essentially unsteady and droplet temperature is nonuniform for a significant portion of its lifetime. It has also been found that the droplet vaporization characteristic can be quite sensitive to the particular liquid-phase and gas-phase models. The results of the various models are compared with the existing experimental data. Due to large scattering in the experimental measurements, particularly the droplet diameter, no definite conclusion can be drawn based on the experimental data. Finally, certain research problems which are related to the present study are suggested for future studies.

Sirignano, W.A.; Yao, S.C.; Tong, A.Y.; Talley, D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Radionuclide deposition control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

Brehm, William F. (Richland, WA); McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Industrial Heat Pumps Using Solid/Vapor Working Fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMPS USING SOLID/VAPOR WORKING FLUIDS Uwe Rockenfeller, Desert Research Institute, Boulder City, Nevada ABSTRACT Industrial heat pumps have the potential to reduce the operating costs of chemical and heat treating processes... with vapor re-compression recovery systems. The state-of-the-art heat pump equipment employing liquid/vapor working fluids fulfills the requirements only in some applications. The employment of solid/vapor complex compounds leads to 'nore cost effective...

Rockenfeller, U.

403

Solution deposition assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and devices are provided for improved deposition systems. In one embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system is provided for use with a solution and a substrate. The system comprises of a solution deposition apparatus; at least one heating chamber, at least one assembly for holding a solution over the substrate; and a substrate curling apparatus for curling at least one edge of the substrate to define a zone capable of containing a volume of the solution over the substrate. In another embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system for use with a substrate, the system comprising a solution deposition apparatus; at heating chamber; and at least assembly for holding solution over the substrate to allow for a depth of at least about 0.5 microns to 10 mm.

Roussillon, Yann; Scholz, Jeremy H; Shelton, Addison; Green, Geoff T; Utthachoo, Piyaphant

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

404

Modeling engine oil vaporization and transport of the oil vapor in the piston ring pack on internal combustion engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A model was developed to study engine oil vaporization and oil vapor transport in the piston ring pack of internal combustion engines. With the assumption that the multi-grade oil can be modeled as a compound of several ...

Cho, Yeunwoo, 1973-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Development of hybrid organic-inorganic light emitting diodes using conducting polymers deposited by oxidative chemical vapor deposition process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Difficulties with traditional methods of synthesis and film formation for conducting polymers, many of which are insoluble, motivate the development of CVD methods. Indeed, conjugated polymers with rigid linear backbones ...

Chelawat, Hitesh

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Heteroepitaxy of group IV-VI nitrides by atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heteroepitaxial growth of selected group IV-VI nitrides on various orientations of sapphire (?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is demonstrated using atomic layer deposition. High quality, epitaxial films are produced at significantly lower temperatures than required by conventional deposition methods. Characterization of electrical and superconducting properties of epitaxial films reveals a reduced room temperature resistivity and increased residual resistance ratio for films deposited on sapphire compared to polycrystalline samples deposited concurrently on fused quartz substrates.

Klug, Jeffrey A., E-mail: jklug@anl.gov; Groll, Nickolas R.; Pellin, Michael J.; Proslier, Thomas, E-mail: prolier@anl.gov [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)] [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Becker, Nicholas G.; Cao, Chaoyue; Zasadzinski, John F. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States) [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Physics, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); Weimer, Matthew S. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States) [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States)

2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

407

Fabrication of AlN/BN bishell hollow nanofibers by electrospinning and atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aluminum nitride (AlN)/boron nitride (BN) bishell hollow nanofibers (HNFs) have been fabricated by successive atomic layer deposition (ALD) of AlN and sequential chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of BN on electrospun polymeric nanofibrous template. A four-step fabrication process was utilized: (i) fabrication of polymeric (nylon 6,6) nanofibers via electrospinning, (ii) hollow cathode plasma-assisted ALD of AlN at 100?°C onto electrospun polymeric nanofibers, (iii) calcination at 500?°C for 2 h in order to remove the polymeric template, and (iv) sequential CVD growth of BN at 450?°C. AlN/BN HNFs have been characterized for their chemical composition, surface morphology, crystal structure, and internal nanostructure using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and selected area electron diffraction. Measurements confirmed the presence of crystalline hexagonal BN and AlN within the three dimensional (3D) network of bishell HNFs with relatively low impurity content. In contrast to the smooth surface of the inner AlN layer, outer BN coating showed a highly rough 3D morphology in the form of BN nano-needle crystallites. It is shown that the combination of electrospinning and plasma-assisted low-temperature ALD/CVD can produce highly controlled multi-layered bishell nitride ceramic hollow nanostructures. While electrospinning enables easy fabrication of nanofibrous template, self-limiting reactions of plasma-assisted ALD and sequential CVD provide control over the wall thicknesses of AlN and BN layers with sub-nanometer accuracy.

Haider, Ali; Kayaci, Fatma; Uyar, Tamer; Biyikli, Necmi, E-mail: biyikli@unam.bilkent.edu.tr [National Nanotechnology Research Center (UNAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla [National Nanotechnology Research Center (UNAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Okyay, Ali Kemal [National Nanotechnology Research Center (UNAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Water, Vapor, and Salt Dynamics in a Hot Repository  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a new model study examining the high temperature nuclear waste disposal concept at Yucca Mountain using MULTIFLUX, an integrated in-drift- and mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic model. The results show that a large amount of vapor flow into the drift is expected during the period of above-boiling temperatures. This phenomenon makes the emplacement drift a water/moisture attractor during the above-boiling temperature operation. The evaporation of the percolation water into the drift gives rise to salt accumulation in the rock wall, especially in the crown of the drift for about 1500 years in the example. The deposited salts over the drift footprint, almost entirely present in the fractures, may enter the drift either by rock fall or by water drippage. During the high temperature operation mode, the barometric pressure variation creates fluctuating relative humidity in the emplacement drift with a time period of approximately 10 days. Potentially wet and dry conditions and condensation on salt-laden drift wall sections may adversely affect the storage environment. Salt accumulations during the above-boiling temperature operation must be sufficiently addressed to fully understand the waste package environment during the thermal period. Until the questions are resolved, a below-boiling repository design is favored where the Alloy-22 will be less susceptible to localized corrosion. (authors)

Bahrami, Davood; Danko, George [Department of Mining Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, 1664 N. Virginia St., Reno, NV, 89557 (United States); Walton, John [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University, El Paso, TX, 79968 (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Ash deposit workshop: Class outline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ash deposits formed from the combustion of coal and other fuels have plagued the steam production industry from the start. The ash fusion test has been around for over eighty years. As steam plant size increased, so have the problems associated with ash deposits. This workshop is designed to cover: (1) The basic types of deposits. (2) Causes of deposits. (3) Analytical procedures for resolving, or at least providing information about deposits and fuels, and (4) Deposit removal and reduction techniques.

Hatt, R. [Commercial Testing & Engineering Co., Lexington, KY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

410

Polycrystal diamond growth in a microwave plasma torch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diamond films of different structures were deposited on quartz, WC-Co, and molybdenum substrates in a microwave plasma torch discharge in an argon-hydrogen-methane gas mixture in a sealed chamber at pressures close to atmospheric by using the chemical vapor deposition technique. Images of diamond polycrystal films and separate crystals, as well as results of Raman spectroscopy, are presented. The spectra of optical plasma radiation recorded during film deposition demonstrate the presence of intense H{sub {alpha}} hydrogen and C{sub 2} radical bands known as Swan bands.

Sergeichev, K. F.; Lukina, N. A.; Bolshakov, A. P.; Ralchenko, V. G.; Arutyunyan, N. R.; Vlasov, I. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov Institute of General Physics (Russian Federation)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

411

GaSb molecular beam epitaxial growth on p-InP(001) and passivation with in situ deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The integration of high carrier mobility materials into future CMOS generations is presently being studied in order to increase drive current capability and to decrease power consumption in future generation CMOS devices. If III-V materials are the candidates of choice for n-type channel devices, antimonide-based semiconductors present high hole mobility and could be used for p-type channel devices. In this work we first demonstrate the heteroepitaxy of fully relaxed GaSb epilayers on InP(001) substrates. In a second part, the properties of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaSb interface have been studied by in situ deposition of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} high-{kappa} gate dielectric. The interface is abrupt without any substantial interfacial layer, and is characterized by high conduction and valence band offsets. Finally, MOS capacitors show well-behaved C-V with relatively low D{sub it} along the bandgap, these results point out an efficient electrical passivation of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaSb interface.

Merckling, C.; Brammertz, G.; Hoffmann, T. Y.; Caymax, M.; Dekoster, J. [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center (IMEC vzw), Kapeldreef 75, 3001, Leuven (Belgium); Sun, X. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnelaan 200D, 3001, Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8284 (United States); Alian, A.; Heyns, M. [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center (IMEC vzw), Kapeldreef 75, 3001, Leuven (Belgium); Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnelaan 200D, 3001, Leuven (Belgium); Afanas'ev, V. V. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnelaan 200D, 3001, Leuven (Belgium)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

DuPont Chemical Vapor Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DuPont Safety Resources was tasked with reviewing the current chemical vapor control practices and providing preventive recommendations on best commercial techniques to control worker exposures. The increased focus of the tank closure project to meet the 2024 Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestones has surfaced concerns among some CH2MHill employees and other interested parties. CH2MHill is committed to providing a safe working environment for employees and desires to safely manage the tank farm operations using appropriate control measures. To address worker concerns, CH2MHill has chartered a ''Chemical Vapors Project'' to integrate the activities of multiple CH2MHill project teams, and solicit the expertise of external resources, including an independent Industrial Hygiene expert panel, a communications consultant, and DuPont Safety Resources. Over a three-month time period, DuPont worked with CH2MHill ESH&Q, Industrial Hygiene, Engineering, and the independent expert panel to perform the assessment. The process included overview presentations, formal interviews, informal discussions, documentation review, and literature review. DuPont Safety Resources concluded that it is highly unlikely that workers in the tank farms are exposed to chemicals above established standards. Additionally, the conventional and radiological chemistry is understood, the inherent chemical hazards are known, and the risk associated with chemical vapor exposure is properly managed. The assessment highlighted management's commitment to addressing chemical vapor hazards and controlling the associated risks. Additionally, we found the Industrial Hygiene staff to be technically competent and well motivated. The tank characterization data resides in a comprehensive database containing the tank chemical compositions and relevant airborne concentrations.

MOORE, T.L.

2003-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

413

Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment.

Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA); Moses, Edward I. (Castro Valley, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Modeling of LNG Pool Spreading and Vaporization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

..................................................................................... 15 Figure 5: 90 mol% Methane 10mol% Ethane mixture VLE phase envelope .................. 18 Figure 6: Boiling temperature and vapor composition of 90 mol% methane 10mol% ethane mixture... process of natural gas allows a 600 fold reduction in the volume of the gas being transported at ambient pressure. The resulting liquid which is mainly composed of methane presents some hazardous properties linked to its flammable nature and its...

Basha, Omar 1988-

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

415

Vapor-phase heat-transport system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A vapor-phase heat-transport system is being tested in one of the passive test cells at Los Alamos. The system consists of one selective-surface collector and a condenser inside a water storage tank. The refrigerant, R-11, can be returned to the collector by gravity or with a pump. Results from several operating configurations are presented, together with a comparison with other passive systems. A new self-pumping concept is presented.

Hedstrom, J.C.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Oxide vapor distribution from a high-frequency sweep e-beam system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxide vapor distributions have been determined as a function of operating parameters of a high frequency sweep e-beam source combined with a programmable sweep controller. We will show which parameters are significant, the parameters that yield the broadest oxide deposition distribution, and the procedure used to arrive at these conclusions. A design-of-experimental strategy was used with five operating parameters: evaporation rate, sweep speed, sweep pattern (pre-programmed), phase speed (azimuthal rotation of the pattern), profile (dwell time as a function of radial position). A design was chosen that would show which of the parameters and parameter pairs have a statistically significant effect on the vapor distribution. Witness flats were placed symmetrically across a 25 inches diameter platen. The stationary platen was centered 24 inches above the e-gun crucible. An oxide material was evaporated under 27 different conditions. Thickness measurements were made with a stylus profilometer. The information will enable users of the high frequency e-gun systems to optimally locate the source in a vacuum system and understand which parameters have a major effect on the vapor distribution.

Chow, R.; Tassano, P.L.; Tsujimoto, N.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Combined rankine and vapor compression cycles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An organic rankine cycle system is combined with a vapor compression cycle system with the turbine generator of the organic rankine cycle generating the power necessary to operate the motor of the refrigerant compressor. The vapor compression cycle is applied with its evaporator cooling the inlet air into a gas turbine, and the organic rankine cycle is applied to receive heat from a gas turbine exhaust to heat its boiler within one embodiment, a common condenser is used for the organic rankine cycle and the vapor compression cycle, with a common refrigerant, R-245a being circulated within both systems. In another embodiment, the turbine driven generator has a common shaft connected to the compressor to thereby eliminate the need for a separate motor to drive the compressor. In another embodiment, an organic rankine cycle system is applied to an internal combustion engine to cool the fluids thereof, and the turbo charged air is cooled first by the organic rankine cycle system and then by an air conditioner prior to passing into the intake of the engine.

Radcliff, Thomas D.; Biederman, Bruce P.; Brasz, Joost J.

2005-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

418

Method for crystal growth control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The growth of a crystalline body of a selected material is controlled so that the body has a selected cross-sectional shape. The apparatus is of the type which includes the structure normally employed in known capillary die devices as well as means for observing at least the portion of the surfaces of the growing crystalline body and the meniscus (of melt material from which the body is being pulled) including the solid/liquid/vapor junction in a direction substantially perpendicular to the meniscus surface formed at the junction when the growth of the crystalline body is under steady state conditions. The cross-sectional size of the growing crystalline body can be controlled by determining which points exhibit a sharp change in the amount of reflected radiation of a preselected wavelength and controlling the speed at which the body is being pulled or the temperature of the growth pool of melt so as to maintain those points exhibiting a sharp change at a preselected spatial position relative to a predetermined reference position. The improvement comprises reference object means positioned near the solid/liquid/vapor junction and capable of being observed by the means for observing so as to define said reference position so that the problems associated with convection current jitter are overcome.

Yates, Douglas A. (Burlington, MA); Hatch, Arthur E. (Waltham, MA); Goldsmith, Jeff M. (Medford, MA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Oxidative chemical vapor deposition of semiconducting polymers and their use In organic photovoltaics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have received significant interest for their potential low cost, high mechanical flexibility, and unique functionalities. OPVs employing semiconducting polymers in the photoactive layer have ...

Borrelli, David Christopher

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Desktop systems for manufacturing carbon nanotube films by chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit exceptional electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties that could potentially transform such diverse fields as composites, electronics, cooling, energy storage, and biological sensing. ...

Kuhn, David S. (David Scott)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

In-situ observations during chemical vapor deposition of hexagonal boron nitride on polycrystalline copper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-characterised the Cu catalyst exposed to ammonia (NH3, i.e. a nitrogen and hydrogen source without B) instead of borazine under similar pressures. For this ammonia exposure no expansion in the Cu lattice constant is found. As ammonia is known to dissociate on Cu... 1s (Figure 5a,b,c) and valence band (Supporting Figure S4) regions.12 We find that before CVD the as loaded Cu foil surface is heavily oxidized due to storage and transportation in ambient air (before step 1).12 Following an anneal (step 2) in H2...

Kidambi, Piran R.; Blume, Raoul; Kling, Jens; Wagner, Jakob B.; Baehtz, Carsten; Weatherup, Robert S.; Schlögl, Robert; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Hofmann, Stephan

2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

422

Chemical vapor deposition of conjugated polymeric thin films for photonic and electronic applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(cont.) Conjugated polymers have delocalized electrons along the backbone, facilitating electrical conductivity. As thin films, they are integral to organic semiconductor devices emerging in the marketplace, such as flexible ...

Lock, John P

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Volatile organometallic complexes suitable for use in chemical vapor depositions on metal oxide films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel ligated compounds of tin, titanium, and zinc are useful as metal oxide CVD precursor compounds without the detriments of extreme reactivity yet maintaining the ability to produce high quality metal oxide coating by contact with heated substrates.

Giolando, Dean M.

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

424

Evaluating the In Vitro Corrosion Behavior and Cytotoxicity of Vapor Deposited Magnesium Alloys.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Magnesium alloys are emerging as a promising class of bioabsorbable implant materials due to magnesium’s biocompatibility and propensity for corrosion. These alloys are useful for… (more)

Petrilli, John

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition Route to GaN Nanowires with Triangular  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-free environment at atmospheric pressure. TMG was kept cool in a -10 °C temperature bath. Nitrogen, used a total nitrogen flow rate of 250 sccm. These were supplied via a 4-mm i.d. quartz tube. Hydrogen and ammonia sources were supplied via a 22-mm i.d. outer quartz tube at a total flow rate of 155 sccm

Yang, Peidong

426

Oxidative and initiated chemical vapor deposition for application to organic electronics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Since the first discovery of polymeric conductors in 1977, the research area of "organic electronics" has grown dramatically. However, methods for forming thin films comprised solely of conductive polymers are limited by ...

Im, Sung Gap

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

A kinetic model of diamond nucleation and silicon carbide interlayer formation during chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A kinetic model of diamond nucleation and silicon carbide interlayer formation during chemical February 2005 Available online 7 April 2005 Abstract The presence of thin silicon carbide intermediate of carbon atoms into the silicon carbide layer and the morphology and orientation of the diamond film

Dandy, David

428

The Vapor Deposition and Oxidation of Platinum-and Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Multilayers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rates by disrupting thermal transport processes. Novel metal­ceramic multilayer's combining thin metal layers with low thermal conductivity oxide ceramics offer a potential approach for impeding both­200-mm-thick low thermal conductivity ceramic outer layer (the top coat), a 10­20-mm-thick, aluminum

Wadley, Haydn

429

A conformal nano-adhesive via initiated chemical vapor deposition for microfluidic devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), polycarbonate (PC), and poly(tetrafluoro ethylene) (PTFE). Introduction Microfluidic consumption of reagents and analytes, low cost of manufacture, low consumption of power, high throughput

Doyle, Patrick S.

430

Chemical Vapor Deposition Based Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers Using a Template Method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of battery electrodes.5,10 These microtubular TiS2 electrodes show higher capacities, lower resistance,19 including electrochemistry.20 The use of metal catalysts such as Ni, Fe, Fe-Cu, and Pt has been, and lower susceptibility to slow electron- transfer kinetics than thin film TiS2 electrodes. In the present

431

Polymers via chemical vapor deposition and their application to organic photovoltaics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There is emerging interest in the ability to fabricate organic photovoltaics (OPVs) on flexible, lightweight substrates, which could lower the cost of installation and enable new form factors for deployment. However, ...

Barr, Miles Clark

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Lithium manganese oxide films fabricated by electron beam directed vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

material for high energy den- sity battery applications.7,8 Lithium­transition metal oxide films can.2. After annealing in air at 700 °C, thin films grown with a low jet speed had a cubic spinel structure Li/Li-ion batteries. © 2008 American Vacuum Society. DOI: 10.1116/1.2823488 I. INTRODUCTION Thin film

Wadley, Haydn

433

Towards improved spinnability of chemical vapor deposition generated multi-walled carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

60 2.3.1.3 Unaligned Ceramic Matrix10 wt%. 2.3.1.3 Unaligned Ceramic Matrix Composites Ceramic-ceramic with approximate composition of 55% fluorophlogopite mica in a borosilicate glass matrix,

McKee, Gregg Sturdivant Burke

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Selective Chemical Vapor Deposition of Manganese Self-Aligned Capping Layer for Cu Interconnections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

could not be broken apart. This Mn-enhanced binding strength of Cu to insulators is observed for all and nitrides. An adhesive tape is usually sufficient to remove copper films from these surfaces. Quantitative reliability because cobalt on the dielectric can increase leakage and lower the breakdown voltage.4 Cobalt

435

Titanium Diboride Thin Films by Low-Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition from the Single Source Precursor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

metallic ceramic whose properties surpass those of transition metal nitride and carbide counterparts:1, and excellent corrosion resistance toward molten metals. In addition, it has a low electrical resistivity of 6 µ

Girolami, Gregory S.

436

Volatilities of Actinide and Lanthanide N,NDimethylaminodiboranate Chemical Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,§ Gregory S. Girolami,*,§ Christopher J. Cramer, and Laura Gagliardi*, Department of Chemistry volatile forms during sublimation. INTRODUCTION Lanthanide-containing materials, such as lanthanide oxides

Girolami, Gregory S.

437

Porous GaN nanowires synthesized using thermal chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Seo a , Jeunghee Park a,*, Hyunik Yang b , Bongsoo Kim c a Department of Chemistry, Korea University-791, Republic of Korea c Department of Chemistry, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon nanotube-confined reaction [4], arc discharge [5], laser ablation [6], sublimation [7], pyrolysis [8

Kim, Bongsoo

438

Microbridge testing of plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposited silicon oxide films on silicon wafers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that is typically encountered in applications involving microelectromechanical systems (MEMS.016212 PACS number(s): 05.45.-a, 85.85.+j, 62.25.-g, 47.52.+j I. INTRODUCTION Microelectromechanical systems

439

Graphene-on-Insulator Transistors Made Using C on Ni Chemical-Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graphene transistors are made by transferring a thin graphene film grown on Ni onto an insulating SiO[subscript 2] substrate. The properties and integration of these graphene-on-insulator transistors are presented and ...

Keast, Craig L.

440

Low Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition of Zirconium Nitride in a Fluidized Bed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thick) on uranium-molybdenum (UMo) particulate fuel. Plate-type fuel with U-xMo (x = 3 to 10 wt.%) particle fuel dispersed in an aluminum matrix is under development at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test...

Arrieta, Marie

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

In-situ formation of multiphase electron beam physical vapor deposited barrier coatings for turbine components  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A turbine component (10), such as a turbine blade, is provided which is made of a metal alloy (22) and a base columnar thermal barrier coating (20) on the alloy surface, where a heat resistant ceramic oxide sheath material (32' or 34') covers the columns (28), and the sheath material is the reaction product of a precursor ceramic oxide sheath material and the base thermal barrier coating material.

Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Chemical vapor deposition and functionalization of fluorocarbon-organosilicon copolymer thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neural prostheses are micron-scale integrated circuit devices that are under development for the treatment of brain and spinal cord injuries. A key challenge in the fabrication of these silicon- based devices is the ...

Murthy, Shashi Krishna, 1977-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Perfluorooctane Sulfonyl Fluoride as an Initiator in Hot-Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition of Fluorocarbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Fluorocarbon Thin Films Hilton G. Pryce Lewis, Jeffrey A. Caulfield, and Karen K. Gleason*, Department pathways available via HFCVD makes it possible to produce polymeric fluorocarbon films spectroscopically

Gleason, Karen K.

444

System and Method for Sealing a Vapor Deposition Source - Energy Innovation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security AdministrationcontrollerNanocrystallineForeign Object Damage 3Nationalmimic key

445

Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of carbon-free ZnO using the  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping theEnergy StorageAdvanced

446

NREL: Awards and Honors - High-Rate Vapor Transport Deposition for CdTe PV  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions and Achievements of Women |hits 21Species.4Electroexploded

447

Parallel Reacting Flow Calculations for Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactor Design 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, memory, and scalability of distributed memory parallel computers. An unstructured finite element transport from the fluid mechanics and heat transfer. Both works used solution procedures that require the reacting flow model and numerical method and summarize representative calculations using MPSalsa

Devine, Karen

448

Thermally induced dispersion mechanisms for aluminum-based plate-type fuels under rapid transient energy deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thermally induced dispersion model was developed to analyze for dispersive potential and determine onset of fuel plate dispersion for Al-based research and test reactor fuels. Effect of rapid energy deposition in a fuel plate was simulated. Several data types for Al-based fuels tested in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor in Japan and in the Transient Reactor Test in Idaho were reviewed. Analyses of experiments show that onset of fuel dispersion is linked to a sharp rise in predicted strain rate, which futher coincides with onset of Al vaporization. Analysis also shows that Al oxidation and exothermal chemical reaction between the fuel and Al can significantly affect the energy deposition characteristics, and therefore dispersion onset connected with Al vaporization, and affect onset of vaporization.

Georgevich, V.; Taleyarkham, R.P.; Navarro-Valenti, S.; Kim, S.H.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

449

Large interface diffusion in endotaxial growth of MnP films on GaP substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The metal organic vapor deposition of MnP films on GaP (100) substrates is shown to have a substantial endotaxial component. A study of the growth time evolution of the endotaxial depths of MnP grains reveals a diffusion-controlled growth with a relatively large diffusion coefficient of Mn in GaP. The value (2.2?±?1.5)?×?10{sup ?15} (cm{sup 2}/s) obtained at 650?°C is at least two orders of magnitude larger than the reported Mn diffusion in bulk GaP. GaP surface mounds provide further indirect evidence that this large diffusion coefficient is concurrent with the out-diffusion of Ga atoms at the growing MnP/GaP interface. No trace of dislocations could be observed at or near this interface, which strongly suggests that Mn diffusion occurs through vacant sites generated by the difference between the crystallographic structures of MnP and GaP.

Nateghi, N., E-mail: seyyed-nima.nateghi@polymtl.ca; Ménard, D.; Masut, R. A. [Regroupement québécoise sur les matériaux de pointe (RQMP), Département de Génie Physique, Polytechnique Montréal, C.P. 6079, succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec H3C 3A7 (Canada)

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

450

Method and apparatus for concentrating vapors for analysis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pre-concentration device and a method are disclosed for concentrating gaseous vapors for analysis. Vapors sorbed and concentrated within the bed of the pre-concentration device are thermally desorbed, achieving at least partial separation of the vapor mixtures. The pre-concentration device is suitable, e.g., for pre-concentration and sample injection, and provides greater resolution of peaks for vapors within vapor mixtures, yielding detection levels that are 10-10,000 times better than direct sampling and analysis systems. Features are particularly useful for continuous unattended monitoring applications. The invention finds application in conjunction with, e.g., analytical instruments where low detection limits for gaseous vapors are desirable.

Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Baldwin, David L. (Kennewick, WA); Anheier, Jr., Norman C. (Richland, WA)

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

451

E-Print Network 3.0 - ag zr system Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5 > >> 1 Journal of Crystal Growth 307 (2007) 302308 Equilibrium analysis of zirconium carbide CVD growth Summary: C films grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The equilibrium...

452

Vapor port and groundwater sampling well  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus has been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing.

Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wylie, Allan H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Storing images in warm atomic vapor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reversible and coherent storage of light in atomic medium is a key-stone of future quantum information applications. In this work, arbitrary two-dimensional images are slowed and stored in warm atomic vapor for up to 30 $\\mu$s, utilizing electromagnetically induced transparency. Both the intensity and the phase patterns of the optical field are maintained. The main limitation on the storage resolution and duration is found to be the diffusion of atoms. A techniqueanalogous to phase-shift lithography is employed to diminish the effect of diffusion on the visibility of the reconstructed image.

M. Shuker; O. Firstenberg; R. Pugatch; A. Ron; N. Davidson

2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

454

Vapor port and groundwater sampling well  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus have been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing. 10 figs.

Hubbell, J.M.; Wylie, A.H.

1996-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

455

Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429Lacey,(MonasterLowellisMcDonald isMelletteEnclosed andEnergySolar SystemsVapor

456

Review of enhanced vapor diffusion in porous media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vapor diffusion in porous media in the presence of its own liquid has often been treated similar to gas diffusion. The gas diffusion rate in porous media is much lower than in free space due to the presence of the porous medium and any liquid present. However, enhanced vapor diffusion has also been postulated such that the diffusion rate may approach free-space values. Existing data and models for enhanced vapor diffusion, including those in TOUGH2, are reviewed in this paper.

Webb, S.W.; Ho, C.K.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Recovery of benzene in an organic vapor monitor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solid adsorbents available (silica gel, activated alumina, etc. ), activated charcoal is most frequently utilized. Activated charcoal has retentivity for sorbed vapors several times that of silica gel and it displays a selectivity for organic vapors... (diffusion rate) of the vapor molecules to the sur- face of the adsorbent. The adsorption process determine how effective the adsorbent collects and holds the contam- inant on the surface of the activated charcoal. Recovery of the contaminant from...

Krenek, Gregory Joel

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Vaporizer design criteria for ethanol fueled internal combustion engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Stout (Member) L r x ge Edwa d A. Hiler (Head of Department) May 1985 ABSTRACT Vaporizer Design Criteria For Ethanol Fueled Internal Combustion Engines. (May 1985) Arachchi Rallage Ariyaratne, B. S. , University of Sri Lanka Chairman... VAPORIZATION LENGTH WITH UNIFORM HEAT FLUX 8 POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS FOR EVALUATING PARAMETERS C VARIATION OF HEAT FLUX AND AVERAGE SURFACE TEMPARATURE D PROGRAM FOR PREDICTING VAPORIZATION LENGTH 73 75 78 80 VITA 87 LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 1...

Ariyaratne, Arachchi Rallage

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

459

Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Mercury Vapor At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Varekamp...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Varekamp & Buseck, 1983) Exploration...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

The control of confined vapor phase explosions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The probability of, for example, a fire or explosion occurring during a process operation is related both to the fire-related properties of the materials used, such as flash point, flammable limits etc., i.e. the material or intrinsic factors, and the nature of the operation and the equipment used, i.e. the extrinsic factors. The risk, or frequency of occurrence, of other hazards such as reaction runaway, major toxic release etc. can be determined in a similar manner. For a vapor phase explosion (and a fire) the probability of the event is the product of the probability of generating a flammable atmosphere and the probability of ignition. Firstly, materials may be coded using properties that are relevant to the hazard in question. Secondly, different operations have different degrees of risk and these risks are assigned as Low, Medium, High etc. according to criteria outlined here. Combination of these two factors will then be a measure of the overall risk of the operation with the specified material and may be used to define operating standards. Currently, the hazard/risk of a vapor phase explosions is examined by this method but in due course dust explosions, fires, condensed phase explosions, reaction runaways, physical explosions, major toxic releases and incompatibility will be included.

Scilly, N.F. [Laporte plc, Widnes (United Kingdom); Owen, O.J.R. [Fine Organics, Ltd., Middlesborough (United Kingdom); Wilberforce, J.K. [Solvay SA, Brussels (Belgium)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

462

Vapor and gas sampling of Single-Shell Tank 241-T-111 using the vapor sampling system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents sampling data resulting from the January 20, 1995, sampling of SST 241-T-111 using the vapor sampling system.

Caprio, G.S.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-BY-112 using the vapor sampling system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents sampling data from the November 18, 1994, sampling of SST 241-BY-112 using the vapor sampling system.

Caprio, G.S.

1995-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

464

Vapor and gas sampling of Single-Shell Tank 241-A-101 using the Vapor Sampling System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents sampling data resulting from the June 8, 1995, sampling of SST 241-A-101 using the Vapor Sampling System.

Caprio, G.S.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Ultrashort pulse laser deposition of thin films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Short pulse PLD is a viable technique of producing high quality films with properties very close to that of crystalline diamond. The plasma generated using femtosecond lasers is composed of single atom ions with no clusters producing films with high Sp.sup.3 /Sp.sup.2 ratios. Using a high average power femtosecond laser system, the present invention dramatically increases deposition rates to up to 25 .mu.m/hr (which exceeds many CVD processes) while growing particulate-free films. In the present invention, deposition rates is a function of laser wavelength, laser fluence, laser spot size, and target/substrate separation. The relevant laser parameters are shown to ensure particulate-free growth, and characterizations of the films grown are made using several diagnostic techniques including electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and Raman spectroscopy.

Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Glass softening, crystallization, and vaporization of nano-aggregates of Amorphous Solid Water: Fast Scanning Calorimetry studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fast scanning calorimetry (FSC) was employed to investigate glass softening dynamics in amorphous solid water (ASW) nano-aggregates with thicknesses ranging from 2 to 20 nm. ASW nano-aggregates were prepared by vapor-deposition on the surface of a tungsten filament near 141 K and then heated at a rate of 100 kK/s. The resulting thermogram complex endo- and exothermal features were analyzed using a simple model. The results of the analysis show that glass softening of ASW nano-aggregates takes place at 160 K and vaporization of ASW nano-aggregates can take place at temperatures as low as 185 K. The results of these studies are discussed in conjunction with results of past studies of glass softening dynamics in water in various confining geometries.

Deepanjan Bhattacharya; Liam OReilly; Vlad Sadtchenko

2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

467

Deposition of biaxially textured yttria-stabilized zirconia by ion-beam-assisted deposition.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biaxially textured yttria (8 mol %)-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films were deposited on randomly oriented Hastelloy C and Stainless Steel 304 at room temperature as a buffer layer for subsequent deposition of oriented YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} films. The 0.16-1.3 {micro}m thick YSZ films were deposited by e-beam evaporation at rates of 1.2-3.2 {angstrom}/sec. Biaxially textured films were produced with an Ar/O{sub 2} ion beam directed at the substrate during film growth. X-ray diffraction was used to study in-plane and out-of-plane orientation as a function of ion-bombardment angle, film thickness, ion-to-atom flux ratio, and substrate material. In-plane and out-of-plane average-misorientation angles on these YSZ films that were deposited by ion-beam-assisted deposition were as low as 17 and 5.4{degree}, respectively, on as-received substrates.

Chudzik, M. P.

1998-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

468

Sputter deposition of semiconductor superlattices for thermoelectric applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Theoretical dramatic improvement of the thermoelectric properties of materials by using quantum confinement in novel semiconductor nanostructures has lead to considerable interest in the thermoelectric community. Therefore, we are exploring the critical materials issues for fabrication of quantum confined structures by magnetron sputtering in the lead telluride and bismuth telluride families of materials. We have synthesized modulated structures from thermoelectric materials with bilayer periods of as little as 3.2 nm and shown that they are stable at deposition temperatures high enough to grow quality films. Issues critical to high quality film growth have been investigated such as nucleation and growth conditions and their effect on crystal orientation and growth morphology. These investigations show that nucleating the film at a temperature below the growth temperature of optimum electronic properties produces high quality films. Our work with sputter deposition, which is inherently a high rate deposition process, builds the technological base necessary to develop economical production of these advanced materials. High deposition rate is critical since, even if efficiencies comparable with CFC based refrigeration systems can be achieved, large quantities of quantum confined materials will be necessary for cost-competitive uses.

Wagner, A.V.; Foreman, R.J.; Farmer, J.C.; Barbee, T.W.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

RESONANT FARADAY ROTATION IN A HOT LITHIUM VAPOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESONANT FARADAY ROTATION IN A HOT LITHIUM VAPOR By SCOTT RUSSELL WAITUKAITIS A Thesis Submitted: #12;Abstract I describe a study of Faraday rotation in a hot lithium vapor. I begin by dis- cussing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3 The Lithium Oven and Solenoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3 Theoretical Framework

Cronin, Alex D.

470

Isotopic composition of stratospheric water vapor: Measurements and photochemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of magnitude between the surface and the tropopause, and isotopically heavy water is pref- erentially removedIsotopic composition of stratospheric water vapor: Measurements and photochemistry David G. Johnson composition of stratospheric water vapor that result from methane oxidation and reactions with O( ¢¡ ). We

471

Chemical vapor detection with a multispectral thermal imager  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemical vapor detection with a multispectral thermal imager Mark 1. G. Aithouse, MEMBER SPIE U.S. Army Chemical Research Development and Engineering Center SMCCR-DDT Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland algorithm 7. Conclusions 8. Acknowledgments 9. References 1. INTRODUCTION Detection of chemical vapor clouds

Chang, Chein-I

472

Informal Report . VAPOR DETECTION OF TRAFFICKING OF CONTRABAND MONEY-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I BNL- 62834 Informal Report . VAPOR DETECTION OF TRAFFICKING OF CONTRABAND MONEY-· [D VAPOR DETECTION OF TRAFFICKING OF CONTRABAND MONEY- A DISCUSSION OF TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY Concept MONEY --A DISCUSSION OF TECHNICAL FEASffiILITY Russell N. Dietz, Head Tracer Technology Center

473

Influence of growth temperature and temperature ramps on deep level defect incorporation in m-plane GaN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dependence of deep level defect incorporation in m-plane GaN films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on bulk m-plane GaN substrates as a function of growth temperature (T{sub g}) and T{sub g} ramping method was investigated using deep level optical spectroscopy. Understanding the influence of T{sub g} on GaN deep level incorporation is important for InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well (MQW) light emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs) because GaN quantum barrier (QB) layers are grown much colder than thin film GaN to accommodate InGaN QW growth. Deep level spectra of low T{sub g} (800?°C) GaN films grown under QB conditions were compared to deep level spectra of high T{sub g} (1150?°C) GaN. Reducing T{sub g}, increased the defect density significantly (>50×) through introduction of emergent deep level defects at 2.09?eV and 2.9?eV below the conduction band minimum. However, optimizing growth conditions during the temperature ramp when transitioning from high to low T{sub g} substantially reduced the density of these emergent deep levels by approximately 40%. The results suggest that it is important to consider the potential for non-radiative recombination in QBs of LED or LD active regions, and tailoring the transition from high T{sub g} GaN growth to active layer growth can mitigate such non-radiative channels.

Armstrong, A. M., E-mail: aarmstr@sandia.gov [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Kelchner, K. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Nakamura, S.; DenBaars, S. P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States) [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Speck, J. S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)] [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

474

Temperature dependent vapor pressures of chlorinated catechols, syringols, and syringaldehydes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The vapor pressures of nine chlorinated catechols, syringols, and syringaldehydes were determined as a function of temperature with a gas chromatographic retention time technique. The vapor pressures at 298.15 K were in the range of 0.02--1 Pa, and the enthalpies of vaporization, between 68 and 82 kJ/mol. The validity of the technique was established by a calibration involving four chlorinated phenols with well-known vapor pressures. Using these data and previously reported solubility data, Henry`s law constants for these substances and some chlorinated guaiacols and veratrols were estimated. The vapor pressure of these substances tends to decrease with increasing polarity and an increasing number of chlorine atoms. Henry`s law constants decrease sharply with increasing polarity, suggesting that methylation can result in a significant increase in a chemical`s potential for volatilization from water.

Lei, Y.D.; Shiu, W.Y.; Boocock, D.G.B. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry] [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry; Wania, F. [WECC Wania Environmental Chemists Corp., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [WECC Wania Environmental Chemists Corp., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Analysis of electron-beam vaporization of refractory metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An electron beam is focussed onto a small area on the surface of a refractory metal to locally raise the temperature and vaporize metal. At high vaporization rates the hot area is on the surface of a churning liquid-metal pool contained in a solid-metal skull which sits in a cooled crucible. Inner workings of the process are revealed by analysis of momentum, energy, and mass transfer. At the surface high temperature causes high vaporization rate and high vapor thrust, depressing the vapor/liquid surface. In the liquid pool surface-tension gradients and thermal buoyancy drive a (typically) chaotic flow. In the solid skull thermal conductivity and contact resistance regulate the rate of heat transfer from pool to crucible. Analyses of these phenomena together reveal process performance sensitivities - e.g., to depression size or to magnitude of surface-tension gradients. 12 refs., 3 figs.

Kheshgi, H.S.; Gresho, P.M.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Monitoring of vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for monitoring vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a high-temperature environment has an excitation source producing electromagnetic radiation, an optical path having an optical probe optically communicating the electromagnetic radiation received at a proximal end to a distal end, a spectrometer or polychromator, a detector, and a positioner coupled to the first optical path. The positioner can slidably move the distal end of the optical probe to maintain the distal end position with respect to an area of a material undergoing combustion. The emitted wavelength can be directed to a detector in a single optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration, in a dual optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration or in a dual optical probe 90.degree. side scattered configuration. The apparatus can be used to monitor an emitted wavelength of energy from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as it fluoresces in a high temperature environment.

Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@rediffmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

478

Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System: Thermal Storage Using Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HEATS Project: UTRC is developing a new climate-control system for EVs that uses a hybrid vapor compression adsorption system with thermal energy storage. The targeted, closed system will use energy during the battery-charging step to recharge the thermal storage, and it will use minimal power to provide cooling or heating to the cabin during a drive cycle. The team will use a unique approach of absorbing a refrigerant on a metal salt, which will create a lightweight, high-energy-density refrigerant. This unique working pair can operate indefinitely as a traditional vapor compression heat pump using electrical energy, if desired. The project will deliver a hot-and-cold battery that provides comfort to the passengers using minimal power, substantially extending the driving range of EVs.

None

2012-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

479

Gas Separation Using Organic-Vapor-Resistent Membranes In Conjunctin With Organic-Vapor-Selective Membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for treating a gas mixture containing at least an organic compound gas or vapor and a second gas, such as natural gas, refinery off-gas or air. The process uses two sequential membrane separation steps, one using membrane selective for the organic compound over the second gas, the other selective for the second gas over the organic vapor. The second-gas-selective membranes use a selective layer made from a polymer having repeating units of a fluorinated polymer, and demonstrate good resistance to plasticization by the organic components in the gas mixture under treatment, and good recovery after exposure to liquid aromatic hydrocarbons. The membrane steps can be combined in either order.

Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); He, Zhenjie (Fremont, CA); Da Costa, Andre R. (Menlo Park, CA); Daniels, Ramin (San Jose, CA); Amo, Karl D. (Mountain View, CA); Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA)

2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

480

Uranium deposits of Brazil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country`s nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country`s economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (100 thousand pounds). Brazil`s state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced it has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (600 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) in reserves.

NONE

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vapor deposition growth" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Simultaneous fog formation and thermophoretic droplet deposition in a turbulent pipe flow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simultaneous aerosol formation by equilibrium condensation and the migration of the resulting droplets to the cold surface by thermophoresis is studied theoretically for a turbulent pipe flow. The problem is one in which a mixture of a vapor and noncondensable gas flows into a section of pipe where the pipe wall is cooled to below the dew point of the vapor. Because the temperature gradient at the pipe wall decays to zero once the gas travels far enough into the pipe, only some fraction of the droplets formed will deposit on the pipe wall. The equations of energy and diffusion suggest that turbulence leads to a discontinuity in the aerosol (fog) concentration at the boundary between the fog and clear regions. Numerical solutions are obtained for CsOH fog formation and deposition in steam flow, a particular case of current practical interest in water reactor safety. The axial and radial variations of the aerosol and vapor concentrations are displayed graphically, as are the location of the fog boundary as a function of axial distance and the efficiency of deposition as a function of the pipe wall temperature.

Epstein, M.; Hauser, G.M. (Fauske and Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL (USA))

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Vapor Power Cycles 1 Vapor Power Cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is not a suitable model for steam power cycle since: The turbine has to handle steam with low quality which steam is condensed in the condenser 4 3 1 2 s T 1 2 34 s #12;M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Vapor Power = 0 qin = h3 ­ h2 Turbine q = 0 wturbine,out = h3 ­ h4 Condenser w = 0 qout = h4 ­ h1 The thermal

Bahrami, Majid

483

Oxidation of Slurry Aluminide Coatings on Cast Stainless Steel Alloy CF8C-Plus at 800oC in Water Vapor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new, cast austenitic stainless steel, CF8C-Plus, has been developed for a wide range of high temperature applications, including diesel exhaust components, turbine casings and turbocharger housings. CF8C-Plus offers significant improvements in creep rupture life and creep rupture strength over standard CF8C steel. However, at higher temperatures and in more aggressive environments, such as those containing significant water vapor, an oxidation-resistant protective coating will be necessary. The oxidation behavior of alloys CF8C and CF8C-Plus with various aluminide coatings were compared at 800oC in air plus 10 vol% water vapor. Due to their affordability, slurry aluminides were the primary coating system of interest, although chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and pack cementation coatings were also compared. Additionally, a preliminary study of the low cycle fatigue behavior of aluminized CF8C-Plus was conducted at 800oC. Each type of coating provided substantial improvements in oxidation behavior, with simple slurry aluminides showing very good oxidation resistance after 4,000 h testing in water vapor. Preliminary low cycle fatigue results indicated that thicker aluminide coatings degraded high temperature fatigue properties of CF8C-Plus, whereas thinner coatings did not. Results suggest that appropriately designed slurry aluminide coatings are a viable option for economical, long-term oxidation protection of austenitic stainless steels in water vapor.

Haynes, James A [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Dryepondt, Sebastien N [ORNL; Kumar, Deepak [ORNL; Zhang, Ying [Tennessee Technological University

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol-assisted chemical vapor Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Work to Prevent Chemical Warfare Agent Vapor Infiltration? John H. Sorensen Barbara M. Vogt Date... protection strategies to reduce exposure to vapors from chemical warfare...

485

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic vapor laser Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with the exception of pagination. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE 1 Summary: vapor, atomic physics and vapor ionization, absorption reflection in a heated plasma layer, and...

486

E-Print Network 3.0 - atom vapor cells Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

rotation in the vapor cell due to inten- sity-induced birefringence in the rubidium atomic vapor. While... Super efficient absorption filter for quantum memory using atomic...

487