National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for vanuatu vietnam wake

  1. Vanuatu: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Vanuatu Population 243,304 GDP 743,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.00 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code VU 3-letter ISO code VUT Numeric ISO...

  2. Vietnam National Coal Mineral Industries Group Vinacomin | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    National Coal Mineral Industries Group Vinacomin Jump to: navigation, search Name: Vietnam National Coal-Mineral Industries Group (Vinacomin) Place: Vietnam Product: Vietnam-based...

  3. SNL Wake Imaging System Solves Wind Turbine Wake Formation Mysteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Although wind energy researchers cannot see the airflow around wind turbines, they know that wakes shed from upstream wind turbines lead to reduced power production and increased loading on downstream turbines, driving up the cost of energy. To gain a better understanding of wind turbine wakes, researchers at SNL are developing the SNL Wake Imaging System (SWIS) to provide detailed wake velocity data in the field.

  4. Sandia Wake-Imaging System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs ... Sandia Wake-Imaging System HomeTag:Sandia ...

  5. Wake Control System Based on Wake Tracking - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Energy Wind Energy Find More Like This Return to Search Wake Control System Based on Wake Tracking National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary There is a growing interest in the design of wind plant control systems to coordinate the controls of individual turbines to achieve improvements in the overall wind plant performance, such as total power production. Currently, individual turbine controls are adjusted to improve the total

  6. Soderberg_RecontresDeVietnam

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mitch Soderberg! on behalf of the ArgoNeuT and MicroBooNE collaborations! Recontres du Vietnam Flavour Conference Status of the ArgoNeuT and MicroBooNE Experiments Introduction 2 * Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) are imaging detectors that offer exceptional capabilities for studying neutrinos.! * I will give a brief overview of recent LArTPC activities in the U.S., focusing on the ArgoNeuT and MicroBooNE experiments at Fermilab.! * These near-term activities are helping to bring

  7. Eyes Witness Report on South Vietnam

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Mons. Nielson, conseiller des Etats Unis auprès de L'ONU, apporte son témoignage et exprime son opinion quand à la guerre du Vietnam (Sud)

  8. Vietnam-USAID Country Report | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    deployment programs, Pathways analysis Resource Type: Publications Website: usaid.eco-asia.orgprogramscdcpreportsIdeas-to-ActionannexesAnnex Country: Vietnam UN...

  9. U.S.-Vietnam Climate Change Working Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    -Vietnam Climate Change Working Group Jump to: navigation, search Name U.S.-Vietnam Climate Change Working Group AgencyCompany Organization United States Geological Survey,...

  10. Vietnam-Sub National Planning for Climate Change (cities, states...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Change (cities, states, districts) Jump to: navigation, search Name Vietnam-Sub National Planning for Climate Change (cities, states, districts) AgencyCompany...

  11. Vietnam-Renewable Energy Action Plan | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Renewable Energy Action Plan Jump to: navigation, search Name Vietnam-Renewable Energy Action Plan AgencyCompany Organization World Bank Sector Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy...

  12. Vietnam-UNEP Risoe-Technology Needs Assessment Program | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    UNEP Risoe-Technology Needs Assessment Program Jump to: navigation, search Name Vietnam-UNEP Risoe-Technology Needs Assessment Program AgencyCompany Organization UNEP-Risoe...

  13. Vietnam-Danish Government Sector Programmes | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low emission development planning, -LEDS, Policiesdeployment programs Program End 2012 Country Vietnam South-Eastern Asia References Denmark1 Promoting wind energy in...

  14. Forestry and Poverty Data in Vietnam: Status, Gaps, and Potential...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Type: Dataset, Publications Website: recoftc.orgsitefileadmindocspublicationsTheGreyZone2009Forest Country: Vietnam UN Region: South-Eastern Asia Coordinates:...

  15. Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Adaptation in Vietnam...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Change on Agriculture and Adaptation in Vietnam Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Adaptation in...

  16. Vietnam-IISD NAMA Support | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name Vietnam-IISDNAMA Support AgencyCompany Organization International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector Climate Topics Background analysis, Low emission...

  17. Forest Tenure Reform in Vietnam | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Land Focus Area Forestry Topics Resource assessment, Background analysis Resource Type Lessons learnedbest practices Website http:recoftc.orgsitefilead Country Vietnam UN...

  18. DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD RESONATOR ACCELERATOR MODULE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2013-11-06

    Results are presented from experiments, and numerical analysis of wake fields set up by electron bunches passing through a cylindrical or rectangular dielectric-lined structure. These bunches excite many TM-modes, with Ez components of the wake fields sharply localized on the axis of the structure periodically behind the bunches. The experiment with the cylindrical structure, carried out at ATF Brookhaven National Laboratory, used up to three 50 MeV bunches spaced by one wake field period (21 cm) to study the superposition of wake fields by measuring the energy loss of each bunch after it passed through the 53-cm long dielectric element. The millimeter-wave spectrum of radiation excited by the passage of bunches is also studied. Numerical analysis was aimed not only to simulate the behavior of our device, but in general to predict dielectric wake field accelerator performance. It is shown that one needs to match the radius of the cylindrical dielectric channel with the bunch longitudinal rms-length to achieve optimal performance.

  19. Sandia Energy - Developing a Fast-Running Turbine Wake Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Developing a Fast-Running Turbine Wake Model Home Renewable Energy Energy Water Power News News & Events Developing a Fast-Running Turbine Wake Model Previous Next Developing a...

  20. Active Wake Redirection Control to Improve Energy Yield (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churchfield, M. J.; Fleming, P.; DeGeorge, E.; Bulder, B; White, S. M.

    2014-10-01

    Wake effects can dramatically reduce the efficiency of waked turbines relative to the unwaked turbines. Wakes can be deflected, or 'redirected,' by applying yaw misalignment to the turbines. Yaw misalignment causes part of the rotor thrust vector to be pointed in the cross-stream direction, deflecting the flow and the wake. Yaw misalignment reduces power production, but the global increase in wind plant power due to decreased wake effect creates a net increase in power production. It is also a fairly simple control idea to implement at existing or new wind plants. We performed high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics simulations of the wake flow of the proposed Fishermen's Atlantic City Windfarm (FACW) that predict that under certain waking conditions, wake redirection can increase plant efficiency by 10%. This means that by applying wake redirection control, for a given watersheet area, a wind plant can either produce more power, or the same amount of power can be produced with a smaller watersheet area. With the power increase may come increased loads, though, due to the yaw misalignment. If misalignment is applied properly, or if layered with individual blade pitch control, though, the load increase can be mitigated. In this talk we will discuss the concept of wake redirection through yaw misalignment and present our CFD results of the FACW project. We will also discuss the implications of wake redirection control on annual energy production, and finally we will discuss plans to implement wake redirection control at FACW when it is operational.

  1. Proposed Training Plan to Improve Building Energy Efficiency in Vietnam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced fast growth in energy consumption in the past decade, with annual growth rate of over 12 percent. This is accompanied by the fast increase in commercial energy use, driven by rapid industrialization, expansion of motorized transport, and increasing energy use in residential and commercial buildings. Meanwhile, Vietnam is experiencing rapid urbanization at a rate of 3.4 percent per year; and the majority of the growth centered in and near major cities such as Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. This has resulted in a construction boom in Vietnam.

  2. Forest Carbon Partnership Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Madagascar, Mexico, Moldova, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Republic of the Congo, Suriname, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam...

  3. Progress on SCADA Data Based Wake Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Progress On SCADA Data Based Wake Analysis Sandia National Laboratories Carsten Westergaard*, Shawn Martin, Ben Karlson, Carter Charles, Jonathan White Correspondence email: cahwe@sandia.gov Windpower Monthly's Wind Data Forum, Houston, March 14-16, 2016 Acknowledgement: This work has been funded under the Department of Energy's Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind (CREW) project and the A2E program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia

  4. Wake fields in SLAC Linac Collimators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novokhatski, Alexander; Decker, F. -J.; Smith, H.; Sullivan, M.

    2014-12-02

    When a beam travels near collimator jaws, it gets an energy loss and a transverse kick due to the backreaction of the beam field diffracted from the jaws. The effect becomes very important for an intense short bunch when a tight collimation of the background beam halo is required. In the Linac Coherent Light Source at SLAC a collimation system is used to protect the undulators from radiation due to particles in the beam halo. The halo is most likely formed from gun dark current or dark current in some of the accelerating sections. However, collimators are also responsible for the generation of wake fields. The wake field effect from the collimators not only brings an additional energy jitter and change in the trajectory of the beam, but it also rotates the beam on the phase plane, which consequently leads to a degradation of the performance of the Free Electron Laser at the Linac Coherent Light Source. In this paper, we describe a model of the wake field radiation in the SLAC linac collimators. We use the results of a numerical simulation to illustrate the model. Based on the model, we derive simple formulas for the bunch energy loss and the average kick. In addition, we also present results from experimental measurements that confirm our model.

  5. Vietnam-Nordic Partnership Initiative | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    can be matched with up-scaled host country mitigation action through two programs in Peru and Vietnam. The NPI program in Peru will focus on exploring possibilities to lower CO2...

  6. Sandia Energy - Post-Processing and Analysis of Wake Measurements...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Post-Processing and Analysis of Wake Measurements Around a Scaled Turbine Home Renewable Energy Energy Water Power Partnership News News & Events Post-Processing and Analysis of...

  7. Flow visualization study of the MOD-2 wind turbine wake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu H.T.; Waite, J.W.; Hiester, T.R.; Tacheron, P.H.; Srnsky, R.A.

    1983-06-01

    The specific objectives of the study reported were: to determine the geometry of the MOD-2 wind turbine wake in terms of wake height and width as a function of downstream distance under two conditions of atmospheric stability; to estimate the mean velocity deficit at several downstream stations in the turbine wake; and to investigate the behavior of the rotor-generated vortices, particularly their configuration and persistence. The background of the wake problem is briefly examined, including a discussion of the critical issues that the flow visualization study addresses. Experimental techniques and data analysis methods are described in detail. (LEW)

  8. Thermal wake/vessel detection technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roskovensky, John K.; Nandy, Prabal; Post, Brian N

    2012-01-10

    A computer-automated method for detecting a vessel in water based on an image of a portion of Earth includes generating a thermal anomaly mask. The thermal anomaly mask flags each pixel of the image initially deemed to be a wake pixel based on a comparison of a thermal value of each pixel against other thermal values of other pixels localized about each pixel. Contiguous pixels flagged by the thermal anomaly mask are grouped into pixel clusters. A shape of each of the pixel clusters is analyzed to determine whether each of the pixel clusters represents a possible vessel detection event. The possible vessel detection events are represented visually within the image.

  9. Wake potentials of the ILC Interaction Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novokhatski, A.; /SLAC

    2011-08-16

    The vacuum chamber of the ILC Interaction Region (IR) is optimized for best detector performance. It has special shaping to minimize additional backgrounds due to the metal part of the chamber. Also, for the same reason this thin vacuum chamber does not have water cooling. Therefore, small amounts of power, which may be deposited in the chamber, can be enough to raise the chamber to a high temperature. One of the sources of 'heating' power is the electromagnetic field of the beam. This field diffracts by non-regularities of the beam pipe and excites free-propagating fields, which are then absorbed by the pipe wall. In addition we have a heating power of the image currents due to finite conductivity of the metallic wall. We will discuss these effects as updating the previous results. The conclusions of this report are: (1) The amount of the beam energy loss in IR is almost equal to the energy loss in one ILC (TESLA) accelerating cryo-module; (2) Addition energy spread at IR is very small; (3) Spectrum of the wake fields is limited 300 GHz; (4) Average power of the wake fields excited in IR is 30 W for nominal ILC parameters; and (5) Pulse power in this case is 6 kilowatts.

  10. Manufacturing's Wake-Up Call | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing's Wake-Up Call Manufacturing's Wake-Up Call PDF icon booz_and_um_aug2011.pdf More Documents & Publications Visiting Speaker Program - January 12, 2009 CEMI Days Factsheet Prospects for U.S.-Based Manufacturing in the SSL Industry

  11. Advancing Development and Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Vietnam's Wind Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bilello, D.; Katz, J.; Esterly, S.; Ogonowski, M.

    2014-09-01

    Clean energy development is a key component of Vietnam's Green Growth Strategy, which establishes a target to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from domestic energy activities by 20-30 percent by 2030 relative to a business-as-usual scenario. Vietnam has significant wind energy resources, which, if developed, could help the country reach this target while providing ancillary economic, social, and environmental benefits. Given Vietnam's ambitious clean energy goals and the relatively nascent state of wind energy development in the country, this paper seeks to fulfill two primary objectives: to distill timely and useful information to provincial-level planners, analysts, and project developers as they evaluate opportunities to develop local wind resources; and, to provide insights to policymakers on how coordinated efforts may help advance large-scale wind development, deliver near-term GHG emission reductions, and promote national objectives in the context of a low emission development framework.

  12. Challenges to institutionalizing strategic environmental assessment: The case of Vietnam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slunge, Daniel; Tran, Trang Thi Huyen

    2014-09-15

    Building on new institutional theory, this paper develops an analytical framework for analyzing constraints to the institutionalization of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) at four different institutional levels. The framework is tested in an empirical analysis of the environmental assessment system in Vietnam, which is a frontrunner among developing countries regarding the introduction and use of SEA. Building on interviews with Vietnamese and international experts, as well as an extensive literature review, we identify institutional constraints which challenge the effective use of SEA in Vietnam. We conclude that commonly identified constraints, such as inadequate training, technical guidelines, baseline data and financial resources, are strongly linked to constraints at higher institutional levels, such as incentives to not share information between ministries and severe restrictions on access to information and public participation. Without a thorough understanding of these institutional constraints, there is a risk that attempts to improve the use of SEA are misdirected. Thus, a careful institutional analysis should guide efforts to introduce and improve the use of SEA in Vietnam and other developing countries. The analytical framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalization of SEA presented in this paper represents a systematic effort in this direction. - Highlights: • A framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalizing SEA is developed • Empirical analysis of the strategic environmental assessment system in Vietnam • Constraints in the action arena linked to deeper institutional constraints • Institutional analysis needed prior to introducing SEA in developing countries.

  13. Wind Turbine Wake-Redirection Control at the Fishermen's Atlantic City Windfarm: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churchfield, M.; Fleming, P.; Bulder, B.; White, S.

    2015-05-06

    In this paper, we will present our work towards designing a control strategy to mitigate wind turbine wake effects by redirecting the wakes, specifically applied to the Fishermen’s Atlantic City Windfarm (FACW), proposed for deployment off the shore of Atlantic City, New Jersey. As wind turbines extract energy from the air, they create low-speed wakes that extend behind them. Full wake recovery Full wake recovery to the undisturbed wind speed takes a significant distance. In a wind energy plant the wakes of upstream turbines may travel downstream to the next row of turbines, effectively subjecting them to lower wind speeds, meaning these waked turbines will produce less power.

  14. Sandia Energy - Wake-Imaging System Progresses to Outdoor Scaled...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    data collected will improve the physical understanding and modeling of wind-turbine wake impacts on the power production and loads of down-wind turbines in a wind plant. Schematic...

  15. Wake Fields in the Super B Factory Interaction Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weathersby, Stephen; Novokhatski, Alexander; /SLAC

    2011-06-02

    The geometry of storage ring collider interaction regions present an impedance to beam fields resulting in the generation of additional electromagnetic fields (higher order modes or wake fields) which affect the beam energy and trajectory. These affects are computed for the Super B interaction region by evaluating longitudinal loss factors and averaged transverse kicks for short range wake fields. Results indicate at least a factor of 2 lower wake field power generation in comparison with the interaction region geometry of the PEP-II B-factory collider. Wake field reduction is a consderation in the Super B design. Transverse kicks are consistent with an attractive potential from the crotch nearest the beam trajectory. The longitudinal loss factor scales as the -2.5 power of the bunch length. A factor of 60 loss factor reduction is possible with crotch geometry based on an intersecting tubes model.

  16. Ionization-Induced Electron Trapping inUltrarelativistic Plasma Wakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oz, E.; Deng, S.; Katsouleas, T.; Muggli, P.; Barnes, C.D.; Blumenfeld, I.; Decker, F.J.; Emma, P.; Hogan, M.J.; Ischebeck, R.; Iverson, R.H.; Kirby, N.; Krejcik, P.; O'Connell, C.; Siemann, R.H.; Walz, D.; Auerbach, D.; Clayton, C.E.; Huang, C.; Johnson, D.K.; Joshi, C.; /UCLA

    2007-04-06

    The onset of trapping of electrons born inside a highly relativistic, 3D beam-driven plasma wake is investigated. Trapping occurs in the transition regions of a Li plasma confined by He gas. Li plasma electrons support the wake, and higher ionization potential He atoms are ionized as the beam is focused by Li ions and can be trapped. As the wake amplitude is increased, the onset of trapping is observed. Some electrons gain up to 7.6 GeV in a 30.5 cm plasma. The experimentally inferred trapping threshold is at a wake amplitude of 36 GV/m, in good agreement with an analytical model and PIC simulations.

  17. Sandia Energy - CFD-Populated Empirical Turbine Wake Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    parameters that effect tidal turbine wakes, such as yaw angle to incident flow and vertical blockage ratio, may be incorporated as part of future revisions of the CFD populated...

  18. Mesurement of the Decelerating Wake in a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Mesurement of the Decelerating Wake in a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mesurement of the Decelerating Wake in a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Recent experiments at SLAC have shown that high gradient acceleration of electrons is achievable in meter scale plasmas. Results from these experiments show that the wakefield is sensitive to parameters in the electron beam which drives it. In the experiment the bunch lengths were

  19. Plasma wake field XUV radiation source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prono, Daniel S.; Jones, Michael E.

    1997-01-01

    A XUV radiation source uses an interaction of electron beam pulses with a gas to create a plasma radiator. A flowing gas system (10) defines a circulation loop (12) with a device (14), such as a high pressure pump or the like, for circulating the gas. A nozzle or jet (16) produces a sonic atmospheric pressure flow and increases the density of the gas for interacting with an electron beam. An electron beam is formed by a conventional radio frequency (rf) accelerator (26) and electron pulses are conventionally formed by a beam buncher (28). The rf energy is thus converted to electron beam energy, the beam energy is used to create and then thermalize an atmospheric density flowing gas to a fully ionized plasma by interaction of beam pulses with the plasma wake field, and the energetic plasma then loses energy by line radiation at XUV wavelengths Collection and focusing optics (18) are used to collect XUV radiation emitted as line radiation when the high energy density plasma loses energy that was transferred from the electron beam pulses to the plasma.

  20. United States and Vietnam Agree to Cooperate in Peaceful Uses of Nuclear

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy | National Nuclear Security Administration and Vietnam Agree to Cooperate in Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy September 12, 2007 WASHINGTON, D.C. - - The Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) signed an arrangement with Vietnam's Ministry of Science and Technology to work together on efforts to use nuclear energy peacefully. Demonstrating both countries' commitment to controlling nuclear proliferation risks, NNSA will assist Vietnam as it prepares to

  1. Vietnam-NIES Low-Carbon Society Scenarios 2050 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NIES Low-Carbon Society Scenarios 2050 Jump to: navigation, search Name Vietnam-NIES Low-Carbon Society Scenarios 2050 AgencyCompany Organization National Institute for...

  2. Review of Wind Turbine Wake Models and Future Directions (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churchfield, M. J.

    2013-08-01

    This presentation gives a brief overview to wind turbine wake modeling, ranging from models used in the 1980s up to the present. The presentation shows the strengths and weaknesses of various models and discusses the needs of the wind energy industry and research sectors. Both power production and loads analysis are discussed.

  3. Attachment L-7b Vietnam Design Requirements Document is an Official

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    b Vietnam Design Requirements Document is an Official Use Only document please see Section NNS-L-2000 for instructions to Obtain. Section NNS-L-2000 (a) (8) Official Use Only (OUO) Document. The Government considers the Vietnam Design Requirements Document, Attachment L-7b an OUO Document and it cannot be made available to the public via any public webpages (e.g. FebBizOpps, FedConnect, DICCE2 acquisition webpage, Reading Room). The Vietnam Design Requirements Document (DRD) may assist Offerors

  4. Surface wake in the random-phase approximation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia de Abajo, F.J. ); Echenique, P.M. )

    1993-11-01

    The scalar-electric-potential distribution set up by an ion traveling in the vicinity of a plane solid-vacuum interface, that is, the surface-wake potential, is investigated with the specular-reflection model to describe the response of the surface and with the random-phase approximation for the dielectric function of the bulk material. This permits us to address the study of the low-velocity surface wake: the static potential is found to have a dip at the position of the ion; that dip is shifted towards the direction opposite to the velocity vector for velocities smaller than the threshold of creation of plasmons ([approx]1.3[ital v][sub [ital F

  5. Visualizing Wind Farm Wake Losses using SCADA Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind Visualizing Wind Farm Wake Losses using SCADA Data Sandia National Laboratories Carsten H. Westergaard, Jonathan White and Shawn Martin IEA Wind TEM#78 on Field Test Instrumentation and Merasurement Best Practices, October 7 and 8, 2014 Acknowledgement: This work has been funded under the Department of Energy's Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind (CREW) project. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by

  6. The Influence of Rotor Blade Design on Wake Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rotor Blade Design on Wake Development - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  7. Semiclassical eigenenergies in the wake of fast ions in solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, J.; Burgdoerfer, J.; Noid, D.W. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Physics Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    We compare the semiclassical and quantum mechanical eigenenergies of an electron in the wake of a fast, highly charged ion traversing a solid. The classical dynamics of this system shows a transition from regular to chaotic motion as a function of the binding energy. The transition can also be seen in the quantal spectra. We find evidence for a connection between bifurcation of tori and disorder in the energy level sequences. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Windmill wake turbulence decay: a preliminary theoretical model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bossanyi, E.A.

    1983-02-01

    The results are given of initial theoretical attempts to predict dynamic wake characteristics, particularly turbulence decay, downstream of wind turbine generators in order to assess the potential for acoustic noise generation in clusters or arrays of turbines. These results must be considered preliminary, because the model described is at least partially based on the assumption of isotropy in the turbine wakes; however, anisotrpic conditions may actually exist, particularly in the near-wake regions. The results indicate that some excess spectral energy may still exist. The turbine-generated turbulence from one machine can reach the next machine in the cluster and, depending on the turbulent wavelengths critical for acoustic noise production and perhaps structural excitation, this may be a cause for concern. Such a situation is most likely to occur in the evening or morining, during the transition from the daytime to the nocturnal boundary layer and vice-versa, particularly at more elevated sites where the winds tend to increase after dark.

  9. Multidisciplinary Research on Wake Control in Wind Power Plants at NREL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gebraad, Pieter; Fleming, Paul; Wright, Alan; Dykes, Katherine; van Wingerden, Jan-Willem

    2015-07-08

    Presentation slides given at WINDFARMS 2015. The presentation gives an overview of National Renewable Energy Laboratory's work on wake control in wind power plants.

  10. Imaging doppler lidar for wind turbine wake profiling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bossert, David J.

    2015-11-19

    An imaging Doppler lidar (IDL) enables the measurement of the velocity distribution of a large volume, in parallel, and at high spatial resolution in the wake of a wind turbine. Because the IDL is non-scanning, it can be orders of magnitude faster than conventional coherent lidar approaches. Scattering can be obtained from naturally occurring aerosol particles. Furthermore, the wind velocity can be measured directly from Doppler shifts of the laser light, so the measurement can be accomplished at large standoff and at wide fields-of-view.

  11. High-Efficiency Absorber for Damping the Transverse Wake Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novokhatski, A.; Seeman, J.; Weathersby, S.; /SLAC

    2007-02-28

    Transverse wake fields generated by intense beams may propagate long distances in the vacuum chamber and dissipate power in different shielded elements such as bellows, vacuum valves or vacuum pumps. Induced heating in these elements may be high enough to deteriorate vacuum conditions. We have developed a broadband water-cooled bellows-absorber to capture and damp these harmful transverse fields without impacting the longitudinal beam impedance. Experimental results at the PEP-II SLAC B-factory demonstrate high efficiency of this device. This absorber may be useful in other machines like synchrotron light sources or International Linear Collider.

  12. Building on and spinning off: Sandia National Labs` creation of sensors for Vietnam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullrich, R.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses Sandia National Laboratories` development of new technologies for use in the Vietnam War - specifically the seismic sensors deployed to detect troop and vehicle movement - first along the Ho Chi Minh Trail and later in perimeter defense for American military encampments in South Vietnam. Although the sensor story is a small one, it is interesting because it dovetails nicely with our understanding of the war in Vietnam and its frustrations; of the creation of new technologies for war and American enthusiasm for that technology; and of a technological military and the organizational research and a m am development structure created to support it. Within the defense establishment, the sensors were proposed within the context of a larger concept - that of a barrier to prevent the infiltration of troops and supplies from North Vietnam to the South. All of the discussion of the best way to fight in Vietnam is couched in the perception that this was a different kind of war than America was used to fighting. The emphasis was on countering the problems posed by guerrilla/revolutionary warfare and eventually by the apparent constraints of being involved in a military action, not an outright war. The American response was to find the right technology to do the job - to control the war by applying a technological tincture to its wounds and to make the war familiar and fightable on American terms. And, when doubts were raised about the effectiveness of applying existing technologies (namely, the bombing of North Vietnam and Laos), the doubters turned to new technologies. The sensors that were developed for use in Vietnam were a direct product of this sort of thinking - on the part of the engineers at Sandia who created the sensors, the civilian scientific advisors who recommended them, and, ultimately, the soldiers in the field who had to use them.

  13. Simulation Comparison of Wake Mitigation Control Strategies for a Two-Turbine Case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleming, Paul; Gebraad, Pieter M. O.; Lee, Sang; van Wingerden, Jan-Willem; Johnson, Kathryn; Churchfield, Matt; Michalakes, John; Spalart, Philippe; Moriarty, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Wind turbines arranged in a wind plant impact each other through their wakes. Wind plant control is an active research field that attempts to improve wind plant performance by coordinating control of individual turbines to take into account these turbine–wake interactions. High-fidelity simulations of a two-turbine fully waked scenario are used to investigate several wake mitigation strategies, in this paper, including modification of yaw and tilt angles of an upstream turbine to induce wake skew, as well as repositioning of the downstream turbine. The simulation results are compared through change relative to a baseline operation in terms of overall power capture and loading on the upstream and downstream turbine. Results demonstrated improved power production for all methods. Moreover, analysis of control options, including individual pitch control, shows potential to minimize the increase of, or even reduce, turbine loads.

  14. COAXIAL TWO-CHANNEL DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2013-04-30

    Theory, computations, and experimental apparatus are presented that describe and are intended to confirm novel properties of a coaxial two-channel dielectric wake field accelerator. In this configuration, an annular drive beam in the outer coaxial channel excites multimode wakefields which, in the inner channel, can accelerate a test beam to an energy much higher than the energy of the drive beam. This high transformer ratio is the result of judicious choice of the dielectric structure parameters, and of the phase separation between drive bunches and test bunches. A structure with cm-scale wakefields has been build for tests at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator Laboratory, and a structure with mm-scale wakefields has been built for tests at the SLAC FACET facility. Both tests await scheduling by the respective facilities.

  15. Kinetic electron and ion instability of the lunar wake simulated at physical mass ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haakonsen, Christian Bernt Hutchinson, Ian H. Zhou, Chuteng

    2015-03-15

    The solar wind wake behind the moon is studied with 1D electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations using a physical ion to electron mass ratio (unlike prior investigations); the simulations also apply more generally to supersonic flow of dense magnetized plasma past non-magnetic objects. A hybrid electrostatic Boltzmann electron treatment is first used to investigate the ion stability in the absence of kinetic electron effects, showing that the ions are two-stream unstable for downstream wake distances (in lunar radii) greater than about three times the solar wind Mach number. Simulations with PIC electrons are then used to show that kinetic electron effects can lead to disruption of the ion beams at least three times closer to the moon than in the hybrid simulations. This disruption occurs as the result of a novel wake phenomenon: the non-linear growth of electron holes spawned from a narrow dimple in the electron velocity distribution. Most of the holes arising from the dimple are small and quickly leave the wake, approximately following the unperturbed electron phase-space trajectories, but some holes originating near the center of the wake remain and grow large enough to trigger disruption of the ion beams. Non-linear kinetic-electron effects are therefore essential to a comprehensive understanding of the 1D electrostatic stability of such wakes, and possible observational signatures in ARTEMIS data from the lunar wake are discussed.

  16. Effect of nonlinear chirped Gaussian laser pulse on plasma wake field generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afhami, Saeedeh; Eslami, Esmaeil

    2014-08-15

    An ultrashort laser pulse propagating in plasma can excite a nonlinear plasma wake field which can accelerate charged particles up to GeV energies within a compact space compared to the conventional accelerator devices. In this paper, the effect of different kinds of nonlinear chirped Gaussian laser pulse on wake field generation is investigated. The numerical analysis of our results depicts that the excitation of plasma wave with large and highly amplitude can be accomplished by nonlinear chirped pulses. The maximum amplitude of excited wake in nonlinear chirped pulse is approximately three times more than that of linear chirped pulse. In order to achieve high wake field generation, chirp parameters and functions should be set to optimal values.

  17. The 21 cm signature of shock heated and diffuse cosmic string wakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernndez, Oscar F.; Brandenberger, Robert H. E-mail: rhb@physics.mcgill.ca

    2012-07-01

    The analysis of the 21 cm signature of cosmic string wakes is extended in several ways. First we consider the constraints on G? from the absorption signal of shock heated wakes laid down much later than matter radiation equality. Secondly we analyze the signal of diffuse wake, that is those wakes in which there is a baryon overdensity but which have not shock heated. Finally we compare the size of these signals to the expected thermal noise per pixel which dominates over the background cosmic gas brightness temperature and find that the cosmic string signal will exceed the thermal noise of an individual pixel in the Square Kilometre Array for string tensions G? > 2.5 10{sup ?8}.

  18. A Minnesota Blizzard Provides Insight into Utility-Scale Wind Turbine Wakes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy A Minnesota Blizzard Provides Insight into Utility-Scale Wind Turbine Wakes A Minnesota Blizzard Provides Insight into Utility-Scale Wind Turbine Wakes September 12, 2014 - 11:22am Addthis A blurry, black and white photo of wind turbines in a blizzard. Jiarong Hong can hardly wait for Minnesota's harsh winters to return. That's because the University of Minnesota's mechanical engineering assistant professor and St. Anthony Falls Laboratory researcher uses blizzard

  19. Methods for estimating wake flow and effluent dispersion near simple block-like buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosker, R.P. Jr.

    1981-05-01

    This report is intended as an interim guide for those who routinely face air quality problems associated with near-building exhaust stack placement and height, and the resulting concentration patterns. Available data and methods for estimating wake flow and effluent dispersion near isolated block-like structures are consolidated. The near-building and wake flows are described, and quantitative estimates for frontal eddy size, height and extent of roof and wake cavities, and far wake behavior are provided. Concentration calculation methods for upwind, near-building, and downwind pollutant sources are given. For an upwind source, it is possible to estimate the required stack height, and to place upper limits on the likely near-building concentration. The influences of near-building source location and characteristics relative to the building geometry and orientation are considered. Methods to estimate effective stack height, upper limits for concentration due to flush roof vents, and the effect of changes in rooftop stack height are summarized. Current wake and wake cavity models are presented. Numerous graphs of important expressions have been prepared to facilitate computations and quick estimates of flow patterns and concentration levels for specific simple buildings. Detailed recommendations for additional work are given.

  20. Synergistic Effects of Turbine Wakes and Atmospheric Stability on Power Production at an Onshore Wind Farm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K; Marjanovic, N

    2012-01-25

    This report examines the complex interactions between atmospheric stability and turbine-induced wakes on downwind turbine wind speed and power production at a West Coast North American multi-MW wind farm. Wakes are generated when the upwind flow field is distorted by the mechanical movement of the wind turbine blades. This has two consequences for downwind turbines: (1) the downwind turbine encounters wind flows with reduced velocity and (2) the downwind turbine encounters increased turbulence across multiple length scales via mechanical turbulence production by the upwind turbine. This increase in turbulence on top of ambient levels may increase aerodynamic fatigue loads on the blades and reduce the lifetime of turbine component parts. Furthermore, ambient atmospheric conditions, including atmospheric stability, i.e., thermal stratification in the lower boundary layer, play an important role in wake dissipation. Higher levels of ambient turbulence (i.e., a convective or unstable boundary layer) lead to higher turbulent mixing in the wake and a faster recovery in the velocity flow field downwind of a turbine. Lower levels of ambient turbulence, as in a stable boundary layer, will lead to more persistent wakes. The wake of a wind turbine can be divided into two regions: the near wake and far wake, as illustrated in Figure 1. The near wake is formed when the turbine structure alters the shape of the flow field and usually persists one rotor diameter (D) downstream. The difference between the air inside and outside of the near wake results in a shear layer. This shear layer thickens as it moves downstream and forms turbulent eddies of multiple length scales. As the wake travels downstream, it expands depending on the level of ambient turbulence and meanders (i.e., travels in non-uniform path). Schepers estimates that the wake is fully expanded at a distance of 2.25 D and the far wake region begins at 2-5 D downstream. The actual distance traveled before the wake recovers to its inflow velocity is dependent on the amount ambient turbulence, the amount of wind shear, and topographical and structural effects. The maximum velocity deficit is estimated to occur at 1-2 D but can be longer under low levels of ambient turbulence. Our understanding of turbine wakes comes from wind tunnel experiments, field experiments, numerical simulations, and from studies utilizing both experimental and modeling methods. It is well documented that downwind turbines in multi-Megawatt wind farms often produce less power than upwind turbine rows. These wake-induced power losses have been estimated from 5% to up to 40% depending on the turbine operating settings (e.g., thrust coefficient), number of turbine rows, turbine size (e.g., rotor diameter and hub-height), wind farm terrain, and atmospheric flow conditions (e.g., ambient wind speed, turbulence, and atmospheric stability). Early work by Elliott and Cadogan suggested that power data for different turbulent conditions be segregated to distinguish the effects of turbulence on wind farm power production. This may be especially important for downwind turbines within wind farms, as chaotic and turbulent wake flows increase stress on downstream turbines. Impacts of stability on turbine wakes and power production have been examined for a flat terrain, moderate size (43 turbines) wind farm in Minnesota and for an offshore, 80 turbine wind farm off the coast of Denmark. Conzemius found it difficult to distinguish wakes (i.e., downwind velocity deficits) when the atmosphere was convective as large amounts of scatter were present in the turbine nacelle wind speed data. This suggested that high levels of turbulence broke-up the wake via large buoyancy effects, which are generally on the order of 1 km in size. On the other hand, they found pronounced wake effects when the atmosphere was very stable and turbulence was either suppressed or the length scale was reduced as turbulence in this case was mechanically produced (i.e., friction forces). This led to larger reductions at downwind turbines and maximum velocity (power) deficits reached up to 50% (70%) during strongly stable conditions. At an offshore Danish wind farm, Hansen et al. found a strong negative correlation between power deficit and ambient turbulence intensity (i.e., atmospheric stability). Under convective conditions, when turbulence levels were relatively high, smallest power deficits were observed. Power deficits approaching 35 to 40% were found inside the wind farm during stable conditions.

  1. Wake of the MOD-0A1 wind turbine at two rotor diameters downwind on December 3, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connell, J.R.; George, R.L.

    1982-11-01

    The wake of the MOD-0A1 wind turbine at Clayton, New Mexico has been measured using a vertical plane array of anemometers in a crosswind plane at a distance of two rotor diameters directly downwind of the turbine. Rotor blade vortices were well mixed into the wake turbulence and were not separately detectable. Wake swirl about the along-wind axis had a value not greater than 0.025 rad/s. Extra turbulence energy existed in the edge of the wake at a frequency of about n=0.025 Hz. The cross-wake plane analyses of wind speeds revealed a nearly circular inner portion and a strongly elliptical portion. The elliptical portion major axis was horizontal. An estimate of the average rate of reenergizing of the wake, using measurements of mean wind energy flow and turbine power, suggests that entrainment with ambient air may have been rapid. Some wake characteristics were compared with the corresponding ones for several simple wake models based upon concepts of mixing of ambient air into a wake or an equivalent coaxial jet. (LEW)

  2. Advancing Development and Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Vietnams Wind Sector

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advancing Development and Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Vietnam's Wind Sector June 19, 2014 Daniel Bilello, Jessica Katz, Sean Esterly National Renewable Energy Laboratory Matthew Ogonowski U.S. Agency for International Development EC-LEDS is managed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and Department of State with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and U.S. Forest Service. Printed with a

  3. Wake-up effects in Si-doped hafnium oxide ferroelectric thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Dayu, E-mail: zhoudayu@dlut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory for Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Xu, Jin [Department of Electronic Engineering, Dalian Neusoft University of Information, Dalian 116023 (China)] [Department of Electronic Engineering, Dalian Neusoft University of Information, Dalian 116023 (China); Li, Qing; Guan, Yan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Cao, Fei; Dong, Xianlin [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Mller, Johannes [Fraunhofer IPMS-CNT, Koengisbruecker Strasse 180, 01109 Dresden (Germany)] [Fraunhofer IPMS-CNT, Koengisbruecker Strasse 180, 01109 Dresden (Germany); Schenk, Tony; Schrder, Uwe [Namlab gGmbH/TU Dresden, Noethnitzer Strasse 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany)] [Namlab gGmbH/TU Dresden, Noethnitzer Strasse 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2013-11-04

    Hafnium oxide based ferroelectric thin films have shown potential as a promising alternative material for non-volatile memory applications. This work reports the switching stability of a Si-doped HfO{sub 2} film under bipolar pulsed-field operation. High field cycling causes a wake-up in virgin pinched polarization hysteresis loops, demonstrated by an enhancement in remanent polarization and a shift of negative coercive voltage. The rate of wake-up is accelerated by either reducing the frequency or increasing the amplitude of the cycling field. We suggest de-pinning of domains due to reduction of the defect concentration at bottom electrode interface as origin of the wake-up.

  4. Wake Flow Simulations for a Mid-Sized Rim Driven Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rob O. Hovsapian; Various

    2014-06-01

    The onshore land where wind farms with conventional wind turbines can be places is limited by various factors including a requirement for relatively high wind speed for turbines' efficient operations. Where such a requirement cannot be met, mid-and small-sized turbines can be a solution. In the current paper simulations for near and for wakes behind a mid-sized Rim Driven Wind Turbine developed by Keuka Energy LLC is analyzed. The purposes of this study is to better understand the wake structure for more efficient wind farm planning. Simulations are conducted with the commercial CFD software STARCCM+

  5. Wake deficit measurements on the Jess and Souza Ranches, Altamont Pass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nierenburg, R. (Altamont Energy Corp., San Rafael, CA (USA))

    1990-04-01

    This report is ninth in a series of documents presenting the findings of field test under DOE's Cooperative Field Test Program (CFTP) with the wind industry. This report provides results of a project conducted by Altamont Energy Corp. (AEC) to measure wake deficits on the Jess and Sousa Ranches in Altamont Pass, CA. This research enhances and complements other DOE-funded projects to refine estimates of wind turbine array effects. This project will help explain turbine performance variability caused by wake effects. 4 refs., 28 figs., 106 tabs.

  6. Wind Turbine Wake Measurements in the Operating Region of a Tail Vain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larwood, S.

    2001-01-22

    In conjunction with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment (UAE) at NASA Ames, we measured the wake of an upwind 10-meter (m) diameter wind turbine in the typical region of a tail vane. The experiment was performed in a 24.4-by-36.6-m wind tunnel. We placed two sonic anemometers 0.58 rotor diameters downwind of the rotor at hub height. One was positioned nominally behind the nacelle at 9% radius and the second was placed 2-m outboard at 49% radius. The tunnel wind speed was varied from 5 to 25 meters per second (m/s) and the turbine rotor speed was held at 72 revolutions per minute (rpm). We varied yaw from 0{degree} to 60{degree}. The data showed unsteadiness in the wake due to the nacelle wake. Also, the unsteadiness increased with the onset of blade stall. The axial induction factor in the wake showed that the turbine was operating within the windmill brake state of actuator disk momentum theory. Little variation in unsteadiness was shown under yawed conditions. We also discovered that lateral velocity behind the nacelle was negative and would result in an unfurling normal force on a tail vane. The vertical velocity was shown to change sign under yawed conditions, conceivably as a result of the opposing blade root vortex.

  7. Observations of wake characteristics at the Goodnoe Hills MOD-2 array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buck, J.W.; Renne, D.S.

    1985-08-01

    The array of three MOD-2 wind turbines and two meteorological towers at Goodnoe Hills, Washington, provides an opportunity to evaluate turbine and wake interactions in a real environment. The triangular arrangement of the three turbines provides opportunities to study the effect of wakes on the performance of a downwind turbine at three different distances: 5, 7, and 10 rotor diameters (D), where 1 D is 300 ft. The information obtained from this test configuration is critical to future wind farm activities and is a key objective of the MOD-2 test program. This report describes the analysis of data measured at the turbines and towers from August 29 to November 12, 1982. The data are 2-min averages of 1-s values. Background flow characteristics were also examined to determine if flow variations across the site could mask wake measurements. For this analysis, one year's data gathered at the meteorological towers were analyzed. The results show some differences between characteristics measured at the towers, but these differences were not great enough to consider in evaluating wakes at the towers.

  8. Virtual LIDAR model helps researchers plan for the Wake Steering Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at SWiFT model helps researchers plan for the Wake Steering Experiment at SWiFT - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing

  9. Sandia Wake-Imaging System Successfully Deployed at Scaled Wind Farm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Facility Wake-Imaging System Successfully Deployed at Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid

  10. Virtual LIDAR Model Helps Researchers Plan for Wake Steering Experiment at

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SWiFT Model Helps Researchers Plan for Wake Steering Experiment at SWiFT - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear

  11. Multiple self-injection in the acceleration of monoenergetic electrons by a laser wake field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oguchi, A.; Takano, K.; Hotta, E.; Zhidkov, A.; Nemoto, K.; Nakajima, K.

    2008-04-15

    Multiple electron self-injection in laser wake-field acceleration is studied via fully relativistic two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. The electron density modulation in the laser wake originating from oscillations of the laser pulse waist and relativistic effects can provoke the parametric resonance in the electron fluid momentum. This may result in repetitive trapping of plasma electrons in the acceleration phase of the laser wake: multiple electron self-injection. The maximal energy of the accelerated electrons depends strongly on the total charge of the injected electrons. A low energy spread, less than 1%, for an almost 1 GeV energy electron beam with charge about 10 pC is found numerically in the plasma channel irradiated by a 25 TW laser pulse, while a 200 TW laser pulse produces a few nC beam with only 150 MeV energy. Essentially thermalization of accelerated electrons is also a result of charge loading.

  12. Comparison of the Dynamic Wake Meandering Model, Large-Eddy Simulation, and Field Data at the Egmond aan Zee Offshore Wind Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churchfield, M. J.; Moriarty, P. J.; Hao, Y.; Lackner, M. A.; Barthelmie, R.; Lundquist, J.; Oxley, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    The focus of this work is the comparison of the dynamic wake meandering model and large-eddy simulation with field data from the Egmond aan Zee offshore wind plant composed of 36 3-MW turbines. The field data includes meteorological mast measurements, SCADA information from all turbines, and strain-gauge data from two turbines. The dynamic wake meandering model and large-eddy simulation are means of computing unsteady wind plant aerodynamics, including the important unsteady meandering of wakes as they convect downstream and interact with other turbines and wakes. Both of these models are coupled to a turbine model such that power and mechanical loads of each turbine in the wind plant are computed. We are interested in how accurately different types of waking (e.g., direct versus partial waking), can be modeled, and how background turbulence level affects these loads. We show that both the dynamic wake meandering model and large-eddy simulation appear to underpredict power and overpredict fatigue loads because of wake effects, but it is unclear that they are really in error. This discrepancy may be caused by wind-direction uncertainty in the field data, which tends to make wake effects appear less pronounced.

  13. In the wake of high-profile battery fires, a safer approach emerges >

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information In the OSTI Collections: Carbon Sequestration, Figure 1 Archived News Stories > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell

    In the wake of high-profile battery fires, a safer approach emerges May 14th, 2014 › ACS News Service Weekly PressPac "Suppression of Lithium Dendrite Growth Using Cross-Linked Polyethylene/Polyethylene Oxide Electrolytes: A New Approach for Practical Lithium-Metal Polymer Batteries" Journal of the

  14. Wind Plant Power Optimization through Yaw Control using a Parametric Model for Wake Effects -- A CFD Simulation Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gebraad, P. M. O.; Teeuwisse, F. W.; van Wingerden, J. W.; Fleming, Paul A.; Ruben, S. D.; Marden, J. R.; Pao, L. Y.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a wind plant control strategy that optimizes the yaw settings of wind turbines for improved energy production of the whole wind plant by taking into account wake effects. The optimization controller is based on a novel internal parametric model for wake effects, called the FLOw Redirection and Induction in Steady-state (FLORIS) model. The FLORIS model predicts the steady-state wake locations and the effective flow velocities at each turbine, and the resulting turbine electrical energy production levels, as a function of the axial induction and the yaw angle of the different rotors. The FLORIS model has a limited number of parameters that are estimated based on turbine electrical power production data. In high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics simulations of a small wind plant, we demonstrate that the optimization control based on the FLORIS model increases the energy production of the wind plant, with a reduction of loads on the turbines as an additional effect.

  15. Sandia Wake Imaging System Field Test Report: 2015 Deployment at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) Facility.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naughton, Brian Thomas; Herges, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    This report presents the objectives, configuration, procedures, reporting , roles , and responsibilities and subsequent results for the field demonstration of the Sandia Wake Imaging System (SWIS) at the Sandia Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility near Lubbock, Texas in June and July 2015.

  16. High redshift signatures in the 21 cm forest due to cosmic string wakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Silk, Joseph E-mail: toyokazu.sekiguchi@nagoya-u.jp

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic strings induce minihalo formation in the early universe. The resultant minihalos cluster in string wakes and create a ''21 cm forest'' against the cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectrum. Such a 21 cm forest can contribute to angular fluctuations of redshifted 21 cm signals integrated along the line of sight. We calculate the root-mean-square amplitude of the 21 cm fluctuations due to strings and show that these fluctuations can dominate signals from minihalos due to primordial density fluctuations at high redshift (z?>10), even if the string tension is below the current upper bound, G? < 1.5 10{sup ?7}. Our results also predict that the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) can potentially detect the 21 cm fluctuations due to strings with G? ? 7.5 10{sup ?8} for the single frequency band case and 4.0 10{sup ?8} for the multi-frequency band case.

  17. Large Eddy Simulation of Wind Turbine Wakes. Detailed Comparisons of Two Codes Focusing on Effects of Numerics and Subgrid Modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Martinez-Tossas, Luis A.; Churchfield, Matthew J.; Meneveau, Charles

    2015-06-18

    In this work we report on results from a detailed comparative numerical study from two Large Eddy Simulation (LES) codes using the Actuator Line Model (ALM). The study focuses on prediction of wind turbine wakes and their breakdown when subject to uniform inflow. Previous studies have shown relative insensitivity to subgrid modeling in the context of a finite-volume code. The present study uses the low dissipation pseudo-spectral LES code from Johns Hopkins University (LESGO) and the second-order, finite-volume OpenFOAMcode (SOWFA) from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. When subject to uniform inflow, the loads on the blades are found to bemore » unaffected by subgrid models or numerics, as expected. The turbulence in the wake and the location of transition to a turbulent state are affected by the subgrid-scale model and the numerics.« less

  18. Preliminary Analysis on Linac Oscillation Data LI05-19 and Wake Field Energy Loss in FACET Commissioning 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yipeng; /SLAC

    2012-07-23

    In this note, preliminary analysis on linac ocsillation data in FACET linac LI05-09 plus LI11-19 is presented. Several quadrupoles are identified to possibly have different strength, compared with their designed strength in the MAD optics model. The beam energy loss due to longitudinal wake fields in the S-band linac is also analytically calculated, also by LITRACK numerical simulations.

  19. Wind Plant Power Optimization through Yaw Control using a Parametric Model for Wake Effects -- A CFD Simulation Study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gebraad, P. M. O.; Teeuwisse, F. W.; van Wingerden, J. W.; Fleming, Paul A.; Ruben, S. D.; Marden, J. R.; Pao, L. Y.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a wind plant control strategy that optimizes the yaw settings of wind turbines for improved energy production of the whole wind plant by taking into account wake effects. The optimization controller is based on a novel internal parametric model for wake effects, called the FLOw Redirection and Induction in Steady-state (FLORIS) model. The FLORIS model predicts the steady-state wake locations and the effective flow velocities at each turbine, and the resulting turbine electrical energy production levels, as a function of the axial induction and the yaw angle of the different rotors. The FLORIS model has a limitedmore » number of parameters that are estimated based on turbine electrical power production data. In high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics simulations of a small wind plant, we demonstrate that the optimization control based on the FLORIS model increases the energy production of the wind plant, with a reduction of loads on the turbines as an additional effect.« less

  20. Large-Eddy Simulation Study of Wake Propagation and Power Production in an Array of Tidal-Current Turbines: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churchfield, M. J.; Li, Y.; Moriarty, P. J.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents our initial work in performing large-eddy simulations of tidal turbine array flows. First, a horizontally-periodic precursor simulation is performed to create turbulent flow data. Then that data is used as inflow into a tidal turbine array two rows deep and infinitely wide. The turbines are modeled using rotating actuator lines, and the finite-volume method is used to solve the governing equations. In studying the wakes created by the turbines, we observed that the vertical shear of the inflow combined with wake rotation causes lateral wake asymmetry. Also, various turbine configurations are simulated, and the total power production relative to isolated turbines is examined. Staggering consecutive rows of turbines in the simulated configurations allows the greatest efficiency using the least downstream row spacing. Counter-rotating consecutive downstream turbines in a non-staggered array shows a small benefit. This work has identified areas for improvement, such as the use of a larger precursor domain to better capture elongated turbulent structures, the inclusion of salinity and temperature equations to account for density stratification and its effect on turbulence, improved wall shear stress modelling, and the examination of more array configurations.

  1. A summary of recent refinements to the WAKE dispersion model, a component of the HGSYSTEM/UF{sub 6} model suite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yambert, M.W.; Lombardi, D.A.; Goode, W.D. Jr.; Bloom, S.G.

    1998-08-01

    The original WAKE dispersion model a component of the HGSYSTEM/UF{sub 6} model suite, is based on Shell Research Ltd.`s HGSYSTEM Version 3.0 and was developed by the US Department of Energy for use in estimating downwind dispersion of materials due to accidental releases from gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) process buildings. The model is applicable to scenarios involving both ground-level and elevated releases into building wake cavities of non-reactive plumes that are either neutrally or positively buoyant. Over the 2-year period since its creation, the WAKE model has been used to perform consequence analyses for Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) associated with gaseous diffusion plants in Portsmouth (PORTS), Paducah (PGDP), and Oak Ridge. These applications have identified the need for additional model capabilities (such as the treatment of complex terrain and time-variant releases) not present in the original utilities which, in turn, has resulted in numerous modifications to these codes as well as the development of additional, stand-alone postprocessing utilities. Consequently, application of the model has become increasingly complex as the number of executable, input, and output files associated with a single model run has steadily grown. In response to these problems, a streamlined version of the WAKE model has been developed which integrates all calculations that are currently performed by the existing WAKE, and the various post-processing utilities. This report summarizes the efforts involved in developing this revised version of the WAKE model.

  2. Implementation and assessment of turbine wake models in the Weather Research and Forecasting model for both mesoscale and large-eddy simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, M; Mirocha, J; Lundquist, J; Cleve, J

    2010-03-03

    Flow dynamics in large wind projects are influenced by the turbines located within. The turbine wakes, regions characterized by lower wind speeds and higher levels of turbulence than the surrounding free stream flow, can extend several rotor diameters downstream, and may meander and widen with increasing distance from the turbine. Turbine wakes can also reduce the power generated by downstream turbines and accelerate fatigue and damage to turbine components. An improved understanding of wake formation and transport within wind parks is essential for maximizing power output and increasing turbine lifespan. Moreover, the influence of wakes from large wind projects on neighboring wind farms, agricultural activities, and local climate are all areas of concern that can likewise be addressed by wake modeling. This work describes the formulation and application of an actuator disk model for studying flow dynamics of both individual turbines and arrays of turbines within wind projects. The actuator disk model is implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, which is an open-source atmospheric simulation code applicable to a wide range of scales, from mesoscale to large-eddy simulation. Preliminary results demonstrate the applicability of the actuator disk model within WRF to a moderately high-resolution large-eddy simulation study of a small array of turbines.

  3. Numerical performance analysis of acoustic Doppler velocity profilers in the wake of an axial-flow marine hydrokinetic turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Harding, Samuel F.; Romero Gomez, Pedro DJ

    2015-09-01

    The use of acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) for the characterization of flow conditions in the vicinity of both experimental and full scale marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines is becoming increasingly prevalent. The computation of a three dimensional velocity measurement from divergent acoustic beams requires the assumption that the flow conditions are homogeneous between all beams at a particular axial distance from the instrument. In the near wake of MHK devices, the mean fluid motion is observed to be highly spatially dependent as a result of torque generation and energy extraction. This paper examines the performance of ADCP measurements in such scenarios through the modelling of a virtual ADCP (VADCP) instrument in the velocity field in the wake of an MHK turbine resolved using unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This is achieved by sampling the CFD velocity field at equivalent locations to the sample bins of an ADCP and performing the coordinate transformation from beam coordinates to instrument coordinates and finally to global coordinates. The error in the mean velocity calculated by the VADCP relative to the reference velocity along the instrument axis is calculated for a range of instrument locations and orientations. The stream-wise velocity deficit and tangential swirl velocity caused by the rotor rotation lead to significant misrepresentation of the true flow velocity profiles by the VADCP, with the most significant errors in the transverse (cross-flow) velocity direction.

  4. Development and Validation of a New Blade Element Momentum Skewed-Wake Model within AeroDyn: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ning, S. A.; Hayman, G.; Damiani, R.; Jonkman, J.

    2014-12-01

    Blade element momentum methods, though conceptually simple, are highly useful for analyzing wind turbines aerodynamics and are widely used in many design and analysis applications. A new version of AeroDyn is being developed to take advantage of new robust solution methodologies, conform to a new modularization framework for National Renewable Energy Laboratory's FAST, utilize advanced skewed-wake analysis methods, fix limitations with previous implementations, and to enable modeling of highly flexible and nonstraight blades. This paper reviews blade element momentum theory and several of the options available for analyzing skewed inflow. AeroDyn implementation details are described for the benefit of users and developers. These new options are compared to solutions from the previous version of AeroDyn and to experimental data. Finally, recommendations are given on how one might select from the various available solution approaches.

  5. Investigating wind turbine impacts on near-wake flow using profiling Lidar data and large-eddy simulations with an actuator disk model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirocha, Jeffrey D.; Rajewski, Daniel A.; Marjanovic, Nikola; Lundquist, Julie K.; Kosovic, Branko; Draxl, Caroline; Churchfield, Matthew J.

    2015-08-27

    In this study, wind turbine impacts on the atmospheric flow are investigated using data from the Crop Wind Energy Experiment (CWEX-11) and large-eddy simulations (LESs) utilizing a generalized actuator disk (GAD) wind turbine model. CWEX-11 employed velocity-azimuth display (VAD) data from two Doppler lidar systems to sample vertical profiles of flow parameters across the rotor depth both upstream and in the wake of an operating 1.5 MW wind turbine. Lidar and surface observations obtained during four days of July 2011 are analyzed to characterize the turbine impacts on wind speed and flow variability, and to examine the sensitivity of these changes to atmospheric stability. Significant velocity deficits (VD) are observed at the downstream location during both convective and stable portions of four diurnal cycles, with large, sustained deficits occurring during stable conditions. Variances of the streamwise velocity component, σu, likewise show large increases downstream during both stable and unstable conditions, with stable conditions supporting sustained small increases of σu , while convective conditions featured both larger magnitudes and increased variability, due to the large coherent structures in the background flow. Two representative case studies, one stable and one convective, are simulated using LES with a GAD model at 6 m resolution to evaluate the compatibility of the simulation framework with validation using vertically profiling lidar data in the near wake region. Virtual lidars were employed to sample the simulated flow field in a manner consistent with the VAD technique. Simulations reasonably reproduced aggregated wake VD characteristics, albeit with smaller magnitudes than observed, while σu values in the wake are more significantly underestimated. The results illuminate the limitations of using a GAD in combination with coarse model resolution in the simulation of near wake physics, and validation thereof using VAD data.

  6. Investigating wind turbine impacts on near-wake flow using profiling Lidar data and large-eddy simulations with an actuator disk model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mirocha, Jeffrey D.; Rajewski, Daniel A.; Marjanovic, Nikola; Lundquist, Julie K.; Kosovic, Branko; Draxl, Caroline; Churchfield, Matthew J.

    2015-08-27

    In this study, wind turbine impacts on the atmospheric flow are investigated using data from the Crop Wind Energy Experiment (CWEX-11) and large-eddy simulations (LESs) utilizing a generalized actuator disk (GAD) wind turbine model. CWEX-11 employed velocity-azimuth display (VAD) data from two Doppler lidar systems to sample vertical profiles of flow parameters across the rotor depth both upstream and in the wake of an operating 1.5 MW wind turbine. Lidar and surface observations obtained during four days of July 2011 are analyzed to characterize the turbine impacts on wind speed and flow variability, and to examine the sensitivity of thesemore » changes to atmospheric stability. Significant velocity deficits (VD) are observed at the downstream location during both convective and stable portions of four diurnal cycles, with large, sustained deficits occurring during stable conditions. Variances of the streamwise velocity component, σu, likewise show large increases downstream during both stable and unstable conditions, with stable conditions supporting sustained small increases of σu , while convective conditions featured both larger magnitudes and increased variability, due to the large coherent structures in the background flow. Two representative case studies, one stable and one convective, are simulated using LES with a GAD model at 6 m resolution to evaluate the compatibility of the simulation framework with validation using vertically profiling lidar data in the near wake region. Virtual lidars were employed to sample the simulated flow field in a manner consistent with the VAD technique. Simulations reasonably reproduced aggregated wake VD characteristics, albeit with smaller magnitudes than observed, while σu values in the wake are more significantly underestimated. The results illuminate the limitations of using a GAD in combination with coarse model resolution in the simulation of near wake physics, and validation thereof using VAD data.« less

  7. Assessing world energy in the wake of the Iran/Iraq war: an oil shortage proves elusive. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randol, W.L.; Verleger, P.K. Jr.; Clayman, M.

    1981-01-01

    A reassessment of world energy supplies was made in the wake of curtailed exports during the Iran/Iraq war and the corresponding increase in world oil prices, the drop in oil consumption, the widening economic recession, and US decontrol of oil. The report concludes that present worldwide levels of oil production are adequate to satisfy projected levels of consumption through 1981. This leaves the world energy system in balance even if oil exports from Iran and Iraq remain at minimal levels for the year. Past overestimation of demand makes it more likely that this year's consumption will fall short of the projection. The way in which Saudi Arabia's output is cut will be the key to oil pricing in 1981, the authors feel, but the likely approach will be a gradual reduction in production that will allow the Saudis to regain control of OPEC. The effects of a receding demand for oil have been intensified by high US interest rates and the spreading recession. The effect of immediate decontrol of petroleum is likely to compound the trend for reduced consumption and a corresponding increase in efficiency. 2 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Wake Imaging Measurement System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging Measurement System - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  9. Wake Steering Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Steering Experiment - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  10. Wake Imaging Measurement System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management ...

  11. SNL Wake Imaging System Solves Wind Turbine Wake Formation Mysteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A square brown steel shed behind the base of the turbine's ... lead to reduced power production and increased loading on ... lab in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to quickly and ...

  12. Manufacturing's Wake-Up Call

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... in the regional North American mar- ket, which can survive but are threatened by ... disadvantages of importing (for exam- ple, the cost of transporting products to ...

  13. Vietnam: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWhyear 66 2008 NREL Coal Reserves 165.35 Million Short Tons 53 2008 EIA Natural Gas Reserves 680,000,000,000 Cubic Meters (cu m) 31 2010 CIA World Factbook Oil Reserves...

  14. Wake Electric Membership Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    North Carolina Service Territory: North Carolina Phone Number: 919.863.6499 or toll free 800.743.3155 Website: www.wemc.com Facebook: https:ebill.wemc.comwoViewer...

  15. Synchrotron Radiation Wake in Free Space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stupakov, G.V.; /SLAC

    2011-08-31

    In this paper, we derive the transverse radiation force of a bunch of ultrarelativistic charged particles coherently radiating in free space assuming that the bending radius is much larger than the beam dimensions. In contrast to a similar recent study, where the authors decompose the total transverse force and find only a part that is responsible for the distortion of the beam orbit, we derive a full expression for the force and leave the issues of the beam dynamics for a separate consideration. Another approach to the calculation of the transverse force has been previously developed. In many cases considered in this paper, the calculations are extremely cumbersome; they were systematically performed with the use of symbolic engine of the computer program MATHEMATICA.

  16. Technique for ship/wake detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roskovensky, John K.

    2012-05-01

    An automated ship detection technique includes accessing data associated with an image of a portion of Earth. The data includes reflectance values. A first portion of pixels within the image are masked with a cloud and land mask based on spectral flatness of the reflectance values associated with the pixels. A given pixel selected from the first portion of pixels is unmasked when a threshold number of localized pixels surrounding the given pixel are not masked by the cloud and land mask. A spatial variability image is generated based on spatial derivatives of the reflectance values of the pixels which remain unmasked by the cloud and land mask. The spatial variability image is thresholded to identify one or more regions within the image as possible ship detection regions.

  17. TWO-CHANNEL DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-05-30

    Experimental results are reported for test beam acceleration and deflection in a two-channel, cm-scale, rectangular dielectric-lined wakefield accelerator structure energized by a 14-MeV drive beam. The dominant waveguide mode of the structure is at {approx}30 GHz, and the structure is configured to exhibit a high transformer ratio ({approx}12:1). Accelerated bunches in the narrow secondary channel of the structure are continuously energized via Cherenkov radiation that is emitted by a drive bunch moving in the wider primary channel. Observed energy gains and losses, transverse deflections, and changes in the test bunch charge distribution compare favorably with predictions of theory.

  18. Multizone subsea completions in the Dai Hung field, Vietnam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lay, K.R.

    1996-09-01

    The early production phase of the Dai Hung field development resulted in the drilling and completion of five subsea wells. Because of the complex nature of the reservoirs, selective multizone completions were installed for effective reservoir data acquisition and reservoir management. The downhole completion designs used equipment that was primarily of existing proven design and downhole equipment installation was successfully achieved in a single trip. Ongoing reservoir management will be aided by the use of a subsea wireline system to facilitate data acquisition.

  19. Brief: Multizone subsea completions in the Dai Hung field, Vietnam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lay, K.R.

    1996-04-01

    The early production phase of the Dai Hung field development involved drilling and completion of five subsea wells. Owing to the complex nature of the reservoirs, selective multizone completions were installed for effective reservoir data acquisition and reservoir management. Downhole completion designs used equipment that was primarily of existing proven design, and downhole equipment was installed in a single trip. Ongoing reservoir management will be aided by use of a subsea wireline system to facilitate data acquisition.

  20. Vietnam Research Center for Energy and Environment | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of renewable and clean energy development and energy efficiency. RCEE focuses on climate change issues too, like policies on clean development mechanism (CDM), and developing...

  1. Vietnam-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    illustrates the U.S. perspective on LEDS: Integrated development goals and objectives, national greenhouse gas inventory, and economic and resource data Long-term projections of...

  2. Vietnam-Strengthening Public and Private Climate Finance in Asia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to support climate-resilient development in the developing world. Mitigation investment is substantial in parts of Asia, but lacking elsewhere; adaptation investment flows...

  3. Vietnam-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assessing, improving, and implementing REDD+- related forest policies; improving forest management; and encouraging equitable sharing of REDD+ benefits. The program will tailor...

  4. Vietnam-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    six to eight developing countries to strengthen their national low carbon development strategies and get a "quick start" on NAMAs. The focus will be on reducing emissions of...

  5. Vietnam-The World Bank Partnership for Market Readiness (PMR...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Morocco Implement climate change mitigation policy as part of National Plan against Global Warming. PMR Support: Establish MRV framework. Identify and develop crediting NAMAs...

  6. Vietnam-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE),...

  7. Vietnam-The Mitigation Action Implementation Network (MAIN) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Energy Thailand, Ministry of Industry Thailand, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Thailand, Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and...

  8. Vietnam-Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the growth of greenhouse gas emissions. The LEAD program supports and enhances country-led development programs, plans, and policies, and complements efforts of other...

  9. Vietnam-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Growth in Developing Asia AgencyCompany Organization Asian Development Bank Partner Japan, United Kingdom Sector Climate, Energy Focus Area Non-renewable Energy, Buildings,...

  10. Vietnam-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Government Partner Danish Ministry for Climate, Energy, and Building; The Danish Energy Agency Sector Energy Topics Implementation, Low emission development planning Program...

  11. Vietnam-NAMA Programme for the Construction Sector in Asia |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Buildings, Industry Topics Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA, Market...

  12. Vietnam-World Bank Climate Projects | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    electricity access will be improved by upgrading, and strengthening the 110 KV sub-transmission line, and substations, restoring five existing hydropower plants, and, by...

  13. Vietnam-Integrated Action Plan to Reduce Vehicle Emissions |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and reduce air pollution. Furthermore, they are required to ensure that Viet Nam's air quality meets the average standards set by the Association of Southeast Asian Nation...

  14. Vietnam-Development Policy Operation (DPO) Financing | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Policy Operation Financing AgencyCompany Organization France Agency of Development (AFD) Partner JICA, CIDA, WB, Korean Exim, AusAid Sector Climate Focus Area Non-renewable...

  15. Vietnam-Clean Technology Fund (CTF) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Development, Inter-American Development Bank, World Bank Sector Climate, Energy Focus Area Energy Efficiency, Geothermal, Transportation Topics Background analysis,...

  16. Wake fields effects for the eRHIC project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedotov A. V.; Belomestnykh, S.; Kayran, D.; Litvinenko, V.; Ptitsyn, V.

    2012-05-20

    An Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) with a high peak electron bunch current is proposed for the Electron-Ion collider (eRHIC) project at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The present design is based on the multi-pass electron beam transport in existing tunnel of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). As a result of a high peak current and a very long beam transport, consideration of various collective beam dynamics effects becomes important. Here we summarize effects of the coherent synchrotron radiation, resistive wall, accelerating cavities and wall roughness on the resulting energy spread and energy loss for several scenarios of the eRHIC project.

  17. Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine Wake Sensitivity to Different Blade...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U inflow angle at blade section relative to plane of rotation + , degrees angular velocity of rotor, rads SW iF T Scaled Wind Farm Technology x time average of...

  18. Sandia Wake-Imaging System Successfully Deployed at Scaled Wind...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    System Successfully Deployed at Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations ... Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management ...

  19. Mesurement of the Decelerating Wake in a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publication Date: 2008-09-24 OSTI Identifier: 938638 Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-13390 TRN: ... Concepts Workshop (AAC08), Santa Cruz, California, 27 Jul - 2 Aug 2008 Research ...

  20. Wake Forest, North Carolina: Energy Resources | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forest, North Carolina: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 35.9798734, -78.5097228 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappin...

  1. Wake County, North Carolina: Energy Resources | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solutions Formerly LED Lighting Fixtures LLF Eaton Powerware INI Power Systems Methane Power Inc Microcell Corp North Carolina State Energy Office North Carolina State...

  2. Smart Companies "Wake up" Night Shift Workers Make More Mistakes...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to Accidents A study from Circadian Technologies, http:www.circadian.commediaPress.html, a consulting firm which specializes in advising the nation's largest companies on how...

  3. Vietnam-Low Carbon Asia Research Network (LoCARNet) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy, Land Focus Area Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Greenhouse Gas, Hydrogen, Industry, Land Use, People and...

  4. Opportunities and Challenges to Scaling-up Wind Power in Vietnam...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AgencyCompany Organization Asian Development Bank Sector Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy, Wind Topics Co-benefits assessment, Market analysis, Pathways analysis, Background...

  5. Vietnam-GTZ RE Policy and Wind Power Development Project | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) Partner Ministry of Industry and Trade (MoIT), The Electricity...

  6. Vietnam-EC-LEDS in the Agriculture Sector | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector Climate, Land Focus Area Agriculture, Economic Development, Greenhouse Gas, Land Use Topics Adaptation, Implementation, Low emission development planning, -LEDS,...

  7. In the wake of high-profile battery fires, a safer approach emerges...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of LIBs originates with their electrolytes, the substance that allows ions to flow between the electrodes of the battery. The electrolyte usually contains a flammable liquid. ...

  8. A VERY DEEP CHANDRA OBSERVATION OF A1795: THE COLD FRONT AND COOLING WAKE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehlert, Steven; McDonald, Michael; Miller, Eric D.; Bautz, Mark W.; David, Laurence P.

    2015-02-01

    We present a new analysis of very deep Chandra observations of the galaxy cluster A1795. Utilizing nearly 750 ks of net ACIS imaging, we are able to resolve the thermodynamic structure of the intracluster medium (ICM) on length scales of ∼1 kpc near the cool core. We find several previously unresolved structures, including a high pressure feature to the north of the Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) that appears to arise from the bulk motion of A1795's cool core. To the south of the cool core, we find low temperature (∼3 keV), diffuse ICM gas extending for distances of ∼50 kpc spatially coincident with previously identified filaments of Hα emission. Gas at similar temperatures is also detected in adjacent regions without any Hα emission. The X-ray gas coincident with the Hα filament has been measured to be cooling spectroscopically at a rate of ∼1 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, consistent with measurements of the star formation rate in this region as inferred from ultraviolet (UV) observations, suggesting that the star formation in this filament as inferred by its Hα and UV emission can trace its origin to the rapid cooling of dense, X-ray emitting gas. The Hα filament is not a unique site of cooler ICM, however, as ICM at similar temperatures and even higher metallicities not cospatial with Hα emission is observed just to the west of the Hα filament, suggesting that it may have been uplifted by A1795's central active galaxy. Further simulations of cool core sloshing and active galactic nucleus feedback operating in concert with one another will be necessary to understand how such a dynamic cool core region may have originated and why the Hα emission is so localized with respect to the cool X-ray gas.

  9. Waking the sleeping giant: Introducing new heat exchanger technology into the residential air-conditioning marketplace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapp, T.; Voss, M.; Stephens, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Air Conditioning Industry has made tremendous strides in improvements to the energy efficiency and reliability of its product offerings over the past 40 years. These improvement can be attributed to enhancements of components, optimization of the energy cycle, and modernized and refined manufacturing techniques. During this same period, energy consumption for space cooling has grown significantly. In January of 1992, the minimum efficiency requirement for central air conditioning equipment was raised to 10 SEER. This efficiency level is likely to increase further under the auspices of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA). A new type of heat exchanger was developed for air conditioning equipment by Modine Manufacturing Company in the early 1990's. Despite significant advantages in terms of energy efficiency, dehumidification, durability, and refrigerant charge there has been little interest expressed by the air conditioning industry. A cooperative effort between Modine, various utilities, and several state energy offices has been organized to test and demonstrate the viability of this heat exchanger design throughout the nation. This paper will review the fundamentals of heat exchanger design and document this simple, yet novel technology. These experiences involving equipment retrofits have been documented with respect to the performance potential of air conditioning system constructed with PF{trademark} Heat Exchangers (generically referred to as microchannel heat exchangers) from both an energy efficiency as well as a comfort perspective. The paper will also detail the current plan to introduce 16 to 24 systems into an extended field test throughout the US which commenced in the Fall of 1997.

  10. The Facility for 500 MeV Plasma Wake-Field Acceleration Experiments at Budker INP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrenko, A. V.; Lotov, K. V.; Logatchov, P. V.; Burdakov, A. V.

    2010-11-04

    The experimental PWFA facility currently under construction at the Budker INP is described. The objective is to use electron and positron beams extracted from the VEPP-5 damping ring in PWFA experiments. Due to longitudinal beam compression many PWFA schemes including the efficient blowout regime as well as multibunch regime can be studied. The simulations of beam dynamics in the facility are presented. Also we propose a simple technique for longitudinal beam slicing using dipole kickers and collimator in the damping ring.

  11. Wake potentials and impedances for the ATA (Advanced Test Accelerator) induction cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig, G.D.

    1990-09-04

    The AMOS Wakefield Code is used to calculate the impedances of the induction cell used in the Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at Livermore. We present the wakefields and impedances for multipoles m = 0, 1 and 2. The ATA cell is calculated to have a maximum transverse impedance of approximately 1000 {Omega}/m at 875 MHz with a quality factor Q = 5. The sensitivity of the impedance spectra to modeling variations is discussed.

  12. Study of electron trapping by a transversely ellipsoidal bubble in the laser wake-field acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Myung-Hoon; Kim, Young-Kuk; Hur, Min Sup

    2013-09-15

    We present electron trapping in an ellipsoidal bubble which is not well explained by the spherical bubble model by [Kostyukov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 175003 (2009)]. The formation of an ellipsoidal bubble, which is elongated transversely, frequently occurs when the spot size of the laser pulse is large compared to the plasma wavelength. First, we introduce the relation between the bubble size and the field slope inside the bubble in longitudinal and transverse directions. Then, we provide an ellipsoidal model of the bubble potential and investigate the electron trapping condition by numerical integration of the equations of motion. We found that the ellipsoidal model gives a significantly less restrictive trapping condition than that of the spherical bubble model. The trapping condition is compared with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations and the electron trajectory in test potential simulations.

  13. Solar Decathlon Team Leading the Way Toward Sustainable Living, Even in the Wake of Disasters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For this year’s Solar Decathlon, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign is returning to the National Mall with the Re_home, which offers a more sustainable housing solution for communities following a natural disaster.

  14. Smart Companies "Wake up" Night Shift Workers Make More Mistakes & More

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Emerging Technologies » Small Business Portfolio Small Business Portfolio California-based Heliotrope is one of many small businesses that have been supported by the Energy Department’s SBIR’s program. | Heliotrope Technologies California-based Heliotrope is one of many small businesses that have been supported by the Energy Department's SBIR's program. | Heliotrope Technologies The federal government supports research at thousands of small innovative businesses through the Small

  15. --No Title--

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    VietNam 2004 5th Rencontres du Vietnam Particle Physics and Astrophysics Conference D. Schmitz Status of MiniBooNE...

  16. ASEAN-IEA Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Policiesdeployment programs, Technology characterizations Resource Type Workshop, Training materials Country Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines, Vietnam,...

  17. Red Sun Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Red Sun Energy Place: Long An Province, Vietnam Product: A Vietnam-based PV module manufacturer References: Red Sun Energy1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  18. Regional nonprofits receive sizeable monetary boost

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    deserved as a result of that war's widespread unpopularity at the time. "A lot of New Mexicans served in Vietnam," Hopwood noted. "The very first soldier who fell in Vietnam, Turk...

  19. Investigating the Influence of the Added Mass Effect to Marine Hydrokinetic Horizontal-Axis Turbines Using a General Dynamic Wake Wind Turbine Code: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maniaci, D. C.; Li, Y.

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes a recent study to investigate the applicability of a horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) structural dynamics and unsteady aerodynamics analysis program (FAST and AeroDyn respectively) to modeling the forces on marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines. It summarizes the added mass model that has been added to AeroDyn. The added mass model only includes flow acceleration perpendicular to the rotor disc, and ignores added mass forces caused by blade deflection. A model of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment (UAE) Phase VI wind turbine was analyzed using FAST and AeroDyn with sea water conditions and the new added mass model. The results of this analysis exhibited a 3.6% change in thrust for a rapid pitch case and a slight change in amplitude and phase of thrust for a case with 30 degrees of yaw.

  20. Investigating the Influence of the Added Mass Effect to Marine Hydrokinetic Horizontal-Axis Turbines Using a General Dynamic Wake Wind Turbine Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maniaci, D. C.; Li, Y.

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes a recent study to investigate the applicability of a horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) structural dynamics and unsteady aerodynamics analysis program (FAST and AeroDyn respectively) to modeling the forces on marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines. This paper summarizes the added mass model that has been added to AeroDyn. The added mass model only includes flow acceleration perpendicular to the rotor disc, and ignores added mass forces caused by blade deflection. A model of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment (UAE) Phase VI wind turbine was analyzed using FAST and AeroDyn with sea water conditions and the new added mass model. The results of this analysis exhibited a 3.6% change in thrust for a rapid pitch case and a slight change in amplitude and phase of thrust for a case with 30{sup o} of yaw.

  1. UNEP-Risoe-Economics of GHG Limitations: Country Study Series...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Limitations1 Country study series: Argentina, Ecuador, Estonia, Hungary, Indonesia, Mauritius, Senegal, Vietnam Parallel country studies: Botswana, Tanzania, Zambia...

  2. Asian Development Outlook 2010 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, China, South Korea, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Laos, Vietnam,...

  3. Sandia Energy Wind Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ss-voucher-pilot-opensfeed 0 Sandia Wake-Imaging System Successfully Deployed at Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility http:energy.sandia.govsandia-wake-imaging-system-successf...

  4. Sandia Energy Wind News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Wake-Imaging System Successfully Deployed at Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility http:energy.sandia.govsandia-wake-imaging-system-successfully-deployed-at-scaled-wind-fa...

  5. Comments on: SWiFT Facility Prepared for More-Efficient Operations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    swift-facility-prepared-for-more-efficient-operations-advanced-turbine-turbine-wake-interaction-control-research...

  6. Viet Nam Rural Electrification | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rural Electrification Location of project Vietnam Energy Services Lighting, Cooking and water heating, Space heating, Cooling Year initiated 2009 Organization Asian Development...

  7. Chile-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kenya, Mexico, South Africa, Thailand and Vietnam), to share practices on setting national greenhouse gas emissions baseline scenarios. The aim of the workstream is to...

  8. Medal of Honor recipient Colonel Bruce Crandall visits Y-12 ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the 2014 Medal of Honor Convention. Awarded the nation's highest award for military valor, Crandall flew more than 900 combat missions during the Vietnam War. His bravery in...

  9. Eligibility | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The EERE Postdoctoral Research Awards are offered without regard to race, color, age, religion, sex, national origin, physical or mental disability, or status as a Vietnam-era ...

  10. File:NREL-asia-tilt.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Countries Bhutan, China, Nepal, Mongolia, India, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Bangladesh UN Region Southern Asia, Eastern Asia,...

  11. File:NREL-asia-dir.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Countries Bhutan, China, Nepal, Mongolia, India, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Bangladesh UN Region Southern Asia, Eastern Asia,...

  12. File:NREL-asia-glo.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Countries Bhutan, China, Nepal, Mongolia, India, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Bangladesh UN Region Southern Asia, Eastern Asia,...

  13. Development of Sea Level Rise Scenarios for Climate Change Assessments...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sea Level Rise Scenarios for Climate Change Assessments of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Development of Sea Level Rise...

  14. LEDSGP/about | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Democratic Republic of Congo Department of Science, Education, Natural Resources & Environment, Ministry of Planning and Investment of Vietnam European Commission German Agency...

  15. Analysis of Technology Transfer in CDM Projects | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    countries, including Bolivia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam and significantly lower...

  16. Nonproliferation | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    dispose of dangerous nuclear and radiological material, and detect and control the proliferation of related WMD technology and expertise. Vietnam Removal Working in close...

  17. UNEP-Risoe-Economics of GHG Limitations: Country Study Series...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Econo References Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations1 Country study series: Argentina, Ecuador, Estonia, Hungary, Indonesia, Mauritius, Senegal, Vietnam Parallel country...

  18. Secretary Chu Thanks Utility Staff and Line Workers For Their...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in the Wake of Hurricane Sandy Secretary Chu Thanks Utility Staff and Line Workers For Their Efforts to Restore Power in the Wake of Hurricane Sandy November 2, 2012 - 11:32am ...

  19. Plasma Wakefield Acceleration: How it Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-11-05

    This animation explains how electrons can be efficiently accelerated to high energy using wakes created in a plasma.

  20. Design, Integration, Communication and Construction Engineering 2

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    1, 2016 QUESTIONS SUBMITTED BY DICCE2 INDUSTRY DAY ATTENDEES on 9/23/15 1. The sample task is Vietnam. Is either of the incumbent contractor's currently working there? Conflict? a. The Vietnam project is not a sample task, it is a real project that will be awarded as a Task Order. Neither incumbents are currently working in Vietnam under any NSDD contract. 2. If required to go to a High Risk site, will security and life support be a contractor responsibility? a. Each contractor makes a safety

  1. Design, Integration, Communication and Construction Engineering 2

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    8, 2016 QUESTIONS SUBMITTED AFTER DICCE2 REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL RELEASE DATE OF 2/1/2016 1. Section L Attachment L-7a Vietnam Statement of Work. Does each lane already have adequate electric to power proposed RPM equipment? If not which building should power be routed from? a. Response: This information is contained in the Vietnam Design Requirements Document, specifically section 3.1.4. 2. Section L Attachment L-7a Vietnam Statement of Work. Does each lane where the RPM units are being installed

  2. armed forces

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    organization that takes World War II, Korean War and Vietnam War veterans to the U.S. capital to see the memorials built in their honor at zero cost to the veteran.

  3. veterans

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    organization that takes World War II, Korean War and Vietnam War veterans to the U.S. capital to see the memorials built in their honor at zero cost to the veteran.

  4. Energy and Defense Departments Announce New Steps to Enhance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    "The steady march of technology has created a voracious appetite for energy. A Marine platoon in Vietnam took 2 or 3 radios on patrol, now a squad in Afghanistan takes over 10. On ...

  5. Y-12s Training and Technology ? TAT and John Ray

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFB in North Carolina. He completed a tour of Vietnam during the war and a tour of Turkey, earning a bronze medal and the distinguished flying cross. During both tours we lived...

  6. Patricia Hagerty, Aviation Program Analyst

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    United States. Pat has two bachelor's degrees from the University of Montana; she is a certified general aviation private pilot and a Vietnam Era Veteran of the U.S. Coast Guard.

  7. NREL: Technology Deployment - Success Stories from Developing Countries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Demonstrate Impacts of Low Emission Development Strategies Success Stories from Developing Countries Demonstrate Impacts of Low Emission Development Strategies News EC-LEDS Highlights Renewable Energy Resource Data at COP21 Vietnam Makes Strides to Lower Emissions Thru Green Building Code, High-Performance Buildings Colombia Makes Major Strides in Low Emission Development Payments for Forest Environmental Services in Vietnam Preserves Forests, Engages Communities Presidential Engagement on

  8. Attachment L-7a U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AM52-08NAXXXXX Task Order No: DT000XXXX Statement of Work August 7, 2015 Task Order Title: Design, Integration, Construction, Communications, and Engineering (DICCE) Services for Port of Cat Lai, Vietnam. Scope: The Contractor shall design, construct, and integrate fully functional portal monitor and communications systems at designated sites in Vietnam.  Port of Cat Lai Requirements Documents: The following task order requirements describe key milestones and deliverables. For a more complete

  9. Attachment L-7c

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    c [Type here] VIETNAM MOBILIZATION PLAN DE-SOL-0008449 1.0 INTRODUCTION Based on the information presented below, the Statement of Work requirements relating to in- country deployments, and the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) provided in Table 1, the Offeror shall develop a mobilization plan that describes its approach to a comprehensive Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence (NSDD) deployment involving Port of Cat Lai seaport in Vietnam. 2.0 REQUIREMENTS The Offeror shall provide a plan for

  10. DE-SOL-0008449 Attachment L-7c

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    DE-SOL-0008449 Attachment L-7c [Type here] VIETNAM MOBILIZATION PLAN DE-SOL-0008449 1.0 INTRODUCTION Based on the information presented below, the Statement of Work requirements relating to in- country deployments, and the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) provided in Table 1, the Offeror shall develop a mobilization plan that describes its approach to a comprehensive Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence (NSDD) deployment involving Port of Cat Lai seaport in Vietnam. 2.0 REQUIREMENTS The

  11. TASK ORDER

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NA0000XXX Task Order No: DE-DT000XXXX Statement of Work August 7, 2015 Task Order Title: Design, Integration, Construction, Communications, and Engineering (DICCE) Services for Port of Cat Lai, Vietnam. Scope: The Contractor shall design, construct, and integrate fully functional portal monitor and communications systems at designated sites in Vietnam. * Port of Cat Lai Requirements Documents: The following task order requirements describe key milestones and deliverables. For a more complete

  12. Improved input and output couplers for SC acceleration structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solyak, N.; Gonin, I.; Latina, A.; Lunin, A.; Poloubotko, V.; Yakovlev, V.; /Fermilab

    2009-04-01

    Different couplers are described that allow the reduction of both transverse wake potential and RF kick in the SC acceleration structure of ILC. A simple rotation of the couplers reducing the RF kick and transverse wake kick is discussed for both the main linac and bunch compressors, along with possible limitations of this method. Designs of a coupler unit are presented which preserve axial symmetry of the structure, and provide reduced both the RF kick and transverse wake field.

  13. Central Activator Keeps the Circadian Clock Ticking

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    addiction, and other health issues. Current treatment often focuses on resetting the wake-sleep cycle using behavior therapy, bright light therapy, and chronotherapy. The new model...

  14. Office of Chief Financial Officer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Systematic validation data of turbine wake interaction ... requirements, including changing instruments on all DOE ... In FY 2016, the subprogram will fund education and outreach ...

  15. Precise Calculation of Traveling-Wave Periodic Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, L.; Li, Z.; Seryi, A.; /SLAC

    2007-07-06

    The effects of the round edge beam hole on the frequency and wake field are studied using variational method, which allows for rounded iris disk hole without any approximation in shape treatment. The frequency and wake field of accelerating mode and dipole mode are studied for different edge radius cases, including the flat edge shape that is often used to approximately represent the actual structure geometry. The edge hole shape has weak effect on the frequency, but much effect on the wake field. Our study shows that the amounts of wake fields are not precise enough with the assumption of the flat edge beam hole instead of round edge.

  16. Fermilab | Newsroom | Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National laboratories offer computing time to Japanese physicists in wake of earthquake Fermilab theoretical physicist Paul Mackenzie, spokesperson for the USQCD...

  17. Press Pass - Press Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2311 National laboratories offer computing time to Japanese physicists in wake of earthquake 032311 Fermilab hosts STEM Career Expo for high school students April 13: A chance...

  18. Microsoft Word - 2014 Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility Overview...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... shapes and frequencies exactly during the reduction process. ... wake with a strong tip vortex, to a disorganized highly ... Using the above described tools, new technologies can be ...

  19. Bowie County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Texas De Kalb, Texas Hooks, Texas Leary, Texas Maud, Texas Nash, Texas New Boston, Texas Red Lick, Texas Redwater, Texas Texarkana, Texas Wake Village, Texas Retrieved from "http:...

  20. Sandia Energy Technical Highlights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    +0000 http:energy.sandia.gov?p34801 http:energy.sandia.govsandia-wake-imaging-system-successfully-deployed-at-scaled-wind-farm-technology-facilityfeed 0 Sandia...

  1. Saluting Daniel Poneman's Service to the Department of Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... and response capabilities, leading the Department's efforts in the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi disaster in 2011, as well as during and after Hurricane Sandy in 2012. In ...

  2. Numerical investigation of electron self-injection in the nonlinear bubble regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benedetti, C.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.; Rossi, F.

    2013-10-15

    The process of electron self-injection in the nonlinear bubble wake generated by a short and intense laser pulse propagating in a uniform underdense plasma is studied by means of fully self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations and test-particle simulations. We consider a wake generated by a non-evolving laser driver traveling with a prescribed velocity, which then sets the structure and the velocity of the wake, so the injection dynamics is decoupled from driver evolution, but a realistic structure for the wakefield is retained. We show that a threshold for self-injection into a non-evolving bubble wake exists, and we characterize the dependence of the self-injection threshold on laser intensity, wake velocity, and plasma temperature for a range of parameters of interest for current and future laser-plasma accelerators.

  3. Analyzing Effects of Turbulence on Power Generation Using Wind Plant Monitoring Data: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.; Chowdhury, S.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a methodology is developed to analyze how ambient and wake turbulence affects the power generation of a single wind turbine within an array of turbines. Using monitoring data from a wind power plant, we selected two sets of wind and power data for turbines on the edge of the wind plant that resemble (i) an out-of-wake scenario (i.e., when the turbine directly faces incoming winds) and (ii) an in-wake scenario (i.e., when the turbine is under the wake of other turbines). For each set of data, two surrogate models were then developed to represent the turbine power generation (i) as a function of the wind speed; and (ii) as a function of the wind speed and turbulence intensity. Support vector regression was adopted for the development of the surrogate models. Three types of uncertainties in the turbine power generation were also investigated: (i) the uncertainty in power generation with respect to the published/reported power curve, (ii) the uncertainty in power generation with respect to the estimated power response that accounts for only mean wind speed; and (iii) the uncertainty in power generation with respect to the estimated power response that accounts for both mean wind speed and turbulence intensity. Results show that (i) under the same wind conditions, the turbine generates different power between the in-wake and out-of-wake scenarios, (ii) a turbine generally produces more power under the in-wake scenario than under the out-of-wake scenario, (iii) the power generation is sensitive to turbulence intensity even when the wind speed is greater than the turbine rated speed, and (iv) there is relatively more uncertainty in the power generation under the in-wake scenario than under the out-of-wake scenario.

  4. Secretary Chu Thanks Utility Staff and Line Workers For Their Efforts to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Restore Power in the Wake of Hurricane Sandy | Department of Energy Thanks Utility Staff and Line Workers For Their Efforts to Restore Power in the Wake of Hurricane Sandy Secretary Chu Thanks Utility Staff and Line Workers For Their Efforts to Restore Power in the Wake of Hurricane Sandy November 2, 2012 - 11:32am Addthis Secretary Chu meets with Pepco line workers in Maryland on November 1, 2012. | Photo by Sarah Gerrity Secretary Chu meets with Pepco line workers in Maryland on November

  5. Combined Final Technical Report 04ER86191 H2Cryo.pdf

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... are not needed at low energy where space-charge, wake fields, and beam loading are problematic. Once the beam has been coalesced into a few high intensity bunches, recirculating ...

  6. SWiFT Facility Prepared for More-Efficient Operations & Advanced...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Prepared for More-Efficient Operations & Advanced Turbine-Turbine Wake-Interaction-Control ... Twitter Google + Vimeo GovDelivery SlideShare SWiFT Facility Prepared for More-Efficient ...

  7. CSR in the SuperKEKB Damping Ring (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    From the impedances due to CSR, resistive wall and various vacuum components, quasi-Green function wake potentials were constructed and used in simulations of Particle-In-Cell (PIC...

  8. Testimony of David L. Goodin President and CEO, MDU Resources...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Several pilot projects are under construction, but have not ... have grown considerably in the wake of the current oil boom. ... new 24-mile natural gas pipeline to serve the generation ...

  9. DOE's NREL and LLNL team with NOAA and University of Colorado to Study Wind Inflow Conditions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To gain new insights into turbine wind wakes, the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Program and the Renewable and Sustainable Energy Institute (RASEI) joined together to fund a high-tech study in April and May of 2011.

  10. Near-surface Density Currents Observed in the Southeast Pacific...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The similarity in speeds allows drizzle cells to deposit tails in their wakes. Based on high-resolution scanning Doppler lidar data, prefrontal updrafts had a mean intensity of ...

  11. CREATING THE NORTHEAST GASOLINE SUPPLY RESERVE | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    diesel, which was used for the first time by first-responders and to fill emergency generators in the wake of Superstorm Sandy. Beyond the Northeast, the Energy Department is not...

  12. Secretary Steven Chu's Remarks as Prepared for Delivery at the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Normally, commencement speakers are like a corpse at an Irish wake: we are needed for the ... To this message, I add an ancient Native American saying: "Treat the earth well: it was ...

  13. Sandia Energy Sensing & Monitoring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SWiFT Facility Prepared for More-Efficient Operations & Advanced Turbine-Turbine Wake-Interaction-Control Research http:energy.sandia.govswift-facility-prepared-for-more-efficie...

  14. Sandia Energy Sensing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SWiFT Facility Prepared for More-Efficient Operations & Advanced Turbine-Turbine Wake-Interaction-Control Research http:energy.sandia.govswift-facility-prepared-for-more-efficie...

  15. ARM - Feature Stories and Releases Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to help them understand why the rain in the Great Plains falls mainly in the dark. Their marathon of wakefulness is called PECAN, the Plains Elevated Convection at Night field...

  16. ABB Inc. Video (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Narrator: Estonia's capitol is Tallinn. Every morning 400,000 people wake here and go to work. The country is steeped in history and tradition, yet Estonians have long recognized the benefit of...

  17. Happy Thanksgiving

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here at the Energy Blog, we're anticipating stuffing our faces with tasty food, succumbing to the unavoidable post-meal slumber and waking up the next day to munch on leftovers.

  18. DOE's NREL and LLNL team with NOAA and University of Colorado...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    To gain new insights into turbine wind wakes, the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Program ... Related Articles New Modeling Tool Analyzes Floating Platform Concepts 5-MW Dynamometer ...

  19. NREL Studies Wind Farm Aerodynamics to Improve Siting (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    NREL researchers have used high-tech instruments and high-performance computing to understand atmospheric turbulence and turbine wake behavior in order to improve wind turbine design and siting within wind farms.

  20. Green Functions for the Radial Electric Component of the Monopole...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Green Functions for the Radial Electric Component of the Monopole Wake Field in a Round Resistive Chamber Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Green Functions for the Radial...

  1. CX-007561: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A High Performance Computing "Cyber Wind Facility" Incorporating Fully-Coupled CFDCSD for Turbine-Platform-Wake Interactions with the Atmosphere and Ocean CX(s) Applied: A9, A11 ...

  2. Sandia Energy - Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations Provide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from a VWiS large-eddy simulation. One of the primary roles of Sandia's Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility will be to conduct detailed experiments on turbine wakes and...

  3. Microsoft Word - OUTLOOK_SNV_Dec09 edit dec 13 by mary.docx

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... However, oil-price shocks, first during the Arab oil embargo of 1973 and a subsequent decline in imports from the Middle East following the wake of the Iranian revolution in 1979, ...

  4. Tuesday Webcast for Industry: Establishing and Maintaining a...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Some of the "tools" such as off balance sheet fnancing have been greatly constrained by regulation and general aversion in the wake of the WorldCom and Enron scandals that made use ...

  5. OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Informatio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NREL Topic Wind Power Research Excitement by Kathy Chambers 06 Aug, 2012 in Science Communications 3D model of wind plant aerodynamics that shows low velocity wakes and the result ...

  6. OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Informatio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Wind Power Topic Wind Power Research Excitement by Kathy Chambers 06 Aug, 2012 in Science Communications 3D model of wind plant aerodynamics that shows low velocity wakes and the ...

  7. National Rotor Testbed Targets Future Wind Plant Research Needs...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Electrons (A2e) initiative has identified the evolution of wakes in turbulent inflow as a key physical process affecting power production and turbine loads in wind farms. ...

  8. Modeling & Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Model Helps Researchers Plan for Wake Steering Experiment at SWiFT Facilities, Modeling, Modeling, Modeling & Analysis, Modeling & Analysis, Renewable Energy, Research & Capabilities, Wind Energy, Wind News Virtual LIDAR Model Helps Researchers Plan for Wake Steering Experiment at SWiFT A team of researchers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are planning a critical experiment at Sandia's Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT)

  9. Modeling & Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    model helps researchers plan for the Wake Steering Experiment at SWiFT Modeling & Analysis, News, Renewable Energy, Research & Capabilities, SWIFT, Videos, Wind Energy, Wind News Virtual LIDAR model helps researchers plan for the Wake Steering Experiment at SWiFT A team of researchers at Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are planning a critical experiment at Sandia's Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) Facility to investigate the use of wind

  10. NREL Studies Wind Farm Aerodynamics to Improve Siting (Fact Sheet), Innovation Impact: Wind, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Studies Wind Farm Aerodynamics to Improve Siting NREL researchers are using advanced remote sensing instruments and high- performance computing to understand atmospheric turbulence and turbine wake behavior-a key to improving wind turbine design and siting within wind farms. As turbines and wind farms grow in size, they create bigger wakes and present more complex challenges to wind turbine and wind farm designers and operators. NREL researchers have confirmed through both observation and

  11. The Department of Energy Joins America's PrepareAthon! | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy America's PrepareAthon! The Department of Energy Joins America's PrepareAthon! April 30, 2014 - 5:00am Addthis Damaged power lines in New Jersey after Hurricane Sandy Damaged power lines in New Jersey after Hurricane Sandy Deputy Assistant Secretary for Infrastructure Security & Energy Restoration Bill Bryan speaks with FEMA in the wake of Hurricane Sandy Deputy Assistant Secretary for Infrastructure Security & Energy Restoration Bill Bryan speaks with FEMA in the wake of

  12. Bow Wave from Ultraintense Electromagnetic Pulses in Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kato, Y.

    2008-12-31

    We show a new effect of the bow-wave excitation by an intense short laser pulse propagating in underdense plasma. Because of spreading of the laser pulse energy in transverse direction, the bow wave causes a large-scale transverse modulation of the electron density. This can significantly increase the electric potential of the wake wave since the wake wave is generated in the region much wider than the laser pulse waist.

  13. SWiFT Facility Prepared for More-Efficient Operations & Advanced

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turbine-Turbine Wake-Interaction-Control Research Prepared for More-Efficient Operations & Advanced Turbine-Turbine Wake-Interaction-Control Research - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy

  14. Sandia Is Developing a Doppler Global Velocimetry System to Understand

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fundamental Wind-Turbine Wake Phenomena Is Developing a Doppler Global Velocimetry System to Understand Fundamental Wind-Turbine Wake Phenomena - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage

  15. Women @ Energy: Julie Ezold

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "I always tell high schoolers and college students to find something that excites you; for you will spend more of your waking hours at your job then you will outside of it. It should be everyone’s goal to find a career such that when you wake up and the morning you are looking forward to going into to work." Read more from Julie on her profile here.

  16. Mineral industries of Australia, Canada, and Oceania (including a discussion of Antarctica's mineral resources). Mineral perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimbell, C.L.; Lyday, T.Q.; Newman, H.H.

    1985-12-01

    The Bureau of Mines report gives the mineral industry highlights of two of the world's major mineral producing countries, Australia and Canada, and seven Pacific island nations or territories--Fiji, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Republic of Nauru, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. The mineral resources of Antarctica are also discussed. Because of the size of the Australian and Canadian mineral industries, summary reviews are presented for each of the States, Provinces, or Territories. The most current information available from all nations is given on major minerals or mineral-commodity production, share of world production, and reserves. Reported also are significant mining companies, locations and capacities of their main facilities, and their share of domestic production. Other information is provided on mineral-related trade with the United States, government mineral policy, energy production-consumption and trade, the mining industry labor force, and prospects for the mineral industry. Maps show the locations of selected mineral deposits, oilfields and gasfields, mines, and processing facilities including iron and steel plants, nonferrous smelters and refineries, and cement plants, as well as infrastructure pertinent to the mineral industry.

  17. Single bunch transverse instability in a circular accelerator with chromaticity and space charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balbekov, V.

    2015-10-21

    The transverse instability of a bunch in a circular accelerator is elaborated in this paper. A new tree-modes model is proposed and developed to describe the most unstable modes of the bunch. This simple and flexible model includes chromaticity and space charge, and can be used with any bunch and wake forms. The dispersion equation for the bunch eigentunes is obtained in form of a third-order algebraic equation. The known head-tail and TMCI modes appear as the limiting cases which are distinctly bounded at zero chromaticity only. It is shown that the instability parameters depend only slightly on the bunch model but they are rather sensitive to the wake shape. In particular, space charge effects are investigated in the paper and it is shown that their influence depends on sign of wake field enhancing the bunch stability if the wake is negative. In addition, the resistive wall wake is considered in detail including a comparison of single and collective effects. A comparison of the results with earlier publications is carried out.

  18. Single bunch transverse instability in a circular accelerator with chromaticity and space charge

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Balbekov, V.

    2015-10-21

    The transverse instability of a bunch in a circular accelerator is elaborated in this paper. A new tree-modes model is proposed and developed to describe the most unstable modes of the bunch. This simple and flexible model includes chromaticity and space charge, and can be used with any bunch and wake forms. The dispersion equation for the bunch eigentunes is obtained in form of a third-order algebraic equation. The known head-tail and TMCI modes appear as the limiting cases which are distinctly bounded at zero chromaticity only. It is shown that the instability parameters depend only slightly on the bunchmore » model but they are rather sensitive to the wake shape. In particular, space charge effects are investigated in the paper and it is shown that their influence depends on sign of wake field enhancing the bunch stability if the wake is negative. In addition, the resistive wall wake is considered in detail including a comparison of single and collective effects. A comparison of the results with earlier publications is carried out.« less

  19. NREL: International Activities - Bilateral Partnerships

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Printable Version Bilateral Partnerships NREL partners with more than 50 countries around the world to advance development and use of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies: Angola Argentina Australia Bangladesh Brazil Canada Chile China Colombia Costa Rica Gabon Haiti India Indonesia Japan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea Mexico North America Philippines Saudi Arabia U.S. Pacific Territories United Arab Emirates Vietnam Asia Bangladesh Under sponsorship from the U.S. Agency for International

  20. SREL Reprint #3149

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Nesting Behavior of the Red-necked Pond Turtle (Mauremys [Chinemys] nigricans) in Captivity Andrew M. Grosse, Kurt A. Buhlmann, and Cris Hagen University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Building 737-A, Drawer E, Aiken, South Carolina 29802 Abstract: The Red-necked Pond Turtle (Mauremys [Chinemys] nigricans) is a small, semi-aquatic turtle known to occur in southern China (Guangdong Province) and perhaps in extreme northern Vietnam (Bonin et al., 2006; Fig. 1). This species is

  1. Meeting today's challenges to supply tomorrow's energy. Clean fossil energy technical and policy seminar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-07-01

    Papers discussed the coal policy of China, Russia, Indonesia and Vietnam; clean coal technology (small-scale coal power plants, carbon capture and sequestration, new coking process SCOPE21, coal gasification (HyPr-RING), CO{sub 2} reduction technology, Supercritical coal-fired units and CFB boilers, EAGLE project, coal liquefaction), the coal consumer's view of clean fossil energy policy, and natural gas policy and technology. Some of the papers only consist of the presentation overheads/viewgraphs.

  2. Voluntary Self-Identification of Veterans

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Voluntary Self-Identification of Veterans This employer is a Government contractor subject to the Vietnam Era Veterans' Readjustment Assistance Act of 1974, as amended by the Jobs for Veterans Act of 2002, 38 U.S.C. 4212 (VEVRAA), which requires Government contractors to take affirmative action to employ and advance in employment: (1) disabled veterans; (2) recently separated veterans; (3) active duty wartime or campaign badge veterans; and (4) Armed Forces service medal veterans. These

  3. Longitudinal Beam Stability in the SUPER B-FACTORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novokhatski, A.; Zobov, M.; /Frascati

    2009-07-06

    We give an overview of wake fields and impedances in a proposed Super B project, which is based on extremely low emittance beams colliding at a large angle with a crab waist transformation. Understanding the effects that wake fields have on the beam is critical for a successful machine operation. We use our combined experience from the operation of the SLAC B-factory and DA{Phi}NE {Phi}-factory to eliminate strong HOM sources and minimize the chamber impedance in the Super B design. Based on a detailed study of the wake fields in this design we have developed a quasi-Green's function for the entire ring that is used to study bunch lengthening and beam stability. In particular, we check the stability threshold using numerical solutions of the Fokker-Plank equation. We also make a comparison of numerical simulations with the bunch lengthening data in the B- factory.

  4. Dynamics of positive probes in underdense, strongly magnetized, E×B drifting plasma: Particle-in-cell simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinrich, Jonathon R.; Cooke, David L.

    2013-09-15

    Electron trapping, electron heating, space-charge wings, wake eddies, and current collection by a positive probe in E×B drifting plasma were studied in three-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations. In these simulations, electrons and ions were magnetized with respect to the probe and the plasma was underdense (ω{sub pe}<ω{sub ce}). A large drift velocity (Mach 4.5 with respect to the ion acoustic speed) between the plasma and probe was created with background electric and magnetic fields. Four distinct regions developed in the presences of the positive probe: a quasi-trapped electron region, an electron-depletion wing, an ion-rich wing, and a wake region. We report on the observations of strong electron heating mechanisms, space-charge wings, ion cyclotron charge-density eddies in the wake, electron acceleration due to a magnetic presheath, and the current-voltage relationship.

  5. Stopping power: Effect of the projectile deceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kompaneets, Roman Ivlev, Alexei V.; Morfill, Gregor E.

    2014-11-15

    The stopping force is the force exerted on the projectile by its wake. Since the wake does not instantly adjust to the projectile velocity, the stopping force should be affected by the projectile deceleration caused by the stopping force itself. We address this effect by deriving the corresponding correction to the stopping force in the cold plasma approximation. By using the derived expression, we estimate that if the projectile is an ion passing through an electron-proton plasma, the correction is small when the stopping force is due to the plasma electrons, but can be significant when the stopping force is due to the protons.

  6. Measurement of velocity deficit at the downstream of a 1:10 axial hydrokinetic turbine model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunawan, Budi; Neary, Vincent S; Hill, Craig; Chamorro, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Wake recovery constrains the downstream spacing and density of turbines that can be deployed in turbine farms and limits the amount of energy that can be produced at a hydrokinetic energy site. This study investigates the wake recovery at the downstream of a 1:10 axial flow turbine model using a pulse-to-pulse coherent Acoustic Doppler Profiler (ADP). In addition, turbine inflow and outflow velocities were measured for calculating the thrust on the turbine. The result shows that the depth-averaged longitudinal velocity recovers to 97% of the inflow velocity at 35 turbine diameter (D) downstream of the turbine.

  7. Preliminary analysis of the audible noise of constant-speed, horizontal-axis wind-turbine generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keast, D. N.; Potter, R. C.

    1980-07-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed for calculating certain aerodynamic sound levels produced by large, horizontal-axis wind-turbine generators (WTG's) such as the DOE/NASA Mods-0, -0A, -1, and -2. This preliminary procedure is based upon very limited field data from the Mod-0. It postulates a noise component due to the (constant) rotation of the blades of the WTG, plus a wake-noise component that increases with the square of the power produced by the WTG. Mechanical sound from machinery, and low-frequency impulsive sounds produced by blade interaction with the wake of the support tower are not considered.

  8. Cyclone-cyclone Interactions through the Ocean Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Taraphdar, Sourav; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Foltz, Gregory R.; Knaff, John A.

    2014-10-16

    The intense SST (Sea Surface Temperature) cooling caused by hurricane-induced mixing is restored at timescales on the order of weeks(1) and thus may persist long enough to influence a later hurricane passing over it. Though many studies have evaluated the effects of SST cool-ing induced by a hurricane on its own intensification(2, 3), none has looked at its effect on later storms. Using an analysis of observations and numerical model simulations, we demonstrate that hurricanes may influence the intensity of later hurricanes that pass over their linger-ing wakes. On average, when hurricanes encounter cold wakes, they experience SSTs that are ~0.4oC lower than when they do not encounter wakes and consequently decay(intensify) at a rate that is nearly three times faster(slower). In the region of warm SSTs (* 26.5oC) where the most intense and damaging hurricanes tend to occur, the percentage of hurricanes that encounter lingering cold wakes increases with hurricane frequency and was found to be as high as 40%. Furthermore, we estimate that the cumulative power dissipated(4) by the most energetic hurricanes has been reduced by as much as ~7% in a season through this effect. As the debate on changes in Atlantic hurricane activity associated with global warming(5) continues, the negative feedback between hurricane frequency and intensity resulting from hurricane-hurricane interactions through the ocean pathway deserves attention.

  9. Wind Turbine Modeling for Computational Fluid Dynamics: December 2010 - December 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tossas, L. A. M.; Leonardi, S.

    2013-07-01

    With the shortage of fossil fuel and the increasing environmental awareness, wind energy is becoming more and more important. As the market for wind energy grows, wind turbines and wind farms are becoming larger. Current utility-scale turbines extend a significant distance into the atmospheric boundary layer. Therefore, the interaction between the atmospheric boundary layer and the turbines and their wakes needs to be better understood. The turbulent wakes of upstream turbines affect the flow field of the turbines behind them, decreasing power production and increasing mechanical loading. With a better understanding of this type of flow, wind farm developers could plan better-performing, less maintenance-intensive wind farms. Simulating this flow using computational fluid dynamics is one important way to gain a better understanding of wind farm flows. In this study, we compare the performance of actuator disc and actuator line models in producing wind turbine wakes and the wake-turbine interaction between multiple turbines. We also examine parameters that affect the performance of these models, such as grid resolution, the use of a tip-loss correction, and the way in which the turbine force is projected onto the flow field.

  10. DOE-EDER international energy exercise March, 2009 event outline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toole, Loren G

    2009-01-01

    The goals are to test and explore the DOE National Labs ability to quickly map, characterize and analyze an event involving Mexico's energy infrastructure system in the wake of a major disruption of energy supplies from Mexico to the US. Focus on the economic impacts and system interdependencies as well as analysis related to restoration and recovery issues.

  11. NERC standards and standards compliance: still a work in progress?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyons, Cristin; Jacobi, Jere; Starkweather, Rick

    2008-04-15

    The August 2003 blackout served as a wake-up call to all of North America. Several years of detailed assessment and planning by transmission governing bodies have provided a method of systematically improving the integrity of the transmission grid, but processes are still evolving. (author)

  12. TTW 11-9-06

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9, 2006 WIPP Quick Facts (As of 11-8-06) 5,235 Shipments received since opening 43,621 Cubic meters of waste disposed 84,477 Containers disposed in the underground Veterans' Day November 11, 2006 The following comments are from just a sample of veterans that are part of the WIPP family. I'm a Vietnam Veteran...served at DaNang (1971-72) with the U.S. Air Force. Assigned to 366th Tactical Fighter Wing "The Gunfighters" (F- 4s). When I returned to the USA in December of '72, I recall a

  13. Media Advisory - Jefferson Lab 12 GeV Upgrade Groundbreaking Ceremony |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Administration Medal of Honor recipients honored at Y-12 Tuesday, September 16, 2014 - 4:32pm Medal of Honor recipients Herschel "Woody" Williams (USMC, WWII, Iwo Jima), Ron Rosser (US Army, Ponggilli, Korea) and Wesley Fox (USMC, Quang Tri, Vietnam) were welcomed by CNS President Jim Haynes (far left) and NNSA Production Office Manager Steve Erhart (far right) at the Medal of Honor Town Hall Forum held at Y-12's New Hope Center last week. The three recipients discussed their

  14. Medal of Honor recipients honored at Y-12 | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration Medal of Honor recipients honored at Y-12 Tuesday, September 16, 2014 - 4:32pm Medal of Honor recipients Herschel "Woody" Williams (USMC, WWII, Iwo Jima), Ron Rosser (US Army, Ponggilli, Korea) and Wesley Fox (USMC, Quang Tri, Vietnam) were welcomed by CNS President Jim Haynes (far left) and NNSA Production Office Manager Steve Erhart (far right) at the Medal of Honor Town Hall Forum held at Y-12's New Hope Center last week. The three recipients discussed their

  15. COLLECTIVE EFFECTS IN THE RHIC-II ELECTRON COOLER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    POZDEYEV,E.; BEN-ZVI, I.; FEDOTOV, A.; KAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.; WANG, G.

    2007-06-25

    Electron cooling at RHIC-I1 upgrade imposes strict requirements on the quality of the electron beam at the cooling section. Beam current dependent effects such as the space charge, wake fields, CSR in bending magnets, trapped ions, etc., will tend to spoil the beam quality and decrease the cooling efficiency. In this paper, we estimate the defocusing effect of the space charge at the cooling section and describe our plan to compensate the defocusing space charge force by focusing solenoids. We also estimate the energy and emittance growth cased by wake fields. Finally, we discuss ion trapping in the electron cooler and consider different techniques to minimize the effect of ion trapping.

  16. Cavity loss factors of non-relativistic beams for Project X

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunin, A.; Yakovlev, V.; Kazakov, S.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Cavity loss factor calculation is an important part of the total cryolosses estimation for the super conductive (SC) accelerating structures. There are two approaches how to calculate cavity loss factors, the integration of a wake potential over the bunch profile and the addition of loss factors for individual cavity modes. We applied both methods in order to get reliable results for non-relativistic beam. The time domain CST solver was used for a wake potential calculation and the frequency domain HFSS code was used for the cavity eigenmodes spectrum findings. Finally we present the results of cavity loss factors simulations for a non-relativistic part of the ProjectX and analyze it for various beam parameters.

  17. Beam loading in a laser-plasma accelerator using a near-hollow plasma channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, C. B.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2013-12-15

    Beam loading in laser-plasma accelerators using a near-hollow plasma channel is examined in the linear wake regime. It is shown that, by properly shaping and phasing the witness particle beam, high-gradient acceleration can be achieved with high-efficiency, and without induced energy spread or emittance growth. Both electron and positron beams can be accelerated in this plasma channel geometry. Matched propagation of electron beams can be achieved by the focusing force provided by the channel density. For positron beams, matched propagation can be achieved in a hollow plasma channel with external focusing. The efficiency of energy transfer from the wake to a witness beam is calculated for single ultra-short bunches and bunch trains.

  18. Beam Matching to a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Using a Ramped Density

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Profile at the Plasma Boundary (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Beam Matching to a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Using a Ramped Density Profile at the Plasma Boundary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Beam Matching to a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Using a Ramped Density Profile at the Plasma Boundary An important aspect of plasma wake field accelerators (PWFA) is stable propagation of the drive beam. In the under dense plasma regime, the drive beam creates an ion channel

  19. Energy Secretary Abraham Promotes Smart Energy Use in Tour of National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Renewable Energy Laboratory - News Releases | NREL Energy Secretary Abraham Promotes Smart Energy Use in Tour of National Renewable Energy Laboratory July 1, 2003 Golden, CO. - Touring the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory today, Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham encouraged Americans to use energy efficient technologies and practices in their homes and businesses in the wake of rising natural gas prices this year. Demand for natural gas is expected to rise by

  20. Jen Stutsman | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stutsman About Us Jen Stutsman - Press Secretary, Office of Public Affairs Jen Stutsman is the Press Secretary for the Department of Energy. Most Recent Secretary Chu Thanks Utility Staff and Line Workers For Their Efforts to Restore Power in the Wake of Hurricane Sandy November 2 Energy Department and Federal Efforts to Support Utility Power Restoration Efforts October 31 How the Smart Grid Helps Homeowners Reduce Their Energy Use August 9

  1. Intergranular Strain Evolution near Fatigue Crack Tips in Polycrystalline

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Metals (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Intergranular Strain Evolution near Fatigue Crack Tips in Polycrystalline Metals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Intergranular Strain Evolution near Fatigue Crack Tips in Polycrystalline Metals The deformation field near a steady fatigue crack includes a plastic zone in front of the crack tip and a plastic wake behind it, and the magnitude, distribution, and history of the residual strain along the crack path depend on the stress

  2. Visiting Speaker Program - January 12, 2009 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    January 12, 2009 Visiting Speaker Program - January 12, 2009 Panel Discussion The Status of the U.S. Industrial Base and What Can Be Done to Ensure Our Industrial Cabability Documents Available for Download PDF icon Event Slideshow PDF icon Companion Book PDF icon Status of a Key Enabling Technology - Presentation by Dr. Arthurs More Documents & Publications Manufacturing's Wake-Up Call CEMI Days Factsheet Prospects for U.S.-Based Manufacturing in the SSL Industry

  3. Beam On Target! - CEBAF Accelerator Achieves 12 GeV Commissioning Milestone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Profile at the Plasma Boundary (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Beam Matching to a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Using a Ramped Density Profile at the Plasma Boundary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Beam Matching to a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Using a Ramped Density Profile at the Plasma Boundary An important aspect of plasma wake field accelerators (PWFA) is stable propagation of the drive beam. In the under dense plasma regime, the drive beam creates an ion channel

  4. CX-100083: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NWTC-University of Colorado Unmanned Aerial Systems Wind Turbine Wakes and Radar Tracking Demonstration NREL Tracking No. 14-024 Award Number: DE-AC36-08GO28308 CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B3.2, B3.6 National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date: 10/07/2014 Location(s): Colorado Office(s): Golden Field Office

  5. EC Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interactions between turbulent open channel flow, power and the wake of an axial-flow marine turbineadmin2016-04-18T20:58:24+00:00 Popular Downloads Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems: Final Report of the Florida Solar Energy Center Team (10514 downloads) Modeling System Losses in PVsyst (8992 downloads) Numerical Manufacturing And Design Tool (NuMAD v2.0) for Wind Turbine Blades: User's Guide (7143 downloads) Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) Proactive Intelligent Advances for

  6. Coherent instabilities of a relativistic bunched beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, A.W.

    1982-06-01

    A charge-particle beam contained in an accelerator vacuum chamber interacts electromagnetically with its environment to create a wake field. This field than acts back on the beam, perturbing the particle motion. If the beam intensity is high enough, this beam-environment interaction may lead to an instability and to subsequent beam loss. The beam and its environment form a dynamical system, and it is this system that will be studied. 84 references.

  7. Accelerator physics and modeling: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parsa, Z.

    1991-12-31

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Physics of high brightness beams; radio frequency beam conditioner for fast-wave free-electron generators of coherent radiation; wake-field and space-charge effects on high brightness beams. Calculations and measured results for BNL-ATF; non-linear orbit theory and accelerator design; general problems of modeling for accelerators; development and application of dispersive soft ferrite models for time-domain simulation; and bunch lengthening in the SLC damping rings.

  8. Accelerator physics and modeling: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parsa, Z.

    1991-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Physics of high brightness beams; radio frequency beam conditioner for fast-wave free-electron generators of coherent radiation; wake-field and space-charge effects on high brightness beams. Calculations and measured results for BNL-ATF; non-linear orbit theory and accelerator design; general problems of modeling for accelerators; development and application of dispersive soft ferrite models for time-domain simulation; and bunch lengthening in the SLC damping rings.

  9. Discovery and Characterization of a Higgs boson using four-lepton events from the CMS experiment

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Discovery and Characterization of a Higgs boson using four-lepton events from the CMS experiment by Christopher B. Martin A dissertation submitted to The Johns Hopkins University in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Baltimore, Maryland July, 2015 © Christopher B. Martin 2015 All Rights Reserved Abstract A new particle decaying to a pair of vector bosons was discovered in 2012 by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider. In the wake of

  10. Adaptive Detached Eddy Simulation of a High Lift Wing with Active Flow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Control | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Vorticity contours colored by speed from a detached eddy simulation of flow around a high lift multi-element wing at maximum lift Vorticity contours colored by speed from a detached eddy simulation of flow around a high lift multi-element wing at maximum lift. Slat, flap and complex supporting structures (right sub figures) that create complex vorticity wakes are resolved in the adaptive, unstructured grid simulation (third subfigure is zoom on

  11. Impedance simulation for LEReC booster cavity transformed from ERL gun cavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Chuyu

    2015-11-24

    Wake impedance induced energy spread is a concern for the low energy cooling electron beam. The impedance simulation of the booster cavity for the LEReC projection is presented in this report. The simulation is done for both non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic cases. The space charge impedance in the first case is discussed. For impedance budget consideration of the electron machine, only simulation of the geometrical impedance in the latter case is necessary since space charge is considered separately.

  12. Post-reform continuation of social goals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graniere, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Public utility regulators are currently wrestling with the issue of how and to what extent the social goals that have grown up around traditional regulation might be continued in a restructured electric power industry. This report critically examines six mechanisms that could be used for this purpose in the wake of the introduction of competition in the generation segment. Their pros and cons are thoroughly appraised in economic terms.

  13. Reinforced ceramics employing discontinuous phases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becher, P.F.

    1990-01-01

    The fracture toughness of ceramics can be improved by the incorporation of a variety of discontinuous reinforcing phases and microstructures. Observations of crack paths in these systems indicate that these reinforcing phases bridge the crack tip wake region. Recent developments in micromechanics toughening models applicable to such systems are discussed and compared with experimental observations. Because material parameters and microstructural characteristics are considered, the crack bridging models provide a means to optimize the toughening effects. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Vortices catapult droplets in atomization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerome, J. John Soundar Zaleski, Stphane; Hoepffner, Jrme; Marty, Sylvain; Matas, Jean-Philippe

    2013-11-15

    A droplet ejection mechanism in planar two-phase mixing layers is examined. Any disturbance on the gas-liquid interface grows into a Kelvin-Helmholtz wave, and the wave crest forms a thin liquid film that flaps as the wave grows downstream. Increasing the gas speed, it is observed that the film breaks up into droplets which are eventually thrown into the gas stream at large angles. In a flow where most of the momentum is in the horizontal direction, it is surprising to observe these large ejection angles. Our experiments and simulations show that a recirculation region grows downstream of the wave and leads to vortex shedding similar to the wake of a backward-facing step. The ejection mechanism results from the interaction between the liquid film and the vortex shedding sequence: a recirculation zone appears in the wake of the wave and a liquid film emerges from the wave crest; the recirculation region detaches into a vortex and the gas flow over the wave momentarily reattaches due to the departure of the vortex; this reattached flow pushes the liquid film down; by now, a new recirculation vortex is being created in the wake of the wavejust where the liquid film is now located; the liquid film is blown up from below by the newly formed recirculation vortex in a manner similar to a bag-breakup event; the resulting droplets are catapulted by the recirculation vortex.

  15. HGSYSTEMUF6. Model for Simulating Dispersion due to Atmospheric Release of UF6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanna, G; Chang, J.C.; Zhang, J.X.; Bloom, S.G.; Goode, W.D. Jr; Lombardi, D.A.; Yambert, M.W.

    1998-08-01

    HGSYSTEMUF6 is a suite of models designed for use in estimating consequences associated with accidental, atmospheric release of Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6) and its reaction products, namely Hydrogen Fluoride (HF), and other non-reactive contaminants which are either negatively, neutrally, or positively buoyant. It is based on HGSYSTEM Version 3.0 of Shell Research LTD., and contains specific algorithms for the treatment of UF6 chemistry and thermodynamics. HGSYSTEMUF6 contains algorithms for the treatment of dense gases, dry and wet deposition, effects due to the presence of buildings (canyon and wake), plume lift-off, and the effects of complex terrain. The models components of the suite include (1) AEROPLUME/RK, used to model near-field dispersion from pressurized two-phase jet releases of UF6 and its reaction products, (2) HEGADAS/UF6 for simulating dense, ground based release of UF6, (3) PGPLUME for simulation of passive, neutrally buoyant plumes (4) UF6Mixer for modeling warm, potentially reactive, ground-level releases of UF6 from buildings, and (5) WAKE, used to model elevated and ground-level releases into building wake cavities of non-reactive plumes that are either neutrally or positively buoyant.

  16. Ultra-low emittance beam generation using two-color ionization injection in a CO2 laser-driven plasma accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, Carl; Benedetti, Carlo; Bulanov, Stepan; Chen, Min; Esarey, Eric; Geddes, Cameron; Vay, J.; Yu, Lule; Leemans, Wim

    2015-05-21

    Ultra-low emittance (tens of nm) beams can be generated in a plasma accelerator using ionization injection of electrons into a wakefield. An all-optical method of beam generation uses two laser pulses of different colors. A long-wavelength drive laser pulse (with a large ponderomotive force and small peak electric field) is used to excite a large wakefield without fully ionizing a gas, and a short-wavelength injection laser pulse (with a small ponderomotive force and large peak electric field), co-propagating and delayed with respect to the pump laser, to ionize a fraction of the remaining bound electrons at a trapped wake phase, generating an electron beam that is accelerated in the wake. The trapping condition, the ionized electron distribution, and the trapped bunch dynamics are discussed. Expressions for the beam transverse emittance, parallel and orthogonal to the ionization laser polarization, are presented. An example is shown using a 10-micron CO2 laser to drive the wake and a frequency-doubled Ti:Al2O3 laser for ionization injection.

  17. Model for Simulating Dispersion due to Atmospheric Release of UF6

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-01-01

    HGSYSTEMUF6 is a suite of models designed for use in estimating consequences associated with accidental, atmospheric release of Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6) and its reaction products, namely Hydrogen Fluoride (HF), and other non-reactive contaminants which are either negatively, neutrally, or positively buoyant. It is based on HGSYSTEM Version 3.0 of Shell Research LTD., and contains specific algorithms for the treatment of UF6 chemistry and thermodynamics. HGSYSTEMUF6 contains algorithms for the treatment of dense gases, dry andmore » wet deposition, effects due to the presence of buildings (canyon and wake), plume lift-off, and the effects of complex terrain. The models components of the suite include (1) AEROPLUME/RK, used to model near-field dispersion from pressurized two-phase jet releases of UF6 and its reaction products, (2) HEGADAS/UF6 for simulating dense, ground based release of UF6, (3) PGPLUME for simulation of passive, neutrally buoyant plumes (4) UF6Mixer for modeling warm, potentially reactive, ground-level releases of UF6 from buildings, and (5) WAKE, used to model elevated and ground-level releases into building wake cavities of non-reactive plumes that are either neutrally or positively buoyant.« less

  18. Numeric-modeling sensitivity analysis of the performance of wind turbine arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lissaman, P.B.S.; Gyatt, G.W.; Zalay, A.D.

    1982-06-01

    An evaluation of the numerical model created by Lissaman for predicting the performance of wind turbine arrays has been made. Model predictions of the wake parameters have been compared with both full-scale and wind tunnel measurements. Only limited, full-scale data were available, while wind tunnel studies showed difficulties in representing real meteorological conditions. Nevertheless, several modifications and additions have been made to the model using both theoretical and empirical techniques and the new model shows good correlation with experiment. The larger wake growth rate and shorter near wake length predicted by the new model lead to reduced interference effects on downstream turbines and hence greater array efficiencies. The array model has also been re-examined and now incorporates the ability to show the effects of real meteorological conditions such as variations in wind speed and unsteady winds. The resulting computer code has been run to show the sensitivity of array performance to meteorological, machine, and array parameters. Ambient turbulence and windwise spacing are shown to dominate, while hub height ratio is seen to be relatively unimportant. Finally, a detailed analysis of the Goodnoe Hills wind farm in Washington has been made to show how power output can be expected to vary with ambient turbulence, wind speed, and wind direction.

  19. Free-flow variability on the Jess and Souza Ranches, Altamont Pass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nierenberg, R.

    1989-03-01

    This report is one of a series of such documents that present the findings of field tests conducted under the Department of Energy's (DOE) Cooperative Field Test Program with the US wind industry. The report provides the results of a study to collect data at two windfarms. The two wind turbine arrays, located in the Altamont Pass east of San Francisco, were instrumented with anemometers and a central monitoring computer. To obtain a high spatial density of wind-speed measurements, every other turbine in both arrays was instrumented. Wind-speed data were collected over a period of four days during the summer high-wind season with all turbines shut down. The resultant data set was analyzed to determine the spatial variability of the wind resource in the two arrays. Because no turbine wakes were present, variation in the flow was caused by the interaction of the flow with the terrain and was not a function of turbine wake interaction. The free-flow data sets can be used by other researchers to refine numerical free-flow computer models. The data sets will be used to fine tune and validate these computer models. In addition, the free-flow data will be compared to results of a wake energy deficit study also under way on these turbine arrays. 56 figs., 14 tabs.

  20. Dynamic Response of Large Wind Power Plant Affected by Diverse Conditions at Individual Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Lu, Shuai; Lin, Guang; Wang, Shaobu

    2014-07-31

    Diverse operating conditions at individual wind turbine generators (WTG) within wind power plants (WPPs) can affect the WPP dynamic response to system faults. For example, individual WTGs can experience diverse terminal voltage and power output caused by different wind direction and speed, affecting the response of protection and control limiters. In this paper, we present a study to investigate the dynamic response of a detailed WPP model under diverse power outputs of its individual WTGs. Wake effect is considered as the reason for diverse power outputs. The diverse WTG power output is evaluated in a test system where a large 168-machine test WPP is connected to the IEEE-39-bus system. The power output from each WTG is derived from a wake effect model that uses realistic statistical data for incoming wind speed and direction. The results show that diverse WTG output due to wake effect can affect the WPP dynamic response activating specialized control in some turbines. In addition, transient stability is affected by exhibiting uncertainty in critical clearing time calculation.

  1. X-Band Crab Cavities for the CLIC Beam Delivery System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burt, G.; Ambattu, P.K.; Dexter, A.C.; Abram, T.; Dolgashev, V.; Tantawi, S.; Jones, R.M.; /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /Manchester U.

    2011-11-22

    The CLIC machine incorporates a 20 mrad crossing angle at the IP to aid the extraction of spent beams. In order to recover the luminosity lost through the crossing angle a crab cavity is proposed to rotate the bunches prior to collision. The crab cavity is chosen to have the same frequency as the main linac (11.9942 GHz) as a compromise between size, phase stability requirements and beam loading. It is proposed to use a HE11 mode travelling wave structure as the CLIC crab cavity in order to minimise beam loading and mode separation. The position of the crab cavity close to the final focus enhances the effect of transverse wake-fields so effective wake-field damping is required. A damped detuned structure is proposed to suppress and de-cohere the wake-field hence reducing their effect. Design considerations for the CLIC crab cavity will be discussed as well as the proposed high power testing of these structures at SLAC. Design of a crab cavity for CLIC is underway at the Cockcroft Institute in collaboration with SLAC. This effort draws on a large degree of synergy with the ILC crab cavity developed at the Cockcroft Institute and other deflecting structure development at SLAC. A study of phase and amplitude variations in the cavity suggests that the tolerances are very tight and require a 'beyond state of the art' LLRF control system. A study of cavity geometry and its effect on the cavity fields has been performed using Microwave studio. This study has suggested that for our cavity an iris radius between 4-5 mm is optimum with an iris thickness of 2-3 mm based on group velocity and peak fields. A study of the cavity wakefields show that the single bunch wakes are unlikely to be a problem but the short bunch spacing may cause the multi-bunch wakefields to be an issue. This will require some of the modes to be damped strongly so that the wake is damped significantly before any following bunch arrives. Various methods of damping have been investigated and suggest that waveguide damping in the cells should provide sufficient damping in the vertical plane, which is the most sensitive.

  2. Technical Training Workshop on International Safeguards: An Introduction to Safeguards for Emerging Nuclear States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Olson, Jarrod; Mathews, Caroline E.; Solodov, Alexander; Zhernosek, Alena; Raffo-Caiado, Ana; Baldwin, George; Horak, Karl; McClelland-Kerr, John; VanSickle, Matthew; Mininni, Margot; Kovacic, Donald

    2009-10-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) hosted a workshop from May 4-22, 2009, on the fundamental elements of international safeguards. Entitled "A Technical Training Workshop on International Safeguards," the workshop introduced post-graduate students from Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Thailand, Morocco, Egypt, Algeria and Tunisia to the fundamental issues and best practices associated with international safeguards and encouraged them to explore potential career paths in safeguards. Workshops like these strengthen the international safeguards regime by promoting the development of a "safeguards culture" among young nuclear professionals within nascent nuclear countries. While this concept of safeguards culture is sometimes hard to define and even harder to measure, this paper will demonstrate that the promotion of safeguards cultures through workshops like these justifies the investment of U.S. taxpayer dollars.

  3. AIR SHIPMENT OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL FROM THE BUDAPEST RESEARCH REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewes, J.

    2014-02-24

    The shipment of spent nuclear fuel is usually done by a combination of rail, road or sea, as the high activity of the SNF needs heavy shielding. Air shipment has advantages, e.g. it is much faster than any other shipment and therefore minimizes the transit time as well as attention of the public. Up to now only very few and very special SNF shipments were done by air, as the available container (TUK6) had a very limited capacity. Recently Sosny developed a Type C overpack, the TUK-145/C, compliant with IAEA Standard TS-R-1 for the VPVR/M type Skoda container. The TUK-145/C was first used in Vietnam in July 2013 for a single cask. In October and November 2013 a total of six casks were successfully shipped from Hungary in three air shipments using the TUK-145/C. The present paper describes the details of these shipments and formulates the lessons learned.

  4. The chemical industry, by country

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-03-01

    Beijing will be the site for the third ACHEMASIA, international petrochemical and chemical exhibition and conference, May 15--20, 1995. In preparation for this conference, Hydrocarbon Processing contacted executives of petrochemical/chemical industries and trade associations, seeking views on the state of the industry. The Asia-Pacific region is the center of new construction and expanded capacity and also a mixture of mature, developing and emerging petrochemical industries. Established countries must mold and grow with emerging economies as the newcomers access natural resources and develop their own petrochemical infrastructures. The following nation reports focus on product supply/demand trends, economic forecasts, new construction, etc. Space limitations prohibit publishing commentaries from all countries that have petrochemical/chemical capacity. Reports are published from the following countries: Australia, China, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.

  5. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Renewable Energy Annual 2009 75

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 Table 2.10 Export shipments of solar thermal collectors by country, 2008 and 2009 (square feet) Africa Egypt - 1,771 0.11 Morocco 4,755 3,916 0.25 Nigeria 333 - - Total 5,088 5,687 0.36 Asia Indonesia - 4,041 0.26 Israel 5,756 - - Japan - 240 0.02 Jordan - 13,200 0.84 Korea, South - 336 0.02 Saudi Arabia 51,951 - - Taiwan - 48 * United Arab Emirates 4,412 - - Vietnam 2,640 1,980 0.13 Total 64,759 19,845 1.26 Australia and Oceania Australia 81,980 106,459 6.75 New Zealand 11,915 14,106 0.89

  6. Improvement of Moist and Radiative Processes in Highly Parallel Atmospheric General Circulation Models: Validation and Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, William M.; Hack, James J.; Kiehl, Jeffrey T.

    1997-02-24

    Research on designing an integrated moist process parameterization package was carried. This work began with a study that coupled an ensemble of cloud models to a boundary layer model to examine the feasibility of such a methodology for linking boundary layer and cumulus parameterization schemes. The approach proved feasible, prompting research to design and evaluate a coupled parameterization package for GCMS. This research contributed to the development of an Integrated Cumulus Ensemble-Turbulence (ICET) parameterization package. This package incorporates a higher-order turbulence boundary layer that feeds information concerning updraft properties and the variances of temperature and water vapor to the cloud parameterizations. The cumulus ensemble model has been developed, and initial sensitivity tests have been performed in the single column model (SCM) version of CCM2. It is currently being coupled to a convective wake/gust front model. The major function of the convective wake/gust front model is to simulate the partitioning of the boundary layer into disturbed and undisturbed regions. A second function of this model is to predict the nonlinear enhancement of surface to air sensible heat and moisture fluxes that occur in convective regimes due to correlations between winds and anomalously cold, dry air from downdrafts in the gust front region. The third function of the convective wake/gust front model is to predict the amount of undisturbed boundary layer air lifted by the leading edge of the wake and the height to which this air is lifted. The development of the wake/gust front model has been completed, and it has done well in initial testing as a stand-alone component. The current task, to be completed by the end of the funding period, is to tie the wake model to a cumulus ensemble model and to install both components into the single column model version of CCM3 for evaluation. Another area of parametrization research has been focused on the representation of cloud radiative properties. An examination of the CCM2 simulation characteristics indicated that many surface temperature and warm land precipitation problems were linked to deficiencies in the specification of cloud optical properties, which allowed too much shortwave radiation to reach the surface. In-cloud liquid water path was statically specified in the CCM2 using a "prescribed, meridionally and height varying, but time independent, cloud liquid water density profile, which was analytically determined from a meridionally specified liquid water scale height. Single-column model integrations were conducted to explore alternative formulations for the cloud liquid water path diagnostic, converging on an approach that employs a similar, but state-dependent technique for determining in-cloud liquid water concentration. The new formulation, results in significant improvements to both the top-of- atmosphere and surface energy budgets. In particular, when this scheme is incorporated in the three-dimensional GCM, simulated July surface temperature biases are substantially reduced, where summer precipitation over the northern hemisphere continents, as well as precipitation rates over most all warm land areas, is more consistent with observations". This improved parameterization has been incorporated in the CCM3.

  7. Multi-gigaelectronvolt acceleration of positrons in a self-loaded plasma wakefield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corde, Sebastien; Adli, E.; Allen, J. M.; An, W.; Clarke, C. I.; Delahaye, J. P.; Frederico, J.; Gessner, S.; Green, S. Z.; Hogan, M. J.; Joshi, C.; Lipkowitz, N.; Litos, M.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K. A.; Mori, W. B.; Schmeltz, M.; Vafaei-Najafabadi, N.; Walz, D.; Yakimenko, V.; Yocky, G.; Clayton, C. E.

    2015-08-26

    New accelerator concepts must be developed to make future particle colliders more compact and affordable. The Plasma Wakefield Accelerator (PWFA) is one such concept, where the electric field of a plasma wake excited by a charged-particle bunch is used to accelerate a trailing bunch of particles. To apply plasma acceleration to particle colliders, it is imperative that both the electrons and their antimatter counterpart, the positrons, are efficiently accelerated at high fields using plasmas1. While substantial progress has recently been reported on high-field, high-efficiency acceleration of electrons in a PWFA powered by an electron bunch 2, such an electron-driven wake is unsuitable for the acceleration and focusing of a positron bunch. Here we demonstrate a new regime of PWFA where particles in the front of a single positron bunch transfer their energy to a substantial number of those in the rear of the same bunch by exciting a wakefield in the plasma. In the process, the accelerating field is altered – self-loaded – so that about a billion positrons gain five gigaelectronvolts (GeV) of energy with a narrow energy spread in a distance of just 1.3 meters. They extract about 30% of the wake’s energy and form a spectrally distinct bunch with as low as a 1.8% r.m.s. energy spread. This demonstrated ability of positron-driven plasma wakes to efficiently accelerate a significant number of positrons with a small energy spread may overcome the long-standing challenge of positron acceleration in plasma-based accelerators.

  8. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Satellite stories featured in Lab lecture series February 14, 2008 LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, February 14, 2008 --When the first of Los Alamos National Laboratory's small satellites, ALEXIS, was released into space in the spring of 1993, one of the spacecraft's solar panels tore free of its hinge attachment during launch, sending its ground crew into despair and weeks of uncertainty as they waited to see if the satellite would ever "wake up." It did, and ALEXIS went on to successfully

  9. Betatron Radiation from a Beam Driven Plasma Source (Conference) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Conference: Betatron Radiation from a Beam Driven Plasma Source Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Betatron Radiation from a Beam Driven Plasma Source Photons produced by the betatron oscillation of electrons in a beam-driven plasma wake provide a uniquely intense and high-energy source of hard X-rays and gamma rays. This betatron radiation is interesting not only for its high intensity and spectral characteristics, but also because it can be used as a diagnostic for beam

  10. Analytical theory of coherent synchrotron radiation wakefield of short bunches shielded by conducting parallel plates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stupakov, Gennady; Zhou, Demin

    2016-04-21

    We develop a general model of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) impedance with shielding provided by two parallel conducting plates. This model allows us to easily reproduce all previously known analytical CSR wakes and to expand the analysis to situations not explored before. It reduces calculations of the impedance to taking integrals along the trajectory of the beam. New analytical results are derived for the radiation impedance with shielding for the following orbits: a kink, a bending magnet, a wiggler of finite length, and an infinitely long wiggler. Furthermore, all our formulas are benchmarked against numerical simulations with the CSRZ computermore » code.« less

  11. Relativistic self-focusing in underdense plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feit, M.D.; Garrison, J.C.; Komashko, A.; Musher, J.L.; Rubenchik, A.M.; Turistsyn, S.K.

    1997-04-24

    In the present paper, we discuss light self-focusing in underdense (nwake of the laser pulse. we discuss the applicability of our results to real situations and possible consequences for the ``Fast Ignitor`` project.

  12. Laser Wakefield Acceleration: Structural and Dynamic Studies. Final Technical Report ER40954

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downer, Michael C.

    2014-12-19

    Particle accelerators enable scientists to study the fundamental structure of the universe, but have become the largest and most expensive of scientific instruments. In this project, we advanced the science and technology of laser-plasma accelerators, which are thousands of times smaller and less expensive than their conventional counterparts. In a laser-plasma accelerator, a powerful laser pulse exerts light pressure on an ionized gas, or plasma, thereby driving an electron density wave, which resembles the wake behind a boat. Electrostatic fields within this plasma wake reach tens of billions of volts per meter, fields far stronger than ordinary non-plasma matter (such as the matter that a conventional accelerator is made of) can withstand. Under the right conditions, stray electrons from the surrounding plasma become trapped within these “wake-fields”, surf them, and acquire energy much faster than is possible in a conventional accelerator. Laser-plasma accelerators thus might herald a new generation of compact, low-cost accelerators for future particle physics, x-ray and medical research. In this project, we made two major advances in the science of laser-plasma accelerators. The first of these was to accelerate electrons beyond 1 gigaelectronvolt (1 GeV) for the first time. In experimental results reported in Nature Communications in 2013, about 1 billion electrons were captured from a tenuous plasma (about 1/100 of atmosphere density) and accelerated to 2 GeV within about one inch, while maintaining less than 5% energy spread, and spreading out less than ½ milliradian (i.e. ½ millimeter per meter of travel). Low energy spread and high beam collimation are important for applications of accelerators as coherent x-ray sources or particle colliders. This advance was made possible by exploiting unique properties of the Texas Petawatt Laser, a powerful laser at the University of Texas at Austin that produces pulses of 150 femtoseconds (1 femtosecond is 10-15 seconds) in duration and 150 Joules in energy (equivalent to the muzzle energy of a small pistol bullet). This duration was well matched to the natural electron density oscillation period of plasma of 1/100 atmospheric density, enabling efficient excitation of a plasma wake, while this energy was sufficient to drive a high-amplitude wake of the right shape to produce an energetic, collimated electron beam. Continuing research is aimed at increasing electron energy even further, increasing the number of electrons captured and accelerated, and developing applications of the compact, multi-GeV accelerator as a coherent, hard x-ray source for materials science, biomedical imaging and homeland security applications. The second major advance under this project was to develop new methods of visualizing the laser-driven plasma wake structures that underlie laser-plasma accelerators. Visualizing these structures is essential to understanding, optimizing and scaling laser-plasma accelerators. Yet prior to work under this project, computer simulations based on estimated initial conditions were the sole source of detailed knowledge of the complex, evolving internal structure of laser-driven plasma wakes. In this project we developed and demonstrated a suite of optical visualization methods based on well-known methods such as holography, streak cameras, and coherence tomography, but adapted to the ultrafast, light-speed, microscopic world of laser-driven plasma wakes. Our methods output images of laser-driven plasma structures in a single laser shot. We first reported snapshots of low-amplitude laser wakes in Nature Physics in 2006. We subsequently reported images of high-amplitude laser-driven plasma “bubbles”, which are important for producing electron beams with low energy spread, in Physical Review Letters in 2010. More recently, we have figured out how to image laser-driven structures that change shape while propagating in a single laser shot. The latter techniques, which use the methods of computerized tomography, were demonstrated on test objects – e.g. laser-driven filaments in air and glass – and reported in Optics Letters in 2013 and Nature Communications in 2014. Their output is a multi-frame movie rather than a snapshot. Continuing research is aimed at applying these tomographic methods directly to evolving laser-driven plasma accelerator structures in our laboratory, then, once perfected, to exporting them to plasma-based accelerator laboratories around the world as standard in-line metrology instruments.

  13. Study of stopping power for a proton moving in a plasma with arbitrary degeneracy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Ya; Song, Yuan-Hong; Wang, You-Nian [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Excitation of bulk solid electrons with arbitrary degeneracy, by external charged particles, is investigated by a two-dimensional nonlinear quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model. The nonlinear stopping power and wake potential are calculated by solving the nonlinear QHD equations with the flux corrected transport numerical method. Two cases of fully degenerated and partially degenerated electrons are compared and discussed in the same self-consistent QHD model. Our results are consistent with the well known dielectric calculation of the stopping power at higher velocity, but include the nonlinear terms of the interactions and give larger stopping power at smaller velocity.

  14. DOE/SNL-TTU scaled wind farm technology facility : research opportunities for study of turbine-turbine interaction.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barone, Matthew Franklin; White, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    The proposed DOE/Sandia Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility (SWiFT) hosted by Texas Tech University at Reese Technology Center in Lubbock, TX, will provide a facility for experimental study of turbine-turbine interaction and complex wind farm aerodynamics. This document surveys the current status of wind turbine wake and turbine-turbine interaction research, identifying knowledge and data gaps that the proposed test site can potentially fill. A number of turbine layouts is proposed, allowing for up to ten turbines at the site.

  15. The development of CACTUS : a wind and marine turbine performance simulation code.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barone, Matthew Franklin; Murray, Jonathan

    2010-12-01

    CACTUS (Code for Axial and Cross-flow TUrbine Simulation) is a turbine performance simulation code, based on a free wake vortex method, under development at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of a Department of Energy program to study marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. The current effort builds upon work previously done at SNL in the area of vertical axis wind turbine simulation, and aims to add models to handle generic device geometry and physical models specific to the marine environment. An overview of the current state of the project and validation effort is provided.

  16. Effect of polarization force on the Mach cones in a complex plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandyopadhyay, P. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85741, Garching (Germany); Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382428 (India); Jiang, K. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85741, Garching (Germany); Infineon Technologies AG, Am Campeon 1-12, D-85579 Neubiberg (Germany); Dey, R. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasma Physik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748, Garching (Germany); Morfill, G. E. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85741, Garching (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    We report the modifications of compressional Mach cone propagation characteristics due to the polarization force acting on micron size dust particles embedded in a non-uniform plasma. We solve the hydrodynamic fluid equations for highly charged dust particles to investigate the Mach cone by incorporating the polarization force in the momentum equation and observe the structural change on lateral wakes at different polarization force for a given Mach number and Epstein drag force. We also notice that the maximum amplitude of normalized dust density perturbation decreases with the increase of polarization interaction when the other parameters remain constant.

  17. Coming utility squeeze play

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoiaken, L.N.

    1988-02-01

    Like a sleeping giant, utilities are waking up and preparing to participate in the increasingly competitive power production industry. Some are establishing subsidiaries to participate in join venture deals with independents. Others are competing by offering lucrative discount or deferral rates to important industrial and commercial customers considering cogeneration. And now, a third approach is beginning to shape up- the disaggregation of generation assets into a separate generation company, or genco. This article briefly discusses these three and also devotes brief sections to functional segmentation and The regulatory arena.

  18. Alertness, performance and off-duty sleep on 8-hour and 12-hour night shifts in a simulated continuous operations control room setting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, T.L.

    1995-04-01

    A growing number of nuclear power plants in the United States have adopted routine 12-hr shift schedules. Because of the potential impact that extended work shifts could have on safe and efficient power plant operation, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission funded research on 8-hr and 12-hr shifts at the Human Alertness Research Center (HARC) in Boston, Massachusetts. This report describes the research undertaken: a study of simulated 8-hr and 12-hr work shifts that compares alertness, speed, and accuracy at responding to simulator alarms, and relative cognitive performance, self-rated mood and vigor, and sleep-wake patterns of 8-hr versus 12-hr shift workers.

  19. Superfund awakes in state supreme courts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherland, D.

    1998-01-01

    Superfund, often referred to as a sleeping giant, is waking up in state courts with rulings the insurance industry is on the hook for a large share of the nation`s environmental cleanup. While Congress has been quagmired in legislative reauthorization attempts, 40% of the state supreme courts (20 states) have passed laws favoring policyholders of comprehensive general liability insurance (CGL) to be compensated for their cleanup and litigation costs. These rulings vary in terms from state to state, but their collective action is giving the insurance industry grave concerns because of the increase in settlements with CGL policyholders.

  20. TTW9-8-05

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8, 2005 WIPP Quick Facts (as of September 7, 2005) 3,896 Shipments received since opening 31,181 Cubic meters of waste disposed 70,546 Containers disposed in the underground On behalf of WIPP employees, TRU TeamWorks offers its condolences to the victims of Hurricane Katrina. FEMA provides contact information to donate cash or to volunteer to help the victims of Hurricane Katrina Click here to read a FEMA news release about helping in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. Washington Group International

  1. Nonlinear plasma wave in magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulanov, Sergei V.; Prokhorov Institute of General Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991; Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow region 141700 ; Esirkepov, Timur Zh.; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K.; Hosokai, Tomonao; Zhidkov, Alexei G.; Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 ; Kodama, Ryosuke; Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871

    2013-08-15

    Nonlinear axisymmetric cylindrical plasma oscillations in magnetized collisionless plasmas are a model for the electron fluid collapse on the axis behind an ultrashort relativisically intense laser pulse exciting a plasma wake wave. We present an analytical description of the strongly nonlinear oscillations showing that the magnetic field prevents closing of the cavity formed behind the laser pulse. This effect is demonstrated with 3D PIC simulations of the laser-plasma interaction. An analysis of the betatron oscillations of fast electrons in the presence of the magnetic field reveals a characteristic Four-Ray Star pattern.

  2. Generating X-ray in MeV regime from interactions of mono-energetic electrons with Sn and Pb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masalehdan, Hossein

    2012-09-06

    Quasi mono-energetic x-ray beams generated from thin targets by interaction of mono-energetic electron beams from 600 mJ, 80 fs laser pulse. A micron-scale laser-produced plasma creates, accelerates relativistic mono-energetic electron bunches. As such electrons propagate in the ion channel produced in the wake of the laser pulse; the accelerated electrons can interact with Sn, Pb targets and generate X-ray radiation of MeV energy and MeV/cm2 flux.

  3. Discovery and Characterization of a Higgs boson using four-lepton events

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from the CMS (Thesis/Dissertation) | SciTech Connect Thesis/Dissertation: Discovery and Characterization of a Higgs boson using four-lepton events from the CMS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Discovery and Characterization of a Higgs boson using four-lepton events from the CMS A new particle decaying to a pair of vector bosons was discovered in 2012 by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider. In the wake of this discovery a rush of measurements was made to

  4. Coupling a Mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction Model with Large-Eddy Simulation for Realistic Wind Plant Aerodynamics Simulations (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Draxl, C.; Churchfield, M.; Mirocha, J.; Lee, S.; Lundquist, J.; Michalakes, J.; Moriarty, P.; Purkayastha, A.; Sprague, M.; Vanderwende, B.

    2014-06-01

    Wind plant aerodynamics are influenced by a combination of microscale and mesoscale phenomena. Incorporating mesoscale atmospheric forcing (e.g., diurnal cycles and frontal passages) into wind plant simulations can lead to a more accurate representation of microscale flows, aerodynamics, and wind turbine/plant performance. Our goal is to couple a numerical weather prediction model that can represent mesoscale flow [specifically the Weather Research and Forecasting model] with a microscale LES model (OpenFOAM) that can predict microscale turbulence and wake losses.

  5. Probing warm dense silica with betatron radiation - Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotick, Jordan

    2015-08-24

    Laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) has been shown to produce short X-ray pulses from oscillations of electrons within the plasma wake. These betatron X-rays pulses have a broad, synchrotron-like energy spectrum and a duration on the order of the driving laser pulse, thereby enabling probing of ultrafast interactions. Using the 1 J, 40fs short-pulse laser at the Matter in Extreme Conditions experimental station at LCLS, we have implemented LWFA to generate and subsequently characterized betatron X-rays. A scintillator and lanex screen were used to measure the charge fluence and energy spectrum of the produced electron beam.

  6. HEP-v2-for-dist

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Case S tudy: C on.nuing S tudies o f P lasma B ased Accelerators ( mp113) * PI: W. B. Mori (UCLA) * Presenter: F. S. Tsung (UCLA) Users: W. An, A. Davidson, V. K. Decyk, (UCLA), J. Vieira, L. Silva (IST), W. Lu (UCLA/ Tsinghua) F. S. Tsung, HEP Workshop HEP R equirements: Con.nuing S tudies o f P lasma B ased A ccelerators ( mp113) (PI: W . B . M ori, P resenter: F . S . T sung) An alternate scheme to accelerate particles using plasmas is the Plasma WakeField Accelerator (PWFA) concept where a

  7. Chombo-Crunch Sinks Its Teeth into Fluid Dynamics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chombo-Crunch Sinks Its Teeth into Fluid Dynamics Chombo-Crunch Sinks Its Teeth into Fluid Dynamics Decade of Development Yields Novel Code for Energy, Oil & Gas, Aerospace May 11, 2015 Contact: Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov chombocrunch1 Using Chombo-Crunch to study turbulent flow past a sphere could help aerospace engineers optimize takeoff and landing patterns through more accurate prediction of aircraft wakes. Simulation: David Trebotich; VisIt For more than a decade,

  8. Frontiers of particle beam physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1989-11-01

    First, a review is given of various highly-developed techniques for particle handling which are, nevertheless, being vigorously advanced at the present time. These include soft superconductor radio frequency cavities, hard superconductor magnets, cooling rings for ions and anti-protons, and damping rings for electrons. Second, attention is focused upon novel devices for particle generation, acceleration, and focusing. These include relativistic klystrons and free electron laser power sources, binary power multipliers, photocathodes, switched-power linacs, plasma beat-wave accelerators, plasma wake-field accelerators, plasma lenses, plasma adiabatic focusers and plasma compensators. 12 refs.

  9. Plasmon excitation in metal slab by fast point charge: The role of additional boundary conditions in quantum hydrodynamic model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Ying-Ying; An, Sheng-Bai; Song, Yuan-Hong Wang, You-Nian; Kang, Naijing; Mikovi?, Z. L.

    2014-10-15

    We study the wake effect in the induced potential and the stopping power due to plasmon excitation in a metal slab by a point charge moving inside the slab. Nonlocal effects in the response of the electron gas in the metal are described by a quantum hydrodynamic model, where the equation of electronic motion contains both a quantum pressure term and a gradient correction from the Bohm quantum potential, resulting in a fourth-order differential equation for the perturbed electron density. Thus, besides using the condition that the normal component of the electron velocity should vanish at the impenetrable boundary of the metal, a consistent inclusion of the gradient correction is shown to introduce two possibilities for an additional boundary condition for the perturbed electron density. We show that using two different sets of boundary conditions only gives rise to differences in the wake potential at large distances behind the charged particle. On the other hand, the gradient correction in the quantum hydrodynamic model is seen to cause a reduction in the depth of the potential well closest to the particle, and a reduction of its stopping power. Even for a particle moving in the center of the slab, we observe nonlocal effects in the induced potential and the stopping power due to reduction of the slab thickness, which arise from the gradient correction in the quantum hydrodynamic model.

  10. Hydrodynamic schooling of flapping swimmers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Becker, Alexander D.; Masoud, Hassan; Newbolt, Joel W.; Shelley, Michael; Ristroph, Leif

    2015-10-06

    Fish schools and bird flocks are fascinating examples of collective behaviours in which many individuals generate and interact with complex flows. Motivated by animal groups on the move, here we explore how the locomotion of many bodies emerges from their flow-mediated interactions. Through experiments and simulations of arrays of flapping wings that propel within a collective wake, we discover distinct modes characterized by the group swimming speed and the spatial phase shift between trajectories of neighbouring wings. For identical flapping motions, slow and fast modes coexist and correspond to constructive and destructive wing–wake interactions. Simulations show that swimming in amore » group can enhance speed and save power, and we capture the key phenomena in a mathematical model based on memory or the storage and recollection of information in the flow field. Lastly, these results also show that fluid dynamic interactions alone are sufficient to generate coherent collective locomotion, and thus might suggest new ways to characterize the role of flows in animal groups.« less

  11. N-BODY SIMULATION OF PLANETESIMAL FORMATION THROUGH GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY OF A DUST LAYER IN LAMINAR GAS DISK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michikoshi, Shugo; Kokubo, Eiichiro [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro, E-mail: michikoshi@cfca.j, E-mail: kokubo@th.nao.ac.j, E-mail: inutsuka@nagoya-u.j [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2010-08-20

    We investigate the formation process of planetesimals from the dust layer by the gravitational instability in the gas disk using local N-body simulations. The gas is modeled as a background laminar flow. We study the formation process of planetesimals and its dependence on the strength of the gas drag. Our simulation results show that the formation process is divided into three stages qualitatively: the formation of wake-like density structures, the creation of planetesimal seeds, and their collisional growth. The linear analysis of the dissipative gravitational instability shows that the dust layer is secularly unstable although Toomre's Q value is larger than unity. However, in the initial stage, the growth time of the gravitational instability is longer than that of the dust sedimentation and the decrease in the velocity dispersion. Thus, the velocity dispersion decreases and the disk shrinks vertically. As the velocity dispersion becomes sufficiently small, the gravitational instability finally becomes dominant. Then wake-like density structures are formed by the gravitational instability. These structures fragment into planetesimal seeds. The seeds grow rapidly owing to mutual collisions.

  12. Vortex and structural dynamics of a flexible cylinder in cross-flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shang, Jessica K., E-mail: jshang@princeton.edu; Stone, Howard A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Smits, Alexander J. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2014-05-15

    A low-density, flexible cantilevered cylinder was permitted to vibrate freely under the influence of vortex shedding in the laminar flow regime. We find that the vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of a flexible cantilever depart from those of a flexible cylinder that is fixed at both ends. In particular, we find discontinuous regions of VIV behavior here called states as a function of the reduced velocity U{sup *}. These states are demarcated by discrete changes in the dominant eigenmodes of the structural response as the cylinder vibrates in progressively higher structural modes with increasing U{sup *}. The contribution of structural modes can be identified readily by a modal projection of the cylinder oscillation onto known cantilever beam modes. Oscillation frequencies do not monotonically increase with U{sup *}. The wake response between different states is also found to have distinct characteristics; of particular note is the occurrence of a P+S wake over one of these regions, which is associated with a high-amplitude vibration of the cylinder that is due to the constructive interference of contributing eigenmodes.

  13. Convective heat transfer with buoyancy effects from thermal sources on a flat plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, S.S.; Jaluria, Y. )

    1991-06-01

    An experimental study is carried out on the thermal interaction between two finite-size heat sources, located on a flat plate that is well insulated on the back. Both the horizontal and the vertical orientations of the surface are studied by measuring the flow velocities, the temperature field, and the local heat flux. The investigation is directed at the pure natural convection circumstance (no forced flow velocity) and the buoyancy-dominated mixed-convection circumstance (presence of a relatively small forced flow velocity). Large temperature gradients occur in the vicinity of the heat sources, resulting in a substantial diffusion of heat along the plate length. However, the effect of conduction is found to be highly localized. The orientation of the surface has a very strong effect on the interaction of the wakes from the heat sources for the circumstances considered. An upstream source is found to have a very strong influence on the temperature of a downstream source in the vertical surface orientation but has a much weaker influence in the horizontal orientation. In the latter circumstance the presence of a small forced flow velocity may actually increase the temperature of a downstream source by tilting the wake from the upstream source toward the downstream source. 25 refs.

  14. 9 GeV energy gain in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Litos, M.; Adli, E.; Allen, J. M.; An, W.; Clarke, C. I.; Corde, S.; Clayton, C. E.; Frederico, J.; Gessner, S. J.; Green, S. Z.; et al

    2016-02-15

    An electron beam has gained a maximum energy of 9 GeV per particle in a 1.3 m-long electron beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator. The amount of charge accelerated in the spectral peak was 28.3 pC, and the root-mean-square energy spread was 5.0%. The mean accelerated charge and energy gain per particle of the 215 shot data set was 115 pC and 5.3 GeV, respectively, corresponding to an acceleration gradient of 4.0 GeV m-1 at the spectral peak. Moreover, the mean energy spread of the data set was 5.1%. Our results are consistent with the extrapolation of the previously reported energy gainmore » results using a shorter, 36 cm-long plasma source to within 10%, evincing a non-evolving wake structure that can propagate distances of over a meter in length. Wake-loading effects were evident in the data through strong dependencies observed between various spectral properties and the amount of accelerated charge.« less

  15. Lifting surface performance analysis for horizontal axis wind turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kocurek, D.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes how numerical lifting-surface theory is applied to the calculation of a horizontal-axis wind turbine's aerodynamic characteristics and performance. The report also describes how such an application is implemented as a computer program. The method evolved from rotary-wing and helicopter applications and features a detailed, prescribed wake. The wake model extends from a hovering-rotor experimental generalization to include the effect of the windmill brake state on the radial and axial displacement rates of the trailing vortex system. Performance calculations are made by coupling the lifting-surface circulation solution to a blade-element analysis that incorporates two-dimensional airfoil characteristics as functions of angle of attack and Reynolds number. Several analytical stall models are also provided to extend the airfoil characteristics beyond the limits of available data. Although this work focuses on the steady-performance problem, the method includes ways to investigate the effects of wind-shear profile, tower shadow, and off-axis shaft alignment. Correlating the method to measured wind-turbine performance, and comparing it to blade-element momentum theory calculations, validate and highlight the extreme sensitivity of predictions to the quality of early post-stall airfoil behavior.

  16. Aerodynamic analysis of propeller-type windmills with helical trailing vortices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiao, T.C.

    1980-01-01

    To improve the strip theory for computing the performance of a propeller-type windmill, a more realistic analysis is formulated to include the wake effect. In this dissertation, the finite-wing theory is applied to a rotor blade to find its circulation distribution with the downwash determined from a direct integration of Biot-Savart's law based on the entire helical trailing vortex system. Since no simple analytical solutions can be found for the circulation and the interference factors along a windmill blade, an iterative procedure has been developed to determine the sectional properties at some selected stations. A computer program is constructed for the computation, in which the empirical lift and drag data of the blade airfoil section are programmed. The torque, thrust and power output of the windmill are then obtained by integrating the sectional aerodynamic properties from hub to tip along the blades. Two windmills, one with twisted and tapered blades and the other with uniform blades, are used as examples in predicting the performances. The power computed for the latter windmill agrees well with the measured data. It has been found, according to the computations for the first windmill, that the helical wake may cause a reduction up to 30% in power output of the windmill. The problems of finding the optimum pitch angle for a uniform blade and the optimum distribution of twist angle for a blade of constant chord are considered as some applications of the method derived in this dissertation.

  17. Hydrodynamic schooling of flapping swimmers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, Alexander D.; Masoud, Hassan; Newbolt, Joel W.; Shelley, Michael; Ristroph, Leif

    2015-10-06

    Fish schools and bird flocks are fascinating examples of collective behaviours in which many individuals generate and interact with complex flows. Motivated by animal groups on the move, here we explore how the locomotion of many bodies emerges from their flow-mediated interactions. Through experiments and simulations of arrays of flapping wings that propel within a collective wake, we discover distinct modes characterized by the group swimming speed and the spatial phase shift between trajectories of neighbouring wings. For identical flapping motions, slow and fast modes coexist and correspond to constructive and destructive wing–wake interactions. Simulations show that swimming in a group can enhance speed and save power, and we capture the key phenomena in a mathematical model based on memory or the storage and recollection of information in the flow field. Lastly, these results also show that fluid dynamic interactions alone are sufficient to generate coherent collective locomotion, and thus might suggest new ways to characterize the role of flows in animal groups.

  18. Direct Vlasov simulations of electron-attracting cylindrical Langmuir probes in flowing plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snchez-Arriaga, G.; Pastor-Moreno, D.

    2014-07-15

    Current collection by positively polarized cylindrical Langmuir probes immersed in flowing plasmas is analyzed using a non-stationary direct Vlasov-Poisson code. A detailed description of plasma density spatial structure as a function of the probe-to-plasma relative velocity U is presented. Within the considered parametric domain, the well-known electron density maximum close to the probe is weakly affected by U. However, in the probe wake side, the electron density minimum becomes deeper as U increases and a rarified plasma region appears. Sheath radius is larger at the wake than at the front side. Electron and ion distribution functions show specific features that are the signature of probe motion. In particular, the ion distribution function at the probe front side exhibits a filament with positive radial velocity. It corresponds to a population of rammed ions that were reflected by the electric field close to the positively biased probe. Numerical simulations reveal that two populations of trapped electrons exist: one orbiting around the probe and the other with trajectories confined at the probe front side. The latter helps to neutralize the reflected ions, thus explaining a paradox in past probe theory.

  19. Use and Application of the ARCON96 Dispersion Model at the Y-12 Complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, D.A.; Lee, D.W.; Miller, R.L.

    2001-06-04

    The Atmospheric Relative Concentrations in Building Wakes computer code (ARCON96) was developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to calculate normalized concentrations in plumes from nuclear power plants at control room air intakes in the vicinity of hypothetical accidental releases. ARCON96 implements a straight-line Gaussian dispersion model with dispersion coefficients that are modified to account for low-wind-speed meander and building wake effects. These two modifications to the dispersion coefficients were benchmarked and justified in the ARCON96 code documentation. The code calculates {chi}/Q values (normalized concentrations) consistent with the methodology defined in NRC Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.145, position 3. Based on recent U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) acceptance of NRC RG 1.145, position 3 methodology for performing accident dispersion analyses, BWXT Y-12 L.L.C. evaluated the potential use and application for performing dispersion analyses at the Y-12 Complex. Using site specific meteorology inputs, a generic analysis (assuming ground-level releases) was performed to develop site-wide normalized concentrations for various distances to be used in consequence screening analyses. Additionally, the results were compared to other dispersion analysis models for confirmation of the results.

  20. Plasma wakefields driven by an incoherent combination of laser pulses: A path towards high-average power laser-plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benedetti, C.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2014-05-15

    The wakefield generated in a plasma by incoherently combining a large number of low energy laser pulses (i.e., without constraining the pulse phases) is studied analytically and by means of fully self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations. The structure of the wakefield has been characterized and its amplitude compared with the amplitude of the wake generated by a single (coherent) laser pulse. We show that, in spite of the incoherent nature of the wakefield within the volume occupied by the laser pulses, behind this region, the structure of the wakefield can be regular with an amplitude comparable or equal to that obtained from a single pulse with the same energy. Wake generation requires that the incoherent structures in the laser energy density produced by the combined pulses exist on a time scale short compared to the plasma period. Incoherent combination of multiple laser pulses may enable a technologically simpler path to high-repetition rate, high-average power laser-plasma accelerators, and associated applications.

  1. Field Test Results from Lidar Measured Yaw Control for Improved Yaw Alignment with the NREL Controls Advanced Research Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scholbrock, A.; Fleming, P.; Wright, A.; Slinger, C.; Medley, J.; Harris, M.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes field tests of a light detection and ranging (lidar) device placed forward looking on the nacelle of a wind turbine and used as a wind direction measurement to directly control the yaw position of a wind turbine. Conventionally, a wind turbine controls its yaw direction using a nacelle-mounted wind vane. If there is a bias in the measurement from the nacelle-mounted wind vane, a reduction in power production will be observed. This bias could be caused by a number of issues such as: poor calibration, electromagnetic interference, rotor wake, or other effects. With a lidar mounted on the nacelle, a measurement of the wind could be made upstream of the wind turbine where the wind is not being influenced by the rotor's wake or induction zone. Field tests were conducted with the lidar measured yaw system and the nacelle wind vane measured yaw system. Results show that a lidar can be used to effectively measure the yaw error of the wind turbine, and for this experiment, they also showed an improvement in power capture because of reduced yaw misalignment when compared to the nacelle wind vane measured yaw system.

  2. Lift, drag and flow-field measurements around a small ornithopter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balakumar, B J; Chavez - Alarcon, Ramiro; Shu, Fangjun

    2011-01-12

    The aerodynamics of a flight-worthy, radio controlled ornithopter is investigated using a combination of Particle-Image Velocimetry (PIV), load cell measurements, and high-speed photography of smoke visualizations. The lift and thrust forces of the ornithopter are measured at various flow speeds, flapping frequencies and angles of attack to characterize the flight performance. These direct force measurements are then compared with forces estimated using control volume analysis on PIV data. High-speed photography of smoke streaks is used to visualize the evolution of leading edge vortices, and to qualitatively infer the effect of wing deformation on the net downwash. Vortical structures in the wake are compared to previous studies on root flapping, and direct measurements of flapping efficiency are used to argue that the current ornithopter operates sub-optimally in converting the input energy into propulsive work.

  3. ES12; The 24th Annual Workshop on Recent Developments in Electronic Structure Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holzwarth, Natalie; Thonhauser, Timo; Salam, Akbar

    2012-06-29

    ES12: The 24th Annual Workshop on Recent Developments in Electronic Structure Theory was held June 5-8, 2012 at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, NC 27109. The program consisted of 24 oral presentations, 70 posters, and 2 panel discussions. The attendance of the Workshop was comparable to or larger than previous workshops and participation was impressively diverse. The 136 participants came from all over the world and included undergraduate students, graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and senior scientists. The general assessment of the Workshop was extremely positive in terms of the high level of scientific presentations and discussions, and in terms of the schedule, accommodations, and affordability of the meeting.

  4. Citizen's dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klemic, Gladys; Bailey, Paul; Breheny, Cecilia

    2008-09-02

    The present invention relates to a citizen's dosimeter. More specifically, the invention relates to a small, portable, personal dosimetry device designed to be used in the wake of a event involving a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD), Improvised Nuclear Device (IND), or other event resulting in the contamination of large area with radioactive material or where on site personal dosimetry is required. The card sized dosimeter generally comprises: a lower card layer, the lower card body having an inner and outer side; a upper card layer, the layer card having an inner and outer side; an optically stimulated luminescent material (OSLM), wherein the OSLM is sandwiched between the inner side of the lower card layer and the inner side of the upper card layer during dosimeter radiation recording, a shutter means for exposing at least one side of the OSLM for dosimeter readout; and an energy compensation filter attached to the outer sides of the lower and upper card layers.

  5. Energy loss of MeV protons specularly reflected from metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juaristi, J.I.

    1996-05-01

    A parameter-free model is presented to study the energy loss of fast protons specularly reflected from metal surfaces. The contributions to the energy loss from excitation of valence-band electrons and ionization of localized target-atom electronic states are calculated separately. The former is calculated from the induced surface wake potential using linear response theory and the specular-reflection model, while the latter is calculated in the first Born approximation. The results obtained are in good agreement with available experimental data. However, the experimental qualitative trend of the energy loss as a function of the angle of incidence is obtained when the valence-band electron model is replaced by localized target atom electron states, though with a worse quantitative agreement. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  6. Interactions of vortices with a flexible beam with applications in fluidic energy harvesting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goushcha, O.; Elvin, N.; Andreopoulos, Y.

    2014-01-13

    A cantilever piezoelectric beam immersed in a flow and subjected to naturally occurring vortices such as those formed in the wake of bluff bodies can be used to generate electrical energy harvested in fluid flows. In this paper, we present the pressure distribution and deflection of a piezoelectric beam subjected to controlled vortices. A custom designed experimental facility is set up to study the interaction of individual and multiple vortices with the beam. Vortex tori are generated by an audio speaker and travel at controlled rates over the beam. Particle image velocimetry is used to measure the 2-D flow field induced by each vortex and estimate the effect of pressure force on the beam deflection.

  7. Muon acceleration in cosmic-ray sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, Spencer R.; Mikkelsen, Rune E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Becker Tjus, Julia [Fakultt fr Physik and Astronomie, Theoretische Physik I, Ruhr-Universitt Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2013-12-20

    Many models of ultra-high energy cosmic-ray production involve acceleration in linear accelerators located in gamma-ray bursts, magnetars, or other sources. These transient sources have short lifetimes, which necessitate very high accelerating gradients, up to 10{sup 13} keV cm{sup 1}. At gradients above 1.6 keV cm{sup 1}, muons produced by hadronic interactions undergo significant acceleration before they decay. This muon acceleration hardens the neutrino energy spectrum and greatly increases the high-energy neutrino flux. Using the IceCube high-energy diffuse neutrino flux limits, we set two-dimensional limits on the source opacity and matter density, as a function of accelerating gradient. These limits put strong constraints on different models of particle acceleration, particularly those based on plasma wake-field acceleration, and limit models for sources like gamma-ray bursts and magnetars.

  8. Dynamics of compressional Mach cones in a strongly coupled complex plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandyopadhyay, P., E-mail: pintu@ipr.res.in; Dey, R.; Sen, Abhijit [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382428 (India); Kadyan, Sangeeta [Department of Physics, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak 124001 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Using a Generalised-Hydrodynamic (GH) fluid model, we study the influence of strong coupling induced modification of the fluid compressibility on the dynamics of compressional Mach cones in a dusty plasma medium. A significant structural change of lateral wakes for a given Mach number and Epstein drag force is found in the strongly coupled regime. With the increase of fluid compressibility, the peak amplitude of the normalised perturbed dust density first increases and then decreases monotonically after reaching its maximum value. It is also noticed that the opening angle of the cone structure decreases with the increase of the compressibility of the medium and the arm of the Mach cone breaks up into small structures in the velocity vector profile when the coupling between the dust particles increases.

  9. SOR Users` Guide : How to Navigate Through the SOR Analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-08-01

    The Columbia River System Operation Review (SOR) gave river managers, users, and the general public a chance to examine system operations in detail, to study how each river use affects others, and to consider the consequences of changing the way the system works. The task was enormous, and it was a multiyear undertaking. In its wake, the SOR left a multitude of documents and six years of analysis that can and should be used broadly for other reference and research purposes. This catalog will introduce you to numerous SOR products to be found throughout the 20 appendices and the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Main Report. They include maps, models, data bases, current descriptions of Federal hydro projects and river resources, publications, and slide shows.

  10. QER- Comment of Tremolux

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Dear Sirs, Despite what might have been your best intentions, your 2013 report on Low-E storm windows is Worthless! All of the careful calculations and measurements are Worthless if the actual price of low-E storms is 4X what you claim! Given that a high-quality low-E storm window costs over $220 each, including installation, the payback period is Absurd! Who the hell is responsible for this Bullshit? Go shopping for low-E storms ... we Dare You! You might find some very cheap, plain grey, aluminum units ... but even those will be 3X the price that you claim. Don't you understand what we're saying? Your entire Cost/Benefit analysis is a FRAUD! Time to wake up! Tremolux

  11. Energy efficient sensor network implementations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frigo, Janette R; Raby, Eric Y; Brennan, Sean M; Kulathumani, Vinod; Rosten, Ed; Wolinski, Christophe; Wagner, Charles; Charot, Francois

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a low power embedded sensor node architecture we are developing for distributed sensor network systems deployed in a natural environment. In particular, we examine the sensor node for energy efficient processing-at-the-sensor. We analyze the following modes of operation; event detection, sleep(wake-up), data acquisition, data processing modes using low power, high performance embedded technology such as specialized embedded DSP processors and a low power FPGAs at the sensing node. We use compute intensive sensor node applications: an acoustic vehicle classifier (frequency domain analysis) and a video license plate identification application (learning algorithm) as a case study. We report performance and total energy usage for our system implementations and discuss the system architecture design trade offs.

  12. Mechanistic aspects of fracture and R-curve behavior in elk antler bone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Launey, Maximilien E.; Chen, Po-Yu; McKittrick, Joanna; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2009-11-23

    Bone is an adaptative material that is designed for different functional requirements; indeed, bones have a variety of properties depending on their role in the body. To understand the mechanical response of bone requires the elucidation of its structure-function relationships. Here, we examine the fracture toughness of compact bone of elk antler which is an extremely fast growing primary bone designed for a totally different function than human (secondary) bone. We find that antler in the transverse (breaking) orientation is one of the toughest biological materials known. Its resistance to fracture is achieved during crack growth (extrinsically) by a combination of gross crack deflection/twisting and crack bridging via uncracked 'ligaments' in the crack wake, both mechanisms activated by microcracking primarily at lamellar boundaries. We present an assessment of the toughening mechanisms acting in antler as compared to human cortical bone, and identify an enhanced role of inelastic deformation in antler which further contributes to its (intrinsic) toughness.

  13. Consequences of Urban Stability Conditions for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Urban Dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundquist, J K; Chan, S T

    2005-11-30

    The validity of omitting stability considerations when simulating transport and dispersion in the urban environment is explored using observations from the Joint URBAN 2003 field experiment and computational fluid dynamics simulations of that experiment. Four releases of sulfur hexafluoride, during two daytime and two nighttime intensive observing periods, are simulated using the building-resolving computational fluid dynamics model, FEM3MP to solve the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with two options of turbulence parameterizations. One option omits stability effects but has a superior turbulence parameterization using a non-linear eddy viscosity (NEV) approach, while the other considers buoyancy effects with a simple linear eddy viscosity (LEV) approach for turbulence parameterization. Model performance metrics are calculated by comparison with observed winds and tracer data in the downtown area, and with observed winds and turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) profiles at a location immediately downwind of the central business district (CBD) in the area we label as the urban shadow. Model predictions of winds, concentrations, profiles of wind speed, wind direction, and friction velocity are generally consistent with and compare reasonably well with the field observations. Simulations using the NEV turbulence parameterization generally exhibit better agreement with observations. To further explore this assumption of a neutrally-stable atmosphere within the urban area, TKE budget profiles slightly downwind of the urban wake region in the 'urban shadow' are examined. Dissipation and shear production are the largest terms which may be calculated directly. The advection of TKE is calculated as a residual; as would be expected downwind of an urban area, the advection of TKE produced within the urban area is a very large term. Buoyancy effects may be neglected in favor of advection, shear production, and dissipation. For three of the IOPs, buoyancy production may be neglected entirely, and for one IOP, buoyancy production contributes approximately 25% of the total TKE at this location. For both nighttime releases, the contribution of buoyancy to the total TKE budget is always negligible though positive. Results from the simulations provide estimates of the average TKE values in the upwind, downtown, downtown shadow, and urban wake zones of the computational domain. These values suggest that building-induced turbulence can cause the average turbulence intensity in the urban area to increase by as much as much as seven times average 'upwind' values, explaining the minimal role of buoyant forcing in the downtown region. The downtown shadow exhibits an exponential decay in average TKE, while the distant downwind wake region approaches the average upwind values. For long-duration releases in downtown and downtown shadow areas, the assumption of neutral stability is valid because building-induced turbulence dominates the budget. However, further downwind in the urban wake region, which we find to be approximately 1500 m beyond the perimeter of downtown Oklahoma City, the levels of building-induced turbulence greatly subside, and therefore the assumption of neutral stability is less valid.

  14. Measurements of the asymmetric, dynamic sheath around a pulse biased sphere immersed in flowing metal plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Wu, Hongchen; Anders, Andre

    2008-06-13

    A long-probe technique was utilized to record the expansion and retreat of the dynamic sheath around a spherical substrate immersed in pulsed cathode arc metal plasma. Positively biased, long cylindrical probes were placed on the side and downstream of a negatively pulsed biased stainless steel sphere of 1" (25.4 mm) diameter. The amplitude and width of the negative high voltage pulses (HVP) were 2 kV, 5 kV, 10 kV, and 2 mu s, 4 mu s, 10 mu s, respectively. The variation of the probe (electron) current during the HVP is a direct measure for the sheath expansion and retreat. Maximum sheath sizes were determined for the different parameters of the HVP. The expected rarefaction zone behind the biased sphere (wake) due to the fast plasma flow was clearly established and quantified.

  15. The slingshot effect: A possible new laser-driven high energy acceleration mechanism for electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiore, Gaetano; Fedele, Renato; Angelis, Umberto de

    2014-11-15

    We show that under appropriate conditions the impact of a very short and intense laser pulse onto a plasma causes the expulsion of surface electrons with high energy in the direction opposite to the one of the propagations of the pulse. This is due to the combined effects of the ponderomotive force and the huge longitudinal field arising from charge separation (“slingshot effect”). The effect should also be present with other states of matter, provided the pulse is sufficiently intense to locally cause complete ionization. An experimental test seems to be feasible and, if confirmed, would provide a new extraction and acceleration mechanism for electrons, alternative to traditional radio-frequency-based or laser-wake-field ones.

  16. Enhancement of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernitsas, Michael M.; Raghavan, Kamaldev

    2011-11-01

    Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to increase Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Enhancement is needed in such applications as harnessing of clean and renewable energy from ocean/river currents using the ocean energy converter VIVACE (Vortex Induced Vibration for Aquatic Clean Energy).

  17. Final report for 105-N Basin sediment disposition task, phase 2 -- samples BOMPC8 and BOMPC9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esch, R.A.

    1998-02-05

    This document is the final report deliverable for Phase 2 analytical work for the 105-N Basin Sediment Disposition Task. On December 23, 1997, ten samples were received at the 222-S Laboratory as follows: two (2) bottles of potable water, six (6) samples for process control testing and two (2) samples for characterization. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Letter of Instruction for Phase 2 Analytical Work for the 105-N Basin Sediment Disposition Task (Logan and Kessner, 1997) (Attachment 7) and 105-N Basin Sediment Disposition Phase-Two Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) (Smith, 1997). The analytical results are included in Table 1. This document provides the values of X/Qs for the onsite and offsite receptors, taking into account the building wake and the atmospheric stability effects. X/Qs values for the potential fire accident were also calculated. In addition, the unit dose were calculated for the mixtures of isotopes.

  18. Stress Corrosion Crack Growth Rate Testing and Analytical Electron Microscopy of Alloy 600 as a Function of Pourbaix Space and Microstructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. Lewis; S.A. Attanasio; D.S. Morton; G.A. Young

    2000-10-04

    Stress corrosion crack (SCC) growth rate tests and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) studies were performed over a broad range of environments and heat treatments of Alloy 600. This effort was conducted to correlate bulk environmental conditions such as pH and electrochemical potential (EcP) with the morphology of the SCC crack. Development of a library of AEM morphologies formed by SCC in different environments is an important step in identifying the conditions that lead to SCC in components. Additionally, AEM examination of stress corrosion cracks formed in different environments and microstructures lends insight into the mechanism(s) of stress corrosion cracking. Testing was conducted on compact tension specimens in three environments: a mildly acidic oxidizing environment containing sulfate ions, a caustic environment containing 10% NaOH, and hydrogenated near-neutral buffered water. Additionally, stress corrosion cracking testing of a smooth specimen was conducted in hydrogenated steam. The following heat treatments of Alloy 600 were examined: mill annealed at 980 C (near-neutral water), mill annealed at 1010 C (steam), sensitized (acid and caustic), and mill annealed + healed to homogenize the grain boundary Cr concentration (caustic). Crack growth rate (CGR) testing showed that sensitized Alloy 600 tested in the mildly acidic, oxidizing environment containing sulfate ions produced the fastest cracking ({approx} 8.8 {micro}m/hr at 260 C), and AEM examination revealed evidence of sulfur segregation to the crack tip. The caustic environment produced slower cracking ({approx} 0.4 {micro}m/hr at 307 C) in the mill annealed + healed heat treatment but no observed cracking in the sensitized condition. In the caustic environment, fully oxidized carbides were present in the crack wake but not ahead of the crack tip. In near-neutral buffered water at 338 C, the CGR was a function of dissolved hydrogen in the water and exhibited a maximum (0.17 {micro}m/hr) near the transition between Ni and NiO stability. The cracks in near-neutral hydrogenated water exhibited Cr-rich spinels and NiO-type oxides but no significant oxidation of grain boundary carbides. No clear effect of dissolved hydrogen on the crack wake morphology was apparent. In hydrogenated steam testing of a smooth specimen (CGR estimated as {approx} 0.7 {micro}m/hr at 399 C), metallic nickel nodules were evident in both the crack wake and on the specimen surface. Oxide particles having a similar size and shape to the microstructural carbides were found in the crack wake, suggesting that these particles are carbides that were oxidized by contact with the steam. The present results show that different environments often produce unique crack tip morphologies that can be identified via AEM.

  19. Radiological Safety Analysis Computer Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-08-28

    RSAC-6 is the latest version of the RSAC program. It calculates the consequences of a release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. Using a personal computer, a user can generate a fission product inventory; decay and in-grow the inventory during transport through processes, facilities, and the environment; model the downwind dispersion of the activity; and calculate doses to downwind individuals. Internal dose from the inhalation and ingestion pathways is calculated. External dose from ground surface andmore » plume gamma pathways is calculated. New and exciting updates to the program include the ability to evaluate a release to an enclosed room, resuspension of deposited activity and evaluation of a release up to 1 meter from the release point. Enhanced tools are included for dry deposition, building wake, occupancy factors, respirable fraction, AMAD adjustment, updated and enhanced radionuclide inventory and inclusion of the dose-conversion factors from FOR 11 and 12.« less

  20. Synchronizing compute node time bases in a parallel computer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Dong; Faraj, Daniel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip

    2015-01-27

    Synchronizing time bases in a parallel computer that includes compute nodes organized for data communications in a tree network, where one compute node is designated as a root, and, for each compute node: calculating data transmission latency from the root to the compute node; configuring a thread as a pulse waiter; initializing a wakeup unit; and performing a local barrier operation; upon each node completing the local barrier operation, entering, by all compute nodes, a global barrier operation; upon all nodes entering the global barrier operation, sending, to all the compute nodes, a pulse signal; and for each compute node upon receiving the pulse signal: waking, by the wakeup unit, the pulse waiter; setting a time base for the compute node equal to the data transmission latency between the root node and the compute node; and exiting the global barrier operation.

  1. Synchronizing compute node time bases in a parallel computer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Dong; Faraj, Daniel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip

    2014-12-30

    Synchronizing time bases in a parallel computer that includes compute nodes organized for data communications in a tree network, where one compute node is designated as a root, and, for each compute node: calculating data transmission latency from the root to the compute node; configuring a thread as a pulse waiter; initializing a wakeup unit; and performing a local barrier operation; upon each node completing the local barrier operation, entering, by all compute nodes, a global barrier operation; upon all nodes entering the global barrier operation, sending, to all the compute nodes, a pulse signal; and for each compute node upon receiving the pulse signal: waking, by the wakeup unit, the pulse waiter; setting a time base for the compute node equal to the data transmission latency between the root node and the compute node; and exiting the global barrier operation.

  2. Computational Aerodynamic Analysis of Offshore Upwind and Downwind Turbines

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhao, Qiuying; Sheng, Chunhua; Afjeh, Abdollah

    2014-01-01

    Aerodynamic interactions of the model NREL 5 MW offshore horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) are investigated using a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Four wind turbine configurations are considered; three-bladed upwind and downwind and two-bladed upwind and downwind configurations, which operate at two different rotor speeds of 12.1 and 16 RPM. In the present study, both steady and unsteady aerodynamic loads, such as the rotor torque, blade hub bending moment, and base the tower bending moment of the tower, are evaluated in detail to provide overall assessment of different wind turbine configurations. Aerodynamic interactions between the rotor and tower are analyzed,more » including the rotor wake development downstream. The computational analysis provides insight into aerodynamic performance of the upwind and downwind, two- and three-bladed horizontal axis wind turbines.« less

  3. Perspectives on Changing Safeguards Culture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mladineo, Stephen V.; Durbin, Karyn R.; Van Duzer, Andrew

    2005-12-01

    The importance of culture in the nuclear field has become widely recognized. In the wake of the 9-11 attacks in the United States, and terrorist attacks worldwide, the international community has become interested in strengthening nuclear security culture for much of the same reasons that it became interested in strengthening the nuclear safety culture in the 1980s. The accidents that occurred at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl led to a realization that nuclear operations in one country can directly affect other countries. The accidents also led to the realization that technology alone cannot guarantee safety and that the human element has a key role to play in the safety operation of nuclear power plans.

  4. Precession of cylindrical dust particles in the plasma sheath

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banu, N.; Ticoş, C. M.

    2015-10-15

    The vertical precession of cylindrical dust particles levitated in the sheath of an rf plasma is experimentally investigated. Typically, the dust particles have two equilibrium positions depending on the orientation of their longitudinal axis: horizontal and vertical. A transition between these two states is induced by rapidly increasing the neutral gas pressure in the plasma chamber. During this transition, the cylindrical dust particles make an angle with the horizontal and rotate about their center of mass. The rotation speed increases as the dust rods aligned with the vertical axis. All dust particles will eventually end up in the vertical state while spinning fast about their longitudinal axis. Dust-dust interaction and the attracting ion wakes are possible mechanisms for inducing the observed dust precession.

  5. Coupled particle dispersion by three-dimensional vortex structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troutt, T.R.; Chung, J.N.; Crowe, C.T.

    1996-12-31

    The primary objective of this research program is to obtain understanding concerning the role of three-dimensional vortex structures in the dispersion of particles and droplets in free shear flows. This research program builds on previous studies which focused on the nature of particle dispersion in large scale quasi two-dimensional vortex structures. This investigation employs time dependent experimental and numerical techniques to provide information concerning the particulate dispersion produced by three dimensional vortex structures in free shear layers. The free shear flows investigated include modified plane mixing layers, and modified plane wakes. The modifications to these flows involve slight perturbations to the initiation boundary conditions such that three-dimensional vortex structures are rapidly generated by the experimental and numerical flow fields. Recent results support the importance of these vortex structures in the particle dispersion process.

  6. Three dimensional numerical simulations of the UPS-292 stratified charge engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Rourke, P.J.; Amsden, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present and analyze three-dimensional calculations of the spray, mixing and combustion in the UPS-292 stratified charge engine for three different operating conditions, corresponding to overall air-fuel ratios between 22.4 and 61.0. The numerical calculations are performed with KIVA, a multidimensional arbitrary-mesh, finite-difference hydrodynamics program for internal combustion engine applications. The calculations use a mesh of 10,000 computational cells. Each operating condition is calculated from intake valve closure at 118/sup 0/ BTDC to 90/sup 0/ ATDC and requires approximately three hours of CRAY-XMP computer time. Combustion occurs primarily in the wake of the spark plug, and to include the effects of the spark plug on the flow field, we use a novel internal obstacle treatment. The methodology, in which internal obstacles are represented by computational particles, promises to be applicable to the calculation of the flows around intake and exhaust valves.

  7. Design and Start-to-End Simulation of an X-Band RF Driven Hard X-Ray FEL with LCLS Injector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yipeng; /SLAC

    2012-08-20

    In this note, it is briefly discussed the accelerator design and start-to-end 3D macro particles simulation (using ELEGANT and GENESIS) of an X-band RF driven hard X-ray FEL with LCLS injector. A preliminary design and LiTrack 1D simulation studies were presented before in an older publication [1]. In numerical simulations this X-band RF driven hard X-ray FEL achieves/exceeds LCLS-like performance in a much shorter overall length of 350 m, compared with 1200 m in the LCLS case. One key feature of this design is that it may achieve a higher final beam current of 5 kA plus a uniform energy profile, mainly due to the employment of stronger longitudinal wake fields in the last X-band RF linac [2].

  8. Assessment of Scaled Rotors for Wind Tunnel Experiments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maniaci, David Charles; Kelley, Christopher Lee; Chiu, Phillip

    2015-07-01

    Rotor design and analysis work has been performed to support the conceptualization of a wind tunnel test focused on studying wake dynamics. This wind tunnel test would serve as part of a larger model validation campaign that is part of the Department of Energy Wind and Water Power Program’s Atmosphere to electrons (A2e) initiative. The first phase of this effort was directed towards designing a functionally scaled rotor based on the same design process and target full-scale turbine used for new rotors for the DOE/SNL SWiFT site. The second phase focused on assessing the capabilities of an already available rotor, the G1, designed and built by researchers at the Technical University of München.

  9. Reduction of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernitsas, Michael M; Raghavan, Kamaldev

    2014-04-01

    Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to decrease/suppress Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Suppression is required when fluid-structure interaction becomes destructive as in VIM of flexible cylinders or rigid cylinders on elastic support, such as underwater pipelines, marine risers, tubes in heat exchangers, nuclear fuel rods, cooling towers, SPAR offshore platforms.

  10. Electron self-injection in the proton-driven-plasma-wakefield acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Zhang-Hu; Wang, You-Nian

    2013-12-15

    The self-injection process of plasma electrons in the proton-driven-plasma-wakefield acceleration scheme is investigated using a two-dimensional, electromagnetic particle-in-cell method. Plasma electrons are self-injected into the back of the first acceleration bucket during the initial bubble formation period, where the wake phase velocity is low enough to trap sufficient electrons. Most of the self-injected electrons are initially located within a distance of the skin depth c/?{sub pe} to the beam axis. A decrease (or increase) in the beam radius (or length) leads to a significant reduction in the total charges of self-injected electron bunch. Compared to the uniform plasma, the energy spread, emittance and total charges of the self-injected bunch are reduced in the plasma channel case, due to a reduced injection of plasma electrons that initially located further away from the beam axis.

  11. Apparatus And Method For Reducing Drag Of A Bluff Body In Ground Effect Using Counter-Rotating Vortex Pairs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortega, Jason M.; Sabari, Kambiz

    2005-12-27

    An aerodynamic base drag reduction apparatus and method for bluff bodies, such as tractor-trailer trucks, utilizing a pair of lift surfaces extending to lift surface tips and located alongside the bluff body such as on opposing left and right side surfaces. In a flowstream substantially parallel to the longitudinal centerline of the bluff body, the pair of lift surfaces generate a pair of counter-rotating trailing vortices which confluence together in the wake of the bluff body in a direction orthogonal to the flowstream. The confluence draws or otherwise turns the flowstream, such as the flowstream passing over a top surface of the bluff body, in and around behind a trailing end of the bluff body to raise the pressure on a base surface at the trailing end and thereby reduce the aerodynamic base drag.

  12. Apparatus And Method For Reducing Drag Of A Bluff Body In Ground Effect Using Counter-Rotating Vortex Pairs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortega, Jason M.; Salari, Kambiz

    2005-08-09

    An aerodynamic base drag reduction apparatus and method for bluff bodies, such as tractor-trailer trucks, utilizing a pair of lift surfaces extending to lift surface tips and located alongside the bluff body such as on opposing left and right side surfaces. In a flowstream substantially parallel to the longitudinal centerline of the bluff body, the pair of lift surfaces generate a pair of counter-rotating trailing vortices which confluence together in the wake of the bluff body in a direction orthogonal to the flowstream. The confluence draws or otherwise turns the flowstream, such as the flowstream passing over a top surface of the bluff body, in and around behind a trailing end of the bluff body to raise the pressure on a base surface at the trailing end and thereby reduce the aerodynamic base drag.

  13. Structure and Dynamics of Fuel Jets Injected into a High-Temperature Subsonic Crossflow: High-Data-Rate Laser Diagnostic Investigation under Steady and Oscillatory Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucht, Robert; Anderson, William

    2015-01-23

    An investigation of subsonic transverse jet injection into a subsonic vitiated crossflow is discussed. The reacting jet in crossflow (RJIC) system investigated as a means of secondary injection of fuel in a staged combustion system. The measurements were performed in test rigs featuring (a) a steady, swirling crossflow and (b) a crossflow with low swirl but significant oscillation in the pressure field and in the axial velocity. The rigs are referred to as the steady state rig and the instability rig. Rapid mixing and chemical reaction in the near field of the jet injection is desirable in this application. Temporally resolved velocity measurements within the wake of the reactive jets using 2D-PIV and OH-PLIF at a repetition rate of 5 kHz were performed on the RJIC flow field in a steady state water-cooled test rig. The reactive jets were injected through an extended nozzle into the crossflow which is located in the downstream of a low swirl burner (LSB) that produced the swirled, vitiated crossflow. Both H2/N2 and natural gas (NG)/air jets were investigated. OH-PLIF measurements along the jet trajectory show that the auto-ignition starts on the leeward side within the wake region of the jet flame. The measurements show that jet flame is stabilized in the wake of the jet and wake vortices play a significant role in this process. PIV and OH–PLIF measurements were performed at five measurement planes along the cross- section of the jet. The time resolved measurements provided significant information on the evolution of complex flow structures and highly transient features like, local extinction, re-ignition, vortex-flame interaction prevalent in a turbulent reacting flow. Nanosecond-laser-based, single-laser-shot coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements of temperature and H2 concentraiton were also performed. The structure and dynamics of a reacting transverse jet injected into a vitiated oscillatory crossflow presents a unique opportunity for applying advanced experimental diagnostic techniques with increasing fidelity for the purposes of computational validation and model development. Numerical simulation of the reacting jet in crossflow is challenging because of the complex vortical structures in the flowfield and compounded by an unsteady crossflow. The resulting benchmark quality data set will include comprehensive, accurate measurements of mean and fluctuating components of velocity, pressure, and flame front location at high pressure and with crossflow conditions more representative of modern gas turbine engines. A proven means for producing combustion dynamics is used for the performing combustion instability experimental study on a reacting jet in crossflow configuration. The method used to provide an unsteady flowfield into which the transverse jet is injected is a unique and novel approach that permits elevated temperature and pressure conditions. A model dump combustor is used to generate and sustain an acoustically oscillating vitiated flow that serves as the crossflow for transverse jet injection studies. A fully optically accessible combustor test section affords full access surrounding the point of jet injection. High speed 10 kHz planar measurements OH PLIF and high frequency 180 kHz wall pressure measurements are performed on the injected reacting transverse jet and surrounding flowfield, respectively, under simulated unstable conditions. The overlay of the jet velocity flowfield and the flame front will be investigated using simultaneous 10 kHz OH PLIF and PIV in experiments to be performed in the near future.

  14. A summary of the status of biomass conversion technologies and opportunities for their use in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waddle, D.B.; Perlack, R.D. ); Wimberly, J. )

    1990-01-01

    Biomass plays a significant role in energy use in developing countries: however, these resources are often used very inefficiently. Recent technology developments have made possible improved conversion efficiencies for utility scale technologies. These developments may be of interest in the wake of recent policy changes occurring in several developing countries, with respect to independent power production. Efforts are also being directed at developing biomass conversion technologies that can interface and/or compete with internal combustion engines for small, isolated loads. This paper reviews the technological status of biomass conversion technologies appropriate for commercial, industrial, and small utility applications in developing countries. Market opportunities, constraints, and technology developments are also discussed. 25 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. American press coverage of US-Soviet relations, the Soviet Union, nuclear weapons, arms control, and national security: A bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorman, W.A.; Manoff, R.K.; Weeks, J.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography covers work that addresses coverage of nuclear and arms control issues, defense, the Soviet Union, and Soviet-American relations by the American news media between 1965 and 1988. Material selected for inclusion either discusses press performance or addresses conditions -- such as classification of information -- that directly impact on media coverage of such issues. Bodies of literature on media coverage of conflict elsewhere in the world lie outside the Center's current mandate (which has shaped the parameters of this bibliography) except insofar as such conflicts are presented by the news media specifically in the context of US-Soviet relations. Much the same is true of such issues as the North-South flow of information and the debate over calls for a New World Information Order. However, the authors have decided to include assessments of American media coverage of the Vietnam War as a case study of a watershed conflict that raised many of the issues discussed throughout this literature in a particularly compelling way.

  16. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE - A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnis Judzis

    2002-10-01

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE -- A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING contract for the quarter starting July 2002 through September 2002. Even though we are awaiting the optimization portion of the testing program, accomplishments include the following: (1) Smith International agreed to participate in the DOE Mud Hammer program. (2) Smith International chromed collars for upcoming benchmark tests at TerraTek, now scheduled for 4Q 2002. (3) ConocoPhillips had a field trial of the Smith fluid hammer offshore Vietnam. The hammer functioned properly, though the well encountered hole conditions and reaming problems. ConocoPhillips plan another field trial as a result. (4) DOE/NETL extended the contract for the fluid hammer program to allow Novatek to ''optimize'' their much delayed tool to 2003 and to allow Smith International to add ''benchmarking'' tests in light of SDS Digger Tools' current financial inability to participate. (5) ConocoPhillips joined the Industry Advisors for the mud hammer program. (6) TerraTek acknowledges Smith International, BP America, PDVSA, and ConocoPhillips for cost-sharing the Smith benchmarking tests allowing extension of the contract to complete the optimizations.

  17. Why the Gulf War still matters: Foreign perspectives on the war and the future of international security. Report No. 16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrity, P.J.

    1993-07-01

    This report summarizes the main findings of a Center for National Security Studies (CNSS) project that examined how a number of nations other than the United States have reacted to the course and outcome of the Persian Gulf War of 1991. The project was built around studies of key countries on which the Gulf War might reasonably be expected to have had a significant impact: Argentina, the ASEAN states, Brazil, China, Cuba, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Libya, North Korea, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Spain, Syria, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, Vietnam, and the states of the former Yugoslavia. These country studies were written by well-recognized independent experts following a common set of guidelines provided by CNSS. When the country studies were completed, they were reviewed and supplemented through a series of peer assessments and workshops. The report represents a synthesis of material generated through this process, and is intended to stimulate thought and further analysis on the critical topics discussed herein.

  18. How can environmental regulations promote clean coal technology adoption in APEC developing economies?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-11-15

    The study examines both existing and emerging regulatory frameworks in order to determine which type of regulations that would be most effective at promoting clean coal technology adoption in development Asia Pacific Economic Co-operation (APEC) economies and would be practical to implement. regulations targeting air emissions; regulations targeting water use; and regulations concerning coal combustion by-products. When considering the potential effect of existing and new environmental regulations on the adoption of clean coal the analysis of technologies was organised into three categories: environmental control technologies; high efficiency coal combustion technologies; and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). To target the recommendations towards APEC economies that would benefit the most from this analysis, the study focused on developing and transition APEC economies that are expected to rely on coal for a large part of their future generating capacity. These economies include China, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Russian Federation, Thailand, and Vietnam. ACARP provided funding to this study, under Project C15078. 10 figs., 14 tabs., 10 apps.

  19. Nuclear energy: Where do we go from here?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muslim, Dato’ Dr Noramly

    2015-04-29

    As Malaysia progresses towards 2020, the depleting resource of oil and gas has forced a re-look at alternatives to replace fossil fuels as energy sources. Among the viable options is nuclear energy, enabling us to meet energy needs and sustain national development in the twenty-first century. Three essential steps Malaysia must take to introduce nuclear power into its energy mix are: energy planning, infrastructure development, and deployment. Malaysia has to face a series of challenges, including public acceptance, waste management, minimizing proliferation risk, and ensuring the security of nuclear plants and materials. Timely development of qualified and competent manpower is a key limiting factor in the development and transfer of nuclear technologies — and education and training take time, effort and money. There is a need for political will. Within the Asian region, China, Korea and Japan are in the forefront in utilizing nuclear power to meet electricity demands. Countries such as UAE, Bangladesh, Vietnam and Turkey are moving ahead with the nuclear option for electricity generation and they have begun planning and construction of nuclear power plants. Against this backdrop, what are Malaysia’s moves? This paper discusses various options and challenges, obstacles and repercussions in meeting future energy demands.

  20. Growth mechanisms, polytypism, and real structure of kaolinite microcrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samotoin, N. D.

    2008-09-15

    The mechanisms of growth of kaolinite microcrystals (0.1-5.0 {mu}m in size) at deposits related to the cluvial weathering crust, as well as to the low-temperature and medium-temperature hydrothermal processes of transformations of minerals in different rocks in Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Czechia, Vietnam, India, Cuba, and Madagascar, are investigated using transmission electron microscopy and vacuum decoration with gold. It is established that kaolinite microcrystals grow according to two mechanisms: the mechanism of periodic formation of two-dimensional nuclei and the mechanism of spiral growth. The spiral growth of kaolinite microcrystals is dominant and occurs on steps of screw dislocations that differ in sign and magnitude of the Burgers vector along the c axis. The layered growth of kaolinite originates from a widespread source in the form of a step between polar (+ and -) dislocations, i.e., a growth analogue of the Frank-Read dislocation source. The density of growth screw dislocations varies over a wide range and can be as high as {approx}10{sup 9} cm{sup -2}. Layered stepped kaolinite growth pyramids for all mechanisms of growth on the (001) face of kaolinite exhibit the main features of the triclinic 1Tc and real structures of this mineral.

  1. Bibliography of information sources on East Asian energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salosis, J.

    1982-11-01

    The first section of this bibliography is a subject index by title to sources of information on East Asian energy. The countries considered were: Brunei, the PRC, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, the Koreas, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. If the geographic coverage by any source is restricted to a particular country and was not indicated by the title, a country abbreviation in parentheses was added. Titles that include the term data base are computerized. The second section contains the Title Index which lists each printed publication alphabetically with frequency of publication and the US$ price for a yearly air mail subscription. The publisher or distribution office is listed below the title. The Data Base Index lists computerized sources with the author and the vendor providing either online access or tapes. No prices have been quoted in this section because of the wide range of methods in use and the impossibility of running benchmarks for this study. The Address Index lists the publishers, data base authors and vendors alphabetically.

  2. High Resolution Simulation of Beam Dynamics in Electron Linacs for Free Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryne, R.D.; Venturini, M.; Zholents, A.A.; Qiang, J.

    2009-01-05

    In this paper we report on large scale multi-physics simulation of beam dynamics in electron linacs for next generation free electron lasers (FELs). We describe key features of a parallel macroparticle simulation code including three-dimensional (3D) space-charge effects, short-range structure wake fields, longitudinal coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) wake fields, and treatment of radiofrequency (RF) accelerating cavities using maps obtained from axial field profiles. A macroparticle up-sampling scheme is described that reduces the shot noise from an initial distribution with a smaller number of macroparticles while maintaining the global properties of the original distribution. We present a study of the microbunching instability which is a critical issue for future FELs due to its impact on beam quality at the end of the linac. Using parameters of a planned FEL linac at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), we show that a large number of macroparticles (beyond 100 million) is needed to control numerical shot noise that drives the microbunching instability. We also explore the effect of the longitudinal grid on simulation results. We show that acceptable results are obtained with around 2048 longitudinal grid points, and we discuss this in view of the spectral growth rate predicted from linear theory. As an application, we present results from simulations using one billion macroparticles of the FEL linac under design at LBNL. We show that the final uncorrelated energy spread of the beam depends not only on the initial uncorrelated energy spread but also depends strongly on the shape of the initial current profile. By using a parabolic initial current profile, 5 keV initial uncorrelated energy spread at 40 MeV injection energy, and improved linac design, those simulations demonstrate that a reasonable beam quality can be achieved at the end of the linac, with the final distribution having about 100 keV energy spread, 2.4 GeV energy, and 1.2 kA peak current.

  3. Moderate Velocity Ball Impact of a Mock High-Explosive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furmanski, Jevan; Rae, Philip; Clements, Bradford E.

    2012-06-05

    Modeling of thermal and mechanical events in high-explosive materials is complicated by the composite nature of the material, which experiences viscoelastic and plastic deformations and sustains damage in the form of microcracks that can dominate its overall behavior. A mechanical event of interest is projectile interaction with the material, which leads to extreme local deformation and adiabatic heating, which can potentially lead to adverse outcomes in an energetic material. Simulations of such an event predicted large local temperature rises near the path of a spherical projectile, but these were experimentally unconfirmed and hence potentially non-physical. This work concerns the experimental verification of local temperatures both at the surface and in the wake of a spherical projectile penetrating a mock (unreactive) high-explosive at {approx}700 m/s. Fast response thermocouples were embedded radially in a mid-plane of a cylindrical target, which was bonded around the thermocouples with epoxy and recorded by an oscilloscope through a low-pass filter with a bandwidth of 500 Hz. A peak temperature rise of 70 K was measured both at the equator of the projectile and in its wake, in good agreement with the temperature predicted in the minimally distorted elements at those locations by a finite element model in ABAQUS employing the ViscoSCRAM constitutive model. Further work is needed to elucidate the extreme temperature rises in material undergoing crushing or fragmentation, which is difficult to predict with meshed finite element methods due to element distortion, and also challenging to quantify experimentally.

  4. Life-cycle analysis of alternative aviation fuels in GREET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2012-07-23

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1{_}2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or (2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55-85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources - such as natural gas and coal - could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet fuel production unless carbon management practices, such as carbon capture and storage, are used.

  5. Recent Advances and New Techniques in Visualization of Ultra-short Relativistic Electron Bunches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang, Dao; /SLAC

    2012-06-05

    Ultrashort electron bunches with rms length of {approx} 1 femtosecond (fs) can be used to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses in FELs that may open up many new regimes in ultrafast sciences. It is also envisioned that ultrashort electron bunches may excite {approx}TeV/m wake fields for plasma wake field acceleration and high field physics studies. Recent success of using 20 pC electron beam to drive an x-ray FEL at LCLS has stimulated world-wide interests in using low charge beam (1 {approx} 20 pC) to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses (0.1 fs {approx} 10 fs) in FELs. Accurate measurement of the length (preferably the temporal profile) of the ultrashort electron bunch is essential for understanding the physics associated with the bunch compression and transportation. However, the shorter and shorter electron bunch greatly challenges the present beam diagnostic methods. In this paper we review the recent advances in the measurement of ultra-short electron bunches. We will focus on several techniques and their variants that provide the state-of-the-art temporal resolution. Methods to further improve the resolution of these techniques and the promise to break the 1 fs time barrier is discussed. We review recent advances in the measurement of ultrashort relativistic electron bunches. We will focus on several techniques and their variants that are capable of breaking the femtosecond time barrier in measurements of ultrashort bunches. Techniques for measuring beam longitudinal phase space as well as the x-ray pulse shape in an x-ray FEL are also discussed.

  6. Segmented Ultralight Pre-Aligned Rotor for Extreme-Scale Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loth, E.; Steele, A.; Ichter, B.; Selig, M.; Moriarty, P.

    2012-01-01

    To alleviate the mass-scaling issues associated with conventional upwind rotors of extreme-scale turbines, a downwind rotor concept is proposed which employs fixed blade curvature based on force alignment at rated conditions. For a given peak stress constraint, the reduction in downwind cantilever loads allows reduced shell and spar thickness, and thus a reduced blade mass as compared with a conventional upwind rotor, especially as rotor sizes approach extreme-scales. To quantify this mass reduction, a Finite Element Analysis was conducted for a 10 MW rated rotor based on the NREL offshore 5 MW baseline wind turbine. The results show that this 'pre-alignment' yields a net downstream deflection of 32 deg, a downward hub-pitch angle of 6 deg, a 20% increase in blade length (to maintain the same radius as the conventional blade), and a net mass savings of about 50% through decreased shell and spar thicknesses. The pre-alignment may also allow a more straightforward and efficient segmentation of the blade since shear stresses near joints are substantially reduced. Segmenting, in turn, can dramatically reduce costs associated with fabrication, transport and assembly for extreme-scale off-shore systems. The pre-aligned geometric curvature can also help alleviate tower wake effects on the blades since blade tips (where shadow effects can be most problematic) are shifted downstream where the tower wake is weaker. In addition, the portion of the tower that is upstream of the blade tips can be faired with an externally-rotating aerodynamic shroud. Furthermore, the downwind rotor can allow a floating off-shore tri-pod platform to reduce tower weight and yaw-control requirements. A simple economic analysis of the segmented ultralight pre-aligned rotor (SUPAR) concept suggests that the overall system cost savings can be as much as 25%, indicating that more detailed (numerical and experimental) investigations are warranted.

  7. Coastal Ohio Wind Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorsevski, Peter; Afjeh, Abdollah; Jamali, Mohsin; Bingman, Verner

    2014-04-04

    The Coastal Ohio Wind Project intends to address problems that impede deployment of wind turbines in the coastal and offshore regions of Northern Ohio. The project evaluates different wind turbine designs and the potential impact of offshore turbines on migratory and resident birds by developing multidisciplinary research, which involves wildlife biology, electrical and mechanical engineering, and geospatial science. Firstly, the project conducts cost and performance studies of two- and three-blade wind turbines using a turbine design suited for the Great Lakes. The numerical studies comprised an analysis and evaluation of the annual energy production of two- and three-blade wind turbines to determine the levelized cost of energy. This task also involved wind tunnel studies of model wind turbines to quantify the wake flow field of upwind and downwind wind turbine-tower arrangements. The experimental work included a study of a scaled model of an offshore wind turbine platform in a water tunnel. The levelized cost of energy work consisted of the development and application of a cost model to predict the cost of energy produced by a wind turbine system placed offshore. The analysis found that a floating two-blade wind turbine presents the most cost effective alternative for the Great Lakes. The load effects studies showed that the two-blade wind turbine model experiences less torque under all IEC Standard design load cases considered. Other load effects did not show this trend and depending on the design load cases, the two-bladed wind turbine showed higher or lower load effects. The experimental studies of the wake were conducted using smoke flow visualization and hot wire anemometry. Flow visualization studies showed that in the downwind turbine configuration the wake flow was insensitive to the presence of the blade and was very similar to that of the tower alone. On the other hand, in the upwind turbine configuration, increasing the rotor blade angle of attack reduced the wake size and enhanced the vortices in the flow downstream of the turbine-tower compared with the tower alone case. Mean and rms velocity distributions from hot wire anemometer data confirmed that in a downwind configuration, the wake of the tower dominates the flow, thus the flow fields of a tower alone and tower-turbine combinations are nearly the same. For the upwind configuration, the mean velocity shows a narrowing of the wake compared with the tower alone case. The downwind configuration wake persisted longer than that of an upwind configuration; however, it was not possible to quantify this difference because of the size limitation of the wind tunnel downstream of the test section. The water tunnel studies demonstrated that the scale model studies could be used to adequately produce accurate motions to model the motions of a wind turbine platform subject to large waves. It was found that the important factors that affect the platform is whether the platform is submerged or surface piercing. In the former, the loads on the platform will be relatively reduced whereas in the latter case, the structure pierces the wave free surface and gains stiffness and stability. The other important element that affects the movement of the platform is depth of the sea in which the wind turbine will be installed. Furthermore, the wildlife biology component evaluated migratory patterns by different monitoring systems consisting of marine radar, thermal IR camera and acoustic recorders. The types of radar used in the project are weather surveillance radar and marine radar. The weather surveillance radar (1988 Doppler), also known as Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD), provides a network of weather stations in the US. Data generated from this network were used to understand general migratory patterns, migratory stopover habitats, and other patterns caused by the effects of weather conditions. At a local scale our marine radar was used to complement the datasets from NEXRAD and to collect additional monitoring parameters such as passage rates, flight paths, flight directions, and flight altitudes of nocturnal migrating species. Our work focused on the design and development of custom built marine radar that used t-bar and parabolic dish antennas. The marine radar used in the project was Furuno (XANK250) which was coupled with a XIR3000B digitizing card from Russell Technologies for collection of the radar data. The radar data was processed by open source radR processing software using different computational techniques and methods. Additional data from thermal IR imaging cameras were collected to detect heat emitted from objects and provide information on movements of birds and bats, data which we used for different animal flight behavior analysis. Lastly, the data from the acoustic recorders were used to provide the number of bird calls for assessing patterns and peak passage rates during migration. The development of the geospatial database included collection of different data sources that are used to support offshore wind turbine development. Many different data sets were collected and organized using initial version of web-based repository software tools that can accommodate distribution of rectified pertinent data sets such as the lake depth, lake bottom engineering parameters, extent of ice, navigation pathways, wind speed, important bird habitats, fish efforts and other layers that are relevant for supporting robust offshore wind turbine developments. Additional geospatial products developed during the project included few different prototypes for offshore wind farm suitability which can involve different stakeholders and participants for solving complex planning problems and building consensus. Some of the prototypes include spatial decision support system (SDSS) for collaborative decision making, a web-based Participatory Geographic Information System (PGIS) framework for evaluating importance of different decision alternatives using different evaluation criteria, and an Android application for collection of field data using mobile and tablet devices . In summary, the simulations of two- and three-blade wind turbines suggested that two-bladed machines could produce comparable annual energy as the three-blade wind turbines but have a lighter tower top weight, which leads to lower cost of energy. In addition, the two-blade rotor configuration potentially costs 20% less than a three blade configuration that produces the same power at the same site. The cost model analysis predicted a potential cost savings of approximately 15% for offshore two-blade wind turbines. The foundation design for a wind turbine in Lake Erie is likely to be driven by ice loads based on the currently available ice data and ice mechanics models. Hence, for Lake Eire, the cost savings will be somewhat smaller than the other lakes in the Great Lakes. Considering the size of cranes and vessels currently available in the Great Lakes, the cost optimal wind turbine size should be 3 MW, not larger. The surveillance data from different monitoring systems suggested that bird and bat passage rates per hour were comparable during heavy migrations in both spring and fall seasons while passage rates were significantly correlated to wind directions and wind speeds. The altitude of migration was higher during heavy migrations and higher over water relative to over land. Notable portions of migration on some spring nights occurred parallel the shoreline, often moving perpendicular to southern winds. The birds approaching the Western basin have a higher propensity to cross than birds approaching the Central basin of Lake Erie and as such offshore turbine development might be a better option further east towards Cleveland than in the Western basin. The high stopover density was more strongly associated with migration volume the following night rather than the preceding night. The processed mean scalar wind speeds with temporal resolutions as fine as 10-minute intervals near turbine height showed that August is the month with the weakest winds while December is the month, which typically has the strongest winds. The ice data suggests that shallow western basin of Lake Erie has higher ice cover duration many times exceeding 90 days during some winters.

  8. Towards SEA for the developing nations of Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briffett, Clive; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip; Mackee, Jamie

    2003-03-01

    In the developing and transitional countries of Asia, environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been widely practiced as a planning tool that identifies the potential impacts associated with developments and determines their level of significance and the need for mitigating measures. Not withstanding its extensive use in many Asian countries, certain limitations are now being increasingly recognised with regard to achieving sustainable development within the planning process. It is also noted that the natural environment in Asia has continued to be severely degraded despite the adoption of EIA. This research project was undertaken at the National University of Singapore to review the status on the implementation of EIA procedures and to investigate the status and potential of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in Asia. The research project generally investigated the existing physical attributes of six countries including Hong Kong and Singapore, Malaysia and the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Vietnam and discussed their prevailing environmental conditions. It more specifically reviewed policymaking and environmental planning, environmental legislation and the practice and procedures of environmental impact assessment. It also evaluated environmental assessment education and training activities. In some cases such as Hong Kong, an opportunity to analyse actual SEA practice was included. In other cases, the potential for possible take up of formal SEA was assessed. A comparative review assesses the degree to which EIA and SEA procedures have been utilized, considers how the use of SEA could overcome the deficiencies of the EIA project-based system and includes aspects of meeting sustainability criteria. Results show that the use and application of EIA is relatively strong across all countries with the possible exception of Singapore which relies more heavily on its planning and control system to address potential environmental impacts arising from development projects. Despite this, EIAs have been undertaken in every country due to aid and bank lending agencies requiring them and multinational companies and many local NGOs completing voluntary EIAs. Even though the mandatory introduction of EIA into some countries is fairly recent such as Hong Kong (1999) and Vietnam (1994), efforts to conduct such investigations may have started many years before. The country reviews highlight many common problems and adverse influences that give rise to inadequate EIA practice, and in some cases, recommendations for improvement are proposed. The potential for SEA is assessed on the basis of its present usage which is generally small except for Hong Kong and the environmental strategic decision-making that is being conducted in policy, plan and programme formulations. While the more comprehensive and well-refined westernized model of SEA is generally weakly implemented at present, there is evidence to suggest that Agenda 21, along with other international treaties such as the Biodiversity Charter and the Ramsar Convention, has motivated certain sustainability initiatives that are resulting in increased environmental considerations at a strategic level. In some cases, these may be reflected in National Plan policymaking or in the sector and area-based activities of various ministries and departments. It is concluded that SEA potential is generally strong in those countries with smaller centralized bureaucracies but that its successful implementation will be highly dependent on changing the mind-sets and motivations of top personnel at ministerial level.

  9. Profiteering on the Iran-Iraq war

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brzoska, M.

    1987-06-01

    The military gear delivered from the US in the Iran-contra affair represents only a minor portion of arms sales to the combatants in the Iraq-Iran war. That war has now lasted more than six years and has deeply influenced the international arms market. Occurring during a period when other demand for arms has been relatively low, the war has nourished new suppliers and has revived both the legal and illegal private arms market. The erratic behavior of the USSR and the US, until recently by far the most important arms suppliers to the Third World, has pushed Iran and Iraq toward more commercially oriented sources, including many in the Third World. Both countries have had ample supplies of weapons during the war, and these weapons have served their purpose. Mainly because of its duration, the war already ranks third among post-World War II wars - after the Vietnam war and the Biafra war - in battlefield victims, with 300,000-500,000 casualties. The economic cost has risen to nearly $500 billion in weapons, destruction, and lost income. While it is hard to see anything but losers on the battlefield, the arms traffickers are profiting. Total Iranian arms imports since August 1980 have been higher than $10 billion, while Iraq has imported more than $30 billion worth. It is difficult to know whether making arms more difficult to obtain would have stopped the war, but judging from other recent wars, such as those between India and Pakistan, between Uganda and Tanzania, and in the Middle East, it seems likely that hostilities could have been stopped long ago. 12 references.

  10. Study of Fish Response Using Particle Image Velocimetry and High-Speed, High-Resolution Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Richmond, Marshall C.; Guensch, Gregory R.; Mueller, Robert P.

    2004-10-23

    Existing literature of previous particle image velocimetry (PIV) studies of fish swimming has been reviewed. Historically, most of the studies focused on the performance evaluation of freely swimming fish. Technological advances over the last decade, especially the development of digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) technique, make possible more accurate, quantitative descriptions of the flow patterns adjacent to the fish and in the wake behind the fins and tail, which are imperative to decode the mechanisms of drag reduction and propulsive efficiency. For flows generated by different organisms, the related scales and flow regimes vary significantly. For small Reynolds numbers, viscosity dominates; for very high Reynolds numbers, inertia dominates, and three-dimensional complexity occurs. The majority of previous investigations dealt with the lower end of Reynolds number range. The fish of our interest, such as rainbow trout and spring and fall chinook salmon, fall into the middle range, in which neither viscosity nor inertia is negligible, and three-dimensionality has yet to dominate. Feasibility tests have proven the applicability of PIV to flows around fish. These tests have shown unsteady vortex shedding in the wake, high vorticity region and high stress region, with the highest in the pectoral area. This evident supports the observations by Nietzel et al. (2000) and Deng et al. (2004) that the operculum are most vulnerable to damage from the turbulent shear flow, because they are easily pried open, and the large vorticity and shear stress can lift and tear off scales, rupture or dislodge eyes, and damage gills. In addition, the unsteady behavior of the vortex shedding in the wake implies that injury to fish by the instantaneous flow structures would likely be much higher than the injury level estimated using the average values of the dynamics parameters. Based on existing literature, our technological capability, and relevance and practicability to Department of Energy's Hydropower Program, we identified three major research areas of interest: free swimming, the boundary layer over fish, and kinematic response of fish. We propose that the highest priority is to characterize the kinematic response of fish to different turbulent environments such as high shear/turbulence and hydrodynamic disturbances created by solid structures such as deflector and turbine runner blade; the next priority is to map the boundary layer over swimming fish; the last is to document the behavior of freely swimming fish, focusing on fish of our interest. Grid turbulence and Karman vortex street will be employed to map the boundary layers over fish and investigate the effects of environmental disturbances on the swimming performance of fish, because they are well established and documented in engineering literature and are representative of fish's swimming environments. Extreme conditions characteristic of turbine environments, such as strong shear environment and collision, will be investigated. Through controlled laboratory studies, the fish injury mechanism from different sources will be evaluated in isolation. The major goals are to: gain first-hand knowledge of the biological effects under such extreme hydraulic environments in which fish could lack the capability to overcome the perturbations and be vulnerable to injury; Better understand field results by integrating the laboratory studies with the responses of sensor fish device; More importantly, provide well-defined validation cases and boundary conditions for geometry-based computational fluid-structure interaction modeling in order to simulate the complex hydraulic environments in advanced hydropower systems and their effects on fish, greatly enhancing the potential to use CFD as a bio-hydraulic design alternative.

  11. Inertial confinement fusion based on the ion-bubble trigger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jafari, S. Nilkar, M.; Ghasemizad, A.; Mehdian, H.

    2014-10-15

    Triggering the ion-bubble in an inertial confinement fusion, we have developed a novel scheme for the fast ignition. This scheme relies on the plasma cavitation by the wake of an intense laser pulse to generate an ion-bubble. The bubble acts both as an intense electron accelerator and as an electron wiggler. Consequently, the accelerated electrons trapped in the bubble can emit an intense tunable laser light. This light can be absorbed by an ablation layer on the outside surface of the ignition capsule, which subsequently drills it and thereby produces a guide channel in the pellet. Finally, the relativistic electron beam created in the bubble is guided through the channel to the high density core igniting the fusion fuel. The normalized beam intensity and beam energy required for triggering the ignition have been calculated when core is heated by the e-beam. In addition, through solving the momentum transfer, continuity and wave equations, a dispersion relation for the electromagnetic and space-charge waves has been analytically derived. The variations of growth rate with the ion-bubble density and electron beam energy have been illustrated. It is found that the growth rates of instability are significantly controlled by the ions concentration and the e-beam energy in the bubble.

  12. From SO{sub 2} to greenhouse gases: trends and events shaping future emissions trading programs in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Kruger

    2005-06-15

    Cap-and-trade programs have become widely accepted for the control of conventional air pollution in the United States. However, there is still no political consensus to use these programs to address greenhouse gases. Meanwhile, in the wake of the success of the US SO{sub 2} and NOx trading programs, private companies, state governments, and the European Union are developing new trading programs or other initiatives that may set precedents for a future national US greenhouse gas trading scheme. This paper summarizes the literature on the 'lessons learned' from the SO{sub 2} trading program for greenhouse gas trading, including lessons about the potential differences in design that may be necessary because of the different sources, science, mitigation options, and economics inherent in greenhouse gases. The paper discusses how the programs and initiatives mentioned above have been shaped by lessons from past trading programs and whether they are making changes to the SO{sub 2} model to address greenhouse gases. It concludes with an assessment of the implications of these initiatives for a future US national greenhouse gas trading program. 91 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Quantifying the value that wind power provides as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2002-05-31

    Advocates of renewable energy have long argued that wind power and other renewable technologies can mitigate fuel price risk within a resource portfolio. Such arguments--made with renewed vigor in the wake of unprecedented natural gas price volatility during the winter of 2000/2001--have mostly been qualitative in nature, however, with few attempts to actually quantify the price stability benefit that wind and other renewables provide. This paper attempts to quantify this benefit by equating it with the cost of achieving price stability through other means, particularly gas-based financial derivatives (futures and swaps). We find that over the past two years, natural gas consumers have had to pay a premium of roughly 0.50 cents/kWh over expected spot prices to lock in natural gas prices for the next 10 years. This incremental cost is potentially large enough to tip the scales away from new investments in natural gasfired generation and in favor of investments in wind power and other renewable technologies.

  14. Trailing edge modifications for flatback airfoils.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahn, Daniel L.; van Dam, C.P.; Berg, Dale E.

    2008-03-01

    The adoption of blunt trailing edge airfoils (also called flatback airfoils) for the inboard region of large wind turbine blades has been proposed. Blunt trailing edge airfoils would not only provide a number of structural benefits, such as increased structural volume and ease of fabrication and handling, but they have also been found to improve the lift characteristics of thick airfoils. Therefore, the incorporation of blunt trailing edge airfoils would allow blade designers to more freely address the structural demands without having to sacrifice aerodynamic performance. These airfoils do have the disadvantage of generating high levels of drag as a result of the low-pressure steady or periodic flow in the near-wake of the blunt trailing edge. Although for rotors, the drag penalty appears secondary to the lift enhancement produced by the blunt trailing edge, high drag levels are of concern in terms of the negative effect on the torque and power generated by the rotor. Hence, devices are sought that mitigate the drag of these airfoils. This report summarizes the literature on bluff body vortex shedding and bluff body drag reduction devices and proposes four devices for further study in the wind tunnel.

  15. Forensic analysis of the microbiome of phones and shoes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lax, Simon; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad T.; Gibbons, Sean M.; Colares, Geórgia Barguil; Smith, Daniel; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2015-05-12

    Background: Microbial interaction between human-associated objects and the environments we inhabit may have forensic implications, and the extent to which microbes are shared between individuals inhabiting the same space may be relevant to human health and disease transmission. In this study, two participants sampled the front and back of their cell phones, four different locations on the soles of their shoes, and the floor beneath them every waking hour over a 2-day period. A further 89 participants took individual samples of their shoes and phones at three different scientific conferences. Results: Samples taken from different surface types maintained significantly differentmore » microbial community structures. The impact of the floor microbial community on that of the shoe environments was strong and immediate, as evidenced by Procrustes analysis of shoe replicates and significant correlation between shoe and floor samples taken at the same time point. Supervised learning was highly effective at determining which participant had taken a given shoe or phone sample, and a Bayesian method was able to determine which participant had taken each shoe sample based entirely on its similarity to the floor samples. Both shoe and phone samples taken by conference participants clustered into distinct groups based on location, though much more so when an unweighted distance metric was used, suggesting sharing of low-abundance microbial taxa between individuals inhabiting the same space. In conclusion, correlations between microbial community sources and sinks allow for inference of the interactions between humans and their environment.« less

  16. The earth is in your hands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Browner, C.M.

    1995-08-01

    Earth Day 25 is a time to reflect on how mankind is doing in protecting their environment. Twenty-five years ago, in the wake of the first Earth Day, the US has created, virtually from scratch, the most advanced system of environmental protection in the world. In the course of a very short history--a mere quarter-century--man has made tremendous progress. Their skies and rivers are cleaner. And US environmental expertise and technology are in demand throughout the world. In the years since the first Earth Day, EPA banned lead in gasoline, lowering lead levels in the air by more than 90 percent and protecting millions of children from harm. Dangerous and widely used pesticides were banned. Unsafe local garbage dumps all over the nation were closed and recycling has become a household habit. American towns have been provided with substantial funding for wastewater treatment--the second biggest public works effort in US history, resulting in cleaner rivers all over the US. All cars and trucks now have standards for fuel economy, set by EPA, that allow consumers to choose a car for its energy efficiency. And EPA has played an important role in ensuring that companies and others comply with their environmental laws or face stiff penalties. Perhaps most important, the nation has gained a new understanding. More Americans than ever understand that to ensure a good quality of life they must act as responsible stewards of their air, their water, and their land.

  17. HAWT performance with dynamic stall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hibbs, B.D.

    1986-02-01

    In this report we calculated the effects of flow nonuniformities (wing shear, tower wake, yaw, and large-scale turbulence) on the performance of a horizontal axis wind turbine, accounting for dynamic stall. We modified the PROP program to incorporate and compare these effects with the uniform flow case. The MIT model, which predicts dynamic lift coefficients substantially higher than the static maximum values and includes a crude model of the vortex roll-off phenomenon, represented dynamic stall. As associated model for drag was also used. The dynamic stall model was tested against experimental data for three typical reduced frequencies. Good instantaneous correlation was obtained. The effects of nonuniformities with and without the dynamic stall were calculated using the Westinghouse Mod O and Enertech 44/25 turbines. Modeling the dynamic stall has little effect on performance. Furthermore, the performance with nonuniform flow differed only slightly from the uniform flow case. Thus the now PROP model provides a powerful general capability to handle nonuniform flows.

  18. Intergranular fracture in UO2: derivation of traction-separation law from atomistic simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yongfeng Zhang; Paul C Millett; Michael R Tonks; Xian-Ming Bai; S Bulent Biner

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the intergranular fracture behavior of UO2 was studied by molecular dynamics simulations using the Basak potential. In addition, the constitutive traction-separation law was derived from atomistic data using the cohesive-zone model. In the simulations a bicrystal model with the (100) symmetric tilt E5 grain boundaries was utilized. Uniaxial tension along the grain boundary normal was applied to simulate Mode-I fracture. The fracture was observed to propagate along the grain boundary by micro-pore nucleation and coalescence, giving an overall intergranular fracture behavior. Phase transformations from the Fluorite to the Rutile and Scrutinyite phases were identified at the propagating crack tips. These new phases are metastable and they transformed back to the Fluorite phase at the wake of crack tips as the local stress concentration was relieved by complete cracking. Such transient behavior observed at atomistic scale was found to substantially increase the energy release rate for fracture. Insertion of Xe gas into the initial notch showed minor effect on the overall fracture behavior.

  19. Influence of a strong laser field on Coulomb explosion and stopping power of energetic H{sub 3}{sup +} clusters in plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Guiqiu; Gao Hong; Wang Yaochuan; Yao Li; Zhong Haiyang; Cheng Lihong; Yang Kun; Liu Wei [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China); E Peng; Xu Dianguo [Department of Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang Younian; Hu Zhanghu [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2012-09-15

    The influence of a high-intensity laser field on the Coulomb explosion and stopping power for a swift H{sub 3}{sup +} cluster ion in a plasma target is studied by means of the molecular dynamic (MD) method based on the linearized Vlasov-Poisson theory. Excitations of the plasma are described by the classical plasma dielectric function. In the presence of the laser field, the general expressions for the induced potential in the target and the interaction force among the ions within the cluster are derived. Based on the numerical solution of the equations of motion for the constituent ions, the Coulomb explosion patterns and the cluster's stopping power are discussed for a range of laser parameters. Numerical results show that the laser field affects the correlation between the ions and contributes to weaken the wake effect and the stopping power as compared to the laser-free case. On the other hand, the stopping power ratio of H{sub 3}{sup +} cluster is higher than the situation of dicluster of H{sub 2}{sup +} due to the vicinage effect in the cluster.

  20. Analytical and experimental studies of leak location and environment characterization for the international space station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woronowicz, Michael; Blackmon, Rebecca; Brown, Martin; Abel, Joshua; Hawk, Doug; Autrey, David; Glenn, Jodie; Bond, Tim; Buffington, Jesse; Cheng, Edward; Ma, Jonathan; Rossetti, Dino; DeLatte, Danielle; Garcia, Kelvin; Mohammed, Jelila; Montt de Garcia, Kristina; Perry, Radford; Tull, Kimathi; Warren, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The International Space Station program is developing a robotically-operated leak locator tool to be used externally. The tool would consist of a Residual Gas Analyzer for partial pressure measurements and a full range pressure gauge for total pressure measurements. The primary application is to demonstrate the ability to detect NH{sub 3} coolant leaks in the ISS thermal control system. An analytical model of leak plume physics is presented that can account for effusive flow as well as plumes produced by sonic orifices and thruster operations. This model is used along with knowledge of typical RGA and full range gauge performance to analyze the expected instrument sensitivity to ISS leaks of various sizes and relative locations (“directionality”). The paper also presents experimental results of leak simulation testing in a large thermal vacuum chamber at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This test characterized instrument sensitivity as a function of leak rates ranging from 1 lb{sub m/}/yr. to about 1 lb{sub m}/day. This data may represent the first measurements collected by an RGA or ion gauge system monitoring off-axis point sources as a function of location and orientation. Test results are compared to the analytical model and used to propose strategies for on-orbit leak location and environment characterization using the proposed instrument while taking into account local ISS conditions and the effects of ram/wake flows and structural shadowing within low Earth orbit.

  1. Low-bandwidth authentication.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donnelly, Patrick Joseph; McIver, Lauren; Gaines, Brian R.; Anderson, Erik; Collins, Michael Joseph; Thomas,Kurt Adam; McDaniel, Austin

    2007-09-01

    Remotely-fielded unattended sensor networks generally must operate at very low power--in the milliwatt or microwatt range--and thus have extremely limited communications bandwidth. Such sensors might be asleep most of the time to conserve power, waking only occasionally to transmit a few bits. RFID tags for tracking or material control have similarly tight bandwidth constraints, and emerging nanotechnology devices will be even more limited. Since transmitted data is subject to spoofing, and since sensors might be located in uncontrolled environments vulnerable to physical tampering, the high-consequence data generated by such systems must be protected by cryptographically sound authentication mechanisms; but such mechanisms are often lacking in current sensor networks. One reason for this undesirable situation is that standard authentication methods become impractical or impossible when bandwidth is severely constrained; if messages are small, a standard digital signature or HMAC will be many times larger than the message itself, yet it might be possible to spare only a few extra bits per message for security. Furthermore, the authentication tags themselves are only one part of cryptographic overhead, as key management functions (distributing, changing, and revoking keys) consume still more bandwidth. To address this problem, we have developed algorithms that provide secure authentication while adding very little communication overhead. Such techniques will make it possible to add strong cryptographic guarantees of data integrity to a much wider range of systems.

  2. Use of sustainability appraisal by English planning inspectors and judges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Therivel, Riki

    2013-01-15

    This article considers how sustainability appraisals (SA - an English form of SEA that also considers social and economic issues) are treated at the end of the plan-making process: by planning inspectors who review plans before they are adopted, and by judges in the case of legal challenge to plans and their SAs. It briefly describes the role of inspectors and judges, and how their decisions influence SA. It presents the conclusions of 81 planning inspectors' reports about local authority development plans and their SAs, including three cases where inspectors required further SA information and reasons given by inspectors for not challenging the legal adequacy of other SAs. The three main successful English legal challenges to SA are then summarised. Planning inspectors seemed prone, until recently, to not challenge even quite poor quality SAs. This seems to be changing in the wake of recent court judgements, and in turn is affecting planners' SA practice. However it is unclear whether these changes will affect only the procedural aspects of SA or also planners' and inspectors' 'hearts and minds'. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inspectors tend to err in favour of the submitted plan, even where its sustainability or the quality of its SA is dubious. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In contrast to inspectors, judges seem to be taking a broad and rigorous view of SEA requirements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Planners and inspectors are changing their behaviour to avoid legal challenge.

  3. Flame and flow characteristics of double concentric jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, R.F.; Yang, J.T.; Lee, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    The characteristic flame and flow modes of a double concentric type of combustor possessing a central air jet and an annular propane gas are experimentally studied. Subject to the effects of the gravitational, inertial, and pressure forces, the cold flow is classified into three primary patterns: annular fountain, unstable fountain, and recirculation bubble flows. Using direct and schlieren photography techniques, the flames in the velocity domain of annulus and central jets are systematically classified into several characteristic modes. At low central jet velocity, a central flame enclosed in a annular diffusion flame might exist. At high central jet velocity, only the annular flames exist. The existence of the central flame dominates the flame and flow behaviors at low central jet velocity. The interaction between the central jet and the recirculation bubble in the near wake region dominates the flame characteristics at high central jet velocity. The interaction between the flame behavior and the flow patterns in each characteristic mode is comprehensively discussed. The temperature profiles are probed by a fine-wire thermocouple. The radial temperature profiles for each characteristic flame mode at various levels are presented to show the thermal structures.

  4. Risk coordination among LEPCs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosher, A.G.

    1995-12-31

    Public awareness of the potential dangers from accidents involving hazardous chemicals has increased dramatically in the wake of serious hazardous chemicals accidents occurring around the world. To prevent further such accidents in their communities, Congress passed the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know act (EPCRA) in 1996, as part of the Superfund Amendments Reauthorization Act (SARA -- Title III). EPCRA was enacted to benefit local communities. Two of the primary objectives of the law are: to provide a basis for each community to design and develop a chemical emergency planning and response program for its individual needs, and to provide the public with the right-to-know the identity, quantity, location, and properties of hazardous materials within that community. EPCRA provides the foundation for federal, state, and local agencies and the chemical industry to work together to better protect the public health and environment. The product of EPCRA is the Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC). The LEPC is a vital link between the industry, government, and citizens. LEPCs should be familiar with the hazards present in their communities and should be the focal point for developing plans to respond should an accident occur.

  5. Turbine Inflow Characterization at the National Wind Technology Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifton, A.; Schreck, S.; Scott, G.; Kelley, N.; Lundquist, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    Utility-scale wind turbines operate in dynamic flows that can vary significantly over timescales from less than a second to several years. To better understand the inflow to utility-scale turbines, two inflow towers were installed and commissioned at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado, in 2011. These towers are 135 m tall and instrumented with a combination of sonic anemometers, cup anemometers, wind vanes, and temperature measurements to characterize the inflow wind speed and direction, turbulence, stability and thermal stratification to two utility-scale turbines. Herein, we present variations in mean and turbulent wind parameters with height, atmospheric stability, and as a function of wind direction that could be important for turbine operation as well as persistence of turbine wakes. Wind speed, turbulence intensity, and dissipation are all factors that affect turbine performance. Our results show that these all vary with height across the rotor disk, demonstrating the importance of measuring atmospheric conditions that influence wind turbine performance at multiple heights in the rotor disk, rather than relying on extrapolation from lower levels.

  6. Role of Design Standards in Wind Plant Optimization (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veers, P.; Churchfield, M.; Lee, S.; Moon, J.; Larsen, G.

    2013-10-01

    When a turbine is optimized, it is done within the design constraints established by the objective criteria in the international design standards used to certify a design. Since these criteria are multifaceted, it is a challenging task to conduct the optimization, but it can be done. The optimization is facilitated by the fact that a standard turbine model is subjected to standard inflow conditions that are well characterized in the standard. Examples of applying these conditions to rotor optimization are examined. In other cases, an innovation may provide substantial improvement in one area, but be challenged to impact all of the myriad design load cases. When a turbine is placed in a wind plant, the challenge is magnified. Typical design practice optimizes the turbine for stand-alone operation, and then runs a check on the actual site conditions, including wakes from all nearby turbines. Thus, each turbine in a plant has unique inflow conditions. The possibility of creating objective and consistent inflow conditions for turbines within a plant, for used in optimization of the turbine and the plant, are examined with examples taken from LES simulation.

  7. Power Performance Test Report for the U.S. Department of Energy 1.5-Megawatt Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendoza, Ismael; Hur, Jerry; Thao, Syhoune; Curtis, Amy

    2015-08-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) acquired and installed a 1.5-megawatt (MW) wind turbine at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This turbine (hereafter referred to as the DOE 1.5) is envisioned to become an integral part of the research initiatives for the DOE Wind Program, such as Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e). A2e is a multiyear DOE research initiative targeting significant reductions in the cost of wind energy through an improved understanding of the complex physics governing wind flow into and through wind farms. For more information, visit http://energy.gov/eere/wind/atmosphere-electrons. To validate new and existing high-fidelity simulations, A2e must deploy several experimental measurement campaigns across different scales. Proposed experiments include wind tunnel tests, scaled field tests, and large field measurement campaigns at operating wind plants. Data of interest includes long-term atmospheric data sets, wind plant inflow, intra-wind plant flows (e.g., wakes), and rotor loads measurements. It is expected that new, high-fidelity instrumentation will be required to successfully collect data at the resolutions required to validate the high-fidelity simulations.

  8. Strain and texture evolution during mechanical loading of a crack tip in martensitic shape-memory NiTi.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daymond, M. R.; Young, M. L.; Almer, J. D.; Dunand, D. C.; Queen's Univ.; Northwestern Univ.

    2007-06-01

    In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements are used to create two-dimensional maps of elastic strain and texture, averaged over a compact-tension specimen thickness, near a crack tip in a martensitic NiTi alloy. After fatigue crack propagation, the material ahead of the crack and in its wake exhibits a strong texture, which is eliminated by subsequent shape-memory heat treatment, indicating that this texture is due to detwinning, the main deformation mechanism of NiTi. Upon subsequent application of a static tensile stresses, the highly textured zone reappears and grows around the crack tip as the applied stress is increased. At the highest applied stress intensity of 35MPam1/2, large tensile strains are measured ahead of the crack tip and considerable elastic anisotropy is observed. This detwinning zone is similar to the plastic zone produced by dislocation slip present around cracks in other metals. The texture in this zone is not significantly altered after mechanical unloading, despite the development of substantial triaxial compressive residual strains in this zone.

  9. Modeling Multi-Bunch X-band Photoinjector Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsh, R A; Anderson, S G; Gibson, D J; Barty, C J

    2012-05-09

    An X-band test station is being developed at LLNL to investigate accelerator optimization for future upgrades to mono-energetic gamma-ray technology at LLNL. The test station will consist of a 5.5 cell X-band rf photoinjector, single accelerator section, and beam diagnostics. Of critical import to the functioning of the LLNL X-band system with multiple electron bunches is the performance of the photoinjector. In depth modeling of the Mark 1 LLNL/SLAC X-band rf photoinjector performance will be presented addressing important challenges that must be addressed in order to fabricate a multi-bunch Mark 2 photoinjector. Emittance performance is evaluated under different nominal electron bunch parameters using electrostatic codes such as PARMELA. Wake potential is analyzed using electromagnetic time domain simulations using the ACE3P code T3P. Plans for multi-bunch experiments and implementation of photoinjector advances for the Mark 2 design will also be discussed.

  10. Underwater vapor phase burning of aluminum particles and on aluminum ignition during steam explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, M. )

    1991-09-01

    Recently reported experimental studies on aluminum-water steam explosions indicate that there may be a critical metal temperature at which the process changes over from a physical explosion to one which is very violent and involves the rapid liberation of chemical energy. In this report we examine the hypothesis that vapor-phase burning of aluminum is a necessary condition for the occurrence of such ignition-type'' steam explosions. An available two-phase stagnation flow film-boiling model is used to calculate the steam flux to the vaporizing aluminum surface. Combining this calculation with the notion that there is an upper limit to the magnitude of the metal vaporization rate at which the reaction regime must change from vapor phase to surface burning, leads to prediction of the critical metal surface temperature below which vapor phase burning is impossible. The critical temperature is predicted for both the aluminum-water pre-mixture configuration in which coarse drops of aluminum are falling freely through water and for the finely-fragmented aluminum drops in the wake of the pressure shock that triggers'' the explosion. Vapor phase burning is predicted to be possible during the pre-mixture phase but not very likely during the trigger phase of a steam explosion. The implications of these findings in terms of the validity of the hypothesis that ignition may begin with the vapor phase burning of aluminum is discussed. Recently postulated, alternative mechanisms of underwater aluminum ignition are also discussed.

  11. Underwater vapor phase burning of aluminum particles and on aluminum ignition during steam explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, M.

    1991-09-01

    Recently reported experimental studies on aluminum-water steam explosions indicate that there may be a critical metal temperature at which the process changes over from a physical explosion to one which is very violent and involves the rapid liberation of chemical energy. In this report we examine the hypothesis that vapor-phase burning of aluminum is a necessary condition for the occurrence of such ``ignition-type`` steam explosions. An available two-phase stagnation flow film-boiling model is used to calculate the steam flux to the vaporizing aluminum surface. Combining this calculation with the notion that there is an upper limit to the magnitude of the metal vaporization rate at which the reaction regime must change from vapor phase to surface burning, leads to prediction of the critical metal surface temperature below which vapor phase burning is impossible. The critical temperature is predicted for both the aluminum-water pre-mixture configuration in which coarse drops of aluminum are falling freely through water and for the finely-fragmented aluminum drops in the wake of the pressure shock that ``triggers`` the explosion. Vapor phase burning is predicted to be possible during the pre-mixture phase but not very likely during the trigger phase of a steam explosion. The implications of these findings in terms of the validity of the hypothesis that ignition may begin with the vapor phase burning of aluminum is discussed. Recently postulated, alternative mechanisms of underwater aluminum ignition are also discussed.

  12. Beam-dynamics driven design of the LHeC energy-recovery linac

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pellegrini, Dario; Latina, Andrea; Schulte, Daniel; Bogacz, S. Alex

    2015-12-23

    The LHeC study is a possible upgrade of the LHC that aims at delivering an electron beam for collisions with the existing hadronic beams. The current baseline design for the electron facility consists of a multi-pass superconducting energy-recovery linac operating in a continuous wave mode. Here, we summarize the overall layout of such ERL complex located on the LHC site and introduce the most recent developments. We review of the lattice components, presenting their baseline design along with possible alternatives that aims at improving the overall machine performance. The detector bypass has been designed and integrated into the lattice. Trackingmore » simulations allowed us to verify the high current (~150 mA in the linacs) beam operation required for the LHeC to serve as an Higgs Factory. The impact of single and multi-bunch wake-fields, synchrotron radiation and beam-beam effects has been assessed in this paper.« less

  13. Infrared system for monitoring movement of objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valentine, K.H.; Falter, D.D.; Falter, K.G.

    1991-04-30

    A system is described for monitoring moving objects, such as the flight of honeybees and other insects, using a pulsed laser light source. This system has a self-powered micro-miniaturized transmitting unit powered, in the preferred embodiment, with an array of solar cells. This transmitting unit is attached to the object to be monitored. These solar cells provide current to a storage energy capacitor to produce, for example, five volts for the operation of the transmitter. In the simplest embodiment, the voltage on the capacitor operates a pulse generator to provide a pulsed energizing signal to one or more very small laser diodes. The pulsed light is then received at a receiving base station using substantially standard means which converts the light to an electrical signal for processing in a microprocessor to create the information as to the movement of the object. In the case of a unit for monitoring honeybees and other insects, the transmitting unit weighs less than 50 mg, and has a size no larger than 1[times]3[times]5 millimeters. Also, the preferred embodiment provides for the coding of the light to uniquely identify the particular transmitting unit that is being monitored. A wake-up' circuit is provided in the preferred embodiment whereby there is no transmission until the voltage on the capacitor has exceeded a pre-set threshold. Various other uses of the motion-detection system are described. 4 figures.

  14. Infrared system for monitoring movement of objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valentine, Kenneth H.; Falter, Diedre D.; Falter, Kelly G.

    1991-01-01

    A system for monitoring moving objects, such as the flight of honeybees and other insects, using a pulsed laser light source. This system has a self-powered micro-miniaturized transmitting unit powered, in the preferred embodiment, with an array solar cells. This transmitting unit is attached to the object to be monitored. These solar cells provide current to a storage energy capacitor to produce, for example, five volts for the operation of the transmitter. In the simplest embodiment, the voltage on the capacitor operates a pulse generator to provide a pulsed energizing signal to one or more very small laser diodes. The pulsed light is then received at a receiving base station using substantially standard means which converts the light to an electrical signal for processing in a microprocessor to create the information as to the movement of the object. In the case of a unit for monitoring honeybees and other insects, the transmitting unit weighs less than 50 mg, and has a size no larger than 1.times.3.times.5 millimeters. Also, the preferred embodiment provides for the coding of the light to uniquely identify the particular transmitting unit that is being monitored. A "wake-up" circuit is provided in the preferred embodiment whereby there is no transmission until the voltage on the capacitor has exceeded a pre-set threshold. Various other uses of the motion-detection system are described.

  15. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 2. The Quark

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-10-07

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 2. The Quark "Three Quarks for Master Mark! Sure he hasn't got much of a bark." James Joyce's Finnegans Wake left its mark on modern physics when physicist Murray Gell Mann proposed this name for a group of hypothetical subatomic particles that were revealed in 1960 as the fundamental units of matter. Basic particles it seems are made up of even more basic units called quarks that make up 99.9% of visible material in the universe.. But why do we know so little about them? Quarks have never been seen as free particles but instead, inextricably bound together by the Strong Force that in turn holds the atomic nucleus together. This is the hardest of Nature's fundamental forces to crack, but recent theoretical advances, mean that the properties of the quark are at last being revealed.

  16. Aerodynamic analysis of a 10 kW horizontal-axis windmill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figard, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    An aerodynamic study of the performance and the flowfield in the vicinity of the rotor of a three bladed 10 kW, horizontal-axis windmill is presented. The windmill has a 6.38 m (20.92 ft) diameter rotor and is rated at 10 kW in a 13.41 m/s (44.0 fps) wind. Three basic approaches are utilized. First, field measurements of the performance and the axial velocity and turbulence behind the rotor were conducted. Second, wind tunnel tests of a 1:5 scale model were performed. Third, theoretical analyses of the windmill were made. This included performance predictions with a computerized, modified blade element (vortex theory) analysis and the development and utilization of a numerical procedure employing the full Navier-Stokes equations in axi-symmetric form to examine the wake development in detail. In that effort the rotor is modeled by an actuator disk in a uniform flow, a simple turbulence transport model based on an integrated TKE equation is applied, and the equations of motion are taken in terms of the stream function, one vorticity component, and the peripheral velocity. The results of each of the three approaches shows agreement within 10 to 15% with the other two approaches.

  17. The Northeast Blackout of 1965

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vassell, G.S.

    1990-10-11

    Twenty-five years ago, on November 9, 1965, the electric utility industry - and the nation - experienced the biggest power failure in history. While major power outages did happen before and after this unique event, none of them came even close to the Great Northeast Blackout of 1965 - not in terms of the size of the area or the number of people affected, not in terms of the trauma inflicted on the society at large, and not in terms of its impact on the electric utility industry. With our institution memory - as a society - being as short as it is, many of the lessons that were learned by the industry, by the regulators, and by the nation at large in the wake of the Northeast Blackout have been, by now, mostly forgotten. The 25th anniversary of this event offers a unique opportunity, therefore, to refresh our institutional memory in this regard and, by doing so, bring to bear our past experience to the problems of today. This article has been written with this objective in mind and from the perspective of an individual who experienced firsthand - as an active electric utility industry participant - the Northeast Blackout itself, its aftermath, and the subsequent evolution of the industry to the present day.

  18. Turbine Inflow Characterization at the National Wind Technology Center: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifton, A.; Schreck, S.; Scott, G.; Kelley, N.; Lundquist, J.

    2012-01-01

    Utility-scale wind turbines operate in dynamic flows that can vary significantly over timescales from less than a second to several years. To better understand the inflow to utility-scale turbines, two inflow towers were installed and commissioned at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado, in 2011. These towers are 135 m tall and instrumented with a combination of sonic anemometers, cup anemometers, wind vanes, and temperature measurements to characterize the inflow wind speed and direction, turbulence, stability and thermal stratification to two utility-scale turbines. Herein, we present variations in mean and turbulent wind parameters with height, atmospheric stability, and as a function of wind direction that could be important for turbine operation as well as persistence of turbine wakes. Wind speed, turbulence intensity, and dissipation are all factors that affect turbine performance. Our results shown that these all vary with height across the rotor disk, demonstrating the importance of measuring atmospheric conditions that influence wind turbine performance at multiple heights in the rotor disk, rather than relying on extrapolation from lower levels.

  19. Deformation fields near a steady fatigue crack with anisotropic plasticity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Yanfei

    2015-11-30

    In this work, from finite element simulations based on an irreversible, hysteretic cohesive interface model, a steady fatigue crack can be realized if the crack extension exceeds about twice the plastic zone size, and both the crack increment per loading cycle and the crack bridging zone size are smaller than the plastic zone size. The corresponding deformation fields develop a plastic wake behind the crack tip and a compressive residual stress field ahead of the crack tip. In addition, the Hill’s plasticity model is used to study the role of plastic anisotropy on the retardation of fatigue crack growth andmore » the elastic strain fields. It is found that for Mode-I cyclic loading, an enhanced yield stress in directions that are inclined from the crack plane will lead to slower crack growth rate, but this retardation is insignificant for typical degrees of plastic anisotropy. Furthermore, these results provide key inputs for future comparisons to neutron and synchrotron diffraction measurements that provide full-field lattice strain mapping near fracture and fatigue crack tips, especially in textured materials such as wrought or rolled Mg alloys.« less

  20. Section 1603 Treasury Grant Expiration: Industry Insight on Financing and Market Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Harper, J.

    2012-06-01

    In the wake of the 2008-2009 financial crises, tax equity investors largely withdrew from the market, resulting in stagnation of project development. In response, Congress established the Treasury grant program pursuant to Section 1603 of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (..Section..1603 Program) to offer a cash payment in lieu of a production and investment tax credit. This study addresses the likely project financing and market impacts from the expiration of the ..Section..1603 Program. The authors assembled an array of insights offered by financial executives active in the renewable energy (RE) market during conference panel discussions and in presentations, direct interviews, and email correspondences. This analysis found that the ..Section..1603 Program alleviated the need to monetize the tax credit incentives through specialized investors, helped lower the transaction and financing costs associated with renewable electricity projects, and generally supported an extensive build-out of renewable power generation capacity. With the expiration of the ..Section..1603 Program, smaller or less-established renewable power developers will have more difficulty attracting needed financial capital and completing their projects, development of projects relying on newer or 'innovative' technologies will likely slow as traditional tax equity investors are known to be highly averse to technology risk in the projects they fund, and, finally, projects relying on tax equity may be more expensive to develop due to higher transaction costs and potentially higher yields required to attract tax equity.

  1. Section 1603 Treasury Grant Expiration. Industry Insight on Financing and Market Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendelsohn, Michael; Harper, John

    2012-06-01

    In the wake of the 2008-2009 financial crises, tax equity investors largely withdrew from the market, resulting in stagnation of project development. In response, Congress established the Treasury grant program pursuant to Section 1603 of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Section 1603 Program) to offer a cash payment in lieu of a production and investment tax credit. This study addresses the likely project financing and market impacts from the expiration of the Section 1603 Program. The authors assembled an array of insights offered by financial executives active in the renewable energy (RE) market during conference panel discussions and in presentations, direct interviews, and email correspondences. This analysis found that the Section 1603 Program alleviated the need to monetize the tax credit incentives through specialized investors, helped lower the transaction and financing costs associated with renewable electricity projects, and generally supported an extensive build-out of renewable power generation capacity. With the expiration of the Section 1603 Program, smaller or less-established renewable power developers will have more difficulty attracting needed financial capital and completing their projects, development of projects relying on newer or 'innovative' technologies will likely slow as traditional tax equity investors are known to be highly averse to technology risk in the projects they fund, and, finally, projects relying on tax equity may be more expensive to develop due to higher transaction costs and potentially higher yields required to attract tax equity.

  2. Magnetic Random Access Memory based non-volatile asynchronous Muller cell for ultra-low power autonomous applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Pendina, G. E-mail: eldar.zianbetov@cea.fr Zianbetov, E. E-mail: eldar.zianbetov@cea.fr; Beigne, E. E-mail: eldar.zianbetov@cea.fr

    2015-05-07

    Micro and nano electronic integrated circuit domain is today mainly driven by the advent of the Internet of Things for which the constraints are strong, especially in terms of power consumption and autonomy, not only during the computing phases but also during the standby or idle phases. In such ultra-low power applications, the circuit has to meet new constraints mainly linked to its changing energetic environment: long idle phases, automatic wake up, data back-up when the circuit is sporadically turned off, and ultra-low voltage power supply operation. Such circuits have to be completely autonomous regarding their unstable environment, while remaining in an optimum energetic configuration. Therefore, we propose in this paper the first MRAM-based non-volatile asynchronous Muller cell. This cell has been simulated and characterized in a very advanced 28?nm CMOS fully depleted silicon-on-insulator technology, presenting good power performance results due to an extremely efficient body biasing control together with ultra-wide supply voltage range from 160?mV up to 920?mV. The leakage current can be reduced to 154?pA thanks to reverse body biasing. We also propose an efficient standard CMOS bulk version of this cell in order to be compatible with different fabrication processes.

  3. Emergency Response Health Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mena, RaJah; Pemberton, Wendy; Beal, William

    2012-05-01

    Health physics is an important discipline with regard to understanding the effects of radiation on human health; however, there are major differences between health physics for research or occupational safety and health physics during a large-scale radiological emergency. The deployment of a U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) monitoring and assessment team to Japan in the wake of the March 2011 accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant yielded a wealth of lessons on these difference. Critical teams (CMOC (Consequence Management Outside the Continental U.S.) and CMHT (Consequence Management Home Team) ) worked together to collect, compile, review, and analyze radiological data from Japan to support the response needs of and answer questions from the Government of Japan, the U.S. military in Japan, the U.S. Embassy and U.S. citizens in Japan, and U.S. citizens in America. This paper addresses the unique challenges presented to the health physicist or analyst of radiological data in a large-scale emergency. A key lesson learned was that public perception and the availability of technology with social media requires a diligent effort to keep the public informed of the science behind the decisions in a manner that is meaningful to them.

  4. High-order harmonics from bow wave caustics driven by a high-intensity laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pirozhkov, A.S.; Kando, M.; Esirkepov, T.Zh.; and others

    2012-07-11

    We propose a new mechanism of high-order harmonic generation during an interaction of a high-intensity laser pulse with underdense plasma. A tightly focused laser pulse creates a cavity in plasma pushing electrons aside and exciting the wake wave and the bow wave. At the joint of the cavity wall and the bow wave boundary, an annular spike of electron density is formed. This spike surrounds the cavity and moves together with the laser pulse. Collective motion of electrons in the spike driven by the laser field generates high-order harmonics. A strong localization of the electron spike, its robustness to oscillations imposed by the laser field and, consequently, its ability to produce high-order harmonics is explained by catastrophe theory. The proposed mechanism explains the experimental observations of high-order harmonics with the 9 TW J-KAREN laser (JAEA, Japan) and the 120 TW Astra Gemini laser (CLF RAL, UK) [A. S. Pirozhkov, et al., arXiv:1004.4514 (2010); A. S. Pirozhkov et al, AIP Proceedings, this volume]. The theory is corroborated by high-resolution two-and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.

  5. Engineering change in global climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, S.H.

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}With increased public focus on global warming and in the wake of the intense heat waves, drought, fires, and super-hurricanes that occurred in 1988 and 1989, interest in geoengineering has surged,{close_quotes} says Stephen H. Schneider, professor of biological science at Stanford University in Stanford, California. One scheme set forth in a National Research Council report proposes using 16-inch naval guns to fire aerosol shells into the stratosphere in hopes of offsetting {open_quotes}the radiative effects of increasing carbon dioxide,{close_quotes} Schneider says. Schneider, however, would prefer that we {open_quotes}seek measures that can cure our global {open_quote}addiction{close_quote} to polluting practices.{close_quotes} Rather than playing God, he says we should {open_quotes}stick to being human and pursue problem - solving methods currently within our grasp.{close_quotes} Such strategies include efforts to promote energy efficiency and reduce our reliance on automobiles.

  6. Shielding effect and wakefield pattern of a moving test charge in a non-Maxwellian dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, S.; Khan, S.; Department of Physics, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan 29050

    2013-07-15

    By using the Vlasov-Poisson equations, we calculate an expression for the electrostatic potential caused by a test charge in an unmagnetized non-Maxwellian dusty plasma, whose constituents are the superthermal hot-electrons, the mobile cold-electrons with a neutralizing background of cold ions, and charge fluctuating isolated dust grains. The superthermality effects due to hot electrons not only modify the dielectric constant of the electron-acoustic waves but also significantly affect the electrostatic potential. The latter can be decomposed into the Debye-Hckel and oscillatory wake potentials. Analytical and numerical results reveal that the Debye-Hckel and wakefield potentials converge to the Maxwellian case for large values of superthermality parameter. Furthermore, the plasma parameters play a vital role in the formation of shielding and wakefield pattern in a two-electron temperature plasma. The present results should be important for laboratory and space dusty plasmas, where hot-electrons can be assumed to follow the non-Maxwellian distribution function.

  7. VIPAR - Vortex Inflation PARachute Code Ver. 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-11-01

    VIPAR is a 3-D fluid mechanics code for predicting flow past bluff bodies whose surfaces can be assumed to be made up of shell elements that are simply connected. Version 1.0 of the code contains several first order algorithms, which we are already in the process of replacing with higher order ones. These enhancements will appear in the next version of VIPAR. The present code contains a motion generator, which can be used to producemore » large class of rigid body motions. The present code has also been fully coupled to a structural dynamics code in which the geometry undergoes large time dependent deformations. Initial surface geometry is generated from triangular shell elements using a code such as Patran and is written into an Exodusll data base file for subsequent input into VIPAR. Surface and wake variable information is output into two Exodusll files which can be processed and viewed using software such as EnSight.« less

  8. Varying fine structure 'constant' and charged black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bekenstein, Jacob D.; Schiffer, Marcelo

    2009-12-15

    Speculation that the fine-structure constant {alpha} varies in spacetime has a long history. We derive, in 4-D general relativity and in isotropic coordinates, the solution for a charged spherical black hole according to the framework for dynamical {alpha} J. D. Bekenstein, Phys. Rev. D 25, 1527 (1982).. This solution coincides with a previously known one-parameter extension of the dilatonic black hole family. Among the notable properties of varying-{alpha} charged black holes are adherence to a 'no hair' principle, the absence of the inner (Cauchy) horizon of the Reissner-Nordstroem black holes, the nonexistence of precisely extremal black holes, and the appearance of naked singularities in an analytic extension of the relevant metric. The exteriors of almost extremal electrically (magnetically) charged black holes have simple structures which makes their influence on applied magnetic (electric) fields transparent. We rederive the thermodynamic functions of the modified black holes; the otherwise difficult calculation of the electric potential is done by a shortcut. We confirm that variability of {alpha} in the wake of expansion of the universe does not threaten the generalized second law.

  9. Power Quality Test Report for the U.S. Department of Energy 1.5-Megawatt Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendoza, Ismael; Hur, Jerry; Thao, Syhoune

    2015-08-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) acquired and installed a 1.5-megawatt (MW) wind turbine at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This turbine (hereafter referred to as the DOE 1.5) is envisioned to become an integral part of the research initiatives for the DOE Wind Program, such as Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e). A2e is a multiyear DOE research initiative targeting significant reductions in the cost of wind energy through an improved understanding of the complex physics governing wind flow into and through wind farms. For more information, visit http://energy.gov/eere/wind/atmosphere-electrons. To validate new and existing high-fidelity simulations, A2e must deploy several experimental measurement campaigns across different scales. Proposed experiments include wind tunnel tests, scaled field tests, and large field measurement campaigns at operating wind plants. Data of interest includes long-term atmospheric data sets, wind plant inflow, intra-wind plant flows (e.g., wakes), and rotor loads measurements. It is expected that new, high-fidelity instrumentation will be required to successfully collect data at the resolutions required to validate the high-fidelity simulations.

  10. Voltage control for a wind power plant based on the available reactive current of a DFIG and its impacts on the point of interconnection

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Usman, Yasir; Kim, Jinho; Muljadi, Eduard; Kang, Yong Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Wake effects cause wind turbine generators (WTGs) within a wind power plant (WPP) to produce different levels of active power and subsequent reactive power capabilities. Further, the impedance between a WTG and the point of interconnection (POI)-which depends on the distance between them-impacts the WPP's reactive power injection capability at the POI. This paper proposes a voltage control scheme for a WPP based on the available reactive current of the doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs) and its impacts on the POI to improve the reactive power injection capability of the WPP. In this paper, a design strategy for modifying the gainmore » of DFIG controller is suggested and the comprehensive properties of these control gains are investigated. In the proposed scheme, the WPP controller, which operates in a voltage control mode, sends the command signal to the DFIGs based on the voltage difference at the POI. The DFIG controllers, which operate in a voltage control mode, employ a proportional controller with a limiter. The gain of the proportional controller is adjusted depending on the available reactive current of the DFIG and the series impedance between the DFIG and the POI. The performance of the proposed scheme is validated for various disturbances such as a reactive load connection and grid fault using an EMTP-RV simulator. Furthermore, simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme promptly recovers the POI voltage by injecting more reactive power after a disturbance than the conventional scheme.« less

  11. Fatigue cracking of a bare steel first wall in an inertial confinement fusion chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, R. M.; Abbott, R. P.; Havstad, M. A.; Dunne, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    Inertial confinement fusion power plants will deposit high energy X-rays onto the outer surfaces of the first wall many times a second for the lifetime of the plant. These X-rays create brief temperature spikes in the first few microns of the wall, which cause an associated highly compressive stress response on the surface of the material. The periodicity of this stress pulse is a concern due to the possibility of fatigue cracking of the wall. We have used finite element analyses to simulate the conditions present on the first wall in order to evaluate the driving force of crack propagation on fusion-facing surface cracks. Analysis results indicate that the X-ray induced plastic compressive stress creates a region of residual tension on the surface between pulses. This tension film will likely result in surface cracking upon repeated cycling. Additionally, the compressive pulse may induce plasticity ahead of the crack tip, leaving residual tension in its wake. However, the stress amplitude decreases dramatically for depths greater than 80100 ?m into the fusion-facing surface. Crack propagation models as well as stress-life estimates agree that even though small cracks may form on the surface of the wall, they are unlikely to propagate further than 100 ?m without assistance from creep or grain erosion phenomena.

  12. Strategic forces: Future requirements and options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speed, R.D.

    1990-11-01

    In the wake of the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the apparent ending of the Cold War, there have been renewed calls for radical cuts in US strategic forces to levels far below the 10,000 or so warheads allowed each side under the current START proposal. Since it now appears that NATO for the first time will have the capability to defeat a Soviet conventional attack without the necessity of threatening to resort to nuclear weapons, this should pave the way for the rethinking of US strategy and the reduction of US strategic weapons requirements. In this new environment, it seems plausible that, with a modification of the Flexible Response doctrine to forego attempts to disarm the Soviet Union, deterrence could be maintained with 1500 or so survivable strategic weapons. With a new strategy that confined US strategic weapons to the role of deterring the use of nuclear weapons by other countries, a survivable force of about 500 weapons would seem sufficient. With this premise, the implications for the US strategic force structure are examined for two cases: a treaty that allows each side 3000 warheads and one that allows each side 1000 warheads. In Part 1 of this paper, the weapons requirements for deterrence are examined in light of recent changes in the geopolitical environment. In Part 2, it is assumed that the President and Congress have decided that deep cuts in strategic forces are acceptable. 128 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs. (JF)

  13. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 2. The Quark

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 2. The Quark "Three Quarks for Master Mark! Sure he hasn't got much of a bark." James Joyce's Finnegans Wake left its mark on modern physics when physicist Murray Gell Mann proposed this name for a group of hypothetical subatomic particles that were revealed in 1960 as the fundamental units of matter. Basic particles it seems are made up of even more basic units called quarks that make up 99.9% of visible material in the universe.. But why do we know so little about them? Quarks have never been seen as free particles but instead, inextricably bound together by the Strong Force that in turn holds the atomic nucleus together. This is the hardest of Nature's fundamental forces to crack, but recent theoretical advances, mean that the properties of the quark are at last being revealed.

  14. Lighting system replacement brings energy costs down, light levels up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radmer, D.J.

    1984-11-08

    The R.J. Frisby Mfg. Co. operates on three shifts and produces precision screw machine products for a variety of industries, including automotive, marine, machine tool, hydraulics and pneumatics, business machines, electrical and electronics, photography, and precision instruments. The required degree of manufacturing precision demands high light levels in manufacturing areas. When the 100,000 sq ft plant was built in 1973, mercury vapor lighting was installed consistent with the current state of the art for lighting such facilities. In the ensuing years, it became apparent that the soaring electric bills that came in the wake of the Arab oil embargo of 1973-74 would have to be controlled. Estimates by the U.S. Department of Energy indicated that electric energy costs were likely to rise by 160 percent over the next 10 yr. Based on this estimate, and the fact that lighting accounted for $70,000, or half of the annual electric bill, it was estimated that $900,000 to $1,000,000 would be spent for lighting energy over the next decade. The concern over the probability of rapidly escalating electrical costs was soon justified when, in three steps over one 12 mo period, the electric energy rate increased from $0.0305/kwh to $0.0416/kwh -more than a 36 percent increase. During that same period, the demand charge was raised in two steps from $3.75/kw to $4.85/kw --more than a 29 percent increase.

  15. Oil dependence and Thai foreign-policy behavior during the Arab-Israeli war of October 1973

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keophumihae, S.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain Thai foreign-policy behavior toward the Arab-Israeli conflict during the Arab oil embargo of 1973-1974 in the wake of the October 1973 War. The major hypothesis is that Thai foreign policy behavior shifted from a neutral to a pro-Arab position after the Arab oil embargo. This shift was motivated by Thai oil-import dependence on OAPEC (Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries). Oil has assumed an economic as well as a political dimension. Therefore, its political influence over the oil-dependent states cannot be dismissed. Thai foreign-policy behavior in the Arab-Israeli conflict is analyzed through the use of the dependence approach, which contends that external reliance is a potent factor for explaining behavior of actors. Thailand's foreign-policy stand is first delineated through the use of documents containing policy statements by Thai delegates to the United Nations. It was found that although Thai public policy statements were never bluntly anti-Israel, they moved from between neutrality before the oil crisis to a pro-Arab position after the oil crisis of 1973-1974. This shift of Thailand's foreign policy behavior position was then measured against its UN voting records. Results of the voting analysis indicated that the shifting of Thai foreign policy behavior during the October war was motivated by Thailand's oil-import dependence.

  16. Displacing oil and gas with coal: Constraints and opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langley, V.E.

    1982-01-01

    It is obvious that a major result of the oil supply interruptions of the 1970s was to dramatically increase the competitiveness of coal as an industrial and utility fuel. In fact, between 1973 and 1981, coal's share of the energy feed to the electric utility industry did increase from 43 to 52 percent. However, given the actual market place incentives, this increase is not a remarkable improvement, and reflects the fact that disappointingly few existing units have been converted from oil to coal. In the wake of the 1973 embargo, the passage of the Energy Supply and Coordination Act of 1974 (''ENSECA'') and the Power Plant and Industrial Fuel Use Act (''FUA'') provided the Executive Branch with the power to mandate the conversion of oil and gas units to coal. However, ENSECA lacked strong enforcement provisions and there resulted few conversions other than those which were made voluntarily on purely economic grounds. As a result, in 1978, Congress enacted the Fuel Use Act which placed the burden of proof upon owners to demonstrate that a specified coal convertible unit could not be converted.

  17. DOD-SBIR Structured Multi-Resolution PIC Code for Electromagnetic Plasma Simulations, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vay, J L; Grote, D P; Friedman, A

    2010-04-22

    A novel electromagnetic solver with mesh refinement capability was implemented in Warp. The solver allows for calculations in 2-1/2 and 3 dimensions, includes the standard Yee stencil, and the Cole-Karkkainen stencil for lower numerical dispersion along the principal axes. Warp implementation of the Cole-Karkkainen stencil includes an extension to perfectly matched layers (PML) for absorption of waves, and is preserving the conservation property of charge conserving current deposition schemes, like the Buneman-Villanesor and Esirkepov methods. Warp's mesh refinement framework (originally developed for electrostatic calculations) was augmented to allow for electromagnetic capability, following the methodology presented in [1] extended to an arbitrary number of refinement levels. Other developments include a generalized particle injection method, internal conductors using stair-cased approximation, and subcycling of particle pushing. The solver runs in parallel using MPI message passing, with a choice at runtime of 1D, 2D and 3D domain decomposition, and is shown to scale linearly on a test problem up-to 32,768 CPUs. The novel solver was tested on the modeling of filamentation instability, fast ignition, ion beam induced plasma wake, and laser plasma acceleration.

  18. Working on the moon: The Apollo experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    The successful completion of any scientific or engineering project on the Moon will depend, in part, on human ability to do useful work under lunar conditions. In making informed decisions about such things as the use of humans rather than robots for specific tasks, the scheduling of valuable human time, and the design and selection of equipment and tools, good use can be made of the existing experience base. During the six completed landing missions, Apollo lunar surface crews conducted 160 astronaut-hours of extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) and also spent a similar sum of waking hours working in the cramped confines of the Lunar Module. The first three missions were primarily proof-tests of flight hardware and procedures. The ability to land equipment and consumables was very modest but, despite stay times of no more than 32 hours, the crews of Apollos 11, 12, and 14 were able to test their mobility and their capability of doing useful work outside the spacecraft. For the last three missions, thanks to LM modifications which enabled landings with significant amounts of cargo, stay times more than doubled to three days. The crews were able to use Lunar Rovers to conduct extensive local exploration and to travel up to 10 kilometers away from their immediate landing sites. During these final missions, the astronauts spent enough time doing work of sufficient complexity that their experience should be of use in the formulation early-stage lunar base operating plans. 2 refs.

  19. Voltage control for a wind power plant based on the available reactive current of a DFIG and its impacts on the point of interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usman, Yasir; Kim, Jinho; Muljadi, Eduard; Kang, Yong Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Wake effects cause wind turbine generators (WTGs) within a wind power plant (WPP) to produce different levels of active power and subsequent reactive power capabilities. Further, the impedance between a WTG and the point of interconnection (POI)-which depends on the distance between them-impacts the WPP's reactive power injection capability at the POI. This paper proposes a voltage control scheme for a WPP based on the available reactive current of the doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs) and its impacts on the POI to improve the reactive power injection capability of the WPP. In this paper, a design strategy for modifying the gain of DFIG controller is suggested and the comprehensive properties of these control gains are investigated. In the proposed scheme, the WPP controller, which operates in a voltage control mode, sends the command signal to the DFIGs based on the voltage difference at the POI. The DFIG controllers, which operate in a voltage control mode, employ a proportional controller with a limiter. The gain of the proportional controller is adjusted depending on the available reactive current of the DFIG and the series impedance between the DFIG and the POI. The performance of the proposed scheme is validated for various disturbances such as a reactive load connection and grid fault using an EMTP-RV simulator. Furthermore, simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme promptly recovers the POI voltage by injecting more reactive power after a disturbance than the conventional scheme.

  20. FROM PROPERTY LEASE TO PROPERTY TRANSFER - TAKING THE STEPS TO FACILITATE SITE CLOSURE USING THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY'S 10 CFR 770 PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cusick, Lesley T.; Hart, Patricia W.

    2003-02-27

    While implementing a successful leasing program for land and facilities at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Operations Office in Oak Ridge, TN, the Department is now transitioning from a leasing program to one of title transfer. The program, called ''Reindustrialization'', is the result of a visionary idea to enable the use of excess resources to meet a community's needs in the wake of continued DOE downsizing. An established process included within the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act, tailored to meet DOE-ORO's objectives, was used to lease. Title transfer, using DOE's new 10 CFR 770 process, is being undertaken to meet a DOE-HQs directive to close the ORO facility where Reindustrialization is taking place. Title transfer is a key component of the closure effort. However, the process for title transfer is new, it is a DOE process, and it has not yet been completed for any facilities in the DOE complex. Making the transition from a known to an unknown has created opportunities in program design, as well as implementation, coordination and acceptance challenges in a variety of areas, and a host of lessons learned and learning.

  1. Earthquake design criteria for small hydro projects in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, P.P.; McCandless, D.H.; Asce, M.

    1995-12-31

    The definition of the seismic environment and seismic design criteria of more than twenty small hydro projects in the northern part of the island of Luzon in the Philippines took a special urgency on the wake of the Magnitude 7.7 earthquake that shook the island on July 17, 1990. The paper describes the approach followed to determine design shaking level criteria at each hydro site consistent with the seismic environment estimated at that same site. The approach consisted of three steps: (1) Seismicity: understanding the mechanisms and tectonic features susceptible to generate seismicity and estimating the associated seismicity levels, (2) Seismic Hazard: in the absence of an accurate historical record, using statistics to determine the expected level of ground shaking at a site during the operational 100-year design life of each Project, and (3) Criteria Selection: finally and most importantly, exercising judgment in estimating the final proposed level of shaking at each site. The resulting characteristics of estimated seismicity and seismic hazard and the proposed final earthquake design criteria are provided.

  2. Operational forecasting based on a modified Weather Research and Forecasting model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundquist, J; Glascoe, L; Obrecht, J

    2010-03-18

    Accurate short-term forecasts of wind resources are required for efficient wind farm operation and ultimately for the integration of large amounts of wind-generated power into electrical grids. Siemens Energy Inc. and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with the University of Colorado at Boulder, are collaborating on the design of an operational forecasting system for large wind farms. The basis of the system is the numerical weather prediction tool, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model; large-eddy simulations and data assimilation approaches are used to refine and tailor the forecasting system. Representation of the atmospheric boundary layer is modified, based on high-resolution large-eddy simulations of the atmospheric boundary. These large-eddy simulations incorporate wake effects from upwind turbines on downwind turbines as well as represent complex atmospheric variability due to complex terrain and surface features as well as atmospheric stability. Real-time hub-height wind speed and other meteorological data streams from existing wind farms are incorporated into the modeling system to enable uncertainty quantification through probabilistic forecasts. A companion investigation has identified optimal boundary-layer physics options for low-level forecasts in complex terrain, toward employing decadal WRF simulations to anticipate large-scale changes in wind resource availability due to global climate change.

  3. COMBINED MULTIPOINT REMOTE AND IN SITU OBSERVATIONS OF THE ASYMMETRIC EVOLUTION OF A FAST SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rollett, T.; Mstl, C.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.; Amerstorfer, U. V.; Frahm, R. A.; Davies, J. A.; Vrnak, B.; ic, T.; Farrugia, C. J.; Zhang, T. L.

    2014-07-20

    We present an analysis of the fast coronal mass ejection (CME) of 2012 March 7, which was imaged by both STEREO spacecraft and observed in situ by MESSENGER, Venus Express, Wind, and Mars Express. Based on detected arrivals at four different positions in interplanetary space, it was possible to strongly constrain the kinematics and the shape of the ejection. Using the white-light heliospheric imagery from STEREO-A and B, we derived two different kinematical profiles for the CME by applying the novel constrained self-similar expansion method. In addition, we used a drag-based model to investigate the influence of the ambient solar wind on the CME's propagation. We found that two preceding CMEs heading in different directions disturbed the overall shape of the CME and influenced its propagation behavior. While the Venus-directed segment underwent a gradual deceleration (from ?2700km s{sup 1} at 15 R {sub ?} to ?1500km s{sup 1} at 154 R {sub ?}), the Earth-directed part showed an abrupt retardation below 35 R {sub ?} (from ?1700 to ?900km s{sup 1}). After that, it was propagating with a quasi-constant speed in the wake of a preceding event. Our results highlight the importance of studies concerning the unequal evolution of CMEs. Forecasting can only be improved if conditions in the solar wind are properly taken into account and if attention is also paid to large events preceding the one being studied.

  4. War, peace, and international politics. Fourth edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziegler, D.W. )

    1987-01-01

    We must conclude that war remains a major problem in the last quarter of the twentieth century. My intention in this book is to introduce you to international relations by focusing on this problem. War is not the only problem of international relations, and so this book does not exhaust the field. But war is a central problem, and the possibility of resort to war affects other aspects of international relations. Whatever else we may look at, we cannot avoid looking at war. In fact, in looking at war, we will touch on most of the other subjects important in international relations. War is conflict among states carried on by their armed forces. To distinguish war from border skirmishes and other minor incidents we usually say it must reach a certain magnitude (for example, at least 1,000 soldiers killed in battle over a year). It would be ideal if we could systematically study all the wars in the last hundred years, but such an exhaustive study would be out of place here. At the same time we cannot discuss such subjects as the cause of war or proposals for preventing it without some knowledge about actual wars. We must test theories against historical facts. What follows in Part I is a somewhat detailed history of seven wars (or groups of wars) fought in the last hundred years. These include the most destructive of the wars World War I (1914-1918), World War II (1939-1945), and the Korean War (1950-1953). By way of background to World War I, we will look at the wars of German unification (1864-1871), which preceded and in some ways prepared the way for it. To balance our account, we will also look at several recent wars India and Pakistan (1971), Uganda and Tanzania (1978-1979), and Cambodia, Vietnam, and China (1978-1980). After looking at some of the major wars of the last hundred years, we will look at what people have the about the causes of war in general.

  5. Application of Plasma Waveguides to High Energy Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milchberg, Howard M

    2013-03-30

    The eventual success of laser-plasma based acceleration schemes for high-energy particle physics will require the focusing and stable guiding of short intense laser pulses in reproducible plasma channels. For this goal to be realized, many scientific issues need to be addressed. These issues include an understanding of the basic physics of, and an exploration of various schemes for, plasma channel formation. In addition, the coupling of intense laser pulses to these channels and the stable propagation of pulses in the channels require study. Finally, new theoretical and computational tools need to be developed to aid in the design and analysis of experiments and future accelerators. Here we propose a 3-year renewal of our combined theoretical and experimental program on the applications of plasma waveguides to high-energy accelerators. During the past grant period we have made a number of significant advances in the science of laser-plasma based acceleration. We pioneered the development of clustered gases as a new highly efficient medium for plasma channel formation. Our contributions here include theoretical and experimental studies of the physics of cluster ionization, heating, explosion, and channel formation. We have demonstrated for the first time the generation of and guiding in a corrugated plasma waveguide. The fine structure demonstrated in these guides is only possible with cluster jet heating by lasers. The corrugated guide is a slow wave structure operable at arbitrarily high laser intensities, allowing direct laser acceleration, a process we have explored in detail with simulations. The development of these guides opens the possibility of direct laser acceleration, a true miniature analogue of the SLAC RF-based accelerator. Our theoretical studies during this period have also contributed to the further development of the simulation codes, Wake and QuickPIC, which can be used for both laser driven and beam driven plasma based acceleration schemes. We will continue our development of advanced simulation tools by modifying the QuickPIC algorithm to allow for the simulation of plasma particle pick-up by the wake fields. We have also performed extensive simulations of plasma slow wave structures for efficient THz generation by guided laser beams or accelerated electron beams. We will pursue experimental studies of direct laser acceleration, and THz generation by two methods, ponderomotive-induced THz polarization, and THz radiation by laser accelerated electron beams. We also plan to study both conventional and corrugated plasma channels using our new 30 TW in our new lab facilities. We will investigate production of very long hydrogen plasma waveguides (5 cm). We will study guiding at increasing power levels through the onset of laser-induced cavitation (bubble regime) to assess the role played by the preformed channel. Experiments in direct acceleration will be performed, using laser plasma wakefields as the electron injector. Finally, we will use 2-colour ionization of gases as a high frequency THz source (<60 THz) in order for femtosecond measurements of low plasma densities in waveguides and beams.

  6. Nocturnal Low-Level-Jet-Dominated Atmospheric Boundary Layer Observed by a Doppler Lidar Over Oklahoma City during JU2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yansen; Klipp, Cheryl L.; Garvey, Dennis M.; Ligon, David; Williamson, Chatt C.; Chang, Sam S.; Newsom, Rob K.; Calhoun, Ron

    2007-12-01

    Boundary layer wind data observed by a Doppler lidar and sonic anemometers during the mornings of three intensive observational periods (IOP2, IOP3, and IOP7) of the Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field experiment are analyzed to extract the mean and turbulent characteristics of airflow over Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. A strong nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ) dominated the flow in the boundary layer over the measurement domain from midnight to the morning hours. Lidar scans through the LLJ taken after sunrise indicate that the LLJ elevation shows a gradual increase of 25-100 m over the urban area relative to that over the upstream suburban area. The mean wind speed beneath the jet over the urban area is about 10%-15% slower than that over the suburban area. Sonic anemometer observations combined with Doppler lidar observations in the urban and suburban areas are also analyzed to investigate the boundary layer turbulence production in the LLJ-dominated atmospheric boundary layer. The turbulence kinetic energy was higher over the urban domain mainly because of the shear production of building surfaces and building wakes. Direct transport of turbulent momentum flux from the LLJ to the urban street level was very small because of the relatively high elevation of the jet. However, since the LLJ dominated the mean wind in the boundary layer, the turbulence kinetic energy in the urban domain is correlated directly with the LLJ maximum speed and inversely with its height. The results indicate that the jet Richardson number is a reasonably good indicator for turbulent kinetic energy over the urban domain in the LLJ-dominated atmospheric boundary layer.

  7. Resource planning for gas utilities: Using a model to analyze pivotal issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busch, J.F.; Comnes, G.A.

    1995-11-01

    With the advent of wellhead price decontrols that began in the late 1970s and the development of open access pipelines in the 1980s and 90s, gas local distribution companies (LDCs) now have increased responsibility for their gas supplies and face an increasingly complex array of supply and capacity choices. Heretofore this responsibility had been share with the interstate pipelines that provide bundled firm gas supplies. Moreover, gas supply an deliverability (capacity) options have multiplied as the pipeline network becomes increasing interconnected and as new storage projects are developed. There is now a fully-functioning financial market for commodity price hedging instruments and, on interstate Pipelines, secondary market (called capacity release) now exists. As a result of these changes in the natural gas industry, interest in resource planning and computer modeling tools for LDCs is increasing. Although in some ways the planning time horizon has become shorter for the gas LDC, the responsibility conferred to the LDC and complexity of the planning problem has increased. We examine current gas resource planning issues in the wake of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC) Order 636. Our goal is twofold: (1) to illustrate the types of resource planning methods and models used in the industry and (2) to illustrate some of the key tradeoffs among types of resources, reliability, and system costs. To assist us, we utilize a commercially-available dispatch and resource planning model and examine four types of resource planning problems: the evaluation of new storage resources, the evaluation of buyback contracts, the computation of avoided costs, and the optimal tradeoff between reliability and system costs. To make the illustration of methods meaningful yet tractable, we developed a prototype LDC and used it for the majority of our analysis.

  8. Quantifying the value that energy efficiency and renewable energy provide as a hedge against volatile natural gas prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Bachrach, Devra; Golove, William

    2002-05-15

    Advocates of energy efficiency and renewable energy have long argued that such technologies can mitigate fuel price risk within a resource portfolio. Such arguments--made with renewed vigor in the wake of unprecedented natural gas price volatility during the winter of 2000/2001--have mostly been qualitative in nature, however, with few attempts to actually quantify the price stability benefit that these sources provide. In evaluating this benefit, it is important to recognize that alternative price hedging instruments are available--in particular, gas-based financial derivatives (futures and swaps) and physical, fixed-price gas contracts. Whether energy efficiency and renewable energy can provide price stability at lower cost than these alternative means is therefore a key question for resource acquisition planners. In this paper we evaluate the cost of hedging gas price risk through financial hedging instruments. To do this, we compare the price of a 10-year natural gas swap (i.e., what it costs to lock in prices over the next 10 years) to a 10-year natural gas price forecast (i.e., what the market is expecting spot natural gas prices to be over the next 10 years). We find that over the past two years natural gas users have had to pay a premium as high as $0.76/mmBtu (0.53/242/kWh at an aggressive 7,000 Btu/kWh heat rate) over expected spot prices to lock in natural gas prices for the next 10 years. This incremental cost to hedge gas price risk exposure is potentially large enough - particularly if incorporated by policymakers and regulators into decision-making practices - to tip the scales away from new investments in variable-price, natural gas-fired generation and in favor of fixed-price investments in energy efficiency and renewable energy.

  9. ON THE CAUSE OF SUPRA-ARCADE DOWNFLOWS IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassak, P. A.; Shepherd, L. S.; Drake, J. F.; Gosling, J. T.; Phan, T.-D.; Shay, M. A. E-mail: lshephe1@mix.wvu.edu E-mail: Jack.Gosling@lasp.colorado.edu E-mail: shay@udel.edu

    2013-09-20

    A model of supra-arcade downflows (SADs), dark low density regions also known as tadpoles that propagate sunward during solar flares, is presented. It is argued that the regions of low density are flow channels carved by sunward-directed outflow jets from reconnection. The solar corona is stratified, so the flare site is populated by a lower density plasma than that in the underlying arcade. As the jets penetrate the arcade, they carve out regions of depleted plasma density which appear as SADs. The present interpretation differs from previous models in that reconnection is localized in space but not in time. Reconnection is continuous in time to explain why SADs are not filled in from behind as they would if they were caused by isolated descending flux tubes or the wakes behind them due to temporally bursty reconnection. Reconnection is localized in space because outflow jets in standard two-dimensional reconnection models expand in the normal (inflow) direction with distance from the reconnection site, which would not produce thin SADs as seen in observations. On the contrary, outflow jets in spatially localized three-dimensional reconnection with an out-of-plane (guide) magnetic field expand primarily in the out-of-plane direction and remain collimated in the normal direction, which is consistent with observed SADs being thin. Two-dimensional proof-of-principle simulations of reconnection with an out-of-plane (guide) magnetic field confirm the creation of SAD-like depletion regions and the necessity of density stratification. Three-dimensional simulations confirm that localized reconnection remains collimated.

  10. Internal hydraulic analysis of impeller rounding in centrifugal pumps as turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Punit; Nestmann, Franz [Institute of Water and River Basin Management (IWG), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kaiser Str. 12, D 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The use of pumps as turbines in different applications has been gaining importance in the recent years, but the subject of hydraulic optimization still remains an open research problem. One of these optimization techniques that include rounding of the sharp edges at the impeller periphery (or turbine inlet) has shown tendencies of performance enhancement. In order to understand the effect of this hydraulic optimization, the paper introduces an analytical model in the pump as turbine control volume and brings out the functionalities of the internal variables classified under control variables consisting of the system loss coefficient and exit relative flow direction and under dependent variables consisting of net tangential flow velocity, net head and efficiency. The paper studies the effects of impeller rounding on a combination of radial flow and mixed flow pumps as turbines using experimental data. The impeller rounding is seen to have positive impact on the overall efficiency in different operating regions with an improvement in the range of 1-3%. The behaviour of the two control variables have been elaborately studied in which it is found that the system loss coefficient has reduced drastically due to rounding effects, while the extent of changes to the exit relative flow direction seems to be limited in comparison. The reasons for changes to these control variables have been physically interpreted and attributed to the behaviour of the wake zone at the turbine inlet and circulation within the impeller control volume. The larger picture of impeller rounding has been discussed in comparison with performance prediction models in pumps as turbines. The possible limitations of the analytical model as well as the test setup are also presented. The paper concludes that the impeller rounding technique is very important for performance optimization and recommends its application on all pump as turbine projects. It also recommends the standardization of the rounding effects over wide range of pump shapes including axial pumps. (author)

  11. Sulforaphane, a cancer chemopreventive agent, induces pathways associated with membrane biosynthesis in response to tissue damage by aflatoxin B{sub 1}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Techapiesancharoenkij, Nirachara; Fiala, Jeannette L.A.; Navasumrit, Panida; Croy, Robert G.; Wogan, Gerald N.; Groopman, John D.; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Essigmann, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) is one of the major risk factors for liver cancer globally. A recent study showed that sulforaphane (SF), a potent inducer of phase II enzymes that occurs naturally in widely consumed vegetables, effectively induces hepatic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and reduces levels of hepatic AFB{sub 1}-DNA adducts in AFB{sub 1}-exposed Sprague Dawley rats. The present study characterized the effects of SF pre-treatment on global gene expression in the livers of similarly treated male rats. Combined treatment with AFB{sub 1} and SF caused reprogramming of a network of genes involved in signal transduction and transcription. Changes in gene regulation were observable 4 h after AFB{sub 1} administration in SF-pretreated animals and may reflect regeneration of cells in the wake of AFB{sub 1}-induced hepatotoxicity. At 24 h after AFB{sub 1} administration, significant induction of genes that play roles in cellular lipid metabolism and acetyl-CoA biosynthesis was detected in SF-pretreated AFB{sub 1}-dosed rats. Induction of this group of genes may indicate a metabolic shift toward glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis to generate and maintain pools of intermediate molecules required for tissue repair, cell growth and compensatory hepatic cell proliferation. Collectively, gene expression data from this study provide insights into molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of SF against AFB{sub 1} hepatotoxicity and hepatocarcinogenicity, in addition to the chemopreventive activity of this compound as a GST inducer. - Highlights: • This study revealed sulforaphane (SF)-deregulated gene sets in aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1})-treated rat livers. • SF redirects biochemical networks toward lipid biosynthesis in AFB{sub 1}-dosed rats. • SF enhanced gene sets that would be expected to favor cell repair and regeneration.

  12. Synchronization, non-linear dynamics and low-frequency fluctuations: Analogy between spontaneous brain activity and networked single-transistor chaotic oscillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minati, Ludovico E-mail: ludovico.minati@unitn.it

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, the topographical relationship between functional connectivity (intended as inter-regional synchronization), spectral and non-linear dynamical properties across cortical areas of the healthy human brain is considered. Based upon functional MRI acquisitions of spontaneous activity during wakeful idleness, node degree maps are determined by thresholding the temporal correlation coefficient among all voxel pairs. In addition, for individual voxel time-series, the relative amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and the correlation dimension (D{sub 2}), determined with respect to Fourier amplitude and value distribution matched surrogate data, are measured. Across cortical areas, high node degree is associated with a shift towards lower frequency activity and, compared to surrogate data, clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension, suggesting presence of non-linear structure. An attempt to recapitulate this relationship in a network of single-transistor oscillators is made, based on a diffusive ring (n = 90) with added long-distance links defining four extended hub regions. Similarly to the brain data, it is found that oscillators in the hub regions generate signals with larger low-frequency cycle amplitude fluctuations and clearer saturation to a lower correlation dimension compared to surrogates. The effect emerges more markedly close to criticality. The homology observed between the two systems despite profound differences in scale, coupling mechanism and dynamics appears noteworthy. These experimental results motivate further investigation into the heterogeneity of cortical non-linear dynamics in relation to connectivity and underline the ability for small networks of single-transistor oscillators to recreate collective phenomena arising in much more complex biological systems, potentially representing a future platform for modelling disease-related changes.

  13. Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the S814 airfoil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janiszewska, J.M.; Ramsay, R.R.; Hoffmann, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Horizontal-axis wind turbine rotors experience unsteady aerodynamics when the rotor is yawed, when rotor blades pass through the support tower wake, and when the wind is gusting. An understanding of this unsteady behavior is necessary to assist in the design of new rotor airfoils. The rotors also experience performance degradation due to surface roughness. These surface irregularities are due to the accumulation of insect debris, ice, and/or the aging process. Wind tunnel studies that examine both the steady and unsteady behavior of airfoils can help define pertinent flow phenomena, and the resultant data can also be used to validate analytical computer codes. An S814 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3 X 5 subsonic wind tunnel (3 X 5) under steady flow with both stationary model conditions and pitch oscillations. To study the extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a leading edge grit roughness pattern (LEGR) was used to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 million, while the angle of attack ranged from -20{degrees} to +40{degrees}. While the model underwent pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions {+-}5.5{degrees} and {+-}10{degrees}, were used; at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees}, 14{degrees}, and 20{degrees}. For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions means the model was in pitch oscillation.

  14. Near-surface Density Currents Observed in the Southeast Pacific Stratocumulus-topped Marine Boundary Layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilbanks, Matt C.; Yuter, S. E.; de Szoeke, S.; Brewer, W. A.; Miller, Matthew A.; Hall, Andrew M.; Burleyson, Casey D.

    2015-09-01

    Density currents (i.e. cold pools or outflows) beneath marine stratocumulus clouds are characterized using a 30-d data set of ship-based observations obtained during the 2008 Variability of American Monsoon Systems (VAMOS) Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) in the southeast Pacific. An objective method identifies 71 density current fronts using an air density criterion and isolates each density current’s core (peak density) and tail (dissipating) zone. Compared to front and core zones, most density current tails exhibited weaker density gradients and wind anomalies elongated about the axis of the mean wind. The mean cloud-level advection relative to the surface layer wind (1.9 m s-1) nearly matches the mean density current propagation speed (1.8 m s-1). The similarity in speeds allows drizzle cells to deposit tails in their wakes. Based on high-resolution scanning Doppler lidar data, prefrontal updrafts had a mean intensity of 0.91 m s-1, reached an average altitude of 800 m, and were often surmounted by low-lying shelf clouds not connected to the overlying stratocumulus cloud. Nearly 90% of density currents were identified when C-band radar estimated 30-km diameter areal average rain rates exceeded 1 mm d-1. Rather than peaking when rain rates are highest overnight, density current occurrence peaks between 0600 and 0800 local solar time when enhanced local drizzle co-occurs with shallow subcloud dry and stable layers. The dry layers may contribute to density current formation by enhancing subcloud evaporation of drizzle. Density currents preferentially occur in regions of open cells but also occur in regions of closed cells.

  15. Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests at SLAC (FACET) Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amann, J.; Bane, K.; /SLAC

    2009-10-30

    This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) describes the design of FACET. It will be updated to stay current with the developing design of the facility. This CDR begins as the baseline conceptual design and will evolve into an 'as-built' manual for the completed facility. The Executive Summary, Chapter 1, gives an introduction to the FACET project and describes the salient features of its design. Chapter 2 gives an overview of FACET. It describes the general parameters of the machine and the basic approaches to implementation. The FACET project does not include the implementation of specific scientific experiments either for plasma wake-field acceleration for other applications. Nonetheless, enough work has been done to define potential experiments to assure that the facility can meet the requirements of the experimental community. Chapter 3, Scientific Case, describes the planned plasma wakefield and other experiments. Chapter 4, Technical Description of FACET, describes the parameters and design of all technical systems of FACET. FACET uses the first two thirds of the existing SLAC linac to accelerate the beam to about 20GeV, and compress it with the aid of two chicanes, located in Sector 10 and Sector 20. The Sector 20 area will include a focusing system, the generic experimental area and the beam dump. Chapter 5, Management of Scientific Program, describes the management of the scientific program at FACET. Chapter 6, Environment, Safety and Health and Quality Assurance, describes the existing programs at SLAC and their application to the FACET project. It includes a preliminary analysis of safety hazards and the planned mitigation. Chapter 7, Work Breakdown Structure, describes the structure used for developing the cost estimates, which will also be used to manage the project. The chapter defines the scope of work of each element down to level 3.

  16. Modeling laser wakefield accelerators in a Lorentz boosted frame

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vay, J.-L.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Grote, D.P.

    2010-09-15

    Modeling of laser-plasma wakefield accelerators in an optimal frame of reference [1] is shown to produce orders of magnitude speed-up of calculations from first principles. Obtaining these speedups requires mitigation of a high frequency instability that otherwise limits effectiveness in addition to solutions for handling data input and output in a relativistically boosted frame of reference. The observed high-frequency instability is mitigated using methods including an electromagnetic solver with tunable coefficients, its extension to accomodate Perfectly Matched Layers and Friedman's damping algorithms, as well as an efficient large bandwidth digital filter. It is shown that choosing theframe of the wake as the frame of reference allows for higher levels of filtering and damping than is possible in other frames for the same accuracy. Detailed testing also revealed serendipitously the existence of a singular time step at which the instability level is minimized, independently of numerical dispersion, thus indicating that the observed instability may not be due primarily to Numerical Cerenkov as has been conjectured. The techniques developed for Cerenkov mitigation prove nonetheless to be very efficient at controlling the instability. Using these techniques, agreement at the percentage level is demonstrated between simulations using different frames of reference, with speedups reaching two orders of magnitude for a 0.1 GeV class stages. The method then allows direct and efficient full-scale modeling of deeply depleted laser-plasma stages of 10 GeV-1 TeV for the first time, verifying the scaling of plasma accelerators to very high energies. Over 4, 5 and 6 orders of magnitude speedup is achieved for the modeling of 10 GeV, 100 GeV and 1 TeV class stages, respectively.

  17. Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator to drive the future FEL Light Source.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing, C.; Power, J.; Zholents, A. )

    2011-04-20

    X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) are expensive instruments and a large part of the cost of the entire facility is driven by the accelerator. Using a high-energy gain dielectric wake-field accelerator (DWA) instead of the conventional accelerator may provide a significant cost saving and reduction of the facility size. In this article, we investigate using a collinear dielectric wakefield accelerator to provide a high repetition rate, high current, high energy beam to drive a future FEL x-ray light source. As an initial case study, a {approx}100 MV/m loaded gradient, 850 GHz quartz dielectric based 2-stage, wakefield accelerator is proposed to generate a main electron beam of 8 GeV, 50 pC/bunch, {approx}1.2 kA of peak current, 10 x 10 kHz (10 beamlines) in just 100 meters with the fill factor and beam loading considered. This scheme provides 10 parallel main beams with one 100 kHz drive beam. A drive-to-main beam efficiency {approx}38.5% can be achieved with an advanced transformer ratio enhancement technique. rf power dissipation in the structure is only 5 W/cm{sup 2} in the high repetition rate, high gradient operation mode, which is in the range of advanced water cooling capability. Details of study presented in the article include the overall layout, the transform ratio enhancement scheme used to increase the drive to main beam efficiency, main wakefield linac design, cooling of the structure, etc.

  18. GENII Version 2 Software Design Document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Ramsdell, James V.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fosmire, Christian J.

    2004-03-08

    This document describes the architectural design for the GENII-V2 software package. This document defines details of the overall structure of the software, the major software components, their data file interfaces, and specific mathematical models to be used. The design represents a translation of the requirements into a description of the software structure, software components, interfaces, and necessary data. The design focuses on the major components and data communication links that are key to the implementation of the software within the operating framework. The purpose of the GENII-V2 software package is to provide the capability to perform dose and risk assessments of environmental releases of radionuclides. The software also has the capability of calculating environmental accumulation and radiation doses from surface water, groundwater, and soil (buried waste) media when an input concentration of radionuclide in these media is provided. This report represents a detailed description of the capabilities of the software product with exact specifications of mathematical models that form the basis for the software implementation and testing efforts. This report also presents a detailed description of the overall structure of the software package, details of main components (implemented in the current phase of work), details of data communication files, and content of basic output reports. The GENII system includes the capabilities for calculating radiation doses following chronic and acute releases. Radionuclide transport via air, water, or biological activity may be considered. Air transport options include both puff and plume models, each allow use of an effective stack height or calculation of plume rise from buoyant or momentum effects (or both). Building wake effects can be included in acute atmospheric release scenarios. The code provides risk estimates for health effects to individuals or populations; these can be obtained using the code by applying appropriate risk factors to the effective dose equivalent or organ dose. In addition, Version 2 uses cancer risk factors from Federal Guidance Report 13 to estimate risk to specific organs or tissues.

  19. Design and operational considerations of United States commercial near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birk, S.M.

    1997-10-01

    In accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, states are responsible for providing for disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) within their borders. LLW in the US is defined as all radioactive waste that is not classified as spent nuclear fuel, high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or by-product material resulting from the extraction of uranium from ore. Commercial waste includes LLW generated by hospitals, universities, industry, pharmaceutical companies, and power utilities. LLW generated by the country`s defense operations is the responsibility of the Federal government and its agency, the Department of Energy. The commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed in this report are located near: Sheffield, Illinois (closed); Maxey Flats, Kentucky (closed); Beatty, Nevada (closed); West Valley, New York (closed); Barnwell, South Carolina (operating); Richland, Washington (operating); Ward Valley, California, (proposed); Sierra Blanca, Texas (proposed); Wake County, North Carolina (proposed); and Boyd County, Nebraska (proposed). While some comparisons between the sites described in this report are appropriate, this must be done with caution. In addition to differences in climate and geology between sites, LLW facilities in the past were not designed and operated to today`s standards. This report summarizes each site`s design and operational considerations for near-surface disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The report includes: a description of waste characteristics; design and operational features; post closure measures and plans; cost and duration of site characterization, construction, and operation; recent related R and D activities for LLW treatment and disposal; and the status of the LLW system in the US.

  20. Simulations of Failure via Three-Dimensional Cracking in Fuel Cladding for Advanced Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Hongbing; Bukkapatnam, Satish; Harimkar, Sandip; Singh, Raman; Bardenhagen, Scott

    2014-01-09

    Enhancing performance of fuel cladding and duct alloys is a key means of increasing fuel burnup. This project will address the failure of fuel cladding via three-dimensional cracking models. Researchers will develop a simulation code for the failure of the fuel cladding and validate the code through experiments. The objective is to develop an algorithm to determine the failure of fuel cladding in the form of three-dimensional cracking due to prolonged exposure under varying conditions of pressure, temperature, chemical environment, and irradiation. This project encompasses the following tasks: 1. Simulate 3D crack initiation and growth under instantaneous and/or fatigue loads using a new variant of the material point method (MPM); 2. Simulate debonding of the materials in the crack path using cohesive elements, considering normal and shear traction separation laws; 3. Determine the crack propagation path, considering damage of the materials incorporated in the cohesive elements to allow the energy release rate to be minimized; 4. Simulate the three-dimensional fatigue crack growth as a function of loading histories; 5. Verify the simulation code by comparing results to theoretical and numerical studies available in the literature; 6. Conduct experiments to observe the crack path and surface profile in unused fuel cladding and validate against simulation results; and 7. Expand the adaptive mesh refinement infrastructure parallel processing environment to allow adaptive mesh refinement at the 3D crack fronts and adaptive mesh merging in the wake of cracks. Fuel cladding is made of materials such as stainless steels and ferritic steels with added alloying elements, which increase stability and durability under irradiation. As fuel cladding is subjected to water, chemicals, fission gas, pressure, high temperatures, and irradiation while in service, understanding performance is essential. In the fast fuel used in advanced burner reactors, simulations of the nuclear fuels are critical to understand the burnup, and thus the fuel efficiency.

  1. High-throughput behavioral phenotyping of drug and alcohol susceptibility traits in the expanded panel of BXD recombinant inbred strains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip, Vivek M [ORNL; Ansah, T [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Blaha, C, [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Cook, Melloni N. [University of Memphis; Hamre, Kristin M. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Lariviere, William R [University of Pittsburgh; Matthews, Douglas B [Baylor University; Goldowitz, Daniel [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Genetic reference populations, particularly the BXD recombinant inbred strains, are a valuable resource for the discovery of the bio-molecular substrates and genetic drivers responsible for trait variation and co- ariation. This approach can be profitably applied in the analysis of susceptibility and mechanisms of drug and alcohol use disorders for which many predisposing behaviors may predict occurrence and manifestation of increased preference for these substances. Many of these traits are modeled by common mouse behavioral assays, facilitating the detection of patterns and sources of genetic co-regulation of predisposing phenotypes and substance consumption. Members of the Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium have obtained behavioral phenotype data from 260 measures related to multiple behavioral assays across several domains: self-administration, response to, and withdrawal from cocaine, MDMA, morphine and alcohol; novelty seeking; behavioral despair and related neurological phenomena; pain sensitivity; stress sensitivity; anxiety; hyperactivity; and sleep/wake cycles. All traits have been measured in both sexes and the recently expanded panel of 69 additional BXD recombinant inbred strains (N=69). Sex differences and heritability estimates were obtained for each trait, and a comparison of early (N = 32) and recent BXD RI lines was performed. Primary data is publicly available for heritability, sex difference and genetic analyses using www.GeneNetwork.org. These analyses include QTL detection and genetic analysis of gene expression. Stored results from these analyses are available at http://ontologicaldiscovery.org for comparison to other genomic analysis results. Together with the results of related studies, these data form a public resource for integrative systems genetic analysis of neurobehavioral traits.

  2. Observations of the scale-dependent turbulence and evaluation of the flux-gradient relationship for sensible heat for a closed Douglas-Fir canopy in very weak wind conditions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vickers, D.; Thomas, C.

    2014-05-13

    Observations of the scale-dependent turbulent fluxes and variances above, within and beneath a tall closed Douglas-Fir canopy in very weak winds are examined. The daytime subcanopy vertical velocity spectra exhibit a double-peak structure with peaks at time scales of 0.8 s and 51.2 s. A double-peak structure is also observed in the daytime subcanopy heat flux cospectra. The daytime momentum flux cospectra inside the canopy and in the subcanopy are characterized by a relatively large cross-wind component, likely due to the extremely light and variable winds, such that the definition of a mean wind direction, and subsequent partitioning of themore » momentum flux into along- and cross-wind components, has little physical meaning. Positive values of both momentum flux components in the subcanopy contribute to upward transfer of momentum, consistent with the observed mean wind speed profile. In the canopy at night at the smallest resolved scales, we find relatively large momentum fluxes (compared to at larger scales), and increasing vertical velocity variance with decreasing time scale, consistent with very small eddies likely generated by wake shedding from the canopy elements that transport momentum but not heat. We find unusually large values of the velocity aspect ratio within the canopy, consistent with enhanced suppression of the horizontal wind components compared to the vertical by the canopy. The flux-gradient approach for sensible heat flux is found to be valid for the subcanopy and above-canopy layers when considered separately; however, single source approaches that ignore the canopy fail because they make the heat flux appear to be counter-gradient when in fact it is aligned with the local temperature gradient in both the subcanopy and above-canopy layers. Modeled sensible heat fluxes above dark warm closed canopies are likely underestimated using typical values of the Stanton number.« less

  3. Development of Pneumatic Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. Englar

    2000-06-19

    Under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies, the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing and evaluating pneumatic (blown) aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles. The objective of this program is to apply the pneumatic aerodynamic aircraft technology previously developed and flight-tested by GTRI personnel to the design of an efficient blown tractor-trailer configuration. Recent experimental results obtained by GTRI using blowing have shown drag reductions of 35% on a streamlined automobile wind-tunnel model. Also measured were lift or down-load increases of 100-150% and the ability to control aerodynamic moments about all 3 axes without any moving control surfaces. Similar drag reductions yielded by blowing on bluff afterbody trailers in current US trucking fleet operations are anticipated to reduce yearly fuel consumption by more than 1.2 billion gallons, while even further reduction is possible using pneumatic lift to reduce tire rolling resistance. Conversely, increased drag and down force generated instantaneously by blowing can greatly increase braking characteristics and control in wet/icy weather due to effective ''weight'' increases on the tires. Safety is also enhanced by controlling side loads and moments caused on these Heavy Vehicles by winds, gusts and other vehicles passing. This may also help to eliminate the jack-knifing problem if caused by extreme wind side loads on the trailer. Lastly, reduction of the turbulent wake behind the trailer can reduce splash and spray patterns and rough air being experienced by following vehicles. To be presented by GTRI in this paper will be results developed during the early portion of this effort, including a preliminary systems study, CFD prediction of the blown flowfields, and design of the baseline conventional tractor-trailer model and the pneumatic wind-tunnel model.

  4. Betatron radiation from a beam driven plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litos, M.; Corde, S.

    2012-12-21

    Photons produced by the betatron oscillation of electrons in a beam-driven plasma wake provide a uniquely intense and high-energy source of hard X-rays and gamma rays. This betatron radiation is interesting not only for its high intensity and spectral characteristics, but also because it can be used as a diagnostic for beam matching into the plasma, which is critical for maximizing the energy extraction efficiency of a plasma accelerator stage. At SLAC, gamma ray detection devices have been installed at the dump area of the FACET beamline where the betatron radiation from the plasma source used in the E200 plasma wakefield acceleration experiment may be observed. The ultra-dense, high-energy beam at FACET (2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} electrons, 20 Multiplication-Sign 20{mu}m{sup 2} spot, 20 - 100{mu}m length, 20GeV energy) when sent into a plasma source with a nominal density of {approx} 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} will generate synchrotron-like spectra with critical energies well into the tens of MeV. The intensity of the radiation can be increased by introducing a radial offset to the centroid of the witness bunch, which may be achieved at FACET through the use of a transverse deflecting RF cavity. The E200 gamma ray detector has two main components: a 30 Multiplication-Sign 35cm{sup 2} phosphorescent screen for observing the transverse extent of the radiation, and a sampling electromagnetic calorimeter outfitted with photodiodes for measuring the on-axis spectrum. To estimate the spectrum, the observed intensity patterns across the calorimeter are fit with a Gaussian-integrated synchrotron spectrum and compared to simulations. Results and observations from the first FACET user run (April-June 2012) are presented.

  5. DIFFERENTIAL EMISSION MEASURE ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS IN THE INNER CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, J. [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Saar, S. H., E-mail: xincheng@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: jzhang7@gmu.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-12-10

    In this paper, we study the temperature and density properties of multiple structural components of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) using differential emission measure (DEM) analysis. The DEM analysis is based on the six-passband EUV observations of solar corona from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory. The structural components studied include the hot channel in the core region (presumably the magnetic flux rope of the CME), the bright loop-like leading front (LF), and coronal dimming in the wake of the CME. We find that the presumed flux rope has the highest average temperature (>8 MK) and density ({approx}1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} cm{sup -3}), resulting in an enhanced emission measure over a broad temperature range (3 {<=} T(MK) {<=} 20). On the other hand, the CME LF has a relatively cool temperature ({approx}2 MK) and a narrow temperature distribution similar to the pre-eruption coronal temperature (1 {<=} T(MK) {<=} 3). The density in the LF, however, is increased by 2%-32% compared with that of the pre-eruption corona, depending on the event and location. In coronal dimmings, the temperature is more broadly distributed (1 {<=} T(MK) {<=} 4), but the density decreases by {approx}35%-{approx}40%. These observational results show that: (1) CME core regions are significantly heated, presumably through magnetic reconnection; (2) CME LFs are a consequence of compression of ambient plasma caused by the expansion of the CME core region; and (3) the dimmings are largely caused by the plasma rarefaction associated with the eruption.

  6. Tagging CO2 to Enable Quantitative Inventories of Geological Carbon Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lackner, Klaus; Matter, Juerg; Park, Ah-Hyung; Stute, Martin; Carson, Cantwell; Ji, Yinghuang

    2014-06-30

    In the wake of concerns about the long term integrity and containment of sub-surface CO2 sequestration reservoirs, many efforts have been made to improve the monitoring, verification, and accounting methods for geo-sequestered CO2. Our project aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of a system designed to tag CO2 with carbon isotope 14C immediately prior to sequestration to a level that is normal on the surface (one part per trillion). Because carbon found at depth is naturally free of 14C, this tag would easily differentiate pre-existing carbon from anthropogenic injected carbon and provide an excellent handle for monitoring its whereabouts in the subsurface. It also creates an excellent handle for adding up anthropogenic carbon inventories. Future inventories in effect count 14C atoms. Accordingly, we have developed a 14C tagging system suitable for use at the part-per-trillion level. This system consists of a gas-exchange apparatus to make disposable cartridges ready for controlled injection into a fast flowing stream of pressurized CO2. We built a high-pressure injection and tagging system, and a 14C detection system. The disposable cartridge and injection system have been successfully demonstrated in the lab with a high-pressure flow reactor, as well as in the field at the CarbFix CO2 sequestration site in Iceland. The laser-based 14C detection system originally conceived has been shown to possess inadequate sensitivity for ambient levels. Alternative methods for detecting 14C, such as saturated cavity absorption ringdown spectroscopy and scintillation counting, may still be suitable. KEYWORDS

  7. Emergency Doses (ED) - Revision 3: A calculator code for environmental dose computations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1990-12-01

    The calculator program ED (Emergency Doses) was developed from several HP-41CV calculator programs documented in the report Seven Health Physics Calculator Programs for the HP-41CV, RHO-HS-ST-5P (Rittman 1984). The program was developed to enable estimates of offsite impacts more rapidly and reliably than was possible with the software available for emergency response at that time. The ED - Revision 3, documented in this report, revises the inhalation dose model to match that of ICRP 30, and adds the simple estimates for air concentration downwind from a chemical release. In addition, the method for calculating the Pasquill dispersion parameters was revised to match the GENII code within the limitations of a hand-held calculator (e.g., plume rise and building wake effects are not included). The summary report generator for printed output, which had been present in the code from the original version, was eliminated in Revision 3 to make room for the dispersion model, the chemical release portion, and the methods of looping back to an input menu until there is no further no change. This program runs on the Hewlett-Packard programmable calculators known as the HP-41CV and the HP-41CX. The documentation for ED - Revision 3 includes a guide for users, sample problems, detailed verification tests and results, model descriptions, code description (with program listing), and independent peer review. This software is intended to be used by individuals with some training in the use of air transport models. There are some user inputs that require intelligent application of the model to the actual conditions of the accident. The results calculated using ED - Revision 3 are only correct to the extent allowed by the mathematical models. 9 refs., 36 tabs.

  8. Tracing ram-pressure stripping with warm molecular hydrogen emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivanandam, Suresh; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rieke, George H.

    2014-12-01

    We use the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph to study four infalling cluster galaxies with signatures of ongoing ram-pressure stripping. H{sub 2} emission is detected in all four, and two show extraplanar H{sub 2} emission. The emission usually has a warm (T ? 115-160 K) and a hot (T ? 400-600 K) component that is approximately two orders of magnitude less massive than the warm one. The warm component column densities are typically 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 20} cm{sup 2} with masses of 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 8} M {sub ?}. The warm H{sub 2} is anomalously bright compared with normal star-forming galaxies and therefore may be excited by ram-pressure. In the case of CGCG 97-073, the H{sub 2} is offset from the majority of star formation along the direction of the galaxy's motion in the cluster, suggesting that it is forming in the ram-pressure wake of the galaxy. Another galaxy, NGC 4522, exhibits a warm H{sub 2} tail approximately 4 kpc in length. These results support the hypothesis that H{sub 2} within these galaxies is shock-heated from the interaction with the intracluster medium. Stripping of dust is also a common feature of the galaxies. For NGC 4522, where the distribution of dust at 8 ?m is well resolved, knots and ripples demonstrate the turbulent nature of the stripping process. The H? and 24 ?m luminosities show that most of the galaxies have star-formation rates comparable to similar mass counterparts in the field. Finally, we suggest a possible evolutionary sequence primarily related to the strength of ram-pressure that a galaxy experiences to explain the varied results observed in our sample.

  9. A HYDRODYNAMICAL SOLUTION FOR THE ''TWIN-TAILED'' COLLIDING GALAXY CLUSTER ''EL GORDO''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molnar, Sandor M.; Broadhurst, Tom

    2015-02-10

    The distinctive cometary X-ray morphology of the recently discovered massive galaxy cluster ''El Gordo'' (ACT-CT J01024915; z= 0.87) indicates that an unusually high-speed collision is ongoing between two massive galaxy clusters. A bright X-ray ''bullet'' leads a ''twin-tailed'' wake, with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) centroid at the end of the northern tail. We show how the physical properties of this system can be determined using our FLASH-based, N-body/hydrodynamic model, constrained by detailed X-ray, SZ, and Hubble lensing and dynamical data. The X-ray morphology and the location of the two dark matter components and the SZ peak are accurately described by a simple binary collision viewed about 480 million years after the first core passage. We derive an impact parameter of ?300kpc, and a relative initial infall velocity of ?2250km s{sup 1} when separated by the sum of the two virial radii assuming an initial total mass of 2.15 10{sup 15} M {sub ?} and a mass ratio of 1.9. Our model demonstrates that tidally stretched gas accounts for the northern X-ray tail along the collision axis between the mass peaks, and that the southern tail lies off axis, comprising compressed and shock heated gas generated as the less massive component plunges through the main cluster. The challenge for ?CDM will be to find out if this physically extreme event can be plausibly accommodated when combined with the similarly massive, high-infall-velocity case of the Bullet cluster and other such cases being uncovered in new SZ based surveys.

  10. Holographic Imaging of Evolving Laser-Plasma Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downer, Michael; Shvets, G.

    2014-07-31

    In the 1870s, English photographer Eadweard Muybridge captured motion pictures within one cycle of a horses gallop, which settled a hotly debated question of his time by showing that the horse became temporarily airborne. In the 1940s, Manhattan project photographer Berlin Brixner captured a nuclear blast at a million frames per second, and resolved a dispute about the explosions shape and speed. In this project, we developed methods to capture detailed motion pictures of evolving, light-velocity objects created by a laser pulse propagating through matter. These objects include electron density waves used to accelerate charged particles, laser-induced refractive index changes used for micromachining, and ionization tracks used for atmospheric chemical analysis, guide star creation and ranging. Our movies, like Muybridges and Brixners, are obtained in one shot, since the laser-created objects of interest are insufficiently repeatable for accurate stroboscopic imaging. Our high-speed photographs have begun to resolve controversies about how laser-created objects form and evolve, questions that previously could be addressed only by intensive computer simulations based on estimated initial conditions. Resolving such questions helps develop better tabletop particle accelerators, atmospheric ranging devices and many other applications of laser-matter interactions. Our photographic methods all begin by splitting one or more probe pulses from the laser pulse that creates the light-speed object. A probe illuminates the object and obtains information about its structure without altering it. We developed three single-shot visualization methods that differ in how the probes interact with the object of interest or are recorded. (1) Frequency-Domain Holography (FDH). In FDH, there are 2 probes, like object and reference beams in conventional holography. Our object probe surrounds the light-speed object, like a fleas swarming around a sprinting animal. The object modifies the probe, imprinting information about its structure. Meanwhile, our reference probe co-propagates ahead of the object, free of its influence. After the interaction, object and reference combine to record a hologram. For technical reasons, our recording device is a spectrometer (a frequency-measuring device), hence the name frequency-domain holography. We read the hologram electronically to obtain a snapshot of the objects average structure as it transits the medium. Our published work shows numerous snapshots of electron density waves (laser wakes) in ionized gas (plasma), analogous to a water wake behind a boat. Such waves are the basis of tabletop particle accelerators, in which charged particles surf on the light-speed wave, gaining energy. Comparing our snapshots to computer simulations deepens understanding of laser wakes. FDH takes snapshots of objects that are quasi-static --- i.e. like Muybridges horse standing still on a treadmill. If the object changes shape, FDH images blur, as when a subject moves while a camera shutter is open. Many laser-generated objects of interest do evolve as they propagate. To overcome this limit of FDH, we developed .... (2) Frequency-Domain Tomography (FDT). In FDT, 5 to 10 probe pulses are fired simultaneously across the objects path at different angles, like a crossfire of bullets. The object imprints a streaked record of its evolution on each probe, which we record as in FDH, then recover a multi-frame movie of the objects evolving structure using algorithms of computerized tomography. When propagation distance exceeds a few millimeters, reconstructed FDT images distort. This is because the lenses that image probes to detector have limited depth of field, like cameras that cannot focus simultaneously on both nearby and distant objects. But some laser-generated objects of interest propagate over meters. For these applications we developed (3) Multi-Object-Plane Phase-Contrast Imaging (MOP-PCI). In MOP-PCI, we image FDT-like probes to the detector from multiple object planes --- like recording an event simultaneously with several cameras, some focused on nearby, others on distant, objects. To increase sensitivity, we exploit a phase-contrast imaging technique developed by Dutch Nobel laureate Fritz Zernike in the 1930s. Using MOP-PCI we recorded single-shot movies of laser pulse tracks through more than 10 cm of air. We plan to record images of meter-long tracks of electron bunches propagating through plasma in an experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). This will help SLAC scientists understand, optimize and scale small plasma-based particle accelerators that have applications in medicine, industry, materials science and high-energy physics.

  11. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S

    2001-05-22

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFOTM exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer-coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, whereas the other set of 12 files has a spatial resolution of 0.25 degree. The remaining two ASCII data files combine all of the data from the 24 ASCII data files into 2 single generic data files. The first file has a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, and the second has a resolution of 0.25 degree. Both files also provide a grid-cell identification number and the longitude and latitude of the center-point of each grid cell. The 3.75-km data in this numeric data package yield an actual total carbon estimate of 42.1 Pg (1 petagram = 10{sup 15} grams) and a potential carbon estimate of 73.6 Pg; whereas the 0.25-degree data produced an actual total carbon estimate of 41.8 Pg and a total potential carbon estimate of 73.9 Pg. Fortran and SAS{trademark} access codes are provided to read the ASCII data files, and ARC/INFO and ARCVIEW command syntax are provided to import the ARC/INFO exported integer grid files. The data files and this documentation are available without charge on a variety of media and via the Internet from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC).

  12. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.

    2002-02-07

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFO{trademark} exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer- coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, whereas the other set of 12 files has a spatial resolution of 0.25 degree. The remaining two ASCII data files combine all of the data from the 24 ASCII data files into 2 single generic data files. The first file has a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, and the second has a resolution of 0.25 degree. Both files also provide a grid-cell identification number and the longitude and latitude of the centerpoint of each grid cell. The 3.75-km data in this numeric data package yield an actual total carbon estimate of 42.1 Pg (1 petagram = 10{sup 15} grams) and a potential carbon estimate of 73.6 Pg; whereas the 0.25-degree data produced an actual total carbon estimate of 41.8 Pg and a total potential carbon estimate of 73.9 Pg. Fortran and SASTM access codes are provided to read the ASCII data files, and ARC/INFO and ARCVIEW command syntax are provided to import the ARC/INFO exported integer grid files. The data files and this documentation are available without charge on a variety of media and via the Internet from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC).

  13. Ambient and elevated temperature fracture and cyclic-fatigue properties in a series of Al-containing silicon carbides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Rong

    2004-08-30

    A series of in situ toughened, Al, B and C containing, silicon carbide ceramics (ABC-SiC) has been examined with Al contents varying from 3 to 7 wt%. With increasing Al additions, the grain morphology in the as-processed microstructures varied from elongated to bimodal to equiaxed, with a change in the nature of the grain-boundary film from amorphous to partially crystalline to fully crystalline. Fracture toughness and cyclic fatigue tests on these microstructures revealed that although the 7 wt.% Al containing material (7ABC) was extremely brittle, the 3 and particularly 5 wt.% Al materials (3ABC and 5ABC, respectively) displayed excellent crack-growth resistance at both ambient (25 C) and elevated (1300 C) temperatures. Indeed, no evidence of creep damage, in the form of grain-boundary cavitation, was seen at temperatures at 1300 C or below. The enhanced toughness of the higher Al-containing materials was associated with extensive crack bridging from both interlocking grains (in 3ABC) and uncracked ligaments (in 5ABC); in contrast, the 7ABC SiC showed no such bridging, concomitant with a marked reduction in the volume fraction of elongated grains. Mechanistically, cyclic fatigue-crack growth in 3ABC and 5ABC SiC involved the progressive degradation of such bridging ligaments in the crack wake, with the difference in the degree of elastic vs. frictional bridging affecting the slope, i.e., Paris law exponent, of the crack-growth curve. In addition an investigation of fracture resistance in non-transforming ceramics toughened by grain bridging mechanism is presented using linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM). Linear superposition theorems are used for the superposition of crack opening displacements, as well as stress intensity factors, resulting from the external tractions and the internal compressive bridging stresses. Specifically weight functions are used to relate the CODs, stress intensity factors, and tractions and the bridging stress. Expressions are derived for apparent material resistance, the bridging resistance and the intrinsic toughness, and an experimental procedure is proposed by which these predictions can be verified.

  14. Interaction of Nocturnal Low-Level Jets with Urban Geometries as seen in Joint URBAN 2003 Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.Lundquist, J; D.Mirocha, J

    2006-09-06

    As accurate modeling of atmospheric flows in urban environments requires sophisticated representation of complex urban geometries, much work has been devoted to treatment of the urban surface. However, the importance of the larger-scale flow impinging upon the urban complex to the flow, transport and dispersion within it and downwind has received less attention. Building-resolving computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are commonly employed to investigate interactions between the flow and three-dimensional structures comprising the urban environment, however such models are typically forced with simplified boundary conditions that fail to include important regional-scale phenomena that can strongly influence the flow within the urban complex and downwind. This paper investigates the interaction of an important and frequently occurring regional-scale phenomenon, the nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ), with urban-scale turbulence and dispersion in Oklahoma City using data from the Joint URBAN 2003 (JU2003) field experiment. Two simulations of nocturnal tracer release experiments from JU2003 using Lawrence Livermore National laboratory's FEM3MP CFD model yield differing levels of agreement with the observations in wind speed, turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and concentration profiles in the urban wake, approximately 750m downwind of the central business district. Profiles of several observed turbulence parameters at this location indicate characteristics of both bottom-up and top-down boundary layers during each of the experiments. These data are consistent with turbulence production due to at least two sources, the complex flow structures of the urban area and the region of strong vertical wind shear occurring beneath the LLJs present each night. While strong LLJs occurred each night, their structures varied considerably, resulting in significant differences in the magnitudes of the turbulence parameters observed during the two experiments. As FEM3MP was forced only with an upwind velocity profile that did not adequately represent the LLJ, the downward propagation of TKE observed during the experiments was absent from the simulations. As such, the differing levels of agreement between the simulations and observations during the two experiments can, in part, be explained by their exclusion of this important larger-scale influence. We demonstrate the ability of the Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF) to simulate accurate velocity fields during each night, and identify the use of regional-scale simulation data as a promising approach for representing the effects of important regional-scale phenomena such as the LLJ, on urban-scale simulations.

  15. On the interaction between turbulence and a planar rarefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Bryan M.

    2014-04-01

    The modeling of turbulence, whether it be numerical or analytical, is a difficult challenge. Turbulence is amenable to analysis with linear theory if it is subject to rapid distortions, i.e., motions occurring on a timescale that is short compared to the timescale for nonlinear interactions. Such an approach (referred to as rapid distortion theory) could prove useful for understanding aspects of astrophysical turbulence, which is often subject to rapid distortions, such as supernova explosions or the free-fall associated with gravitational instability. As a proof of principle, a particularly simple problem is considered here: the evolution of vorticity due to a planar rarefaction in an ideal gas. Analytical solutions are obtained for incompressive modes having a wave vector perpendicular to the distortion; as in the case of gradient-driven instabilities, these are the modes that couple most strongly to the mean flow. Vorticity can either grow or decay in the wake of a rarefaction front, and there are two competing effects that determine which outcome occurs: entropy fluctuations couple to the mean pressure gradient to produce vorticity via baroclinic effects, whereas vorticity is damped due to the conservation of angular momentum as the fluid expands. Whether vorticity grows or decays depends upon the ratio of entropic to vortical fluctuations at the location of the front; growth occurs if this ratio is of order unity or larger. In the limit of purely entropic fluctuations in the ambient fluid, a strong rarefaction generates vorticity with a turbulent Mach number on the order of the rms of the ambient entropy fluctuations. The analytical results are shown to compare well with results from two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations. Analytical solutions are also derived in the linear regime of Reynolds-averaged turbulence models. This highlights an inconsistency in standard turbulence models that prevents them from accurately capturing the physics of rarefaction-turbulence interaction. In addition to providing physical insight, the solutions derived here can be used to verify algorithms of both the Reynolds-averaged and direct numerical simulation variety. Finally, dimensional analysis of the equations indicates that rapid distortion of turbulence can give rise to two distinct regimes in the turbulent spectrum: a distortion range at large scales where linear distortion effects dominate, and an inertial range at small scales where nonlinear effects dominate.

  16. Flame-vortex interaction driven combustion dynamics in a backward-facing step combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altay, H. Murat; Speth, Raymond L.; Hudgins, Duane E.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2009-05-15

    The combustion dynamics of propane-hydrogen mixtures are investigated in an atmospheric pressure, lean, premixed backward-facing step combustor. We systematically vary the equivalence ratio, inlet temperature and fuel composition to determine the stability map of the combustor. Simultaneous pressure, velocity, heat release rate and equivalence ratio measurements and high-speed video from the experiments are used to identify and characterize several distinct operating modes. When fuel is injected far upstream from the step, the equivalence ratio entering the flame is temporally and spatially uniform, and the combustion dynamics are governed only by flame-vortex interactions. Four distinct dynamic regimes are observed depending on the operating parameters. At high but lean equivalence ratios, the flame is unstable and oscillates strongly as it is wrapped around the large unsteady wake vortex. At intermediate equivalence ratios, weakly oscillating quasi-stable flames are observed. Near the lean blowout limit, long stable flames extending from the corner of the step are formed. At atmospheric inlet temperature, the unstable mode resonates at the 1/4 wavemode of the combustor. As the inlet temperature is increased, the 5/4 wavemode of the combustor is excited at high but lean equivalence ratios, forming the high-frequency unstable flames. Higher hydrogen concentration in the fuel and higher inlet temperatures reduce the equivalence ratios at which the transitions between regimes are observed. We plot combustion dynamics maps or the response curves, that is the overall sound pressure level as a function of the equivalence ratio, for different operating conditions. We demonstrate that numerical results of strained premixed flames can be used to collapse the response curves describing the transitions among the dynamic modes onto a function of the heat release rate parameter alone, rather than a function dependent on the equivalence ratio, inlet temperature and fuel composition separately. We formulate a theory for predicting the critical values of the heat release parameter at which quasi-stable to unstable and unstable to high-frequency unstable modes take place. (author)

  17. Observations of the scale-dependent turbulence and evaluation of the flux–gradient relationship for sensible heat for a closed Douglas-fir canopy in very weak wind conditions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vickers, D.; Thomas, C. K.

    2014-09-16

    Observations of the scale-dependent turbulent fluxes, variances, and the bulk transfer parameterization for sensible heat above, within, and beneath a tall closed Douglas-fir canopy in very weak winds are examined. The daytime sub-canopy vertical velocity spectra exhibit a double-peak structure with peaks at timescales of 0.8 s and 51.2 s. A double-peak structure is also observed in the daytime sub-canopy heat flux co-spectra. The daytime momentum flux co-spectra in the upper bole space and in the sub-canopy are characterized by a relatively large cross-wind component, likely due to the extremely light and variable winds, such that the definition of amore » mean wind direction, and subsequent partitioning of the momentum flux into along- and cross-wind components, has little physical meaning. Positive values of both momentum flux components in the sub-canopy contribute to upward transfer of momentum, consistent with the observed sub-canopy secondary wind speed maximum. For the smallest resolved scales in the canopy at nighttime, we find increasing vertical velocity variance with decreasing timescale, consistent with very small eddies possibly generated by wake shedding from the canopy elements that transport momentum, but not heat. Unusually large values of the velocity aspect ratio within the canopy were observed, consistent with enhanced suppression of the horizontal wind components compared to the vertical by the very dense canopy. The flux–gradient approach for sensible heat flux is found to be valid for the sub-canopy and above-canopy layers when considered separately in spite of the very small fluxes on the order of a few W m−2 in the sub-canopy. However, single-source approaches that ignore the canopy fail because they make the heat flux appear to be counter-gradient when in fact it is aligned with the local temperature gradient in both the sub-canopy and above-canopy layers. While sub-canopy Stanton numbers agreed well with values typically reported in the literature, our estimates for the above-canopy Stanton number were much larger, which likely leads to underestimated modeled sensible heat fluxes above dark warm closed canopies.« less

  18. Experimental investigation on impingement heat transfer of gas-solid suspension flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yokomine, Takenhiko; Shimizu, Akihiko

    1999-07-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate experimentally the heat transfer performance of dense gas-solid suspension impinging jet for diverter cooling of the fusion power reactor. Prior to the experimental study, a tentative goal of 20 kW/m{sup 2}K was set as the heat transfer coefficient based on the expected temperature level of both coolant and diverter plate materials. Figure A-1 summarizes the results of experiments, where H/D is non-dimensional space between nozzle exit and impingement plate. The ranges of examined nozzle Reynolds number Re{sub N} and thermal loading ratio {Gamma}{sub th} were 5.5 x 10{sup 4} {<=} Re{sub N} {<=} 2.4 x 10{sup 5} and 0 {<=} {Gamma}{sub th} {<=} 8.55, respectively. When the glassy-carbon (G-C) particles with 26{micro}m in diameter were used, the maximum heat transfer coefficient could not reach the target value because the solid flow rate was restricted by the crucial erosion damage of test plate and a strong vibration observed in the test line. On the other hand, in the case that the fine graphite particles (10{micro}m in diameter) were used, the maximum heat transfer coefficient of 20 kW/m{sup 2}K was obtained at relatively dilute condition of solid loading ratio, which is considered to be due to the additive production of turbulence by particles' wake. Furthermore, the following consideration can be obtained. (1) Changing the particle from hard glassy carbon to soft and fine graphite is effective not only for anti-erosion but also for heat transfer enhancement by increasing heat capacity. (2) Turbulence augmentation by particles is also important for heat transfer enhancement in addition to the increased heat capacity. However, increasing the solid loading is likely to lead to the saturation of heat transfer enhancement effect, on the contrary, to the attenuation of turbulence. (3) If soft and fine particle, like graphite of 10{micro}m diameter employed in present study, is used as suspended particle in coolant for anti-erosion, the cooling by the gas-solid suspension impinging jet will be able to correspond to the thermal heat flux on the diverter plate when the nozzle Reynolds number is 1.5 x 10{sup 5} and thermal loading ratio is only 3. Provided that fine particles is used, however, some additional difficulties may be occurred, such as handling of powder and thermophoresis adhesion on the heat transfer surface.

  19. The use of real-time off-site observations as a methodology for increasing forecast skill in prediction of large wind power ramps one or more hours ahead of their impact on a wind plant.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin Wilde, Principal Investigator

    2012-12-31

    ABSTRACT Application of Real-Time Offsite Measurements in Improved Short-Term Wind Ramp Prediction Skill Improved forecasting performance immediately preceding wind ramp events is of preeminent concern to most wind energy companies, system operators, and balancing authorities. The value of near real-time hub height-level wind data and more general meteorological measurements to short-term wind power forecasting is well understood. For some sites, access to onsite measured wind data - even historical - can reduce forecast error in the short-range to medium-range horizons by as much as 50%. Unfortunately, valuable free-stream wind measurements at tall tower are not typically available at most wind plants, thereby forcing wind forecasters to rely upon wind measurements below hub height and/or turbine nacelle anemometry. Free-stream measurements can be appropriately scaled to hub-height levels, using existing empirically-derived relationships that account for surface roughness and turbulence. But there is large uncertainty in these relationships for a given time of day and state of the boundary layer. Alternatively, forecasts can rely entirely on turbine anemometry measurements, though such measurements are themselves subject to wake effects that are not stationary. The void in free-stream hub-height level measurements of wind can be filled by remote sensing (e.g., sodar, lidar, and radar). However, the expense of such equipment may not be sustainable. There is a growing market for traditional anemometry on tall tower networks, maintained by third parties to the forecasting process (i.e., independent of forecasters and the forecast users). This study examines the value of offsite tall-tower data from the WINDataNOW Technology network for short-horizon wind power predictions at a wind farm in northern Montana. The presentation shall describe successful physical and statistical techniques for its application and the practicality of its application in an operational setting. It shall be demonstrated that when used properly, the real-time offsite measurements materially improve wind ramp capture and prediction statistics, when compared to traditional wind forecasting techniques and to a simple persistence model.

  20. A STUDY OF A FAILED CORONAL MASS EJECTION CORE ASSOCIATED WITH AN ASYMMETRIC FILAMENT ERUPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshi, Navin Chandra; Srivastava, Abhishek K.; Uddin, Wahab; Kayshap, Pradeep; Filippov, Boris; Chandra, Ramesh E-mail: njoshi98@gmail.com

    2013-07-01

    We present multi-wavelength observations of an asymmetric filament eruption and associated coronal mass ejection (CME) and coronal downflows on 2012 June 17 and 18 from 20:00-05:00 UT. We use SDO/AIA and STEREO-B/SECCHI observations to understand the filament eruption scenario and its kinematics, while LASCO C2 observations are analyzed to study the kinematics of the CME and associated downflows. SDO/AIA limb observations show that the filament exhibits a whipping-like asymmetric eruption. STEREO/EUVI disk observations reveal a two-ribbon flare underneath the southeastern part of the filament that most probably occurred due to reconnection processes in the coronal magnetic field in the wake of the filament eruption. The whipping-like filament eruption later produces a slow CME in which the leading edge and the core propagate, with an average speed of Almost-Equal-To 540 km s{sup -1} and Almost-Equal-To 126 km s{sup -1}, respectively, as observed by the LASCO C2 coronagraph. The CME core formed by the eruptive flux rope shows outer coronal downflows with an average speed of Almost-Equal-To 56 km s{sup -1} after reaching Almost-Equal-To 4.33 R{sub Sun }. Initially, the core decelerates at Almost-Equal-To 48 m s{sup -2}. The plasma first decelerates gradually up to a height of Almost-Equal-To 4.33 R{sub Sun} and then starts accelerating downward. We suggest a self-consistent model of a magnetic flux rope representing the magnetic structure of the CME core formed by an eruptive filament. This rope loses its previous stable equilibrium when it reaches a critical height. With some reasonable parameters, and inherent physical conditions, the model describes the non-radial ascending motion of the flux rope in the corona, its stopping at some height, and thereafter its downward motion. These results are in good agreement with observations.

  1. The National Response Plan and the Problems in the Evaluation and Assessment of the Unconventional Modes of Terrorism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeMone, David V.; Gibbs, Shawn G.; Winston, John W. Jr.

    2006-07-01

    In the wake of the events of 9/11, a presidential mandate ordered the development of a master plan to enable governmental agencies to not only seamlessly cooperate but also rapidly react to disasters. The National Response Plan (NRP) is the document in force (December 2004). It was developed to provide a framework for response to catastrophic events whether those events are natural or man-made. Homeland Security, the coordinating entity, is an integral and critical part of that plan. The NRP is a direct outgrowth of the Initial National Response Plan and operates in tandem with the National Incident Management System (NIMS). NIMS was the first real attempt to amalgamate the capabilities and resources of some 22 governmental entities, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and the private sector. The effectiveness of this system's response to natural disasters has been tested with reference to its performance during the 2005 late summer-early fall series of catastrophic hurricanes (Katrina, Rita, and Wilma). Ongoing evaluation of the response by the system indicates that there are significant lessons to be learned from system errors that occurred from the federal to local levels of government. Nevertheless, the conclusion would seem to be that Homeland Security's organizational structure of NIMS combined with protocols developed in the NRP represents an excellent response to both natural and man-made catastrophes. The lessons learned in these natural occurrences (chain of command failures and missteps from first responders to national level, periodic inaccurate and irresponsible news reporting, evacuation capabilities, quarantine problems, etc.) are directly applicable to potential man-made disaster events. In the yet largely untested areas of man-made disasters, the NRP document forms the basis for responding to terrorism as well as accidental man-made related incidents. There are two major categories of terrorism: conventional and unconventional. Conventional terrorism would include such acts as: assassination, kidnapping, hostage taking, non-nuclear explosive devices, etc. The two NRP categories of catastrophic events and oil and hazardous materials contain sections considered to be in the area of conventional terrorism. Of potentially greater immediate concern are the four major modes of unconventional terrorism that are recognized: cyber-, biological (including agro-), chemical, and nuclear. The problem is to arrive at a mutually agreed upon order of importance of both conventional and unconventional terrorism categories. Consequent ranking of these modes enables the prioritization of those areas in which our limited national human and financial resources are to be expended and allocated (funding of research and development, commitment and selection of personnel, costs distribution, operational time-frame, information distribution level, etc.). Ranking of the terror modes will at best be difficult because of a lack of understanding of the potential impacts of each mode as well as the inherent vested bureaucratic and non-bureaucratic interests and biases. All cases of radiation-related incidents may be considered to be manmade with a potentially significant majority of those incidents assigned to a terrorism origin. Man-made accidental occurrences would be handled with a similar NRP response as would be expected in the case of a terrorist event. Radiation-related devices include the RDDs (Radioactive Dispersal Devices) and nuclear fission and fusion weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Pragmatically, the most likely scenario to develop would involve RDD utilization. This conclusion would seem to be reasonable in view of the current apparent capabilities and sophistication required to construct, transport, and deliver a nuclear WMD. (authors)

  2. Status Update on the NCRP Scientific Committee SC 5-1 Report: Decision Making for Late-Phase Recovery from Nuclear or Radiological Incidents - 13450

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, S.Y.

    2013-07-01

    In August 2008, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) issued its final Protective Action Guide (PAG) for radiological dispersal device (RDD) and improvised nuclear device (IND) incidents. This document specifies protective actions for public health during the early and intermediate phases and cleanup guidance for the late phase of RDD or IND incidents, and it discusses approaches to implementing the necessary actions. However, while the PAG provides specific guidance for the early and intermediate phases, it prescribes no equivalent guidance for the late-phase cleanup actions. Instead, the PAG offers a general description of a complex process using a site-specific optimization approach. This approach does not predetermine cleanup levels but approaches the problem from the factors that would bear on the final agreed-on cleanup levels. Based on this approach, the decision-making process involves multifaceted considerations including public health, the environment, and the economy, as well as socio-political factors. In an effort to fully define the process and approach to be used in optimizing late-phase recovery and site restoration following an RDD or IND incident, DHS has tasked the NCRP with preparing a comprehensive report addressing all aspects of the optimization process. Preparation of the NCRP report is a three-year (2010-2013) project assigned to a scientific committee, the Scientific Committee (SC) 5-1; the report was initially titled, Approach to Optimizing Decision Making for Late- Phase Recovery from Nuclear or Radiological Terrorism Incidents. Members of SC 5-1 represent a broad range of expertise, including homeland security, health physics, risk and decision analysis, economics, environmental remediation and radioactive waste management, and communication. In the wake of the Fukushima nuclear accident of 2011, and guided by a recent process led by the White House through a Principal Level Exercise (PLE), the optimization approach has since been expanded to include off-site contamination from major nuclear power plant accidents as well as other nuclear or radiological incidents. The expanded application under the current guidance has thus led to a broadened scope of the report, which is reflected in its new title, Decision Making for Late-Phase Recovery from Nuclear or Radiological Incidents. The NCRP report, which is due for publication in 2013, will substantiate the current DHS guidance by clarifying and elaborating on the processes required for the development and implementation of procedures for optimizing decision making for late-phase recovery, enabling the establishment of cleanup goals on a site-specific basis. The report will contain a series of topics addressing important issues related to the long-term recovery from nuclear or radiological incidents. Special topics relevant to supporting the optimization of the decision-making process will include cost-benefit analysis, radioactive waste management, risk communication, stakeholder interaction, risk assessment, and decontamination approaches and techniques. The committee also evaluated past nuclear and radiological incidents for their relevance to the report, including the emerging issues associated with the Fukushima nuclear accident. Thus, due to the commonality of the late-phase issues (such as the potential widespread contamination following an event), the majority of the information pertaining to the response in the late-phase decision-making period, including site-specific optimization framework and approach, could be used or adapted for use in case of similar situations that are not due to terrorism, such as those that would be caused by major nuclear facility accidents or radiological incidents. To ensure that the report and the NCRP recommendations are current and relevant to the effective implementation of federal guidance, SC 5-1 has actively coordinated with the agencies of interest and other relevant stakeholders throughout the duration of the project. The resulting report will be an important resource to guide those involved in late-phase recovery efforts following a nuclear or radiological incident. (authors)

  3. RESULTS FROM THE U.S. DOE 2006 SAVE ENERGY NOW ASSESSMENT INITIATIVE: DOE's Partnership with U.S. Industry to Reduce Energy Consumption, Energy Costs, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Anthony L; Martin, Michaela A; Gemmer, Bob; Scheihing, Paul; Quinn, James

    2007-09-01

    In the wake of Hurricane Katrina and other severe storms in 2005, natural gas supplies were restricted, prices rose, and industry sought ways to reduce its natural gas use and costs. In October 2005, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Secretary Bodman launched his Easy Ways to Save Energy campaign with a promise to provide energy assessments to 200 of the largest U.S. manufacturing plants. A major thrust of the campaign was to ensure that the nation's natural gas supplies would be adequate for all Americans, especially during home heating seasons. In a presentation to the National Press Club on October 3, 2005, Secretary Bodman said: 'America's businesses, factories, and manufacturing facilities use massive amounts of energy. To help them during this period of tightening supply and rising costs, our Department is sending teams of qualified efficiency experts to 200 of the nation's most energy-intensive factories. Our Energy Saving Teams will work with on-site managers on ways to conserve energy and use it more efficiently.' DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) responded to the Secretary's campaign with its Save Energy Now initiative, featuring a new and highly cost-effective form of energy assessments. The approach for these assessments drew heavily on the existing resources of ITP's Technology Delivery component. Over the years, ITP-Technology Delivery had worked with industry partners to assemble a suite of respected software decision tools, proven assessment protocols, training curricula, certified experts, and strong partnerships for deployment. Because of the program's earlier activities and the resources that had been developed, ITP was prepared to respond swiftly and effectively to the sudden need to promote improved industrial energy efficiency. Because of anticipated supply issues in the natural gas sector, the Save Energy Now initiative strategically focused on natural gas savings and targeted the nation's largest manufacturing plants--those that consume a total of 1 trillion British thermal units (Btu) or more annually. The approximately 6800 U.S. facilities that fall into this category collectively account for about 53% of all energy consumed by industry in the United States. The 2006 Save Energy Now energy assessments departed from earlier DOE plant assessments by concentrating solely on steam and process heating systems, which are estimated to account for approximately 74% of all natural gas use for manufacturing. The assessments also integrated a strong training component designed to teach industrial plant personnel how to use DOE's steam or process heating opportunity assessment software tools. This approach had the advantages of promoting strong buy-in of plant personnel for the assessment and its outcomes and preparing them better to independently replicate the assessment process at the company's other facilities. The Save Energy Now initiative also included provisions to help plants that applied for but did not qualify for assessments (based on the 1 trillion Btu criterion). Services offered to these plants included (1) an assessment by one of DOE's 26 university-based Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), (2) a telephone consultation with a systems expert at the DOE's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Information Center, or (3) other technical materials and services available through ITP (e.g., the Save Energy Now CD). By the end of 2006, DOE had completed all 200 of the promised assessments, identifying potential natural gas savings of more than 50 trillion Btu and energy cost savings of about $500 million. These savings, if fully implemented, could reduce CO2 emissions by 4.04 million metric tons annually. These results, along with the fact that a large percentage of U.S. energy is used by a relatively small number of very large plants, clearly suggest that assessments are an expedient and cost-effective way to significantly affect large amounts of energy use. Building on the success of the 2006 initiative, ITP has expanded the effort in 2007 with the goal of conducting 250 more asse

  4. Effects of Hot Streak and Phantom Cooling on Heat Transfer in a Cooled Turbine Stage Including Particulate Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bons, Jeffrey; Ameri, Ali

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this research effort was to develop a validated computational modeling capability for the characterization of the effects of hot streaks and particulate deposition on the heat load of modern gas turbines. This was accomplished with a multi-faceted approach including analytical, experimental, and computational components. A 1-year no cost extension request was approved for this effort, so the total duration was 4 years. The research effort succeeded in its ultimate objective by leveraging extensive experimental deposition studies complemented by computational modeling. Experiments were conducted with hot streaks, vane cooling, and combinations of hot streaks with vane cooling. These studies contributed to a significant body of corporate knowledge of deposition, in combination with particle rebound and deposition studies funded by other agencies, to provide suitable conditions for the development of a new model. The model includes the following physical phenomena: elastic deformation, plastic deformation, adhesion, and shear removal. It also incorporates material property sensitivity to temperature and tangential-normal velocity rebound cross-dependencies observed in experiments. The model is well-suited for incorporation in CFD simulations of complex gas turbine flows due to its algebraic (explicit) formulation. This report contains model predictions compared to coefficient of restitution data available in the open literature as well as deposition results from two different high temperature turbine deposition facilities. While the model comparisons with experiments are in many cases promising, several key aspects of particle deposition remain elusive. The simple phenomenological nature of the model allows for parametric dependencies to be evaluated in a straightforward manner. This effort also included the first-ever full turbine stage deposition model published in the open literature. The simulations included hot streaks and simulated vane cooling. The new deposition model was implemented into the CFD model as a wall boundary condition, with various particle sizes investigated in the simulation. Simulations utilizing a steady mixing plane formulation and an unsteady sliding mesh were conducted and the flow solution of each was validated against experimental data. Results from each of these simulations, including impact and capture distributions and efficiencies, were compared and potential reasons for differences discussed in detail. The inclusion of a large range of particle sizes allowed investigation of trends with particle size, such as increased radial migration and reduced sticking efficiency at the larger particle sizes. The unsteady simulation predicted lower sticking efficiencies on the rotor blades than the mixing plane simulation for the majority of particle sizes. This is postulated to be due to the preservation of the hot streak and cool vane wake through the vane-rotor interface (which are smeared out circumferentially in the mixing-plane simulation). The results reported here represent the successful implementation of a novel deposition model into validated vane-rotor flow solutions that include a non-uniform inlet temperature profile and simulated vane cooling.

  5. Multi-Phased, Post-Accident Support of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant - 12246

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gay, Arnaud; Gillet, Philippe; Ytournel, Bertrand; Varet, Thierry; David, Laurent; Prevost, Thierry; Redonnet, Carol; Piot, Gregoire; Jouaville, Stephane; Pagis, Georges

    2012-07-01

    In the wake of the March 11 earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent flooding of several of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi reactors, Japan and the Japanese utility TEPCO faced a crisis situation with incredible challenges: substantial amounts of radioactive mixed seawater and freshwater accumulated in the basements of four reactor and other buildings on the site. This water held varying levels of contamination due to the fact that it had been in contact with damaged fuel elements in the cores and with other contaminated components. The overall water inventory was estimated at around 110,000 tons of water with contamination levels up to the order of 1 Ci/l. Time was of the essence to avoid overflow of this accumulated water into the ocean. AREVA proposed, designed and implemented a water treatment solution using a proven chemical coprecipitation process with ppFeNi reagent, which is currently in use for effluent treatment on several nuclear sites including AREVA sites. In addition to the extremely short schedule the other challenge was to adapt the chemical treatment process to the expected composition of the Fukushima water and, in particular, to evaluate the impact of salinity on process performance. It was also necessary to define operating conditions for the VEOLIA equipment that had been selected for implementation of the process in the future facility. The operation phase began on June 17, and by the end of July more than 30,000 tons of highly radioactive saltwater had been decontaminated - the Decontamination Factor (DF) for Cesium was ∼10{sup 4}. It allowed recycling the contaminated water to cool the reactors while protecting workers and the environment. This paper focuses on the Actiflo{sup TM}-Rad water treatment unit project that was part of the TEPCO general water treatment scheme. It presents a detailed look at the principles of the Actiflo{sup TM}-Rad, related on-the-fly R and D, an explanation of system implementation challenges, and a brief summary of operation results to date. AREVA's response to the Fukushima Dai-Ichi crisis was multi-phased: emergency aid and relief supply was sent within days after the accident; AREVA-Veolia engineering teams designed and implemented a water treatment solution in record time, only 3 months; and AREVA continues to support TEPCO and propose solutions for waste management, soil remediation and decontamination of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi site. Despite the huge challenges, the Actiflo{sup TM}-Rad project has been a success: the water treatment unit started on time and performed as expected. The performance is the result of many key elements: AREVA expertise in radioactive effluents decontamination, Veolia know-how in water treatment equipments in crisis environment, and of course AREVA and Veolia teams' creativity. The project success is also due to AREVA and Veolia teams' reactivity and high level of commitment with engineering teams working 24/7 in Japan, France and Germany. AREVA and Veolia deep knowledge of the Japanese industry ensured that the multi-cultural exchanges were not an issue. Finally the excellent overall project management and execution by TEPCO and other Japanese stakeholders was very efficient. The emergency water treatment was a key step of the roadmap towards restoration from the accident at Fukushima Dai-Ichi that TEPCO designed and keeps executing with success. (authors)

  6. SUPPORT FOR HU CFRT SUMMER HIGH SCHOOL FUSION WORKSHOP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Punjabi, Alkesh

    2010-02-09

    Nine summer fusion science research workshops for minority and female high school students were conducted at the Hampton University Center for Fusion Research and Training from 1996 to 2005. Each workshop was of the duration of eight weeks. In all 35 high school students were mentored. The students presented 28 contributed papers at the annual meetings of the American Physical Society Division of Plasma Physics. These contributed papers were very well received by the plasma physics and fusion science research community. The students won a number of prestigious local, state, and national honors, awards, prizes, and scholarships. The notable among these are the two regional finalist positions in the 1999 Siemens-Westinghouse Science and Technology Competitions; 1st Place U.S. Army Award, 2006; 1st Place U.S. Naval Science Award, 2006; Yale Science and Engineering Association Best 11th Grade Project, 2006; Society of Physics Students Book Award, 2006; APS Corporate Minority Scholarship and others. This workshop program conducted by the HU CFRT has been an exemplary success, and served the minority and female students exceptionally fruitfully. The Summer High School Fusion Science Workshop is an immensely successful outreach activity conducted by the HU CFRT. In this workshop, we train, motivate, and provide high quality research experiences to young and talented high school scholars with emphasis on under-represented minorities and female students in fusion science and related areas. The purpose of this workshop is to expose minority and female students to the excitement of research in science at an early stage in their academic lives. It is our hope that this may lead the high school students to pursue higher education and careers in physical sciences, mathematics, and perhaps in fusion science. To our knowledge, this workshop is the first and only one to date, of fusion science for under-represented minorities and female high school students at an HBCU. The faculty researchers in the HU CFRT mentor the students during summers. Mentors spend a considerable amount of time and efforts in training, teaching, guiding and supervising research projects. The HU CFRT has so far conducted nine workshops during the summers of 1996-2000 and 2002-2005. The first workshop was conducted in summer 1996. Students for the workshop are chosen from a national pool of exceptionally talented high school rising seniors/juniors. To our knowledge, most of these students have gone on to prestigious universities such as Duke University, John Hopkins University, CalTech, UCLA, Hampton University, etc. after completing their high school. For instance, Tiffany Fisher, participant of the 1996 summer workshop completed her BS in Mathematics at Hampton University in May 2001. She then went on to Wake Forest University at Winston-Salem, North Carolina to pursue graduate studies. Anshul Haldipur, participant of the 1999 summer workshop, began his undergraduate studies at Duke University in 2000. Christina Nguyen and Ilissa Martinez, participants of the 2000 summer workshop, are pursuing their undergraduate degrees at the UCLA and Florida State University respectively. The organizing committee of the APS DPP annual meeting invited Dr. Punjabi to deliver an invited talk on training the next generation of fusion scientists and engineers at the 2005 APS DPP meeting in Denver, CO. The organizing committee distributed a special flier with the Bulletin to highlight this invited talk and another talk on education as well the expo. This has given wide publicity and recognition to our workshops and Hampton University. Prof. Punjabi's talk: 'LI2 2: Training the next generation of fusion scientists and engineers: summer high school fusion science workshop, Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. 50, 221 (2005)' was very well-received. He talked about HU education and outreach initiative and the HU CFRT Summer High School Workshop. The audience had a considerable number of questions about our workshops and the High School to PhD Pipeline in fusion science. Professor William Mathews of University of Delaware offered to give the HU Team MHD codes to use, and Professor Birdsall of University of California, Berkeley, plasma theory and simulation group, offered to give the team simple simulation codes to use. We are very happy and proud and very gratified by this, and we thank the US DOE OFES, Dr. Sam Barish and Dr. Michael Crisp for their support and encouragement.

  7. Laboratory Experiments on the Effects of Blade Strike from Hydrokinetic Energy Technologies on Larval and Juvenile Freshwater Fishes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweizer, Peter E; Cada, Glenn F; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2012-03-01

    There is considerable interest in the development of marine and hydrokinetic energy projects in rivers, estuaries, and coastal ocean waters of the United States. Hydrokinetic (HK) technologies convert the energy of moving water in river or tidal currents into electricity, without the impacts of dams and impoundments associated with conventional hydropower or the extraction and combustion of fossil fuels. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) maintains a database that displays the geographical distribution of proposed HK projects in inland and tidal waters (FERC 2012). As of March 2012, 77 preliminary permits had been issued to private developers to study HK projects in inland waters, the development of which would total over 8,000 MW. Most of these projects are proposed for the lower Mississippi River. In addition, the issuance of another 27 preliminary permits for HK projects in inland waters, and 3 preliminary permits for HK tidal projects (totaling over 3,100 MW) were under consideration by FERC. Although numerous HK designs are under development (see DOE 2009 for a description of the technologies and their potential environmental effects), the most commonly proposed current-based projects entail arrays of rotating devices, much like submerged wind turbines, that are positioned in the high-velocity (high energy) river channels. The many diverse HK designs imply a diversity of environmental impacts, but a potential impact common to most is the risk for blade strike to aquatic organisms. In conventional hydropower generation, research on fish passage through reaction turbines at low-head dams suggested that strike and mortality for small fish could be low. As a consequence of the large surface area to mass ratio of small fish, the drag forces in the boundary layer flow at the surface of a rotor blade may pull small fish around the leading edge of a rotor blade without making physical contact (Turnpenny 1998, Turnpenny et al. 2000). Although there is concern that small, fragile fish early life stages may be unable to avoid being struck by the blades of hydrokinetic turbines, we found no empirical data in the published literature that document survival of earliest life-stage fish in passage by rotor blades. In addition to blade strike, research on passage of fish through conventional hydropower turbines suggested that fish mortalities from passage through the rotor swept area could also occur due to shear stresses and pressure chances in the water column (Cada et al. 1997, Turnpenny 1998). However, for most of the proposed HK turbine designs the rotors are projected to operate a lower RPM (revolutions per minute) than observed from conventional reaction turbines; the associated shear stress and pressure changes are expected to be lower and pose a smaller threat to fish survival (DOE 2009). Only a limited number of studies have been conducted to examine the risk of blade strike from hydrokinetic technologies to fish (Turnpenny et al. 1992, Normandeau et al. 2009, Seitz et al. 2011, EPRI 2011); the survival of drifting or weakly swimming fish (especially early life stages) that encounter rotor blades from hydrokinetic (HK) devices is currently unknown. Our study addressed this knowledge gap by testing how fish larvae and juveniles encountered different blade profiles of hydrokinetic devices and how such encounters influenced survivorship. We carried out a laboratory study designed to improve our understanding of how fish larvae and juvenile fish may be affected by encounters with rotor blades from HK turbines in the water column of river and ocean currents. (For convenience, these early life stages will be referred to as young of the year, YOY). The experiments developed information needed to quantify the risk (both probability and consequences) of rotor-blade strike to YOY fish. In particular, this study attempted to determine whether YOY drifting in a high-velocity flow directly in the path of the blade leading edge will make contact with the rotor blade or will bypass the blade while entrained in the boundary layer of water flowing over the blade surface. The study quantified both immediate and delayed mortalities (observed immediately, 3 hours, and 24 hours after encountering the blade) among freshwater YOY fish resulting from contact with the blade or turbulent flows in the wake of the blade.