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  1. Vanuatu: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Vanuatu Population 243,304 GDP 743,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.00 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code VU 3-letter ISO code VUT Numeric ISO...

  2. Venezuela Country Analysis Brief

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    Venezuela is one of the world’s largest producers and exporters of crude oil. The country has been one of the largest exporters of crude oil in the Americas. As a founding member of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), Venezuela is an important player in the global oil market. Although oil production has declined since its peak in the late 1990s, Venezuela has been among the top exporters of crude oil to the United States have been among the largest in the world. In recent years, through significant upfront investment, an increasing share of Venezuela’s exports has been delivered to China. While Venezuela is important to the global oil market, the government’s reinvestment of oil revenues into social programs instead of reinvestment into exploration, production, and refining has led to declines in output. In 2014, Venezuela consumed 3.3 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of total energy.1 Oil continues to represent most of the country’s total energy consumed, and natural gas consumption has increased in the past five years. Hydroelectric power meets less than 25% of total demand, and coal represents less than 1%.

  3. LPG in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero, O.

    1986-01-01

    The use of LPG for domestic consumption in Venezuela began in late 1929 when LPG was imported in lots of 500 cylinders. These cylinders were then returned to the U.S. for refilling. Total consumption at that time was some 40M/sup 3/ (250 barrels) per year and by 1937 had grown to some 540M/sup 3/ (3,400 barrels) per year. Local production of LPG from gas began in the mid thirties with a small cooling plant in the Mene Grande Field in the Lake Maracaibo area, the first field to produce oil in Venezuela (1914). This plant produced gasoline for a refinery and some of the first LPG used in Venezuela for domestic consumption. The capacity of this plant was insufficient to satisfy the growing demand for LPG which was supplied from refinery production until the development of the natural gas processing industry. At the present time, Venezuelan refineries are net consumers of LPG.

  4. Venezuela`s gas industry poised for long term growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croft, G.D.

    1995-06-19

    Venezuela`s enormous gas resource, combined with a new willingness to invite outside investment, could result in rapid growth in that industry into the next century. The development of liquefied natural gas exports will depend on the future course of gas prices in the US and Europe, but reserves are adequate to supply additional projects beyond the proposed Cristobal Colon project. Venezuela`s gas reserves are likely to increase if exploration for nonassociated gas is undertaken on a larger scale. The paper discusses gas reserves in Venezuela, internal gas markets, the potential for exports, competition from Trinidad, LNG export markets, and the encouragement of foreign investment in the gas industry of Venezuela.

  5. Caracas, Venezuela: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Caracas, Venezuela: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Name Caracas, Venezuela Equivalent URI DBpedia GeoNames ID 3646738 Coordinates 10.5, -66.916667 Show Map...

  6. Vietnam National Coal Mineral Industries Group Vinacomin | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    National Coal Mineral Industries Group Vinacomin Jump to: navigation, search Name: Vietnam National Coal-Mineral Industries Group (Vinacomin) Place: Vietnam Product: Vietnam-based...

  7. Reformulated gasoline deal with Venezuela draws heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begley, R.

    1994-04-06

    A fight is brewing in Congress over a deal to let Venezuela off the hook in complying with the Clean Air Act reformulated gasoline rule. When Venezuela threatened to call for a GATT panel to challenge the rule as a trade barrier, the Clinton Administration negotiated to alter the rule, a deal that members of Congress are characterizing as {open_quotes}secret{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}back door.{close_quotes}

  8. Ceuta-Tomoporo field, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puig, E.R.; Fernando Marcano, R. )

    1990-09-01

    Ceuta field is located in the southeastern part of the Maracaibo basin, western Venezuela. The field is a conspicuous high belonging to the Pueblo Viejo trend, a set of strike-slip faults trending northwest. The field has an area of 320 km and is divided into eight fault-bounded blocks where light- or medium-grade oil is being produced. The structural framework is characterized by a major left-slip fault and oil accumulations are associated with compressive and extensive structural features. The deposition of Eocene sediments in some areas may have been controlled by normal faulting and a period of shortening may have altered the character of some of the faults during the late Eocene or later. The main producing intervals are shallow-water marine or fluviodeltaic Miocene and Eocene sands with porosities ranging from 8 to 15% and a production potential of up to 3,500 BOPD from depths averaging 5,182 m (17,000 ft). The reservoirs seem to contain mixtures of hydrocarbons, probably due to the generation of oil in more than one oil kitchen and/or at different migration times from a common drainage area.

  9. Venezuela slates second oil field revival round

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-07

    This paper reports that Venezuela will accept bids under a second round next year from private foreign and domestic companies for production contracts to operate marginal active as well as inactive oil fields. The first such round came earlier this year, involving about 55 other marginal, inactive fields. It resulted in two contractors signed with domestic and foreign companies. It represented the first time since nationalization of the petroleum industry in Venezuela in 1976 that private companies were allowed to produce oil in the country. A public bid tender was expected at presstime last week.

  10. Venezuela natural gas for vehicles project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsicobetre, D.; Molero, T.

    1998-12-31

    The Natural Gas for Vehicles (NGV) Project in Venezuela describes the development and growth of the NGV project in the country. Venezuela is a prolific oil producer with advanced exploration, production, refining and solid marketing infrastructure. Gas production is 5.2 Bscfd. The Venezuelan Government and the oil state owned company Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), pursued the opportunity of using natural gas for vehicles based on the huge amounts of gas reserves present and produced every day associated with the oil production. A nationwide gas pipeline network crosses the country from south to west reaching the most important cities and serving domestic and industrial purposes but there are no facilities to process or export liquefied natural gas. NGV has been introduced gradually in Venezuela over the last eight years by PDVSA. One hundred forty-five NGV stations have been installed and another 25 are under construction. Work done comprises displacement or relocation of existing gasoline equipment, civil work, installation and commissioning of equipment. The acceptance and usage of the NGV system is reflected in the more than 17,000 vehicles that have been converted to date using the equivalent of 2,000 bbl oil/day.

  11. Plans to revive oil fields in Venezuela on track

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-24

    This paper reports on the three operating units of Venezuela's state owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA which will begin receiving bids Feb. 28 from companies interested in operating 55 inactive oil fields in nine producing areas of Venezuela. Francisco Pradas, Pdvsa executive in charge of the program, the the company expects 88 companies or combines of foreign and domestic private companies to participate in the bidding. The program, announced last year, aims to reactivate production in marginal oil fields. It will involve the first direct participation by private companies in Venezuela's oil production since nationalization in 1976.

  12. Eyes Witness Report on South Vietnam

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Mons. Nielson, conseiller des Etats Unis auprès de L'ONU, apporte son témoignage et exprime son opinion quand à la guerre du Vietnam (Sud)

  13. Petroleum resources of Venezuela and Trinidad and Tobago

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    The status of known and ultimately recoverable crude oil and natural gas resources of the Federal Republics of Venezuela, and Trinidad and Tobago (hereafter referred to as Trinidad) is set forth in this report. The rates that oil resources may be available to world markets are also covered in the report. A section on the petroleum geology of the region is included. The Republics of Venezuela and Trinidad share a common and ancient petroleum history. Over a century of exploration and development have resulted in the cumulative production of nearly 39 billion barrels of oil from Venezuela and over 2 billion barrels from Trinidad. Both republics have passed their peak status as oil producers. Venezuela reached its peak as the second largest producer in the world in the mid-fifties, and Trinidad attained its highest status as the eighth largest oil producer in the early forties. The report concludes that Venezuela and Trinidad have depleted slightly less than one-half of their ultimately recoverable crude oil resources. Based on feasible production rates and estimates of remaining recoverable resources, nearly two-thirds of Venezuela's oil resources and about three-fourths of Trinidad's oil resources may be depleted by the year 2000. The natural gas resources of both countries are underutilized and underdeveloped.

  14. Vietnam-USAID Country Report | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    deployment programs, Pathways analysis Resource Type: Publications Website: usaid.eco-asia.orgprogramscdcpreportsIdeas-to-ActionannexesAnnex Country: Vietnam UN...

  15. Attachment L-7b Vietnam Design Requirements Document is an Official

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    b Vietnam Design Requirements Document is an Official Use Only document please see Section ... The Government considers the Vietnam Design Requirements Document, Attachment L-7b an ...

  16. U.S.-Vietnam Climate Change Working Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    -Vietnam Climate Change Working Group Jump to: navigation, search Name U.S.-Vietnam Climate Change Working Group AgencyCompany Organization United States Geological Survey,...

  17. Advancing Development and Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Vietnams...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Reductions in Vietnam's Wind Sector EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Clean energy development is a key component of Vietnam's Green Growth Strategy, which establishes a target to reduce ...

  18. Pedernales oilfield, eastern Venezuela: The first 100 years

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gluyas, J.; Oliver, J.; Wilson, W.

    1996-08-01

    Petroleum seeps and surface tar mats attracted oil explorers to Pedernales in eastern Venezuela 100 years ago. Commercial production from the Pedernales Field was established by Creole in 1933. In three production periods, broken by WWII and the end of the Creole-Texaco refining contract, Creole and Lagoven produced about 60 MMSTB from about 60 wells in about 60 years. Peak production was in the late 1950s, when the field delivered 12,000 BOPD. Production was stopped in 1986. In March 1993, BP Venezuela acquired the license to reactivate Pedernales on behalf of Lagoven, and BP`s first well in the field was drilled in August 1994. A second was completed in early 1995. The production from each well was sufficiently encouraging for commerciality to be declared in March 1995. Phase 1 of the field reactivation demanded a production rate of 11,500 BOPD. As of now (September, 1995) six wells, including one gas disposal well, have been completed. Wells have been placed using a combination of old well data and mapping based on a close spaced 2D seismic survey shot in early 1994. Results from these first few wells indicate that the required production rate will be achieved despite severely depleted reservoir pressures. This paper tells the story of reactivation and re-evaluation of one of eastern Venezuela`s oldest oilfields.

  19. Vietnam-Renewable Energy Action Plan | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Renewable Energy Action Plan Jump to: navigation, search Name Vietnam-Renewable Energy Action Plan AgencyCompany Organization World Bank Sector Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy...

  20. Vietnam-UNEP Risoe-Technology Needs Assessment Program | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    UNEP Risoe-Technology Needs Assessment Program Jump to: navigation, search Name Vietnam-UNEP Risoe-Technology Needs Assessment Program AgencyCompany Organization UNEP-Risoe...

  1. Vietnam-IISD NAMA Support | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name Vietnam-IISDNAMA Support AgencyCompany Organization International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector Climate Topics Background analysis, Low emission...

  2. Forest Tenure Reform in Vietnam | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Land Focus Area Forestry Topics Resource assessment, Background analysis Resource Type Lessons learnedbest practices Website http:recoftc.orgsitefilead Country Vietnam UN...

  3. Vietnam-Sub National Planning for Climate Change (cities, states...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Change (cities, states, districts) Jump to: navigation, search Name Vietnam-Sub National Planning for Climate Change (cities, states, districts) AgencyCompany...

  4. Forestry and Poverty Data in Vietnam: Status, Gaps, and Potential...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Type: Dataset, Publications Website: recoftc.orgsitefileadmindocspublicationsTheGreyZone2009Forest Country: Vietnam UN Region: South-Eastern Asia Coordinates:...

  5. Vietnam-Danish Government Sector Programmes | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low emission development planning, -LEDS, Policiesdeployment programs Program End 2012 Country Vietnam South-Eastern Asia References Denmark1 Promoting wind energy in...

  6. Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Adaptation in Vietnam...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Change on Agriculture and Adaptation in Vietnam Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Adaptation in...

  7. Record of source-generated overpressures, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrolijk, P.J.; Pottorf, R.J.; Maze, W.B.

    1996-12-31

    Fluid pressures affect migration of oil, gas, and water in continental margins. Burial and thermal history models describe the degree to which indercompaction or thermal expansion of fluids contribute to fluid pressure histories, but it is more difficult to evaluate how source-terms, such as oil yield or mineral dehydration reactions, impact paleo-fluid pressures. In this study, we document how a thick, maturing source rock helped create near-lithostatic fluid pressures that generated overpressures in reservoir rocks. We analyzed abundant oil-filled and rare aqueous fluid inclusions in calcite-filled fractures in the La Luna Fm. source rock and in the underlying Cogollo Gp. carbonate reservoir in the W. Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. Homogenization temperatures (Th) of oil-filled inclusions range from 25-42{degrees}C in the La Luna Fm. and from 25-105{degrees}C in the Cogollo Gp., and associated gravities (determined from fluorescence properties) range from 28-43{degrees}API and 17-45{degrees}API, respectively. Integration of Th with the burial and thermal history of the sampled horizons leads to the conclusion that fractures in the La Luna Fm. formed under near-lithostatic fluid pressure conditions in the presence of a gas-charged oil. The values from fractures in the Cogollo Gp. are higher than in the La Luna Fm and become more variable with increasing depth below La Luna. We interpret those fractures to have formed under lower fluid pressure conditions and/or with a less gas-charged oil than for La Luna. This interpretation of the distribution of paleo-fluid pressures is supported by the observation of modern inverted fluid pressure gradients between upper and lower Cogollo Gp. reservoirs. Thus late expulsion of a gas-charged oil created near-lithostatic fluid pressures in the La Luna Fm. source rock, and those fluid pressures bled downward through fractures into the adjoining reservoir rocks, contributing to the overpressures we observe today.

  8. Radioisotope Concentration in Lake Sediments of Maracaibo, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salas, A. Rangel; Viloria, T.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Barros, H.; Greaves, E. D.; Palacios, D.

    2007-10-26

    Maracaibo Lake is one of the most important water basing and oil producing regions in Venezuela. Changes in the local environment have been monitored for chemical pollution in the past. For this study we selected a set of sediment samples collected in the shore and analyzed for its radioisotope content. Results show the gamma emitting isotopes distribution. Isotopes concentrations have been determined within the natural K, Th and U families.

  9. Venezuela recasts itself as a new frontier in the Americas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinsch, A.E.

    1996-09-01

    In January of this year, Venezuela captured the attention of the international energy community by welcoming back the foreign oil companies that, 20 years earlier, it had shut out of the country by nationalizing the hydrocarbon sector. The tool used to attract that attention, a new exploration bidding round, is the most publicized event staged to date in the country`s aperture process. However, it is only the latest in a series of steps taken by officials to bring international oil and gas companies back to Caracas. Venezuela`s physical attraction is easily understood. The country possesses roughly one-half of Latin America`s (including Mexico) 125 billion bbl of established, conventional crude oil reserves, plus an estimated 300 billion bbl of additional, nonconventional reserves in the ultra-heavy crude belt of the Orinoco basin. Averaging 2.8 million bpd in 1996, Venezuelan crude production represents over 35% of regional oil output. Natural gas reserves total 138 Tcf, or just over one-half of the region`s total reserves of 274 Tcfg. Annual gas output averages just under 5 Tcf, of which roughly 30% is reinjected as part of tertiary oil recovery schemes. This paper reviews the incentives, deregulation, and government policies to restore the oil and gas industry to the country.

  10. Proposed Training Plan to Improve Building Energy Efficiency in Vietnam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced fast growth in energy consumption in the past decade, with annual growth rate of over 12 percent. This is accompanied by the fast increase in commercial energy use, driven by rapid industrialization, expansion of motorized transport, and increasing energy use in residential and commercial buildings. Meanwhile, Vietnam is experiencing rapid urbanization at a rate of 3.4 percent per year; and the majority of the growth centered in and near major cities such as Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. This has resulted in a construction boom in Vietnam.

  11. Vietnam-Nordic Partnership Initiative | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    can be matched with up-scaled host country mitigation action through two programs in Peru and Vietnam. The NPI program in Peru will focus on exploring possibilities to lower CO2...

  12. A new approach to the oil business in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pradas, F.; Valdes, G. )

    1993-02-01

    Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA) has been meeting during the past two years with a considerable number of companies (groups) with a view to possible associations for the reactivation of known fields, joint activities in barely explored areas and the exploitation, refining, upgrading and marketing of crudes from the Orinoco Belt holder of immense reserves of extra-heavy crudes and bitumens. In Venezuela, a new approach to the oil business is under way. On January 1976, the law nationalizing the Venezuelan oil industry became effective establishing that the government retains the sole rights to the country's petroleum industry. However, Article 5 of the law made provision for associations in cases considered to be of [open quotes]National Interest.[close quotes] PDVSA became the wholly government-owned holding entity, encompassing 26 subsidiaries and affiliates. Other energy segments, particularly coal and petrochemicals, were not included in the law and since 1984 several associations with non-governmental entities have been established in Venezuela and very valuable experience has been garnered. Similarly, partnerships and acquisitions have been made in Europe and USA, mostly in refining, through PDVSA. The international petroleum industry foresees a modest, but steady increase in production during the coming decade, particularly in the second half of the nineties. This effect, added to the globalization concept, is making the traditional vertically integrated oil companies look for diverse [open quotes]lateral[close quotes] associations between groups, private and/or state owned with common interests, that will give greater security to sources of supply and market share.

  13. Venezuela No. 1 oil import source in S. America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-10

    This paper reports that with the exception of Venezuela, the U.S. is likely to import much oil from South American countries through 2010, the General Accounting Office reports. GAO, a congressional watchdog agency, noted the U.S. imports about 4% of its oil from Colombia, Ecuador, and Trinidad and Tobago and possibly could import from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Peru in the future. It the the eight countries' crude oil reserves are expected to increase about 30% by 2000, then slide about 2% by 2010. Their oil production is expected to climb about 21% over 1990 by 2000, then level off until 2010.

  14. Forest Carbon Partnership Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Madagascar, Mexico, Moldova, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Republic of the Congo, Suriname, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam...

  15. Geology and geochemistry of crude oils, Bolivar coastal fields, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bockmeulen, H.; Barker, C.; Dickey, P.A.

    1983-02-01

    The Bolivar Coastal Fields (BCF) are located on the eastern margin of Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. They form the largest oil field outside of the Middle East and contain mostly heavy oil with a gravity less than 22/sup 0/ API. Thirty crude oils from the BCF were collected along two parallel and generally southwest-northeast trends. These oils were characterized by their API gravity, percent saturates, aromatics, NSO and asphalitic compounds, gas chromatograms for whole oils, C/sub 4/-C/sub 7/ fractions, and aromatics. Also, 24 associated waters were sampled and analyzed for Ca/sup + +/, Mg/sup + +/, Na/sup +/, HCO/sub 3//sup -/, CO/sub 3//sup - -/, SO/sub 4//sup - -/, pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS). The geological and geochemical significances of these analyses are discussed with particular emphasis on the genesis of the petroleum.

  16. Potential options to reduce GHG emissions in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pereira, N.; Bonduki, Y.; Perdomo, M.

    1996-12-31

    The Government of Venezuela ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December, 1994. The Convention requires all parties to develop and publish national inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as well as national plans to reduce or control emissions, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and their specific national and regional development priorities, objectives, and circumstances. Within this context, the Ministry of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources and the Ministry of Energy and Mines developed the `Venezuelan Case-Study to Address Climate Change`. The study was initiated in October 1993, with the financial and technical assistance of the Government of United States, through the U.S. Country Studies Program (USCSP), and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), through the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

  17. Advancing Development and Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Vietnam's Wind Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bilello, D.; Katz, J.; Esterly, S.; Ogonowski, M.

    2014-09-01

    Clean energy development is a key component of Vietnam's Green Growth Strategy, which establishes a target to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from domestic energy activities by 20-30 percent by 2030 relative to a business-as-usual scenario. Vietnam has significant wind energy resources, which, if developed, could help the country reach this target while providing ancillary economic, social, and environmental benefits. Given Vietnam's ambitious clean energy goals and the relatively nascent state of wind energy development in the country, this paper seeks to fulfill two primary objectives: to distill timely and useful information to provincial-level planners, analysts, and project developers as they evaluate opportunities to develop local wind resources; and, to provide insights to policymakers on how coordinated efforts may help advance large-scale wind development, deliver near-term GHG emission reductions, and promote national objectives in the context of a low emission development framework.

  18. Challenges to institutionalizing strategic environmental assessment: The case of Vietnam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slunge, Daniel; Tran, Trang Thi Huyen

    2014-09-15

    Building on new institutional theory, this paper develops an analytical framework for analyzing constraints to the institutionalization of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) at four different institutional levels. The framework is tested in an empirical analysis of the environmental assessment system in Vietnam, which is a frontrunner among developing countries regarding the introduction and use of SEA. Building on interviews with Vietnamese and international experts, as well as an extensive literature review, we identify institutional constraints which challenge the effective use of SEA in Vietnam. We conclude that commonly identified constraints, such as inadequate training, technical guidelines, baseline data and financial resources, are strongly linked to constraints at higher institutional levels, such as incentives to not share information between ministries and severe restrictions on access to information and public participation. Without a thorough understanding of these institutional constraints, there is a risk that attempts to improve the use of SEA are misdirected. Thus, a careful institutional analysis should guide efforts to introduce and improve the use of SEA in Vietnam and other developing countries. The analytical framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalization of SEA presented in this paper represents a systematic effort in this direction. - Highlights: • A framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalizing SEA is developed • Empirical analysis of the strategic environmental assessment system in Vietnam • Constraints in the action arena linked to deeper institutional constraints • Institutional analysis needed prior to introducing SEA in developing countries.

  19. Pros and cons of power combined cycle in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, C.; Hernandez, S.

    1997-09-01

    In Venezuela combined cycle power has not been economically attractive to electric utility companies, mainly due to the very low price of natural gas. Savings in cost of natural gas due to a higher efficiency, characteristic of this type of cycle, does not compensate additional investments required to close the simple cycle (heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and steam turbine island). Low gas prices have contributed to create a situation characterized by investors` reluctance to commit capital in gas pipe lines and associated equipment. The Government is taking measures to improve economics. Recently (January 1, 1997), the Ministry of Energy and Mines raised the price of natural gas, and established a formula to tie its price to the exchange rate variation (dollar/bolivar) in an intent to stimulate investments in this sector. This is considered a good beginning after a price freeze for about three years. Another measure that has been announced is the implementation of a corporate policy of outsourcing to build new gas facilities such as pipe lines and measuring and regulation stations. Under these new circumstances, it seems that combined cycle will play an important role in the power sector. In fact, some power generation projects are considering building new plants using this technology. An economical comparative study is presented between simple and combined cycles power plant. Screening curves are showed with a gas price forecast based on the government decree recently issued, as a function of plant capacity factor.

  20. Venezuela bets on heavy crude for long term

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, K.S.

    1997-01-01

    In the heart of eastern Venezuela lies the Orinoco Belt, a vast reserve of heavy crudes and bitumen that equate to only 8{degree} to 10{degree} API. At the beginning of the 1920s, a number of foreign companies explored this area. However, they realized that this crude was too heavy to be produced commercially and abandoned their exploratory sites. In 1978--1980, state firm PDVSA made a large effort to quantify the resources. Geologists finally estimated the in-place reserves at 1.2 trillion bbl, of which 267 billion bbl (41 billion t) were considered recoverable. If produced at a rate of 1.5 million bopd, these reserves would last nearly 500 years. PDVSA experimented with various methods to produce the bitumen. Finally, in the mid-1980s, a breakthrough of sorts was achieved, almost by accident. Lab technicians discovered that bitumen will continue to burn effectively when emulsified with water. Company officials describe the flame as resembling burning gas. This discovery began the rapidly accelerating process to develop what is called the now-patented Orimulsion production. PDVSA managers discarded their plans to supply refineries with bitumen and adopted a new strategy of targeting Orimulsion as an alternative boiler fuel for electric power-generating stations. To oversee this project, a new subsidiary, Bitor (a compressed combination of the terms, bitumen and Orinoco), was created. Bitor operations are described.

  1. A modern look at the petroleum geology of the Maracaibo basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauffer, K.W.; Croft, G.D.

    1995-06-05

    The Maracaibo basin of western Venezuela is one of the world`s most important oil producing basins, with a cumulative production of more than 35 billion bbl. The reasons for this great wealth of hydrocarbons are a combination of source beds of excellent quality, thick reservoirs with high porosity and permeability, and a series of sealing shales, faults, and unconformities, which provide large and numerous traps. Recent discoveries combined with Venezuela`s opening to international investment suggest that the story of this basin is far from over. Surprisingly little exploration has taken place in large parts of the basin, especially southwest of Lake Maracaibo and in the southern part of the lake. This paper describes the history of the basin, stratigraphy, structure, oil fields, and its future prospects.

  2. NNSA Continues to Assist Vietnam in Enhancing its Nuclear/Radiological...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NNSA Continues to Assist Vietnam in Enhancing its NuclearRadiological Emergency Program August 27, 2014 WASHINGTON, D.C. - The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is ...

  3. Vietnam-NIES Low-Carbon Society Scenarios 2050 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NIES Low-Carbon Society Scenarios 2050 Jump to: navigation, search Name Vietnam-NIES Low-Carbon Society Scenarios 2050 AgencyCompany Organization National Institute for...

  4. Coal bed methane potential in Venezuela-The forgotten resource

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasquez-Herrera, A.R.; Bereskin, S.R.; McLennan, J.D.

    1996-08-01

    In nations already possessing riches of hydrocarbons situated in conventional reservoirs, evaluation of coal-bearing sequences for potential gas is logically delayed or ignored. Nonetheless, Venezuelan coals have long been recognized as stratigraphically associated with oil accumulations, but because coalbed methane (CBM) is a relatively new worldwide phenomenon, CBM potential has not been widely assessed in the country. Two general areas contain vast accumulations of coal for potential CBM activity: (1) the Maracaibo basin, containing the Guasare (northwest), Lobatera-Santo Domingo (southwest) and Urumaco (northeast) districts; and (2) the Oficina basin in eastern Venezuela possessing abundant accumulations related to the Faja Petrolifera de Orinoco (Orinoco Oil Belt). In both basins, high volatile bituminous and lignitic coals of mostly Oligo-Miocene age are abundantly found. Older coals are also present especially in the Maracaibo area. Two factors represent powerful incentives for CBM exploitation: addition of known reserves for economic considerations, and aid in bringing heavy crude oil to the surface by additional gas lift and oil viscosity reduction. Other favorable factors important for CBM methodology include: (1) abundant coals lying above known conventional reservoir targets; (2).6 - 1% vitrinite reflectance measurements in the Orinoco Oil Belt; (3) many coals occurring above 1500 m; (4) documented mine explosions especially in the 1920s and 1930s; (5) a strong tectonic overprint to perhaps add shear fractures to already cleated coals; (6) individual coal thickness up to 12 m with averages in the .8 m range; and (7) gas shows while drilling coal-rich intervals.

  5. Five Years of Cyclotron Radioisotope Production Experiences at the First PET-CT in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colmenter, L.; Coelho, D.; Esteves, L. M.; Ruiz, N.; Morales, L.; Lugo, I.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Liendo, J. A.; Greaves, E. D.; Barros, H.; Castillo, J.

    2007-10-26

    Five years operation of a compact cyclotron installed at PET-CT facility in Caracas, Venezuela is given. Production rate of {sup 18}F labeled FDG, operation and radiation monitoring experience are included. We conclude that {sup 18}FDG CT-PET is the most effective technique for patient diagnosis.

  6. Household energy use in urban Venezuela: Implications from surveys in Maracaibo, Valencia, Merida, and Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Sathaye, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies the most important results of a comparative analysis of household commercial energy use in Venezuelan urban cities. The use of modern fuels is widespread among all cities. Cooking consumes the largest share of urban household energy use. The survey documents no use of biomass and a negligible use of kerosene for cooking. LPG, natural gas, and kerosene are the main fuels available. LPG is the fuel choice of low-income households in all cities except Maracaibo, where 40% of all households use natural gas. Electricity consumption in Venezuela`s urban households is remarkably high compared with the levels used in households in comparable Latin American countries and in households of industrialized nations which confront harsher climatic conditions and, therefore, use electricity for water and space heating. The penetration of appliances in Venezuela`s urban households is very high. The appliances available on the market are inefficient, and there are inefficient patterns of energy use among the population. Climate conditions and the urban built form all play important roles in determining the high level of energy consumption in Venezuelan urban households. It is important to acknowledge the opportunities for introducing energy efficiency and conservation in Venezuela`s residential sector, particularly given current economic and financial constraints, which may hamper the future provision of energy services.

  7. Attachment L-7b Vietnam Design Requirements Document is an Official

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    b Vietnam Design Requirements Document is an Official Use Only document please see Section NNS-L-2000 for instructions to Obtain. Section NNS-L-2000 (a) (8) Official Use Only (OUO) Document. The Government considers the Vietnam Design Requirements Document, Attachment L-7b an OUO Document and it cannot be made available to the public via any public webpages (e.g. FebBizOpps, FedConnect, DICCE2 acquisition webpage, Reading Room). The Vietnam Design Requirements Document (DRD) may assist Offerors

  8. Overview of cleaner production as a result of clean technology research in Vietnam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sam, D.V.; Nhan, T.V.; Lan, N.N.

    1996-12-31

    Vietnam is beginning its industrialization process, and it currently lacks the capital necessary for expensive pollution control and treatment systems. Pollution strategies are critical for the country. This study evaluates the present status of industry and the pollution problems associated with industrial development in Vietnam. The purpose of the study is to identify sectors that may have potential for promoting cleaner production practices. 4 refs.

  9. Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Ketoff, A.; Masera, O.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela will help free domestic oil resources that can be sold to the rest of the world. Energy conservation will also contribute to a faster recovery of the economy by reducing the need for major investments in new energy facilities, allowing the Venezuelan government to direct its financial investments towards other areas of development. Local environmental benefits will constitute an important additional by-product of implementing energy-efficiency policies in Venezuela. Caracas`s residential sector shows great potential for energy conservation. The sector is characterized by high saturation levels of major appliances, inefficiency of appliances available in the market, and by careless patterns of energy use. Household energy use per capita average 6.5 GJ/per year which is higher than most cities in developing countries; most of this energy is used for cooking. Electricity accounts for 41% of all energy use, while LPG and natural gas constitute the remainder. Specific options for inducing energy conservation and energy efficiency in Caracas`s residential sector include energy-pricing policies, fuel switching, particularly from electricity to gas, improving the energy performance of new appliances and customer information. To ensure the accomplishment of an energy-efficiency strategy, a concerted effort by energy users, manufacturers, utility companies, government agencies, and research institutions will be needed.

  10. Building on and spinning off: Sandia National Labs` creation of sensors for Vietnam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullrich, R.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses Sandia National Laboratories` development of new technologies for use in the Vietnam War - specifically the seismic sensors deployed to detect troop and vehicle movement - first along the Ho Chi Minh Trail and later in perimeter defense for American military encampments in South Vietnam. Although the sensor story is a small one, it is interesting because it dovetails nicely with our understanding of the war in Vietnam and its frustrations; of the creation of new technologies for war and American enthusiasm for that technology; and of a technological military and the organizational research and a m am development structure created to support it. Within the defense establishment, the sensors were proposed within the context of a larger concept - that of a barrier to prevent the infiltration of troops and supplies from North Vietnam to the South. All of the discussion of the best way to fight in Vietnam is couched in the perception that this was a different kind of war than America was used to fighting. The emphasis was on countering the problems posed by guerrilla/revolutionary warfare and eventually by the apparent constraints of being involved in a military action, not an outright war. The American response was to find the right technology to do the job - to control the war by applying a technological tincture to its wounds and to make the war familiar and fightable on American terms. And, when doubts were raised about the effectiveness of applying existing technologies (namely, the bombing of North Vietnam and Laos), the doubters turned to new technologies. The sensors that were developed for use in Vietnam were a direct product of this sort of thinking - on the part of the engineers at Sandia who created the sensors, the civilian scientific advisors who recommended them, and, ultimately, the soldiers in the field who had to use them.

  11. An evaluation of the environmental impact assessment system in Vietnam: The gap between theory and practice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clausen, Alison; Vu, Hoang Hoa; Pedrono, Miguel

    2011-03-15

    Vietnam has one of the fastest growing economies in the world and has achieved significant socio-economic development in recent years. However this growth is placing increased pressure on an already depleted natural environment. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is recognised by the Government and international organizations as an important tool in the management of the impacts of future development on the country's natural resource base. The Government's commitment to EIA has been demonstrated through the development and adoption of the Law on Environment Protection (Revised) in 2005 which sets out the requirements for EIA and which represents a major step in the development of a robust legislative framework for EIA in Vietnam. The Law on Environment Protection (Revised) 2005 has now been operational for several years and we have undertaken an evaluation of the resulting EIA system in Vietnam. We argue that while significant improvements have been achieved in the EIA policy framework, an important gap remains between EIA theory and practice. We contend that the basis of the current EIA legislation is strong and that future developments of the EIA system in Vietnam should focus on improving capacity of EIA practitioners rather than further substantial legislative change. Such improvements would allow the Vietnamese EIA system to emerge as an effective and efficient tool for environmental management in Vietnam and as a model EIA framework for other developing countries.

  12. Production optimization of sucker rod pumping wells producing viscous oil in Boscan field, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guirados, C.; Sandoval, J.; Rivas, O.; Troconis, H.

    1995-12-31

    Boscan field is located in the western coast of Maracaibo lake and is operated by Maraven S.A., affiliate of Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. It has 315 active wells, 252 of which are produced with sucker rod pumping. Other artificial lift methods currently applied in this field are hydraulic (piston) pumping (39 wells) and ESP (24 wells). This paper presents the results of the production optimization of two sucker rod pumping wells of Boscan field producing viscous oil. This optimization has been possible due to the development of a new production scheme and the application of system analysis in completion design. The new production scheme involves the utilization of a subsurface stuffing box assembly and a slotted housing, both designed and patented by Intevep S.A., affiliate of Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. The completion design method and software used in the optimization study were also developed by Intevep S.A. The new production scheme and design method proved to be effective in preventing the causes of the above mentioned problems, allowing the increase of oil production under better operating conditions.

  13. Petroleum-processing projects in Venezuela: Definitional-Mission report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grady, R.B.; Shrivastava, V.K.

    1992-02-01

    The U.S. Trade and Development Program (TDP) contracted a Definitional Mission to evaluate the prospects of TDP funding feasibility studies of three petroleum refining projects for Maraven, an integrated oil subsidiary of Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA). Maraven has requested TDP support for feasibility studies of the following projects: Zuata (Orinoco Belt) Extra Heavy Crude Upgrading, Boscan Heavy Crude Gasification Complex, and High Quality Lube Oil Base Manufacting Project. The ratio of U.S. export potential to the cost of the feasibility studies is very high (350:1 for the lube project to 1600:1 for the heavy crude projects). Even assuming relatively low probabilities of timely implementation, the projects meet TDP potential export benefit/cost requirements. Therefore, the study recommends that TDP support all three projects at a level of 50 percent of the estimated cost.

  14. Pyrolysis kinetics applied to prediction of oil generation in the Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeney, J.J.; Talukdar, S.; Burnham, A.K.; Vallejos, C.; DGSI, The Woodlands, TX; Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA; INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas )

    1989-09-01

    We use chemical kinetic parameters for oil generation derived from modified Rock-Eval and Pyromat instruments, coupled with thermal history models, to predict the timing and extent of oil generation in the Maracaibo Basin of Venezuela. The vitrinite reflectance model developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is used to calibrate thermal history models with measured vitrinite reflectance profiles. We examine the way differences in the kinetic parameters affect predictions of oil maturation in several parts of the basin with different thermal histories. Maturity indicators, such as H/C atomic ratio and API gravity, are compared to the calculated extent of oil generation. We use the comparison to check the accuracy of the coupled oil generation and thermal history models. 20 refs., 13 figs.

  15. Management of a giant deep field: El Furrial Field, Eastern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinto, N.; Mengual, R.; Anz, J.; Rodney, C.

    1996-08-01

    The Furrial Field is located in Eastern Venezuela and produces a 25 to 30{degrees} API asphaltenic crude oil from a 1500 ft thick Oligocene sand interval at a depth of 15,000 ft. The bubble point is about 4500 psi as compared to an original pressure of 11,000 psi. Oil in place is approximately 6800 million STB. Currently production is 350 MB/D from 77 well streams (Naricual Formation), and water is being injected at 400 MB/D to maintain pressure. The combination of a volumetric reservoir and asphaltenic nature of crude oil resulted in a rapid decrease in well productivity and reservoir pressure, creating the necessity to maintain reservoir pressure to maximize recovery. Discussed in this paper are the reservoir management techniques and strategies used by Lagoven to develop and operate these complex reservoirs. Acquisition and analysis of these data adequate to properly implement these management techniques are covered in detail.

  16. Venezuela offshore oil and gas production development: Past, present and future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez La Salvia, H.; Schwartz, E.; Contreras, M.; Rodriguez, J.I.; Febres, G.; Gajardo, E.

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents a short history of offshore oil and gas production in Venezuela starting in Lake Maracaibo in 1923. The main emphasis has been the results of the recent R and D and the exploratory offshore programs in areas like Orinoco Delta located in the Atlantic Ocean, Northeast and Northwest Venezuela in the Caribbean sea. In the R and D offshore program the main objectives were: (1) To establish the local environmental, oceanographical, geotechnical and seismicity conditions for the Venezuelan Continental Platform. (2) To give a technical support to the PDVSA Operating Affiliates during the exploratory programs including: (a) to develop accurate drilling vessel positioning systems; (b) evaluation of sea bottom geotechnical conditions for safely operating the jack-ups and drilling vessels involved in the exploratory wells and (c) to identify those areas which because of their special nature require further investigation to establish preliminary type of platforms required for the areas to be developed or to evaluate other solutions proposed by Foreign Consultant Engineering Companies to the PDVSA Operating Affiliated Companies. The main objective of PDVSA for the coming future will be to develop the North of Paria Gas Field through the initially named Christopher Columbus Project now Sucre Gas, S.A., a consortium conformed by LaGoven, S.A. Shell, Exxon and Mitsubishi. objective of this paper is to give an idea of the history of the Venezuelan Oil and Gas Offshore development giving emphasis to the results of the INTEVEP S.A. Red offshore program and to show some results of the particular characteristics of oceanographical, environmental, geotechnical and seismic conditions in the main areas evaluated during the exploratory program: Orinoco Delta, Gulf of Paria and North of Paria.

  17. The Venezuelan gas industry. Venezuela and other South American countries: Impact on imports into the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mantellini, R.

    1995-11-01

    The role of Venezuela as a supplier of natural gas and derivative products to international markets will experience significant growth in the medium to long term, in the context of expected market opportunities and the development plans envisaged regarding crude oil production. Venezuela has a very large natural gas resource base, which presently amounts to 287 trillion cubic feet (TCF) in terms of proven, probable and possible reserves. Local consumption is highly concentrated in the oil, petrochemicals, aluminum, steel and electricity generation sectors. At the current consumption level of 1.1 TCF/year, proven reserves would supply the country`s requirements for over 120 years. Probable and possible reserves would more than double this figure. Certainly, this is an indication that one is dealing with a gas surplus country with significant potential for growth towards the exports markets. In this regard, Venezuela`s competitive position is further strengthened by the fact that a large portion of its reserves are associated to crude oil, which allows for low production and handling costs, and a relatively high liquid content. It is expected that the natural gas industry will grow rapidly over the coming years. A significant number of gas projects will be developed, including the expansion of existing ones and the construction of new facilities for recovery of natural gas liquids, the expansion of city methane networks replacing LPG as a domestic and industrial fuel, the construction of ethane recovery units for petrochemical uses, etc., all of which represent an additional liquids production of more than 100 {times} 10{sup 3} bbl/d that could be exported to the US and The Caribbean.

  18. Modeling of horizontal well and lifting mechanisms to improve ultimate recovery in a depleted field in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saputelli, L.; Mata, T.; Jimenez, Z.

    1995-12-31

    Recovery of the remaining reserve of millions of oil barrels is inhibited by depleted reservoir pressures and existing exploitation policies in Lower Lagunillas Reservoir in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. Numerical simulation results indicated that proper production and reservoir management policies such as, controlled drawdown, producing wells at rates below the critical rates, low gas-oil-ratio production will promote efficient gravity segregation process, and subsequent optimum final recovery. Combination of infill horizontal wells and adequate lifting mechanisms yielded the recovery of additional reserves.

  19. Rejuvenation of a giant oil field-Quiriquire Field, Venezuela: A team approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friestad, H.; Hull, R.; Miller, D.

    1996-08-01

    Quiriquire field is located in the Maturin basin of eastern Venezuela, at the southeastern corner of the Serrania del Interior mountain range. Since its discovery in 1928, the field has produced over 750 MMBO from a stratigraphically trapped, shallow, Pliocene alluvial fan (Quiriquire Formation). A deep oil zone, the Los Jabillos sand of Oligocene age, was discovered in 1952 on a deep thrust anticline situated below the shallow oil field. Both zones potentially have significant reserves yet to be recovered. In 1994, Maxus, BP, and Otepi began working with Lagoven to rejuvenate oil production from both zones. Maxus, as operator, has been utilizing geologists, geophysicists, petrophysicists, and reservoir, drilling, construction, and environmental engineers, working together as a team, to fully evaluate the most economic methods of developing these remaining reserves. A program of reactivation and recompletion of old wells, as well as the drilling of deviated infill wells, stepouts, and new exploration plays has been formulated by the team. A staged approach to the broad program will enable Maxus to prioritize those projects which have the best economic return. The use of new technology in seismic, drilling, logging, and completions is expected to improve the recovery of oil over previous conventional methods. Using modern technology to enhance the understanding of the structural and stratigraphic trapping mechanisms, the team has defined and built structural and seismic models to help identify possible productive reservoirs.

  20. Influence of Mesozoic age structure on Miocene tectonic development in NE Anzoategui, Eastern Venezuela Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadler, P.; White, S.

    1996-08-01

    Structure within and surrounding the Quiamare-La Ceiba region, Eastern Venezuela Basin, is dominated by two major thrust fault systems. They were generated during Early-Middle Miocene time in response to oblique convergence of the Caribbean and South American plates. They are. respectively, the SE vergent NE-SW oriented Anaco fault system, and the SSE vergent ENE-WSW oriented Pirital fault system. The major structural feature associated with each fault system is a basement cored ramp anticline. New seismic data provides evidence that contributes to a better understanding of the sequence of tectonic development within and surrounding the Quiamare-La Ceiba region. Compressional structures in both the hanging wall and the footwall of the Pirital fault system appear to be inverted normal faults, that were previously active during Mesozoic time along the northern South America passive margin. A conjugate set of strike-slip faults is also present. They are oriented NNW-SSE, parallel to the Urica lineation, and SSW-NNE, respectively. A Mesozoic origin for these faults is suggested. Post-compressional relaxation during Plio-Pleistocene time resulted in the development of shallow, small scale normal faults. These normal faults appear to be localized by structural adjustments along the strike-slip fault sets. Existing oil and gas production within the Quiamare-La Ceiba region is from localized structural closures. Strike-slip faults dissect the prevailing structural grain, and may provide an additional hydrocarbon trapping mechanism.

  1. Geological and geophysical evaluation of the Naricual Formation, Musipan-El Carito area, eastern Venezuela basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abud, J.; Oviedo, P.; Hernandex, J.; Garcia, E.; Escalona, N. )

    1990-05-01

    The recent giant oil discoveries in the lower Tertiary sedimentary sequence of the Monagas overthrust belt, Eastern Venezuela basin require short- and medium-term development plans based on technical production geological studies and models. The present study consists of a detailed geological and geophysical evaluation to define the reservoir in the producing Naricual Formation in the Musipan-El Carito areas, located west of El Furrial oil field. Due to its geological and reservoir characteristics, the northern Monagas area is considered as the top priority production alternative for the Venezuelan oil industry for the next 20 yr. The structural pattern of the area is related to major compressional stress applied northwest and from the northeast. Two fault systems are associated with this compression: (1) first-order, east-west-trending reverse faults dipping to the north, and (2) second-order, north-south-trending right-lateral strike-slip faults. The proposed sedimentological model is that of a paleodelta prograding from north to south. The depositional environment ranges from internal to continental shelf (barrier bars, tidal and distributary channels, lagoonal and associated facies). The STOIP in the Naricual Formation is 4.8 billion bbls, 52% of which is light-grade oil and 48% is medium-grade oil. The results of reservoir pressure analyses suggest lateral communication within the Naricual Formation between the Furrial and Musipan areas and give evidence of a permeability barrier between the Furrial-Musipan and El Carito areas. Depth vs. API gravity plots indicate a direct relationship between crude oil type and depth. The application of the results of the integrated reservoir studies gives precise answers to the production behavior of wells. An adjusted development plan is now under way to guarantee a rational, optimum recovery of the oil reserves.

  2. Developing a marginal field using new techniques-South Monagas Unit, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skirvin, T.M.; Sven Hagen, E.; McGee, R.A.; Hinrichs, P.D.; Medina, P.A.

    1996-12-31

    In 1992 the Venezuelan national oil company, PDVSA, awarded operating service agreements to foreign oil companies for reactivation of marginal oil fields. The South Monagas Unit contains three oil and gas fields, Uracoa, Bombal, and Tucupita, that were not producing prior to the award of the contract As of October 1995, production from Uraroa had exceeded 20 MBbls/day of heavy oil from 26 vertical and 11 horizontal wells. Initial uncertainties about heavy oil treatment capability, water and gas production, oil flow rates, and ultimate recoverable reserves led to a phased development plan that has incrementally reduced the risk of financial exposure over time. The first phase of development utilized conventional geologic techniques and vertical wells to test treatment facilities, mud and gravel-pack technologies, and flow rates. Positive results led to the next phase of development which focused on reservoir performance and well optimization. A horizontal well drilling program was implemented in December 1993. A milestone in this program was the first gravel-pack horizontal well in Venezuela, completed in February, 1995. A pilot 2-D seismic program in late 1994 confined that high-quality seismic could be acquired to significantly enhance the development of Uracoa. A 175 W 3-D survey was shot and processed in mid-1995. Concurrently, borehole imaging logs were acquired in vertical wells to determine internal reservoir heterogeneity and sand depositional models. The sequence stratigraphic model that evolved, based on outcrop field analogs, 3-D seismic stratigraphy, and regional well control, is being used to optimize field development. In addition, new exploration concepts are being tested without risk using strategically located water injection wells as test wells.

  3. Sedimentary and tectonic controls on oil occurrences in the traditional producing area, Barinas Subbasin, Western Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daal, J.; Martinez, G.; Salas, J. )

    1996-01-01

    A Stratigraphic and Tectonic model explains the oil-field locations in the Traditional Producing Area of the Barinas Subbasin, Western Venezuela. The database for the model includes a 585-km[sup 2] 3-D seismic survey, as well as petrophysical, lithologic and biostratigraphic data from Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments. A long-term relative sea level rise from Albian through Campanian (Cretaceous) time, coincident with passive-margin basin subsidence, resulted in onlap of marginal marine sands and marine-shelf limestones and shales over crystalline metamorphic rocks of the Guayana Shield Basement. Facies changes in the Cretaceous Aguardiente, Escandalosa, and Navay Formations are related mainly to eustatic sea level changes. A tectonic pulse deformed these sediments in Late Maastrichtian to Paleocene time. An erosional unconformity that developed atop this deformed Cretaceous section relates to tectonic uplift and not to sea-level change. Onlap of Middle Eocene marine transgressive Gobernador Fm. sands and Masparrito Fm. limestones over this unconformity was driven by increased tectonic subsidence. Accelerated tectonic subsidence drowned the Masparrito carbonate platform and led to deposition of a condensed section within the lower Paguey Formation; this condensed section marks a tectonic Maximum Flooding Surface not related to eustatic sea level change. After deposition of the Eocene Paguey, and just prior to deposition of the Oligo-Miocene Parangula Formation, a second tectonic event reactivated older faults and led to growth of structural traps for Cretaceous and Eocene reservoirs. Both tectonic and eustatic events have combined to control oil occurrence in the Barinas Subbasin.

  4. Sedimentary and tectonic controls on oil occurrences in the traditional producing area, Barinas Subbasin, Western Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daal, J.; Martinez, G.; Salas, J.

    1996-12-31

    A Stratigraphic and Tectonic model explains the oil-field locations in the Traditional Producing Area of the Barinas Subbasin, Western Venezuela. The database for the model includes a 585-km{sup 2} 3-D seismic survey, as well as petrophysical, lithologic and biostratigraphic data from Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments. A long-term relative sea level rise from Albian through Campanian (Cretaceous) time, coincident with passive-margin basin subsidence, resulted in onlap of marginal marine sands and marine-shelf limestones and shales over crystalline metamorphic rocks of the Guayana Shield Basement. Facies changes in the Cretaceous Aguardiente, Escandalosa, and Navay Formations are related mainly to eustatic sea level changes. A tectonic pulse deformed these sediments in Late Maastrichtian to Paleocene time. An erosional unconformity that developed atop this deformed Cretaceous section relates to tectonic uplift and not to sea-level change. Onlap of Middle Eocene marine transgressive Gobernador Fm. sands and Masparrito Fm. limestones over this unconformity was driven by increased tectonic subsidence. Accelerated tectonic subsidence drowned the Masparrito carbonate platform and led to deposition of a condensed section within the lower Paguey Formation; this condensed section marks a tectonic Maximum Flooding Surface not related to eustatic sea level change. After deposition of the Eocene Paguey, and just prior to deposition of the Oligo-Miocene Parangula Formation, a second tectonic event reactivated older faults and led to growth of structural traps for Cretaceous and Eocene reservoirs. Both tectonic and eustatic events have combined to control oil occurrence in the Barinas Subbasin.

  5. Developing a marginal field using new techniques-South Monagas Unit, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skirvin, T.M.; Sven Hagen, E.; McGee, R.A.; Hinrichs, P.D. ); Medina, P.A. )

    1996-01-01

    In 1992 the Venezuelan national oil company, PDVSA, awarded operating service agreements to foreign oil companies for reactivation of marginal oil fields. The South Monagas Unit contains three oil and gas fields, Uracoa, Bombal, and Tucupita, that were not producing prior to the award of the contract As of October 1995, production from Uraroa had exceeded 20 MBbls/day of heavy oil from 26 vertical and 11 horizontal wells. Initial uncertainties about heavy oil treatment capability, water and gas production, oil flow rates, and ultimate recoverable reserves led to a phased development plan that has incrementally reduced the risk of financial exposure over time. The first phase of development utilized conventional geologic techniques and vertical wells to test treatment facilities, mud and gravel-pack technologies, and flow rates. Positive results led to the next phase of development which focused on reservoir performance and well optimization. A horizontal well drilling program was implemented in December 1993. A milestone in this program was the first gravel-pack horizontal well in Venezuela, completed in February, 1995. A pilot 2-D seismic program in late 1994 confined that high-quality seismic could be acquired to significantly enhance the development of Uracoa. A 175 W 3-D survey was shot and processed in mid-1995. Concurrently, borehole imaging logs were acquired in vertical wells to determine internal reservoir heterogeneity and sand depositional models. The sequence stratigraphic model that evolved, based on outcrop field analogs, 3-D seismic stratigraphy, and regional well control, is being used to optimize field development. In addition, new exploration concepts are being tested without risk using strategically located water injection wells as test wells.

  6. Venezuela-MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-11: Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery - EOR thermal processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venezuela

    2000-04-06

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Tenth Amendment anti Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Energy Agreement. This report is presented in sections (for each of the six Tasks) and each section contains one or more reports that were prepared to describe the results of the effort under each of the Tasks. A statement of each Task, taken from the Agreement Between Project Managers, is presented on the first page of each section. The Tasks are numbered 68 through 73. The first through tenth report on research performed under Annex IV Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report Number IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, IV-8, IV-9, IV-10 contain the results of the first 67 Tasks. These reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, December 1989, October 1991, February 1993, March 1995, and December 1997, respectively.

  7. Oil- and gas-in-place assessment under geological uncertainty, Jobal-Zuron area, Guarico subbasin, central Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, G.

    1989-03-01

    Oil- and gas-in-place assessment has been a major problem in the evaluation of the Jobal-Zuron area of the Guarico subbasin of the Eastern Venezuela basin. The area is now undergoing an integrated appraisal in order to determine its economic viability for supplying the Venezuelan domestic gas market. The area has been known as a gas producer from the Miocene Chaguaramas Formation. Currently stated reserves are estimated at 21.7 million bbl of condensate and 313.8 billion ft/sup 3/ of gas; daily production is 23 million ft/sup 3/ of gas from nine wells. Recent tests and appaisals would increase reserves to 60 million bbl of condensate and 888.6 billion ft/sup 3/ of gas and daily production up to 4.2 million ft/sup 3/ of gas per well. Although the Venezuelan domestic gas market is increasing, the Jobal-Zuron area is still lacking deep geological and reserve definition. The area is, geologically speaking, one of the most complex in Venezuela from both the stratigraphic and structural points of view. The Guarico subbasin was tectonically very active during the upper Miocene-Pliocene; compaction and diagenesis are the main factors affecting porosity.

  8. Evaluating oil quality and monitoring production from heavy oil reservoirs using geochemical methods: Application to the Boscan Field, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaufman, R.L.; Noguera, V.H.; Bantz, D.M.; Rodriguez, R.

    1996-08-01

    Many oil fields worldwide contain heavy oil in one or more reservoir units. The low gravity of these oils is most frequently due to biodegradation and/or low maturity. The challenge is to find ways to economically recover this oil. Methods which reduce the operating costs of producing heavy oil add significant value to such projects. Geochemical techniques which use the composition of the reservoir fluids as natural tracers offer cost effective methods to assist with reservoir management. The low viscosity and gravity of heavy oil, combined with frequent high water cuts, low flow rates, and the presence of downhole artificial lift equipment, make many conventional production logging methods difficult to apply. Therefore, monitoring production, especially if the produced oil is commingled from multiple reservoirs, can be difficult. Geochemical methods can be used to identify oil/water contacts, tubing string leaks and to allocate production to individual zones from commingled production. An example of a giant heavy oil field where geochemical methods may be applicable is the Boscan Field in Venezuela. Low maturity oil, averaging 10{degrees} API gravity, is produced from the Eocene Upper and Lower Boscan (Miosa) Sands. Geochemical, stratigraphic and engineering data have helped to better define the controls on oil quality within the field, identified new reservoir compartments and defined unique characteristics of the Upper and Lower Boscan oils. This information can be used to identify existing wells in need of workovers due to mechanical problems and to monitor production from new infill wells.

  9. Venezuela-MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report XIII-1, Supporting Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Microbial EOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziritt, Jose Luis

    1999-11-03

    The results from Annex XIII of the Cooperative Agreement between the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of the Republic of Venezuela (MEMV) have been documented and published with many researchers involved. Integrate comprehensive research programs in the area of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) ranged from feasibility laboratory studies to full-scale multi-well field pilots. The objective, to cooperate in a technical exchange of ideas and information was fully met throughout the life of the Annex. Information has been exchanged between the two countries through published reports and technical meetings between experts in both country's research communities. The meetings occurred every two years in locations coincident with the International MEOR conferences & workshops sponsored by DOE (June 1990, University of Oklahoma, September 1992, Brookhaven, September 1995, National Institute of Petroleum and Energy Research). Reports and publications produced during these years are listed in Appendix B. Several Annex managers have guided the exchange through the years. They included Luis Vierma, Jose Luis Zirritt, representing MEMV and E. B. Nuckols, Edith Allison, and Rhonda Lindsey, representing the U.S. DOE. Funding for this area of research remained steady for a few years but decreased in recent years. Because both countries have reduced research programs in this area, future exchanges on this topic will occur through ANNEX XV. Informal networks established between researchers through the years should continue to function between individuals in the two countries.

  10. Approaches to identifying reservoir heterogeneity and reserve growth opportunities from subsurface data: The Oficina Formation, Budare field, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, D.S.; Raeuchle, S.K.; Holtz, M.H.

    1997-08-01

    We applied an integrated geologic, geophysical, and engineering approach devised to identify heterogeneities in the subsurface that might lead to reserve growth opportunities in our analysis of the Oficina Formation at Budare field, Venezuela. The approach involves 4 key steps: (1) Determine geologic reservoir architecture; (2) Investigate trends in reservoir fluid flow; (3) Integrate fluid flow trends with reservoir architecture; and (4) Estimate original oil-in-place, residual oil saturation, and remaining mobile oil, to identify opportunities for reserve growth. There are three main oil-producing reservoirs in the Oficina Formation that were deposited in a bed-load fluvial system, an incised valley-fill, and a barrier-strandplain system. Reservoir continuity is complex because, in addition to lateral facies variability, the major Oficina depositional systems were internally subdivided by high-frequency stratigraphic surfaces. These surfaces define times of intermittent lacustrine and marine flooding events that punctuated the fluvial and marginal marine sedimentation, respectively. Syn and post depositional faulting further disrupted reservoir continuity. Trends in fluid flow established from initial fluid levels, response to recompletion workovers, and pressure depletion data demonstrated barriers to lateral and vertical fluid flow caused by a combination of reservoir facies pinchout, flooding shale markers, and the faults. Considerable reserve growth potential exists at Budare field because the reservoir units are highly compartment by the depositional heterogeneity and structural complexity. Numerous reserve growth opportunities were identified in attics updip of existing production, in untapped or incompletely drained compartments, and in field extensions.

  11. Venezuela to double Supermetanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-23

    Pequiven, the petrochemical arm of Venezuelan state oil company PDVSA, is conducting feasibility studies to double the size of its 750,000-m.t./year Supermetanol methanol joint venture with Ecofuel at Jose. The twin unit would be onstream by the end of the decade and would increase Pequiven`s capacity to 2.3 million m.t./year.

  12. CO{sub 2} emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of Energy in the long term. Volume 2, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ketoff, A.; Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N.

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and changes in the global climate. Of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world`s share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist energy demand in developing will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and CO{sub 2} in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. These individual studies were conducted fro Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela in Latin America.

  13. Experiences in the design of CRA`s for erosion/corrosion control in the production facilities of eastern Venezuela oil fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero, N.; Palacios, C.A.

    1997-08-01

    It is a well known fact that CRA`s are used in the oil industry as one way to control erosion/corrosion effects. Many fields in the eastern region of Venezuela are considered corrosive due to the presence of CO{sub 2} (5 to 20%), H{sub 2}S (up to 5 ppm), and water (50% water cut) contained in the produced hydrocarbons (condensated). For some areas, the hydrocarbon is accompanied by sand, making them erosive as well. These conditions and frequent failures experienced in the field, led to the use of CRA`s. For the wells, 13% Cr and bimetallic (carbon steel/13% Cr) tubing was used for 51 condensate wells containing 5 to 20% CO{sub 2}. For the surface equipment (valves, reducers, expanders and other types of fittings) tungsten carbide hard facing were used, for some of the valves, a epoxi-phenolic coating was used. This article describes the different design criteria used for the installation of the tubing, the logistics involved during field inspections and handling tips to avoid galling during workovers. It also, presents results from the bi-metallic tubing and the hard facings used for the surface equipment.

  14. Sedimentary evolution of the upper Cretaceous and late Oligocene sequences, and its relation to oil production, North Monagas area, Eastern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sambrano, J.; Rojas, B.; Rendon, J.; Chigne, R.; Maguregui, J.

    1996-08-01

    The most important oil reservoirs of the Eastern Venezuela Basin are located in the North Monagas Area. These reservoirs are contained within a 3500 ft Cretaceous to Late Oligocene sedimentary section. Daily production is rated at about 350 MBO and 1000 MMCFG. At this moment, these reservoirs are undergoing special studies, in order to establish enhanced recovery projects, for which heterogeneity definition is very important. The database consisted of log analyses of 136 wells, sedimentological and biostratigraphic interpretation of 10,200 ft of cores, and biostratigraphic interpretation of ditch samples from 13 wells. Sedimentary models, based on facies analyses and deltaic conceptual models of 31 separate genetic units were defined. The models allowed for the interpretation of paleoenvironments, sedimentary facies architecture, direction of sedimentation and depocenters. The preferred sediment orientation was determined to be West-East. In the Santa Barbara and Pirital reservoirs the Late Oligocene sediments are composed of fluvial deposits, and the Cretaceous sediments of estuarine deposits. In the Carito-Mulata reservoirs, the Late Oligocene sediments are composed of fluvial to marine deposits, and the Upper Cretaceous sediments of estuarine deposits. Possible preferred transmissibility pathways for fluid injection were described, providing a great support for the enhanced recovery phases of these reservoirs.

  15. Use of geostatistic techniques to describe a reservoir to be submitted into a secondary recovery process field case: {open_quotes}Eocene B-Inferior/VLG-3659, Ceuta, Venezuela{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez, T.; Poquioma, W.

    1997-08-01

    This study presents the results of an integrated reservoir study of the Eocene B-Inferior/VLG-3659, Area 7, Ceuta filed. This field located in the Maracaibo Lake in the western side of Venezuela. The objective was to evaluating the feasibility to implement a secondary recovery project by means of water flooding. Core information was used for this study (194 ft), PVT analysis, RFI, build-up and statistic`s pressure analysis, modem logs and production history data. Using geostatistical techniques (Kriging) it was defined a low uncertainty geological model that was validated by means of a black oil simulator (Eclipse). The results showed a good comparison of historical pressure of the reservoir against those obtained from the model, without the need of {open_quotes}history matching{close_quotes}. It means without modifying neither the initial rock properties nor reservoir fluids. The results of this study recommended drilling in two new locations, also the reactivation of four producing wells and water flooding under peripherical array by means of four injection wells, with the recovery of an additional 30.2 MMSTB. The economical evaluation shows an internal return rate of 31.4%.

  16. Soderberg_RecontresDeVietnam

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1. FIG. 2: The antineutrino mode (top) and neutrino QE MiniBooNE MiniBooNE MicroBooNE: Physics 16 * Prove effectiveness of electrongamma separation technique (e.g. - using dE...

  17. Mara Field, a unique giant in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, G.A. )

    1993-02-01

    The Mara field is located in Venzuela, 45 km northwest of Maracaibo, on the Mara-La Paz anticlinal trend. Discovered in 1945 by the Caribbean Petroleum Co. (Shell group), the field has produced 407 MMB as of 1991 and has remaining proven reserves of 60 MMB, and probable and possible reserves of 58 MMB, for an ultimate potential recovery of 525 MMB. In addition to being a giant field, Mara is also unique in that it produces from fractures igneous basement rocks as well as from fractured Cretaceous limestones, which are the source rocks of the region, and Paleocene/Eocene sandstone and carbonate reservoirs. The sedimentary stratigraphic section comprises beds ranging from early Cretaceous to middle Eocene, which suffered considerable erosion, and overlying Plio-Pleistocene sediments, all of which were involved in the latest strong deformation. The structure of the field is complex; a main thrust zone (consisting of numerous individual faults) borders the northwest flank of the elongated anticline and an opposing minor thrust zone cuts the southeast flank, forming a thrusted horst. Oblique transverse faults also cut the structure. By studying the patterns of cumulative production and lost circulation, it was possible to derive relationships between the accumulations of oil and the faulting and conceptual patterns of related fracturing in the different types of reservoir rocks. The study indicates that one can prognosticate the more prospective drilling locations on this or similar structures involving basement and limestone. It is felt that this information may be applicable to other plays in other regions.

  18. Venezuela: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in the country has fallen, while domestic consumption has risen, causing a decline in net oil exports. EIA estimates the Venezuelan net exports fell again in 2010 to 1.59...

  19. Vietnam: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWhyear 66 2008 NREL Coal Reserves 165.35 Million Short Tons 53 2008 EIA Natural Gas Reserves 680,000,000,000 Cubic Meters (cu m) 31 2010 CIA World Factbook Oil Reserves...

  20. Overpressure history of fractures, West Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrolijk, P.J.; Pottorf, R.J.; Maze, W.B.

    1996-08-01

    Prediction of density of natural fractures in reservoir rocks requires evaluation of many factors, including the effective stress and thus fluid pressure conditions through time. In this study we use analyses of fluid inclusions in calcite-filled fractures with burial and thermal history models to assess the fluid pressure history and the causes of overpressure in the West Maracaibo Basin. We analyzed abundant oil-filled and rare aqueous fluid inclusions in calcite-filled fractures in the La Luna Formation source rock and in the underlying Cogollo Gp. carbonate reservoir. Our analyses of fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures and fluorescence properties lead us to the interpretation of near-lithostatic paleo-fluid pressures in La Luna Formation and near-lithostatic to hydrostatic fluid pressures in the Cogollo, Gp. fractures. Maturation and expulsion of oil from the La Luna Formation source rock is required to generate the large inferred excess pressures as compaction disequilibrium and thermal expansion of pore fluids from rapid Miocene burial are insufficient to achieve near-lithostatic conditions. This hypothesis is supported by the observation of decreasing paleo- and modern fluid pressures with depth beneath the La Luna Formation. Thus based on the wide occurrence of oil-filled inclusions in calcite-filled fractures and the high fluid pressures associated with trapped oils, we infer extensive rock fracture under overpressured conditions near maximum Miocene burial, during inferred late source rock yield, and during Miocene growth of structural traps.

  1. Hydrocarbon segregation from well logs, Northern Monagas, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, E. )

    1993-02-01

    A methodology is described to determine vertical hydrocarbon density variations in recent oil discoveries in Northern Monagas state, using well logs. Similarities and differences are established for models obtained in El Carito and El Tejero fault block-s. These models were confirmed using independent information, such as PVT analysis, RFT pressures, oil gravity and GOR's from initial production tests. To explain differences between the models, an hypothesis is proposed for the migration/segregation/deformation sequence in these two blocks, which accounts for the presence of lighter hydrocarbons in El Tejero block, even though it is 1700 ft structurally lower than El Carito. Based on this hypothesis, westward projection of the models predicts lighter hydrocarbons and similar porosities for Casupal-Mata Granda and Tonoro blocks, at depths considerably greater than in El Tejero block.

  2. Vietnam Research Center for Energy and Environment | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of renewable and clean energy development and energy efficiency. RCEE focuses on climate change issues too, like policies on clean development mechanism (CDM), and developing...

  3. Vietnam-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Government Partner Danish Ministry for Climate, Energy, and Building; The Danish Energy Agency Sector Energy Topics Implementation, Low emission development planning Program...

  4. Vietnam-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Growth in Developing Asia AgencyCompany Organization Asian Development Bank Partner Japan, United Kingdom Sector Climate, Energy Focus Area Non-renewable Energy, Buildings,...

  5. Vietnam-Integrated Action Plan to Reduce Vehicle Emissions |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and reduce air pollution. Furthermore, they are required to ensure that Viet Nam's air quality meets the average standards set by the Association of Southeast Asian Nation...

  6. Vietnam-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE),...

  7. Vietnam-The Mitigation Action Implementation Network (MAIN) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Energy Thailand, Ministry of Industry Thailand, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Thailand, Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and...

  8. Vietnam-Development Policy Operation (DPO) Financing | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Policy Operation Financing AgencyCompany Organization France Agency of Development (AFD) Partner JICA, CIDA, WB, Korean Exim, AusAid Sector Climate Focus Area Non-renewable...

  9. Vietnam-Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the growth of greenhouse gas emissions. The LEAD program supports and enhances country-led development programs, plans, and policies, and complements efforts of other...

  10. Vietnam-World Bank Climate Projects | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    electricity access will be improved by upgrading, and strengthening the 110 KV sub-transmission line, and substations, restoring five existing hydropower plants, and, by...

  11. Vietnam-NAMA Programme for the Construction Sector in Asia |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Buildings, Industry Topics Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA, Market...

  12. Vietnam-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assessing, improving, and implementing REDD+- related forest policies; improving forest management; and encouraging equitable sharing of REDD+ benefits. The program will tailor...

  13. Vietnam-Clean Technology Fund (CTF) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Development, Inter-American Development Bank, World Bank Sector Climate, Energy Focus Area Energy Efficiency, Geothermal, Transportation Topics Background analysis,...

  14. Multizone subsea completions in the Dai Hung field, Vietnam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lay, K.R.

    1996-09-01

    The early production phase of the Dai Hung field development resulted in the drilling and completion of five subsea wells. Because of the complex nature of the reservoirs, selective multizone completions were installed for effective reservoir data acquisition and reservoir management. The downhole completion designs used equipment that was primarily of existing proven design and downhole equipment installation was successfully achieved in a single trip. Ongoing reservoir management will be aided by the use of a subsea wireline system to facilitate data acquisition.

  15. Brief: Multizone subsea completions in the Dai Hung field, Vietnam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lay, K.R.

    1996-04-01

    The early production phase of the Dai Hung field development involved drilling and completion of five subsea wells. Owing to the complex nature of the reservoirs, selective multizone completions were installed for effective reservoir data acquisition and reservoir management. Downhole completion designs used equipment that was primarily of existing proven design, and downhole equipment was installed in a single trip. Ongoing reservoir management will be aided by use of a subsea wireline system to facilitate data acquisition.

  16. Vietnam-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    illustrates the U.S. perspective on LEDS: Integrated development goals and objectives, national greenhouse gas inventory, and economic and resource data Long-term projections of...

  17. Vietnam-Strengthening Public and Private Climate Finance in Asia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to support climate-resilient development in the developing world. Mitigation investment is substantial in parts of Asia, but lacking elsewhere; adaptation investment flows...

  18. Vietnam-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    six to eight developing countries to strengthen their national low carbon development strategies and get a "quick start" on NAMAs. The focus will be on reducing emissions of...

  19. Vietnam-The World Bank Partnership for Market Readiness (PMR...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Morocco Implement climate change mitigation policy as part of National Plan against Global Warming. PMR Support: Establish MRV framework. Identify and develop crediting NAMAs...

  20. Strategically directed drilling: New opportunity in rejuvenating mature fields in eastern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbato, R.; Betancourt, H.; Rodriguez, R.; Oviedo, P.

    1996-12-31

    Geologically deviated drilling is used as a strategy for discovering and/or developing reservoirs in mature fields. Detailed descriptions of undrained areas are required in order to determine not only the deviated well trajectory, but also possible volumes of oil to be recovered and its profitability. Water-flooded and by-passed oil areas need to be characterized also. Other very important factors to be determined, are structure closure and fault planes. Strikes and dips of fault planes must be calculated as accurate as possible. In other words a thorough characterization based in available geological and seismic data of the reservoirs to be penetrated is needed in order to assure success. One way to apply this technique is to design and drill a well that will travel parallel to the closure fault plane in order to penetrate as many as possible reservoirs a long their structurally lightest points. Vertically drilled wells might have left out some of the reservoirs, because while penetrating the main reservoir at its highest point, it might have penetrated the opposite side of the fault or though the downdip, water-wet parts of other reservoirs. One well was drilled in the Budare field and a second one in the Officina field with excellent results. An additional production potential of 1,200 BOPD was obtained for the two fields and new reserves of 4 MMBO were discovered.

  1. Interactive geological interpretation of the El Roble oil field, eastern Venezuela basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briceno, M.A.; Joffree Arud, G.M. ); Segura, F. ); Rosario Sifontes, A.S.; Bejarano, C. )

    1990-05-01

    The El Noble oil field has been in production since May 1939, following the completion of RPN 1 well in the mid-section of the Oficina Formation. Seventy-three wells, 50% of which are producers, have been drilled as part of evaluation and appraisal-development programs. Production comes mostly from the Tertiary Oficina and Merecure formations, whose cumulative production is 45.2 MMbbl of light and condensate oil, and 74-94 bcf of gas. To date, 158 reservoirs have been identified in more than 40 sand bodies. Over 120 wells have been drilled in the study area which covers the El Roble field and its surroundings. Due to the importance of the field as a supplier to the domestic gas market, Corpoven has decided to reevaluate the area through an integrated study which takes into account all available data, including lab and sedimentological analyses, petrophysical analyses, well logs, etc., all of which have been processed through the Intergraph Gipsie system. The Intergraph Gipsie system allows the handling of data and the generation of ecological maps, sections, and graphs in a relatively short time using interactive routines, freeing the geologist for interpretations. More than 40 sand beds were reevaluated and their oil and gas volumes estimated. Further corrections and updating should be easily handled through the system.

  2. Oil geochemistry study; Blocks III and IV Bachaquedro Field, Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, B.A.; Villarroel, H.G. de; Rondon, L.

    1996-08-01

    Blocks III and IV Bachaquero, Field, located on the east side of Lake Maracaibo, comprise an area of 40 square kilometers. In 1956 the discovery well penetrated oil saturated sands in a south dipping homoclinal structure. In 1958 production reached a maximum of 245,000 barrels per day of moderate gravity oil from three Miocene age Lagunillas Formation sands, designated as L, M, and N. The Bachaquero Field has experienced production problems including high gas-oil ratios from M and N sands to the north, high water cuts in all three sands to the south, and low production rates in the southeast. In addition, the vertical and lateral continuity of the oil pools are unknown. High resolution gas chromatography and analysis of biological markers was employed in order to resolve the continuity of the oil pools, determine genetic origin of the oils, and shed light on erratic production. Oil in the L sands are vertically discontinuous from oil in the M+N sands. The two oil pools appear laterally continuous within the study area, indicating absence of fault barriers. Well VLD 311, open to both L and M sands, produces a mix of oils, but with a strong contribution from the M sand. Bachaquero Field reservoirs were charged with oil from two different facies of the Upper Cretaceous La Luna or perhaps from La Luna and Colon source rocks as the stratigraphically younger L sands contain less mature oil with a stronger terrigenous imprint than oil the M and N sands.

  3. Structurally controlled porosity evolution and production, La Paz Field, Maracaibo basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, R.A.; Moldovanyi, E.P.; Matcek, C.C.

    1996-08-01

    La Paz Field is a large inversion structure, partially uplifted in the late Eocene and later inverted in the Mio-Pliocene. Fracture distributions, initial rates, cumulative production, pressure declines and trends in formation water chemistry suggest the reservoir is compartmentalized and that reservoir quality and reserves are controlled by the position of current strike-slip faults and by the geometry of the earlier Eocene block uplift. Within the area of Eocene uplift, production levels are high and drainage areas overlap substantially. This suggests highly elliptical to linear drainage along faults, higher than anticipated matrix storage, or likely a combination of the two. Diagenetic microporosity may be an important component in matrix storage, and may be due to water-rock interactions within the Eocene uplifted block. Initial and cumulative production, formation water chemistry, and lower than anticipated baseline fracture intensity in cores support the concept that in La Paz Field rate and reserves are dependent on the interaction of planar zones of intense fracturing along faults and secondary porosity (macro & micro) in the matrix. In fields like this, reserves may be optimally developed by judicious selection of well locations and well paths.

  4. Strategically directed drilling: New opportunity in rejuvenating mature fields in eastern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbato, R.; Betancourt, H.; Rodriguez, R.; Oviedo, P. )

    1996-01-01

    Geologically deviated drilling is used as a strategy for discovering and/or developing reservoirs in mature fields. Detailed descriptions of undrained areas are required in order to determine not only the deviated well trajectory, but also possible volumes of oil to be recovered and its profitability. Water-flooded and by-passed oil areas need to be characterized also. Other very important factors to be determined, are structure closure and fault planes. Strikes and dips of fault planes must be calculated as accurate as possible. In other words a thorough characterization based in available geological and seismic data of the reservoirs to be penetrated is needed in order to assure success. One way to apply this technique is to design and drill a well that will travel parallel to the closure fault plane in order to penetrate as many as possible reservoirs a long their structurally lightest points. Vertically drilled wells might have left out some of the reservoirs, because while penetrating the main reservoir at its highest point, it might have penetrated the opposite side of the fault or though the downdip, water-wet parts of other reservoirs. One well was drilled in the Budare field and a second one in the Officina field with excellent results. An additional production potential of 1,200 BOPD was obtained for the two fields and new reserves of 4 MMBO were discovered.

  5. Petrophysical characterization of the Carito Norte, Mulata and Carito fields, Norte de Monagas, Eastern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porras, J.C.; De J. Valle,

    1996-08-01

    The Norte de Monagas trend is located in the Eastern Venezuelan Basin and is characterized by high temperature, high initial pressure and production rates, variable PVT properties, GORs, and asphaltene content, and the presence of a tar mat at the base of the oil column. These reservoirs were petrophysically characterized through the integration of core and log data. Productive sands are composed of very coarse- to medium-grained sands deposited primarily in deltaic to shallow marine environments. These sands are quartz-rich, with clay matrix averaging 3% in the Oligocene and 6% in the Cretaceous. The main difference is the presence of up to 30% feldspars in the Cretaceous. Clay mineralogy is dominated by illitic material in the Cretaceous and by kaolinite in the Oligocene. Post-depositional changes dominated by cementation, mechanical compaction and subsequent dissolution processes have resulted in marked improvement or degradation of the productive characteristics of these reservoirs. Rocks were divided into four petrophysical. categories based on grain size, pore throat radius, porosity and permeability. Mercury saturation vs. mercury saturation over capillary pressure plots show the dominant interconnected pore system which controls flow rates is best defined by 50% saturation. Plots constructed using R50 pore aperture correlation indicate the pore throats to be macro to mega porous. Average log calculated water saturation is 14% compared with estimated from capillary pressure data of 12% at 1200{prime} above free water level, and 15% from relative permeability data. Relative permeability data indicate the rocks behave preferably as water-wet.

  6. Sedimentary structures and textures of Rio Orinoco channel sands, Venezuela and Colombia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKee, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    The majority of the sedimentary structures in the channel sands of the Orinoco River are planar cross-strata that are products of sand-wave deposition. Sands in these deposits are mostly medium-grained. Eolian dunes form on top of the sand waves when they are exposed to the trade winds at low river stages. The windblown sands are typically fine-grained.

  7. Opportunities and Challenges to Scaling-up Wind Power in Vietnam...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AgencyCompany Organization Asian Development Bank Sector Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy, Wind Topics Co-benefits assessment, Market analysis, Pathways analysis, Background...

  8. Vietnam-GTZ RE Policy and Wind Power Development Project | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) Partner Ministry of Industry and Trade (MoIT), The Electricity...

  9. Vietnam-Low Carbon Asia Research Network (LoCARNet) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy, Land Focus Area Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Greenhouse Gas, Hydrogen, Industry, Land Use, People and...

  10. Vietnam-EC-LEDS in the Agriculture Sector | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector Climate, Land Focus Area Agriculture, Economic Development, Greenhouse Gas, Land Use Topics Adaptation, Implementation, Low emission development planning, -LEDS,...

  11. CO oxidation on gold-supported iron oxides: New insights into...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Xiamen Univ., Xiamen (China); Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Dalian (China) Xiamen Univ., Xiamen (China) Univ. Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela) Brookhaven National ...

  12. Entelin | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Entelin Jump to: navigation, search Name: Entelin Place: Caracas, Venezuela Sector: Solar Product: Venezuela-based PV solar module installer. Coordinates: 10.49605, -66.898277...

  13. Development stategy for a mature oil field in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela - an integrated study in petroleum engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rondon, L.; Coll, C.; Cordova, P.; Gamero, H.

    1996-12-31

    The results from a 3-D , 3-Phase numerical simulation model of Lower Lagunillas reservoir in Block IV Lake Maracaibo, indicate the possibility of additional recovery from this mature field by drilling infill horizontal wells. The simulation model was the final outcome of an integrated work effort by a team of specialists. The field has produced approximately 920 MMSTB or 43% of OOIP to date and the remaining reserves are estimated to be 270 MMSTB. The reservoir pressure has declined from 4200 psi to 1400 psi, well below the bubble point pressure of 4000 psi. The objectives of an integrated reservoir study were to understand the reservoir heterogeneity and dynamics, evaluate the efficiency of the gas injection started in 1966 and the strength of the active acquifer as pressure support mechanisms. The new model shows the presence of layers with bypassed oil and higher pressures between layers that show greater pressure depletion and high GOR This situation demonstrates the need to formulate a new development strategy for efficiently recovering the remaining reserves. The study indicates that the drilling of horizontal wells or infill deviated wells in some of these layers offers the best solution for maximizing recovery from this reservoir taking full advantage of the reservoir heterogeneity aquifer support and secondary gas cap to optimize well locations.

  14. Geometry and controls on fracturing in a natural fault-bend fold: Rosario field, Maracaibo basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apotria, T.G.; Wilkerson, M.S.; Knewtson, S.L.

    1996-08-01

    The Rosario oil field lies between the Perija Mountain front and Lake Maracaibo and produces from fractured Cretaceous carbonates and Tertiary clastics. We interpret the structure as a detached fault-bend fold which ramps through Cretaceous Cogollo and La Luna carbonates and flattens into an upper detachment at the base of the Upper Cretaceous Colon Shale. The structural relief formed primarily during the Mid Miocene and younger. Seismic and well control on the three-dimensional geometry illustrates the effects of (1) lithology and displacement variation on fold geometry, (2) an oblique footwall ramp on hangingwall faulting, and (3) fold curvature on fracturing and hydrocarbon production. Fold geometry at different structural levels is strongly controlled by lithology. Stiff Cogollo and La Luna carbonates exhibit kink-style folding above the upper fault-bend. The weak Colon Shale decouples the faulted carbonates from the concentrically folded Tertiary clastics. Regions of enhanced faulting and fracturing of Cretaceous carbonates are a function of structural position. We observe normal faults in the hangingwall where the strike of the footwall ramp changes from N20{degrees}E to N65{degrees}E. Fold curvature highlights fold hinges, yet distributed faulting is seismically imaged in the forelimb, suggesting that rocks fracture as they migrate through the ramp-upper flat fault-bend. Production rates are higher near the forelimb relative to the flat crestal region.

  15. Integrated reservoir characterization to define a hydrodynamic model in the Misoa formation, Eocene, Center Lake Field, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azuaje, V.; Gil, J.

    1996-08-01

    The Center Lake Field is one of the most important light oil reservoirs in the Maracaibo Basin. Field production of {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} sandstones, Misoa formation, Eocene, started in 1968. Actual cumulative production is 630 MMBls, which represents 23% of the original oil in place. Flank water injection programs have been executed since 1976; however, reservoirs within this field still have shown pressure and production declination. A multidisciplinary study has been conducted to produce an updated hydrodynamic model which matches the static and dynamic behavior of the reservoirs. An integrated interpretation team has merged geological, geophysical and engineering data and criteria to generate an updated and consistent interpretation of today`s performance of reservoirs. The integration of a 3D seismic survey with a sequence- stratigraphy analysis, petrophysical and production data allowed us to determine a new structural and stratigraphic framework. The first important conclusion is that active aquifer is not located at the flanks of the structure, as traditionally worked out. Instead, a water-bottom drive system was interpreted and validated with production data so a different strategy for water injection was recommended. The latter interpretation restricted the injection to those areas where rock volume calculation, permeability, porosity and depositional environment make it suitable and profitable. A pattern injection program is going to be developed in C-4-X.46 reservoir and 21.6 MMBls additional recovery is expected in respect to the old production scheme.

  16. Development stategy for a mature oil field in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela - an integrated study in petroleum engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rondon, L.; Coll, C.; Cordova, P.; Gamero, H. )

    1996-01-01

    The results from a 3-D , 3-Phase numerical simulation model of Lower Lagunillas reservoir in Block IV Lake Maracaibo, indicate the possibility of additional recovery from this mature field by drilling infill horizontal wells. The simulation model was the final outcome of an integrated work effort by a team of specialists. The field has produced approximately 920 MMSTB or 43% of OOIP to date and the remaining reserves are estimated to be 270 MMSTB. The reservoir pressure has declined from 4200 psi to 1400 psi, well below the bubble point pressure of 4000 psi. The objectives of an integrated reservoir study were to understand the reservoir heterogeneity and dynamics, evaluate the efficiency of the gas injection started in 1966 and the strength of the active acquifer as pressure support mechanisms. The new model shows the presence of layers with bypassed oil and higher pressures between layers that show greater pressure depletion and high GOR This situation demonstrates the need to formulate a new development strategy for efficiently recovering the remaining reserves. The study indicates that the drilling of horizontal wells or infill deviated wells in some of these layers offers the best solution for maximizing recovery from this reservoir taking full advantage of the reservoir heterogeneity aquifer support and secondary gas cap to optimize well locations.

  17. Reactivating of a mature oil field in the Finca-Yopales area, Venezuela, Using 3-D seismic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, M.; Betancourt, H.

    1996-08-01

    The area of Finca-Yopales is located in the Eastern Venezuelan Basin in the Anzoategui State where Corpoven has the Trico and Yopales Norte fields. Based on the interpretation of 134 km{sup 2} of 3-D seismic and the geologic interpretation from 145 wells in the area, we define a better geological and structural model. We were also able to map 6 seismic reflectors corresponding to the units A8, F7, L4U and SI from the Oficina Formation, U2 top of Merecure Formation and the top of the Cretaceous, in order to generate a fault plane for all the area which was converted to depth with a lineal relationship which was obtained from wells available. From this interpretation we obtain the structural levels B4, J2, M1 and U2 which are references for the area, those being regional and trangressive events. The main feature of the structure is a high at the southeast of the area and three fault systems of Cretaceous, Miocene and post-Miocene age. This area has been exploited for a long time, having more than 93% of the inactive drilled wells. The total production up to April, 1995 is 59.14 MMbls; the Trico field is the most prolific, with more than 95% of the production. The sands L`s, U`s, O`s and S`s are the most prospective. This paper present the evaluation of the area and the analysis of the reservoir where we increased the computed reserves.

  18. 2-D computer modeling of oil generation and migration in a Transect of the Eastern Venezuela Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallango, O. ); Parnaud, F. )

    1993-02-01

    The aim of the study was a two-dimensional computer simulation of the basin evolution based on available geological, geophysical, geochemical, geothermal, and hydrodynamic data with the main purpose of determining the hydrocarbon generation and migration history. The modeling was done in two geological sections (platform and pre-thrusting) located along the Chacopata-Uverito Transect in the Eastern Venezuelan Basin. In the platform section an hypothetic source rock equivalent to the Gyayuta Group was considered in order to simulate the migration of hydrocarbons. The thermal history reconstruction of hypothetic source rock confirms that this source rock does not reach the oil window before the middle Miocene and that the maturity in this sector is due to the sedimentation of the Freites, La Pica, and Mesa-Las Piedras formations. The oil expulsion and migration from this hypothetic source rock began after middle Miocene time. The expulsion of the hydrocarbons took place mainly along the Oligocene-Miocene reservoir and do not reach at the present time zones located beyond of the Oritupano field, which imply that the oil accumulated in south part of the basin was generated by a source rock located to the north, in the actual deformation zone. Since 17 m.y. ago water migration pattern from north to south was observed in this section. In the pre-thrusting section the hydrocarbon expulsion started during the early Tertiary and took place mainly toward the lower Cretaceous (El Cantil and Barranquim formations). At the end of the passive margin the main migration occur across the Merecure reservoir, through which the hydrocarbon migrated forward to the Onado sector before the thrusting.

  19. Predictive and preventive maintenance of oil and gas production pipelines in the area North Monagas-Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, M.A.L.

    1996-12-31

    Predictive maintenance of oil and gas production pipelines has allowed the prediction of operational failures. Specially due to the thermodynamic behavior of the produced fluids, contaminants present in the oil and gas such as sand, water, H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2}, asphaltene deposition, high temperatures and pressures, physicochemical characteristics of the soil, etc. lead to risks of the installations. In order to minimize risks of failures, the author has established a control and monitoring preventive program of the variables that influence these conditions, such as: nondestructive testing, wall thickness measurements and two dimensional B Scan measurements to detect impurities, laminations and inclusions in the pipeline material, corrosion evaluation of pipelines, characterization of the soil corrosive potential of flow stations and compressing plants. Additionally, he has implemented predictive control through the application of external corrosion prevention techniques such as cathodic protection and coatings. For internal corrosion, the use of corrosion inhibitors, asphaltene dispersants and material selection are used. Increasing the protection through preventive and predictive maintenance can reduce the operational risks involved for the oil and gas production.

  20. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    | | Year | | | | | Month | | | Persian | Total | Non | United | | Gulf(1) | OPEC(2) | OPEC | Kingdom | Venezuela| | | ||||...

  1. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    | | Year | | | | | Month | | | Persian | Total | Non | United | | Gulf(1) | OPEC(2) | OPEC | Kingdom | Venezuela | | | |||...

  2. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    | Month | | | Persian | Total | Non | United | | Gulf(1) | OPEC(2) | OPEC | Kingdom | Venezuela | | | |||||...

  3. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    | Month | | | Persian | Total | Non | United | | Gulf(1) | OPEC(2) | OPEC | Kingdom | Venezuela| | | ||||| 1978...

  4. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    | | | Year | | | | | Month | | | Persian | Total | Non | United | | Gulf(1) | OPEC(2) | OPEC | Kingdom | Venezuela| | | |||...

  5. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    | | | || | | Year | | | | | Month | | | Persian | Total | Non | United | | Gulf(1) | OPEC(2) | OPEC | Kingdom | Venezuela | | | |...

  6. ARM - Lesson Plans: Effects of Solar Radiation on Land and Sea

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    However, on some of the larger islands of Melanesia (Fiji, Vanuatu, Solomons, and Papua New Guinea), the effect of land and sea on temperature is noticeable, particularly on fine ...

  7. Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    VietNam 2004 5th Rencontres du Vietnam Particle Physics and Astrophysics Conference D. Schmitz Status of MiniBooNE

  8. Venezuelan projects advance to develop world`s largest heavy oil reserves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croft, G.; Stauffer, K.

    1996-07-08

    A number of joint venture projects at varying stages of progress promise to greatly increase Venezuela`s production of extra heavy oil. Units of Conoco, Chevron, Total, Arco, and Mobil have either signed agreements or are pursuing negotiations with affiliates of state-owned Petroleos de Venezuela SA on the development of huge reserves of 8--10{degree} gravity crude. Large heavy oil resources are present in the oil producing areas of eastern and western Venezuela, and the largest are in eastern Venezuela`s Orinoco heavy oil belt. The paper discusses the Orinoco heavy oil belt geology and several joint ventures being implemented.

  9. Exploration for stratigraphic traps in a foreland basin using a sequence stratigraphic simulation: Examples from the Eocene/Oligocene of the Apure-Llanos basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reistroffer, J.; Levine, P.A.; Kendall, C.G.; Finno, A.

    1996-12-31

    Foreland basin depositional sequences provide a sensitive record of the interaction between tectonism, eustatic sea level fluctuations, and sedimentation rates. Interplay between these controlling factors creates sedimentary geometries which are unique to this tectonic setting and form excellent stratigraphic hydrocarbon traps. Incised valley fill deposits, {open_quote}forced regression{close_quote} deposits, and combination structure-stratigraphic traps are the predominant reservoir types. In an effort to extend our understanding of the development of these traps, the sequence stratigraphy of a regional seismic transact through the Apure-Llanos basin was simulated. From the Late Eocene through Oligocene, the Apure-Llanos basin was Characterized by multiple phases of compression and a southeast migrating depocenter. Sands of the Mirador and Carbonera formations, which onlap the Arauca Arch to the southeast, were shed from the Guyana craton and were Cannibalized from sediments along the deformation front to the northwest. These sands comprise the principal reservoirs in the study area. Shales of the Leon Formation, which act as a regional seal, were deposited during rapid flexural subsidence and eustatic sea level rise during the early Oligocene. The Arauca Arch acted as a focal mechanism for east and southeast migrating hydrocarbons. Simulation results predict an important stratigraphic pinchout of the Mirador Formation sands against the Arauca Arch, which correlates with the Arauca Reid in Colombia to the southwest. Also, modeling indicates that minimal Tertiary oil production In the La Victoria Field to the east is due to the lack of an adequate seal. Our results provide a conceptual model which predicts hydrocarbon reservoir and seal relationships in a foreland basin setting with limited data control.

  10. Application of sequence stratigraphy in an integrated reservoir characterization of the Miocene Lower Lagunillas member in the further development of blocks III/IV, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamero De Villarroel, H.; Coll, C.M.; Jimenez, Z.; Lozada, T.; Leon, K.; Brandt, R.; Padron, R.; Rondon, L.; Maraven, S.A.; Gomez, E.; Munoz, M.A.; Ripple, R.A.; Luneau, B.A.

    1996-08-01

    An integrated sequence stratigraphic framework has been developed for the Lower Lagunillas and Laguna members of the Miocene Lagunillas Formation at Blocks III/IV, Lake Maracaibo. These reservoirs were discovered in the 1950s and have produced over 1132 MMBO. The Lower Lagunillas and Laguna had traditionally been interpreted as delta plain and coastal bar deposits, with each member consisting of 3 reservoir subdivisions developed as single drainage units. Subsequent engineering studies showed that this geologic model did not adequately address the heterogeneity of the reservoirs. Sedimentological interpretation of 8 cored wells led to the development of a new model which was further enhanced by integrating 210 well logs, 3D seismic data, petrophysical analysis, and production and pressure data. In this model the basal Lower Lagunillas is interpreted as a fluvially dominated upper delta plain. The upper part of the Lower Lagunillas and Laguna represents deposition in a tidally dominated lower delta plain and delta front environment. Fluctuations between tides and river floods were responsible for generating thick, very heterogeneous reservoirs. The new reservoir model provides the basis for additional development by the identification of (1) recompletion intervals, (2) low resistivity pay zones as potential targets for horizontal wells, and (3) infill drilling targets. Use of this predictive reservoir model will ensure the optimal exploitation and recovery of the remaining oil at Blocks III/IV.

  11. ASEAN-IEA Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Policiesdeployment programs, Technology characterizations Resource Type Workshop, Training materials Country Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines, Vietnam,...

  12. OLADE-Latin American and Caribbean Energy Efficiency Seminar...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Panama, Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Barbados, Cuba, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica,...

  13. Energy-Economic Information System (SIEE) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Panama, Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Barbados, Cuba, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica,...

  14. OLADE Sustainable Energy Planning Manual | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Panama, Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Barbados, Cuba, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica,...

  15. Legal Energy Information System (SIEL) Database | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Panama, Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Barbados, Cuba, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica,...

  16. Today in Energy - Browse by Tag List - U.S. Energy Information...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Brazil Brent buildings CAB (Country Analysis Brief) CAFE standards CAISO California ... States uranium Utica utility utility cost venezuela Vermont Washington ...

  17. Red Sun Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Red Sun Energy Place: Long An Province, Vietnam Product: A Vietnam-based PV module manufacturer References: Red Sun Energy1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  18. Regional nonprofits receive sizeable monetary boost

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    deserved as a result of that war's widespread unpopularity at the time. "A lot of New Mexicans served in Vietnam," Hopwood noted. "The very first soldier who fell in Vietnam, Turk...

  19. Asian Development Outlook 2010 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, China, South Korea, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Laos, Vietnam,...

  20. UNEP-Risoe-Economics of GHG Limitations: Country Study Series...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Limitations1 Country study series: Argentina, Ecuador, Estonia, Hungary, Indonesia, Mauritius, Senegal, Vietnam Parallel country studies: Botswana, Tanzania, Zambia...

  1. GAO; Venezuelan reforms do little to spark oil investiment by U. S. firms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-03

    This paper reports that Venezuela's 1991 foreign investment reforms did little to encourage U.S. oil companies to invest there despite the overall investment attractiveness of the country's oil sector, says the U.S. General Accounting Office. In a report to Congress, GAO noted Venezuela's oil production peaked in 1970, declined through 1985, and since then has increased by about 21% through 1990. The primary factors affecting continued increases in production through 1996 include Petroleos de Venezuela SA's ability to encourage investment capital, the cost of producing and refining heavy and extra heavy crude oil., and the level of production quotas imposed by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, of which Venezuela is a member. GAO noted Venezuela implemented policy reforms in 1991 to encourage some foreign and private investment petroleum related ventures. However, these reforms have not yet succeeded in attracting U.S. investment in oil exploration, production, or refining in Venezuela.

  2. Accurate reservoir evaluation from borehole imaging techniques and thin bed log analysis: Case studies in shaly sands and complex lithologies in Lower Eocene Sands, Block III, Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coll, C.; Rondon, L.

    1996-08-01

    Computer-aided signal processing in combination with different types of quantitative log evaluation techniques is very useful for predicting reservoir quality in complex lithologies and will help to increase the confidence level to complete and produce a reservoir. The Lower Eocene Sands in Block III are one of the largest reservoirs in Block III and it has produced light oil since 1960. Analysis of Borehole Images shows the reservoir heterogeneity by the presence of massive sands with very few shale laminations and thinnly bedded sands with a lot of laminations. The effect of these shales is a low resistivity that has been interpreted in most of the cases as water bearing sands. A reduction of the porosity due to diagenetic processes has produced a high-resistivity behaviour. The presence of bed boundaries and shales is detected by the microconductivity curves of the Borehole Imaging Tools allowing the estimation of the percentage of shale on these sands. Interactive computer-aided analysis and various image processing techniques are used to aid in log interpretation for estimating formation properties. Integration between these results, core information and production data was used for evaluating producibility of the reservoirs and to predict reservoir quality. A new estimation of the net pay thickness using this new technique is presented with the consequent improvement on the expectation of additional recovery. This methodology was successfully applied in a case by case study showing consistency in the area.

  3. Andean Development Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bolivia Chile Colombia Costa Rica Dominican Republic Ecuador Jamaica Mexico Panama Paraguay Peru Spain Trinidad & Tobago Uruguay Venezuela and 14 private banks in the region....

  4. Gateway:Amrica Latina | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Haiti Haiti Honduras Honduras Mexico Mexico Nicaragua Nicaragua Panama Panama Paraguay Paraguay Peru Peru Republica Dominicana Dominican Republic Uruguay Uruguay Venezuela...

  5. BPA-2016-00085-FOIA Request

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Palo Alto Research Center Incorporated Delaware PARC China Holdings, Inc. Delaware Proyectos Inverdoco, C.A. Venezuela Smart Data Consulting Corp New York Stewart Business...

  6. U

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... AS - Australia; CN - Canada; CL - Colombia; ID - Indonesia; PL - Poland; RS - Russia; VZ - Venezuela; OT - Other. | || |INSTRUCTIONS continued|For Column 'f' Coal Mine County Code, ...

  7. U

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... AS - Australia; CN - Canada; CL - Colombia; ID - Indonesia; PL - Poland; RS - Russia; VZ - Venezuela; OT - Other. 4 U.S. Department of Energy Energy Information Administration Form ...

  8. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Iran Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela OPEC Total Non-crude Liquids Total OPEC Supply Unplanned OPEC Production Outages Indonesia Iran ...

  9. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Aruba (Fact Sheet); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Aruba, an autonomous member of the Kingdom of the Netherlands located off the coast of Venezuela.

  10. Ecofys-Country Fact Sheets | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Saudi Arabia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Venezuela UN Region: Northern America,...

  11. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Thousand Barrels)","Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) Imports by PADD of Processing from Venezuela of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Thousand Barrels)","Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) ...

  12. Nonproliferation | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    dispose of dangerous nuclear and radiological material, and detect and control the proliferation of related WMD technology and expertise. Vietnam Removal Working in close...

  13. BACKGROUND GLOBAL STEEL OVERCAPACITY and OIL COUNTRY TUBULAR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oil Country Tubular Goods (OCTG) producers filed anti- dumping cases against South Korea, India, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine and Vietnam. ...

  14. Analysis of Technology Transfer in CDM Projects | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    countries, including Bolivia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam and significantly lower...

  15. LEDSGP/about | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Democratic Republic of Congo Department of Science, Education, Natural Resources & Environment, Ministry of Planning and Investment of Vietnam European Commission German Agency...

  16. File:NREL-asia-tilt.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Countries Bhutan, China, Nepal, Mongolia, India, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Bangladesh UN Region Southern Asia, Eastern Asia,...

  17. File:NREL-asia-dir.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Countries Bhutan, China, Nepal, Mongolia, India, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Bangladesh UN Region Southern Asia, Eastern Asia,...

  18. File:NREL-asia-glo.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Countries Bhutan, China, Nepal, Mongolia, India, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Bangladesh UN Region Southern Asia, Eastern Asia,...

  19. Chile-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kenya, Mexico, South Africa, Thailand and Vietnam), to share practices on setting national greenhouse gas emissions baseline scenarios. The aim of the workstream is to...

  20. 27264_ESNet_HEP_NP_Cover_final3_102113

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... With ESnet's knowledge and experience, these local partnerships made possible the Eastern ... Russia, Saudi Arabia, Slovenia, Spain, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam. ...

  1. Development of Sea Level Rise Scenarios for Climate Change Assessments...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sea Level Rise Scenarios for Climate Change Assessments of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Development of Sea Level Rise...

  2. UNEP-Risoe-Economics of GHG Limitations: Country Study Series...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Econo References Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations1 Country study series: Argentina, Ecuador, Estonia, Hungary, Indonesia, Mauritius, Senegal, Vietnam Parallel country...

  3. Viet Nam Rural Electrification | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rural Electrification Location of project Vietnam Energy Services Lighting, Cooking and water heating, Space heating, Cooling Year initiated 2009 Organization Asian Development...

  4. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    with the largest drop seen in the Gulf Coast region. In addition, earlier in the storms history it reduced exports from Venezuela, and this was also reflected in the data for...

  5. Word Pro - Untitled1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Indonesia 10% Canada 9% Total 13.1 million short tons Canada 13% Colombia 73% Venezuela 6% Other 2% Indonesia 7% Colombia 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 ...

  6. RPT_PERIOD","R_S_NAME","LINE_NUM","PROD_CODE","PROD_NAME","PORT...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    OIL CO ",442,"EL DORADO","AR","ARKANSAS",3 41305,"ATLANTIC TRADING MARKETING ",1,215,"Jet Fuel, Kerosene-Type",4909,"SAN JUAN, PR","PUERTO RICO",6,940,"VENEZUELA...

  7. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Venezuela and a looming war in Iraq caused a sharp runup in prices. Tight gasoline fundamentals. Low stocks, strong demand (due in part to economic recovery), low imports (due to...

  8. EIA3

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... WY-Wyoming Countries: AU-Australia CL-Columbia CN-Canada IS-Indonesia MX-Mexico VZ-Venezuela OT-Other (please specify) "RANK OF COAL (D)" ANT-Anthracite BIT-Bituminous ...

  9. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    at the same time gasoline inventories were at a yearly low of only 199.0 million barrels. Labor strikes in Venezuela during late 2002 and severe winter weather were some of the...

  10. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of weekly crude oil imports are preliminary and thus not published, imports from Venezuela last week seem to have returned to normal levels for the first time since the week...

  11. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Data Begin to Reflect Venezuelan Impacts Since the beginning of the general strike in Venezuela, the fourth-largest source of U.S. oil imports, during the first week in December,...

  12. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to what is currently happening in the U.S. oil market following the disruption in Venezuela oil exports. U.S. Crude Oil Refinery Inputs and Commercial Inventory Levels Graph...

  13. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were in almost the same state as they are today. At that time, a disruption in Venezuela caused by an oil workers' strike caused crude oil imports to drop, which led to a...

  14. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    to average just 7.6 million barrels per day. Of course, this was due to the strike in Venezuela, which dramatically curtailed production beginning in December until it finally...

  15. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from the West Bank, it was a lively week for oil markets. A national strike in Venezuela, the fourth largest crude oil import source to the United States, led to the...

  16. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    crude oil stocks were this low was back in the first quarter of 2003 (following the Venezuela strike that drastically reduced their exports to the United States earlier in the...

  17. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiman, W.D.

    1987-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1986 was considerably reduced compared to 1985. Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Venezuela had increased oil production, with Colombia showing a dramatic 71% increase attributed mainly to bringing on-stream the pipeline connecting Occidental-Shell-Ecopetrol's Cano Limon complex to the port of Covenas. Significant discoveries were reported from Argentina in the Olmedo, Oran, and San Jorge basins; Brazil in the offshore Campos and Amazon basins; Colombia in the Llanos basin; Ecuador in the Oriente basin; Mexico in the Bay of Campeche; Peru in the Ucayali basin; and Venezuela in the Eastern Venezuela basin. Eastern Venezuela's Furrial discovery is reported to have recoverable reserves of more than 1 million bbl of oil, and Shell's Ucayali basin discovery is reported to hold more than 7 tcf of gas. 7 figures, 10 tables.

  18. Costs of Imported Crude Oil by Selected Country

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    OPEC Algeria Indonesia Mexico Nigeria Saudi Arabia United Kingdom Venezuela Other Countries Arab OPEC b Total OPEC c 1978 ... 14.12 13.61 13.24 14.05...

  19. Measuring the Costs of U.S. Oil Dependence and the Benefits of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    exporters operating as OPEC." Prof. M. Adelman, MIT, 2004. Algeria Angola Ecuador Iran Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia UAE Venezuela 0 20 40 60 80 100 120...

  20. Table 25. Landed Costs of Imported Crude Oil by Selected Country

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    OPEC Algeria Canada Indonesia Mexico Nigeria Saudi Arabia United Kingdom Venezuela Other Countries Arab OPEC a Total OPEC b 1978 ... 14.93 14.41 14.65...

  1. Future of Natural Gas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    273 TCF, 2013 - 308 TCF * CAN - 68 TCF, 2013 * Central & South America - 269, Venezuela 195 * Asia & Oceania - 521, China 141 * Africa - 515, Algeria 159 * Eurasia - 2,178, Russia ...

  2. Venezuelan oil field revival bids won

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-29

    This paper reports that four private sector companies or combines will operate inactive oil fields in Venezuela under state owned Petroleos de Venezuela's marginal field reactivation program. The award of operating contract to winning bidders marks the first time private companies will be allowed to produce crude oil in Venezuela since nationalization of the industry in 1976. Winning bidders have committed a total of $720 million in investments to the program during the 1990s. Current plans call for drilling 670 appraisals and development wells, conducting 250 workovers and well repairs, and conducting about 2,9000 line km of seismic surveys. Venezuela's energy ministry is targeting a production level of 90,000 b/d by the end of the decade from the reactivated fields.

  3. Assessment of science-related environmental issues among Venezuelan students, with comparison to United States Student Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campos-Arredondo, O.D.J.

    1985-01-01

    This study is a comparative investigation of the current level of understanding of science-related environmental issues of students in the United States and Venezuela. Major facets of the study include the following aspects. The principal science-related environmental issues included in environmental curriculum programs in the United States and Venezuela were identified from school curriculum-programs, dissertations, environmental studies of the National Association of Environmental Education in the United States, and the Memoria y Cuenta (Memoirs and Accounts) of the ministries of Education and Environment in Venezuela. The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) test items pertaining to science-related environmental issues administered to representative United States' students in 1981-1982, were subsequently translated and administered to comparable students in Venezuela, in 1984.

  4. Word Pro - S11

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Emirates Venezuela 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 May 2015 May 2016 Selected Non-OPEC Countries OPEC Countries Note: OPEC is the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting C ountries. Web Page:

  5. South America: everybody is drilling almost everywhere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-15

    A group of studies describes accomplishments in 1980 in South America drilling and producing. There may be 3285 wells drilled during 1980, with the majority in Venezuela, Argentina and Peru, compared with a 2934 total for all countries on the continent in 1979. Reserves at the end of 1979 in South America exceeded 27 billion bbl, and production averaged 3.8 million bpd. Individual country reports are given for Venezuela, Argentina, Brazil, Trinidad, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, Urauguay, and Guyana.

  6. Short Term Energy Outlook, February 2003

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook February 2003 Overview World Oil Markets. World oil markets will likely remain tight through most of 2003, as petroleum inventories and global spare production capacity continue to dwindle amid blasts of cold weather and constrained output from Venezuela. OPEC efforts to increase output to make up for lower Venezuela output has reduced global spare production capacity to only 2 million barrels per day, leaving little room to make up for unexpected supply or demand

  7. Pdvsa plans to hike productive capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-13

    This paper reports that Venezuela's state oil company plans to jump its productive capacity by 117,000 b/d to 2.92 million b/d this year. Petroleos de Venezuela also projects sizable increases for oil and gas reserves and plans record spending in 1992. Meantime, Pdvsa is sounding a warning again about the Venezuelan government's excessive tax take amid debate within the company about spending priorities.

  8. Design, Integration, Communication and Construction Engineering 2

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    1, 2016 QUESTIONS SUBMITTED BY DICCE2 INDUSTRY DAY ATTENDEES on 9/23/15 1. The sample task is Vietnam. Is either of the incumbent contractor's currently working there? Conflict? a. The Vietnam project is not a sample task, it is a real project that will be awarded as a Task Order. Neither incumbents are currently working in Vietnam under any NSDD contract. 2. If required to go to a High Risk site, will security and life support be a contractor responsibility? a. Each contractor makes a safety

  9. Design, Integration, Communication and Construction Engineering 2

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    8, 2016 QUESTIONS SUBMITTED AFTER DICCE2 REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL RELEASE DATE OF 2/1/2016 1. Section L Attachment L-7a Vietnam Statement of Work. Does each lane already have adequate electric to power proposed RPM equipment? If not which building should power be routed from? a. Response: This information is contained in the Vietnam Design Requirements Document, specifically section 3.1.4. 2. Section L Attachment L-7a Vietnam Statement of Work. Does each lane where the RPM units are being installed

  10. [pic] EERE Web Site Statistics - Lose Your Excuse

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Federation|52|0%| |25.|Spain|52|0%| |26.|Indonesia|52|0%| |27.|Thailand|52|0%| |28.|Vietnam|51|0%| |29.|Belgium|48|0%| |30.|France|47|0%| |31.|Philippines|46|0%| ...

  11. Patricia Hagerty, Aviation Program Analyst

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    United States. Pat has two bachelor's degrees from the University of Montana; she is a certified general aviation private pilot and a Vietnam Era Veteran of the U.S. Coast Guard.

  12. armed forces

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    organization that takes World War II, Korean War and Vietnam War veterans to the U.S. capital to see the memorials built in their honor at zero cost to the veteran.

  13. veterans

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    organization that takes World War II, Korean War and Vietnam War veterans to the U.S. capital to see the memorials built in their honor at zero cost to the veteran.

  14. TTW 11-9-06

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Dennis Hurtt U.S. Army 1964-1967 I wish all veterans a safe Veterans' Day on November 11 and ask everyone to remember Korea, Vietnam, Afghanistan and Iraq veterans and the ...

  15. Y-12s Training and Technology ? TAT and John Ray

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFB in North Carolina. He completed a tour of Vietnam during the war and a tour of Turkey, earning a bronze medal and the distinguished flying cross. During both tours we lived...

  16. NNSA Completes Fourth International Meeting on Next Generation Nuclear

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safeguards | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) NNSA Completes Fourth International Meeting on Next Generation Nuclear Safeguards July 12, 2012 HANOI, VIETNAM - The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), together with the Vietnam Agency for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, announced today the successful completion of the Fourth International Meeting on Next Generation Safeguards. Organized by NNSA's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative

  17. NREL: Technology Deployment - Developing Countries Demonstrate Impacts of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Emission Development Strategies Developing Countries Demonstrate Impacts of Low Emission Development Strategies News EC-LEDS Highlights Renewable Energy Resource Data at COP21 Vietnam Makes Strides to Lower Emissions Thru Green Building Code, High-Performance Buildings Colombia Makes Major Strides in Low Emission Development Payments for Forest Environmental Services in Vietnam Preserves Forests, Engages Communities Presidential Engagement on Low Emission Development Strategies in Gabon

  18. Attachment L-7a U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AM52-08NAXXXXX Task Order No: DT000XXXX Statement of Work August 7, 2015 Task Order Title: Design, Integration, Construction, Communications, and Engineering (DICCE) Services for Port of Cat Lai, Vietnam. Scope: The Contractor shall design, construct, and integrate fully functional portal monitor and communications systems at designated sites in Vietnam.  Port of Cat Lai Requirements Documents: The following task order requirements describe key milestones and deliverables. For a more complete

  19. Attachment L-7c

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    c [Type here] VIETNAM MOBILIZATION PLAN DE-SOL-0008449 1.0 INTRODUCTION Based on the information presented below, the Statement of Work requirements relating to in- country deployments, and the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) provided in Table 1, the Offeror shall develop a mobilization plan that describes its approach to a comprehensive Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence (NSDD) deployment involving Port of Cat Lai seaport in Vietnam. 2.0 REQUIREMENTS The Offeror shall provide a plan for

  20. DE-SOL-0008449 Attachment L-7c

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    DE-SOL-0008449 Attachment L-7c [Type here] VIETNAM MOBILIZATION PLAN DE-SOL-0008449 1.0 INTRODUCTION Based on the information presented below, the Statement of Work requirements relating to in- country deployments, and the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) provided in Table 1, the Offeror shall develop a mobilization plan that describes its approach to a comprehensive Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence (NSDD) deployment involving Port of Cat Lai seaport in Vietnam. 2.0 REQUIREMENTS The

  1. TASK ORDER

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NA0000XXX Task Order No: DE-DT000XXXX Statement of Work August 7, 2015 Task Order Title: Design, Integration, Construction, Communications, and Engineering (DICCE) Services for Port of Cat Lai, Vietnam. Scope: The Contractor shall design, construct, and integrate fully functional portal monitor and communications systems at designated sites in Vietnam. * Port of Cat Lai Requirements Documents: The following task order requirements describe key milestones and deliverables. For a more complete

  2. Oil and gas developments in South Africa, Central America, Caribbean Area, and Mexico in 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tappmeyer, D.M.

    1985-10-01

    For the 25 countries described in the region, exploration activity continued to be centered in proven petroleum provinces in 1984. Exploration activity increased in Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela. Important, successful exploration efforts continued in areas around Cano Limon field in Colombia, and Guafita and La Victoria fields in Venezuela. Notable discoveries in South America included the 42-46-1X San Martin Cretaceous discovery by Shell in the Ucayali basin in Peru, the significant oil and gas discovery at Palmar Largo ES-1 by YPF in Argentina, and the first offshore gas discovery, the Pecten 1-SPS-20 wildcat in the Santo basin in Brazil. Oil production increased in Barbados, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. A notable increase (40%) in oil production occurred in Brazil. Gas production increased in Argentina, Barbados, Colombia, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago. 8 figures, 8 tables.

  3. Recent hydrocarbon developments in Latin America: Key issues in the downstream oil sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, K.; Pezeshki, S.

    1995-03-01

    This report discusses the following: (1) An overview of major issues in the downstream oil sector, including oil demand and product export availability, the changing product consumption pattern, and refineries being due for major investment; (2) Recent upstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela; (3) Recent downstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Cuba, and Venezuela; (4) Pipelines in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico; and (5) Regional energy balance. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Upgrading Orinoco belt heavy oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alcantara, J.; Castillo, O.

    1982-09-01

    The Orinoco Heavy Oil Belt of Venezuela is a subsurface geological formation of petroleum-bearing sands that is approximately 700 km long and between 60 and 80 km wide. The results of recent explorations have shown the area to contain over one trillion barrels of oil in-place, ranging from 8/sup 0/ API to 14/sup 0/ APE gravity. In an effort to develop these resources, Petroleos de Venezuela has undertaken a program to evaluate and develop this heavy oil belt. The objectives of this program are discussed along with the process technology selection, pilot plants, and environmental protection measures. (JMT)

  5. Upgrading Orinoco Belt heavy oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aliantara, J.; Castillo, O.

    1982-05-01

    Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA), in an effort to develop new oil resources, has undertaken a program to evaluate and develop the Orinoco Heavy Oil Belt, in the eastern part of Venezuela. Lagoven, S.A., a subsidiary of PDVSA, has been assigned the responsibility for developing and upgrading part of the Orinoco belt. This paper describes the most relevant aspects of Lagoven's first upgrading module, a facility that will convert Orinoco oil into a premium crude with a very high yield of products of great market demand.

  6. Pdvsa maps ambitious Venezuelan oil plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-14

    Venezuela's national oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela SA (Pdvsa), is moving ahead with an ambitious investment program designed to substantially expand its activities in oil and gas exploration and production, refining, petrochemicals, and coal in the 1990s. The company, which has stakes in refining and marketing companies in the U.S., Europe, and the Caribbean, also is seeking new investment opportunities in U.S. and European markets as well as in the Far East. Pdvsa officials expect the company by 2000 to have developed a much stronger presence in the global energy market.

  7. Word Pro - Untitled1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Non-OPEC OPEC Persian Gulf 0 60 120 180 240 300 360 Billion Dollars Nations 72.5 47.1 40.6 32.6 31.7 14.5 7.4 2.3 1.6 Canada Saudi Arabia Mexico Nigeria Venezuela Colombia ...

  8. F.O.B. Costs of Imported Crude Oil by Area

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mexico 36.16 30.12 24.12 24.50 28.96 30.53 1975-2016 Nigeria W W 37.83 W W 1973-2016 Saudi Arabia 39.87 34.75 26.24 27.46 34.21 37.11 1973-2016 United Kingdom 1977-2013 Venezuela ...

  9. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Curacao; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Curacao, an autonomous member of the Kingdom of the Netherlands located off the coast of Venezuela. Curacao’s utility rates are approximately $0.26 per kilowatt-hour (kWh), below the Caribbean regional average of $0.33/kWh.

  10. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Trinidad and Tobago; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-05-20

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island nation located off the coast of Venezuela. Trinidad and Tobago’s electricity rates are some of the lowest in the Caribbean at approximately $0.04 per kilowatt-hour (kWh), well below the regional average of $0.33/kWh.

  11. Oil discoveries and basin resource prediction in Latin America: Past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kronman, G.E.; Aleman, A.M.; Rushworth, S.W. )

    1993-02-01

    Over 350 oil discoveries were made in Latin America during the 1980s. About 12% are estimated to contain reserves greater than 100 MMBO. Several of the larger finds (>500 MMBO), such as Cusiana (Colombia), Furrial/Musipan (Venezuela), Cano Lima (Colombia) and Marlim (Brazil) represent an important part of the giant field found worldwide since 1980. Most of the larger discoveries were made by national oil companies in Venezuela, Mexico and Brazil. Undiscovered oil resources of 40-80 BBO are estimated to remain in the highest potential Latin American basins, including those in Mexico, based on historical field size data and current geological knowledge. Over 150 BBO of produced oil and proven reserves has been found in the same group of basins. The probability of finding large undiscovered oil and gas fields (>100 MMBOE) in selected established and mature Latin American basins is high. The Campos (Brazil), Llanos (Colombia), Magadalena (Colombia), Maracaibo (Venezuela), Marahon-Oriente-Putomayo (Peru-Ecuador-Colombia), Maturin (Venezuela), Reforma-Campeche (Mexico) and Ucayali (Peru) basins have the best possibility for such accumulations. Another tier of frontier and emerging basins may also contain significant resources, but limited data makes it difficult to estimate their undiscovered resources. Some of the higher potential basins in this group include the Sierra de Chiapas (Mexico/Guatemala), Huallaga (Peru), Yucatan (Mexico), Sabinas, and Burgos (Mexico) basins.

  12. Fact #733: June 25, 2012 World's Top Petroleum-Producing Countries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Iran 4.2 China 4.1 Canada 3.6 United Arab Emirates 3.1 Mexico 2.9 Kuwait 2.7 Brazil 2.6 Iraq 2.6 Nigeria 2.5 Venezuela 2.5 Norway 2.0 Algeria 1.9 Angola 1.8 Kazakhstan 1.6 Qatar ...

  13. The Pathway to Energy Security

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Canada 2.04 (16.4%) US Domestic 7.38 Venezuela 1.54 (12.4%) Mexico 1.56 (12.5%) Other OPEC 0.78 (6.3%) Iraq 0.77 (6.2%) Nigeria 1.07 (8.6%) Other Non-OPEC 3.0 (24.1%) Saudi Arabia ...

  14. CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duke, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Introduction; Kenya; Korea (Republic of); Lesotho; Liberia; Malagasy; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mexico, Mozambique, Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Panama; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Sudana; Surinam; Swaziland; Tanzania; Thailand; Togo; Uganda; Uruguay; Venezuela; Zaire; Zambia; Appendix I. Conventional and Energetic Yields; Appendix II, Phytomass Files; and References.

  15. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Emirates 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Venezuela 1,042 0 0 0 0 0 0 Non OPEC 38,164 55 4,512 0 0 94 94 Angola 950 0 0 0 0 0 0 Argentina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Aruba 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Australia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0...

  16. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Emirates 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Venezuela 1,098 0 0 0 0 0 0 Non OPEC 36,529 43 2,659 0 0 22 22 Angola 479 0 0 0 0 0 0 Argentina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Aruba 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Australia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0...

  17. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 0 0 0 0 Venezuela 33,726 267 595 724 0 0 0 Non OPEC 76,663 0 1,458 10,669 0 710 710 Angola 7,241 0 0 300 0 0 0 Argentina 0 0 91 0 0 3 3 Aruba 0 0 0 2,659 0 0 0 Australia 0 0 0 0...

  18. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 0 0 0 0 Venezuela 25,725 276 0 993 0 0 0 Non OPEC 59,194 322 2,858 14,288 60 540 600 Angola 5,113 0 0 374 0 0 0 Argentina 0 0 0 21 0 0 0 Aruba 0 0 0 1,846 0 0 0 Australia 0 0 0 0...

  19. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Venezuela 10,326 0 0 0 0 0 0 Non OPEC 319,072 328 25,168 627 0 316 316 Angola 12,287 0 0 0 0 0 0 Argentina 150 0 0 0 0 0 0 Aruba 0 0 0 294 0 0 0 Australia 314 0 0 0...

  20. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Venezuela 5,359 0 57 0 905 708 1,613 Non OPEC 24,214 0 822 2,623 7,716 8,966 16,682 Angola 6,120 0 0 0 0 0 0 Argentina 0 0 0 181 0 0 0 Aruba 0 0 0 882 0 0 0 Australia 0 0 0 0 0...

  1. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Venezuela 13,880 0 0 0 0 0 0 Non OPEC 435,408 483 39,774 627 0 877 877 Angola 14,731 0 0 0 0 0 0 Argentina 150 0 0 0 0 0 0 Aruba 0 0 0 294 0 0 0 Australia 314 0 0 0...

  2. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Venezuela 13,730 0 0 0 0 0 0 Non OPEC 428,008 483 36,692 627 0 877 877 Angola 14,726 0 0 0 0 0 0 Argentina 150 0 0 0 0 0 0 Aruba 0 0 0 294 0 0 0 Australia 314 0 0 0...

  3. Review of South American mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    A general overview is presented of the mining activity and plans for South America. The countries which are presented are Columbia, Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, Chile, Peru, and Bolivia. The products of the mines include coal, bauxite, gold, iron, uranium, copper and numerous other minor materials. A discussion of current production, support and processing facilities, and mining strategies is also given.

  4. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Bonaire; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Bonaire, a special municipality of the Kingdom of the Netherlands located off the coast of Venezuela. Bonaire’s utility rates are approximately $0.35 per kilowatt-hour (kWh), above the Caribbean regional average of $0.33/kWh.

  5. SOPAC marine geology atlases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, T.E.; Seekins, B.A.; Young, J.D.; Wahler, J.A.

    1986-07-01

    The US Geological Survey conducted a series of marine geologic and geophysical cruises in the southwest Pacific Ocean in 1982 and 1984 as part of a program with participation by Australia and New Zealand. These two SOPAC expeditions obtained various data, which have been compiled into a series of charts and thematic products for the offshore areas of Tonga, Fiji, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, and Papua New Guinea. The maps and charts presently being compiled or revised combine previously collected data with information from the SOPAC expeditions. Regional charts at a scale of approximately 1:3 million are included, and more detailed coverage is available at 1:1 million. Additional geologic information-such as gravity, magnetics, and possibly sediment isopachs-is provided on overlays to the topographic base charts. Reproductions of the seismic reflection data are also included, and tracklines with both time marks and shotpoints will permit correlation with the analog and digital seismic records.

  6. First joint SPE/DOE symposium on enhanced oil recovery, proceedings supplement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-01-01

    The First Joint Symposium on Enhanced Oil Recovery sponsored by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and the US Department of Energy was held in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Besides the thirty-three technical papers which covered all phases of enhanced oil recovery and were published in the Proceedings, the Symposium included a session on Enhanced Oil Recovery Incentives where ten papers were presented which discussed the status of enhanced oil recovery technology, and included papers on incentive programs of the United States, Canada and Venezuela. These papers are published in this Proceedings Supplement under the following titles: Federal Government Role in enhanced Oil Recovery; Financial Realities of an Adequate Petroleum Supply; Major Technology Constraints in Enhanced Oil Recovery; Decontrol-Opportunities and Dangers; Status of EOR Technology; Impact of Federal Incentives on US Production; Canadian Incentives Program; and Heavy Oil Incentives in Venezuela.

  7. Estimations and prospects of secondary recovery through conventional gas and waterflooding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Araujo, J.B.

    1981-03-01

    Conventional waterflooding and/or gas injection have been used extensively for the production of additional hydrocarbons, preferably in light and medium oil reservoirs, and in a lesser extent in heavy oil reservoirs. There are 182 active projects of secondary recovery distributed in Venezuela as follows: 113 projects of gas injection, 64 of waterflooding, and 5 projects of simultaneous injection of gas and water. The daily production by using these methods is 800,000 bpd (40% of national production), and it is expected that 6,000 million bbl of additional oil will be recovered. An objective estimation of the active projects of gas injection and/or waterflooding performed at the present in Venezuela is presented based on statistical data and relevant results. The future prospects also are predicted and quantified.

  8. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3b : Non-OPEC Petroleum and Other Liquids Supply (Million Barrels per Day) Either scripts and active content are not permitted to run or Adobe Flash Player version ${version_major}.${version_minor}.${version_revision} or greater is not installed. Get Adobe Flash Player - = no data available OPEC = Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries: Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Venezuela. Notes: The

  9. Slide 1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A New Americas? 2013 EIA Energy Conference Ivan Sandrea Partner, Global Oil and Gas Emerging Markets June 17-18, JW Marriott, Washington DC A New Americas? Page 2 The New Americas (excluding USA, Canada) Points for Discussion Latin America post Chavez? Can Mexico deliver on reforms? Can state NOCs in Brazil, Venezuela and Mexico deliver on mega projects? Can emergent energy trends, such as rising LNG imports, petroleum product demand growth and deteriorating refining sector, be reversed? What is

  10. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Country: All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Indonesia Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Albania Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burma Cameroon Canada Chad Chile China Colombia Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Cook Islands Costa Rica Croatia Curacao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Egypt

  11. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Country: All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Indonesia Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Albania Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burma Cameroon Canada Chad Chile China Colombia Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Cook Islands Costa Rica Croatia Curacao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Egypt

  12. Total Net Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products into the U.S.

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Country: Total All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Indonesia Iran Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Afghanistan Albania Andora Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cayman Islands Chad Chile China Cocos

  13. U.S. Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Import Area: U.S. Period/Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Country: All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Indonesia Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Albania Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burma Cameroon Canada Chad Chile

  14. Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study | Grid Modernization | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Import Area: East Coast (PADD 1) Midwest (PADD 2) Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) West Coast (PADD 5) Period/Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Country: All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Indonesia Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Albania Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Bosnia

  15. South America: Growth in E and P opportunities keeps accelerating. [Oil and gas exploration and development in South America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This paper reviews and summarizes the oil and gas developments in Columbia, Argentina, Venezuela, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and other South American oil and gas producing countries during 1992 through 1993 and forecasts the future developments. The expanding exploration in these areas has resulted from the major new oil finds and the need for local countries to help stabilize their currency. The paper discusses exploration and drilling activity, production, and financial expenditures made on developing this regions reserves.

  16. Good prospects overcome domestic politics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the South American gas and oil industries. Opening ever wider to private investment, the continent is attracting a flood of foreign and local firms, pushing drilling and production rates still higher. This is despite a rash of political problems in many countries, including guerrillas, environmentalists, crooked officials and border disputes. Separate evaluations are given for Venezuela, Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Chile, and briefly for Falkland Islands, Paraguay, Suriname, and Barbados.

  17. South America: Investment target of the world

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    The paper discusses investment in the oil and gas industries of South America. For Venezuela, first-round profit sharing, marginal field agreements, and drilling and production activities are described. Exploration, resource development, and production are also described for Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, Trinidad and Tobago, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Uruguay, and the Falkland Islands. Political problems in Ecuador, licensing in Trinidad and Tobago, and the privatization of Petroperu are also mentioned.

  18. South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deal, C.

    1981-10-01

    Summaries of oil and gas drillings, well completions, production, exploratory wells, exploration activity and wildcat drilling were given for South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico. The countries, islands, etc. included Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward and Windward Islands, Mexico, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador, Surinam, Trinidad and Venezuela. 16 figures, 120 tables. (DP)

  19. East Coast (PADD 1) Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Import Area: East Coast (PADD 1) Midwest (PADD 2) Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) West Coast (PADD 5) Period/Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Country: All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Indonesia Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Albania Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Bosnia

  20. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Venezuela 1,902 0 0 374 240 942 1,182 Non OPEC 19,630 0 2,479 1,958 5,736 8,371 14,107 Angola 4,219 0 0 0 0 0 0 Argentina 0 0 0 0 0 162 162 Aruba 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Australia 0 0 0 0 0...

  1. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Quantity and Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports by Origin, 2010 - 2016" "(short tons and dollars per short ton)" "Year and Quarter","Australia","Canada","Colombia","Indonesia","China","Venezuela","Other","Total" ,,,,,,,"Countries" 2010,380404,1766896,14583950,1904040,52869,581700,82828,19352687 2011,61745,1680490,9500387,856038,22128,778887,187931,13087606

  2. Use of multiphase pumps in heavy and extra heavy oil production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, R.; Guevara, E.M.; Colmenares, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    The main results of a technical and economical feasibility study carried out to analyze the application of multiphase flow technologies in the production of heavy and extra heavy crudes from the Arecuna Field of Corpoven, S.A. in the Orinoco Belt, Venezuela, are presented. It was found that flow stations based on multiphase technologies such as multiphase pumping and metering were the most adequate both technically and economically.

  3. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery - EOR thermal processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Eighth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section.

  4. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiman, W.D.

    1988-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987 showed significant increases in seismic acquisition in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru, and a decrease in Chile and Venezuela. Exploratory drilling increased in most major producing countries but was accompanied by a decline in development drilling. Most of the increase could be attributed to private companies fulfilling obligations under risk contracts; however, state oil companies in Bolivia, Chile, and Colombia showed significant increased activity, with only Mexico showing a decrease. Colombia again had a dramatic increase in production (29% from 1986). Noteworthy discoveries were made in Bolivia (Villamontes-1); Brazil, in the Solimoes basin (1-RUC-1-AM); Chile (Rio Honda-1); Colombia, in the Llanos basin (Austral-1, La Reforma-1, Libertad Norte-1, Cravo Este-1, and Cano Yarumal-1), in the Upper Magdalena basin (Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1); Ecuador (Frontera-1, a joint-exploration venture with Colombia); Mexico, in the Chiapas-Tabasco region (Guacho-1 and Iridi-1), in the Frontera Norte area (Huatempo-1); Peru, in the Madre de Dios basin (Armihuari-4X); Trinidad (West East Queen's Beach-1); and Venezuela (Musipan-1X). Brazil's upper Amazon (Solimoes basin) discovery, Colombia's Upper Magdalena basin discoveries Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1, Mexico's Chiapas-Tabasco discoveries, Peru's confirmation of the giant Cashiriari discovery of 1986, and Venezuela's success in Monagas state were the highlights of 1987. 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. The La Pica Formation-new ideas and more questions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linares, Luz M.

    1996-08-01

    The La Pica Formation has been producing from the beginning of the century in the fields of the Santa Barbara-Jusepin trend and Pedernales field. These fields are located in the Eastern Venezuela Basin, one of the most prolific oil basins in Venezuela. The accumulative oil produced until now in Lagoven, S.A., area is 225,556 million barrels. The type of crude produced is ranging from light to heavy. The interval producing in the fields mentioned before measures in between 1000 and 3000 in. The La Pica formation is present in all of the Eastern Venezuela Basin and continues to be an important target for oil producing. In recent years, this formation has been drilled by several wells located in different areas apart from the traditional fields. These wells had provided new information which in some cases clarified some of the questions about the environment of deposition, geochemical composition age, reservoir quality and trap style. However, these wells also have raised new questions and La Pica Formation still has a number of problems. The La Pica Formation was deposited during the Late Miocene-Pliocene time, in continental to outer neritic environments. The sediments range from silts to fine sands with some shaly intervals. The first accumulations were discovered in pinchouts against highs. However, in recent seismic lines, La Pica Formation shows possible different style of traps for hydrocarbon that could contain commercial accumulations.

  6. Venezuelan oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, A.R. )

    1989-01-01

    Oil reserves have been known to exist in Venezuela since early historical records, however, it was not until the 20th century that the extensive search for new reserves began. The 1950's marked the height of oil exploration when 200 new oil fields were discovered, as well as over 60{percent} of proven reserves. Venezuela now produces one tone in seven of crude oil consumption and the country's abundant reserves such as the Bolivar Coastal field in the West of the country and the Orinoco Belt field in the East, will ensure it's continuing importance as an oil producer well into the 21st century. This book charts the historical development of Venezuela oil and provides a chronology of all the significant events which have shaped the oil industry of today. It covers all the technical, legal, economic and political factors which have contributed to the evolution of the industry and also gives information on current oil resources and production. Those events significant to the development of the industry, those which were influential in shaping future policy and those which precipitated further action are included. The book provides a source of reference to oil companies, oil economists and petroleum geologists.

  7. Oil and gas developments in New Zealand and southwest Pacific islands in 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, H.R.; Herzer, R.H.

    1986-10-01

    In New Zealand, a moratorium on petroleum exploration licensing was in effect throughout 1985. Seismic surveying activity was greatly reduced, with 960 km shot offshore and 780 km shot onshore. Drilling continued at a high rate, with 25 wells drilled, 5 offshore and 20 onshore. Total meterage exceeded 41,000 m. Although there were good indications of hydrocarbons, no major discoveries were made. At the end of 1985, the government lifted the licensing moratorium with the announcement of an offer of 50 blocks in the offshore Taranaki basin. Total petroleum production figures for New Zealand were 3802 million m/sup 3/ of gas, 1095 thousand m/sup 3/ of condensate, and 452 thousand m/sup 3/ of oil. The entire production is from fields in the Taranaki basin. In 1985, production of synthetic gasoline began at the Motunui synfuels plant using Maui and Kapuni gas and condensate as feedstock. Tonga introduced new petroleum legislation and is offering license blocks for exploration. No activity was reported from Fiji, Vanuatu, and Solomon Islands. License holdings in Papua New Guinea increased 78.3% to 16 petroleum prospecting licenses with a total of 1894 blocks. Seismic surveys amounts to 1500 km on land and 500 km offshore in 1985, after virtually no seismic in 1984. Drilling was up 23.9%. 3 figures, 6 tables.

  8. Mineral industries of Australia, Canada, and Oceania (including a discussion of Antarctica's mineral resources). Mineral perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimbell, C.L.; Lyday, T.Q.; Newman, H.H.

    1985-12-01

    The Bureau of Mines report gives the mineral industry highlights of two of the world's major mineral producing countries, Australia and Canada, and seven Pacific island nations or territories--Fiji, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Republic of Nauru, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. The mineral resources of Antarctica are also discussed. Because of the size of the Australian and Canadian mineral industries, summary reviews are presented for each of the States, Provinces, or Territories. The most current information available from all nations is given on major minerals or mineral-commodity production, share of world production, and reserves. Reported also are significant mining companies, locations and capacities of their main facilities, and their share of domestic production. Other information is provided on mineral-related trade with the United States, government mineral policy, energy production-consumption and trade, the mining industry labor force, and prospects for the mineral industry. Maps show the locations of selected mineral deposits, oilfields and gasfields, mines, and processing facilities including iron and steel plants, nonferrous smelters and refineries, and cement plants, as well as infrastructure pertinent to the mineral industry.

  9. Voluntary Self-Identification of Veterans

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Voluntary Self-Identification of Veterans This employer is a Government contractor subject to the Vietnam Era Veterans' Readjustment Assistance Act of 1974, as amended, 38 U.S.C. 4212 (VEVRAA), which requires Government contractors to take affirmative action to employ and advance in employment: (1) disabled veterans; (2) recently separated veterans; (3) active duty wartime or campaign badge veterans; and (4) Armed Forces service medal veterans. These classifications are defined as follows:

  10. Meeting today's challenges to supply tomorrow's energy. Clean fossil energy technical and policy seminar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-07-01

    Papers discussed the coal policy of China, Russia, Indonesia and Vietnam; clean coal technology (small-scale coal power plants, carbon capture and sequestration, new coking process SCOPE21, coal gasification (HyPr-RING), CO{sub 2} reduction technology, Supercritical coal-fired units and CFB boilers, EAGLE project, coal liquefaction), the coal consumer's view of clean fossil energy policy, and natural gas policy and technology. Some of the papers only consist of the presentation overheads/viewgraphs.

  11. Table 5.7 Petroleum Net Imports by Country of Origin, 1960-2011

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Net Imports by Country of Origin, 1960-2011 Year Persian Gulf 2 Selected OPEC 1 Countries Selected Non-OPEC 1 Countries Total Net Imports Total Net Imports as Share of Consumption 5 Net Imports From OPEC 1 Algeria Nigeria Saudi Arabia 3 Venezuela Total OPEC 4 Canada Mexico United Kingdom Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico Total Non-OPEC 4 Share of Total Net Imports 6 Share of Consumption 7 Thousand Barrels Percent 1960 NA [8] [9] 30,786 333,046 450,799 31,454 -620 -4,267 12,553 139,406

  12. Word Pro - Untitled1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Table 5.7 Petroleum Net Imports by Country of Origin, Selected Years, 1960-2011 Year Persian Gulf 2 Selected OPEC 1 Countries Selected Non-OPEC 1 Countries Total Net Imports Total Net Imports as Share of Consumption 5 Net Imports From OPEC 1 Algeria Nigeria Saudi Arabia 3 Venezuela Total OPEC 4 Canada Mexico United Kingdom U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico Total Non-OPEC 4 Share of Total Net Imports 6 Share of Consumption 7 Thousand Barrels per Day Percent 1960 NA 8 ( ) 9 ( ) 84 910 1,232 86

  13. Simultaneous determination of thorium, niobium, lead, and zinc by photon-induced x-ray fluorescence of lateritic material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaBrecque, J.J.; Adames, D.; Parker, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    A rapid method is presented for the simultaneous determinations of thorium, niobium, lead, and zinc in lateritic material from Cerro Impacto, Estado Bolivar, Venezuela. This technique uses a PDP - 11/05 processor - based photon induced x-ray fluorescence system. The total variations of approximately 5% for concentrations of approximately 1 and 10% for concentrations of approximately 0.1% were obtained with only 500 s of fluorescent time. The values obtained by this method were in agreement with values measured by conventional flame atomic absorption spectroscopy for lead and zinc. The values for thorium measured were in agreement with the reported values for the reference materials supplied by NBL.

  14. Fact #569: May 4, 2009 Gasoline Prices Around the World | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 9: May 4, 2009 Gasoline Prices Around the World Fact #569: May 4, 2009 Gasoline Prices Around the World A survey of worldwide gasoline prices for February and March, 2009, shows that European countries had the highest prices for gasoline with the Netherlands topping the list at $6.25 per gallon. The price for gasoline in the United States was about one third as much as northern European nations. Petroleum producing nations with government-controlled pricing such as Venezuela and Iran

  15. Fact #664: February 28, 2011 2010 U.S. Petroleum Imports by Country |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 4: February 28, 2011 2010 U.S. Petroleum Imports by Country Fact #664: February 28, 2011 2010 U.S. Petroleum Imports by Country The U.S. imported almost 12 million barrels per day in 2010, according to data for the first ten months of the year. Canada, Mexico and other non-OPEC countries are the top three places from which the U.S. imported petroleum. Saudi Arabia, Nigeria, and Venezuela - which are all OPEC nations - each provided the U.S. with about one million barrels

  16. the Large Aperture GRB Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertou, Xavier

    2009-04-30

    The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) aims at the detection of high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) using the single particle technique (SPT) in ground based water Cherenkov detectors (WCD). To reach a reasonable sensitivity, high altitude mountain sites have been selected in Mexico (Sierra Negra, 4550 m a.s.l.), Bolivia (Chacaltaya, 5300 m a.s.l.) and Venezuela (Merida, 4765 m a.s.l.). We report on the project progresses and the first operation at high altitude, search for bursts in 6 months of preliminary data, as well as search for signal at ground level when satellites report a burst.

  17. TABLE22.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2. PAD District I-Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, a January 1998 Arab OPEC ................................... 6,171 845 0 115 625 0 0 824 0 0 Algeria ....................................... 0 845 0 115 0 0 0 824 0 0 Saudi Arabia .............................. 6,171 0 0 0 625 0 0 0 0 0 Other OPEC .................................. 13,975 0 280 588 1,644 776 715 2,024 3 0 Nigeria ....................................... 8,825 0 0 0 0 0 0 166 0 0 Venezuela

  18. TABLE23.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3. PAD District II-Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, a January 1998 Arab OPEC ................................... 6,219 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Kuwait ....................................... 1,253 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Saudi Arabia ............................. 4,966 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Other OPEC .................................. 4,136 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Nigeria ...................................... 540 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Venezuela ................................. 3,596 0 0

  19. South America: Producers brace for hard times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    The outlook for South American petroleum development is the topic of this review. Observations include: Brazil confirms giant discovery, continues drive for deepwater production; Eastern Llanos fields propel Colombia into ranks of oil-exporting nations; Venezuela's PdVSA revamps, goes overseas in search of downstream integration; Production downturn in Argentina while YPF staggers under debt load, mismanagement; Peru renegotiates contracts, nationalizes one operator and asks others to join search; Sharp drilling decline in Trinidad, but production rises because of tax incentives; Ecuador breaks with Opec, adopts wide-open production strategy, flexible prices; Drilling, oil output increase in Bolivia, government moves to rein in YPFB.

  20. Infrastructure opportunities in South America: Energy sector. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    The report, conducted by CG/LA, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report was assembled for the South American Infrastructure Conference held in New Orleans. It contains a regional overview of infrastructure activities in ten countries represented at the conference. Also covered are project listings in five sectors, including Energy, Transportation, Environment, Telecommunications, and Industry. The study covers TDA case studies as well as project financeability. The ten countries covered in the report include the following: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. This volume focuses on the Energy Sector in South America.

  1. Closer look at our neighbors to the south: Air quality trends, standards, and monitoring programs of Latin American countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childers, L.O.; Medina-Vera, M.; Mitchell, W.J.

    1997-09-01

    The Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS/Air) is a program in which air monitoring data from over 50 countries throughout the world are collected and analyzed. The GEMS/Air program is sponsored by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and the World Health Organization (WHO). As part of a technical systems agreement between the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the UNEP/WHO, collaborative reviews of eighteen Latin American cities were conducted over the past two years. The countries visited include Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, and Venezuela. The findings of these reviews and the future direction of air pollution monitoring programs in these countries are presented.

  2. U.S. Nuclear Deterrent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy U.S. Hydropower Potential from Existing Non-powered Dams U.S. Hydropower Potential from Existing Non-powered Dams U.S. Hydropower Potential from Existing Non-powered Dams

    Import Area: U.S. Period/Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Country: All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Indonesia Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Albania

  3. Recovery and upgrading of heavy oil analyzed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fornoff, L.L.; Van Driesen, R.P.; Viens, C.H.

    1980-10-13

    An analysis has been made of recovery and upgrading of Venezuelan heavy crudes by integrating steam-drive production data with an upgraded computer processing program. A study used 110 computer cases to analyze a project using Venezuelan heavy crude from the Jobo field with gravity of 9.2 API and 4.1% by wt sulfur for the base case. Sensitivity cases used 12.2 API oil from the Lot 9 field, Monagas state, Venezuela, with sulfur content of 2.3%. Four upgrading methods were studied (deasphalting, delayed coking, flexicoking, and LC-fining), all with favorable resulting economics.

  4. Short Term Energy Outlook, December 2002

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    December 2002 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook December 2002 Overview World Oil Markets: Average crude oil prices fell by about $2.50 per barrel between October and November in response to continued high production levels from OPEC 10 countries (Figure 1). However, by the end of November oil prices had risen to end-October levels as concerns over the situations in Iraq and Venezuela pushed prices up. Oil inventories, which are currently in the lower portion of the previous 5-year range, are poised to

  5. Short Term Energy Outlook, January 2003

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 1 Short-Term Energy Outlook January 2003 Overview World Oil Markets. The oil market is vulnerable to a number of forces that could cause substantial price volatility over the coming months. The combination of a sustained loss of most of Venezuela's exports, risk of increased tensions in the Middle East and low oil inventories could cause oil prices to spike at least temporarily above our base case. The average West Texas Intermediate (WTI) price, which stood at $27.27 per barrel on December 2,

  6. HDH{trademark} commercial application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marzin, R.; Solari, B.; Duque, J.

    1995-12-31

    Venezuela has approximately 28% of the world reserves of heavy crude oil and natural bitumen. The amount of future recoverable oil reserves is estimated to be 44 GM{sup 3}. The Venezuelan oil industry is now facing the challenge of introducing this cheap source of energy into a fuel market that has grown in environmentally restrictive legislation affecting the refining industry. This challenge calls for the use of the right type of resid upgrading technology, that both will improve its environmental performance and ensure its economic and financial viability. This paper describes two technologies to reduce high sulfur fuel oil production while incorporating more heavy crude into refineries.

  7. Setting a new course

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyle, D.

    1999-11-01

    Venezuela and Brazil promise enormous rewards for international oil and gas companies that help them realize their production goals--but risk partially offsets the potential rewards, and neither nation is giving anything away. Oil and gas companies are trying to squeeze every concession they can get from these countries. And the countries are trying to give away as little as possible while still reaching their goals. As usual in these situations, the middle ground doesn't make either side extremely happy, but both have agreements they can live with. Economics and politics are discussed. The paper also describes Brazilian potential, Venezuelan investment, licensing in Brazil, Venezuelan activity and Brazil blocks.

  8. Gaining momentum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burr, M.T.

    1995-10-01

    Few regions of the world exemplify the variety of approaches to power sector reform as thoroughly as Latin America. At one end of the spectrum stands Chile, which has successfully restructured its electric power industry, privatizing a large share of its formerly state-owned utility assets. Of all power markets in Latin America, Chile`s is the most open to private developers, with transparent pricing policies and competitive procurement procedures. At the other end of the spectrum, Venezuela`s privatization program has stalled, and the power market has become less accessible to private investment than before the current administration was elected. Many Latin American countries share some important challenges. First, a lack of credit worthiness among electric utilities makes it difficult to finance power projects that rely on long-term power sales agreements. Second, lingering fallout from Mexico`s financial crisis continues to affect commercial lenders` confidence in Latin America in general. Third, efforts at privatization and power market liberalization have proceeded in fits and starts, with some countries seeming to take as many steps backwards as forward. Nevertheless, Latin America remains one of the most attractive regions of the world for independent power development. This paper examines recent developments in key markets.

  9. South America. The boom is almost everywhere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-15

    In South America, drilling activity is increasing rapidly. Three-dimensional seismic is being used offshore Brazil. Argentina has increased its processing capability by several companies. Venezuela has increased its survey mileage. Hundreds of post holes are being drilled in the Orinoco oil belt. Deep, difficult holes are being drilled in N. Argentina and N.E. Columbia. Offshore Chile, Enap is drilling high angle deviated holes in the Strait of Magellan. Belco is continuing its slant hole drilling campaign off Peru. In production, Venezuela has a major steam flood project and 2 large steam soak projects underway. Occidental is increasing its waterflood project in Talara, Peru, to 600,000 bbl of water/day. There are a number of projects underway in Argentina and Petrobras is continuing its experiments with steam and fire-flooding. Brazil has reached an all-time production high. Of the major producing countries in South America. Only Trinidad is declining in drilling and oil production. Ecuador is still attempting to develop Amistad field in the Gulf of Guayaquil.

  10. The petroleum geology of the sub-Andean basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathalone, J.M.P.

    1996-08-01

    The sub-Andean trend of basins spans the entire length of South America from Venezuela in the north to Argentina in the south. All the basins produce hydrocarbons with the exception of the Argentinean Bolsones complex and the Peruvian Madro de Dios which is prospective but virtually unexplored. There have been some 119 billion barrels of oil and 190 TCF of gas discovered to date, comprising 93% of the continent`s oil reserves. The basins lie immediately east of the Andes mountain range and are mainly asymmetric Upper Tertiary, westerly dipping foreland basins that overlie a series of earlier Tertiary, Mesozoic and Paleozoic depocentres. All the basins have been compressively deformed as recently as the Upper Miocene, by the eastwards growth of the Andean Cordillera. Giant oil and gas fields sourced from shales of varying age, have been found along the whole trend of basins, with a predominance of gas in the south. The rich marine Upper Cretaceous La Luna and equivalent shales of Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador have been responsible for generating 86% of the hydrocarbons discovered to date in the sub-Andean basins. Proven sources include Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian and Triassic shales in the central area, comprising Peru, Bolivia and northern Argentina. In southern Argentina, oils have been sourced from Uppermost Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous marine and lacustrine shales. Over 7500 wildcat wells have been drilled in basins along the trend, with a 15% success rate. Many of the basins are very lightly explored, with considerable potential for future discoveries.

  11. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery for thermal processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, T.B.; Bolivar, J.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Ninth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 62 through 67. The first, second, third, fourth fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth reports on Annex IV, [Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, and IV-8 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP) (DOE/BC-92/1/SP, DOE/BC-93/3/SP, and DOE/BC-95/3/SP)] contain the results from the first 61 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, October 1991, February 1993, and March 1995 respectively.

  12. Supporting Technology for Enhanced Oil Recovery-EOR Thermal Processes Report IV-12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izequeido, Alexandor

    2001-04-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Ninth Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 62 through 67. The first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eight, and ninth reports on Annex IV, [Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5, IV-6, IV-7, and IV-8 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-89/1/SP, DOE/BC-90/1/SP) DOE/BC-92/1/SP, DOE/BC-93/3/SP, and DOE/BC-95/3/SP] contain the results from the first 61 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1! 987, November 1988, December 1989, October 1991, February 1993, and March 1995 respectively.

  13. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: EOR thermal processes. Seventh Amendment and Extension to Annex 4, Enhanced oil recovery thermal processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, T B; Colonomos, P

    1993-02-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Seventh Amendment and Extension of Annex IV, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 50 through 55. The first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh reports on Annex IV, Venezuela MEM/USA-DOE Fossil Energy Report IV-1, IV-2, IV-3, IV-4, IV-5 and IV-6 (DOE/BETC/SP-83/15, DOE/BC-84/6/SP, DOE/BC-86/2/SP, DOE/BC-87/2/SP, DOE/BC-89/l/SP, DOE/BC-90/l/SP, and DOE/BC-92/l/SP) contain the results for the first 49 tasks. Those reports are dated April 1983, August 1984, March 1986, July 1987, November 1988, December 1989, and October 1991, respectively. Each task report has been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. Characterization study of lower Lagunillas member, Block IV, Lake Maracaibo. Application of horizontal well to revive a mature oil field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coll, C.; Gamero, H.; Jimenez, Z. )

    1996-01-01

    The Lower Lagunillas is one of the largest reservoirs in Venezuela located in Block IV in the Lake Maracaibo Basin in Zulia State in Western Venezuela. The estimated remaining reserves are 270 MMSTB. A multidisciplinary, integrated reservoir characterization study was performed to evaluate reservoir heterogeneity and fluid flow dynamics in fine scale. The majority of the remaining reserves are in the form of oil bypassed in the low resistivity pay zones. These zones were identified by the now core-log calibration performed in this area. Significant pressure decline from the initial 4200 psi to 1400 psi has prompted us to explore new development strategy of selective drilling of horizontal wells. A key step in the study was acquisition and integration of new geoscience, well log and pressure data. The available geology, geophysics, sedimentology and petrophysics were integrated and loaded on to a 3-D visualization package for correlating and validating the various lithofacies with petrophysics and sedimentology. The resulting reservoir model was exported to a flow simulator for developing a dynamic simulation model. A target layer was selected based on the results of the characterization study and risk assessment strategy. A pilot well was drilled in the reservoir to acquire new data and information. These information were processed to evaluate the borehole stability, petrophysical properties, location of the fluid phases, pressure behavior and target zone. The processed data were utilized to confirm the location and to develop the completion diagram of the horizontal well.

  15. Sensitivity and optimization analyses of the ``ACOGAS`` gas conditioning plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ochoa, D.; Cardenas, A.R.

    1995-11-01

    ACOGAS is a gas dew point control plant (water and hydrocarbons), operated by Lagoven S.A., a subsidiary of Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA). The ACOGAS plant located in Jusepin, Eastern Venezuela, produces stabilized condensate from an inlet gas stream which is a mixture of different gravity gases obtained by separation and compression from various oil production fields in the area. Sensitivity and optimization analyses of the plant and the stabilizer tower were carried out to evaluate the effects of: plant capacity reductions during shutdowns of some unspared systems of the plant; composition changes from original design basis; segregation of the lean gas currents from the inlet gas stream, reducing total flow but increasing GPM (C{sub 3}{sup +}) content; and incorporating condensate from the upstream compression processes in the inlet gas stream. It is shown that significant increases of stabilized condensate production could be obtained, while maintaining the quality for the condensate and lean residual gas within specifications, by various low cost modifications to the upstream processes and the stabilizer tower. Additionally, a change of the stabilizer tower valves could lower the minimum acceptable inlet flow, thereby increasing flexibility during shutdowns and low feed gas flows.

  16. Use of bauxite as packing material in steam injection wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scoglio, J.; Joubert, G.; Gallardo, B.

    1995-12-31

    Cyclic steam injection, also known as steam soak, has proven to be the most efficient method for producing heavy crude oil and bitumen from unconsolidated sands. The application of steam injection may, however, generate sand production, causing, among other things, a decrease in production. The gravel pack technique is the most efficient way to prevent fines production from cold producing wells. But, once they are steam stimulated, a dissolution of quartz containing gravel material takes place reducing greatly the packing permeability and eventually sand production. Different types of packing material have been used to avoid sand production after cyclic steam injection, such as gravel, ceramics, bauxite, coated resin, and American sand. This paper presents the results of field test, using sinterized bauxite as a packing material, carried out in Venezuela`s heavy oil operations as a part of a comprehensive program aimed at increasing the packing durability and reducing sand production. This paper also verify the results of laboratory tests in which Bauxite was found to be less soluble than other packing material when steam injected.

  17. Oil and gas developments in New Zealand and southwest Pacific islands in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahill, J.P.; Katz, H.R.

    1988-10-01

    In New Zealand, 14 new licenses were granted: 6 in the East Coast region, 6 offshore Taranaki, and 2 in the South Island. Two licenses were relinquished, and the onshore Taranaki license held by petrocorp expired. Onshore seismic activity totaled 525 km; offshore seismic activity totaled 3,221 km (reconnaissance seismic surveys by TCPL accounted for much of the offshore activity). Drilling decreased slightly, with 18 wells drilled (13 onshore and 5 offshore) total 55,203 m. The drilling of Kora-1 on a volcanic structure in the North Taranaki basin has led to speculation about a possible oil discovery. Total petroleum production remained steady at 4,360 million m/sup 3/ of gas, 1,127 thousand m/sup 3/ of condensate, 190 thousand m/sup 3/ of LPG, and 509 thousand m/sup 3/ of oil. In Papua New Guinea, further discoveries in the overthrust belt of the Papuan basin have confirmed the highly prospective nature of this area. A major gas and condensate field with 4 pay zones was established in the Hides structure east of Juha field, and early in 1988 gas, condensate, and oil were found in the Hedinia structure south of the Iagifu oil field discovered in 1986. Total drilling amounted to 15,725.55 m during 1987. Seismic surveys covered 858 km onshore and 4,747 km offshore. There are 36 active Petroleum Prospecting Licenses: 32 in the Papuan basin and 4 in the North New Guinea basin. No new developments were reported in Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Vanuatu. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Oil and gas developments in New Zealand and southwest Pacific Islands in 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, H.R.; Herzer, R.H.

    1985-10-01

    New Zealand had an increase in petroleum production, while exploration drilling continued at 1983's high level. Although there was an overall drop in licensed acreage, the amount of seismic exploration increased markedly, with 1,100 km of acquisition onshore and 4,300 km offshore. A new oil discovery, Toetoe-1A, was made near McKee field. Combined production from Kapuni, Maui, McKee, and Kaimiro fields was 2,978.56 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/ of gas (up 25%) and 962,323 m/sup 3/ of condensate (up 14%). The combined McKee and Pouri fields, which came on line in November, are producing oil at about 5,200 b/d (830 m/sup 3//day). All licenses in Tonga have been relinquished, and all company data are on open file. New petroleum legislation will be in force in 1985. Fiji had no exploration activities. Three license blocks have been renewed at reduced acreage. Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands are still awaiting legislation for petroleum exploration. A second stage of a CCOP/SOPAC-sponsored tripartite project (S. P. Lee cruise) was carried out in both countries, and also in Tonga and the New Ireland basin of Papua New Guinea. On the mainland of Papua New Guinea, 5 wells were drilled to a combined depth of 10,158 m (up 10.9%). All were dry. Concession areas comprise 11 Petroleum Prospecting Licences with a total of 1,062 blocks (at 5-min graticules).

  19. Oil and gas developments in New Zealand and southwest Pacific islands in 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, H.R.

    1984-10-01

    New Zealand had an increase in exploration activity, particularly drilling. 30,876 m were drilled onshore (up 62%) and 14,034 m offshore. Concession holdings slightly increased offshore (to 230,665 km), but dropped to nearly half onshore (to 34,353 km). Seismic surveys decreased to 477.5 line-km onshore and 1128 km offshore, down 56% and 93%, respectively. Oil, gas, and condensate were found in several wells on small structures close to the recently discovered McKee field. Regular production from McKee began in April 1984, at an initial rate of 1000 BOPD. Production from Kapuni and Maui fields combined was 2,381.313 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/ of gas (up 9.4%) and 845,286 m/sup 3/ of condensate (down 2.3%). Construction of a 1200-MT/day methanol plant, which uses natural gas from these fields, was completed. No exploration was carried out in Tonga, Fiji, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands. In Fiji, all prospecting licenses expired, but renewal terms on areas reduced by 50% were agreed on in principle. Papua New Guinea had 4 wells drilled to a combined depth of 9158 m (up 23.2%). The Juha-2X appraisal well confirmed the discovery of gas and condensate in the Juha anticline. In the Gulf of Papua, the offshore appraisal well, Pasca-A3, blew out and was abandoned. The total area of petroleum prospecting licenses slightly increased to 74,715 km. 4 figures, 5 tables.

  20. Oil and gas developments in New Zealand and southwest Pacific Islands in 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, H.R.; Herzer, R.H.

    1985-10-01

    New Zealand had an increase in petroleum production, while exploration drilling continued at 1983's high level. Although there was an overall drop in licensed acreage, the amount of seismic exploration increased markedly, with 1100 km of acquisition onshore and 4300 km offshore. A new oil discovery, Toetoe-1A, was made near McKee field. Combined production from Kapuni, Maui, McKee, and Kaimiro fields was 2978.56 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/ of gas (up 25%) and 962,323 m/sup 3/ of condensate (up 14%). The combined McKee and Pouri fields, which came on line in November, are producing oil at about 5200 b/d (830 m/sup 3//day). All licenses in Tonga have been relinquished, and all company data are on open file. New petroleum legislation will be in force in 1985. Fiji had no exploration activities. Three license blocks have been renewed at reduced acreage. Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands are still awaiting legislation for petroleum exploration. A second stage of a CCOP/SOPAC-sponsored tripartite project (S.P. Lee cruise) was carried out in both countries, and also in Tonga and the New Ireland basin of Papua New Guinea. On the mainland of Papua New Guinea, 5 wells were drilled to a combined depth of 10,158 m (up 10.9%). All were dry. Concession areas comprise 11 Petroleum Prospecting Licenses with a total of 1062 blocks (at 5-min graticules). 5 figures, 5 tables.

  1. Nuclear Physics Activities in Asia and ANPhA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakai, H.

    2011-05-06

    On 18 July 2009 the Asian Nuclear Physics Association (ANPhA) has been officially launched in Beijing by the representatives from China, Korea, Japan and Vietnam. Since then Australia, India, Mongolia and Taiwan have joined to ANPhA and now the member country/region has increased to eight. Some activities and features on ANPhA are introduced. In addition, pleasant collaboration with Professor Arima by the author in regard to the Gamow-Teller quenching problem is also briefly mentioned.

  2. Medal of Honor recipients honored at Y-12 | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    recipients ... Medal of Honor recipients honored at Y-12 Posted: September 15, 2014 - 2:38pm Medal of Honor recipients Herschel "Woody" Williams (USMC, WWII, Iwo Jima), Ron Rosser (US Army, Ponggilli, Korea) and Wesley Fox (USMC, Quang Tri, Vietnam) were welcomed by CNS President Jim Haynes (far left) and NNSA Production Office Manager Steve Erhart (far right) at the Medal of Honor Town Hall Forum held at Y-12's New Hope Center. The three recipients discussed their experiences and

  3. Contextual and conceptual content analysis in the study of foreign policy decision making

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlagheck, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    This dissertation focuses upon two related questions in the study of foreign policy decision making at the individual level: (1) How does a decision maker define the situation he/she confronts. and, (2) How can the research reliably establish that definition. The problem of context and how a decision maker defines it is shown to be a common thread running throughout the foreign policy literature, brought together in a manageable form by the operational code. The operational code is used to guide the application of a new, contextual and conceptual content analysis program in a case study of Henry A. Kissinger's definition of the situations he faced in the Vietnam and arms control negotiations. Kissinger's verbal behavior is examined, including his academic writing; speeches and interviews he gave while in office; his memoirs; and, addresses he has made since leaving public service. The content analysis program (Minnesota Contextural Content Analysis, MCCA) analyzes an individual's understanding of context based on her/his choice of language, and scores verbal behavior in four context categories: pragmatic (rational), analytical, emotional, and traditional. Results of the content analysis of Kissinger's definition of the Vietnam War and arms control talks are analyzed in terms of COPDAB events data to determine whether Kissinger's verbal behavior was events dependent; results are also evaluated in terms of other psycho-biographical and operational studies of Kissinger, as well.

  4. Table 5.20 Value of Crude Oil Imports From Selected Countries, 1973-2011 (Thousand Dollars )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Value of Crude Oil Imports From Selected Countries, 1973-2011 (Thousand Dollars 1) Year Persian Gulf 3 Selected OPEC 2 Countries Selected Non-OPEC 2 Countries Total 5 Kuwait Nigeria Saudi Arabia Venezuela Total OPEC 4 Canada Colombia Mexico Norway United Kingdom Total Non-OPEC 4 1973 1,729,733 W 1,486,278 904,979 753,195 5,237,483 1,947,422 W – 0 0 2,351,931 7,589,414 1974 4,419,410 W 3,347,351 1,858,788 1,309,916 11,581,515 3,314,999 0 W – 0 4,054,475 15,635,990 1975 5,169,811 W 3,457,766

  5. Table 7.4 Coal Imports by Country of Origin, 2000-2011 (Short Tons)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Imports by Country of Origin, 2000-2011 (Short Tons) Year Australia New Zealand Canada Mexico Colombia Venezuela China India Indonesia Europe South Africa Other Total Norway Poland Russia Ukraine United Kingdom Other Total 2000 167,595 0 1,923,434 6,671 7,636,614 2,038,774 19,646 205 718,149 0 0 1,212 0 238 0 1,450 0 85 12,512,623 2001 315,870 24,178 2,571,415 8,325 11,176,191 3,335,258 109,877 1,169 882,455 15,933 514,166 219,077 0 75,704 12 824,892 440,408 97,261 19,787,299 2002 821,280 0

  6. Word Pro - Untitled1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Table 7.4 Coal Imports by Country of Origin, 2000-2011 (Million Short Tons) Year Australia New Zealand Canada Mexico Colombia Venezuela China India Indonesia Europe South Africa Other Total Norway Poland Russia Ukraine United Kingdom Other Total 2000 0.2 0.0 1.9 (s) 7.6 2.0 (s) (s) 0.7 0.0 0.0 (s) 0.0 (s) 0.0 (s) 0.0 (s) 12.5 2001 .3 (s) 2.6 (s) 11.2 3.3 .1 (s) .9 (s) .5 .2 .0 .1 (s) .8 .4 .1 19.8 2002 .8 .0 2.1 (s) 9.2 3.3 .1 (s) 1.0 .0 .1 .1 .0 (s) (s) .2 .1 (s) 16.9 2003 .3 .1 2.1 .0 15.5

  7. Pollution by petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments from continental shelf of Tabasco State, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botello, A.V.; Gonzalez, C.; Diaz, G. )

    1991-10-01

    The Wider Caribbean is potentially one of the largest oil producing areas in the world. Major petroleum production areas include Louisiana and Texas, USA; the Bay of Campeche, Mexico; Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela; and Gulf of Paria, Trinidad; all of which are classified as production accident high-risk zones. About 5 million of barrels are transported every day in the Caribbean, thus generating an intense tanker traffic. It has been estimated that oil discharges from tank washings within the Wider Caribbean could be as high as 7 million barrels/year. For all those reasons petroleum pollution is considered as the major environmental problem in the Wider Caribbean area and increasing day to day due to the use of petroleum as the main energy source. On the other hand, the continental shelf of Tabasco state actually represents one of the most productive areas for crude oil in the Gulf of Mexico. Sediments were collected from this area and analyzed for hydrocarbons.

  8. Effect of asphaltene deposition on the internal corrosion in transmission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morales, J.L.; Viloria, A.; Palacios T, C.A.

    1996-12-31

    Crude oil from Norte de Monagas field, in Venezuela, contains large amounts of asphaltenes, some of them are very unstable with tendency to precipitate. Because liquid is carried over from the separation process in the flow stations, asphaltenes are also present in the gas gathering and transmission lines, precipitating on inner wall of pipelines. The gas gathering and transmission lines contain gas with high partial pressures of CO{sub 2}, some H{sub 2}S and are water saturated; therefore inhibitors are used to control the internal corrosion. There is uncertainty on how inhibitors perform in the presence of asphaltene deposition. To protect the pipelines from external corrosion, cathodic protection is used. Since asphaltenes have polar properties, there exists an uncertainty on whether it enhances asphaltene precipitation and deposition. The purpose of this paper to describe the causes that enhance asphaltene deposition on gas and some of the preliminary result from an ongoing research project carried out by Intevep and Corpoven.

  9. Effect of asphaltene deposition on the internal corrosion in the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palacios T, C.A.; Morales, J.L.; Viloria, A.

    1997-08-01

    Crude oil from Norte de Monagas field, in Venezuela, contains large amounts of asphaltenes. Some of them are very unstable with a tendency to precipitate. Because liquid is carried over from the separation process in the flow stations, asphaltenes are also present in the gas gathering and transmission lines, precipitating on the inner wall of pipelines. The gas gathering and transmission lines contain gas with high partial pressures of CO{sub 2}, some H{sub 2}S and are water saturated; therefore, inhibitors are used to control internal corrosion. There is uncertainty on how inhibitors perform in the presence of asphaltene deposition. The purpose of this paper is to describe the causes that enhance asphaltene deposition in gas pipelines and present some results from an ongoing research project carried out by the Venezuelan Oil Companies.

  10. US tda infrastructure opportunities in South America. Project profile updates, June-December 1995. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    This study, conducted by CG/LA Infrastructure, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report provides project profile updates to a study conducted for the TDA Conference on Infrastructure Opportunities held in June, 1995. The updates are organized first by sectors with specific project information including: Energy, Telecommunications, Environment, Industrial, and Transportation. The second section of the report contains an extensive profile of surface transportation projects related to Highways Tunnels and Bridges, Inland Waterways, Ports, Rail and Urban Mass Transit. Each profile provides a technical description, site information, timing, equipment and services demand, nature of demand, and a project assessment. Countries included in the study are: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

  11. Portugal`s Petrogal eyes expansion amid continuing privatization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-16

    Portugal`s recently privatized state oil company Petrogal is about to embark on a major expansion worldwide. That comes against the backdrop of major change in Portugal`s energy sector and the rocky road to Petrogal`s partial privatization. Despite the controversy, there remain opportunities for foreign companies investing in Portugal`s energy sector. The most attractive opportunities are in Portugal`s downstream petroleum sector and in the country`s continuing campaign to develop its natural gas industry. Typical of the latter is Portugal`s participation in the Trans-Maghreb gas pipeline megaproject. The paper discusses the background to privatization, its current status, Petrogal strategy, modernization of refineries, a joint partnership with Venezuela, constraints, energy policy program, gas pipeline privatization, and concerns of the gas industry.

  12. Heavy crudes and bitumen categorized to help assess resources, techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byramjee, R.J.

    1982-07-04

    As conventional crude oil reserves decrease and prices go up, heavy crude oil (HCO) is getting more attention from oil companies and governments. It was felt that some clarification was needed regarding these products and a review of known fields was conducted to sort out ranges of physical and composition characteristics for definition and classification purposes. A summary of this review with a proposal for classification was presented at the Second International Conference on Heavy Crude and Tar Sands held in Caracas in Feb. 1982. This Caracas conference, organized jointly by the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) and Petroleos de Venezuela debated the definition, characteristics, reserves/resources, production/enhanced oil recovery, and upgrading of heavy crude oils. This work is based, in part, on some of the Caracas conference's discussions.

  13. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2. World natural gas reserves by country as of January 1, 2016 Country Reserves (trillion cubic feet) Percent of world total World 6,950 100 Top 20 countries 6,359 91.5 Russia 1,688 24.3 Iran 1,201 17.3 Qatar 866 12.5 United States 369 5.3 Saudi Arabia 300 4.3 Turkmenistan 265 3.8 United Arab Emirates 215 3.1 Venezuela 198 2.9 Nigeria 180 2.6 China 175 2.5 Algeria 159 2.3 Iraq 112 1.6 Indonesia 102 1.5 Mozambique 100 1.4 Kazakhstan 85 1.2 Egypt 77 1.1 Canada 70 1 Norway 68 1 Uzbekistan 65 0.9

  14. Table 19. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Origin January - March 2016 October - December 2015 January - March 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change North America Total 71.92 104.33 107.02 71.92 107.02 -32.8 Canada 71.93 104.32 107.01 71.93 107.01 -32.8 Mexico 66.79 360.25 113.43 66.79 113.43 -41.1 South America Total 64.73 64.18 70.82 64.73 70.82 -8.6 Colombia 64.73 63.86 70.58 64.73 70.58 -8.3 Peru 63.31 86.76 86.19 63.31 86.19 -26.5 Venezuela -

  15. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report (Abbreviated), Ja

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Quantity and Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports by Origin, 2010 - 2016 (short tons and dollars per short ton) Year and Quarter Australia Canada Colombia Indonesia China Venezuela Other Countries Total 2010 380,404 1,766,896 14,583,950 1,904,040 52,869 581,700 82,828 19,352,687 2011 61,745 1,680,490 9,500,387 856,038 22,128 778,887 187,931 13,087,606 2012 - 1,107,727 6,951,515 517,532 77,738 287,147 217,598 9,159,257 2013 22 1,116,076 6,575,927 886,920 51,944 42,428 233,108 8,906,425 2014 532

  16. International energy outlook. Volume 3. North and South America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Petroleum, coal, and hydropower resources are found, in varying degrees, throughout the Americas. Struggling to maintain or achieve energy self-sufficiency, many North and South American countries are undertaking major projects to develop these, and other, energy sources. This volume, Volume 3 is a compilation of official US government intelligence reports examining the development projects and energy trends in 12 countries of North and South America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the United States and Venezuela. The range and detail of country coverage varies, due to availability of reports. Although the book details current energy situations and provides some historical background, its main emphasis is on estimates of future consumption and production, and descriptions of energy programs and plans. Plans in the Americas call for exploiting oil and gas where possible, and making major efforts to develop sources such as coal and hydropower that can be alternatives to imported petroleum. 33 references, 1 figure, 73 tables.

  17. Price control survey, continued: Five countries: A South-South perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-24

    Among the developing countries, there are multiple strata today, from star performers to those seemingly stuck in self-deepening poverty. Domestic energy-pricing policy, as it will continue to play its key role in economic development, is scrutinized in this issue featuring five developing nations. They make up some of the world's have not and have little peoples, striving to participate in the world economy. The nations examined are Thailand, South Korea, Chile, Venezuela, and Bolivia. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of Dec. 20, 1991; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere, December 1991 edition.

  18. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean Area, and Mexico in 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deal, C.S.

    1983-10-01

    Petroleum developments in the region in 1982 had a more varied pattern than in 1981 when all aspects were upbeat with varying degrees of increases. In 1982, Brazil, Mexico, and Guatemala had striking increases in oil production; Bolivia, Chile, and Colombia had moderate increases; and Argentina, Trinidad, and Venezuela reported declines. In exploration, Argentina reported several additional offshore Tierra del Fuego discoveries in the Cretaceous Springhill and 2 more encouraging gas discoveries in the Noroeste basin. Bolivia reported an oil discovery from Silurian rocks more generally considered a gas objective. Brazil extended and confirmed the Western Amazonas gas area with 2 discoveries. Colombia added 2 more spectacular oil discoveries in the Llanos basin to follow up 2 similar finds in 1981. Several countries reported that discoveries have increased the national reserves of hydrocarbons. Considering the social, political, and economic problems in several countries, along with the worldwide depression and petroleum surplus, developments in the region have been on the whole favorable.

  19. Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline about to take off; seen as litmus test for Southern Cone gas grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-07

    After more than 4 decades of studies, plans, and shelved projects, the proposed Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline is finally about to get off the ground. The 3,700 km gas pipeline will require an investment of at least $2 billion and is viewed by many as a litmus test for the developing gas market and energy integration of South America`s Southern Cone countries. Overall, industry officials see eventual emergence of two large integrated gas grids serving South America: one for the northern countries and another for the Southern Cone. This will enable the six countries with gas surplus to their needs to export the surplus to neighboring, gas-short countries. The northern gas-long countries are Venezuela, Colombia, and Trinidad and Tobago; those in the Southern Cone are Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru. The paper discusses financial details, project details, pipeline construction, the Petrobras strategy, Argentine pipeline projects, and other pipeline proposals.

  20. Venezuelan plant completes instrument upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, H.; Garcia, C.O.

    1996-07-22

    The Lamarliquido LPG plant, offshore Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela, has received a major upgrade to its control system after 25 years of pneumatic instrumentation. The plant is now operating fully remote from a new central control room with a maximum production of 5,500 b/d, expected to go to 6,600 b/d. The phases of the project included installation and integration of four control systems: distributed control system; fire prevention, detection, and control system; refrigeration process turbocompressor control system; and emergency shutdown system. The paper describes the 1960s vintage instrumentation, the modernization objectives and phases, the distributed control system, the fire control system, gas and fire detection, the turbocompressor system, emergency shutdown system, and plant shutdown logic.

  1. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: Fifth amendment and extension to Annex IV enhanced oil recovery thermal processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, T.B. ); Rivas, O. )

    1989-12-01

    An Agreement between the Department of Energy of the United States of America and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of the Republic of Venezuela to cooperate in Energy Research and Development was signed March 6, 1980. The object of cooperation under this DOE/MEMV Agreement was to promote a balanced exchange of energy technologies and to conduct joint projects in the areas of Petroleum, Solar Energy, Geothermal Energy, Hydroelectric Energy and Coal. This report describes research projects in enhanced recovery. The following tasks are discussed: DOE-SUPRI Foam Diversion Research and Simulation Studies; INTEVEP Steam-Foam Laboratory Research -- High Pressure and High Temperature using 2-D Model; DOE-NIPER Light Oil Steamflooding Research; INTEVEP In-Situ Combustion Kinetics Research; DOE-LLNL Electromagnetic Cross borehole Scanning; and INTEVEP Mechanistic Studies for Heavy Oil.

  2. More on giant fields of northern S. America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duval, B.C.; Cramez, C.; Valdes, G.E.

    1995-07-24

    The first part of this article profiled Cano Limon-Guafita, Ceuta-Tomoporo (centro), and El Furrial-Carito-Tejero oil fields in Venezuela. In this concluding part the authors take a look at the Colombian foothills. It is concluded that the dangers and limits of big magic classifications and simple paradigms like thrust belt hydrocarbons are evident. The understanding of a single field, although it is a much needed step, is not sufficient to get the full picture. Petroleum systems are dynamic, discontinuous, and heterogeneous. Any seemingly slight difference in the initial conditions can have a disproportionate impact on key parameters, and recognizing them is very much what makes a lucky explorer.

  3. Supporting technology for enhanced oil recovery: Sixth amendment and extension to Annex IV enhanced oil recovery thermal processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, T.B. ); Rivas, O. )

    1991-10-01

    This report contains the results of efforts under the six tasks of the Sixth Amendment and Extension of Annex 4, Enhanced Oil Recovery Thermal Processes of the Venezuela/USA Agreement. The report is presented in sections (for each of the 6 tasks) and each section contains one or more reports prepared by various individuals or groups describing the results of efforts under each of the tasks. A statement of each task, taken from the agreement, is presented on the first page of each section. The tasks are numbered 44 through 49. Tasks are: DOE-SUPRI-laboratory research on steam foam, CAT-SCAN, and in-situ combustion; INTEVEP-laboratory research and field projects on steam foam; DOE-NIPER-laboratory research and field projects light oil steam flooding; INTEVEP-laboratory research and field studies on wellbore heat losses; DOE-LLNL-laboratory research and field projects on electromagnetic induction tomography; INTEVEP-laoboratory research on mechanistic studies.

  4. Heavy oil expansions gather momentum worldwide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moritis, G.

    1995-08-14

    Cold production, wormholes, foamy oil mechanism, improvements in thermal methods, and horizontal wells are some of the processes and technologies enabling expansion of the world`s heavy oil/bitumen production. Such processes were the focus of the International Heavy Oil Symposium in Calgary, June 19--21. Unlike conventional oil production, heavy oil/bitumen extraction is more a manufacturing process where technology enables the business and does not just add value. The current low price spreads between heavy oil/light oil indicate that demand for heavy oil is high. The paper first discusses the price difference between heavy and light oils, then describes heavy oil production activities in Canada at Cold Lake, in Venezuela in the Orinoco belt, and at Kern River in California.

  5. Energy profiles of selected Latin American and Caribbean countries. Report series No. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, K.

    1994-07-01

    Countries in this report include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. These ten countries are the most important oil and gas producers in the Latin American and the Caribbean region. In the following sections, the primary energy supply (oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power whenever they are applicable), primary energy consumption, downstream oil sector development, gas utilization are discussed for each of the ten countries. The report also presents our latest forecasts of petroleum product consumption in each country toward 2000, which form the basis of the outlook for regional energy production and consumption outlined in Report No 1. Since the bulk of primary energy supply and demand is hydrocarbons for many countries, brief descriptions of the important hydrocarbons policy issues are provided at the end of the each country sections.

  6. New Zealand and southwest Pacific islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, H.R.

    1981-10-01

    In New Zealand, new incentives by the government have greatly stimulated interest in exploration. On land, four wells were completed during 1980 at a total depth of 10,120 m. One well was a commercial oil and gas discovery. Offshore, the first exploratory well since 1978 was spudded shortly before the end of 1980. Offshore concession areas have increased over ten-fold, to 107,044 km/sup 2/; on-land licenses, which are all owned by the government company Petrocorp, decreased to 11,591 km/sup 2/. During 1980, the combined output of Kapuni and Maui gas was 1,069,049 x 10/sup 6/m/sup 3/, a decrease of 18.23%. This reflects the new gas-recycling operation at the Kapuni field, which started in April. Combined condensate production was down only 12.15%, amounting to 418,941 m/sup 3/. Natural gasoline was down 17.44%, to 7093 m/sup 3/, whereas LPG production went up 39.44%, to 27,301 m/sup 3/. In Tonga, 925 km of offshore multichannel seismic, gravity, and magnetic surveys run in 1979 have been processed and interpreted. In Fiji, the first two exploratory wells ever drilled were dry. In Vanuatu, the newly independent republic of the former New Hebrides Condominium, no petroleum legislation has so far been introduced. CCOP/SOPAC and ORSTOM jointly ran a 4000-km single-channel reflection seismic survey between the northern islands. Several sedimentary basins with over 2500 m of slightly deformed sediments of Miocene-Pliocene age have been delineated. In the Solomon Islands, there is still no petroleum legislation, but the draft of the Petroleum (Exploration and Development) Act has been completed and will go before Parliament during 1981. In Papua New Guinea, one well was drilled to 3027 m and abandoned as dry. It confirmed the regional stratigraphic interpretation and had encouraging hydrocarbon indications in the Mesozoic part of the sequence. 6 figures, 5 tables.

  7. Technical Training Workshop on International Safeguards: An Introduction to Safeguards for Emerging Nuclear States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Olson, Jarrod; Mathews, Caroline E.; Solodov, Alexander; Zhernosek, Alena; Raffo-Caiado, Ana; Baldwin, George; Horak, Karl; McClelland-Kerr, John; VanSickle, Matthew; Mininni, Margot; Kovacic, Donald

    2009-10-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) hosted a workshop from May 4-22, 2009, on the fundamental elements of international safeguards. Entitled "A Technical Training Workshop on International Safeguards," the workshop introduced post-graduate students from Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Thailand, Morocco, Egypt, Algeria and Tunisia to the fundamental issues and best practices associated with international safeguards and encouraged them to explore potential career paths in safeguards. Workshops like these strengthen the international safeguards regime by promoting the development of a "safeguards culture" among young nuclear professionals within nascent nuclear countries. While this concept of safeguards culture is sometimes hard to define and even harder to measure, this paper will demonstrate that the promotion of safeguards cultures through workshops like these justifies the investment of U.S. taxpayer dollars.

  8. AIR SHIPMENT OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL FROM THE BUDAPEST RESEARCH REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewes, J.

    2014-02-24

    The shipment of spent nuclear fuel is usually done by a combination of rail, road or sea, as the high activity of the SNF needs heavy shielding. Air shipment has advantages, e.g. it is much faster than any other shipment and therefore minimizes the transit time as well as attention of the public. Up to now only very few and very special SNF shipments were done by air, as the available container (TUK6) had a very limited capacity. Recently Sosny developed a Type C overpack, the TUK-145/C, compliant with IAEA Standard TS-R-1 for the VPVR/M type Skoda container. The TUK-145/C was first used in Vietnam in July 2013 for a single cask. In October and November 2013 a total of six casks were successfully shipped from Hungary in three air shipments using the TUK-145/C. The present paper describes the details of these shipments and formulates the lessons learned.

  9. The chemical industry, by country

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-03-01

    Beijing will be the site for the third ACHEMASIA, international petrochemical and chemical exhibition and conference, May 15--20, 1995. In preparation for this conference, Hydrocarbon Processing contacted executives of petrochemical/chemical industries and trade associations, seeking views on the state of the industry. The Asia-Pacific region is the center of new construction and expanded capacity and also a mixture of mature, developing and emerging petrochemical industries. Established countries must mold and grow with emerging economies as the newcomers access natural resources and develop their own petrochemical infrastructures. The following nation reports focus on product supply/demand trends, economic forecasts, new construction, etc. Space limitations prohibit publishing commentaries from all countries that have petrochemical/chemical capacity. Reports are published from the following countries: Australia, China, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.

  10. Orimulsion conversion boosts prospects of `fourth` fossil fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    This article describes how, by retrofitting a 100-MW oil-fired and a 215-MW coal-fired unit, one utility turned a plant destined for peaking service into a base-load asset with a predictable fuel bill and manageable emissions-even in environmentally sensitive Atlantic Canada. Six years ago, New Brunswick Power Corp (NB Power) found itself on the horns of a dilemma. For years, the utility had been searching for a powerplant fuel with a more stable price than oil, which at the time was fueling one-third of its generating capacity. Buying and burning more domestic coal-even at twice the price of offshore supplies-was the preferred option, because that would also help keep New Brunswick`s coal mines open. But by 1989, federal and provincial legislation had begun to plan for stringent limits on SO{sub 2} emissions that would take the local-coal card out of NB Power`s hand. Containing up to 8% sulfur, New Brunswick coal would be too dirty to burn by itself; emissions from a 200-MW unit would alone use up nearly half of the utility`s system-wide annual quota for SO{sub 2} emissions schedules for imposition in 1994. Enter Bitor America Corp, the Boca Raton (Fla) marketing subsidiary of the world`s third-largest oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PdVSA). Looking to further the fortunes of Orimulsion, a liquid emulsion of bitumen and water from the Orinoco region of Venezuela, Bitor funded and provided technical support for the first large-scale test burn of the fuel in the 100-MW Unit 1 of NB Power`s Dalhousie station in northern New Brunswick. After making the required modifications, NB Power burned Orimulsion in Unit 1 for two years. By 1991, the utility had cleanly converted more than a million barrels of the fuel to nearly half a million megawatt-hours of electricity-in the process finding few reasons not to commit to permanently converting Dalhousie`s Unit 1, as well as coal fired 215-MW Unit 2, to burn Orimulsion.

  11. Word Pro - Untitled1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Table 5.20 Value of Crude Oil Imports From Selected Countries, 1973-2011 (Billion Dollars 1 ) Year Persian Gulf 3 Selected OPEC 2 Countries Selected Non-OPEC 2 Countries Total 5 Kuwait Nigeria Saudi Arabia Venezuela Total OPEC 4 Canada Colombia Mexico Norway United Kingdom Total Non-OPEC 4 1973 1.7 W 1.5 0.9 0.8 5.2 1.9 W - 0.0 0.0 2.4 7.6 1974 4.4 W 3.3 1.9 1.3 11.6 3.3 .0 W - .0 4.1 15.6 1975 5.2 W 3.5 3.2 1.8 14.9 2.8 .0 .3 .1 - 4.1 19.0 1976 8.7 W 5.1 5.8 1.0 22.2 1.8 - .4 .2 W 3.6 25.8

  12. CO sub 2 emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of Energy in the long term

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ketoff, A.; Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N.

    1991-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing recognition of the link between emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and changes in the global climate. Of all anthropogenic activities, energy production and use generate the single largest portion of these greenhouse gases. Although developing countries currently account for a small share of global carbon emissions, their contribution is increasing rapidly. Due to the rapid expansion of energy demand in these nations, the developing world's share in global modern energy use rose from 16 to 27 percent between 1970 and 1990. If the growth rates observed over the past 20 years persist energy demand in developing will surpass that in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) early in the 21st century. The study seeks to examine the forces that galvanize the growth of energy use and carbon emissions, to assess the likely future levels of energy and CO{sub 2} in selected developing nations and to identify opportunities for restraining this growth. The purpose of this report is to provide the quantitative information needed to develop effective policy options, not to identify the options themselves. These individual studies were conducted fro Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela in Latin America.

  13. Domestic petroleum-product prices around the world. Survey: free market or government price controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-27

    In this issue, Energy Detente draws from their regular Western and Eastern Hemisphere Fuel Price/Tax Series, each produced monthly, and adds other survey data and analysis for a broad view of 48 countries around the world. They find that seven Latin American nations, including OPEC members Venezuela and Ecuador, are among the ten countries with lowest gasoline prices. In this Fourth Special Price Report, Energy Detente provides a first-time presentation of which prices are government-controlled, and which are free to respond to market forces. South Korea, with fixed prices since 1964, has the highest premium-grade gasoline price in our survey, US $5.38 per gallon. Paraguay, with prices fixed by PETROPAR, the national oil company, has the second highest premium gasoline price, US $4.21 per gallon. Nicaragua, also with government price controls, ranks third highest in the survey, with US $3.38 per gallon for premium gasoline. Kuwait shows the lowest price at US $0.55 per gallon. Several price changes from the previous survey reflect changes in currency exchange as all prices are converted to US dollars. The Energy Detente fuel price/tax series is presented for Western Hemisphere countries.

  14. Refiner/marketer targets production of transportation fuels and distillates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Citgo Petroleum Corp., the wholly owned subsidiary of Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA), the Venezuelan national oil company, owns two gasoline producing refineries, a 305,000-b/d system in Lake Charles, La., and a 130,000-b/d facility in Corpus Christi, Texas. Each is considered a deep conversion facility capable of converting heavy, sour crudes into a high percentage of transportation fuels and distillates. Two smaller refineries, one in Paulsboro, N.J., and one in Savannah, GA., have the capacity to process 40,000 b/d and 28,000 b/d of crude, respectively, for asphalt products. In the past two years, Citgo`s light oils refineries operated safely and reliably with a minimum of unscheduled shutdowns. An ongoing emphasis to increase reliability has resulted in extended run lengths at the refineries. Citgo has invested $314 million at its facilities in 1995, much of this toward environmental and regulatory projects, such as the new waste water treatment unit at the Lake Charles refinery. Over the next few years, Citgo expects to complete $1.5 billion in capital spending for major processing units such as a 60,000-b/d FCC feed hydrotreater unit at the Lake Charles refinery and crude expansion at the Corpus Christi refinery. Product exchanges and expanded transport agreements are allowing Citgo to extend its marketing reach.

  15. World`s LPG supply picture will change by 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1995-11-06

    Middle East LPG producers will continue to dominate world export markets in 1996. Led by Saudi Arabia, the Middle East will produce nearly 26 million metric tons of LPG in million metric tons of LPG in 1996, more than 54% of the world`s almost 48 million metric tons of export LPG. In 2000, however, with world exports of LPG expanding to 58.9 million metric tons, Middle East suppliers; share will have remained flat, making up 31.7 million metric tons, or 53.9%. Saudi Arabia`s contribution will exceed 15 million metric tons, reflecting essentially no growth since 1995. These and other patterns, from data compiled by Purvin and Gertz, Dallas, and published earlier this year, show other suppliers of LPG, especially African (Algeria/Nigeria), North Sea, and Latin American (Venezuela/Argentina), picking up larger shares in the last 5 years of this decade. This scenario assumes completion of several major supply projects that are either panned, under construction, or nearing start up in most of these areas. The paper discusses the global picture, the supply situation in the Middle East, Africa, the North Sea, and South America.

  16. Analysis of heavy oils: Method development and application to Cerro Negro heavy petroleum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbognani, L.; Hazos, M.; Sanchez, V. ); Green, J.A.; Green, J.B.; Grigsby, R.D.; Pearson, C.D.; Reynolds, J.W.; Shay, J.Y.; Sturm, G.P. Jr.; Thomson, J.S.; Vogh, J.W.; Vrana, R.P.; Yu, S.K.T.; Diehl, B.H.; Grizzle, P.L.; Hirsch, D.E; Hornung, K.W.; Tang, S.Y.

    1989-12-01

    On March 6, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Venezuela (MEMV) entered into a joint agreement which included analysis of heavy crude oils from the Venezuelan Orinoco oil belt.The purpose of this report is to present compositional data and describe new analytical methods obtained from work on the Cerro Negro Orinoco belt crude oil since 1980. Most of the chapters focus on the methods rather than the resulting data on Cerro Negro oil, and results from other oils obtained during the verification of the method are included. In addition, published work on analysis of heavy oils, tar sand bitumens, and like materials is reviewed, and the overall state of the art in analytical methodology for heavy fossil liquids is assessed. The various phases of the work included: distillation and determination of routine'' physical/chemical properties (Chapter 1); preliminary separation of >200{degree}C distillates and the residue into acid, base, neutral, saturated hydrocarbon and neutral-aromatic concentrates (Chapter 2); further separation of acid, base, and neutral concentrates into subtypes (Chapters 3-5); and determination of the distribution of metal-containing compounds in all fractions (Chapter 6).

  17. Need for refining capacity creates opportunities for producers in Middle East

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, M.S.S. )

    1994-07-11

    Oil industry interest in refining has revived in the past few years in response to rising oil consumption. The trend creates opportunities, for countries in the Middle East, which do not own refining assets nearly in proportion to their crude oil reserved. By closing this gap between reserves and refining capacity, the countries can ease some of the instability now characteristic of the oil market. Some major oil producing countries have begun to move downstream. During the 1980s, Venezuela, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Libya, and other members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries acquired refining assets through direct total purchase or joint ventures. Nevertheless, the oil industry remains largely unintegrated, with the Middle East holding two thirds of worldwide oil reserves but only a small share downstream. As worldwide refining capacity swings from a period of surplus toward one in which the need for new capacity will be built. The paper discusses background of the situation, shrinking surplus, investment requirements, sources of capital, and shipping concerns.

  18. Source rocks of the Sub-Andean basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raedeke, L.D. )

    1993-02-01

    Seven source rock systems were mapped using a consistent methodology to allow basin comparison from Trinidad to southern Chile. Silurian and Devonian systems, deposited in passive margin and intracratonic settings, have fair-good original oil/gas potential from central and northern Bolivia to southern Peru. Kerogens range from mature in the foreland to overmature in the thrust belt. Permian to Carboniferous deposition in local restricted basins formed organic-rich shales and carbonates with very good original oil/gas potential, principally in northern Bolivia and southern Peru. Late Triassic to early Jurassic marine shales and limestones, deposited in deep, narrow, basins from Ecuador to north-central maturity. Locally, in the Cuyo rift basin of northern Argentina, a Triassic lacustrine unit is a very good, mature oil source. Early Cretaceous to Jurassic marine incursions into the back-arc basins of Chile-Argentina deposited shales and limestones. Although time transgressive (younging to the south), this system is the principal source in southern back-arc basins, with best potential in Neuquen, where three intervals are stacked A late Cretaceous marine transgressive shale is the most important source in northern South America. The unit includes the La Luna and equivalents extending from Trinidad through Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and into northern Peru. Elsewhere in South America upper Cretaceous marine-lacustrine rocks are a possible source in the Altiplano and Northwest basins of Bolivia and Argentina. Middle Miocene to Oligocene source system includes shallow marine, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments from Trinidad to northern Peru.

  19. World's Largest Gold Crystal Studied at Los Alamos

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Vogel, Sven; Nakotte, Heinz

    2015-01-07

    When geologist John Rakovan needed better tools to investigate whether a dazzling 217.78-gram piece of gold was in fact the world's largest single-crystal specimen - a distinguishing factor that would not only drastically increase its market value but also provide a unique research opportunity - he traveled to Los Alamos National Laboratory's Lujan Neutron Scattering Center to peer deep inside the mineral using neutron diffractometry. Neutrons, different from other probes such as X-rays and electrons, are able to penetrate many centimeters deep into most materials. Revealing the inner structure of a crystal without destroying the sample - imperative, as this one is worth an estimated $1.5 million - would allow Rakovan and Lujan Center collaborators Sven Vogel and Heinz Nakotte to prove that this exquisite nugget, which seemed almost too perfect and too big to be real, was a single crystal and hence a creation of nature. Its owner, who lives in the United States, provided the samples to Rakovan to assess the crystallinity of four specimens, all of which had been found decades ago in Venezuela.

  20. VEBA-Combi-cracking - A technology for upgrading of heavy oils and bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doehler, W.; Kretschmar, D.I.K.; Merz, L.; Niemann, K. )

    1987-04-01

    Based on experiences with liquid phase hydrogenation for coal liquefaction according to the Berguis-Pier-Process as well as crude oil residue hydrogenation in the Fifties and Sixties, VEBA OEL in recent years developed the VEBA-LQ-Cracking (VLC) and the VEBA-Combi-Cracking (VCC) Processes. Since 1978, more than 20 different feedstocks have been converted in small scale plants with a capacity of 3-20 kg/h. Together with LURGI GmbH, Frankfurt, the next steps were taken: the design and construction of a 1 t/h Pilot Plant located at the RUHR OEL refinery in Gelsenkirchen. After 18 months of construction, the heavy oil pilot plant was put on stream in May 1983. Since the beginning of 1983, the plant has been funded and owned by LURGI GmbH, VEBA OEL AG and INTEVEP S.A., the research institute of Petroleos de Venezuela, all of whom have participated in the development of the VLC/VCC process. Reported here are the results of the intensive experimental work for the development of the VLC/VCC-processes in a scale covering all aspects relevant for a scale-up, demonstrate the technical maturity of the processes developed by VEBA OEL to convert refinery residues and natural heavy crude oils.

  1. World heavy oil and bitumen riches - update 1983: Part two, production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-06-08

    Despite world recession, overabundance of conventional oil and light product supplies, softer oil prices, and certain important reversals in development policies, worldwide production of heavy and extra-heavy crude oil increased 11.3% in 1982 compared to 1981; latest 1983 data confirm this trend. For the top ten heavy-oil-producing nations, the increase was 17.7% over the same period, mainly due to increases in Venezuela, Mexico, and Nigeria. In 1981, world heavy and extra-heavy crude production was 6.1% of world conventional oil production; in 1982 it increased to 7.2%. Bitumen production in Canada, the only country with 1982 production figures, increased 46% over 1981. It is probable that further technological advances and experimentation in other countries, including the Soviet Union, have resulted in other bitumen production increases as well. Although multinational cooperation in research for extraction, upgrading, and transportation of heavy crudes and bitumens has not grown to the extent that many industry experts had hoped, several broad areas of cooperation stand supported and many of them have been strengthened. Such progress in the face of economic and political uncertainties are demonstrations of world leadership for the next petroleum age. This issue presents the Energy Detente fuel price/tax series and industrial fuel prices for June 1983 for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere.

  2. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    F.O.B.[a] costs of imported crude oil by selected country dollars per barrel Year month Selected countries Persian Gulf[b] Total OPEC[c] Non OPEC Angola Colombia Mexico Nigeria Saudi Arabia United Kingdom Venezuela 1996 20.71 21.33 19.14 21.27 19.28 19.43 17.73 19.22 18.94 19.65 1997 18.81 18.85 16.72 19.43 15.16 18.59 15.33 15.24 16.26 17.51 1998 12.11 12.56 10.49 12.97 8.87 12.52 9.31 9.09 10.20 11.21 1999 17.46 17.20 15.89 17.32 17.65 19.14 14.33 17.15 15.90 16.84 2000 27.90 29.04 25.39 28.70

  3. Petroleum Marketing Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Landed costs of imported crude oil by selected country dollars per barrel Year month Selected countries Persian Gulf[a] Total OPEC[b] Non OPEC Angola Canada Colombia Mexico Nigeria Saudi Arabia United Kingdom Venezuela 1996 21.86 19.94 22.02 19.64 21.95 20.49 20.88 18.59 20.45 20.14 20.47 1997 20.24 17.63 19.71 17.30 20.64 17.52 20.64 16.35 17.44 17.73 18.45 1998 13.37 11.62 13.26 11.04 14.14 11.16 13.55 10.16 11.18 11.46 12.22 1999 18.37 17.54 18.09 16.12 17.63 17.48 18.26 15.58 17.37 16.94

  4. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Carribbean area, and Mexico in 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deal, C.S.

    1982-11-01

    Petroleum developments in 1981 continued in the pattern of recent years of increasing exploration and exploitation in response to the second catastrophic surge in crude oil prices thrust on the world economy in 1979. Production of crude oil increased in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Guatemala, and Mexico, whereas Venezuela, Trinidad, Peru, and Bolivia experienced declines. Exploratory surveys, exploratory drilling, and development drilling all increased in most of the countries reporting. Significant successful exploratory drilling is reported for several countries. In Argentina, the producing zone of the Austral basin has been extended farther offshore, and is reportedly productive in what is apparently the upper Malvinas basin. In Brazil, extensions to several producing areas are reported in the Campos basin. Also, the Jurua gas province of western Amazonas reportedly had an encouraging extension. Colombia had several discoveries in the Magdalena basins, but the 2 Llanos discoveries are considered much more significant. For a variety of reasons, several countries have undertaken or are undertaking changes in laws and regulations to attract foreign companies into exploration risk ventures. In some countries, exploitation ventures are also offered.

  5. Seismic acquisition and processing methodologies in overthrust areas: Some examples from Latin America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilander, N.G.; Mitchel, R..

    1996-08-01

    Overthrust areas represent some of the last frontiers in petroleum exploration today. Billion barrel discoveries in the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and the Monagas fold-thrust belt of Venezuela during the past decade have highlighted the potential rewards for overthrust exploration. However the seismic data recorded in many overthrust areas is disappointingly poor. Challenges such as rough topography, complex subsurface structure, presence of high-velocity rocks at the surface, back-scattered energy and severe migration wavefronting continue to lower data quality and reduce interpretability. Lack of well/velocity control also reduces the reliability of depth estimations and migrated images. Failure to obtain satisfactory pre-drill structural images can easily result in costly wildcat failures. Advances in the methodologies used by Chevron for data acquisition, processing and interpretation have produced significant improvements in seismic data quality in Bolivia, Colombia and Trinidad. In this paper, seismic test results showing various swath geometries will be presented. We will also show recent examples of processing methods which have led to improved structural imaging. Rather than focusing on {open_quotes}black box{close_quotes} methodology, we will emphasize the cumulative effect of step-by-step improvements. Finally, the critical significance and interrelation of velocity measurements, modeling and depth migration will be explored. Pre-drill interpretations must ultimately encompass a variety of model solutions, and error bars should be established which realistically reflect the uncertainties in the data.

  6. Annotated bibliography of coal in the Caribbean region. [Lignite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orndorff, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of preparing this annotated bibliography was to compile information on coal localities for the Caribbean region used for preparation of a coal map of the region. Also, it serves as a brief reference list of publications for future coal studies in the Caribbean region. It is in no way an exhaustive study or complete listing of coal literature for the Caribbean. All the material was gathered from published literature with the exception of information from Cuba which was supplied from a study by Gordon Wood of the US Geological Survey, Branch of Coal Resources. Following the classification system of the US Geological Survey (Wood and others, 1983), the term coal resources has been used in this report for reference to general estimates of coal quantities even though authors of the material being annotated may have used the term coal reserves in a similar denotation. The literature ranges from 1857 to 1981. The countries listed include Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the countries of Central America.

  7. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION AND HIGH RESOLUTION SIMULATOR OF IN-SITU COMBUSTION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margot Gerritsen; Anthony R. Kovscek

    2005-02-01

    Accurate simulation of in-situ combustion processes is computationally very challenging because the spatial and temporal scales over which the combustion process takes place are very small. In this fifth quarterly report of our DoE funded research, we continue the discussion of the design of a new simulation tool based on an efficient Cartesian Adaptive Mesh Refinement technique that allows much higher grid densities to be used near typical fronts than current simulators. We have now developed an appropriate upscaling technique for our grids, based on the local-global upscaling approach. We show preliminary results on two-dimensional test cases. On the experimental side, we continued experiments to measure the rates and kinetics of combustion in the presence and absence of metallic additives. In this quarter, we developed a better understanding of the cation replacing power of the various additives that affect combustion performance positively, and obtained a preliminary reactivity series. We also resumed our experimental investigation into the cyclic solvent-combustion process using crude oil from the Hamaca Region of Venezuela. Various measurements were made including oxygen consumption as a function of temperature. Preliminary results show that the temperatures for the onset of combustion are a function of the solvent injected.

  8. Wellhead monitors automate Lake Maracaibo gas lift

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adjunta, J.C. ); Majek, A. )

    1994-11-28

    High-performance personal computer (PC) and intelligent remote terminal unit (IRTU) technology have optimized the remote control of gas lift injection and surveillance of over 1,000 offshore production wells at Lake Maracaibo in Venezuela. In its 3-year program, Maraven expects a 27,000 b/d increase in oil production by reducing deferred production and optimizing gas lift injection by as much as 20%. In addition, real time data on well performance will enhance production management as well as allocation of operational and maintenance resources. The remote control system consists of a solar-powered wellhead monitor (WHM) installed on each well platform. At each flow gathering station within a 2-mile range of a family of wells, a host terminal unit polls and stores the well data with low power, 250-mw radios. From a remote location, 60 miles onshore, an operator interface polls the host units for real time data with 5-watt radios operating in the 900-megahertz band. The paper describes the design, optimization, telemetry management, and selection of a single vendor for this system. The economic impact of this system to Maraven is also discussed.

  9. Re-Entries: New strategies in development zones at the Orinoco Oil Belt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, R.; Briceno, M.; Figueroa, J.; Bolanos, C.

    1996-08-01

    Drilling of horizontal wells in Venezuela began in the Orinoco Oil Belt with the wells CI-87 and CI-97 in the J-20 block, drilled in 1989 and 1990, respectively. Well CI-87 produces up to 1000 BPD without steam injection. Due to the success of this well, the exploitation strategy was oriented toward re-entry and sidetracking wells with mechanical problems, high water cut and low potential. The purpose of this programme was to enhance drainage patterns, access new reservoirs through existing bores, and increase oil production while reducing per-barrel costs. Eighteen (18) wells were re-drilled in different pay zones such as O-12, O-13, O-14 and O-15 with horizontal sections between a thousand feet and one thousand six hundred feet. Those wells were completed with progressive cavity pumps, sucker rod beam pumps and electrical submersible pumps. Presented in this paper are the results of the re-entries at the Orinoco Oil Belt and the future re-entry strategy.

  10. High resolution evaluation techniques in thinly laminated shaly sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coll, C.; Chacartegui, F.; Suarez, O.; Alvarez, G. ); Monsegui, G.; Lambertini, R.; Haines, P. )

    1993-02-01

    Significant hydrocarbon production may occur from thin layers which were previously considered non-economic. Improved processing methods for detecting and evaluating thin beds have shown these reservoirs to be attractive prospects. Such thinly bedded laminated shale-sand sequences exist within some of the producing formations in Venezuela. These shale sand packages may contain significant bypassed or undeveloped reserves. A new technique using deconvolution of the deep resistivity through the microresistivity curves (Microlog) identifies potential thinly bedded reservoirs. This methodology appears to be the most reliable permeability indicator of the prospective intervals within the Misoa Formation at Ceuta Field in Maracaibo Lake. The prospective intervals within this field have been calibrated with cores and with sedimentological information. This calibration shows only two lithofacies contained hydrocarbons previously not evaluated as oil saturated by traditional methods. These facies exhibited low values for deep resistivity curves which indicated high levels of water saturation. Deep resistivity deconvolution processing has been successfully applied to solve this problem in the Ceuta field. The resulting resistivity curve exhibits a vertical resolution of better than 1 ft., while retaining the essential advantages of deep resistivity curve. Laminated sand analyses were carried out and prove to be very useful in the integration of petrophysical and sedimentological data for detection of prospective intervals.

  11. The use of differential GPS as an inspection tool in the external corrosion control of buried pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalski, A.R.

    1998-12-31

    A maintenance program was designed to improve the cathodic protection level of two oil gathering pipelines of an oil production facility in Eastern Venezuela. The program was built upon the information obtained from a coating condition evaluation and the soil resistivity profile along the pipeline corridors. The external coating was inspected with the Direct Current Voltage Gradient technique, DCVG; the soil resistivity of the pipeline corridor was measured every 100 meters (328 ft.). All the geographical information was obtained with Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS). This allowed the pipeline operator to relocate all coating defects with a sub metric accuracy that considerably reduced the rehabilitation costs. The coating inspection covered a total distance of twelve thousand, nine hundred and thirty-six meters (12,936 meters). Two hundred and ninety two (292) defects were found; 54 defects belonged to Category 3 and will need immediate repair. The soil corrosiveness along the pipeline corridors was established by the resistivity gradient. Critical areas were established and exploratory digs were recommended to assess exposed metal condition.

  12. Integration of upgrading in the production of extra heavy crudes from the orinoco belt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solari, R.B.; Marzin, R.; Soler, L.

    1996-12-31

    Four heavy oil upgrading joint ventures with major oil players are currently being developed by Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA) affiliates. Their objective is to build integrated production-upgrading complexes to transform the low quality heavy oil from the Orinoco Belt into valuable synthetic crude oil (SCO). One of this joint ventures, a partnership between Corpoven, S.A. and ARCO International Oil and Gas Co., thoroughly evaluated the new HDH{trademark} hydroprocessing technology of Intevep, S.A. as an option to upgrade 99 API Hamaca extraheavy crude. This paper summarizes the characteristics and economics of an integrated worldscale production-upgrading complex based on the HDH{trademark} technology as compared to a similar complex based on the well known delayed coking process. It concludes that whenever high liquid yields and/or feedstock cost drives the process economics, HDH{trademark} can compite advantageously with these more conventional technologies. At present, Maraven, S.A., another PDVSA affiliate, is developing the first HDH{trademark} commercial unit, to be built in its Cardon Refinery. It is anticipated that the 100 m{sup 3}/h unit will be in operation by 1998, allowing the demonstration of the process, as well as further optimizations of the scheme, thereby improving its economic competitiveness. 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Vulnerability to closing of Hormuz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-03-07

    Tankers carrying roughly 8-million barrels per day (mmb/d) of crude oil, or some 16% of the non-communist world's oil supply, pass through the Strait of Hormuz. Experts agree that just 3-mmb/d of that could be exported through alternate routes. If the war between Iran and Iraq should result in their completely halting each other's production, this relatively limited supply curtailment would reduce world oil production by over 3.4-mmb/d. Since the two have not caused such mutual disaster during four years of war, many observers believe there has been a deliberate avoidance of the jugular squeeze. Nevertheless, the two combatants appear capable not only of cutting off their oil production, but escalating fighting to the point where Gulf traffic would be impeded. Potential results from a prolonged Iran-Iraq crisis are viewed in three scenarios. Also included in this issue are brief summaries of: (1) Mexico's new energy plan, internationalism, and OPEC; (2) update on Argentina's energy resource developments; (3) Venezuela: belt tightening; (4) Western Hemisphere oil production declines; (5) (6) days of oil supply for Canada, USA, Japan, France, Italy, and UK; and (6) US Department of Defense fuel consumption. The Energy Detente fuel price/tax series and principal industrial fuel prices are included for March for countries of the Eastern Hemisphere.

  14. Oil exports, structural change, and economic development in Iran

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emami-Khoi, A.

    1981-01-01

    Within the broad Chenery-Kuznets framework, using structural change as a major indicator of economic development, this study investigates the direction and magnitude and broad features of structural change in Iran, and the role of oil production and exports in that change. Although the study covers a larger horizon, the analysis is focused on the period 1955 through 1977. A similar but less-detailed investigation is conducted for Algeria, Indonesia, and Venezuela also, and a cross-country, comparative perspective is generated. The study shows that, in general, the structural changes in Iran have either been weak (for example, in production and employment), or they are contrary to what the model would predict (for instance in trade). The pattern of structural change observed in Iran, therefore, does not indicate any significant economic development even though per capita income increased five-fold over the period 1955 through 1977. In short, oil does not appear to have been an engine of economic development in Iran. The situation appears broadly similar for the other three countries. Based on these findings, the study offers some suggestions concerning the future economic strategies that should enhance very considerably the contribution that oil industry can make toward Iran's economic development, and should thus accelerate the pace of economic development. These suggestions may be useful to other oil-exporting countries as well.

  15. World crude output overcomes Persian Gulf disruption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Several OPEC producers made good on their promises to replace 2.7 MMbpd of oil exports that vanished from the world market after Iraq took over Kuwait. Even more incredibly, they accomplished this while a breathtaking 1.2- MMbopd reduction in Soviet output took place during the course of 1991. After Abu Dhabi, Indonesia, Iran, Libya, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela turned the taps wide open, their combined output rose 2.95 MMbopd. Put together with a 282,000-bopd increase by Norway and contributions from smaller producers, this enabled world oil production to remain within 400,000 bopd of its 1990 level. The 60.5-MMbopd average was off by just 0.7%. This paper reports that improvement took place in five of eight regions. Largest increases were in Western Europe and Africa. Greatest reductions occurred in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Fifteen nations produced 1 MMbopd or more last year, compared with 17 during 1990.

  16. The current state of the Russian reduced enrichment research reactors program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, V.G.; Kartashov, E.F.; Lukichev, V.A.

    1997-08-01

    During the last year after the 16-th International Conference on Reducing Fuel Enrichment in Research Reactors held in October, 1993 in Oarai, Japan, the conclusive stage of the Program on reducing fuel enrichment (to 20% in U-235) in research reactors was finally made up in Russia. The Program was started late in 70th and the first stage of the Program was completed by 1986 which allowed to reduce fuel enrichment from 80-90% to 36%. The completion of the Program current stage, which is counted for 5-6 years, will exclude the use of the fuel enriched by more than 20% from RF to other countries such as: Poland, Czeck Republick, Hungary, Roumania, Bulgaria, Libya, Viet-Nam, North Korea, Egypt, Latvia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. In 1994 the Program, approved by RF Minatom authorities, has received the status of an inter-branch program since it was admitted by the RF Ministry for Science and Technical Policy. The Head of RF Minatom central administrative division N.I.Ermakov was nominated as the Head of the Russian Program, V.G.Aden, RDIPE Deputy Director, was nominated as the scientific leader. The Program was submitted to the Commission for Scientific, Technical and Economical Cooperation between USA and Russia headed by Vice-President A. Gore and Prime Minister V. Chemomyrdin and was given support also.

  17. Nuclear energy: Where do we go from here?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muslim, Dato’ Dr Noramly

    2015-04-29

    As Malaysia progresses towards 2020, the depleting resource of oil and gas has forced a re-look at alternatives to replace fossil fuels as energy sources. Among the viable options is nuclear energy, enabling us to meet energy needs and sustain national development in the twenty-first century. Three essential steps Malaysia must take to introduce nuclear power into its energy mix are: energy planning, infrastructure development, and deployment. Malaysia has to face a series of challenges, including public acceptance, waste management, minimizing proliferation risk, and ensuring the security of nuclear plants and materials. Timely development of qualified and competent manpower is a key limiting factor in the development and transfer of nuclear technologies — and education and training take time, effort and money. There is a need for political will. Within the Asian region, China, Korea and Japan are in the forefront in utilizing nuclear power to meet electricity demands. Countries such as UAE, Bangladesh, Vietnam and Turkey are moving ahead with the nuclear option for electricity generation and they have begun planning and construction of nuclear power plants. Against this backdrop, what are Malaysia’s moves? This paper discusses various options and challenges, obstacles and repercussions in meeting future energy demands.

  18. Growth mechanisms, polytypism, and real structure of kaolinite microcrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samotoin, N. D.

    2008-09-15

    The mechanisms of growth of kaolinite microcrystals (0.1-5.0 {mu}m in size) at deposits related to the cluvial weathering crust, as well as to the low-temperature and medium-temperature hydrothermal processes of transformations of minerals in different rocks in Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Czechia, Vietnam, India, Cuba, and Madagascar, are investigated using transmission electron microscopy and vacuum decoration with gold. It is established that kaolinite microcrystals grow according to two mechanisms: the mechanism of periodic formation of two-dimensional nuclei and the mechanism of spiral growth. The spiral growth of kaolinite microcrystals is dominant and occurs on steps of screw dislocations that differ in sign and magnitude of the Burgers vector along the c axis. The layered growth of kaolinite originates from a widespread source in the form of a step between polar (+ and -) dislocations, i.e., a growth analogue of the Frank-Read dislocation source. The density of growth screw dislocations varies over a wide range and can be as high as {approx}10{sup 9} cm{sup -2}. Layered stepped kaolinite growth pyramids for all mechanisms of growth on the (001) face of kaolinite exhibit the main features of the triclinic 1Tc and real structures of this mineral.

  19. Why the Gulf War still matters: Foreign perspectives on the war and the future of international security. Report No. 16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrity, P.J.

    1993-07-01

    This report summarizes the main findings of a Center for National Security Studies (CNSS) project that examined how a number of nations other than the United States have reacted to the course and outcome of the Persian Gulf War of 1991. The project was built around studies of key countries on which the Gulf War might reasonably be expected to have had a significant impact: Argentina, the ASEAN states, Brazil, China, Cuba, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Libya, North Korea, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Spain, Syria, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, Vietnam, and the states of the former Yugoslavia. These country studies were written by well-recognized independent experts following a common set of guidelines provided by CNSS. When the country studies were completed, they were reviewed and supplemented through a series of peer assessments and workshops. The report represents a synthesis of material generated through this process, and is intended to stimulate thought and further analysis on the critical topics discussed herein.

  20. Bibliography of information sources on East Asian energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salosis, J.

    1982-11-01

    The first section of this bibliography is a subject index by title to sources of information on East Asian energy. The countries considered were: Brunei, the PRC, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, the Koreas, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. If the geographic coverage by any source is restricted to a particular country and was not indicated by the title, a country abbreviation in parentheses was added. Titles that include the term data base are computerized. The second section contains the Title Index which lists each printed publication alphabetically with frequency of publication and the US$ price for a yearly air mail subscription. The publisher or distribution office is listed below the title. The Data Base Index lists computerized sources with the author and the vendor providing either online access or tapes. No prices have been quoted in this section because of the wide range of methods in use and the impossibility of running benchmarks for this study. The Address Index lists the publishers, data base authors and vendors alphabetically.

  1. American press coverage of US-Soviet relations, the Soviet Union, nuclear weapons, arms control, and national security: A bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorman, W.A.; Manoff, R.K.; Weeks, J.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography covers work that addresses coverage of nuclear and arms control issues, defense, the Soviet Union, and Soviet-American relations by the American news media between 1965 and 1988. Material selected for inclusion either discusses press performance or addresses conditions -- such as classification of information -- that directly impact on media coverage of such issues. Bodies of literature on media coverage of conflict elsewhere in the world lie outside the Center's current mandate (which has shaped the parameters of this bibliography) except insofar as such conflicts are presented by the news media specifically in the context of US-Soviet relations. Much the same is true of such issues as the North-South flow of information and the debate over calls for a New World Information Order. However, the authors have decided to include assessments of American media coverage of the Vietnam War as a case study of a watershed conflict that raised many of the issues discussed throughout this literature in a particularly compelling way.

  2. How can environmental regulations promote clean coal technology adoption in APEC developing economies?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-11-15

    The study examines both existing and emerging regulatory frameworks in order to determine which type of regulations that would be most effective at promoting clean coal technology adoption in development Asia Pacific Economic Co-operation (APEC) economies and would be practical to implement. regulations targeting air emissions; regulations targeting water use; and regulations concerning coal combustion by-products. When considering the potential effect of existing and new environmental regulations on the adoption of clean coal the analysis of technologies was organised into three categories: environmental control technologies; high efficiency coal combustion technologies; and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). To target the recommendations towards APEC economies that would benefit the most from this analysis, the study focused on developing and transition APEC economies that are expected to rely on coal for a large part of their future generating capacity. These economies include China, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Russian Federation, Thailand, and Vietnam. ACARP provided funding to this study, under Project C15078. 10 figs., 14 tabs., 10 apps.

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE - A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnis Judzis

    2002-10-01

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE -- A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING contract for the quarter starting July 2002 through September 2002. Even though we are awaiting the optimization portion of the testing program, accomplishments include the following: (1) Smith International agreed to participate in the DOE Mud Hammer program. (2) Smith International chromed collars for upcoming benchmark tests at TerraTek, now scheduled for 4Q 2002. (3) ConocoPhillips had a field trial of the Smith fluid hammer offshore Vietnam. The hammer functioned properly, though the well encountered hole conditions and reaming problems. ConocoPhillips plan another field trial as a result. (4) DOE/NETL extended the contract for the fluid hammer program to allow Novatek to ''optimize'' their much delayed tool to 2003 and to allow Smith International to add ''benchmarking'' tests in light of SDS Digger Tools' current financial inability to participate. (5) ConocoPhillips joined the Industry Advisors for the mud hammer program. (6) TerraTek acknowledges Smith International, BP America, PDVSA, and ConocoPhillips for cost-sharing the Smith benchmarking tests allowing extension of the contract to complete the optimizations.

  4. Have We Run Out of Oil Yet? Oil Peaking Analysis from an Optimist's Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L; Hopson, Dr Janet L; Li, Jia

    2005-01-01

    This study addresses several questions concerning the peaking of conventional oil production from an optimist's perspective. Is the oil peak imminent? What is the range of uncertainty? What are the key determining factors? Will a transition to unconventional oil undermine or strengthen OPEC's influence over world oil markets? These issues are explored using a model combining alternative world energy scenarios with an accounting of resource depletion and a market-based simulation of transition to unconventional oil resources. No political or environmental constraints are allowed to hinder oil production, geological constraints on the rates at which oil can be produced are not represented, and when USGS resource estimates are used, more than the mean estimate of ultimately recoverable resources is assumed to exist. The issue is framed not as a question of "running out" of conventional oil, but in terms of the timing and rate of transition from conventional to unconventional oil resources. Unconventional oil is chosen because production from Venezuela's heavy-oil fields and Canada's Athabascan oil sands is already underway on a significant scale and unconventional oil is most consistent with the existing infrastructure for producing, refining, distributing and consuming petroleum. However, natural gas or even coal might also prove to be economical sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels. These results indicate a high probability that production of conventional oil from outside of the Middle East region will peak, or that the rate of increase of production will become highly constrained before 2025. If world consumption of hydrocarbon fuels is to continue growing, massive development of unconventional resources will be required. While there are grounds for pessimism and optimism, it is certainly not too soon for extensive, detailed analysis of transitions to alternative energy sources.

  5. The 1992 conference on Latin America's Energy Industry: New opportunities for growth through international investment and trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Liberal economic and political reforms in Latin America, a declining oil market in the US, and world events such as last year's Persian Gulf Crisis are making foreign investment in Latin America's energy sector increasingly attractive. The Persian Gulf crisis indicated the US must diversify oil sources; increased competition and deregulation in electric power generation and gas production are providing more opportunities for independent power producers at home and abroad; and Latin America's need for foreign financial and technical assistance are providing an important pull'' factor. Electricity needs in the developing world wig be huge in the years to come. In Latin America and the Caribbean, 66,500 mg of new capacity will be required by 1999. The developing world will require US $100 billion in energy investment a year. But Latin American countries will have trouble obtaining funds. The region will need to rely heavily on private international sources to finance future energy requirements. Multilateral development bank participation win remain critical, however, serving as a catalyst for government reform and private investment in the sector. In particular, World Bank lending will be focused on countries with a clear commitment to pricing reform, regulatory reform, competitive markets, non-market barriers, and technology transfer. Opportunities for foreign participation in the Latin American oil sector are particularly large in Ecuador, Peru, Argentina, and Venezuela. Mexico's plans for reform in the oil sector, a delicate issue in that country, appear to be less defined and likely to occur farther into the future. The conference made clear that a regulatory entity is needed even when the sector is owned by the government. Regulatory processes must be fair and transparent in order to ensure adequate financial and technical performance.

  6. Environmental considerations for international projects in coastal waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, P.J.; Kubanis, S.A.

    1994-12-31

    From the industrial revolution until the late 1960s, development and the environment were largely viewed as mutually exclusive. In the late 1960s a change in public awareness and attitude emerged, and since the U.N Conference on the Human Environment in 1972 there has been a significant change in the global perception of the relationship between the environment and development. Recognition that renewable resources, such as forests, atmospheric oxygen, and soil, can be harvested indefinitely through sound management practices has led to the current focus on sustainable development. When the National Environmental Policy Act was adopted in 1969, a comprehensive environmental management process was set in place. The impact of these regulations was felt by different industries at different levels, with the initial brunt being borne by the power industry, followed by the petroleum industry. In recent years the mining industry has been heavily impacted. Although industry has been increasingly regulated in the US since 1969, development in many other countries was not subject to environmental review or regulation. In recent years, however, this picture has changed dramatically. Currently, most other industrialized, and many developing countries have environmental laws, regulations, and review processes in place. For example, Indonesia, Thailand, Republic of China, Ecuador, Venezuela, Saudi Arabia, and Russia all have environmental laws, standards, and/or review requirements applicable to petroleum and other industrial developments. Most Western European and Pacific Rim countries have environmental standards and review processes in place. In Eastern Europe, Asia and South America, about half of the countries have regulations, and in Africa a small but growing number of countries have some level of environmental regulation.

  7. Paleoecologic and biostratigraphic models for pleistocene through miocene foraminiferal assemblages of the Gulf Coast Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breard, S.Q.; Callender, A.D.; Nault, M.J. )

    1993-09-01

    We have developed operationally oriented paleoecologic models used in hydrocarbon exploration of the Gulf Coast basin for Pleistocene through Miocene foraminifera and an updated, refined biostratigraphic chart. We also present estimated paleoecologic tolerances for major benthic and planktic foraminiferal markers, and discuss a number of rules and problems encountered in oil industry paleoenvironmental reconstruction. Key benthic paleoenvironmental markers for particular depth zones are graphically presented for the Pleistocene through Miocene. Improvements over previous models include greater use of calcareous and arenaceous foraminiferal species not used or recognized in earlier studies. Finer subdivisions of bathyal paleoenvironments are of particular significance due to current Gulf of Mexico deep-water exploration. Operationally, the abyssal environmental is difficult to recognize due to a reliance of faunal abundance to delineate abyssal from bathyal and the lack of abyssal zone markers. A number of genera and species are identified as having changed habitat preference through time. Some forms have moved progressively into deeper water (Ceratobulimina Cyclammina cancellata and Nonion pompiloides). Conversely, the movement of species into progressively shallower occurrences through time (Pullenia bullodies) appears to be less common. The widespread occurrence of known Gulf of Mexico foraminiferal species from countries such as Mexico, Venezuela, Ecuador, Jamaica, Trinidad, and the Dominican Republic, suggest that these; models have direct application to Neogene studies in Central America, South America, the Caribbean, and the U.S. Gulf Coast. We introduce a variety of deep-water benthic marker foraminifera, many for the first time. These taxa help fill gaps for deeper-water sections where standard benthic marker foraminifera do not occur, helping debunk the popular myth that benthic foraminifera are useless as markers in the exploration of deep-water sections.

  8. Mesozoic and cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Maranon Basin in Southeastern Columbia, Eastern Ecuador and Northeastern Peru

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aleman, A.M.; Marksteiner, M. )

    1993-02-01

    The Late Triassic to Early Jurassic in the Maranon was characterized by tectonic quiescence and carbonate shelf deposition. During Middle to Late Jurassic, a northeast-southwest extensional event occurred which is documented by the presence of northwest oriented grabens filled with red beds and volcaniclastic rocks. Cretaceous deposition commenced during the Aptian and continued to the Early Campanian within the vast South America Cretaceous Seaway (SACS) that extended from Venezuela to Central Peru. These strata comprised of shallow marine clastics sources from the Brazilian and Guyana cratons to the east. Retreat of the SACS resulted from the Late Cretaceous (Peruvian) phase of the Andean Orogeny. Deposition became largely continental with sediments derived from the west. The deformation was comtemporaneous with oblique collision and accretion of an allochthonous terrain present in Colombia and Ecuador, as well as uplift of the Putumayo, Napo, Cutucu and Cenepa (PNCC) Mountains, westward erosion of the Napo/Chonta Formations, widespread deposition of red beds, volcanic activity in the foreland and the subtle inversion of half grabens. The Middle Eocene (Inca) phase of the Andean Orogeny, correlated to a relative increase in convergence rates along the western margin of South America (SA). This orogeny was characterized by the development of folds and reverse faults within a narrow and elongated belt, the reactivation of the PNCC Uplifts, the deposition of varicolored fluviatile deposits, the renewed inversion of half grabens, and volcanic activity close to the hinterland. The three main pulses of the Late Miocene to Pliocene phase of the Andean Orogeny correlate with high rates of convergence along the SA margin. This orogenic phase was characterized by thick fluviatile deposition, reactivation of the PNCC uplifts, eastward propagation of the fold and thrust belt, renewed inversion of the half grabens and alkaline volcanism in the foreland.

  9. The 1992 conference on Latin America`s Energy Industry: New opportunities for growth through international investment and trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Liberal economic and political reforms in Latin America, a declining oil market in the US, and world events such as last year`s Persian Gulf Crisis are making foreign investment in Latin America`s energy sector increasingly attractive. The Persian Gulf crisis indicated the US must diversify oil sources; increased competition and deregulation in electric power generation and gas production are providing more opportunities for independent power producers at home and abroad; and Latin America`s need for foreign financial and technical assistance are providing an important ``pull`` factor. Electricity needs in the developing world wig be huge in the years to come. In Latin America and the Caribbean, 66,500 mg of new capacity will be required by 1999. The developing world will require US $100 billion in energy investment a year. But Latin American countries will have trouble obtaining funds. The region will need to rely heavily on private international sources to finance future energy requirements. Multilateral development bank participation win remain critical, however, serving as a catalyst for government reform and private investment in the sector. In particular, World Bank lending will be focused on countries with a clear commitment to pricing reform, regulatory reform, competitive markets, non-market barriers, and technology transfer. Opportunities for foreign participation in the Latin American oil sector are particularly large in Ecuador, Peru, Argentina, and Venezuela. Mexico`s plans for reform in the oil sector, a delicate issue in that country, appear to be less defined and likely to occur farther into the future. The conference made clear that a regulatory entity is needed even when the sector is owned by the government. Regulatory processes must be fair and transparent in order to ensure adequate financial and technical performance.

  10. II international conference on heavy crude and tar sands. Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The Second International Conference on Heavy Crude and Tar Sands clearly demonstrated that the world has abundant heavy and extra heavy crudes that will sustain the petroleum age for decades. Perhaps even more important for many developed and developing countries is that these resources are widely distributed throughout the world, for deposits are known to exist in at least forty-nine countries. Moreover, the rapid expansion over the last two and a half years of knowledge of the magnitude of these resources suggests there is much more to be added to the world's list of useful energy assets. The current ample supply of crude oil does not appear to have lessened the resolve to develop heavy crude and tar sands. Major industrial countries are eager to develop their heavy oil resources to free themselves from dependence on OPEC and the developing nations hope to reduce their cash outflows for imported oil which they can ill afford. Venezuela and Canada, which both have massive heavy crude reserves, are intent on developing their resources to supplement declining supplies of light oil. Despite the weakening international price of oil, the economics for many heavy crude ventures seem favorable. Statistics quoted at the conference suggest considerable heavy crude production can be brought on stream at costs approaching the finding costs of light conventional crude. At the same time, it has to be acknowledged that those large tar sands projects, like Alberta's multi-billion dollar ventures, are sufficiently marginal that they may be held back by current soft oil demand. This summary report covers the following areas: resources; international cooperation; production; environment; technological developments; upgrading and refining; marketing; and future of heavy crude oil and tar sands.

  11. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  12. Numerical simulation of steam injection processes with solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zerpa, L.; Mendez, Z.

    1995-12-31

    In Venezuela during recent years, gas oil has been evaluated as an additive to increase steam injection process efficiency. The results of laboratory and field tests have shown a significant improvement in the production behavior. Despite these experiences, it is necessary to complement the information with results obtained from numerical simulation studies in order to know injection parameter effects, such as gas oil concentration, schemes and rates of injection, temperatures, etc., and also some mechanisms involved in the process. In this work, the results achieved in the numerical simulation of displacement tests with steam and gas oil are presented. A fully implicit 2-D thermal, three-phase compositional simulator was used to obtain all the data presented in this paper The numerical simulation results show a similar oil production performance to those obtained in the displacement tests with injection of gas oil and steam simultaneously. These results indicate rising of the production rate when the solvent concentration increases. They also reveal that the solvent co-injection scheme improves the productivity in relation to the gas oil pre-injection at low temperature. However, when gas oil is pre-injected at higher temperature, the oil production performance is similar to the co-injection scheme performance. This can attribute to the favorable temperature effect on the diffusion mechanisms. On the other hand, an increase of the gas oil injection rate causes a productivity reduction. In addition, the gas oil capacity to remove more viscous fractions than the original crude was verified. It was determined that the gas oil light fraction volatilization contributes to the process improvement. In general, these results confirm the benefit of using solvent and contribute to the understanding of process mechanisms.

  13. Development and exploitation stategies in a high-pressure-temperature reservoir with a complex hydrocarbon fluid column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maan, N.; Rosales, E.; Medina, H.

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes an interdisciplinary study performed to plan final Reservoir Development and Secondary Recovery Strategies for The Carito Field discovered in late 1987. Carito is a very large oil Field located in Northeastern Venezuela, with an estimated Volumetric Oil in Place of 1.8 Billion Stb. Production is mainly from Naricual Formation with a thickness of about 1300 feet in a faulted anticline. At the time of this Study, 25 wells had been drilled below 12200 ft ss. These wells were producing about 90000 Stb/D through 39 completions. Original reservoir pressure was abnormally high (11300 psig at 14040 ft SS) and the Temperature averages 300 degrees Fahrenheit. The field shows a graded fluid system that varies from a gas condensate to a medium oil. Gas cap to oil zone ratio is about 1.2 and crude oil gravity varies with depth from 36 to 21 API degrees. The simulation study, conducted to establish the optimum exploitation strategy, incorporated a detailed geologic model based on seismic, sedimentary environment. and production geologic concepts. The data from the geologic model, routine and special test data from conventional cores, and the data from 58 fluid analysis were consolidated in a numerical reservoir simulator model, which predicted the potential reservoir performance under various Development, Production and Secondary Recovery Planning. The results of this study led us to design a Gas Injection Secondary Recovery Process encompassing a rate injection of 600 MMScf/D through 10 injector wells and the perforation of an additional 16 producer wells. We expect to double the natural depletion oil Recovery as a consequence of the Pressure Maintenance Program.

  14. Impact and future of heavy oil produciton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K, )

    1996-01-01

    Heavy oil resources are becoming increaingly important in meeting world oil demand. Heavy oil accounts for 10% of the worlds current oil production and is anticipated to grow significantly. Recent narrowing of the price margins between light and heavy oil and the development of regional heavy oil markets (production, refining and marketing) have prompted renewed investment in heavy oil. Production of well known heavy oil resources of Canada, Venezuela, United States, and elsewhere throughout the world will be expanded on a project-by-project basis. Custom refineries designed to process these heavy crudes are being expanded. Refined products from these crudes will be cleaner than ever before because of the huge investment. However, heavy oil still remains at a competitive disadvantage due to higher production, transportation and refining have to compete with other investment opportunities available in the industry. Expansion of the U.S. heavy oil industry is no exception. Relaxation of export restrictions on Alaskan North Slope crude has prompted renewed development of California's heavy oil resources. The location, resource volume, and oil properties of the more than 80-billion barrel U.S. heavy oil resource are well known. Our recent studies summarize the constraints on production, define the anticipated impact (volume, location and time frame) of development of U.S. heavy oil resources, and examines the $7-billion investment in refining units (bottoms conversion capacity) required to accommodate increased U.S. heavy oil production. Expansion of Canadian and Venezuelan heavy oil and tar sands production are anticipated to dramatically impact the U.S. petroleum market while displacing some imported Mideast crude.

  15. Impact and future of heavy oil produciton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K,

    1996-12-31

    Heavy oil resources are becoming increaingly important in meeting world oil demand. Heavy oil accounts for 10% of the worlds current oil production and is anticipated to grow significantly. Recent narrowing of the price margins between light and heavy oil and the development of regional heavy oil markets (production, refining and marketing) have prompted renewed investment in heavy oil. Production of well known heavy oil resources of Canada, Venezuela, United States, and elsewhere throughout the world will be expanded on a project-by-project basis. Custom refineries designed to process these heavy crudes are being expanded. Refined products from these crudes will be cleaner than ever before because of the huge investment. However, heavy oil still remains at a competitive disadvantage due to higher production, transportation and refining have to compete with other investment opportunities available in the industry. Expansion of the U.S. heavy oil industry is no exception. Relaxation of export restrictions on Alaskan North Slope crude has prompted renewed development of California`s heavy oil resources. The location, resource volume, and oil properties of the more than 80-billion barrel U.S. heavy oil resource are well known. Our recent studies summarize the constraints on production, define the anticipated impact (volume, location and time frame) of development of U.S. heavy oil resources, and examines the $7-billion investment in refining units (bottoms conversion capacity) required to accommodate increased U.S. heavy oil production. Expansion of Canadian and Venezuelan heavy oil and tar sands production are anticipated to dramatically impact the U.S. petroleum market while displacing some imported Mideast crude.

  16. Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-09-15

    World oil use is projected to grow to 98 million b/d in 2015 and 118 million b/d in 2030. Total world natural gas consumption is projected to rise to 134 Tcf in 2015 and 182 Tcf in 2030. In an era of declining production and increasing demand, economically producing oil and gas from unconventional sources is a key challenge to maintaining global economic growth. Some unconventional hydrocarbon sources are already being developed, including gas shales, tight gas sands, heavy oil, oil sands, and coal bed methane. Roughly 20 years ago, gas production from tight sands, shales, and coals was considered uneconomic. Today, these resources provide 25% of the U.S. gas supply and that number is likely to increase. Venezuela has over 300 billion barrels of unproven extra-heavy oil reserves which would give it the largest reserves of any country in the world. It is currently producing over 550,000 b/d of heavy oil. Unconventional oil is also being produced in Canada from the Athabasca oil sands. 1.6 trillion barrels of oil are locked in the sands of which 175 billion barrels are proven reserves that can be recovered using current technology. Production from 29 companies now operating there exceeds 1 million barrels per day. The report provides an overview of continuous petroleum sources and gives a concise overview of the current status of varying types of unconventional oil and gas resources. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of the history of Oil and Natural Gas; an analysis of the Oil and Natural Gas industries, including current and future production, consumption, and reserves; a detailed description of the different types of unconventional oil and gas resources; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in unconventional resources; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the development of unconventional resources; profiles of key producing regions; and, profiles of key unconventional oil and gas producers.

  17. Heavy crude and tar sands: Hydrocarbons for the 21st century. Volume 2, Reservoir behavior, drilling and production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, R.F.

    1991-12-31

    Volume 2 is devoted to heavy oil reservoir behavior, production, and the drilling and completion of wells to meet the special needs of these fascinating but difficult oils and bitumens. The volume begins with four papers describing approaches to the recovery of heavy oil and to two fields subject to different recovery mechanisms. Although most heavy oil fields are produced with the assistance of steam stimulation, which commenced in Venezuela, or steam flood, many other methods for the improvement of recovery are potentially applicable. The seven reports on pilot projects examine mostly the results of studies on the dominant thermal recovery methods - steam stimulation, steam flood, and in situ combustion. The behavior of reservoirs under development through use of horizontal wells is the subject of three reports, of vertical wells, nine papers. Much is still to be teamed concerning the relative advantages of these two distinctive methods of reservoir development. The 18 reports on drilling and production are of great importance to the science and engineering of heavy oil because of the problems heavy oil causes after it is induced to flow to the well bore. Artificial lifting of the oil has traditionally centered on the use of sucker rods, but other methods, such as chamber or cavity-pump lift may prove to be efficacious. Horizontal well drilling is a logical approach to maximizing the amount of reservoir exposed to the well bore but this entails special problems in bore-hole clean-up. Heavy oils, too, pose special, frequently very difficult gravel packing problems. Sand production with heavy oil has always posed both economic and technological difficulties and major effort is devoted to overcoming them, as evidenced by the reports in this section. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Application of oil gas-chromatography in reservoir compartmentalization in a mature Venezuelan oil field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munoz, N.G.; Mompart, L.; Talukdar, S.C.

    1996-08-01

    Gas chromatographic oil {open_quotes}fingerprinting{close_quotes} was successfully applied in a multidisciplinary production geology project by Maraven, S.A. to define the extent of vertical and lateral continuity of Eocene and Miocene sandstone reservoirs in the highly faulted Bloque I field, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. Seventy-five non-biodegraded oils (20{degrees}-37.4{degrees} API) were analyzed with gas chromatography. Fifty were produced from the Eocene Misoa C-4, C-5, C-6 or C-7 horizons, fifteen from the Miocene basal La Rosa and ten from multizone completions. Gas chromatographic and terpane and sterane biomarker data show that all of the oils are genetically related. They were expelled from a type II, Upper Cretaceous marine La Luna source rock at about 0.80-0.90% R{sub o} maturity. Alteration in the reservoir by gas stripping with or without subsequent light hydrocarbons mixing was observed in some oils. Detailed chromatographic comparisons among the oils shown by star plots and cluster analysis utilizing several naphthenic and aromatic peak height ratios, resulted in oil pool groupings. This led to finding previously unknown lateral and vertical reservoir communication and also helped in checking and updating the scaling character of faults. In the commingled oils, percentages of each contributing zone in the mixture were also determined giving Maraven engineers a proven, rapid and inexpensive tool for production allocation and reservoir management The oil pool compartmentalization defined by the geochemical fingerprinting is in very good agreement with the sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the reservoirs and helped evaluate the influence of structure in oil migration and trapping.

  19. Successful drilling of the first horizontal well in a mature field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marruffo, I.; Achong, C.

    1996-08-01

    This paper discusses how the decision to drill the first horizontal well of a reservoir was taken, based on Production acceleration and the incremental economy of cash flow. The reservoir is located in the Guafita-Norto Field in Western Venezuela, contiguous to the La Yuca-Cano Limon Fields in Colombia. Guafita-Norte has 183 million stb of remaining oil reserves with 26 production wells on electrical submergible pumps. The STOIP of this under saturated reservoir (bubble point pressure is 36 psi) is 160 million stb with an initial GOR of 10 stf/stb, having a permeability between 1.5-12 darcies with a strong water drive, water coning and sanding problems due to fines migration. During 1995, it was decided to drill the first horizontal well in the reservoir based on a 3-D numerical simulation with radial flow (for water coning) and local grid refinement (for horizontal wells) coupled to an economic analysis. The simulation predetermines an initial production rate for a horizontal well 2.5 times greater than for a vertical one, and the incremental cash flow for the horizontal well is 4.5 MM$ larger for the vertical one in four (4) years, with a ROR of 200%. The horizontal well was drilled with oil-based mud to avoid hole collapse, and it was completed open hole with a single screen pack. The well is currently producing between 2000 and 3500 stb/d, clean, on natural flow. This study has clearly shown that the ultimate and decisive parameter to be weighed before undertaking this type of project, is the economic analysis, which must be performed as extensively as the technical analysis.

  20. Major marine source rocks and stratigraphic cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duval, B.C.

    1995-11-01

    The identification of continental encroachment cycles and subcycles by using sequence stratigraphy can assist explorationists in locating source rocks. The continental encroachment cycles are associated with the breakup of the supercontinents and fit a smooth long-term eustatic curve. They are first order, with a duration greater than 50 m.y., and are composed of transgressive and regressive phases inducing major changes in shoreline. The limit between the transgressive and regressive phases corresponds to a major downlap surface, and major marine source rocks are often found in association with this surface, particularly in the northern hemisphere. Potential {open_quotes}secondary{close_quotes} source rock intervals can also be sought by sequence stratigraphy because each continental encroachment cycle is composed of several subcycles, and the same configuration of a regressive forestepping phase overlying a transgressive backstepping phase also creates a downlap surface that may correspond with organic-rich intervals. The stratigraphic distribution of source rocks and related reserves fits reasonably well with continental encroachment cycles and subcycles. For instance, source rocks of Silurian, Upper Jurassic, and Middle-Upper Cretaceous are associated with eustatic highs and bear witness to this relationship. The recognition and mapping of such downlap surfaces is therefore a useful step to help map source rocks. The interpretation of sequence stratigraphy from regional seismic lines, properly calibrated with geochernical data whenever possible, can be of considerable help in the process. Several examples from around the world illustrate the power of the method: off-shore of eastern Venezuela, coastal basin of Angola, western Africa, the North Sea, south Algeria, and the North Caucasian trough.

  1. Towards SEA for the developing nations of Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briffett, Clive; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip; Mackee, Jamie

    2003-03-01

    In the developing and transitional countries of Asia, environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been widely practiced as a planning tool that identifies the potential impacts associated with developments and determines their level of significance and the need for mitigating measures. Not withstanding its extensive use in many Asian countries, certain limitations are now being increasingly recognised with regard to achieving sustainable development within the planning process. It is also noted that the natural environment in Asia has continued to be severely degraded despite the adoption of EIA. This research project was undertaken at the National University of Singapore to review the status on the implementation of EIA procedures and to investigate the status and potential of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in Asia. The research project generally investigated the existing physical attributes of six countries including Hong Kong and Singapore, Malaysia and the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Vietnam and discussed their prevailing environmental conditions. It more specifically reviewed policymaking and environmental planning, environmental legislation and the practice and procedures of environmental impact assessment. It also evaluated environmental assessment education and training activities. In some cases such as Hong Kong, an opportunity to analyse actual SEA practice was included. In other cases, the potential for possible take up of formal SEA was assessed. A comparative review assesses the degree to which EIA and SEA procedures have been utilized, considers how the use of SEA could overcome the deficiencies of the EIA project-based system and includes aspects of meeting sustainability criteria. Results show that the use and application of EIA is relatively strong across all countries with the possible exception of Singapore which relies more heavily on its planning and control system to address potential environmental impacts arising from development

  2. Profiteering on the Iran-Iraq war

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brzoska, M.

    1987-06-01

    The military gear delivered from the US in the Iran-contra affair represents only a minor portion of arms sales to the combatants in the Iraq-Iran war. That war has now lasted more than six years and has deeply influenced the international arms market. Occurring during a period when other demand for arms has been relatively low, the war has nourished new suppliers and has revived both the legal and illegal private arms market. The erratic behavior of the USSR and the US, until recently by far the most important arms suppliers to the Third World, has pushed Iran and Iraq toward more commercially oriented sources, including many in the Third World. Both countries have had ample supplies of weapons during the war, and these weapons have served their purpose. Mainly because of its duration, the war already ranks third among post-World War II wars - after the Vietnam war and the Biafra war - in battlefield victims, with 300,000-500,000 casualties. The economic cost has risen to nearly $500 billion in weapons, destruction, and lost income. While it is hard to see anything but losers on the battlefield, the arms traffickers are profiting. Total Iranian arms imports since August 1980 have been higher than $10 billion, while Iraq has imported more than $30 billion worth. It is difficult to know whether making arms more difficult to obtain would have stopped the war, but judging from other recent wars, such as those between India and Pakistan, between Uganda and Tanzania, and in the Middle East, it seems likely that hostilities could have been stopped long ago. 12 references.

  3. Developments in Assisting Countries in Implementing the IAEA Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Killinger, Mark H.; Hansen, Linda H.; Cain, Ronald A.; Kovacic, Don N.; Apt, Kenneth E.; VanSickle, Matthew

    2010-08-11

    In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began assisting selected non-nuclear weapon states in planning and preparing for implementation of the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Additional Protocol (AP). Since then, the AP international implementation program has contributed to the substantial progress made by Vietnam, Thailand, Iraq, and Malaysia in preparing for entry-into-force of the AP. An overall engagement plan has been developed with components designed to train government AP implementing agencies, inform policy makers, conduct outreach to industry and universities, make AP reporting software available and useful, and plan a detailed approach for implementing the declaration and complementary access provisions of the AP. DOE recently began collaborating with Indonesia, which has already entered the AP into force, requiring a second method of engagement somewhat different from that taken with countries that have not entered the AP into force. The AP international implementation program, administered by the International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program, is working more closely with DOE’s International Nonproliferation Export Control Program to ensure countries are aware of and prepared to implement the export/import provisions of the AP. As the AP implementation program matures and helps move countries closer to entry-into-force or improved AP implementation, it is identifying characteristics of a country’s “end-state” that indicate that DOE assistance is no longer required. The U.S. AP Implementation Act and Senate Resolution of Ratification require the Administration to report annually to Congress on measures taken to achieve the adoption of the AP in non-nuclear weapon states. DOE’s AP international implementation program is a significant part of these measures. This paper describes recent developments to increase the scope and effectiveness of the program.

  4. Examining new fuel economy standards for the United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

    2007-01-01

    After decades of futile attempts to increase U.S. fuel economy standards for passenger cars, which have remained unchanged since enactment of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards in Title V of the 1975 Energy Policy Conservation Act, it seems increasingly likely that new and tougher standards will be enacted in the near future - especially after the Senate's 21 June passage of energy efficiency bill H.R. 6. As this magazine went to press, the bill, which calls for a 40 percent increase in vehicle fuel economy by 2020 among other efficiency and alternative energy goals, was headed to the House of Representatives for more debate. Congress has seen proposals like this since the 1980s, but this is the first time that one of them has passed in the Senate. The Bush administration has also weighed in with a proposal to increase new vehicle fuel economy by 4 percent per year from 2011 to 2017, and the administrator of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has asked Congress to grant the Secretary of Transportation the authority to restructure and increase CAFE standards for cars, a power denied by the original CAFE legislation. A confluence of events has led to this change of political climate, including: the failure of world oil production and refining capacity to keep pace with rapidly growing demand, especially from China and other emerging economies, which has led to the highest oil prices since the 1980s and growing fears that world production of conventional oil may be close to its peak and rapid decline; the escalating influence of oil resources on geopolitics as China seeks to guarantee its future access to supplies, enhanced revenues from the higher prices, which prop up authoritarian regimes in Iran, Venezuela, Russia, and elsewhere and allow them increasing freedom of action; the enhancement of the role of climate change in political decision making by new reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), with

  5. The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) for Producing Hydrogen to Manufacture Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Peterson, P.F.; Ott, L.

    2004-10-06

    Conventional world oil production is expected to peak within a decade. Shortfalls in production of liquid fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) from conventional oil sources are expected to be offset by increased production of fuels from heavy oils and tar sands that are primarily located in the Western Hemisphere (Canada, Venezuela, the United States, and Mexico). Simultaneously, there is a renewed interest in liquid fuels from biomass, such as alcohol; but, biomass production requires fertilizer. Massive quantities of hydrogen (H2) are required (1) to convert heavy oils and tar sands to liquid fuels and (2) to produce fertilizer for production of biomass that can be converted to liquid fuels. If these liquid fuels are to be used while simultaneously minimizing greenhouse emissions, nonfossil methods for the production of H2 are required. Nuclear energy can be used to produce H2. The most efficient methods to produce H2 from nuclear energy involve thermochemical cycles in which high-temperature heat (700 to 850 C) and water are converted to H2 and oxygen. The peak nuclear reactor fuel and coolant temperatures must be significantly higher than the chemical process temperatures to transport heat from the reactor core to an intermediate heat transfer loop and from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the chemical plant. The reactor temperatures required for H2 production are at the limits of practical engineering materials. A new high-temperature reactor concept is being developed for H2 and electricity production: the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR). The fuel is a graphite-matrix, coated-particle fuel, the same type that is used in modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (MHTGRs). The coolant is a clean molten fluoride salt with a boiling point near 1400 C. The use of a liquid coolant, rather than helium, reduces peak reactor fuel and coolant temperatures 100 to 200 C relative to those of a MHTGR. Liquids are better heat transfer fluids than gases

  6. War, peace, and international politics. Fourth edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziegler, D.W. )

    1987-01-01

    We must conclude that war remains a major problem in the last quarter of the twentieth century. My intention in this book is to introduce you to international relations by focusing on this problem. War is not the only problem of international relations, and so this book does not exhaust the field. But war is a central problem, and the possibility of resort to war affects other aspects of international relations. Whatever else we may look at, we cannot avoid looking at war. In fact, in looking at war, we will touch on most of the other subjects important in international relations. War is conflict among states carried on by their armed forces. To distinguish war from border skirmishes and other minor incidents we usually say it must reach a certain magnitude (for example, at least 1,000 soldiers killed in battle over a year). It would be ideal if we could systematically study all the wars in the last hundred years, but such an exhaustive study would be out of place here. At the same time we cannot discuss such subjects as the cause of war or proposals for preventing it without some knowledge about actual wars. We must test theories against historical facts. What follows in Part I is a somewhat detailed history of seven wars (or groups of wars) fought in the last hundred years. These include the most destructive of the wars World War I (1914-1918), World War II (1939-1945), and the Korean War (1950-1953). By way of background to World War I, we will look at the wars of German unification (1864-1871), which preceded and in some ways prepared the way for it. To balance our account, we will also look at several recent wars India and Pakistan (1971), Uganda and Tanzania (1978-1979), and Cambodia, Vietnam, and China (1978-1980). After looking at some of the major wars of the last hundred years, we will look at what people have the about the causes of war in general.

  7. REAL-TIME TRACER MONITORING OF RESERVOIR STIMULATION PROCEDURES VIA ELECTRONIC WIRELINE AND TELEMETRY DATA TRANSMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George L. Scott III

    2005-01-01

    development of a real-time reservoir stimulation procedure, which was successfully field-demonstrated and is presently patented in the U.S. and select foreign countries, including Venezuela, Brazil and Canada. Said patents are co-owned by RTZ and the National Energy Technology Lab (NETL). In 2002, Realtimezone and the NETL licensed said patents to Halliburton Energy Services (HES). Additional licensing agreements (LA) are anticipated with other service industry companies in 2005. Final Phase 3 work has led to commercial applications of the real-time reservoir stimulation procedure. Four successfully downhole-mixed well tests were conducted with commercially expected production results. The most recent, fourth field test was a downhole-mixed stimulated well completed in June, 2004, which currently produces 11 BOPD with 90 barrels of water per day. Conducted Phase 2 and Phase 3 field-test work to date has resulted in the fine-tuning of a real-time enhanced stimulation system that will significantly increase future petroleum well recoveries in the United States and foreign petroleum fields, both onshore and offshore, and in vertical and horizontal wells.

  8. U.S. Energy Flow -- 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, H; Mui, N; Pasternak, A

    1997-12-01

    Energy consumption in 1995 increased slightly for the fifth year in a row (from 89 to 91 quadrillion [1015Btu). U.S. economic activity slowed from the fast-paced recovery of 1994, even with the continued low unemployment rates and low inflation rates. The annual increase in U.S. real GDP dropped to 4.6% from 1994's increase of 5.8%. Energy consumption in all major end-use sectors surpassed the record-breaking highs achieved in 1994, with the largest gains (2.5%) occurring in the residential/commercial sector. Crude oil imports decreased for the first time this decade. There was also a decline in domestic oil production. Venezuela replaced Saudi Arabia as the principal supplier of imported oil. Imports of natural gas, mainly from Canada, continued to increase. The demand for natural gas reached a level not seen since the peak levels of the early 1970s and the demand was met by a slight increase in both natural gas production and imports. Electric utilities had the largest percentage increase of n.atural gas consumption, a climb of 7% above 1994 levels. Although coal production decreased, coal exports continued to make a comeback after 3 years of decline. Coal once again become the primary U.S. energy export. Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) consists of two phases. Phase I (in effect as of January 1, 1995) set emission restrictions on 110 mostly coal-burning plants in the eastern and midwestem United States. Phase II, planned to begin in the year 2000, places additional emission restrictions on about 1,000 electric plants. As of January 1, 1995, the reformulated gasoline program, also part of the CAAA90, was finally initiated. As a result, this cleaner-burning fuel was made available in areas of the United States that failed to meet the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) ozone standards. In 1995, reformulated gasoline represented around 28% of total gasoline sales in the United States. The last commercial nuclear power plant

  9. Running Out of and Into Oil: Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    2003-11-14

    which unconventional oil production can be expanded, and the rate of growth of reserves and enhanced recovery. Analysis based on data produced by Campbell indicates that the peak of non-Middle East production will occur before 2010. For total world conventional oil production, the results indicate a peak somewhere between 2020 and 2050. Key determinants of the peak in world oil production are the rate at which the Middle East region expands its output and the minimum reserves-to-production ratios producers will tolerate. Once world conventional oil production peaks, first oil sands and heavy oil from Canada, Venezuela and Russia, and later some other source such as shale oil from the United States must expand if total world oil consumption is to continue to increase. Alternative sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels, such as coal or natural gas are also possible resources but not considered in this analysis nor is the possibility of transition to a hydrogen economy. These limitations were adopted to simplify the transition analysis. Inspection of the paths of conventional oil production indicates that even if world oil production does not peak before 2020, output of conventional oil is likely to increase at a substantially slower rate after that date. The implication is that there will have to be increased production of unconventional oil after that date if world petroleum consumption is to grow.

  10. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S

    2001-05-22

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFOTM exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer-coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, whereas the other

  11. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.

    2002-02-07

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFO{trademark} exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer- coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, whereas

  12. Transformation of Resources to Reserves: Next Generation Heavy-Oil Recovery Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanford University; Department of Energy Resources Engineering Green Earth Sciences

    2007-09-30

    This final report and technical progress report describes work performed from October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2007 for the project 'Transformation of Resources to Reserves: Next Generation Heavy Oil Recovery Techniques', DE-FC26-04NT15526. Critical year 3 activities of this project were not undertaken because of reduced funding to the DOE Oil Program despite timely submission of a continuation package and progress on year 1 and 2 subtasks. A small amount of carried-over funds were used during June-August 2007 to complete some work in the area of foamed-gas mobility control. Completion of Year 3 activities and tasks would have led to a more thorough completion of the project and attainment of project goals. This progress report serves as a summary of activities and accomplishments for years 1 and 2. Experiments, theory development, and numerical modeling were employed to elucidate heavy-oil production mechanisms that provide the technical foundations for producing efficiently the abundant, discovered heavy-oil resources of the U.S. that are not accessible with current technology and recovery techniques. Work fell into two task areas: cold production of heavy oils and thermal recovery. Despite the emerging critical importance of the waterflooding of viscous oil in cold environments, work in this area was never sanctioned under this project. It is envisioned that heavy oil production is impacted by development of an understanding of the reservoir and reservoir fluid conditions leading to so-called foamy oil behavior, i.e, heavy-oil solution gas drive. This understanding should allow primary, cold production of heavy and viscous oils to be optimized. Accordingly, we evaluated the oil-phase chemistry of crude oil samples from Venezuela that give effective production by the heavy-oil solution gas drive mechanism. Laboratory-scale experiments show that recovery correlates with asphaltene contents as well as the so-called acid number (AN) and base number (BN) of the

  13. Three Blind Men and the Elephant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, J S

    2007-02-13

    2/3 of the world's oil. They see oil and gas being used by Russia to exert political power using the gas tap and Hugo Chavez in Venezuela clearly anti-American and now a virtual dictator who controls 15% of our oil imports. Conflicts in Nigeria over oil wealth and corruption affected our oil supply. Countries such as China are at best unwilling to join political action against countries such as Sudan that supply them oil, and at worst, selling them arms in order to cement their relationships with respect to importing oil. This security constituency favors ending our vulnerability by ending our ''addiction to foreign oil''. This group thinks that there is no domestic source of energy that is bad. They will be happy to see our corn turned into ethanol; our coal turned into liquid fuel for transportation. No matter that the price of tortillas doubles in Mexico, we expand corn farming at the expense of the environment, our tanks and pipes in gas stations corrode and leak, or we make liquid fuel from coal, thus increasing the carbon footprint by 30% per unit of energy. The economic vitality group sees increasing international demand for oil occurring simultaneously with a peaking supply of light sweet crude. They see an oil market where higher prices drive more production of oil which is heavier and more sour (supply follows demand). However, fast growth in world-wide demand increases even faster and prices will go up. For example, China adds 10,000 cars per month, and there is an uncanny correlation between the price of oil and the amount of oil imported by China. The security contingent also worries about reliability of supply as affected by pipeline leaks in Alaska or hurricanes or potential terrorism. This constituency thinks the problem is one of capacity and favors solutions that will increase oil production, reservoirs, pipelines and refineries. They believe that the energy system will be determined by the market and want solutions that favor investment in