National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for valve timing optimizes

  1. Abstract--A cam-based, shear force actuated electromechanical valve drive system offering variable valve timing in internal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, Dave

    1 Abstract--A cam-based, shear force actuated electromechanical valve drive system offering variable valve timing in internal combustion engines was previously proposed and demonstrated. To transform, optimal cam design, nonlinear friction model, variable valve timing. I. INTRODUCTION espite their simple

  2. OPTIMAL LOCATION OF ISOLATION VALVES IN WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mays, Larry W.

    CHAPTER 7 OPTIMAL LOCATION OF ISOLATION VALVES IN WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: A RELIABILITY The cornerstone of any healthy population is access to safe drinking water. The goal of the United Nations International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade from 1981 to 1990 was safe drinking water for all

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF AUTOMOTIVE VALVE TRAIN COMPONENTS WITH IMPLICT FILTERING \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Filtering, Mechanical Systems, Automotive Valve Trains AMS subject classifications. 65K05, 65K10, 65L05, 65YOPTIMIZATION OF AUTOMOTIVE VALVE TRAIN COMPONENTS WITH IMPLICT FILTERING \\Lambda T. D. CHOI y , O identification and optimization in automotive valve train design. We extend our previous work by using a more

  4. Michigan: General Motors Optimizes Engine Valve Technology |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    effort to increase energy efficiency, while maintaining low emissions, has resulted in new engine valve technology on the 2014 Chevrolet Impala. EERE's Vehicle Technologies...

  5. Optimal Cam Design and System Control for an Electromechanical Engine Valve Drive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, Dave

    Optimal Cam Design and System Control for an Electromechanical Engine Valve Drive Yihui Qiu, Member Fellow, IEEE E-mail: qiu@alum.mit.edu Abstract-An electromechanical valve drive system using a cam- based of previous proposals for variable valve actuation (VVA), an electromechanical valve (EMV) system

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF AUTOMOTIVE VALVE TRAIN COMPONENTS WITH IMPLICT , O. J. ELSINGER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OPTIMIZATION OF AUTOMOTIVE VALVE TRAIN COMPONENTS WITH IMPLICT FILTERING T. D. CHOI ¡ , O. J and optimization in automotive valve train design. We extend our previous work by using a more refined model to obtain optimal profiles for camshaft lobes. Key words. Noisy Optimization, Implicit Filtering, Mechanical

  7. Nonlinear System Modeling, Optimal Cam Design, and Advanced System Control for an Electromechanical Engine Valve Drive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Yihui

    A cam-based shear force-actuated electromechanical valve drive system offering variable valve timing in internal combustion engines was previously proposed and demonstrated. To transform this concept into a competitive ...

  8. Using Real-Time Three-Dimensional Ultrasound to Characterize Mitral Valve Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayache, Nicholas

    Using Real-Time Three-Dimensional Ultrasound to Characterize Mitral Valve Motion Paul M. Novotnya results aim to fully characterize the four-dimensional (3D + time) movement of the mitral valve for better understanding of its behavior prior to surgical interventions, such as mitral valve repair. A behavior model

  9. Impact of Variable Valve Timing on Low Temperature Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Documents effects of variable valve actuation in implementing low temperature combustion in production engine platform.

  10. Optimal Design of a High-Speed On/Off Valve for a Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    Optimal Design of a High-Speed On/Off Valve for a Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Application Michael of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA ABSTRACT Control of hydraulic systems using high-speed on/off valves has been proposed as a way to avoid the inefficiency associated with throttling valves. However, on

  11. Optimized fabrication and characterization of carbon nanotube spin valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samm, J.; Gramich, J.; Baumgartner, A. Weiss, M.; Schönenberger, C.

    2014-05-07

    We report an improved fabrication scheme for carbon based nanospintronic devices and demonstrate the necessity for a careful data analysis to investigate the fundamental physical mechanisms leading to magnetoresistance. The processing with a low-density polymer and an optimised recipe allows us to improve the electrical, magnetic, and structural quality of ferromagnetic Permalloy contacts on lateral carbon nanotube (CNT) quantum dot spin valve devices, with comparable results for thermal and sputter deposition of the material. We show that spintronic nanostructures require an extended data analysis, since the magnetization can affect all characteristic parameters of the conductance features and lead to seemingly anomalous spin transport. In addition, we report measurements on CNT quantum dot spin valves that seem not to be compatible with the orthodox theories for spin transport in such structures.

  12. Variable valve timing in a homogenous charge compression ignition engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Faletti, James J.; Funke, Steven J.; Maloney, Ronald P.

    2004-08-03

    The present invention relates generally to the field of homogenous charge compression ignition engines, in which fuel is injected when the cylinder piston is relatively close to the bottom dead center position for its compression stroke. The fuel mixes with air in the cylinder during the compression stroke to create a relatively lean homogeneous mixture that preferably ignites when the piston is relatively close to the top dead center position. However, if the ignition event occurs either earlier or later than desired, lowered performance, engine misfire, or even engine damage, can result. The present invention utilizes internal exhaust gas recirculation and/or compression ratio control to control the timing of ignition events and combustion duration in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. Thus, at least one electro-hydraulic assist actuator is provided that is capable of mechanically engaging at least one cam actuated intake and/or exhaust valve.

  13. ANALYSIS OF SAFETY RELIEF VALVE PROOF TEST DATA TO OPTIMIZE LIFECYCLE MAINTENANCE COSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gross, Robert; Harris, Stephen

    2007-08-01

    Proof test results were analyzed and compared with a proposed life cycle curve or hazard function and the limit of useful life. Relief valve proof testing procedures, statistical modeling, data collection processes, and time-in-service trends are presented. The resulting analysis of test data allows for the estimation of the PFD. Extended maintenance intervals to the limit of useful life as well as methodologies and practices for improving relief valve performance and reliability are discussed. A generic cost-benefit analysis and an expected life cycle cost reduction concludes that $90 million maintenance dollars might be avoided for a population of 3000 valves over 20 years.

  14. ESTIMATION OF EXHAUST MANIFOLD PRESSURE IN TURBOCHARGED GASOLINE ENGINES WITH VARIABLE VALVE TIMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grizzle, Jessy W.

    ESTIMATION OF EXHAUST MANIFOLD PRESSURE IN TURBOCHARGED GASOLINE ENGINES WITH VARIABLE VALVE TIMING in turbocharged gasoline engines with variable valve timing requires knowledge of exhaust mani- fold pressure, Pe strict emissions regulations. For turbocharged applica- tions, it has been shown [1] that knowledge

  15. Investigation of a rotary valving system with variable valve timing for internal combustion engines: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cross, P.C.; Hansen, C.N.

    1994-11-18

    The objective of the program was to provide a functional demonstration of the Hansen Rotary Valving System with Variable Valve timing (HRVS/VVT), capable of throttleless inlet charge control, as an alternative to conventional poppet-valves for use in spark ignited internal combustion engines. The goal of this new technology is to secure benefits in fuel economy, broadened torque band, vibration reduction, and overhaul accessibility. Additionally, use of the variable valve timing capability to vary the effective compression ratio is expected to improve multi-fuel tolerance and efficiency. Efforts directed at the design of HRVS components proved to be far more extensive than had been anticipated, ultimately requiring that proof-trial design/development work be performed. Although both time and funds were exhausted before optical or ion-probe types of in-cylinder investigation could be undertaken, a great deal of laboratory data was acquired during the course of the design/development work. This laboratory data is the basis for the information presented in this Final Report.

  16. Internal combustion engine with rotary valve assembly having variable intake valve timing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, C.N.; Cross, P.C.

    1995-12-12

    An internal combustion engine has rotary valves associated with movable shutters operable to vary the closing of intake air/fuel port sections to obtain peak volumetric efficiency over the entire range of speed of the engine. The shutters are moved automatically by a control mechanism that is responsive to the RPM of the engine. A foot-operated lever associated with the control mechanism is also used to move the shutters between their open and closed positions. 21 figs.

  17. Internal combustion engine with rotary valve assembly having variable intake valve timing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, Craig N. (Eden Prairie, MN); Cross, Paul C. (Shorewood, MN)

    1995-01-01

    An internal combustion engine has rotary valves associated with movable shutters operable to vary the closing of intake air/fuel port sections to obtain peak volumetric efficiency over the entire range of speed of the engine. The shutters are moved automatically by a control mechanism that is responsive to the RPM of the engine. A foot-operated lever associated with the control mechanism is also used to move the shutters between their open and closed positions.

  18. 1302. P6.51. Using Real-Time Three-Dimensional Ultrasound To Characterize Mitral Valve Motion , M. LINGURARU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1302. P6.51. Using Real-Time Three-Dimensional Ultrasound To Characterize Mitral Valve Motion P results aim to fully characterize the four-dimensional (3D + time) movement of the mitral valve for better understanding of its behavior prior to surgical interventions, such as mitral valve repair. A behavior model

  19. Towards Real-Time and Memory Efficient Predictions of Valve States in Diesel Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zell, Andreas

    Towards Real-Time and Memory Efficient Predictions of Valve States in Diesel Engines Philippe Komma T¨ubingen, Germany {philippe.komma, andreas.zell}@uni-tuebingen.de system for a diesel engine

  20. Convex Optimization: from Real-Time Embedded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Convex Optimization: from Real-Time Embedded to Large-Scale Distributed Stephen Boyd Neal Parikh Lectures, UC Berkeley, 3/30/2015 1 #12;Outline Convex Optimization Real-Time Embedded Optimization Large-Scale Distributed Optimization Summary 2 #12;Outline Convex Optimization Real-Time Embedded Optimization Large

  1. Convex Optimization: from Real-Time Embedded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Julian

    Convex Optimization: from Real-Time Embedded to Large-Scale Distributed Stephen Boyd Neal Parikh of Edinburgh, June 25 2014 1 #12;Outline Convex Optimization Real-Time Embedded Optimization Large-Scale Distributed Optimization Summary 2 #12;Outline Convex Optimization Real-Time Embedded Optimization Large

  2. Depressurization valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skoda, G.I.

    1989-03-28

    A depressurization valve for use in relieving completely the pressure in a simplified boiling water reactor is disclosed. The normally closed and sealed valve is provided with a valve body defining a conduit from an outlet of a manifold from the reactor through a valve seat. A closing valve disk is configured for fitting to the valve seat to normally close the valve. The seat below the disk is provided with a radially extending annulus extending a short distance into the aperture defined by the seat. The disk is correspondingly provided with a longitudinally extending annulus that extends downwardly through the aperture defined by the seat towards the high pressure side of the valve body. A ring shaped membrane is endlessly welded to the seat annulus and to the disk annulus. The membrane is conformed over the confronted surface of the seat and disk in a C-sectioned configuration to seal the depressurization valve against the possibility of weeping. The disk is held to the closed position by an elongate stem extending away from the high pressure side of the valve body. The stem has a flange configured integrally to the stem for bias by two springs. The first spring acts from a portion of the housing overlying the disk on the stem flange adjacent the disk. This spring urges the stem and attached disk away from the seat and thus will cause the valve to open at any pressure. A second spring-preferably of the Belleville variety-acts on a latch plate surrounding and freely moving relative to the end of the stem. This second spring overcomes the bias of the first spring and any pressure acting upon the disk. This Belleville spring maintains through its spring force the valve in the closed position. At the same time, the latch plate with its freedom of movement relative to the stem allows the stem to thermally expand during valve temperature excursion.

  3. Towards Real-Time and Memory Efficient Predictions of Valve States in Diesel Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zell, Andreas

    Towards Real-Time and Memory Efficient Predictions of Valve States in Diesel Engines Philippe Komma T¨ubingen, Germany {philippe.komma, andreas.zell}@uni-tuebingen.de system for a diesel engine adapted from cylinder pressure was introduced by Yang [9]. In his work, he adopted a hybrid genetic

  4. Electronic waiting-time distribution of a quantum-dot spin valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Björn Sothmann

    2014-10-27

    We discuss the electronic waiting-time distribution of a quantum-dot spin valve, i.e. a single-level quantum dot coupled to two ferromagnetic electrodes with magnetizations that can point in arbitrary directions. We demonstrate that the rich transport physics of this setup such as dynamical channel blockade and spin precession in an interaction-driven exchange field shows up in the waiting-time distribution and analyze the conditions necessary to observe the various effects.

  5. Depressurization valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skoda, George I. (Santa Clara, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A depressurization valve for use in relieving completely the pressure in a simplified boiling water reactor is disclosed. The normally closed and sealed valve is provided with a valve body defining a conduit from an outlet of a manifold from the reactor through a valve seat. A closing valve disk is configured for fitting to the valve seat to normally close the valve. The seat below the disk is provided with a radially extending annulus extending a short distance into the aperture defined by the seat. The disk is correspondingly provided with a longitudinally extending annulus that extends downwardly through the aperture defined by the seat towards the high pressure side of the valve body. A ring shaped membrane is endlessly welded to the seat annulus and to the disk annulus. The membrane is conformed over the confronted surface of the seat and disk in a C-sectioned configuration to seal the depressurization valve against the possibility of weeping. The disk is held to the closed position by an elongate stem extending away from the high pressure side of the valve body. The stem has a flange configured integrally to the stem for bias by two springs. The first spring acts from a portion of the housing overlying the disk on the stem flange adjacent the disk. This spring urges the stem and attached disk away from the seat and thus will cause the valve to open at any pressure. A second spring--preferably of the Belleville variety--acts on a latch plate surrounding and freely moving relative to the end of the stem. This second spring overcomes the bias of the first spring and any pressure acting upon the disk. This Belleville spring maintains through its spring force the valve in the closed position. At the same time, the latch plate with its freedom of movement relative to the stem allows the stem to thermally expand during valve temperature excursion. The latch plate in surrounding the stem is limited in its outward movement by a boss attached to the stem at the end of the stem remote from the disk. The latch plate is held normally closed by three radial latches spaced at 120.degree. around the periphery of the plate.

  6. Variable Valve Actuation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Gutterman; A. J. Lasley

    2008-08-31

    Many approaches exist to enable advanced mode, low temperature combustion systems for diesel engines - such as premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI), Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) or other HCCI-like combustion modes. The fuel properties and the quantity, distribution and temperature profile of air, fuel and residual fraction in the cylinder can have a marked effect on the heat release rate and combustion phasing. Figure 1 shows that a systems approach is required for HCCI-like combustion. While the exact requirements remain unclear (and will vary depending on fuel, engine size and application), some form of substantially variable valve actuation is a likely element in such a system. Variable valve actuation, for both intake and exhaust valve events, is a potent tool for controlling the parameters that are critical to HCCI-like combustion and expanding its operational range. Additionally, VVA can be used to optimize the combustion process as well as exhaust temperatures and impact the after treatment system requirements and its associated cost. Delphi Corporation has major manufacturing and product development and applied R&D expertise in the valve train area. Historical R&D experience includes the development of fully variable electro-hydraulic valve train on research engines as well as several generations of mechanical VVA for gasoline systems. This experience has enabled us to evaluate various implementations and determine the strengths and weaknesses of each. While a fully variable electro-hydraulic valve train system might be the 'ideal' solution technically for maximum flexibility in the timing and control of the valve events, its complexity, associated costs, and high power consumption make its implementation on low cost high volume applications unlikely. Conversely, a simple mechanical system might be a low cost solution but not deliver the flexibility required for HCCI operation. After modeling more than 200 variations of the mechanism it was determined that the single cam design did not have enough flexibility to satisfy three critical OEM requirements simultaneously, (maximum valve lift variation, intake valve opening timing and valve closing duration), and a new approach would be necessary. After numerous internal design reviews including several with the OEM a dual cam design was developed that had the flexibility to meet all motion requirements. The second cam added complexity to the mechanism however the cost was offset by the deletion of the electric motor required in the previous design. New patent applications including detailed drawings and potential valve motion profiles were generated and alternate two cam designs were proposed and evaluated for function, cost, reliability and durability. Hardware was designed and built and testing of sample hardware was successfully completed on an engine test stand. The mechanism developed during the course of this investigation can be applied by Original Equipment Manufacturers, (OEM), to their advanced diesel engines with the ultimate goal of reducing emissions and improving fuel economy. The objectives are: (1) Develop an optimal, cost effective, variable valve actuation (VVA) system for advanced low temperature diesel combustion processes. (2) Design and model alternative mechanical approaches and down-select for optimum design. (3) Build and demonstrate a mechanism capable of application on running engines.

  7. Microblower assisted barometric valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rossabi, Joseph; Hyde, Warren K.; Riha, Brian D.; Jackson, Dennis G.; Sappington, Frank

    2005-12-06

    A gas exchange apparatus is provided which provides for both passive fluid flow and blower associated fluid flow through a barometric valve. A battery powered blower is provided which allows for operation of the barometric valve during times when the barometric valve would otherwise be closed, and provides for enhanced volume of gas exchange.

  8. Safety valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, Ulf C. (Malmoe, SE)

    1984-01-01

    The safety valve contains a resilient gland to be held between a valve seat and a valve member and is secured to the valve member by a sleeve surrounding the end of the valve member adjacent to the valve seat. The sleeve is movable relative to the valve member through a limited axial distance and a gap exists between said valve member and said sleeve.

  9. System for detecting operating errors in a variable valve timing engine using pressure sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiles, Matthew A.; Marriot, Craig D

    2013-07-02

    A method and control module includes a pressure sensor data comparison module that compares measured pressure volume signal segments to ideal pressure volume segments. A valve actuation hardware remedy module performs a hardware remedy in response to comparing the measured pressure volume signal segments to the ideal pressure volume segments when a valve actuation hardware failure is detected.

  10. Mesofluidic two stage digital valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jansen, John F; Love, Lonnie J; Lind, Randall F; Richardson, Bradley S

    2013-12-31

    A mesofluidic scale digital valve system includes a first mesofluidic scale valve having a valve body including a bore, wherein the valve body is configured to cooperate with a solenoid disposed substantially adjacent to the valve body to translate a poppet carried within the bore. The mesofluidic scale digital valve system also includes a second mesofluidic scale valve disposed substantially perpendicular to the first mesofluidic scale valve. The mesofluidic scale digital valve system further includes a control element in communication with the solenoid, wherein the control element is configured to maintain the solenoid in an energized state for a fixed period of time to provide a desired flow rate through an orifice of the second mesofluidic valve.

  11. An electromechanical valve drive incorporating a nonlinear mechanical transformer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Woo Sok, 1964-

    2003-01-01

    In traditional internal combustion engines, a camshaft acts on the valve stems to open and close the valves. Valve timing is fixed relative to piston position. On the other hand, if a valve is flexibly controlled by a ...

  12. ESTIMATED SIL LEVELS AND RISK COMPARISONS FOR RELIEF VALVES AS A FUNCTION OF TIME-IN-SERVICE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, S.

    2012-03-26

    Risk-based inspection methods enable estimation of the probability of spring-operated relief valves failing on demand at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. The paper illustrates an approach based on application of the Frechet and Weibull distributions to SRS and Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) Process Equipment Reliability Database (PERD) proof test results. The methodology enables the estimation of ANSI/ISA-84.00.01 Safety Integrity Levels (SILs) as well as the potential change in SIL level due to modification of the maintenance schedule. Current SRS practices are reviewed and recommendations are made for extending inspection intervals. The paper compares risk-based inspection with specific SILs as maintenance intervals are adjusted. Groups of valves are identified in which maintenance times can be extended as well as different groups in which an increased safety margin may be needed.

  13. Field test comparison of natural gas engine exhaust valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bicknell, W.B.; Hay, S.C.; Shade, W.N.; Statler, G.R.

    1996-12-31

    As part of a product improvement program, an extensive spark-ignited, turbocharged, natural gas engine exhaust valve test program was conducted using laboratory and field engines. Program objectives were to identify a valve and seat insert combination that increased mean time between overhauls (MTBO) while reducing the risk of premature valve cracking and failure. Following a thorough design review, a large number of valve and seat insert configurations were tested in a popular 900 RPM, 166 BHP (0.123 Mw) per cylinder industrial gas engine series. Material, head geometry, seat angle and other parameters were compared. Careful in-place measurements and post-test inspections compared various configurations and identified optimal exhaust valving for deployment in new units and upgrades of existing engines.

  14. Time-optimal Control of Spin Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Swoboda

    2006-01-19

    The paper discusses various aspects of time-optimal control of quantum spin systems, modelled as right-invariant systems on a compact Lie group G. The main results are the reduction of such a system to an equivalent system on a homogeneous space G/H, and the explicit determination of optimal trajectories on G/H in the case where G/H is a Riemannian symmetric space. These results are mainly obtained by using methods from Lie theory and geometric control.

  15. Check valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Upton, Hubert Allen (Morgan Hill, CA); Garcia, Pablo (Stanford, CA)

    1999-08-24

    A check valve for use in a GDCS of a nuclear reactor and having a motor driven disk including a rotatable armature for rotating the check valve disk over its entire range of motion is described. In one embodiment, the check valve includes a valve body having a coolant flow channel extending therethrough. The coolant flow channel includes an inlet end and an outlet end. A valve body seat is located on an inner surface of the valve body. The check valve further includes a disk assembly, sometimes referred to as the motor driven disc, having a counterweight and a disk shaped valve. The disk valve includes a disk base having a seat for seating with the valve body seat. The disk assembly further includes a first hinge pin member which extends at least partially through the disk assembly and is engaged to the disk. The disk valve is rotatable relative to the first hinge pin member. The check valve also includes a motor having a stator frame with a stator bore therein. An armature is rotatably positioned within the stator bore and the armature is coupled to the disk valve to cause the disk valve to rotate about its full range of motion.

  16. Check valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Upton, H.A.; Garcia, P.

    1999-08-24

    A check valve for use in a GDCS of a nuclear reactor and having a motor driven disk including a rotatable armature for rotating the check valve disk over its entire range of motion is described. In one embodiment, the check valve includes a valve body having a coolant flow channel extending therethrough. The coolant flow channel includes an inlet end and an outlet end. A valve body seat is located on an inner surface of the valve body. The check valve further includes a disk assembly, sometimes referred to as the motor driven disc, having a counterweight and a disk shaped valve. The disk valve includes a disk base having a seat for seating with the valve body seat. The disk assembly further includes a first hinge pin member which extends at least partially through the disk assembly and is engaged to the disk. The disk valve is rotatable relative to the first hinge pin member. The check valve also includes a motor having a stator frame with a stator bore therein. An armature is rotatably positioned within the stator bore and the armature is coupled to the disk valve to cause the disk valve to rotate about its full range of motion. 5 figs.

  17. Heart Valve Lesson Plan Biomedical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provancher, William

    Heart Valve Lesson Plan Biomedical Engineering Objective · Introduce students to biomedical Learning Outcomes · Students will understand the role and function of heart valves. · Students will learn does a heart valve work? · Why do we need to replace heart valves? Time Required (Itemized) · Lecture

  18. Baton Rouge Complex Steam Real Time Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iyun, T.

    2014-01-01

    Time Optimization IETC 2014 New Orleans, Louisiana Tope Iyun ExxonMobil Chemical Company May 22, 2014 ESL-IE-14-05-32 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 Proprietary 2 Agenda • Baton... 20-23, 2014 Proprietary 3 Baton Rouge Complex BRRF/BRCP • One of world’s largest integrated, most technologically advanced petroleum/petrochemical complexes, in operation since 1909 • Workforce: over 5,500 • Geographic Area : – BRCP - 150 acres...

  19. Thermostatic Radiator Valve Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, J.; Ansanelli, E.

    2015-01-01

    A large stock of multifamily buildings in the Northeast and Midwest are heated by steam distribution systems. Losses from these systems are typically high and a significant number of apartments are overheated much of the time. Thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs) are one potential strategy to combat this problem, but have not been widely accepted by the residential retrofit market. In this project, the ARIES team sought to better understand the current usage of TRVs by key market players in steam and hot water heating and to conduct limited experiments on the effectiveness of new and old TRVs as a means of controlling space temperatures and reducing heating fuel consumption. The project included a survey of industry professionals, a field experiment comparing old and new TRVs, and cost-benefit modeling analysis using BEopt™ (Building Energy Optimization software).

  20. Multi-objective evolutionary optimization in time-changing environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatzakis, Iason

    2007-01-01

    This research is focused on the creation of evolutionary optimization techniques for the solution of time-changing multi-objective problems. Many optimization problems, ranging from the design of controllers for time-variant ...

  1. Time optimal information transfer in spintronics networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank Langbein; Sophie Schirmer; Edmond Jonckheere

    2015-08-04

    Propagation of information encoded in spin degrees of freedom through networks of coupled spins enables important applications in spintronics and quantum information processing. We study control of information propagation in networks of spin-$\\tfrac{1}{2}$ particles with uniform nearest neighbour couplings forming a ring with a single excitation in the network as simple prototype of a router for spin-based information. Specifically optimising spatially distributed potentials, which remain constant during information transfer, simplifies the implementation of the routing scheme. However, the limited degrees of freedom makes finding a control that maximises the transfer probability in a short time difficult. We show that the structure of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors must fulfill a specific condition to be able to maximise the transfer fidelity, and demonstrate that a specific choice among the many potential structures that fulfill this condition significantly improves the solutions found by optimal control.

  2. Time-optimal navigation through quantum wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorje C. Brody; Gary W. Gibbons; David M. Meier

    2015-02-19

    The quantum navigation problem of finding the time-optimal control Hamiltonian that transports a given initial state to a target state through quantum wind, that is, under the influence of external fields or potentials, is analysed. By lifting the problem from the state space to the space of unitary gates realising the required task, we are able to deduce the form of the solution to the problem by deriving a universal quantum speed limit. The expression thus obtained indicates that further simplifications of this apparently difficult problem are possible if we switch to the interaction picture of quantum mechanics. A complete solution to the navigation problem for an arbitrary quantum system is then obtained, and the behaviour of the solution is illustrated in the case of a two-level system.

  3. Fast acting multiple element valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Jefferson Y. S. (Orange, CA); Wada, James M. (Torrance, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A plurality of slide valve elements having plural axial-spaced annular parts and an internal slide are inserted into a bulkhead in a fluid conduit from a downstream side of the bulkhead, locked in place by a bayonet coupling and set screw, and project through the bulkhead into the upstream conduit. Pneumatic lines connecting the slide valve element actuator to pilot valves are brought out the throat of the valve element to the downstream side. Pilot valves are radially spaced around the exterior of the valve to permit the pneumatic lines to be made identical, thereby to minimize adverse timing tolerances in operation due to pressure variations. Ring manifolds surround the valve adjacent respective pilot valve arrangements to further reduce adverse timing tolerances due to pressure variations, the manifolds being directly connected to the respective pilot valves. Position sensors are provided the valve element slides to signal the precise time at which a slide reaches or passes through a particular point in its stroke to initiate a calibrated timing function.

  4. Dead-time optimized time-correlated photon counting instrument with synchronized, independent timing channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enderlein, Jörg

    Dead-time optimized time-correlated photon counting instrument with synchronized, independent timing channels Michael Wahla and Hans-Jürgen Rahn PicoQuant GmbH, Rudower Chaussee 29, D-12489 Berlin December 2006; accepted 19 February 2007; published online 23 March 2007 Time-correlated single photon

  5. Real-time Dynamic Optimization of Batch Crystallization Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van den Hof, Paul

    process. The seeded fed-batch crystallizer is represented by a nonlinear moment model. An optimal controlReal-time Dynamic Optimization of Batch Crystallization Processes Ali Mesbah, , Alex N. Kalbasenka-time implementations of the proposed strategy reveal the effectiveness of closed-loop optimal control

  6. A REAL-TIME ITERATION SCHEME FOR NONLINEAR OPTIMIZATION IN OPTIMAL FEEDBACK CONTROL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    " and within the research project "Optimization Based Control of Chemical Processes." httpA REAL-TIME ITERATION SCHEME FOR NONLINEAR OPTIMIZATION IN OPTIMAL FEEDBACK CONTROL MORITZ DIEHL, HANS GEORG BOCK, AND JOHANNES P. SCHL¨ODER SIAM J. CONTROL OPTIM. c 2005 Society for Industrial

  7. Optimal Design of a High-Speed On/Off Valve for a Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    throttling, full- open throttling, compressibility, and leakage. A self-spinning rotary on/off valve Engine Gear Reduction N/A 6.0 or 20.3 none sw Transmission Shift Speed N/A 550 rpm Vspool Fluid Volume-way rotary spool 1 INTRODUCTION Hydraulic actuation systems are widely used due to their flexibility

  8. III. Stochastic Optimization in Continuous Time The optimization principles set forth above extend directly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    level of the control variable. The optimal policy function giving c*(t) will not be a functionIII. Stochastic Optimization in Continuous Time The optimization principles set forth above extend. To understand the elements of continuous-time stochastic processes requires a bit of investment

  9. Optimizing near real time accountability for reprocessing.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cipiti, Benjamin B.

    2010-06-01

    Near Real Time Accountability (NRTA) of actinides at high precision in reprocessing plants has been a long sought-after goal in the safeguards community. Achieving this goal is hampered by the difficulty of making precision measurements in the reprocessing environment, equipment cost, and impact to plant operations. Thus the design of future reprocessing plants requires an optimization of different approaches. The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model, developed at Sandia National Laboratories, was used to evaluate a number of NRTA strategies in a UREX+ reprocessing plant. Strategies examined include the incorporation of additional actinide measurements of internal plant vessels, more use of process monitoring data, and the option of periodic draining of inventory to key tanks. Preliminary results show that the addition of measurement technologies can increase the overall measurement uncertainty due to additional error propagation, so care must be taken when designing an advanced system. Initial results also show that relying on a combination of different NRTA techniques will likely be the best option. The model provides a platform for integrating all the data. The modeling results for the different NRTA options under various material loss conditions will be presented.

  10. Signal Timing Optimization to Improve Air Quality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lv, Jinpeng 1983-

    2012-12-11

    the gap that the research on signal optimization at intersections lags behind the development of emissions models. The methodology development includes four levels: the vehicle level, the movement level, the intersection level, and the arterial level...

  11. Real-Time Utility System Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez-Polanco, D.; Eastwood, A.; Knight, N.

    2004-01-01

    be defined for each process unit and then combined using the production plan to calculate predicted steam, power and fuel demands. The optimizer model can then determine in advance how the site should react. This can be especially useful for planning... OPTIMIZATION Diego Fernández-Polanco Linnhoff March, a division of KBC Process Technology Ltd. Northwich, UK Alan Eastwood Linnhoff March, a division of KBC Process Technology Ltd. Northwich, UK Nicola Knight KBC Advanced Technologies Inc...

  12. Optimal Production Planning under Time-sensitive Electricity Prices for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    . The control actions, which balance the electricity supply and demand, differ on the time scale and usuallyOptimal Production Planning under Time-sensitive Electricity Prices for Continuous Power-dependent electricity pricing schemes. In this paper, we describe a deterministic MILP model that allows optimal

  13. Optimization of time-based rates in forward energy markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, J.

    This paper presents a new two-step design approach of Time-Based Rate (TBR) programs for markets with a high penetration of variable energy sources such as wind power. First, an optimal market time horizon must be determined ...

  14. Piezoelectric valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petrenko, Serhiy Fedorovich

    2013-01-15

    A motorized valve has a housing having an inlet and an outlet to be connected to a pipeline, a saddle connected with the housing, a turn plug having a rod, the turn plug cooperating with the saddle, and a drive for turning the valve body and formed as a piezoelectric drive, the piezoelectric drive including a piezoelectric generator of radially directed standing acoustic waves, which is connected with the housing and is connectable with a pulse current source, and a rotor operatively connected with the piezoelectric generator and kinematically connected with the rod of the turn plug so as to turn the turn plug when the rotor is actuated by the piezoelectric generator.

  15. Timing Analysis & Optimization for Multi-Level Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalla, Priyank

    , slack @ k = +ve slack, -ve slack Topologically longest path ­ "timing critical", hence critical path A Critical Paths ­ True critical paths (on which signal propagates) ­ Optimize true critical paths, don't want to optimize a path w/ less delay and ignore one w/ larger delay ­ Don't want to identify FALSE

  16. Optimal timing problems in environmental economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    2001-01-01

    Because of the uncertainties and irreversibilities that are often inherent in environmental degradation, its prevention, and its economic consequences, environmental policy design can involve important problems of timing. ...

  17. San Pablo Avenue Pedestrian Signal Timing Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Ahn; Ragland, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Signals to Accommodate Pedestrian Travel. Road EngineeringM. Cynecki. A Review of Pedestrian Safety Research in theWalking Speeds for Pedestrian Clearance Timing Based on

  18. Thermostatic Radiator Valve Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, Jordan; Ansanelli, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A large stock of multifamily buildings in the Northeast and Midwest are heated by steam distribution systems. Losses from these systems are typically high and a significant number of apartments are overheated much of the time. Thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs) are one potential strategy to combat this problem, but have not been widely accepted by the residential retrofit market.

  19. REAL-TIME OPTIMIZATION FOR AIR LIQUIDE GAS PIPELINES NETWORK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    REAL-TIME OPTIMIZATION FOR AIR LIQUIDE GAS PIPELINES NETWORK Yash Puranik and Nick Sahinidis (CMU pipelines connecting air separation units and consumers Consumer Consumer O2 network N2 network #12

  20. Force measuring valve assemblies, systems including such valve assemblies and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeWall, Kevin George (Pocatello, ID); Garcia, Humberto Enrique (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael George (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2012-04-17

    Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include stroking a valve member and measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke. Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include measuring a force acting on a valve member in the presence of fluid flow over a period of time and evaluating at least one of the frequency of changes in the measured force over the period of time and the magnitude of the changes in the measured force over the period of time to identify the presence of an anomaly in a fluid flow and, optionally, its estimated location. Methods of evaluating a valve condition may include directing a fluid flow through a valve while stroking a valve member, measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke, and comparing the measured force to a reference force. Valve assemblies and related systems are also disclosed.

  1. Plasma valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, Ady (Mount Sinai, NY); Sharma, Sushil (Hinsdale, IL); Noonan, John (Naperville, IL); Rotela, Elbio (Clarendon Hills, IL); Khounsary, Ali (Hinsdale, IL)

    2003-01-01

    A plasma valve includes a confinement channel and primary anode and cathode disposed therein. An ignition cathode is disposed adjacent the primary cathode. Power supplies are joined to the cathodes and anode for rapidly igniting and maintaining a plasma in the channel for preventing leakage of atmospheric pressure through the channel.

  2. Artificial Heart Valve Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provancher, William

    Artificial Heart Valve Design Your Chance to be a Biomedical Engineer #12;Circulatory System Video #12;What is a Heart Valve? · Heart Valve Video #12;#12;What Does a Heart Valve Do? · Maintain the one direction flow of blood through the heart · Heart valves allow blood to flow through in a forward direction

  3. Optimal Time-Trial Bicycle Racing with Headwinds and Tailwinds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anton, A Brad

    2013-01-01

    Many time-trial and triathlon bicycle races take place on relatively flat, closed-circuit courses. In the absence of hills, riding-speed is limited almost solely by aerodynamic drag; consequently, winds can have a big effect on elapsed times. I analyze the special case of a straight out-and-back race in a steady wind, assuming the rider has a given total amount of energy to expend and can choose only two speeds - the aided speed with tailwind and the hindered speed into headwind. In this ideal circumstance the problem of choosing optimal riding speeds reduces to a constrained nonlinear optimization that can be solved with elementary calculus. My analysis reveals a practical rule of thumb that can be used more generally to choose optimal riding speeds for time-trial racing on closed-circuit courses in the presence of headwinds and tailwinds.

  4. Bypass valve and coolant flow controls for optimum temperatures in waste heat recovery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meisner, Gregory P

    2013-10-08

    Implementing an optimized waste heat recovery system includes calculating a temperature and a rate of change in temperature of a heat exchanger of a waste heat recovery system, and predicting a temperature and a rate of change in temperature of a material flowing through a channel of the waste heat recovery system. Upon determining the rate of change in the temperature of the material is predicted to be higher than the rate of change in the temperature of the heat exchanger, the optimized waste heat recovery system calculates a valve position and timing for the channel that is configurable for achieving a rate of material flow that is determined to produce and maintain a defined threshold temperature of the heat exchanger, and actuates the valve according to the calculated valve position and calculated timing.

  5. Capacity-Optimal Training for Space-Time Modulation over a Time-Varying Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swindlehurst, A. Lee

    Capacity-Optimal Training for Space-Time Modulation over a Time-Varying Channel Christian B. Peel-autocorrelation function for time-varying MIMO channels, we find a lower bound on capacity for trained modulation, and find for differential unitary space-time modulation is discussed and compared with that for trained modulation. We

  6. Simulation of a novel electromechanical engine valve drive to quantify performance gains in fuel consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Justin (Justin Lee)

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the modeling and simulation of a novel electromechanical valve drive known as the MIT EMV. This valve drive allows an engine to achieve variable valve timing which has been shown to produce improvements ...

  7. Extremum Seeking Control for Soft Landing of an Electromechanical Valve Actuator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Extremum Seeking Control for Soft Landing of an Electromechanical Valve Actuator Katherine S is the electromechanical valve actuator, recently receiving attention for enabling variable valve timing in internal: Electromagnetic Devices; Nonlinear Control; Extremum Seeking Control. 1 Introduction Electromechanical (EM

  8. A Temporal Planning System for Time-Optimal Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrido, Antonio

    the utility of our system for dealing with temporal planning problems. Key words: planning, temporal planningA Temporal Planning System for Time-Optimal Planning Antonio Garrido, Eva Onaindía and Federico with temporality on actions presents an important challenge to AI planning. Unlike Graphplan-based planners which

  9. Optimization of Steel Production Scheduling with Complex Time-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    in the prices of energy might significantly affect the profitability as shown for a stainless-steel productionOptimization of Steel Production Scheduling with Complex Time- Sensitive Electricity Cost Hubert Research, Wallstadter Str. 59, 68526 Ladenburg, Germany b Technische Universität Dortmund, Emil-Figge Str

  10. Optimizing buffer sizes for pipeline workflow scheduling with setup times

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benoit, Anne

    Optimizing buffer sizes for pipeline workflow scheduling with setup times Anne Benoit1, Jean real-life applications have a linear pipelined struc- ture, where each data set must go through all (data sets) enters the pipeline and must go through several stages such as filters, encoders, and so

  11. Real-time nonlinear optimization as a generalized equation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zavala, V. M.; Anitescu, M. (Mathematics and Computer Science)

    2010-11-11

    We establish results for the problem of tracking a time-dependent manifold arising in real-time optimization by casting this as a parametric generalized equation. We demonstrate that if points along a solution manifold are consistently strongly regular, it is possible to track the manifold approximately by solving a single linear complementarity problem (LCP) at each time step. We derive sufficient conditions guaranteeing that the tracking error remains bounded to second order with the size of the time step even if the LCP is solved only approximately. We use these results to derive a fast, augmented Lagrangian tracking algorithm and demonstrate the developments through a numerical case study.

  12. Remote actuated valve implant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKnight, Timothy E; Johnson, Anthony; Moise, Jr., Kenneth J; Ericson, Milton Nance; Baba, Justin S; Wilgen, John B; Evans, III, Boyd McCutchen

    2014-02-25

    Valve implant systems positionable within a flow passage, the systems having an inlet, an outlet, and a remotely activatable valve between the inlet and outlet, with the valves being operable to provide intermittent occlusion of the flow path. A remote field is applied to provide thermal or magnetic activation of the valves.

  13. Rotary pneumatic valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardee, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A rotary pneumatic valve which is thrust balanced and the pneumatic pressure developed produces only radial loads on the valve cylinder producing negligible resistance and thus minimal torque on the bearings of the valve. The valve is multiplexed such that at least two complete switching cycles occur for each revolution of the cylinder spindle.

  14. Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firestone, Ryan Michael

    2007-05-31

    This report describes the development and application of a dispatch optimization algorithm for integrated energy systems (IES) comprised of on-site cogeneration of heat and electricity, energy storage devices, and demand response opportunities. This work is intended to aid commercial and industrial sites in making use of modern computing power and optimization algorithms to make informed, near-optimal decisions under significant uncertainty and complex objective functions. The optimization algorithm uses a finite set of randomly generated future scenarios to approximate the true, stochastic future; constraints are included that prevent solutions to this approximate problem from deviating from solutions to the actual problem. The algorithm is then expressed as a mixed integer linear program, to which a powerful commercial solver is applied. A case study of United States Postal Service Processing and Distribution Centers (P&DC) in four cities and under three different electricity tariff structures is conducted to (1) determine the added value of optimal control to a cogeneration system over current, heuristic control strategies; (2) determine the value of limited electric load curtailment opportunities, with and without cogeneration; and (3) determine the trade-off between least-cost and least-carbon operations of a cogeneration system. Key results for the P&DC sites studied include (1) in locations where the average electricity and natural gas prices suggest a marginally profitable cogeneration system, optimal control can add up to 67% to the value of the cogeneration system; optimal control adds less value in locations where cogeneration is more clearly profitable; (2) optimal control under real-time pricing is (a) more complicated than under typical time-of-use tariffs and (b) at times necessary to make cogeneration economic at all; (3) limited electric load curtailment opportunities can be more valuable as a compliment to the cogeneration system than alone; and (4) most of the trade-off between least-cost and least-carbon IES is determined during the system design stage; for the IES system considered, there is little difference between least-cost control and least-carbon control.

  15. Bellows sealed plug valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dukas, Jr., Stephen J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1990-01-01

    A bellows sealed plug valve includes a valve body having an inlet passage and an outlet passage, a valve chamber between the inlet and outlet passages. A valve plug has substantially the same shape as the valve chamber and is rotatably disposed therein. A shaft is movable linearly in response to a signal from a valve actuator. A bellows is sealingly disposed between the valve chamber and the valve actuator and means are located between the bellows and the valve plug for converting linear movement of the shaft connected to the valve actuator to rotational movement of the plug. Various means are disclosed including helical thread mechanism, clevis mechanism and rack and pinion mechanism, all for converting linear motion to rotational motion.

  16. Vacuum breaker valve assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, J.L.; Upton, H.A.

    1999-04-27

    Breaker valve assemblies for a simplified boiling water nuclear reactor are described. The breaker valve assembly, in one form, includes a valve body and a breaker valve. The valve body includes an interior chamber, and an inlet passage extends from the chamber and through an inlet opening to facilitate transporting particles from outside of the valve body to the interior chamber. The breaker valve is positioned in the chamber and is configured to substantially seal the inlet opening. Particularly, the breaker valve includes a disk which is sized to cover the inlet opening. The disk is movably coupled to the valve body and is configured to move substantially concentrically with respect to the valve opening between a first position, where the disk completely covers the inlet opening, and a second position, where the disk does not completely cover the inlet opening. 1 fig.

  17. Vacuum breaker valve assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Jeffrey L. (San Jose, CA); Upton, Hubert Allen (Morgan Hill, CA)

    1999-04-27

    Breaker valve assemblies for a simplified boiling water nuclear reactor are described. The breaker valve assembly, in one form, includes a valve body and a breaker valve. The valve body includes an interior chamber, and an inlet passage extends from the chamber and through an inlet opening to facilitate transporting particles from outside of the valve body to the interior chamber. The breaker valve is positioned in the chamber and is configured to substantially seal the inlet opening. Particularly, the breaker valve includes a disk which is sized to cover the inlet opening. The disk is movably coupled to the valve body and is configured to move substantially concentrically with respect to the valve opening between a first position, where the disk completely covers the inlet opening, and a second position, where the disk does not completely cover the inlet opening.

  18. Scissor thrust valve actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeWall, Kevin G.; Watkins, John C; Nitzel, Michael E.

    2006-08-29

    Apparatus for actuating a valve includes a support frame and at least one valve driving linkage arm, one end of which is rotatably connected to a valve stem of the valve and the other end of which is rotatably connected to a screw block. A motor connected to the frame is operatively connected to a motor driven shaft which is in threaded screw driving relationship with the screw block. The motor rotates the motor driven shaft which drives translational movement of the screw block which drives rotatable movement of the valve driving linkage arm which drives translational movement of the valve stem. The valve actuator may further include a sensory control element disposed in operative relationship with the valve stem, the sensory control element being adapted to provide control over the position of the valve stem by at least sensing the travel and/or position of the valve stem.

  19. Optimizing the economic efficiency by micro-drill life improvement during deep-hole drilling in the 212-Valve manufacturing process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Yan, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    The micro-drilling process by robodrills in the production of valves at Waters Corporation is the bottleneck caused by the short drill life. This thesis analyzed the chip formation and removal during the process to improve ...

  20. Valve for fluid control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oborny, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Hencken, Kenneth R. (Pleasanton, CA); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A valve for controlling fluid flows. This valve, which includes both an actuation device and a valve body provides: the ability to incorporate both the actuation device and valve into a unitary structure that can be placed onto a microchip, the ability to generate higher actuation pressures and thus control higher fluid pressures than conventional microvalves, and a device that draws only microwatts of power. An electrokinetic pump that converts electric potential to hydraulic force is used to operate, or actuate, the valve.

  1. Repsol Cartagena Utilities Real Time Optimization -- A Success Story 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piccolo, M.; Shyr, S.

    1999-01-01

    cogeneration system that supplies both electricity and stearn to the site. The surplus electricity is exported to the National grid. The system consists of the following: ~ Gas Turbine and Heat Recovery Steam Generator ~ Four fired boilers ~ Four steam...-linear modelling and optimization. Data is supplied through Uniformance PHD, Honeywell Hi-Spec Solutions' real time database. The cogeneration system is controlled using Honeywell's IDC 3000 system. The Utility System at Repsol Cartagena refinery is a...

  2. Optimal Trained Space-Time Modulation over a Rician Time-Varying Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swindlehurst, A. Lee

    Optimal Trained Space-Time Modulation over a Rician Time-Varying Channel Christian B. Peel and A investigation of modulation techniques that can handle temporally selec- tive fading. Though trained modulation for trained modulation, for example, which assume that the channel is known by the receiver. In the case

  3. Ball valve extractor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herndon, Charles (Walterboro, SC); Brown, Roger A. (North Augusta, SC)

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and process for removing a ball valve is provided. The ball valve removal tool provides a handle sliding along the length of a shaft. One end of the shaft is secured within an interior cavity of a ball valve while the opposite end of the shaft defines a stop member. By providing a manual sliding force to the handle, the handle impacts the stop member and transmits the force to the ball valve. The direction of the force is along the shaft of the removal tool and disengages the ball valve from the ball valve housing.

  4. Compact, electro-hydraulic, variable valve actuation system providing variable lift, timing and duration to enable high efficiency engine combustion control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses development of advanced variable valve actuation system to enable high efficiency combustion highlighting advances to improving system packaging while reducing cost

  5. Rotary valve shaft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynch, R.M.

    1992-07-07

    This patent describes a rotary valve shaft for use with an internal combustion engine having a combustion chamber port, the rotary valve shaft including at least one gas passage means. It comprises groove on the periphery of the rotary valve shaft and a means for connecting the groove with the port upon rotation of the rotary valve shaft, wherein the connecting means comprising notch adjacent to and leading into the groove.

  6. Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan Michael

    2007-01-01

    the optimization of cogeneration dispatch in a deregulatedcomprised of on-site cogeneration of heat and electricity,of optimal control to a cogeneration system over current,

  7. Continuous-time Proportional-Integral Distributed Optimization for Networked Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egerstedt, Magnus

    Continuous-time Proportional-Integral Distributed Optimization for Networked Systems Greg Drogea1;Continuous-time Proportional-Integral Distributed Optimization for Networked Systems Greg Droge and Hiroaki these methods to develop a continuous-time proportional-integral distributed optimization method. Furthermore

  8. Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan Michael

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables heating, ventilation, and air conditioning integrated energy system

  9. Stochastic optimization and its applications in time- varying wireless systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Yih-Hao

    2007-01-01

    Processes with Applications to Stochastic Systems Theory (Signal Pro- cessing, Optimization, and Control).

  10. Swing switching of spin-torque valves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Dunn; Alex Kamenev

    2012-10-10

    We propose a method for inducing magnetization reversal using an AC spin current polarized perpendicular to the equilibrium magnetization of the free magnetic layer. We show that the critical AC spin current is significantly smaller than the corresponding DC one. The effect is understood as a consequence of the underdamped nature of the spin-torque oscillators. It allows to use the kinetic inertia to overcome the residual energy barrier, rather than suppressing the latter by a large spin current. The effect is similar to a swing which may be set into high amplitude motion by a weak near-resonant push. The optimal AC frequency is identified as the upper bifurcation frequency of the corresponding driven nonlinear oscillator. Together with fast switching times it makes the perpendicular AC method to be the most efficient way to realize spin-torque memory valve.

  11. Engine Valve Actuation For Combustion Enhancement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys (Madison, WI); Rutland, Christopher J. (Madison, WI); Jhavar, Rahul (Madison, WI)

    2004-05-18

    A combustion chamber valve, such as an intake valve or an exhaust valve, is briefly opened during the compression and/or power strokes of a 4-stroke combustion cycle in an internal combustion engine (in particular, a diesel or CI engine). The brief opening may (1) enhance mixing withing the combustion chamber, allowing more complete oxidation of particulates to decrease engine emissions; and/or may (2) delay ignition until a more desirable time, potentially allowing a means of timing ignition in otherwise difficult-to-control conditions, e.g., in HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) conditions.

  12. Engine valve actuation for combustion enhancement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys (Madison, WI); Rutland, Christopher J. (Madison, WI); Jhavar, Rahul (Madison, WI)

    2008-03-04

    A combustion chamber valve, such as an intake valve or an exhaust valve, is briefly opened during the compression and/or power strokes of a 4-strokes combustion cycle in an internal combustion engine (in particular, a diesel or CI engine). The brief opening may (1) enhance mixing withing the combustion chamber, allowing more complete oxidation of particulates to decrease engine emissions; and/or may (2) delay ignition until a more desirable time, potentially allowing a means of timing ignition in otherwise difficult-to-control conditions, e.g., in HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) conditions.

  13. Compact, electro-hydraulic, variable valve actuation system providing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compact, electro-hydraulic, variable valve actuation system providing variable lift, timing and duration to enable high efficiency engine combustion control Compact,...

  14. Development of Lashless Valve Train Technology | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    this new product. p-16meistrick.pdf More Documents & Publications Compact, electro-hydraulic, variable valve actuation system providing variable lift, timing and duration to...

  15. A CUSTOM-DESIG ED LIMITED-A GLE ACTUATOR FOR A ELECTROMECHA ICAL E GI E VALVE DRIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, Dave

    A CUSTOM-DESIG ED LIMITED-A GLE ACTUATOR FOR A ELECTROMECHA ICAL E GI E VALVE DRIVE PART II@alum.mit.edu Keywords: Variable valve timing, electromechanical valve drive, limited-angle actuator, low inertia armature, aluminium conductor. Abstract Research has shown that variable valve timing (VVT) can improve

  16. A CUSTOM-DESIG ED LIMITED-A GLE ACTUATOR FOR A ELECTROMECHA ICAL E GI E VALVE DRIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, Dave

    A CUSTOM-DESIG ED LIMITED-A GLE ACTUATOR FOR A ELECTROMECHA ICAL E GI E VALVE DRIVE PART I: CO@alum.mit.edu Keywords: Variable valve timing, electromechanical valve drive, limited-angle actuator, low inertia armature, aluminium conductor. Abstract Research has shown that variable valve timing (VVT) can improve

  17. Non-plugging injection valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Jr., Henry S. (Wilsonville, AL)

    1985-01-01

    A valve for injecting fluid into a conduit carrying a slurry subject to separation to form deposits capable of plugging openings into the conduit. The valve comprises a valve body that is sealed to the conduit about an aperture formed through the wall of the conduit to receive the fluid to be injected and the valve member of the valve includes a punch portion that extends through the injection aperture to the flow passage, when the valve is closed, to provide a clear channel into the conduit, when the valve is opened, through deposits which might have formed on portions of the valve adjacent the conduit.

  18. 471a Explicit Real-Time Optimization Johannes E. P. Jschke1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    demands make it increasingly necessary to operate chemical processes as close to optimality as possible that the optimal setpoints of the controlled variables are computed online and are updated at certain time is to move all considerations and calculations off-line, in order to find self- optimizing control variables

  19. Run-time optimization of adaptive irregular applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Hao

    2004-11-15

    deployed an off-line, systematic experiment process to generate prediction models. These models, in turn, match the parameters to the best optimization transformations for a given machine. The technique has been evaluated thoroughly in terms of applications...

  20. Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan Michael

    2007-01-01

    Resources Canada] 2007. “RETScreen – Online Software & Data”P&DC PJM PUCT PURPA PV RETScreen RReDC Hybrid OptimizationScreening tools (RETScreen), and InterEnergy Software’s D-

  1. Time optimization and state-dependent constraints in the quantum optimal control of molecular orientation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Ndong; C. Koch; D. Sugny

    2013-08-03

    We apply two recent generalizations of monotonically convergent optimization algorithms to the control of molecular orientation by laser fields. We show how to minimize the control duration by a step-wise optimization and maximize the field-free molecular orientation using state-dependent constraints. We discuss the physical relevance of the different results.

  2. Time and Energy Optimal List Ranking Algorithms on the k-Channel Broadcast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakano, Koji

    Time and Energy Optimal List Ranking Algorithms on the k-Channel Broadcast Communication Model Koji- nels. The main contribution of this paper is to present time and energy optimal list ranking algorithms Nakano School of Information Science Japan Advanced Insitute of Science and Technology Tatsunokuchi

  3. TSV Stress Aware Timing Analysis with Applications to 3D-IC Layout Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Sung Kyu

    TSV Stress Aware Timing Analysis with Applications to 3D-IC Layout Optimization Jae-Seok Yang, Krit TSV fill material is copper which causes tensile stress on sil- icon near TSV. In this paper, we propose systematic TSV stress aware timing analysis and show how to optimize lay- out for better

  4. Optimal control methods for fast time-varying Hamiltonians

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Motzoi; J. M. Gambetta; S. T. Merkel; F. K. Wilhelm

    2011-06-21

    In this article, we develop a numerical method to find optimal control pulses that accounts for the separation of timescales between the variation of the input control fields and the applied Hamiltonian. In traditional numerical optimization methods, these timescales are treated as being the same. While this approximation has had much success, in applications where the input controls are filtered substantially or mixed with a fast carrier, the resulting optimized pulses have little relation to the applied physical fields. Our technique remains numerically efficient in that the dimension of our search space is only dependent on the variation of the input control fields, while our simulation of the quantum evolution is accurate on the timescale of the fast variation in the applied Hamiltonian.

  5. Java Defensive Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Haoqing

    2015-01-01

    Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .annotation optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Opt. is the time after optimization. Anno- phos is the time

  6. Multiscale simulations of the aortic heart valve : applications in disease and surgery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinberg, Eli, 1979-

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents mathematical models describing the mechanical behavior of the human aortic heart valve over a range of length and time scales. In the human heart, the valves perform the vital function of controlling ...

  7. MOTION PLANNING CONTROL OF THE AIRPATH OF AN S.I. ENGINE WITH VALVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    MOTION PLANNING CONTROL OF THE AIRPATH OF AN S.I. ENGINE WITH VALVE TIMING ACTUATORS T. Leroy , J with Variable Valve Timing actuators (VVT). Compared to standard configurations, the engine does not possess any as a disturbance by impacting on the air mass flow through the inlet valves. This impact can be estimated from real

  8. A Computational Model of Aging and Calcification in the Aortic Heart Valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.

    A Computational Model of Aging and Calcification in the Aortic Heart Valve Eli J. Weinberg1 of America Abstract The aortic heart valve undergoes geometric and mechanical changes over time. The cusps of a normal, healthy valve thicken and become less extensible over time. In the disease calcific aortic

  9. A Comparison of Waterflood Management Using Arrival Time Optimization and NPV Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tao, Qing

    2011-02-22

    permeability streaks could lead to an early water breakthrough at the producers and thus reduce the sweep efficiency in the field. One approach to counteract the impact of heterogeneity and to improve waterflood sweep efficiency is through optimal rate...

  10. Intraoperative Tracking of Aortic Valve Plane* DLH Nguyen, M Garreau, V Auffret, H Le Breton, JP Verhoye, P Haigron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Intraoperative Tracking of Aortic Valve Plane* DLH Nguyen, M Garreau, V Auffret, H Le Breton, JP Verhoye, P Haigron Abstract--The main objective of this work is to track the aortic valve plane in intra-operative fluoroscopic images in order to optimize and secure Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) procedure

  11. A hybrid tissue-engineered heart valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alavi, SH; Kheradvar, A

    2015-01-01

    integrity of the engineered valve when sub- jected to theto engineering heart valves holds promise for combining thebility of mechanical valves with the improved biocompat-

  12. Valve for gas centrifuges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hahs, Charles A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burbage, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a pneumatically operated valve assembly for simultaneously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two of the lines so closed. The valve assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  13. Delay Time ConstantAnalysis for5 Optimization in RF Si/SiGeBipolar Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Wai Tung

    Delay Time ConstantAnalysis for5 Optimization in RF Si/SiGeBipolar Devices I-S.M. Sun,H. E. Xu, R, the optimization of the SiGe epitaxial base, intrinsic collector and base doping profiles, and extrinsic collector restrict the degrees of freedom in device optimization. Furthermore, T S . M. Sun, H.E. Xu, R Tam and W. T

  14. Sliding pressure control valve for pneumatic hammer drill

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Polsky, Yarom (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-08-30

    A pneumatic device control apparatus and method comprising a ported valve slidably fitted over a feed tube of the pneumatic device, and using a compliant biasing device to constrain motion of the valve to provide asymmetric timing for extended pressurization of a power chamber and reduced pressurization of a return chamber of the pneumatic device. The pneumatic device can be a pneumatic hammer drill.

  15. Robust Optimization over Time A New Perspective on Dynamic Optimization Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Xin

    the energy efficiency of turbine engines. Meanwhile, most of the real-world optimization problems are subject to various types of uncertainties. For example in stock markets, political and economical envi- ronments (NICAL), School of Computer Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei

  16. NOTE ON THE OPTIMAL INTERCEPT TIME OF VESSELS TO A NONZERO RANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gander, Martin J.

    NOTE ON THE OPTIMAL INTERCEPT TIME OF VESSELS TO A NONZERO RANGE MARTIN J. GANDER \\Lambda Abstract. There is an even simpler solution to the optimal intercept problem of vessels to a nonzero range. Key words. intercept AMS subject classifications. 00A08 In [1] the authors consider the problem of a patrol vessel

  17. Robust real-time optimization for the linear oil blending Stefan Janaqia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    blending process. The blending process consists in determining the optimal mix of components so. The feedback is based on measures of the blends' and components' properties gathered by online analyzers1 Robust real-time optimization for the linear oil blending Stefan Janaqia , Jorge Aguileraa

  18. Security Games with Surveillance Cost and Optimal Timing of Attack Execution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vorobeychik, Eugene

    of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Appears inSecurity Games with Surveillance Cost and Optimal Timing of Attack Execution Bo An1 , Matthew Brown Terms Algorithm, Security Keywords Game Theory, Security, Optimization, Stackelberg Games 1

  19. Heterogeneous capital stocks and the optimal timing for CO2 abatement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heterogeneous capital stocks and the optimal timing for CO2 abatement Mark Jaccard *, Nic Rivers assumptions, an early start at CO2 abatement for long-lived capital stocks would be economically optimal for achieving long run targets for atmospheric CO2 concentrations. If the target is a specific concentration

  20. Optimization Online - Stochastic Real-Time Scheduling of Wind ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alireza Soroudi

    2015-01-03

    Jan 3, 2015 ... Stochastic Real-Time Scheduling of Wind-thermal Generation Units in an Electric Utility. Alireza Soroudi (alireza.soroudi ***at*** ucd.ie)

  1. 47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; VALVES; ACTUATORS; MINIATURIZATION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    characterization of active MEMS valves. Barnard, Casey Anderson 47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; VALVES; ACTUATORS; MINIATURIZATION; MICROELECTRONICS; PERFORMANCE TESTING; OPERATION;...

  2. Real-time trajectory optimization and air traffic control simulation for noise abatement approach procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zou, Feng, 1977-

    2004-01-01

    Aircraft noise is a major obstacle to the growth of aviation. This thesis presents an adaptive onboard real-time optimization algorithm and an Air Traffic Control simulation model that can minimize the aircraft approach ...

  3. A Nonlinear Continuous Time Optimal Control Model of Dynamic Pricing and Inventory Control with no

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adida, Elodie

    time optimal control model for studying a dynamic pricing and inventory control problem for a make-to-stock of not introducing any approximation to the real setting: it provides the exact solution of the system. When taking

  4. Mechanically balanced tapered plug valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anaya, Jose R. (Coacalco, MX)

    1985-01-01

    The invention is a novel hermetic tapered plug valve having a spring-like resilient mechanism for providing axial balance to the plug and thereby prevent valve lock up.

  5. Computing Optimal Reachability Costs in Priced Dense-Timed Pushdown Automata

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdulla, Parosh Aziz

    Computing Optimal Reachability Costs in Priced Dense-Timed Pushdown Automata Parosh Aziz Abdulla a given time interval. Furthermore, the model is priced in the sense that there is a cost function not exist (e.g., even in priced timed automata it can happen that there is no computation of cost 0

  6. Hydrogen gas relief valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whittlesey, Curtis C. (Birmingham, MI)

    1985-01-01

    An improved battery stack design for an electrochemical system having at least one cell from which a gas is generated and an electrolyte in communication with the cell is described. The improved battery stack design features means for defining a substantially closed compartment for containing the battery cells and at least a portion of the electrolyte for the system, and means in association with the compartment means for selectively venting gas from the interior of the compartment means in response to the level of the electrolyte within the compartment means. The venting means includes a relief valve having a float member which is actuated in response to the level of the electrolyte within the compartment means. This float member is adapted to close the relief valve when the level of the electrolyte is above a predetermined level and open the relief valve when the level of electrolyte is below this predetermined level.

  7. Self-regulating valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Humphreys, D.A.

    1982-07-20

    A variable, self-regulating valve having a hydraulic loss coefficient proportional to a positive exponential power of the flow rate. The device includes two objects in a flow channel and structure which assures that the distance between the two objects is an increasing function of the flow rate. The range of spacing between the objects is such that the hydraulic resistance of the valve is an increasing function of the distance between the two objects so that the desired hydraulic loss coefficient as a function of flow rate is obtained without variation in the flow area.

  8. Valve stem and packing assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wordin, J.J.

    1991-09-03

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents over tightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing. 2 figures.

  9. Valve stem and packing assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wordin, John J. (Bingham County, ID)

    1991-01-01

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents overtightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing.

  10. Exact solutions for time-optimal control of spin I=1 by NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. P. Shauro

    2015-06-04

    We consider the problem of time-optimal control of quadrupole nucleus with the spin I=1 by NMR. In contrast to the conventional methods based on selective pulses, the control is implemented using nonselective pulses separated by free evolution intervals. Using the Cartan decomposition, the system of equations is obtained for finding parameters of a control field. Partial time-optimal solutions for the important single-qutrit gates (selective rotations and quantum Fourier transform) are found. The strong dependence of minimum gate implementation times on global phase of the gate is observed. The analytical values of minimum times are consistent with the numerical data.

  11. Robust signal timing optimization with environmental Lihui Zhang a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shigang

    6 January 2013 Accepted 9 January 2013 Keywords: Traffic signal timing Traffic delay Air pollutant to capture the dispersion of air pollutants and compute the road- side pollutant concentrations. A measure and living conditions, air pollution has long emerged as one of the most acute problems in many metropolitan

  12. Statistical Gate Sizing for Timing Yield Optimization Debjit Sinha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Hai

    collectively vary as the parameter space. Nominally sub-critical paths may become critical in some regions due all factors that contribute to delay variations as parameters and refer to the range in which they can as an active research topic. Agarwal et al. present a statistical timing analysis approach which focuses

  13. Optimal Time-of-Use Pricing For Residential Load Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Sunil

    is demonstrated using a simulated case study. I. INTRODUCTION Demand-side management and electricity rate. San Diego, CA 92182-1309 Abstract-- Demand response (DR) can be defined as change in electric usage of electricity over time. Demand Response also refers to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity

  14. Optimal control theory for a target state distributed in time: Optimizing the probe-pulse signal of a pump-probe-scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Röder, Beate

    Optimal control theory for a target state distributed in time: Optimizing the probe-pulse signal control theory OCT is formulated for the case of a two-color pump-probe experiment. The approach allows pulse experiments, i.e., into the optimal control theory OCT .6­9 To begin with we will concentrate

  15. Valve for gas centrifuges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hahs, C.A.; Rurbage, C.H.

    1982-03-17

    The invention is pneumatically operated valve assembly for simulatenously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two on the lines so closed. The value assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  16. Spin transfer switching in current-perpendicular-to-plane spin valve observed by magneto-optical Kerr effect using visible light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otani, Yoshichika

    Spin transfer switching in current-perpendicular-to-plane spin valve observed by magneto-perpendicular-to-plane spin-valve device. The device consists of three spin-valve elements, each of which comprises-perpendicular-to- plane CPP spin-valve device has been directly observed by using a time resolved x-ray microscopy7 while

  17. Design, maintenance extend FGD system slurry valve life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeMay, B. [St. John`s River Power Park, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Willyard, B. [Grand River Dam Authority, Chouteau, OK (United States); Polasek, S. [Lower Colorado River Authority, Austin, TX (United States); Clarkson, C.W. [Clarkson Co., Sparks, NV (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This article describes how power plants in Florida, Oklahoma and Texas adopted improved maintenance techniques and sought better design criteria to gain greater slurry valve reliability. Slurry valves, a vital part of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system, are critical to a power plant`s ability to meet or exceed acid rain emission requirements. The performance and reliability of these valves can significantly affect unit operation and load capacity. For example, slurry valves installed on the suction and discharge ends of scrubber tower pumps are a main point of isolation. When these valves malfunction, the scrubber tower must be shut down. Problems with valves that control the feed system and reaction tank alter slurry pH and density, and also affect unit load. In addition, a single valve that serves dual-pumping systems from the slurry storage tank to the reaction tank can cause a system outage. Because of their key role in system operation, specific maintenance approaches were developed at several power plants to improve slurry valve reliability and run times.

  18. Multi-port valve assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guggenheim, S. Frederic (Teaneck, NJ)

    1986-01-01

    A multi-port fluid valve apparatus is used to control the flow of fluids through a plurality of valves and includes a web, which preferably is a stainless steel endless belt. The belt has an aperture therethrough and is progressed, under motor drive and control, so that its aperture is moved from one valve mechanism to another. Each of the valve mechanisms comprises a pair of valve blocks which are held in fluid-tight relationship against the belt. Each valve block consists of a block having a bore through which the fluid flows, a first seal surrounding the bore and a second seal surrounding the first seal, with the distance between the first and second seals being greater than the size of the belt aperture. In order to open a valve, the motor progresses the belt aperture to where it is aligned with the two bores of a pair of valve blocks, such alignment permitting a flow of the fluid through the valve. The valve is closed by movement of the belt aperture and its replacement, within the pair of valve blocks, by a solid portion of the belt.

  19. REAL-TIME DEPTH BOUNDARY OPTIMIZATION FOR LOCAL AREA-BASED STEREO David Gallup1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollefeys, Marc

    a snake-like energy optimized with a dynamic programming method. This clean-up step requires only O(#pixels) time and space, making it well-suited for real-time where local area-based stereo is often used. Our depth estimates are needed immediately, or for processing large amounts of data as in urban

  20. Theory for the optimal control of time-averaged quantities in open quantum systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilia Grigorenko; Martin E. Garcia; K. H. Bennemann

    2002-03-25

    We present variational theory for optimal control over a finite time interval in quantum systems with relaxation. The corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations determining the optimal control field are derived. In our theory the optimal control field fulfills a high order differential equation, which we solve analytically for some limiting cases. We determine quantitatively how relaxation effects limit the control of the system. The theory is applied to open two level quantum systems. An approximate analytical solution for the level occupations in terms of the applied fields is presented. Different other applications are discussed.

  1. Real-time Optimization Method for Optical Parameters of Ion Implanters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogata, Seiji [ULVAC, Inc., Research and Development Div., 2500 Hagizono Chigasaki Kanagawa 253-8543 (Japan); Nishihashi, Tsutomu; Tonari, Kazuhiko [ULVAC, Inc., Inst. Semiconductor Technology, 1220-1 Suyama Susono Shizuoka 410-1231 (Japan); Yokoo, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Hideo; Hisamune, Takeshi [ULVAC, Inc., Semiconductor Equipment Div. 2, 1220-14 Suyama Susono Shizuoka 410-1231 (Japan); Araki, Masasumi [ULVAC, Inc., Software Development Control Solution Div., Hagizono Chigasaki Kanagawa 253-8543 (Japan)

    2006-11-13

    Real-time optimization for optical parameters, such as applied voltage to the electrostatic quadrupole lens, has been realized by using newly developed high-speed computation algorithm for charged particle beams. The virtual optimization code has been incorporated in the control system of SOPHI-200, which is the ULVAC'S new medium current ion implanter. Automatic setup within 5minutes is achieved for any recipe of implantation.

  2. Commissioning, Operation, Real Time Monitoring and Evaluation of Pilot: Achieving Optimal Performance through Building Commissioning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pang,X.; Piette, M.A.; Hao,B.

    2014-01-01

    CONSORTIUM U.S. - CHINA CLEAN ENERGY RESEARCH CENTER (CERC-BEE) E3: Commissioning, Operation, Real Time Monitoring and Evaluation of Pilot Achieving Optimal Performance through Building Commissioning Xiufeng Pang, Mary Ann Piette, Bin Hao Interface... to demo projects to ensure that the CERC-BEE demonstrated technologies work properly and are integrated with the rest of the building systems • Review the Cx plans for the two demo projects, the CABR building and the Xingye building. • Develop optimal...

  3. A Data-Centric Approach to Optimize Time in Workflow-Based Business Process Yuqun Zhang, Dewayne E. Perry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perry, Dewayne E.

    A Data-Centric Approach to Optimize Time in Workflow-Based Business Process Yuqun Zhang, Dewayne E to optimize it in workflow- based business processes. By applying our data-centric business process modeling-time performance, data-centric, business process optimization I. INTRODUCTION In the realm of business process

  4. MIDWEST ISO CO-OPTIMIZATION BASED REAL-TIME DISPATCH AND PRICING OF ENERGY AND ANCILLARY SERVICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    MIDWEST ISO CO-OPTIMIZATION BASED REAL-TIME DISPATCH AND PRICING OF ENERGY AND ANCILLARY SERVICES and ancillary service co-optimization is reported in this paper. The key components of Midwest ISO's real words ­ Real-time dispatch and pricing, LMP, Energy and ancillary service co-optimization, Intra

  5. Emerging Trends in Heart Valve Engineering: Part II. Novel and Standard Technologies for Aortic Valve Replacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    et mechanical valves. J. Heart Valve Dis. 11:275–282, 2002.series of st. Jude medical heart valve: in vivo hemodynamicwith narrowed aortic annulus. J. Heart Valve Dis. 6:535–541,

  6. Fast-acting valve and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, J.A.

    1980-05-16

    A very fast acting valve capable of producing a very well-defined plug of gas suitable for filling a theta pinch vacuum vessel is given. The valve requires no springs, instead being stopped mainly by a nonlinear force. Thus, the valve is not subject to bouncing; and the ratio of the size of the valve housing to the size of the valve stem is smaller than it would be if springs were needed to stop the valve stem. Furthermore, the valve can be used for thousands of valve firings with no apparent valve damage.

  7. Time-optimal synthesis of unitary transformations in coupled fast and slow qubit system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Zeier; Haidong Yuan; Navin Khaneja

    2007-09-27

    In this paper, we study time-optimal control problems related to system of two coupled qubits where the time scales involved in performing unitary transformations on each qubit are significantly different. In particular, we address the case where unitary transformations produced by evolutions of the coupling take much longer time as compared to the time required to produce unitary transformations on the first qubit but much shorter time as compared to the time to produce unitary transformations on the second qubit. We present a canonical decomposition of SU(4) in terms of the subgroup SU(2)xSU(2)xU(1), which is natural in understanding the time-optimal control problem of such a coupled qubit system with significantly different time scales. A typical setting involves dynamics of a coupled electron-nuclear spin system in pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance experiments at high fields. Using the proposed canonical decomposition, we give time-optimal control algorithms to synthesize various unitary transformations of interest in coherent spectroscopy and quantum information processing.

  8. Rotary multiposition valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.; Dyson, J.E.

    1984-04-06

    The disclosure is directed to a rotary multiposition valve for selectively directing the flow of a fluid through a plurality of paths. The valve comprises an inner member and a hollow housing with a row of ducts on its outer surface. The ducts are in fluid communication with the housing. An engaging section of the inner member is received in the housing. A seal divides the engaging section into a hollow inlet segment and a hollow outlet segment. A plurality of inlet apertures are disposed in the inlet sgegment and a plurality of outlet apertures are disposed in the outlet segment. The inlet apertures are disposed in a longitudinally and radially spaced-apart pattern that can be a helix. The outlet apertures are disposed in a corresponding pattern. As the inner member is rotated, whenever an inlet aperture overlaps one of the ducts, the corresponding outlet aperture overlaps a different duct, thus forming a fluid pathway.

  9. Rotary multiposition valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A. (Los Alamos, NM); Dyson, Jack E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a rotary multiposition valve for selectively directing the flow of a fluid through a plurality of paths. The valve comprises an inner member and a hollow housing with a row of ducts on its outer surface. The ducts are in fluid communication with the housing. An engaging section of the inner member is received in the housing. A seal divides the engaging section into a hollow inlet segment and a hollow outlet segment. A plurality of inlet apertures are disposed in the inlet segment and a plurality of outlet apertures are disposed in the outlet segment. The inlet apertures are disposed in a longitudinally and radially spaced-apart pattern that can be a helix. The outlet apertures are disposed in a corresponding pattern. As the inner member is rotated, whenever an inlet aperture overlaps one of the ducts, the corresponding outlet aperture overlaps a different duct, thus forming a fluid pathway.

  10. CONTROL VALVE TESTING PROCEDURES AND EQUATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahmeyer, William J.

    APPENDIX A CONTROL VALVE TESTING PROCEDURES AND EQUATIONS FOR LIQUID FLOWS #12;APPENDIX A CONTROL VALVE TESTING PROCEDURES AND EQUATIONS FOR LIQUID FLOWS 2 Cv Q P Sg net gpm net = / Cv = Q P / Sg 75 is used to relate the pressure loss of a valve to the discharge of the valve at a given valve opening

  11. NONLINEAR MAGNETIC LEVITATION OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINE VALVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grizzle, Jessy W.

    NONLINEAR MAGNETIC LEVITATION OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINE VALVES K. Peterson, J.W. Grizzle, and A, the controller is designed for and implemented on an electromagnetic valve actuator for use in automotive engines on an electromagnetic valve actuator for use in the actuation of automotive engine valves. 2. ELECTROMAGNETIC VALVE

  12. Streamline coal slurry letdown valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Platt, R.J.; Shadbolt, E.A.

    1983-11-08

    A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces. 5 figs.

  13. Semi-active compressor valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brun, Klaus (Helotes, TX); Gernentz, Ryan S. (San Antonio, TX)

    2010-07-27

    A method and system for fine-tuning the motion of suction or discharge valves associated with cylinders of a reciprocating gas compressor, such as the large compressors used for natural gas transmission. The valve's primary driving force is conventional, but the valve also uses an electromagnetic coil to sense position of the plate (or other plugging element) and to provide an opposing force prior to impact.

  14. EVALUATION OF SPRING OPERATED RELIEF VALVE MAINTENANCE INTERVALS AND EXTENSION OF MAINTENANCE TIMES USING A WEIBULL ANALYSIS WITH MODIFIED BAYESIAN UPDATING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, S.; Gross, R.; Mitchell, E.

    2011-01-18

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) spring operated pressure relief valve (SORV) maintenance intervals were evaluated using an approach provided by the American Petroleum Institute (API RP 581) for risk-based inspection technology (RBI). In addition, the impact of extending the inspection schedule was evaluated using Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS). The API RP 581 approach is characterized as a Weibull analysis with modified Bayesian updating provided by SRS SORV proof testing experience. Initial Weibull parameter estimates were updated as per SRS's historical proof test records contained in the Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) Process Equipment Reliability Database (PERD). The API RP 581 methodology was used to estimate the SORV's probability of failing on demand (PFD), and the annual expected risk. The API RP 581 methodology indicates that the current SRS maintenance plan is conservative. Cost savings may be attained in certain mild service applications that present low PFD and overall risk. Current practices are reviewed and recommendations are made for extending inspection intervals. The paper gives an illustration of the inspection costs versus the associated risks by using API RP 581 Risk Based Inspection (RBI) Technology. A cost effective maintenance frequency balancing both financial risk and inspection cost is demonstrated.

  15. Optimal Battery Configuration in a Residential Home with Time-of-Use Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    Optimal Battery Configuration in a Residential Home with Time-of-Use Pricing Baris Aksanli, USA {baksanli, tajana}@ucsd.edu Abstract--Residential energy consumption shows significant diurnal. INTRODUCTION AND RELATED WORK Residential energy consumption constitutes 38% of the total energy consumption

  16. Power Optimization of Wireless Media Systems with Space-Time Code Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yousefi'zadeh, Homayoun

    between the power consumption and the quality of service in wireless media systems. Fig. 1 includes1 Power Optimization of Wireless Media Systems with Space-Time Code Building Blocks Homayoun solution to the problem of power control in wireless media systems with multiple transmit antennas. We

  17. Power Optimization of Memoryless Wireless Media Systems with Space-Time Block Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yousefi'zadeh, Homayoun

    Power Optimization of Memoryless Wireless Media Systems with Space-Time Block Codes Hamid present an analytical so- lution to the problem of power control in wireless media systems with multiple- less media systems subject to a given level of Quality of Service (QoS) and an available bit rate. Our

  18. Optimal Real-time Pricing Algorithm Based on Utility Maximization for Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    Optimal Real-time Pricing Algorithm Based on Utility Maximization for Smart Grid Pedram Samadi algorithm for the future smart grid. We focus on the interactions between the smart meters and the energy-mail:{psamadi, hamed, rschober, vincentw, jurij}@ece.ubc.ca Abstract--In this paper, we consider a smart power infras

  19. Bang-bang property for time optimal control of semilinear heat equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Bang-bang property for time optimal control of semilinear heat equation Kim Dang Phung , Lijuan governed by semilinear heat equation in a bounded domain with control acting locally in a subset. Also, we present the null controllability cost for semilinear heat equation and an observability estimate from

  20. Efficiency-Driven Design Time Optimization of a Hybrid Energy Storage System with Networked Charge Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Efficiency-Driven Design Time Optimization of a Hybrid Energy Storage System with Networked Charge efficiency for various problem setups and scales. Keywords--hybrid energy storage system; networked charge transfer interconnect; placement I. INTRODUCTION Energy storage systems (ESSs) store the excess energy

  1. Modeling and Optimization of RF-MEMS Reconfigurable Tuners with Computationally Efficient Time-Domain Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    Modeling and Optimization of RF-MEMS Reconfigurable Tuners with Computationally Efficient Time of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 2 Raytheon Company, Tucson AZ, 85734 Abstract -- Modern RF-MEMS device design methods in which the FDTD technique can be used to model a reconfigurable RF-MEMS tuner. A new method

  2. Time-optimal polarization transfer from an electron spin to a nuclear spin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haidong Yuan; Robert Zeier; Nikolas Pomplun; Steffen J. Glaser; Navin Khaneja

    2015-09-07

    Polarization transfers from an electron spin to a nuclear spin are essential for various physical tasks, such as dynamic nuclear polarization in nuclear magnetic resonance and quantum state transformations on hybrid electron-nuclear spin systems. We present time-optimal schemes for electron-nuclear polarization transfers which improve on conventional approaches and will have wide applications.

  3. Optimizing Preemption-Overhead Accounting in Multiprocessor Real-Time Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, James

    Optimizing Preemption-Overhead Accounting in Multiprocessor Real-Time Systems Bryan C. Ward Dept. of Computer Science University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Abhilash Thekkilakattil Div. of Software of North Carolina at Chapel Hill ABSTRACT There exist two general techniques to account for preemption

  4. DISCRETE-TIME ROBUST POLE-PLACEMENT DESIGN THROUGH GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    DISCRETE-TIME ROBUST POLE-PLACEMENT DESIGN THROUGH GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION Miguel Ayala Botto ,1 Robert-mail: r.babuska@its.tudelft.nl Abstract: A robust pole placement controller design method is presented Keywords: robust control, pole assignment, uncertainty, genetic algorithms, helicopter dynamics. 1

  5. Whitey Gauge and Root Valves (VPS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MISKA, C.

    2000-09-03

    These valves are 1/2 inch ball valves fabricated of 316 stainless steel: Packing is TFE (standard). They are used as isolation valves for pressure instrumentation in the Vacuum Pumping and Helium System.

  6. Whitey Gauge and Root Valves (VPS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MISKA, C.

    2000-10-17

    These valves are 1/2-inch ball valves fabricated of 316 stainless steel. Packing is TFE (standard). They are used as isolation valves for pressure instrumentation in the Vacuum Pumping and Helium System.

  7. Low energy high pressure miniature screw valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Gary J. (Sandia Park, NM); Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-12-12

    A low energy high pressure screw valve having a valve body having an upper portion and a lower portion, said lower portion of said valve body defining an inlet flow passage and an outlet flow passage traversing said valve body to a valve seat, said upper portion of said valve body defining a cavity at said valve seat, a diaphragm restricting flow between said upper portion of said valve body and said lower portion, said diaphragm capable of engaging said valve seat to restrict fluid communication between said inlet passage and said outlet passage, a plunger within said cavity supporting said diaphragm, said plunger being capable of engaging said diaphragm with said valve seat at said inlet and outlet fluid passages, said plunger being in point contact with a drive screw having threads engaged with opposing threads within said upper portion of said valve body such engagement allowing motion of said drive screw within said valve body.

  8. A FAST OPENING TOROIDAL GAS VALVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, B.R.

    2012-01-01

    FIGURE 1. Artists sketch of valve illustrating the dynamicsCross sectional view of valve. FIGURE 3. Oscilloscope recordcm (b) Gauge 5.0 em from valve Top trace; gauge, 0.5 volts/

  9. Optimization of high-order harmonic generation by genetic algorithm and wavelet time-frequency analysis of quantum dipole emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Xi

    Optimization of high-order harmonic generation by genetic algorithm and wavelet time laser fields by means of the genetic algorithm optimization of the laser-pulse amplitude and phase optimization 11 of the laser-pulse shape and intra-atomic phase matching. We show that by combining the GA

  10. Serial siphon valving for centrifugal microfluidic platforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    0523-5 RESEARCH PAPER Serial siphon valving for centrifugalshown, a novel serial siphon valve is introduced thatrelies on mul- tiple, inline siphons to provide for a better

  11. A hybrid tissue-engineered heart valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alavi, SH; Kheradvar, A

    2015-01-01

    to the high pressure in the heart, particularly in the leftThis approach to engineering heart valves holds promise forhemodynamics of bioprosthetic heart valves. NEW TECHNOLOGY

  12. Optimization of vortex pinning by nanoparticles using simulations of time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. E. Koshelev; I. A. Sadovskyy; C. L. Phillips; A. Glatz

    2015-10-01

    Introducing nanoparticles into superconducting materials has emerged as an efficient route to enhance their current-carrying capability. We address the problem of optimizing vortex pinning landscape for randomly distributed metallic spherical inclusions using large-scale numerical simulations of time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations. We found the size and density of particles for which the highest critical current is realized in a fixed magnetic field. For each particle size and magnetic field, the critical current reaches a maximum value at a certain particle density, which typically corresponds to 15-23% of the total volume being replaced by nonsuperconducting material. For fixed diameter, this optimal particle density increases with the magnetic field. Moreover, we found that the optimal particle diameter slowly decreases with the magnetic field from 4.5 to 2.5 coherence lengths at a given temperature. This result shows that pinning landscapes have to be designed for specific applications taking into account relevant magnetic field scales.

  13. FLUID-STRUCTURE INTERACTION MODELS OF THE MITRAL VALVE: FUNCTION IN NORMAL AND PATHOLOGIC STATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunzelman, K. S.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Cochran, R. P.

    2007-08-29

    Successful mitral valve repair is dependent upon a full understanding of normal and abnormal mitral valve anatomy and function. Computational analysis is one such method that can be applied to simulate mitral valve function in order to analyze the roles of individual components, and evaluate proposed surgical repair. We developed the first three-dimensional, finite element (FE) computer model of the mitral valve including leaflets and chordae tendineae, however, one critical aspect that has been missing until the last few years was the evaluation of fluid flow, as coupled to the function of the mitral valve structure. We present here our latest results for normal function and specific pathologic changes using a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model. Normal valve function was first assessed, followed by pathologic material changes in collagen fiber volume fraction, fiber stiffness, fiber splay, and isotropic stiffness. Leaflet and chordal stress and strain, and papillary muscle force was determined. In addition, transmitral flow, time to leaflet closure, and heart valve sound were assessed. Model predictions in the normal state agreed well with a wide range of available in-vivo and in-vitro data. Further, pathologic material changes that preserved the anisotropy of the valve leaflets were found to preserve valve function. By contrast, material changes that altered the anisotropy of the valve were found to profoundly alter valve function. The addition of blood flow and an experimentally driven microstructural description of mitral tissue represent significant advances in computational studies of the mitral valve, which allow further insight to be gained. This work is another building block in the foundation of a computational framework to aid in the refinement and development of a truly noninvasive diagnostic evaluation of the mitral valve. Ultimately, it represents the basis for simulation of surgical repair of pathologic valves in a clinical and educational setting.

  14. Finite-time thermodynamics: Exergya) and optimization of time-constrained processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, R. Stephen

    and for the set of parallel heat engines are found. 1. INTRODUCTION Exergy analysis and other related approaches discuss a way to extend exergy analysis using some re- sults of finite-time thermodynamics, incorporating. It is closely related to the exergy approach but incorporates the irreversible losses due to finite

  15. Annular flow control safety valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, P.W.; Pringle, R.E.

    1981-06-16

    A tubular housing having an inner tubular member forms an inner passageway inside of the inner member and an outer passageway between the inner member and the housing. The housing has valve openings leading from the outer passageway to the exterior of the housing and a tubular valve closure member telescopically moves on the interior of the housing. First means move the valve closure member in an upper direction for closing the openings and at least one actuating piston is telescopically movable within and has its longitudinal axis in the wall of the housing and engages the valve closure member. The piston is in communication with a hydraulic passageway adapted to extend to the well surface for actuating the closure member in a direction to open the valve openings. The closure member is positioned whereby upward flow through the outer passageway acts on the closure member to close the valve opening. At least one lockout piston telescopically moves within the housing and is actuated from the surface and is engageable with holding means in the housing for providing a hydraulic lockout for the valve. Shear means may be provided between the lockout piston and the housing for controlling the hydraulic lockout. A single seal is provided between the closure member and the housing and is positioned below the opening and exposed to the pressure on both sides when the valve is opened. Preferably the actuating pistons are connected to the valve closure member but the hydraulic lockout pistons engage but are unconnected to the valve closure member.

  16. Symmetry breaking in optimal timing of traffic signals on an idealized two-way street

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panaggio, Mark J; Hu, Peiguang; Abrams, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    Simple physical models based on fluid mechanics have long been used to understand the flow of vehicular traffic on freeways; analytically tractable models of flow on an urban grid, however, have not been as extensively explored. In an ideal world, traffic signals would be timed such that consecutive lights turned green just as vehicles arrived, eliminating the need to stop at each block. Unfortunately, this "green wave" scenario is generally unworkable due to frustration imposed by competing demands of traffic moving in different directions. Until now this has typically been resolved by numerical simulation and optimization. Here, we develop a theory for the flow in an idealized system consisting of a long two-way road with periodic intersections. We show that optimal signal timing can be understood analytically and that there are counter-intuitive asymmetric solutions to this signal coordination problem. We further explore how these theoretical solutions degrade as traffic conditions vary and automotive dens...

  17. Efficient Inventory Optimization of Multi Product, Multiple Suppliers with Lead Time using PSO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narmadha, S; Sathish, G

    2010-01-01

    With information revolution, increased globalization and competition, supply chain has become longer and more complicated than ever before. These developments bring supply chain management to the forefront of the managements attention. Inventories are very important in a supply chain. The total investment in inventories is enormous, and the management of inventory is crucial to avoid shortages or delivery delays for the customers and serious drain on a companys financial resources. The supply chain cost increases because of the influence of lead times for supplying the stocks as well as the raw materials. Practically, the lead times will not be same through out all the periods. Maintaining abundant stocks in order to avoid the impact of high lead time increases the holding cost. Similarly, maintaining fewer stocks because of ballpark lead time may lead to shortage of stocks. This also happens in the case of lead time involved in supplying raw materials. A better optimization methodology that utilizes the Part...

  18. Using the Oxygen Plasma Machine 1. Turn on the O2 (g) valve on the wall.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Using the Oxygen Plasma Machine 1. Turn on the O2 (g) valve on the wall. 2. Turn on the O2 inlet valve on the front of the machine just a tiny-bit ­ O2 should now be leaking through the black, chamber-right of the machine), just the Red Power Switch. 6. Turn off the O2 valve on the chamber door. At the same time, turn

  19. SCHE Helium bottles and associated isolation valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-06-21

    These gas bottles and associated valves provide the safety grade helium source for emergency MCO purge.

  20. Heart valve tissue engineering Frank Baaijens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stavroulakis, Georgios E.

    Heart valve tissue engineering Frank Baaijens Department of Biomedical Engineering Eindhoven University of Technology Netherlands Tissue engineered heart valves appear promising as autologous valvular functionality and durability of the heart valve relies on the strength and anisotropic properties of the valve

  1. NONLINEAR MAGNETIC LEVITATION OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINE VALVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    NONLINEAR MAGNETIC LEVITATION OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINE VALVES K. Peterson, J.W. Grizzle, and A, the controller is designed for and implemented on an electromagnetic valve actuator for use in automotive engines on an elec- tromagnetic valve actuator, designed for use in the actuation of automotive engine valves. 2

  2. Fluid relief and check valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaedel, K.L.; Lord, S.C.; Murray, I.

    1986-07-17

    A passive fluid pressure relief and check valve allows the relief pressure to be slaved to a reference pressure independently of the exhaust pressure. The pressure relief valve is embodied by a submerged vent line in a sealing fluid, the relief pressure being a function of the submerged depth. A check valve is embodied by a vertical column of fluid (the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of fluid). The pressure is vented into an exhaust system which keeps the exhaust out of the area providing the reference pressure.

  3. Multi-port valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewin, Keith F. (Calverton, NY)

    1997-04-15

    A multi-port valve for regulating, as a function of ambient air having varying wind velocity and wind direction in an open-field control area, the distribution of a fluid, particularly carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) gas, in a fluid distribution system so that the control area remains generally at an elevated fluid concentration or level of said fluid. The multi-port valve generally includes a multi-port housing having a plurality of outlets therethrough disposed in a first pattern of outlets and at least one second pattern of outlets, and a movable plate having a plurality of apertures extending therethrough disposed in a first pattern of apertures and at least one second pattern of apertures. The first pattern of apertures being alignable with the first pattern of outlets and the at least one second pattern of apertures being alignable with the second pattern of outlets. The first pattern of apertures has a predetermined orientation with the at least one second pattern of apertures. For an open-field control area subject to ambient wind having a low velocity from any direction, the movable plate is positioned to equally distribute the supply of fluid in a fluid distribution system to the open-field control area. For an open-field control area subject to ambient wind having a high velocity from a given direction, the movable plate is positioned to generally distribute a supply of fluid in a fluid distribution system to that portion of the open-field control area located upwind.

  4. Multi-port valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewin, K.F.

    1997-04-15

    A multi-port valve is described for regulating, as a function of ambient air having varying wind velocity and wind direction in an open-field control area, the distribution of a fluid, particularly carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) gas, in a fluid distribution system so that the control area remains generally at an elevated fluid concentration or level of said fluid. The multi-port valve generally includes a multi-port housing having a plurality of outlets there through disposed in a first pattern of outlets and at least one second pattern of outlets, and a movable plate having a plurality of apertures extending there through disposed in a first pattern of apertures and at least one second pattern of apertures. The first pattern of apertures being alignable with the first pattern of outlets and the at least one second pattern of apertures being alignable with the second pattern of outlets. The first pattern of apertures has a predetermined orientation with the at least one second pattern of apertures. For an open-field control area subject to ambient wind having a low velocity from any direction, the movable plate is positioned to equally distribute the supply of fluid in a fluid distribution system to the open-field control area. For an open-field control area subject to ambient wind having a high velocity from a given direction, the movable plate is positioned to generally distribute a supply of fluid in a fluid distribution system to that portion of the open-field control area located upwind. 7 figs.

  5. Replacement of outboard main steam isolation valves in a boiling water reactor plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlereth, J.R.; Pennington, D.

    1996-12-01

    Most Boiling Water Reactor plants utilize wye pattern globe valves for main steam isolation valves for both inboard and outboard isolation. These valves have required a high degree of maintenance attention in order to pass the plant local leakage rate testing (LLRT) requirements at each outage. Northern States Power made a decision in 1993 to replace the outboard valves at it`s Monticello plant with double disc gate valves. The replacement of the outboard valves was completed during the fall outage in 1994. During the spring outage in April of 1996 the first LLRT testing was performed with excellent results. This presentation will address the decision process, time requirements and planning necessary to accomplish the task as well as the performance results and cost effectiveness of replacing these components.

  6. Emerging Trends in Heart Valve Engineering: Part III. Novel Technologies for Mitral Valve Repair and Replacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    and J. D. Puskas. Mitral-valve repair versus replacement forbioprosthetic heart valves. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 71:S417–mechanics of arti?cial heart valves. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol.

  7. Emerging Trends in Heart Valve Engineering: Part II. Novel and Standard Technologies for Aortic Valve Replacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    toronto stentless porcine valve. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 78:2076–medical mechanical cardiac valve prosthesis. Ann. Thorac.or surgical aortic-valve replacement. New Engl. J. Med. 366:

  8. Light incoherence theory revisited by Heisenberg time-energy uncertainty challenges solar cell optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herman, Aline; Deparis, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of the efficiency of solar cells is a major challenge for renewable energies. Using a rigorous theoretical approach, we show that the photocurrent generated in a solar cell depends strongly on the degree of coherence of the incident light. In accordance with Heisenberg uncertainty time-energy, incoherent light at photons of carrier energy lower than the active material bandgap can be absorbed whereas coherent light at the same carrier energy cannot. We identify cases where incoherence does enhance efficiency. This result has a dramatical impact on the way solar cells must be optimized regarding sunlight. As an illustration, surface-corrugated GaAs and c-Si thin-film solar cells are considered.

  9. Real-Time Combined Heat and Power Operational Strategy Using a Hierarchical Optimization Algorithm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Kyung Tae; Cho, Heejin; Luck, Rogelio; Mago, Pedro J.

    2011-06-01

    Existing attempts to optimize the operation of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems for building applications have two major limitations: the electrical and thermal loads are obtained from historical weather profiles; and the CHP system models ignore transient responses by using constant equipment efficiencies. This paper considers the transient response of a building combined with a hierarchical CHP optimal control algorithm to obtain a real-time integrated system that uses the most recent weather and electric load information. This is accomplished by running concurrent simulations of two transient building models. The first transient building model uses current as well as forecast input information to obtain short term predictions of the thermal and electric building loads. The predictions are then used by an optimization algorithm, i.e., a hierarchical controller, that decides the amount of fuel and of electrical energy to be allocated at the current time step. In a simulation, the actual physical building is not available and, hence, to simulate a real-time environment, a second, building model with similar but not identical input loads are used to represent the actual building. A state-variable feedback loop is completed at the beginning of each time step by copying, i.e., measuring, the state variable from the actual building and restarting the predictive model using these ?measured? values as initial conditions. The simulation environment presented in this paper features nonlinear effects such as the dependence of the heat exchanger effectiveness on their operating conditions. The results indicate that the CHP engine operation dictated by the proposed hierarchical controller with uncertain weather conditions have the potential to yield significant savings when compared to conventional systems using current values of electricity and fuel prices.

  10. Emerging Trends in Heart Valve Engineering: Part II. Novel and Standard Technologies for Aortic Valve Replacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    et mechanical heart valves during the leakage phase. Ann.leakage ?ow in the hinge of a st. Jude medical((r)) regent mechanical heart valve.

  11. Extremum seeking-based optimization of high voltage converter modulator rise-time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheinker, Alexander; Bland, Michael; Krstic, Miroslav; Audia, Jeff

    2013-02-01

    We digitally implement an extremum seeking (ES) algorithm, which optimizes the rise time of the output voltage of a high voltage converter modulator (HVCM) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) HVCM test stand by iteratively, simultaneously tuning the first 8 switching edges of each of the three phase drive waveforms (24 variables total). We achieve a 50 ?s rise time, which is reduction in half compared to the 100 ?s achieved at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Considering that HVCMs typically operate with an output voltage of 100 kV, with a 60Hz repetition rate, the 50 ?s rise time reduction will result in very significant energy savings. The ES algorithm will prove successful, despite the noisy measurements and cost calculations, confirming the theoretical results that the algorithm is not affected by noise whose frequency components are independent of the perturbing frequencies.

  12. Extremum seeking-based optimization of high voltage converter modulator rise-time

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Scheinker, Alexander; Bland, Michael; Krstic, Miroslav; Audia, Jeff

    2013-02-01

    We digitally implement an extremum seeking (ES) algorithm, which optimizes the rise time of the output voltage of a high voltage converter modulator (HVCM) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) HVCM test stand by iteratively, simultaneously tuning the first 8 switching edges of each of the three phase drive waveforms (24 variables total). We achieve a 50 ?s rise time, which is reduction in half compared to the 100 ?s achieved at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Considering that HVCMs typically operate with an output voltage of 100 kV, with a 60Hz repetitionmore »rate, the 50 ?s rise time reduction will result in very significant energy savings. The ES algorithm will prove successful, despite the noisy measurements and cost calculations, confirming the theoretical results that the algorithm is not affected by noise whose frequency components are independent of the perturbing frequencies.« less

  13. The NV center as a quantum actuator: time-optimal control of nuclear spins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarice D. Aiello; Paola Cappellaro

    2014-10-21

    Indirect control of qubits by a quantum actuator has been proposed as an appealing strategy to manipulate qubits that couple only weakly to external fields. While universal quantum control can be easily achieved when the actuator-qubit coupling is anisotropic, the efficiency of this approach is less clear. Here we analyze the time-efficiency of the quantum actuator control. We describe a strategy to find time-optimal control sequence by the quantum actuator and compare their gate times with direct driving, identifying regimes where the actuator control performs faster. As an example, we focus on a specific implementation based on the Nitrogen-Vacancy center electronic spin in diamond (the actuator) and nearby carbon-13 nuclear spins (the qubits).

  14. Noninvasive valve monitor using alternating electromagnetic field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eissenberg, D.M.; Haynes, H.D.; Casada, D.A.

    1993-03-16

    One or more electrical coils are carefully located on the outside of a valve body. An alternating current passing through the coil(s) results in an alternating electromagnetic field being transmitted into the valve body and valve internals. The electromagnetic field varies in intensity and polarity in the valve. As the position of a valve internal part is changed, the electromagnetic field throughout the valve body and its internals is altered. A passive receiver coil carefully located on the outside of the valve body detects the intensity of the electromagnetic field at that location as an induced electrical voltage in the coil. With the change in position of the valve internal part, there is a corresponding change in the induced voltage as a result of the alteration in the alternating electromagnetic field at that location. Changes in the voltage provide an indication of the position and motion of valve internals.

  15. Noninvasive valve monitor using alternating electromagnetic field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eissenberg, David M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Haynes, Howard D. (Knoxville, TN); Casada, Donald A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1993-01-01

    One or more electrical coils are carefully located on the outside of a valve body. An alternating current passing through the coil(s) results in an alternating electromagnetic field being transmitted into the valve body and valve internals. The electromagnetic field varies in intensity and polarity in the valve. As the position of a valve internal part is changed, the electromagnetic field throughout the valve body and its internals is altered. A passive receiver coil carefully located on the outside of the valve body detects the intensity of the electromagnetic field at that location as an induced electrical voltage in the coil. With the change in position of the valve internal part, there is a corresponding change in the induced voltage as a result of the alteration in the alternating electromagnetic field at that location. Changes in the voltage provide an indication of the position and motion of valve internals.

  16. Energy-optimal schedules of real-time jobs with hard deadlines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, John Vijoe

    2005-11-01

    OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, Riccardo Bettati Committee Members, Rabi N Mahapatra Norman Guinasso Head of Department, Valerie E Taylor August 2005 Major Subject: Computer Science iii ABSTRACT Energy-Optimal Schedules of Real-Time Jobs with Hard...- straints. This can be used to model variable-capacity facilities in operations re- search, where the capacity of the facility can be controlled at a cost. iv DEDICATION To my Family and Dr. Norman L. Guinasso, Jr. v ACKNOWLEDGMENTS God, Thy deeds are so...

  17. Valve system incorporating single failure protection logic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, Rodger (San Jose, CA); Timmerman, Walter J. H. (Saratoga, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A valve system incorporating single failure protective logic. The system consists of a valve combination or composite valve which allows actuation or de-actuation of a device such as a hydraulic cylinder or other mechanism, integral with or separate from the valve assembly, by means of three independent input signals combined in a function commonly known as two-out-of-three logic. Using the input signals as independent and redundant actuation/de-actuation signals, a single signal failure, or failure of the corresponding valve or valve set, will neither prevent the desired action, nor cause the undesired action of the mechanism.

  18. Improved Planning Time and Plan Quality Through Multicriteria Optimization for Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craft, David L.; Hong, Theodore S.; Shih, Helen A.; Bortfeld, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether multicriteria optimization (MCO) can reduce treatment planning time and improve plan quality in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Ten IMRT patients (5 with glioblastoma and 5 with locally advanced pancreatic cancers) were logged during the standard treatment planning procedure currently in use at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). Planning durations and other relevant planning information were recorded. In parallel, the patients were planned using an MCO planning system, and similar planning time data were collected. The patients were treated with the standard plan, but each MCO plan was also approved by the physicians. Plans were then blindly reviewed 3 weeks after planning by the treating physician. Results: In all cases, the treatment planning time was vastly shorter for the MCO planning (average MCO treatment planning time was 12 min; average standard planning time was 135 min). The physician involvement time in the planning process increased from an average of 4.8 min for the standard process to 8.6 min for the MCO process. In all cases, the MCO plan was blindly identified as the superior plan. Conclusions: This provides the first concrete evidence that MCO-based planning is superior in terms of both planning efficiency and dose distribution quality compared with the current trial and error-based IMRT planning approach.

  19. Performance Improvement of Proportional Directional Control Valves: Methods and Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Bin

    Performance Improvement of Proportional Directional Control Valves: Methods and Experiments Fanping slow valves (e.g. proportional directional control valves). To im- prove the performance of proportional directional control valves, three different types of controllers are synthesized. Firstly, based

  20. Value of Probabilistic Weather Forecasts: Assessment by Real-Time Optimization of Irrigation Scheduling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Ximing; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Wang, Dingbao

    2011-09-29

    This paper presents a modeling framework for real-time decision support for irrigation scheduling using the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) probabilistic rainfall forecasts. The forecasts and their probability distributions are incorporated into a simulation-optimization modeling framework. In this study, modeling irrigation is determined by a stochastic optimization program based on the simulated soil moisture and crop water-stress status and the forecasted rainfall for the next 1-7 days. The modeling framework is applied to irrigated corn in Mason County, Illinois. It is found that there is ample potential to improve current farmers practices by simply using the proposed simulation-optimization framework, which uses the present soil moisture and crop evapotranspiration information even without any forecasts. It is found that the values of the forecasts vary across dry, normal, and wet years. More significant economic gains are found in normal and wet years than in dry years under the various forecast horizons. To mitigate drought effect on crop yield through irrigation, medium- or long-term climate predictions likely play a more important role than short-term forecasts. NOAA's imperfect 1-week forecast is still valuable in terms of both profit gain and water saving. Compared with the no-rain forecast case, the short-term imperfect forecasts could lead to additional 2.4-8.5% gain in profit and 11.0-26.9% water saving. However, the performance of the imperfect forecast is only slightly better than the ensemble weather forecast based on historical data and slightly inferior to the perfect forecast. It seems that the 1-week forecast horizon is too limited to evaluate the role of the various forecast scenarios for irrigation scheduling, which is actually a seasonal decision issue. For irrigation scheduling, both the forecast quality and the length of forecast time horizon matter. Thus, longer forecasts might be necessary to evaluate the role of forecasts for irrigation scheduling in a more effective way.

  1. Optimizing Urban Rail Timetable under Time-dependent Demand and Oversaturated Conditions School of Traffic and Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Xuesong

    -scheduling model to minimize both the expected waiting times for high-speed passenger trains and the total travel times of high-speed and medium-speed trains. Goverde (2007) described a railway timetable stability1 Optimizing Urban Rail Timetable under Time-dependent Demand and Oversaturated Conditions Huimin

  2. Optimization Based Data Mining Approah for Forecasting Real-Time Energy Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Li, Xueping; Zhou, Shengchao

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide concern over environmental degradation, increasing pressure on electric utility companies to meet peak energy demand, and the requirement to avoid purchasing power from the real-time energy market are motivating the utility companies to explore new approaches for forecasting energy demand. Until now, most approaches for forecasting energy demand rely on monthly electrical consumption data. The emergence of smart meters data is changing the data space for electric utility companies, and creating opportunities for utility companies to collect and analyze energy consumption data at a much finer temporal resolution of at least 15-minutes interval. While the data granularity provided by smart meters is important, there are still other challenges in forecasting energy demand; these challenges include lack of information about appliances usage and occupants behavior. Consequently, in this paper, we develop an optimization based data mining approach for forecasting real-time energy demand using smart meters data. The objective of our approach is to develop a robust estimation of energy demand without access to these other building and behavior data. Specifically, the forecasting problem is formulated as a quadratic programming problem and solved using the so-called support vector machine (SVM) technique in an online setting. The parameters of the SVM technique are optimized using simulated annealing approach. The proposed approach is applied to hourly smart meters data for several residential customers over several days.

  3. Rotary valve internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunk, P.H.

    1989-03-28

    A rotary valve internal combustion engine is described, comprising: an engine block; at least one cylinder in the engine block; at least one cylinder having a top end; cylinder head means located adjacent the top end of at least one cylinder, the cylinder head means having a cylindrically shaped cavity therein, the cylindrically shaped cavity being oriented in perpendicular relation to at least one cylinder; a piston sealingly mounted in at least one cylinder for reciprocable movement therein, the reciprocable movement including an intake stroke and an exhaust stroke; engine shaft means rotatably mounted to the engine block; means within the engine block for converting the reciprocable movement of the piston into rotary motion of the engine shaft means; a cylinder port located at the top end of at least one cylinder; a rotary valve rotatably mounted in the cylindrically shaped cavity; means connected with the engine shaft means for rotating the rotary valve in a predetermined synchronization with the reciprocable movement of the piston; aspiration means in the rotary valve for selectively aspirating at least one cylinder during the intake an exhaust strokes; and a spark plug removably mounted within the rotary valve and rotatable therewith.

  4. On time-optimal NMR control of states of qutrits represented by quadrupole nuclei with the spin I = 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zobov, V. E., E-mail: rsa@iph.krasn.ru; Shauro, V. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, L.V. Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2011-08-15

    Elementary logical operators (selective rotation, Fourier transform, controllable phase shift, and SUM gate) are considered for a quantum computer based on three-level systems (qutrits) represented by nuclear spins I = 1 under nuclear magnetic resonance conditions. The computer simulation of the realization of these operators by means of simple and composite selective radiofrequency (RF) pulses and optimized RF pulses is performed. The time dependence of the amplitude of last pulses is found by numerical optimization at different durations. Two variants are proposed for realization of a two-qutrit SUM gate by using one-qutrit or two-qutrit optimized RF pulses. The calculated time dependences of realization errors were used to study the time optimality of different methods for obtaining gates, proposed earlier and in this paper. The advantages and disadvantages of each of the methods are evaluated for different values of physical parameters.

  5. Flow Characteristics Analysis of Widows' Creek Type Control Valve for Steam Turbine Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Yong H.; Sohn, Myoung S.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2006-07-01

    The steam turbine converts the kinetic energy of steam to mechanical energy of rotor blades in the power conversion system of fossil and nuclear power plants. The electric output from the generator of which the rotor is coupled with that of the steam turbine depends on the rotation velocity of the steam turbine bucket. The rotation velocity is proportional to the mass flow rate of steam entering the steam turbine through valves and nozzles. Thus, it is very important to control the steam mass flow rate for the load following operation of power plants. Among various valves that control the steam turbine, the control valve is most significant. The steam flow rate is determined by the area formed by the stem disk and the seat of the control valve. While the ideal control valve linearly controls the steam mass flow rate with its stem lift, the real control valve has various flow characteristic curves pursuant to the stem lift type. Thus, flow characteristic curves are needed to precisely design the control valves manufactured for the operating conditions of nuclear power plants. OMEGA (Optimized Multidimensional Experiment Geometric Apparatus) was built to experimentally study the flow characteristics of steam flowing inside the control valve. The Widows' Creek type control valve was selected for reference. Air was selected as the working fluid in the OMEGA loop to exclude the condensation effect in this simplified approach. Flow characteristic curves were plotted by calculating the ratio of the measured mass flow rate versus the theoretical mass flow rate of the air. The flow characteristic curves are expected to be utilized to accurately design and operate the control valve for fossil as well as nuclear plants. (authors)

  6. American Valve: Order (2010-CW-1411)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered American Valve, Inc. to pay a $5,000 civil penalty after finding American Valve had failed to certify that certain showerhead models comply with the applicable water conservation standards.

  7. Serial siphon valving for centrifugal microfluidic platforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    2006). 1.1 Valving on centrifugal micro?uidic platforms AsSerial siphon valving for centrifugal micro?uidic platformsThe advantages offered by centrifugal micro?uidic platforms

  8. Active combustion flow modulation valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hensel, John Peter; Black, Nathaniel; Thorton, Jimmy Dean; Vipperman, Jeffrey Stuart; Lambeth, David N; Clark, William W

    2013-09-24

    A flow modulation valve has a slidably translating hollow armature with at least one energizable coil wound around and fixably attached to the hollow armature. The energizable coil or coils are influenced by at least one permanent magnet surrounding the hollow armature and supported by an outer casing. Lorentz forces on the energizable coils which are translated to the hollow armature, increase or decrease the flow area to provide flow throttling action. The extent of hollow armature translation depends on the value of current supplied and the direction of translation depends on the direction of current flow. The compact nature of the flow modulation valve combined with the high forces afforded by the actuator design provide a flow modulation valve which is highly responsive to high-rate input control signals.

  9. Lockout housing and sleeve for safety valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickson, R.L.; Davis, G.R.

    1992-07-07

    This patent describes apparatus for use in a subsurface valve. It comprises a lockout housing; and a lockout sleeve.

  10. Whitey SCHE Gauge and Root Valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MISKA, C.R.

    2000-09-11

    These valves are 1/2 inch ball valves fabricated of 316 stainless steel. Packing is TFE (standard). They are used as isolation valves for pressure instrumentation in the SCHa System between the helium bottle supply manifolds and safety class helium pressure instrumentation, and in lower pressure SCHa supply line.

  11. Whitey SCHE Gauge and Root Valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-06-21

    These valves are 1/2 inch ball valves fabricated of 316 stainless steel. Packing is TFE (standard). They are used as isolation valves for pressure instrumentation in the SCHe System between the helium bottle supply manifolds and safety class helium pressure instrumentation, and in lower pressure SCHe supply line.

  12. Whitey SCHE Gauge and Root Valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MISKA, C.R.

    2000-09-03

    These valves are 1/2 inch ball valves fabricated of 316 stainless steel. Packing is TFE (standard). They are used as isolation valves for pressure instrumentation in the SCHe System between the helium bottle supply manifolds and safety class helium pressure instrumentation, and in lower pressure SCHe supply line.

  13. Automated Purge Valve Joseph Edward Farrell, III.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Stephen L.

    Automated Purge Valve by Joseph Edward Farrell, III. Bachelor of Science Marine Engineering the undersigned committee hereby approve the attached thesis Automated Purge Valve by Joseph Edward Farrell, III.D. Department Head Department of Marine and Environmental Systems #12;iii Abstract Title: Automated Purge Valve

  14. STATE OF CALIFORNIA VALVE LEAKAGE TEST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STATE OF CALIFORNIA VALVE LEAKAGE TEST CEC-MECH-8A (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CERTIFICATE OF ACCEPTANCE MECH-8A NA7.5.7 Valve Leakage Test (Page 1 of 3) Project Name/Address: System Name VALVE LEAKAGE TEST CEC-MECH-8A (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CERTIFICATE OF ACCEPTANCE

  15. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  16. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA)

    1985-01-01

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  17. Pis'ma v ZhETF, vol. 97, iss. 8, pp. 549 553 c 2013 April 25 Peculiarities of performance of the spin valve for the superconducting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fominov, Yakov

    of the spin valve for the superconducting current P. V. Leksin, A. A. Kamashev, N. N. Garif'yanov, I. A The spin valve effect for the superconducting current based on the superconductor/ferromagnet prox- imity of the spin valve effect occurs at dFe1 dFe2. At the optimal value of dFe1 almost full switching from

  18. Optimal Risk-aware Power Procurement for Data Centers in Day-Ahead and Real-Time Electricity Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    : Data Center, Day-ahead Market, Real-time Market, Price Diversity, Power Procurement, Service: (a) The Ameren retail price trends [18]. (b) The PJM wholesale market price trends [19]. prices, [12Optimal Risk-aware Power Procurement for Data Centers in Day-Ahead and Real-Time Electricity

  19. Optimal design of systems that evolve over time using neural networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nolan, Michael K. (Michael Kevin)

    2005-01-01

    Computational design optimization is challenging when the number of variables becomes large. One method of addressing this problem is to use pattern recognition to decrease the solution space in which the optimizer searches. ...

  20. Multi-objective evolutionary methods for time-changing portfolio optimization problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatzakis, Iason

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is focused on the discovery of efficient asset allocations with the use of evolutionary algorithms. The portfolio optimization problem is a multi-objective optimization problem for the conflicting criteria of ...

  1. Hydraulically actuated fuel injector including a pilot operated spool valve assembly and hydraulic system using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, Scott F. (Morton, IL)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to hydraulic systems including hydraulically actuated fuel injectors that have a pilot operated spool valve assembly. One class of hydraulically actuated fuel injectors includes a solenoid driven pilot valve that controls the initiation of the injection event. However, during cold start conditions, hydraulic fluid, typically engine lubricating oil, is particularly viscous and is often difficult to displace through the relatively small drain path that is defined past the pilot valve member. Because the spool valve typically responds slower than expected during cold start due to the difficulty in displacing the relatively viscous oil, accurate start of injection timing can be difficult to achieve. There also exists a greater difficulty in reaching the higher end of the cold operating speed range. Therefore, the present invention utilizes a fluid evacuation valve to aid in displacement of the relatively viscous oil during cold start conditions.

  2. Solar energy operated irrigation surge valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spain, R. L.

    1985-08-20

    A valve body is provided having axially spaced annular valve seats defining fluid outlets for the body. The body includes an inlet opening into the interior thereof between the seats and a disc valve is supported within the body for axial shifting between the seats. A drive mechanism for the valve disc is drivingly connected thereto and is operative to slowly shift the valve disc from one seat toward engagement with the other seat. The drive mechanism includes a reversible electric motor, a timer, a storage battery and a solar panel for recharging the storage battery. The timer alternately operates the motor in opposite directions whereby the valve disc is shifted back and forth between seated engagement with the axially spaced valve seats.

  3. MOTION PLANNING CONTROL OF THE AIRPATH OF AN S.I. ENGINE WITH VALVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , France Abstract: We address the control of the airpath of a turbocharged S.I. engine equipped losses, turbochargers are used. For such engines, Variable Valve Timing (VVT) devices are used to improve

  4. Capacity analysis, cycle time optimization, and supply chain strategy in multi-product biopharmaceutical manufacturing operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fetcho-Phillips, Kacey L. (Kacey Lynn)

    2011-01-01

    Application of system optimization theory, supply chain principles, and capacity modeling are increasingly valuable tools for use in pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities. The dynamics of the pharmaceutical industry - ...

  5. High volume fuel vapor release valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gimby, D.R.

    1991-09-03

    This patent describes a fuel vapor release valve for use in a vehicle fuel system. It comprises a valve housing 10 placed in a specific longitudinal orientation, the valve housing 10 defining an interior cavity 22 having an inlet 20 for admitting fuel vapor and an outlet 14 for discharging such fuel vapor; a valve member 24 positioned in the cavity 22 for movement between an outlet 14 opening position and an outlet 14 closing position, the valve member 24 including a cap member 34 having a seat surface 36 for mating with the outlet 14 and an orifice 42 extending through the cap member 34 providing a passageway from the outlet 14 to the cavity 22, the orifice 42 extending through the cap member 34 providing a passageway from the outlet 14 to the cavity 22, the orifice 42 having a lesser radius than the outlet 14; the valve member 24 further including a plug member 30 engaged with the cap member 34 for movement between an orifice 42 opening position and an orifice 42 closing position; and, a valve housing tilt responsive means for moving the valve member 24 to an outlet 14 and orifice 42 closing position in response to tilting of the valve 10 about its longitudinal axis whereby, upon the return of the valve 10 to its specified longitudinal orientation, the plug member 30 first moves to an orifice 42 opening position and the cap member 34 subsequently moves to an outlet 14 opening position.

  6. The optimization problem Genetic Algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giménez, Domingo

    The optimization problem Genetic Algorithm Particle Swarm Optimization Experimental results for time-power optimization META, October 27-31, 2014 1 / 25 #12;The optimization problem Genetic Algorithm Particle Swarm Optimization Experimental results Conclusions Time and energy optimization Traditionally

  7. Miniature electrically operated diaphragm valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Wong, Chungnin C. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM); Hesketh, Peter J. (Atlanta, GA)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a miniature electrically operated valve that can stand off significant pressures, that can be inexpensively produced, and that can be made to operate without continuous electrical power. A valve according to the present invention comprises a housing and a beam mounted with the housing. A diaphragm mounted with the housing forms a sealed fluid volume. An electromagnetic energy source, such as an electromagnetic coil, mounts with the housing and when energized urges the beam in one direction. The beam can be urged in the opposing direction by passive means or by reversing the polarity of the electromagnetic energy source or by a second electromagnetic energy source. Two fluid ports mount with the housing. A first fluid port mounts so that, as the beam is urged in one direction or the opposite, the beam urges the diaphragm to move between engaging and substantially sealing the fluid port and disengaging and not substantially sealing the fluid port. A seat can be mounted with the diaphragm to aid in sealing the fluid port. Latching mechanisms such as permanent magnets can be mounted so that the valve remains in the open or closed positions without continuous electrical power input. Fluid can flow through the housing between the two fluid ports when the diaphragm does not seal the first fluid port, but can be prevented from flowing by urging the beam so that the diaphragm seals the first fluid port. Various embodiments accommodate various latching mechanisms, electromagnetic energy sources, number of fluid ports, and diaphragm design considerations.

  8. Half-metallic magnetism and the search for better spin valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin; Sitte, Matthias; MacDonald, Allan H. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-08-28

    We use a previously proposed theory for the temperature dependence of tunneling magnetoresistance to shed light on ongoing efforts to optimize spin valves. First, we show that a mechanism in which spin valve performance at finite temperatures is limited by uncorrelated thermal fluctuations of magnetization orientations on opposite sides of a tunnel junction is in good agreement with recent studies of the temperature-dependent magnetoresistance of high quality tunnel junctions with MgO barriers. Using this insight, we propose a simple formula which captures the advantages for spin-valve optimization of using materials with a high spin polarization of Fermi-level tunneling electrons, and of using materials with high ferromagnetic transition temperatures. We conclude that half-metallic ferromagnets can yield better spin-value performance than current elemental transition metal ferromagnet/MgO systems only if their ferromagnetic transition temperatures exceed ?950?K.

  9. Optimization of high-order harmonic generation by genetic algorithm and wavelet time-frequency analysis of quantum dipole emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Shih-I

    -dimensional quantum study of the coherent control of high-order harmonic generation HHG processes in intense pulsed.65.Ky, 32.80.Wr The study of coherent control of atomic and molecular processes is a subject of muchOptimization of high-order harmonic generation by genetic algorithm and wavelet time

  10. Design of a Real-Time Adaptive Power Optimal Sensor System Ari Y. Benbasat and Joseph A. Paradiso

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and size of the necessary components, particularly MEMS based sensors. However, such systems are oftenDesign of a Real-Time Adaptive Power Optimal Sensor System Ari Y. Benbasat and Joseph A. Paradiso,joep}@media.mit.edu Abstract Wireless sensors systems are currently being deployed in a wide variety of lightweight mobile

  11. Miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keville, R.F.; Dietrich, D.D.

    1998-03-24

    A miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve having a fast pulse rate and is battery operated with variable flow capability is disclosed. The low power (<1.6 watts), high pulse rate (<2 milliseconds), variable flow inlet valve is utilized for mass spectroscopic applications or other applications where pulsed or continuous flow conditions are needed. The inlet valve also has a very minimal dead volume of less than 0.01 std/cc. The valve can utilize, for example, a 12 Vdc input/750 Vdc, 3 mA output power supply compared to conventional piezo electric valves which require preloading of the crystal drive mechanism and 120 Vac, thus the valve of the present invention is smaller by a factor of three. 6 figs.

  12. Miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA); Dietrich, Daniel D. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-03-24

    A miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve having a fast pulse rate and is battery operated with variable flow capability. The low power (<1.6 watts), high pulse rate (<2 milliseconds), variable flow inlet valve is utilized for mass spectroscopic applications or other applications where pulsed or continuous flow conditions are needed. The inlet valve also has a very minimal dead volume of less than 0.01 std/cc. The valve can utilize, for example, a 12 Vdc input/750 Vdc, 3 mA output power supply compared to conventional piezo electric valves which require preloading of the crystal drive mechanism and 120 Vac, thus the valve of the present invention is smaller by a factor of three.

  13. Propellant actuated nuclear reactor steam depressurization valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ehrke, Alan C. (San Jose, CA); Knepp, John B. (San Jose, CA); Skoda, George I. (Santa Clara, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A nuclear fission reactor combined with a propellant actuated depressurization and/or water injection valve is disclosed. The depressurization valve releases pressure from a water cooled, steam producing nuclear reactor when required to insure the safety of the reactor. Depressurization of the reactor pressure vessel enables gravity feeding of supplementary coolant water through the water injection valve to the reactor pressure vessel to prevent damage to the fuel core.

  14. American Valve: Proposed Penalty (2010-CW-1411)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that American Valve, Inc. failed to certify a variety of showerheads as compliant with the applicable water conservation standards.

  15. Double-reed exhaust valve engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2015-06-30

    An engine based on a reciprocating piston engine that extracts work from pressurized working fluid. The engine includes a double reed outlet valve for controlling the flow of low-pressure working fluid out of the engine. The double reed provides a stronger force resisting closure of the outlet valve than the force tending to open the outlet valve. The double reed valve enables engine operation at relatively higher torque and lower efficiency at low speed, with lower torque, but higher efficiency at high speed.

  16. Emerging Trends in Heart Valve Engineering: Part III. Novel Technologies for Mitral Valve Repair and Replacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    et mechanical heart valves during the leakage phase. Ann.leakage ?ow in the hinge of a St. Jude medical((r)) regent mechanical heart valve.leakage ?ow of regurgitation jets, 22,28 ori?ces, 23 and at the hinges 36 of mechanical valves.

  17. Hydraulic engine valve actuation system including independent feedback control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marriott, Craig D

    2013-06-04

    A hydraulic valve actuation assembly may include a housing, a piston, a supply control valve, a closing control valve, and an opening control valve. The housing may define a first fluid chamber, a second fluid chamber, and a third fluid chamber. The piston may be axially secured to an engine valve and located within the first, second and third fluid chambers. The supply control valve may control a hydraulic fluid supply to the piston. The closing control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the second fluid chamber to the supply control valve. The opening control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the supply control valve to the second fluid chamber.

  18. Production-Intent Lost-Motion Variable Valve Actuation Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production-Intent Lost-Motion Variable Valve Actuation Systems Production-Intent Lost-Motion Variable Valve Actuation Systems Variable valve actuation with onoff IEGR pre-bump is...

  19. Optimal Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources in Isolated Power Systems: A Cross-Time Scale Perspective 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayhorn, Ebony T

    2015-08-09

    This dissertation investigates the problem of optimally coordinating distributed energy resources (DERs) in isolated power systems. It is motivated by the recent efforts worldwide of integrating large amounts of renewable generation into power grids...

  20. Vacuum/Compression Valving (VCV) Using Parrafin-Wax on a Centrifugal Microfluidic CD Platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    Rg, et al. (2010) Serial siphon valving for centrifugalas hydrophobic, hydrophilic, siphon, Coriolis, flap valves [

  1. Flex Fuel Optimized SI and HCCI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Guoming; Schock, Harold; Yang, Xiaojian; Huisjen, Andrew; Stuecken, Tom; Moran, Kevin; Zhen, Ron; Zhang, Shupeng

    2013-09-30

    The central objective of the proposed work is to demonstrate an HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) capable SI (spark ignited) engine that is capable of fast and smooth mode transition between SI and HCCI combustion modes. The model-based control technique was used to develop and validate the proposed control strategy for the fast and smooth combustion mode transition based upon the developed control-oriented engine; and an HCCI capable SI engine was designed and constructed using production ready two-step valve-train with electrical variable valve timing actuating system. Finally, smooth combustion mode transition was demonstrated on a metal engine within eight engine cycles. The Chrysler turbocharged 2.0L I4 direct injection engine was selected as the base engine for the project and the engine was modified to fit the two-step valve with electrical variable valve timing actuating system. To develop the model-based control strategy for stable HCCI combustion and smooth combustion mode transition between SI and HCCI combustion, a control-oriented real-time engine model was developed and implemented into the MSU HIL (hardware-in-the-loop) simulation environment. The developed model was used to study the engine actuating system requirement for the smooth and fast combustion mode transition and to develop the proposed mode transition control strategy. Finally, a single cylinder optical engine was designed and fabricated for studying the HCCI combustion characteristics. Optical engine combustion tests were conducted in both SI and HCCI combustion modes and the test results were used to calibrate the developed control-oriented engine model. Intensive GT-Power simulations were conducted to determine the optimal valve lift (high and low) and the cam phasing range. Delphi was selected to be the supplier for the two-step valve-train and Denso to be the electrical variable valve timing system supplier. A test bench was constructed to develop control strategies for the electrical variable valve timing (VVT) actuating system and satisfactory electrical VVT responses were obtained. Target engine control system was designed and fabricated at MSU for both single-cylinder optical and multi-cylinder metal engines. Finally, the developed control-oriented engine model was successfully implemented into the HIL simulation environment. The Chrysler 2.0L I4 DI engine was modified to fit the two-step vale with electrical variable valve timing actuating system. A used prototype engine was used as the base engine and the cylinder head was modified for the two-step valve with electrical VVT actuating system. Engine validation tests indicated that cylinder #3 has very high blow-by and it cannot be reduced with new pistons and rings. Due to the time constraint, it was decided to convert the four-cylinder engine into a single cylinder engine by blocking both intake and exhaust ports of the unused cylinders. The model-based combustion mode transition control algorithm was developed in the MSU HIL simulation environment and the Simulink based control strategy was implemented into the target engine controller. With both single-cylinder metal engine and control strategy ready, stable HCCI combustion was achived with COV of 2.1% Motoring tests were conducted to validate the actuator transient operations including valve lift, electrical variable valve timing, electronic throttle, multiple spark and injection controls. After the actuator operations were confirmed, 15-cycle smooth combustion mode transition from SI to HCCI combustion was achieved; and fast 8-cycle smooth combustion mode transition followed. With a fast electrical variable valve timing actuator, the number of engine cycles required for mode transition can be reduced down to five. It was also found that the combustion mode transition is sensitive to the charge air and engine coolant temperatures and regulating the corresponding temperatures to the target levels during the combustion mode transition is the key for a smooth combustion mode transition. As a summary, the proposed combust

  2. Low power integrated pumping and valving arrays for microfluidic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Low power integrated pumping and valving arrays for microfluidic systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low power integrated pumping and valving arrays for microfluidic...

  3. Requirements for the Valve Train and Technolgies for Enabling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for the Valve Train and Technolgies for Enabling HCCI over the Entire Operating Range Requirements for the Valve Train and Technolgies for Enabling HCCI over the Entire Operating...

  4. Variable Valve Actuation for Advanced Mode Diesel Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Valve Actuation for Advanced Mode Diesel Combustion Variable Valve Actuation for Advanced Mode Diesel Combustion Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies...

  5. Advanced Materials for Lightweight Valve Train Components | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Lightweight Valve Train Components Advanced Materials for Lightweight Valve Train Components Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review...

  6. Design and Implementation of Silicon Nitride Valves for Heavy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Implementation of Silicon Nitride Valves for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Design and Implementation of Silicon Nitride Valves for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Poster presentation at the...

  7. ISOLOK VALVE ACCEPTANCE TESTING FOR DWPF SME SAMPLING PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, T.; Hera, K.; Coleman, C.; Jones, M.; Wiedenman, B.

    2011-12-05

    Evaluation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC) cycle time identified several opportunities to improve the CPC processing time. Of the opportunities, a focus area related to optimizing the equipment and efficiency of the sample turnaround time for DWPF Analytical Laboratory was identified. The Mechanical Systems & Custom Equipment Development (MS&CED) Section of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated the possibility of using an Isolok{reg_sign} sampling valve as an alternative to the Hydragard{reg_sign} valve for taking process samples. Previous viability testing was conducted with favorable results using the Isolok sampler and reported in SRNL-STI-2010-00749 (1). This task has the potential to improve operability, reduce maintenance time and decrease CPC cycle time. This report summarizes the results from acceptance testing which was requested in Task Technical Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2010-0036 (2) and which was conducted as outlined in Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) SRNL-RP-2011-00145 (3). The Isolok to be tested is the same model which was tested, qualified, and installed in the Sludge Receipt Adjustment Tank (SRAT) sample system. RW-0333P QA requirements apply to this task. This task was to qualify the Isolok sampler for use in the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) sampling process. The Hydragard, which is the current baseline sampling method, was used for comparison to the Isolok sampling data. The Isolok sampler is an air powered grab sampler used to 'pull' a sample volume from a process line. The operation of the sampler is shown in Figure 1. The image on the left shows the Isolok's spool extended into the process line and the image on the right shows the sampler retracted and then dispensing the liquid into the sampling container. To determine tank homogeneity, a Coliwasa sampler was used to grab samples at a high and low location within the mixing tank. Data from the two locations were compared to determine if the contents of the tank were well mixed. The Coliwasa sampler is a tube with a stopper at the bottom and is designed to obtain grab samples from specific locations within the drum contents. A position paper (4) was issued to address the prototypic flow loop issues and simulant selections. A statistically designed plan (5) was issued to address the total number of samples each sampler needed to pull, to provide the random order in which samples were pulled and to group samples for elemental analysis. The TTR required that the Isolok sampler perform as well as the Hydragard sampler during these tests to ensure the acceptability of the Isolok sampler for use in the DWPF sampling cells. Procedure No.L9.4-5015 was used to document the sample parameters and process steps. Completed procedures are located in R&D Engineering job folder 23269.

  8. Cylinder valve packing nut studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blue, S.C. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The design, manufacture, and use of cylinder valve packing nuts have been studied to improve their resistance to failure from stress corrosion cracking. Stress frozen photoelastic models have been analyzed to measure the stress concentrations at observed points of failure. The load effects induced by assembly torque and thermal expansion of stem packing were observed by strain gaging nuts. The effects of finishing operations and heat treatment were studied by the strain gage hole boring and X-ray methods. Modifications of manufacturing and operation practices are reducing the frequency of stress corrosion failures.

  9. High speed exhaust gas recirculation valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fensom, Rod (Peterborough, GB); Kidder, David J. (Peterborough, GB)

    2005-01-18

    In order to minimize pollutants such as Nox, internal combustion engines typically include an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve that can be used to redirect a portion of exhaust gases to an intake conduit, such as an intake manifold, so that the redirected exhaust gases will be recycled. It is desirable to have an EGR valve with fast-acting capabilities, and it is also desirable to have the EGR valve take up as little space as possible. An exhaust gas recirculation valve is provided that includes an exhaust passage tube, a valve element pivotally mounted within the exhaust passage tube, a linear actuator; and a gear train. The gear train includes a rack gear operatively connected to the linear actuator, and at least one rotatable gear meshing with the rack gear and operatively connected to the valve element to cause rotation of the valve element upon actuation of the linear actuator. The apparatus provides a highly compact package having a high-speed valve actuation capability.

  10. High precision high flow range control valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCray, J.A.

    1999-07-13

    A fluid control valve is described having a valve housing having first and second valve housing openings for the ingress and egress of fluid through the control valve. Disposed within a void formed by the control valve is a sleeve having at least one sleeve opening to permit the flow of fluid therethrough. A flow restricter travels within the sleeve to progressively block off the sleeve opening and thereby control flow. A fluid passageway is formed between the first valve housing opening and the outer surface of the sleeve. A second fluid passageway is formed between the inside of the sleeve and the second valve housing opening. Neither fluid passageway contains more than one 90 [degree] turn. In the preferred embodiment only one of the two fluid passageways contains a 90[degree] turn. In another embodiment, the control valve housing is bifurcated by a control surface having control surface opening disposed therethrough. A flow restricter is in slidable contact with the control surface to restrict flow of fluid through the control surface openings. 12 figs.

  11. Dynamic Testing of Check Valves William Rahmeyer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahmeyer, William J.

    Utah State University paper presented at the Nuclear Industry Check Valve Group, 1996 Winter Meeting deceleration is calculated from the piping system and flow change due to pump shutdown or closure of a control and Flomatic Valves. #12;2 BACKGROUND In a piping system, the shut down of a pump or the closure of a control

  12. High precision high flow range control valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCray, John A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    A fluid control valve is described having a valve housing having first and second valve housing openings for the ingress and egress of fluid through the control valve. Disposed within a void formed by the control valve is a sleeve having at least one sleeve opening to permit the flow of fluid therethrough. A flow restricter travels within the sleeve to progressively block off the sleeve opening and thereby control flow. A fluid passageway is formed between the first valve housing opening and the outer surface of the sleeve. A second fluid passageway is formed between the inside of the sleeve and the second valve housing opening. Neither fluid passageway contains more than one 90.degree. turn. In the preferred embodiment only one of the two fluid passageways contains a 90.degree. turn. In another embodiment, the control valve housing is bifurcated by a control surface having control surface opening disposed therethrough. A flow restricter is in slidable contact with the control surface to restrict flow of fluid through the control surface openings.

  13. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS--II: EXPRESS BRIEFS, VOL. 51, NO. 3, MARCH 2004 105 Continuous-Time Filter Design Optimized for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moon, Un-Ku

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS--II: EXPRESS BRIEFS, VOL. 51, NO. 3, MARCH 2004 105 Continuous-Time Filter Design Optimized for Reduced Die Area Charles Myers, Student Member, IEEE, Brandon for distributing capacitor and resistor area to optimally reduce die area in a given continuous-time filter design

  14. Thermal bistability-based method for real-time optimization of ultralow-threshold whispering gallery mode microlasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Guoping; Tillement, O; Cai, Zhiping; Lefèvre-Seguin, V; Hare, J

    2015-01-01

    A method based on thermal bistability for ultralow-threshold microlaser optimization is demonstrated. When sweeping the pump laser frequency across a pump resonance, the dynamic thermal bistability slows down the power variation. The resulting line shape modification enables a real-time monitoring of the laser characteristic. We demonstrate this method for a functionalized microsphere exhibiting a submicrowatt laser threshold. This approach is confirmed by comparing the results with a step-by-step recording in quasi-static thermal conditions.

  15. Optimal Time-Resource Allocation for Activity-Detection via Multimodal Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Annavaram, Murali

    is considered. The WBAN with heterogeneous sensors is deployed in a simple star topol- ogy with the fusion to each sensor is optimized to minimize the prob- ability of detection error at the fusion center ACM ICST 978-963-9799-41-7 ...$5.00. (A) (B) (C) Figure 1: The Nokia N95 cellphone fusion center (A

  16. Time-optimal bath-induced unitaries by Zermelo navigation: speed limit and non-Markovian quantum computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jens Clausen

    2015-07-31

    The solution of the quantum Zermelo navigation problem is applied to the non-Markovian open system dynamics of a set of quantum systems interacting with a common environment. We consider a case allowing an exact time-optimal realization of environment-mediated non-local system unitaries. For a linear coupling to a harmonic bosonic bath, we derive a speed limit for the implementation time in terms of the fundamental frequency of the bath modes. As a product of two exponentials of the local free wind and the pairwise system-coupling, the Zermelo unitary forms a natural building block for reaching a general unitary by concatenation.

  17. Fuel injection of coal slurry using vortex nozzles and valves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holmes, Allen B. (Rockville, MD)

    1989-01-01

    Injection of atomized coal slurry fuel into an engine combustion chamber is achieved at relatively low pressures by means of a vortex swirl nozzle. The outlet opening of the vortex nozzle is considerably larger than conventional nozzle outlets, thereby eliminating major sources of failure due to clogging by contaminants in the fuel. Control fluid, such as air, may be used to impart vorticity to the slurry and/or purge the nozzle of contaminants during the times between measured slurry charges. The measured slurry charges may be produced by a diaphragm pump or by vortex valves controlled by a separate control fluid. Fluidic circuitry, employing vortex valves to alternatively block and pass cool slurry fuel flow, is disclosed.

  18. Subsea valve actuator for ultra deepwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, S.Z.; Skeels, H.B.; Montemayor, B.K.; Williams, M.R.

    1996-12-31

    This paper reviews the continuing development of gate valve and actuator technology for subsea completions extending into ultra deep water. The basic technical challenges inherent to subsea valve actuators are reviewed, along with the various factors which affect the design and performance of these devices in deepwater applications. The high external ambient pressures which occur in deep water, coupled with high specific gravity hydraulic control fluids, are shown to have a significant impact on the performance of the actuators. This paper presents design and analysis methods and the verification test procedures which are required to develop and qualify new deep water actuator designs. Gate valve actuators of the type described in this paper are currently in use on subsea christmas trees on the world`s deepest subsea wells offshore Brazil (water depths >3,000 feet). New applications of the deepwater actuators are in process for upcoming Gulf of Mexico subsea production systems in water depths approaching 6,000 feet. The actuator/valve development method described in this paper has been confirmed by performance verification testing of full scale valves and actuators using a hyperbaric chamber to simulate ultra deepwater operating conditions. Performance of the test valves and actuators correlated very well with analytical predictions. Test results have confirmed that the new valve actuator designs will satisfy API 17D performance requirements for water depths up to 7,500 feet, well in excess of the upcoming GOM application.

  19. Whitey SCHe Ball Valves Provide Test Port Isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MISKA, C.R.

    2000-10-19

    These valves are 1/4-inch ball valves fabricated of 316 stainless steel. Packing is TFE (standard). They are used as normally closed isolation valves for test ports in the SCHe System between the gage root valve and the pressure indicator.

  20. Whitey SCHe Ball Valves Provide Test Port Isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MISKA, C.R.

    2000-09-15

    These valves are 1/4 inch ball valves fabricated of 316 stainless steel. Packing is TFE (standard). They are used as normally closed isolation valves for test ports in the SCHe System between the gage root valve and the pressure indicator.

  1. Computational model of aortic valve surgical repair using grafted pericardium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Computational model of aortic valve surgical repair using grafted pericardium Peter E. Hammer1, aortic valve repair, membrane, surgical planning, leaflet graft, pericardium ABSTRACT Aortic valve leaflets. Difficulty is largely due to the complex geometry and function of the valve and the lower

  2. Design and sizing of electromagnetic linear actuators for valve applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Page 1/9 Design and sizing of electromagnetic linear actuators for valve applications J.C Vannier1. These structures have been studied in order to drive the valves of a car motor. According to general specifications magnet, valves. 1. Introduction, general specifications The valves which can be found in thermal engines

  3. Optimal Real-Time Pump and Irrigation Scheduling for Center-Pivot Sprinkler Systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Frederick N-F.

    1988-09-01

    Center-pivot farms located on major river systems generally pump water from the surface source and convey it through a pressurized pipe network to the pivots. Booster pump stations may be placed in the system to add necessary head for water delivery to the pivots. Attempts to improve pump and irrigation scheduling must make sure that soil moisture levels are maintained within desired limits for favorable crop growth. A soil water balance model and a branching pipe network hydraulics analysis model are therefore necessary for simulating system behavior and estimating pumping costs. The objective of this study is to develop a dynamic irrigation scheduling algorithm for achieving minimum pumping cost over a billing period, object to maintaining optimum crop production and adequate system delivery pressures. After investigation of several optimization methods, dynamic programming successive approximations (DPSA) is selected as the best approach to solving this problem. Feasibility in scheduling pivot operations and maintaining favorable soil water levels is always guaranteed during the DPSA analysis. Discrete dynamic programming is also applied for selecting pump combinations in each pump station with consideration of hydraulic interaction between stations to minimize pumping cost during each scheduling period for a specified irrigation strategy. A modified objective function is adopted for commensurating objectives of minimizing energy consumption and peak power demand. A comprehensive, generalized irrigation scheduling algorithm is developed to effectively integrate optimal irrigation decision with optimal pump selection. 116 refs.

  4. Valve for controlling solids flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staiger, M.D.

    1982-09-29

    A valve for controlling the flow of solids comprises a vessel having an overflow point, an inlet line for discharging solids into the vessel positioned within the vessel such that the inlet line's discharge point is lower than the vessel's overflow point, and means for introducing a fluidizing fluid into the vessel. The fluidizing fluid fluidizes the solids within the vessel so that they overflow at the vessel's overflow point. For the removal of nuclear waste product the vessel may be placed within a sealed container having a bottom connected transport line for transporting the solids to storage or other sites. The rate of solids flow is controlled by the flow rate of the fluidizing fluid and by V-notch weirs of different sizes spaced about the top of the vessel.

  5. Unsupervised parameter optimization for automated retention time alignment of severely shifted gas chromatographic data using the piecework alignment algorithm.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, Karisa M.; Wright, Bob W.; Synovec, Robert E.

    2007-02-02

    First, simulated chromatographic separations with declining retention time precision were used to study the performance of the piecewise retention time alignment algorithm and to demonstrate an unsupervised parameter optimization method. The average correlation coefficient between the first chromatogram and every other chromatogram in the data set was used to optimize the alignment parameters. This correlation method does not require a training set, so it is unsupervised and automated. This frees the user from needing to provide class information and makes the alignment algorithm more generally applicable to classifying completely unknown data sets. For a data set of simulated chromatograms where the average chromatographic peak was shifted past two neighboring peaks between runs, the average correlation coefficient of the raw data was 0.46 ± 0.25. After automated, optimized piecewise alignment, the average correlation coefficient was 0.93 ± 0.02. Additionally, a relative shift metric and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to independently quantify and categorize the alignment performance, respectively. The relative shift metric was defined as four times the standard deviation of a given peak’s retention time in all of the chromatograms, divided by the peak-width-at-base. The raw simulated data sets that were studied contained peaks with average relative shifts ranging between 0.3 and 3.0. Second, a “real” data set of gasoline separations was gathered using three different GC methods to induce severe retention time shifting. In these gasoline separations, retention time precision improved ~8 fold following alignment. Finally, piecewise alignment and the unsupervised correlation optimization method were applied to severely shifted GC separations of reformate distillation fractions. The effect of piecewise alignment on peak heights and peak areas is also reported. Piecewise alignment either did not change the peak height, or caused it to slightly decrease. The average relative difference in peak height after piecewise alignment was –0.20%. Piecewise alignment caused the peak areas to either stay the same, slightly increase, or slightly decrease. The average absolute relative difference in area after piecewise alignment was 0.15%.

  6. Valve Cap For An Electric Storage Cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoog, Roelof (Bordeaux, FR); Genton, Alain (Merignac, FR)

    2000-04-18

    The valve cap for an electric storage cell includes a central annular valve seat (23) and a membrane (5) fixed by its peripheral edge and urged against the seat by a piston (10) bearing thereagainst by means of a spring (12), the rear end of said spring (12) bearing on the endwall (8) of a chamber (20) formed in the cap and containing the piston (10) and the spring. A vent (19) puts the chamber (20) into communication with the atmosphere. A central orifice (26, 28) through the piston (10) and the membrane (5), enables gas from within the cell to escape via the top vent (19) when the valve opens.

  7. Optimal Waterflood Management under Geologic Uncertainty Using Rate Control: Theory and Field Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alhuthali, Ahmed Humaid H.

    2010-01-16

    Waterflood optimization via rate control is receiving increased interest because of rapid developments in the smart well completions and I-field technology. The use of inflow control valves (ICV) allows us to optimize the production/injection rates...

  8. Optimal Charging of Electric Vehicles with Uncertain Departure Times: A Closed-Form Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    that time is divided into T time slots. Consider an electric vehicle (EV) charging station with multiple UNCERTAIN DEADLINE Next, assume that the deadline is not known. Once an EV plugs in, its target charge level e and start time are identified. However, the charging station may not know when the EV

  9. Method and apparatus for monitoring motor operated valve motor output torque and power at valve seating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casada, Donald A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for monitoring a motor operated valve during the brief period when the valve seats and the torque switch trips to deenergize the valve motor. The method uses voltage measurements on the load side of a deenergizing switch that opens to deenergize the motor to determine, among other things, final motor rotational speed and the decelerating torque at motor deenergization.

  10. Method and apparatus for monitoring motor operated valve motor output torque and power at valve seating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casada, D.A.

    1996-01-16

    A method and apparatus are provided for monitoring a motor operated valve during the brief period when the valve seats and the torque switch trips to deenergize the valve motor. The method uses voltage measurements on the load side of a deenergizing switch that opens to deenergize the motor to determine, among other things, final motor rotational speed and the decelerating torque at motor deenergization. 14 figs.

  11. Electric actuation of a surface controlled subsea safety valve 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartlett, Timothy Joseph

    2013-02-22

    Flapper valve diameter Gravitational constant Flapper valve moment of inertia Power return spring coefficient Flapper valve coil spring coefficient Flov, tube/Flapper valve geometncal contact constrmnt Flow tube displacement limit Flow tube mass... Hydraulic piston mass Flapper valve mass National Association of Corrosion Engmeers Dynamic accumulator pressure Initial accumulator pre-chargc pressure Accumulator pressure Hydraulic control line pressure Working pressure Surface Controlled Subsca...

  12. A custom-designed limited-angle actuator for an electromechanical engine valve drive Part I: Conceptual design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Yihui

    Research has shown that variable valve timing (VVT) can improve significantly the performance of internal combustion (IC) engines, including higher fuel efficiencies, lower emissions, and larger torque outputs at each point ...

  13. A custom-designed limited-angle actuator for an electromechanical engine valve drive Part II: Fabrication and evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kassakian, John G.

    Research has shown that variable valve timing (VVT) can improve significantly the performance of internal combustion (IC) engines, including higher fuel efficiencies, lower emissions, and larger torque outputs at each point ...

  14. Valve studies: Hydrogen fluoride monitoring of UF{sub 6} cylinder valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leedy, R.R.; Ellis, A.R.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Marsh, G.C. [and others

    1996-08-01

    Uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinder valves have, like the cylinders, been in use and/or storage for periods ranging from 15 to 44 years. Visual inspection of the cylinders has shown that the extent of corrosion and the overall cylinder condition varies widely throughout the storage yards. One area of concern is the integrity of the cylinder valves. Visual inspection has found deposits which have been identified as radioactive material on or near the valves. These deposits suggest leakage of UF{sub 6} and may indicate valve degradation; however, these deposits may simply be residual material from cylinder filling operations.

  15. Method for valve seating control for an electro-hydraulic engine valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sun, Zongxuan (Plymouth, MN)

    2011-01-11

    Valve lift in an internal combustion engine is controlled by an electro-hydraulic actuation mechanism including a selectively actuable hydraulic feedback circuit.

  16. Large scale steam valve test: Performance testing of large butterfly valves and full scale high flowrate steam testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meadows, J.B.; Robbins, G.E.; Roselius, D.G. [and others

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of the design testing of large (36-inch diameter) butterfly valves under high flow conditions. The two butterfly valves were pneumatically operated air-open, air-shut valves (termed valves 1 and 2). These butterfly valves were redesigned to improve their ability to function under high flow conditions. Concern was raised regarding the ability of the butterfly valves to function as required with high flow-induced torque imposed on the valve discs during high steam flow conditions. High flow testing was required to address the flow-induced torque concerns. The valve testing was done using a heavily instrumented piping system. This test program was called the Large Scale Steam Valve Test (LSSVT). The LSSVT program demonstrated that the redesigned valves operated satisfactorily under high flow conditions.

  17. Self Contained Temperature Actuated Control Valves 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pirkle, F.

    1979-01-01

    There is a virtually unlimited potential for energy conservation by utilizing self contained temperature actuated valves. As steam costs soar it becomes more and more important to conserve feed stock dollars as well as the energy these dollars...

  18. The safety valve and climate policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacoby, Henry D.; Ellerman, A. Denny.

    In discussions of a cap-and-trade system for implementation of Kyoto Protocol-type quantity targets, a "safety valve" was proposed where, by government sales of emissions permits at a fixed price, the marginal cost of the ...

  19. A hybrid tissue-engineered heart valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alavi, SH; Kheradvar, A

    2015-01-01

    load-bearing component of the hybrid lea?et, and it shouldin the left ventricle. Hybrid tissue was also previouslyA Hybrid Tissue-Engineered Heart Valve S. Hamed Alavi, PhD,

  20. Frostless heat pump having thermal expansion valves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN); Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-10-22

    A heat pump system having an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant and further having a compressor, an interior heat exchanger, an exterior heat exchanger, a heat pump reversing valve, an accumulator, a thermal expansion valve having a remote sensing bulb disposed in heat transferable contact with the refrigerant piping section between said accumulator and said reversing valve, an outdoor temperature sensor, and a first means for heating said remote sensing bulb in response to said outdoor temperature sensor thereby opening said thermal expansion valve to raise suction pressure in order to mitigate defrosting of said exterior heat exchanger wherein said heat pump continues to operate in a heating mode.

  1. A hybrid tissue-engineered heart valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alavi, SH; Kheradvar, A

    2015-01-01

    an extra-thin superelastic Nitinol mesh tightly enclosed byDescription. The trilea?et Nitinol mesh scaffolds underwentof the valves and their Nitinol scaffolds were tested in a

  2. Discrete-Time Pricing and Optimal Exercise of American Perpetual Warrants in the Geometric Random Walk Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vanderbei, Robert J., E-mail: rvdb@princeton.edu [Princeton University, Department of Operations Research and Financial Engineering (United States); P Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I nar, Mustafa C., E-mail: mustafap@bilkent.edu.tr [Bilkent University, Department of Industrial Engineering (Turkey); Bozkaya, Efe B. [Sabanc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I University, Faculty of Administrative Sciences (Turkey)] [Sabanc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I University, Faculty of Administrative Sciences (Turkey)

    2013-02-15

    An American option (or, warrant) is the right, but not the obligation, to purchase or sell an underlying equity at any time up to a predetermined expiration date for a predetermined amount. A perpetual American option differs from a plain American option in that it does not expire. In this study, we solve the optimal stopping problem of a perpetual American option (both call and put) in discrete time using linear programming duality. Under the assumption that the underlying stock price follows a discrete time and discrete state Markov process, namely a geometric random walk, we formulate the pricing problem as an infinite dimensional linear programming (LP) problem using the excessive-majorant property of the value function. This formulation allows us to solve complementary slackness conditions in closed-form, revealing an optimal stopping strategy which highlights the set of stock-prices where the option should be exercised. The analysis for the call option reveals that such a critical value exists only in some cases, depending on a combination of state-transition probabilities and the economic discount factor (i.e., the prevailing interest rate) whereas it ceases to be an issue for the put.

  3. Relation of aortic valve calcium to chronic kidney disease (from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    with calcific aortic valve disease. Cardiovascular HealthA, et al. Cardiac valve calcification in haemodialysisCurtis JR. Aortic and mitral valve calcification in patients

  4. Effect of the Mitral Valve's Anterior Leaflet on Axisymmetry of Transmitral Vortex Ring.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Falahatpisheh, A; Pahlevan, NM; Kheradvar, A

    2015-01-01

    and B. S. Rana. Anatomy of the mitral valve: understandingthe mitral valve complex in mitral regurgitation. Eur. J.and H. -H. Sievers. Heart valve macro- and microstructure.

  5. A congestion mechanism for uphill expressways, Part I: the shoulder lane "release valve"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patire, Anthony D.; Cassidy, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    shoulder lane “release valve” Anthony D. Patire and Michaelshoulder lane “release valve” Anthony D. Patire and Michaelacting as a “ re- lease valve” for the excess accumulation

  6. Analysis of FRUITFULL promoter motifs and their influence on valve expression during fruit development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woods, Jennifer Carol

    2010-01-01

    motifs and their influence on valve expression during fruitappear WT-like with only valve expression remaining (Fig.motifs and their influence on valve expression during fruit

  7. Relation of Aortic Valve Calcium to Chronic Kidney Disease (from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    with calcific aortic valve disease. Cardiovascular HealthA, et al. Cardiac valve calcification in haemodialysisCurtis JR. Aortic and mitral valve calcification in patients

  8. Emergent Presentation of Decompensated Mitral Valve Prolapse and Atrial Septal Defect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jessie; Das, Bijon

    2015-01-01

    E, Gring CN, Griffin BP. Mitral valve prolapse. Lancet. 2.NM. Myxomatous mitral valve disease bench to bedside: LDL-geometry and degree of mitral valve prolapse. Circulation.

  9. Percutaneous aortic valve replacement in a re-animated postmortem heart

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Jennifer; Sun, Amy; Killien, Lauren; Evangelista, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    implantation of heart valve prosthesis for the treatment ofF. Percutaneous aortic valve replacement: an experimentalA stentless trileaflet valve from a sheet of decellularized

  10. Proof of concept of FOLDAVALVE, a novel 14 Fr totally repositionable and retrievable transcatheter aortic valve.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kheradvar, A; Groves, EM; Tseng, E

    2015-01-01

    for transcatheter aortic valve therapy. Prog Cardiovasc Dis.Transcatheter aortic-valve implantation for aortic stenosisgators. Transcatheter aortic-valve replacement with a self-

  11. On the multiscale modeling of heart valve biomechanics in health and disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinberg, Eli J.; Shahmirzadi, Danial; Mofrad, Mohammad Reza

    2010-01-01

    mofrad@berkeley.edu healthy heart valve is described atan organ, each of the heart valves consists of a number ofpulmonary, and tricuspid valves each normally have three ?

  12. 108 OPTIMAL STOPPING TIME 4.4. Cost functions. The cost function g(x) gives the price you must

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igusa, Kiyoshi

    108 OPTIMAL STOPPING TIME 4.4. Cost functions. The cost function g(x) gives the price you must pay. But your cost to play to that point was cost = g(X0) + g(X1) + · · · + g(XT-1) = T-1 j=0 g(Xj) So, your net the equation: v(x) = max(f(x), (Pv)(x) - g(x)) Proof: In state x you should either stop or continue. (1) If you

  13. The aligned nuclear targets for investigation of time reversal invariance violation: thermal heating and optimization of target dimension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. G. Beda; A. S. Gerasimov

    2007-06-18

    The thermal heating of aligned nuclear targets of HIO_3, LiIO_3 ans Sb target materials under neutron irradiation at JSNS is considered. It is shown that presently the targets of large volumes (several tens of cm^3) can be used in experiment. The optimal target dimensions are recommended for investigation with resonance neutrons. The use of proposed aligned targets at the new neutron spallation source JSNS (Japan) will make p[ossible to discover TRIV or decrease the present limit on the intensity of parity conserving time violating interaction by two-three order of magnitude.

  14. Well injection valve with retractable choke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pringle, R.E.

    1986-07-22

    An injection valve is described for use in a well conduit consisting of: a housing having a bore, a valve closure member in the bore moving between open and closed positions, a flow tube telescopically movable in the housing for controlling the movement of the valve closure member, means for biasing the flow tube in a direction for allowing the valve closure member to move to the closed position, an expandable and contractible fluid restriction connected to the flow tube and extending into the bore for moving the flow tube to the open position in response to injection fluid, but allowing the passage of well tools through the valve, the restriction contractible in response to fluid flow, the restriction includes, segments movable into and out of the bore, and biasing means yieldably urging the segments into the bore, a no-go shoulder on the flow tube, and releasable lockout means between the flow tube and the housing for locking the flow tube and valve in the open position.

  15. Split Venturi, Axially-Rotated Valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walrath, David E. (Laramie, WY); Lindberg, William R. (Laramie, WY); Burgess, Robert K. (Sheridan, WY)

    2000-08-29

    The present invention provides an axially-rotated valve which permits increased flow rates and lower pressure drop (characterized by a lower loss coefficient) by using an axial eccentric split venturi with two portions where at least one portion is rotatable with respect to the other portion. The axially-rotated valve typically may be designed to avoid flow separation and/or cavitation at full flow under a variety of conditions. Similarly, the valve is designed, in some embodiments, to produce streamlined flow within the valve. A typical cross section of the eccentric split venturi may be non-axisymmetric such as a semicircular cross section which may assist in both throttling capabilities and in maximum flow capacity using the design of the present invention. Such a design can include applications for freeze resistant axially-rotated valves and may be fully-opened and fully-closed in one-half of a complete rotation. An internal wide radius elbow typically connected to a rotatable portion of the eccentric venturi may assist in directing flow with lower friction losses. A valve actuator may actuate in an axial manner yet be uniquely located outside of the axial flow path to further reduce friction losses. A seal may be used between the two portions that may include a peripheral and diametrical seal in the same plane.

  16. Flow Split Venturi, Axially-Rotated Valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walrath, David E. (Laramie, WY); Lindberg, William R. (Laramie, WY); Burgess, Robert K. (Sheridan, WY); LaBelle, James (Murrieta, CA)

    2000-02-22

    The present invention provides an axially-rotated valve which permits increased flow rates and lower pressure drop (characterized by a lower loss coefficient) by using an axial eccentric split venturi with two portions where at least one portion is rotatable with respect to the other portion. The axially-rotated valve typically may be designed to avoid flow separation and/or cavitation at full flow under a variety of conditions. Similarly, the valve is designed, in some embodiments, to produce streamlined flow within the valve. An axially aligned outlet may also increase the flow efficiency. A typical cross section of the eccentric split venturi may be non-axisymmetric such as a semicircular cross section which may assist in both throttling capabilities and in maximum flow capacity using the design of the present invention. Such a design can include applications for freeze resistant axially-rotated valves and may be fully-opened and fully-closed in one-half of a complete rotation. An internal wide radius elbow typically connected to a rotatable portion of the eccentric venturi may assist in directing flow with lower friction losses. A valve actuator may actuate in an axial manner yet be uniquely located outside of the axial flow path to further reduce friction losses. A seal may be used between the two portions that may include a peripheral and diametrical seal in the same plane. A seal separator may increase the useful life of the seal between the fixed and rotatable portions.

  17. Production lead time reduction in a semiconductor capital equipment manufacturing plant through optimized testing protocols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhadauria, Anubha Singh

    2014-01-01

    Processes at a semiconductor equipment manufacturing facility were studied with the goal to reduce the production lead time. Based on the principles of lean manufacturing, DMAIC methodology was used to guide the process. ...

  18. Throughput Optimal Scheduling Over Time-Varying Channels in the Presence of Heavy-Tailed Traffic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jagannathan, Krishna Prasanna

    We study the problem of scheduling over time varying links in a network that serves both heavy-tailed and light tailed traffic. We consider a system consisting of two parallel queues, served by a single server. One of the ...

  19. Leakage characterization of a piloted power operated relief valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ezekoye, L.I. [Westinghouse Electric Corp, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Nuclear Technology Division; Hess, M.D. [Northeast Utilities, Waterford, CT (United States). Millstone Station

    1995-11-01

    In Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs), power operated relief valves (PORVs) are used to provide overpressure protection of the Pressurizer. The valves are fail closed globe valves which means that power is required to open the valves and, on loss of power, the valves close. There are two ways to operate the PORVs. The more common way is to directly couple the disc to an actuator via a disc-stem assembly. The type of design is not the object of this paper. The other and less common way of operating a PORV is by piloting the main valve such that the opening or closing of a pilot valve opens and closes the main valve. This is the design of interest. In most plants, the PORVs are installed with a water loop seal while in some plants no water loop seals are used. It is generally accepted that loop seal installation minimizes valve seat leakage. In non-loop seal installation, the valve seat is exposed to steam which increases the potential for seat leakage. This paper describes the results of some tests performed with nitrogen and steam to characterize the leakage potential of a pilot operated PORV. The test results were compared with seat leakage tests of check valves to provide insight on the leakage testing of pilot operated valves and check valves. The paper also compares the test data with leakage estimates using the ASME/ANSI OM Code guidance on valve leakage.

  20. SU-E-I-60: The Correct Selection of Pitch and Rotation Time for Optimal CT Scanning : The Big Misconception

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ranallo, F; Szczykutowicz, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To provide correct guidance in the proper selection of pitch and rotation time for optimal CT imaging with multi-slice scanners. Methods: There exists a widespread misconception concerning the role of pitch in patient dose with modern multi-slice scanners, particularly with the use of mA modulation techniques. We investigated the relationship of pitch and rotation time to image quality, dose, and scan duration, with CT scanners from different manufacturers in a way that clarifies this misconception. This source of this misconception may concern the role of pitch in single slice CT scanners. Results: We found that the image noise and dose are generally independent of the selected effective mAs (mA*time/ pitch) with manual mA technique settings and are generally independent of the selected pitch and /or rotation time with automatic mA modulation techniques. However we did find that on certain scanners the use of a pitch just above 0.5 provided images of equal image noise at a lower dose compared to the use of a pitch just below 1.0. Conclusion: The misconception that the use of a lower pitch over-irradiates patients by wasting dose is clearly false. The use of a lower pitch provides images of equal or better image quality at the same patient dose, whether using manual mA or automatic mA modulation techniques. By decreasing the pitch and the rotation times by equal amounts, both helical and patient motion artifacts can be reduced without affecting the exam time. The use of lower helical pitch also allows better scanning of larger patients by allowing a greater scan effective mAs, if the exam time can be extended. The one caution with the use of low pitch is not related to patient dose, but to the length of the scan time if the rotation time is not set short enough. Partial Research funding from GE HealthCare.

  1. A WEAR MODEL FOR DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST VALVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, Peter Julian

    2009-11-01

    The work summarized here comprises the concluding effort of a multi-year project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies. It supports the development of a better understanding of advanced diesel engine designs in which enhanced power density, energy efficiency, and emissions control place increasing demands upon the durability of engine materials. Many kinds of metallic alloys are used in engines depending on the operating stresses, temperatures, and chemical environments. Exhaust valves, for example, are subjected to high temperatures and repetitive surface contacts that place demands on durability and frictional characteristics of the materials. Valves must continue to seal the combustion chamber properly for thousands of hours of cyclic engine operation and under varying operating conditions. It was the focus of this effort to understand the wear processes in the valve-seat area and to develop a model for the surface deformation and wear of that important interface. An annotated bibliography is provided to illustrate efforts to understand valve wear and to investigate the factors of engine operation that affect its severity and physical manifestation. The project for which this modeling effort was the final task, involved construction of a high-temperature repetitive impact test system as well as basic tribology studies of the combined processes of mechanical wear plus oxidation at elevated temperatures. Several publications resulted from this work, and are cited in this report. The materials selected for the experimental work were high-performance alloys based on nickel and cobalt. In some cases, engine-tested exhaust valves were made available for wear analysis and to ensure that the modes of surface damage produced in experiments were simulative of service. New, production-grade exhaust valves were also used to prepare test specimens for experimental work along with the other alloy samples. Wear analysis of valves and seats run for hundreds of hours in heavy-duty diesels provided insights into the kinds of complexity that the contact conditions in engines can produce, and suggested the physical basis for the current approach to modeling. The model presented here involves four terms, two representing the valve response and two for its mating seat material. The model's structure assumes that wear that takes place under a complex combination of plastic deformation, tangential shear, and oxidation. Tribolayers form, are removed, and may reform. Layer formation affects the friction forces in the interface, and in turn, the energy available to do work on the materials to cause wear. To provide friction data for the model at various temperatures, sliding contact experiments were conducted from 22 to 850 C in a pin-on-disk apparatus at ORNL. In order to account for the behavior of different materials and engine designs, parameters in all four terms of the model can be adjusted to account for wear-in and incubation periods before the dominant wear processes evolve to their steady-state rates. For example, the deformation rate is assumed to be maximum during the early stages of operation, and then, due to material work-hardening and the increase in nominal contact area (which reduces the load per unit area), decreases to a lower rate at long times. Conversely, the rate of abrasion increases with time or number of cycles due to the build-up of oxides and tribo-layers between contact surfaces. The competition between deformation and abrasion results in complex, non-linear behavior of material loss per cycle of operation. Furthermore, these factors are affected by valve design features, such as the angle of incline of the valve seat. Several modeling scenarios are presented to demonstrate how the wear profile versus number of cycles changes in response to: (a) different relative abrasion rates of the seat and valve materials, (b) the friction coefficient as a function of temperature, (c) the relative deformation contribution of valve and seat materials, and (d) an interruption in the dominant we

  2. Griswold Tempered Water Flow Regulator Valves Used as Anti Siphon Valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MISKA, C.

    2000-09-03

    FCV-1*22 and 1*23 are Griswold constant flow regulators used as anti-siphon valves in the tempered water system, they fail closed but valve cartridge orifice allows minimum flow to prevent loss of water from the MCO/CASK annulus.

  3. Simulant Development for Hanford Tank Farms Double Valve Isolation (DVI) Valves Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, Beric E.

    2012-12-21

    Leakage testing of a representative sample of the safety-significant isolation valves for Double Valve Isolation (DVI) in an environment that simulates the abrasive characteristics of the Hanford Tank Farms Waste Transfer System during waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is to be conducted. The testing will consist of periodic leak performed on the DVI valves after prescribed numbers of valve cycles (open and close) in a simulated environment representative of the abrasive properties of the waste and the Waste Transfer System. The valve operations include exposure to cycling conditions that include gravity drain and flush operation following slurry transfer. The simulant test will establish the performance characteristics and verify compliance with the Documented Safety Analysis. Proper simulant development is essential to ensure that the critical process streams characteristics are represented, National Research Council report “Advice on the Department of Energy's Cleanup Technology Roadmap: Gaps and Bridges”

  4. Effects of aging and service wear on main steam isolation valves and valve operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-03-01

    In recent years main steam isolation valve (MSIV operating problems have resulted in significant operational transients (e.g., spurious reactor trips, steam generator dry out, excessive valve seat leakage), increased cost, and decreased plant availability. A key ingredient to an engineering-oriented reliability improvement effort is a thorough understanding of relevant historical experience. A detailed review of historical failure data available through the Institute of Nuclear Power Operation`s Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System has been conducted for several types of MSIVs and valve operators for both boiling-water reactors and pressurized-water reactors. The focus of this review is on MSIV failures modes, actuator failure modes, consequences of failure on plant operations, method of failure detection, and major stressors affecting both valves and valve operators.

  5. Steam distribution and energy delivery optimization using wireless sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Allgood, Glenn O [ORNL; Kuruganti, Phani Teja [ORNL; Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Lake, Joe E [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The Extreme Measurement Communications Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) explores the deployment of a wireless sensor system with a real-time measurement-based energy efficiency optimization framework in the ORNL campus. With particular focus on the 12-mile long steam distribution network in our campus, we propose an integrated system-level approach to optimize the energy delivery within the steam distribution system. We address the goal of achieving significant energy-saving in steam lines by monitoring and acting on leaking steam valves/traps. Our approach leverages an integrated wireless sensor and real-time monitoring capabilities. We make assessments on the real-time status of the distribution system by mounting acoustic sensors on the steam pipes/traps/valves and observe the state measurements of these sensors. Our assessments are based on analysis of the wireless sensor measurements. We describe Fourier-spectrum based algorithms that interpret acoustic vibration sensor data to characterize flows and classify the steam system status. We are able to present the sensor readings, steam flow, steam trap status and the assessed alerts as an interactive overlay within a web-based Google Earth geographic platform that enables decision makers to take remedial action. We believe our demonstration serves as an instantiation of a platform that extends implementation to include newer modalities to manage water flow, sewage and energy consumption.

  6. Adaptive real-time methodology for optimizing energy-efficient computing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Feng, Wu-Chun

    2013-01-29

    Dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) is an effective way to reduce energy and power consumption in microprocessor units. Current implementations of DVFS suffer from inaccurate modeling of power requirements and usage, and from inaccurate characterization of the relationships between the applicable variables. A system and method is proposed that adjusts CPU frequency and voltage based on run-time calculations of the workload processing time, as well as a calculation of performance sensitivity with respect to CPU frequency. The system and method are processor independent, and can be applied to either an entire system as a unit, or individually to each process running on a system.

  7. Adaptive real-time methodology for optimizing energy-efficient computing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Chung-Hsing (Los Alamos, NM); Feng, Wu-Chun (Blacksburg, VA)

    2011-06-28

    Dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) is an effective way to reduce energy and power consumption in microprocessor units. Current implementations of DVFS suffer from inaccurate modeling of power requirements and usage, and from inaccurate characterization of the relationships between the applicable variables. A system and method is proposed that adjusts CPU frequency and voltage based on run-time calculations of the workload processing time, as well as a calculation of performance sensitivity with respect to CPU frequency. The system and method are processor independent, and can be applied to either an entire system as a unit, or individually to each process running on a system.

  8. Research Group: Environmental Economics and Natural Resources April 2012 "Optimal Timing of Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with a dominant learning effect, the energy price path can evolve non-monotonically over time. When the solar cost.2.1 The high solar cost case: cy > u (¯xd) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.2.2 The low solar cost case of Carbon Capture Policies Under Alternative CCS Cost Function" Jean-Pierre Amigues, Gilles Lafforgue

  9. Sub-Optimal Allocation of Time in Sequential Shih-Wei Wu1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maloney, Laurence T.

    , Laurence T. Maloney1,4 1 Department of Psychology, New York University, New York, New York, United States, 4 Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York, United States of America Abstract The allocation of limited resources such as time or energy is a core problem that organisms face

  10. Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science 5, 2002, 109120 Synthesis Of Space-Time Optimal Systolic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , allocation function, space-time complexity, re-indexation 1 Introduction The Cholesky Factorization (CF allocation methods and their application to CF. Second, stemming from a new allocation method we derive design improves the best previously known bound, N2/6 + (N), induced by previous allocation methods

  11. Compatibility Study of Compile-Time Optimizations for Power and Reliability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    systems performance. However, for a wide range of today's power restricted, battery oper- ated embedded, reliability is the most significant design issue. Moreover, the limited battery capacities of such devices, the instruction flow at run- time can be adjusted to achieve a desirable trade-off between reliability, power

  12. Zero Energy Peak and Triplet Correlations in Nanoscale SFF Spin-Valves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammad Alidoust; Klaus Halterman; Oriol T. Valls

    2015-06-17

    Using a self-consistent Bogoliubov-de Gennes approach, we theoretically study the proximity-induced density of states (DOS) in clean SFF spin-valves with noncollinear exchange fields. Our results clearly demonstrate a direct correlation between the presence of a zero energy peak (ZEP) in the DOS spectrum and the persistence of spin-1 triplet pair correlations. By systematically varying the geometrical and material parameters governing the spin-valve, we point out to experimentally optimal system configurations where the ZEPs are most pronounced, and which can be effectively probed via scanning tunneling microscopy. We complement these findings in the ballistic regime by employing the Usadel formalism in the full proximity limit to investigate their diffusive SFF counterparts. We determine the optimal normalized ferromagnetic layer thicknesses which result in the largest ZEPs. Our results can serve as guidelines in designing samples for future experiments.

  13. A staggered-grid finite-difference scheme optimized in the time–space domain for modeling scalar-wave propagation in geophysical problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Sirui; Huang, Lianjie

    2014-11-01

    For modeling scalar-wave propagation in geophysical problems using finite-difference schemes, optimizing the coefficients of the finite-difference operators can reduce numerical dispersion. Most optimized finite-difference schemes for modeling seismic-wave propagation suppress only spatial but not temporal dispersion errors. We develop a novel optimized finite-difference scheme for numerical scalar-wave modeling to control dispersion errors not only in space but also in time. Our optimized scheme is based on a new stencil that contains a few more grid points than the standard stencil. We design an objective function for minimizing relative errors of phase velocities of waves propagating in all directions within a given range of wavenumbers. Dispersion analysis and numerical examples demonstrate that our optimized finite-difference scheme is computationally up to 2.5 times faster than the optimized schemes using the standard stencil to achieve the similar modeling accuracy for a given 2D or 3D problem. Compared with the high-order finite-difference scheme using the same new stencil, our optimized scheme reduces 50 percent of the computational cost to achieve the similar modeling accuracy. This new optimized finite-difference scheme is particularly useful for large-scale 3D scalar-wave modeling and inversion.

  14. Emerging Trends in Heart Valve Engineering: Part I. Solutions for Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    role in calci?c aortic valve disease. Cardiovasc. Pathol.heart valves. J. Heart Valve Dis. 10:105–110, 2001.B. , and K. E. Yutzey. Heart valve structure and function in

  15. Mechanisms of bioprosthetic heart valve failure: Fatigue causes collagen denaturation and glycosaminoglycan loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zand, Robert

    Mechanisms of bioprosthetic heart valve failure: Fatigue causes collagen denaturation heart valve (BPHV) degeneration, characterized by extracellular matrix deterioration, remod- eling) with glutaraldehyde fixed porcine aortic valve bioprostheses, that the mechanical function of cardiac valve cusps

  16. Emerging Trends in Heart Valve Engineering: Part I. Solutions for Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    polyurethane heart valves. J. Heart Valve Dis. 10:105–110,R. B. , and K. E. Yutzey. Heart valve structure and functionneering challenges for heart valve tissue engineering. Annu.

  17. Variance Optimal Hedging for discrete time processes with independent increments. Application to Electricity Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goutte, Stéphane; Russo, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We consider the discretized version of a (continuous-time) two-factor model introduced by Benth and coauthors for the electricity markets. For this model, the underlying is the exponent of a sum of independent random variables. We provide and test an algorithm, which is based on the celebrated Foellmer-Schweizer decomposition for solving the mean-variance hedging problem. In particular, we establish that decomposition explicitely, for a large class of vanilla contingent claims. Interest is devoted in the choice of rebalancing dates and its impact on the hedging error, regarding the payoff regularity and the non stationarity of the log-price process.

  18. Programmable Valves: a Solution to Bypass Deadband Problem of Electro-Hydraulic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Bin

    cartridge valves. This paper will compare the programmable valves with traditional PDC/servo valves combination of five independently con- trolled poppet type cartridge valves. The programmable valves, while having the ability to hold position due to the virtually zero internal leakages when the cartridge valves

  19. Friction and Wear Reduction in Diesel Engine Valve Trains | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduction in Diesel Engine Valve Trains Friction and Wear Reduction in Diesel Engine Valve Trains Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review...

  20. Novel design of a rotary valve using axiomatic design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peliks, Robert Bilgor

    2005-01-01

    Rotary valves have existed for millennia; and while they have developed tremendously since the first Roman valves, many of the same problems have persisted. The basic problems are caused by the coupling of functional ...

  1. Design and Experimental Implementation of an Electromagnetic Engine Valve Drive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parlikar, T.A.

    In conventional internal combustion engines, engine valve displacements are fixed relative to crankshaft position. If these valves were actuated as a variable function of crankshaft angle, significant improvements in fuel ...

  2. Study of collagen structure in canine myxomatous mitral valve disease 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hadian, Mojtaba

    2009-01-01

    Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is the single most common acquired cardiac disease of dogs, and is a disease of significant veterinary importance. It also bears close similarities to mitral valve prolapse in humans ...

  3. Design of a Thermally-Actuated Gas Lift Safety Valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbertson, Eric W.

    Gas-lifted oil wells are susceptible to failure through malfunction of gas lift valve assemblies (GLV). One failure mode occurs when the GLV check valve fails and product passes into the well annulus, potentially reaching ...

  4. Integrated Energy System Dispatch Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Energy System Dispatch Optimization Ryan Firestone, MichaelEnergy System Dispatch Optimization Ryan Firestone - Studentthe real-time dispatch optimization problem for a generic

  5. Incinerator thermal release valve risk assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, J.B.

    1998-12-31

    Human health risk assessments were conducted on emissions from several types of incinerators--a hazardous waste combustor, a medical waste/tire combustor, and a refuse derived fuel combustor in three different states. As part of these studies, the short-term emissions from thermal release valves operating during upset conditions were additionally evaluated. The latter assessments addressed two specific risk-related questions: (1) what are the incremental long-term risks/hazards associated with these short-term emissions; (2) what are the acute health hazards associated with these emissions? For each study, emission estimates for both the incinerator stack and the thermal release valve were obtained from the facility. Stack testing was utilized to obtain stack gas concentrations of emissions at one facility; engineering estimates were used to ascertain emissions from the thermal release valve. The two facilities were proposed incinerators, so literature-derived emissions were used throughout.

  6. Worchester Solenoid Actuated Gas Operated MCO Isolation Valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-06-06

    These valves are 1 inch gas-operated full-port ball valves incorporating a solenoid and limit switches as integral parts of the actuator that are used in process streams within the CVDF hood. The valves fail closed (on loss of pressure or electrical) to prevent MCO vent drain to either reduce air in-leakage or loss of He. The valves have couplings for transverse actuator mounting.

  7. Worcester Solenoid Actuated Gas Operated MCO Isolation Valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-06-06

    These valves are 1 inch gas-operated full-port ball valves incorporating a solenoid and limit switches as Integral parts of the actuator that are used in different process streams within the CVDF hood. The valves fail closed (on loss of pressure or electrical) for MCO isolation to either reduce air in leakage or loss of He. All valves have coupling for transverse actuator mounting.

  8. Worcester Solenoid Actuated Gas Operated MCO Isolation Valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MISKA, C.R.

    2000-11-13

    These valves are 1 inch gas-operated full-port ball valves incorporating a solenoid and limit switches as integral parts of the actuator that are used in different process streams within the CVDF hood. The valves fail closed (on loss of pressure or electrical) for MCO isolation to either reduce air leakage or loss of He. All valves have coupling for transverse actuator mounting.

  9. Worchester Solenoid Actuated Gas Operated MCO Isolation Valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MISKA, C.R.

    2000-11-13

    These valves are 1 inch gas-operated full-port ball valves incorporating a solenoid and limit switches as integral parts of the actuator that are used in process streams within the CWF hood. The valves fail closed (on loss of pressure or electrical) to prevent MCO vent drain to either reduce air In-leakage or loss of He. The valves have couplings for transverse actuator mounting.

  10. Worcester Solenoid Actuated Gas Operated MCO Isolation Valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MISKA, C.R.

    2000-09-03

    These valves are 1 inch gas-operated full-port ball valves incorporating a solenoid and limit switches as integral parts of the actuator that are used in different process streams within the CVDF hood. The valves fail closed (on loss of pressure or electrical) for MCO isolation to either reduce air in leakage or loss of He. All valves have coupling for transverse actuator mounting.

  11. Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter (Peter) Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan

    2012-09-04

    A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.

  12. AeroValve Experimental Test Data Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noakes, Mark W.

    2014-09-01

    This report documents the collection of experimental test data and presents performance characteristics for the AeroValve brand prototype pneumatic bidirectional solenoid valves tested at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in July/August 2014 as part of a validation of AeroValve energy efficiency claims. The test stand and control programs were provided by AeroValve. All raw data and processing are included in the report attachments.

  13. Analysis of Flow in Pilot Operated Safety and Relief Valve of Nuclear Reactor Coolant System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Soon-Bum; Lee, Dong-Won; Kim, In-Goo; Ahn, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Hho-Jung

    2004-07-01

    When the POSRV equipped in a nuclear power plant opens in instant by a failure in coolant system of PWR, a moving shock wave generates, and propagates downstream of the valve, inducing a complicated unsteadiness. The moving shock wave may exert severe load to the structure. In this connection, a method of gradual opening of the valve is used to reduce the load acting on the wall at the downstream of the POSRV. In the present study, experiments and calculations are performed to investigate the detail unsteady flow at the various pipe units and the effect of valve opening time on the flow downstream of the valve. In calculation by using of air as working fluid, 2-dimensional, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved by finite volume method. It was found that when the incident shock wave passes through the pipe unit, it may experience diffraction, reflection and interaction with a vortex. Furthermore, the geometry of the pipe unit affects the reflection type of shock wave and changes the load acting on the wall of pipe unit. It was also turned out that the maximum force acting on the wall of the pipe unit becomes in order of T-junction, 108 deg. elbow and branch in magnitude, respectively. And, the results obtained that show that the rapid pressure rise due to the moving shock wave by instant POSRV valve opening is attenuated by employing the gradual opening. (authors)

  14. Michigan: General Motors Optimizes Engine Valve Technology | Department of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on dark matterEnergyPublicatons ContactThousandEnergy Michigan:

  15. Pressure Transient Flow Forces for Hydraulic Spool Valves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manring, Noah D.

    of the fluid passing through the valve itself. These mo- mentum effects are familiarly known as flow forces and are generally quite substantial when a large amount of flow is passing through the valve. The size of the flowPressure Transient Flow Forces for Hydraulic Spool Valves Noah D. Manring1 Shusen Zhang Mechanical

  16. Luminescent spin-valve transistor Ian Appelbaum,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Kasey

    , the spin- valve transistor SVT , modulates a hot-electron current passing perpendicularly throughLuminescent spin-valve transistor Ian Appelbaum,a) K. J. Russell, D. J. Monsma, V. Narayanamurti Received 29 July 2003; accepted 7 October 2003 A magneto-optical sensor, the luminescent spin-valve

  17. A New Electromagnetic Valve Actuator W. S. Chang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, Dave

    A New Electromagnetic Valve Actuator W. S. Chang , T. A. Parlikar , M. D. Seeman , D. J. Perreault--In conventional internal combustion (IC) engines, en- gine valve displacements are fixed relative to crankshaft position. If these valves are actuated as a variable function of crankshaft an- gle, significant

  18. Noise Reduction of a Turbofan Bleed Valve Vincent Phong1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papamoschou, Dimitri

    Noise Reduction of a Turbofan Bleed Valve Vincent Phong1 , Shervin Taghavi Nezhad2 , Feng Liu3 and computational research effort investigated the noise sources of a pneumatic bleed valve used in turbofan engines, rapid-prototyped valve designs which enabled the exploration of a large parameter space. Microphone

  19. Collagen Bundle Orientation Explains Aortic Valve Leaflet Coaptation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collagen Bundle Orientation Explains Aortic Valve Leaflet Coaptation Peter E. Hammer1 , Christina A. The aortic valve owes its strength and durability to a network of collagen fibers within the leaflets. However, the pattern of these fibers and their role in valve function is not well understood. We imaged

  20. Modeling Mitral Valve Leaflets from Three-Dimensional Ultrasound

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling Mitral Valve Leaflets from Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Robert J. Schneider1 , William C for mechani- cal models predicting valve closure. Current methods for leaflet modeling from ultrasound either. The presented method for modeling the mitral leaflets from three-dimensional ultrasound of an open mitral valve

  1. Spin-valve photodiode Ian Appelbaum,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Kasey

    Spin-valve photodiode Ian Appelbaum,a) D. J. Monsma, K. J. Russell, V. Narayanamurti, and C. M; accepted 28 August 2003 An optical spin-valve effect is observed using sub-bandgap internal photoemission the ``spin-valve'' effect SVE , because the relative magnetizations of these layers, and thus the flow

  2. Avalanche spin-valve transistor K. J. Russell,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Kasey

    Avalanche spin-valve transistor K. J. Russell,a) Ian Appelbaum,b) Wei Yi, D. J. Monsma, F. Capasso, California 93106 (Received 11 June 2004; accepted 10 September 2004) A spin-valve transistor with a Ga allow fabrication of spin-valve transistors with high gain in a variety of materials. © 2004 American

  3. VOICE SYNTHESIS USING THE GENERALIZED PRESSURE-CONTROLLED VALVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Fei-Fei

    VOICE SYNTHESIS USING THE GENERALIZED PRESSURE-CONTROLLED VALVE Tamara Smyth and Alireza Fathi, and the vibration of vo- cal folds in the larynx, which function as a pressure-controlled valve regulating airflow into the the vocal tract. This re- search explores the application of the generalized dynamic pressure-control valve

  4. Department of Industrial Engineering Spring 2011 Machining Valve Seats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    PENNSTATE Department of Industrial Engineering Spring 2011 Machining Valve Seats Overview: The team worked with Quaker Chemical Corporation to machine valve seats using three different lubricants provided-degree chamfer on the valve seats are very specialized and expensive. For this project, the cutting tool

  5. Germanium Nanowire Spin-Valve Device (DMR-0819860)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Germanium Nanowire Spin-Valve Device (DMR-0819860) E-S Liu, J. Nah, K.Varahramyan, and E. Tutuc (Univ. of Texas at Austin) Figure 1 The spin-valve device comprised of a Ge nanowire bracketed by two in direction, the spin current is suppressed (spin-valve action). An applied magnetic field By is used

  6. Mechanobiology of the Aortic Heart Valve Jonathan T. Butcher1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simmons, Craig A.

    Review: Mechanobiology of the Aortic Heart Valve Jonathan T. Butcher1 , Craig A. Simmons2 , James N valve, positioned between the left ventri- cle and aortic root, prevents retrograde flow of blood into the ventricle during diastole. Opening and closing of the valve occurs passively in response to inertial forces

  7. Modelisation mathematique realiste de la valve mitrale Sabine Paeme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolper, Pierre

    Mod´elisation math´ematique r´ealiste de la valve mitrale Sabine Paeme Mai 2009 #12;Table des mati . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.2 Les valves cardiaques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.2.2 Anatomie de la valve mitrale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.3 Physiologie

  8. Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Reconstruction with Bicuspid Valved Polytetrafluoroethylene Conduit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pekkan, Kerem

    Running Head. Bicuspid valved PTFE conduit Authors. MasahiroYoshida, MD1), Peter D.Wearden, MD, PhD1.yoshida@chp.edu Bicuspid valved PTFE conduit M. Yoshida et al -1- #12;Abstract Background: In general, all conduits we have developed and utilized a bicuspid valved polytetrafluoroethylene conduit (PTFE

  9. Nonlinear Control for Magnetic Levitation of Automotive Engine Valves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grizzle, Jessy W.

    1 Nonlinear Control for Magnetic Levitation of Automotive Engine Valves Katherine Peterson, Member for and implemented on an electromagnetic valve actuator for use in automotive engines, the control methodology, it is experimentally eval- uated on an electromagnetic valve actuator designed for use in the actuation of automotive

  10. Measure Guideline: Condensing Boilers - Optimizing Efficiency and Response Time During Setback Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.

    2014-02-01

    Conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has told us a couple of things consistently for several years now: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. The implication of this is that, for setback to be successfully implemented, the heating system must be oversized. This issue is exacerbated further when an outdoor reset control is used with a condensing boiler, because not only is the system matched to the load at design, the outdoor reset control matches the output to the load under varying outdoor temperatures. Under these circumstances, the home may never recover from setback. Special controls to bypass the outdoor reset sensor are then needed. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. Determining the appropriateness of setback for a particular project is the first step. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step by step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  11. Measure Guideline: Condensing Boilers—Optimizing Efficiency and Response Time During Setback Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.

    2014-02-01

    Conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has consistently stated two things: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads, and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. The implication of this is that, for setback to be successfully implemented, the heating system must be oversized. This issue is exacerbated further when an outdoor reset control is used with a condensing boiler, because not only is the system matched to the load at design, the outdoor reset control matches the output to the load under varying outdoor temperatures. Under these circumstances, the home may never recover from setback. Special controls to bypass the outdoor reset sensor are then needed. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. The first step is to determine the appropriateness of setback for a particular project. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step-by-step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  12. "Non-Reflective" Boundary Design via Remote Sensing and PID Control Valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Qin Fen; Karney, Professor Byran W.; Pejovic, Dr. Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of a nonreflective (or semireflective) boundary condition using the combination of a remote sensor and a control system to modulate a relief valve. The essential idea is to sense the pressure change at a remote location and then to use the measured data to adjust the opening of an active control valve at the end of the line to eliminate or attenuate the wave reflections at the valve, thus controlling system transient pressures. This novel idea is shown here through numerical simulation to have considerable potential for transient protection. Using this model, wave reflections and resonance can be effectively eliminated for frictionless pipelines or initial no-flow conditions and can be better controlled in more realistic pipelines for a range of transient disturbances. In addition, the features of even-order harmonics and nonreflective boundary conditions during steady oscillation, obtained through time domain transient analysis, are verified by hydraulic impedance analysis in the frequency domain.

  13. Neural Network-Based Noise Suppressor and Predictor for Quantifying Valve Stiction in Oscillatory Control Loops 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Annan, Carl Ashie

    2014-12-18

    (fd) friction in a physical valve model. Each simulation generates controller output OP(t) and process variable PV(t) time series data. A feed-forward neural network (the predictor) is trained to model the relationship between a given OP and PV pattern...

  14. Disc valve for sampling erosive process streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mrochek, J.E.; Dinsmore, S.R.; Chandler, E.W.

    1984-08-16

    This is a patent for a disc-type, four-port sampling valve for service with erosive high temperature process streams. Inserts and liners of ..cap alpha..-silicon carbide respectively, in the faceplates and in the sampling cavities, limit erosion while providing lubricity for a smooth and precise operation. 1 fig.

  15. Microfluidic Cell Electroporation Using a Mechanical Valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Chang

    Microfluidic Cell Electroporation Using a Mechanical Valve Jun Wang, M. Jane Stine, and Chang Lu Center, and Bindley Bioscience Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 A microfluidic of integrating electroporation as a unit operation in large- scale microfluidic systems with the increasing

  16. Statistical Performance Evaluation Of Soft Seat Pressure Relief Valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, Stephen P.; Gross, Robert E.

    2013-03-26

    Risk-based inspection methods enable estimation of the probability of failure on demand for spring-operated pressure relief valves at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. This paper presents a statistical performance evaluation of soft seat spring operated pressure relief valves. These pressure relief valves are typically smaller and of lower cost than hard seat (metal to metal) pressure relief valves and can provide substantial cost savings in fluid service applications (air, gas, liquid, and steam) providing that probability of failure on demand (the probability that the pressure relief valve fails to perform its intended safety function during a potentially dangerous over pressurization) is at least as good as that for hard seat valves. The research in this paper shows that the proportion of soft seat spring operated pressure relief valves failing is the same or less than that of hard seat valves, and that for failed valves, soft seat valves typically have failure ratios of proof test pressure to set pressure less than that of hard seat valves.

  17. Mixed mode fuel injector with individually moveable needle valve members

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stewart, Chris; Chockley, Scott A.; Ibrahim, Daniel R.; Lawrence, Keith; Tomaseki, Jay; Azam, Junru H.; Tian, Steven Ye; Shafer, Scott F.

    2004-08-03

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by first and second needle valve members. One of the needle valve members moves to an open position while the other needle valve member remains stationary for a homogeneous charge injection event. The former needle valve member stays stationary while the other needle valve member moves to an open position for a conventional injection event. One of the needle valve members is at least partially positioned in the other needle valve member. Thus, the injector can perform homogeneous charge injection events, conventional injection events, or even a mixed mode having both types of injection events in a single engine cycle.

  18. Hydraulically actuated gas exchange valve assembly and engine using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carroll, Thomas S. (Peoria, IL); Taylor, Gregory O. (Hinsdale, IL)

    2002-09-03

    An engine comprises a housing that defines a hollow piston cavity that is separated from a gas passage by a valve seat. The housing further defines a biasing hydraulic cavity and a control hydraulic cavity. A gas valve member is also included in the engine and is movable relative to the valve seat between an open position at which the hollow piston cavity is open to the gas passage and a closed position in which the hollow piston cavity is blocked from the gas passage. The gas valve member includes a ring mounted on a valve piece and a retainer positioned between the ring and the valve piece. A closing hydraulic surface is included on the gas valve member and is exposed to liquid pressure in the biasing hydraulic cavity.

  19. Technical evaluation: 300 Area steam line valve accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    On June 7, 1993, a journeyman power operator (JPO) was severely burned and later died as a result of the failure of a 6-in. valve that occurred when he attempted to open main steam supply (MSS) valve MSS-25 in the U-3 valve pit. The pit is located northwest of Building 331 in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Figure 1-1 shows a layout of the 300 Area steam piping system including the U-3 steam valve pit. Figure 1-2 shows a cutaway view of the approximately 10- by 13- by 16-ft-high valve pit with its various steam valves and connecting piping. Valve MSS-25, an 8-in. valve, is located at the bottom of the pit. The failed 6-in. valve was located at the top of the pit where it branched from the upper portion of the 8-in. line at the 8- by 8- by 6-in. tee and was then ``blanked off`` with a blind flange. The purpose of this technical evaluation was to determine the cause of the accident that led to the failure of the 6-in. valve. The probable cause for the 6-in. valve failure was determined by visual, nondestructive, and destructive examination of the failed valve and by metallurgical analysis of the fractured region of the valve. The cause of the accident was ultimately identified by correlating the observed failure mode to the most probable physical phenomenon. Thermal-hydraulic analyses, component stress analyses, and tests were performed to verify that the probable physical phenomenon could be reasonably expected to produce the failure in the valve that was observed.

  20. Tackling Optimization Challenges in Industrial Load Control and Full-Duplex Radios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gholian, Armen

    2015-01-01

    Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .gap tolerance on optimization time . . . . . . . . . .viii Oil Refineries 4.2.8 Optimization Problem Formulation

  1. Are subsurface safety valves needed in deepwater?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verret, A.; Hey, C.

    1995-11-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate SCSSV reliability and identify a preferred configuration for subsea completions in deepwater. A system design consisting of subsea, conventional, dual-bore tree, cluster wells was selected for evaluation. The study examined inherent risks associated with six tubing retrievable SCSSV configurations. Risks were evaluated for personnel and environmental safety, and operational and financial impact of: No SCSSV; Single SCSSV; Dual operating system single SCSSV; Tandem hot/hot (both valves active) SCSSVs without lockout features; Tandem hot/hot SCSSVs with lockout features; Tandem hot/cold (one valve active, the other dormant in open position) SCSSVs with lockout features. A ``fault tree`` identifying events that could lead to deleterious incidents was used to evaluate risks. Costs and consequences associated with potential events were determined using existing industry data, and resulting calculated risks were evaluated. Recommendations were developed and compared to current regulations, and potential regulatory conflicts were identified.

  2. Engine having a variable valve actuation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hefler, Gregory W. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2004-10-12

    An engine has a cylinder head having a first surface and a second surface spaced from the first surface. A valve is moveably connected to the cylinder head. A rocker arm is connected to the valve, and a rocker shaft having a first location spaced a maximum distance from the cylinder head is connected to the rocker arm. A support member has and an actuator fluid passage network. The actuator fluid passage network defines a volume. The support member is connected to the cylinder head and is positioned such that a majority of the volume of the actuator fluid passage network is between the first location of the rocker shaft and the second surface of the cylinder head.

  3. Engine having a variable valve actuation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hefler, Gregory W. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2005-10-12

    An engine has a cylinder head having a first surface and a second surface spaced from the first surface. A valve is moveably connected to the cylinder head. A rocker arm is connected to the valve, and a rocker shaft having a first location spaced a maximum distance from the cylinder head is connected to the rocker arm. A support member has and an actuator fluid passage network. The actuator fluid passage network defines a volume. The support member is connected to the cylinder head and is positioned such that a majority of the volume of the actuator fluid passage network is between the first location of the rocker shaft and the second surface of the cylinder head.

  4. Method and system for measuring gate valve clearances and seating force

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casada, Donald A. (Knoxville, TN); Haynes, Howard D. (Knoxville, TN); Moyers, John C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Stewart, Brian K. (Burns, TN)

    1996-01-01

    Valve clearances and seating force, as well as other valve operational parameters, are determined by measuring valve stem rotation during opening and closing operations of a translatable gate valve. The magnitude of the stem rotation, and the relative difference between the stem rotation on opening and closing provides valuable data on the valve internals in a non-intrusive manner.

  5. Developing a Training Tool for Intraoperative Mitral Valve Analysis Neil A. Tenenholtz, Robert D. Howe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Developing a Training Tool for Intraoperative Mitral Valve Analysis Neil A. Tenenholtz, Robert D@seas.harvard.edu INTRODUCTION The mitral valve is one of the four valves of the human heart. Serving as a passive check valve, a healthy mitral valve permits the flow of oxygenated blood from the left atrium to the left ventricle while

  6. Cardiac Valve Annulus Manual Segmentation Using Computer Assisted Visual Feedback in Three-Dimensional Image Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    Cardiac Valve Annulus Manual Segmentation Using Computer Assisted Visual Feedback in Three is an important tool for the study of valve anatomy and physiology, for the four main valves of the heart (mitral rat hearts, on all four valves. I. INTRODUCTION There are four main cardiac valves in the heart, two

  7. Engine throttle valve position detecting system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamai, K.; Kikuchi, T.

    1987-03-31

    This patent describes an engine throttle valve position detecting system including: a throttle switch including a rotary detector member adapted to be rotated in accordance with the rotation of an engine throttle valve and having a guide portion including a section offset radially relative to the direction of rotation of the rotary detector member. A movable contact is movable by the rotation of the rotary detector member and a stationary contact disposed in opposed relationship to the movable contact. The stationary and movable contacts have opened and closed positions which are changed over at two different predetermined rotational positions of the rotary detector member; means for producing a signal related to the operation of the engine; means for comparing a temperature representative of the engine operating condition with a predetermined reference level; and judgment means operative, when the engine operating condition temperature is judged by the comparing means as being higher than predetermined reference level, to judge the position of the throttle valve based on one of the positions of the movable and stationary contacts and on the signal.

  8. Lattice and off-lattice side chain models of protein folding: Linear time structure prediction better than 86% of optimal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, W.E.; Istrail, S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Algorithms and Discrete Mathematics Dept.

    1996-08-09

    This paper considers the protein structure prediction problem for lattice and off-lattice protein folding models that explicitly represent side chains. Lattice models of proteins have proven extremely useful tools for reasoning about protein folding in unrestricted continuous space through analogy. This paper provides the first illustration of how rigorous algorithmic analyses of lattice models can lead to rigorous algorithmic analyses of off-lattice models. The authors consider two side chain models: a lattice model that generalizes the HP model (Dill 85) to explicitly represent side chains on the cubic lattice, and a new off-lattice model, the HP Tangent Spheres Side Chain model (HP-TSSC), that generalizes this model further by representing the backbone and side chains of proteins with tangent spheres. They describe algorithms for both of these models with mathematically guaranteed error bounds. In particular, the authors describe a linear time performance guaranteed approximation algorithm for the HP side chain model that constructs conformations whose energy is better than 865 of optimal in a face centered cubic lattice, and they demonstrate how this provides a 70% performance guarantee for the HP-TSSC model. This is the first algorithm in the literature for off-lattice protein structure prediction that has a rigorous performance guarantee. The analysis of the HP-TSSC model builds off of the work of Dancik and Hannenhalli who have developed a 16/30 approximation algorithm for the HP model on the hexagonal close packed lattice. Further, the analysis provides a mathematical methodology for transferring performance guarantees on lattices to off-lattice models. These results partially answer the open question of Karplus et al. concerning the complexity of protein folding models that include side chains.

  9. Swing Check Valve Design Criteria and CFD Validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dallstream, Brian E.; Fricke, Brian A.; Becker, Bryan R. [University of Missouri-Kansas City (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper provides information on swing check valve selection criteria suitable for nuclear power plant applications. In this project, four swing check valves were analyzed to demonstrate the implementation and application of this information. In this example, swing check valves were selected according to 'ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III' and 'ASME B16.34, Valves Flanged, Threaded, and Welding End'. This paper also discusses the utilization of Computational Fluid Dynamics Software (CFD) as a means to analyze valve design. The use of CFD is a relatively new approach for validation of valve design that is becoming invaluable due to the high cost of physical bench testing. The Instrument Society of America (ISA) Analysis Division and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Computational Fluid Dynamics Technical Committee have taken a proactive approach in setting standards and practices for the use of CFD in design and validation. (authors)

  10. Diagnostic for two-mode variable valve activation device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fedewa, Andrew M

    2014-01-07

    A method is provided for diagnosing a multi-mode valve train device which selectively provides high lift and low lift to a combustion valve of an internal combustion engine having a camshaft phaser actuated by an electric motor. The method includes applying a variable electric current to the electric motor to achieve a desired camshaft phaser operational mode and commanding the multi-mode valve train device to a desired valve train device operational mode selected from a high lift mode and a low lift mode. The method also includes monitoring the variable electric current and calculating a first characteristic of the parameter. The method also includes comparing the calculated first characteristic against a predetermined value of the first characteristic measured when the multi-mode valve train device is known to be in the desired valve train device operational mode.

  11. A New Cone-Shaped Aortic Valve Prosthesis for Orthotopic Position: An Experimental Study in Swine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sochman, Jan, E-mail: jan.sochman@medicon.c [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinic of Cardiology (Czech Republic); Peregrin, Jan H.; Pulda, Zdenek [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Czech Republic); Pavcnik, Dusan; Uchida, Barry T.; Timmermans, Hans A.; Roesch, Josef [Oregon Health and Science University, Dotter Interventional Institute (United States)

    2010-04-15

    The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate a newly designed cone-shaped aortic valve prosthesis (CAVP) for one-step transcatheter placement in an orthotopic position. The study was conducted in 15 swine using either the transcarotid (11 animals) or the transfemoral (4 animals) artery approach. A 12- or 13-Fr sheath was inserted via arterial cutdown. The CAVP was deployed under fluoroscopic control and its struts, by design, induced significant native valve insufficiency. CAVP function was evaluated by aortography and aortic pressure curve tracing. In 11 of 15 swine the CAVP was properly deployed and functioned well throughout the scheduled period of 2-3 h. In three swine the CAVPs were placed lower than intended, however, they were functional even in the left ventricular outflow tract position. One swine expired due to inadvertent low CAVP placement that caused both aortic regurgitation and immobilization of the anterior mitral valve leaflet by the valve struts. We conclude that this design of CAVP is relatively easy to deploy, works well throughout a short time period (2-3 h), and, moreover, seems to be reliable even in a lower-than-orthotopic position (e.g., infra-annulary space). Longer-term studies are needed for its further evaluation.

  12. Hydrodynamic injection with pneumatic valving for microchip electrophoresis with total analyte utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xuefei; Kelly, Ryan T.; Danielson, William F.; Agrawal, Nitin; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2011-04-26

    A novel hydrodynamic injector that is directly controlled by a pneumatic valve has been developed for reproducible microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) separations. The poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) devices used for evaluation comprise a separation channel, a side channel for sample introduction, and a pneumatic valve aligned at the intersection of the channels. A low pressure (? 3 psi) applied to the sample reservoir is sufficient to drive sample into the separation channel. The rapidly actuated pneumatic valve enables injection of discrete sample plugs as small as ~100 pL for CE separation. The injection volume can be easily controlled by adjusting the intersection geometry, the solution back pressure and the valve actuation time. Sample injection could be reliably operated at different frequencies (< 0.1 Hz to >2 Hz) with good reproducibility (peak height relative standard deviation ? 3.6%) and no sampling biases associated with the conventional electrokinetic injections. The separation channel was dynamically coated with a cationic polymer, and FITC-labeled amino acids were employed to evaluate the CE separation. Highly efficient (? 7.0 × 103 theoretical plates for the ~2.4 cm long channel) and reproducible CE separations were obtained. The demonstrated method has numerous advantages compared with the conventional techniques, including repeatable and unbiased injections, no sample waste, high duty cycle, controllable injected sample volume, and fewer electrodes with no need for voltage switching. The prospects of implementing this injection method for coupling multidimensional separations, for multiplexing CE separations and for sample-limited bioanalyses are discussed.

  13. High Performance Valve Materials (HPVM) (Agreement 16304) | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials (HPVM) (Agreement 16304) High Performance Valve Materials (HPVM) (Agreement 16304) Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008...

  14. Subsurface safety valve with lock-open system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickson, R.L.; Smith, R.R.

    1986-11-25

    A well safety valve is described comprising: a housing having a bore therethrough; a valve mounted in the housing to open and close to control the flow through the bore; an operator tube in the housing for opening the valve; means in the housing for moving the operator tube in a first direction to open and hold the valve open; means in the housing for moving the operator tube in a second direction to permit the valve to close; a temporary lockout sleeve in the housing in tandem with the operator tube for temporarily holding the valve open. The operator tube and the lockout sleeve are in end-to-end contact when the lockout sleeve is inoperative and the operator tube is holding the valve open, when the operator tube and the lockout sleeve are moving simultaneously in the housing between operating positions, and when the operator tube is inoperative and the lockout sleeve is holding the valve open; and the operator tube and the lockout sleeve each having means for coupling the operator tube and the lockout sleeve with a lockout tool for moving the operator tube and the lockout sleeve simultaneously when the lockout sleeve is moved from the inoperative to an operative position holding the valve open.

  15. Dual mode fuel injector with one piece needle valve member

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Keith E. (Peoria, IL); Hinrichsen, Michael H. (Goodfield, IL); Buckman, Colby (Bellville, MI)

    2005-01-18

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively by inner and outer needle value members. The homogenous charged nozzle outlet set is defined by an outer needle value member that is moveably positioned in an injector body, which defines the conventional nozzle outlet set. The inner needle valve member is positioned in the outer needle valve member. The outer needle valve member is a piece component that includes at least one external guide surface, an external value surface and an internal valve seat.

  16. Percutaneous aortic valve replacement in a re-animated postmortem heart

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Jennifer; Sun, Amy; Killien, Lauren; Evangelista, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    aortic valve replacements, para-valvular leakage wasof valves designed to prevent para-valvular leakage. Multi-leakage was minimal or absent, most likely due to the lack of native valve

  17. A MEMS Thin Film AlN Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ya-Mei

    2011-01-01

    will contribute the leakage of the valve system and shouldAlignment The leakage of the valve system is determined byof the valve system without increasing the leakage. If we

  18. Vacuum/Compression Valving (VCV) Using Parrafin-Wax on a Centrifugal Microfluidic CD Platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    Volume 8 | Issue 3 | e58523 Vacuum/Compression Valving (VCV)Vacuum/Compression Valving (VCV) Using Parrafin-Wax on aThis paper introduces novel vacuum/compression valves (VCVs)

  19. A MEMS Thin Film AlN Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ya-Mei

    2011-01-01

    and T. K. Tang, “MEMS micro-valve for space applications”,of the fabricated thermal MEMS valve by Kim et al. [An electrostatically actuated gas valve with an s-shape film

  20. Hemodynamic Environments from Opposing Sides of Human Aortic Valve Leaflets Evoke Distinct Endothelial Phenotypes In Vitro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinberg, Eli J.; Mack, Peter J.; Schoen, Frederick J.; García-Cardeña, Guillermo; Kaazempur Mofrad, Mohammad R.

    2010-01-01

    the most frequent heart valve disease in developed countriesand glutaraldehyde treated aortic valve cusp-part II: aof a tri-lea?et prosthetic valve. J Biomed Eng. 1989;12:13–

  1. Collaborative Research: Advancing the Diagnosis and Quantification of Mitral Valve Regurgitation with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canic, Suncica

    Collaborative Research: Advancing the Diagnosis and Quantification of Mitral Valve Regurgitation in concept development and CAD design of experimental mitral valve prolapse constructs as an summer intern Workshop "Mathematics Guide Bioartificial Heart Valve Design" (Colombus, October 2013), Biomedical

  2. Emerging Trends in Heart Valve Engineering: Part IV. Computational Modeling and Experimental Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    tissue failure (structural valve deterio- ration) by ageof excised porcine mitral valve lea?ets. Am. J. Physiol.A constitutive law for mitral valve tissue. J. Biomech. Eng.

  3. Rendering the Electromechanical Valve Actuator Globally Asymptotically Stable Katherine S. Peterson and Anna G. Stefanopoulou*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sontag, Eduardo

    Rendering the Electromechanical Valve Actuator Globally Asymptotically Stable Katherine S. Peterson on Sontag's feedback to render the electromechanical valve actuator (EVA) globally asymptotically stable (GAS). Elec- tromechanical valve actuators have received much attention recently due to their potential

  4. Rendering the Electromechanical Valve Actuator Globally Asymptotically Stable Katherine S. Peterson*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Rendering the Electromechanical Valve Actuator Globally Asymptotically Stable Katherine S. Peterson to render the electromechanical valve actuator (EVA) globally asymptotically stable (GAS). Elec], piezo's [17], and hydraulic systems [8]. Electromechanical valve actuators (EVA) which use

  5. Design of a gas force simulator for the MIT Electromechanical Valve Drive project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otten, James S. (James Stewart)

    2006-01-01

    The MIT electromechanical Valve Drive (EMVD) is a continuously variable valve actuation device for an automotive internal combustion engine. Current experimentation of the EMVD has been limited to intake valve events. When ...

  6. Numerical Investigation of the Performance of Three Hinge Designs of Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, Hélène A.; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

    2010-01-01

    parameters on bilea?et mechanical heart valve ?ow dynamics.J. Heart Valve Dis. 18:535–545, 2009. Gross, J. M. , M. C.two bilea?et mechanical heart valves under aortic and mitral

  7. Flexible semi-transparent organic spin valve based on bathocuproine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiangnan; Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Llopis, Roger; Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E.

    2014-08-25

    Organic semiconductors are attractive materials for advanced spintronic applications due to their long spin lifetimes and, simultaneously, their mechanical flexibility. With the aim of combining these advantages in a single device, we report on the fabrication and properties of a mechanically flexible bathocuproine-based spin valve. This organic spin device shows great stability on both electrical and magneto-transport properties upon mechanical bending at different radius (up to r?=?5?mm), while featuring long-lasting endurance (on bending over 50 times). The room-temperature magnetoresistance ratio reaches up to 3.5%, and is notably preserved under air atmosphere. The observation of spin transport at room-temperature, combined with the outstanding mechanical properties and air stability, highlights the potential of bathocuproine-based spin devices towards applications.

  8. System and method for controlling engine knock using electro-hydraulic valve actuation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brennan, Daniel G

    2013-12-10

    A control system for an engine includes a knock control module and a valve control module. The knock control module adjusts a period that one or more of an intake valve and an exhaust valve of a cylinder are open based on engine knock corresponding to the cylinder. The valve control module, based on the adjusted period, controls the one or more of the intake valve and the exhaust valve using one or more hydraulic actuators.

  9. Application of Time-Lapse Seismic Monitoring for the Control and Optimization of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian Toelle

    2008-11-30

    This project, 'Application of Time-Lapse Seismic Monitoring for the Control and Optimization of CO{sub 2} Enhanced Oil Recovery Operations', investigated the potential for monitoring CO{sub 2} floods in carbonate reservoirs through the use of standard p-wave seismic data. This primarily involved the use of 4D seismic (time lapse seismic) in an attempt to observe and map the movement of the injected CO{sub 2} through a carbonate reservoir. The differences between certain seismic attributes, such as amplitude, were used for this purpose. This technique has recently been shown to be effective in CO{sub 2} monitoring in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects, such as Weyborne. This study was conducted in the Charlton 30/31 field in the northern Michigan Basin, which is a Silurian pinnacle reef that completed its primary production in 1997 and was scheduled for enhanced oil recovery using injected CO{sub 2}. Prior to injection an initial 'Base' 3D survey was obtained over the field and was then processed and interpreted. CO{sub 2} injection within the main portion of the reef was conducted intermittently during 13 months starting in August 2005. During this time, 29,000 tons of CO{sub 2} was injected into the Guelph formation, historically known as the Niagaran Brown formation. By September 2006, the reservoir pressure within the reef had risen to approximately 2000 lbs and oil and water production from the one producing well within the field had increased significantly. The determination of the reservoir's porosity distribution, a critical aspect of reservoir characterization and simulation, proved to be a significant portion of this project. In order to relate the differences observed between the seismic attributes seen on the multiple 3D seismic surveys and the actual location of the CO{sub 2}, a predictive reservoir simulation model was developed based on seismic attributes obtained from the base 3D seismic survey and available well data. This simulation predicted that the CO{sub 2} injected into the reef would remain in the northern portion of the field. Two new wells, the State Charlton 4-30 and the Larsen 3-31, were drilled into the field in 2006 and 2008 respectively and supported this assessment. A second (or 'Monitor') 3D seismic survey was acquired during September 2007 over most of the field and duplicated the first (Base) survey, as much as possible. However, as the simulation and new well data available at that time indicated that the CO{sub 2} was concentrated in the northern portion of the field, the second seismic survey was not acquired over the extreme southern end of the area covered by the original (or Base) 3D survey. Basic processing was performed on the second 3D seismic survey and, finally, 4D processing methods were applied to both the Base and the Monitor surveys. In addition to this 3D data, a shear wave seismic data set was obtained at the same time. Interpretation of the 4D seismic data indicated that a significant amplitude change, not attributable to differences in acquisition or processing, existed at the locations within the reef predicted by the reservoir simulation. The reservoir simulation was based on the porosity distribution obtained from seismic attributes from the Base 3D survey. Using this validated reservoir simulation the location of oil within the reef at the time the Monitor survey was obtained and recommendations made for the drilling of additional EOR wells. The economic impact of this project has been estimated in terms of both enhanced oil recovery and CO{sub 2} sequestration potential. In the northern Michigan Basin alone, the Niagaran reef play is comprised of over 700 Niagaran reefs with reservoirs already depleted by primary production. Potentially there is over 1 billion bbls of oil (original oil in place minus primary recovery) remains in the reefs in Michigan, much of which could be more efficiently mobilized utilizing techniques similar to those employed in this study.

  10. Nuclear-radiation-actuated valve. [Patent application; for increasing coolant flow to blanket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, D.W.; Schively, D.P.

    1982-01-19

    The present invention relates to a breeder reactor blanket fuel assembly coolant system valve which increases coolant flow to the blanket fuel assembly to minimize long-term temperature increases caused by fission of fissile fuel created from fertile fuel through operation of the breeder reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

  11. On the multiscale modeling of heart valve biomechanics in health and disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinberg, Eli J.; Shahmirzadi, Danial; Mofrad, Mohammad Reza

    2010-01-01

    carried out on simulating biomechanics of mechan- ical andmodeling of heart valve biomechanics in health and diseasemodeling of heart valve biomechanics in health and disease

  12. Disc valve for sampling erosive process streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mrochek, J.E.; Dinsmore, S.R.; Chandler, E.W.

    1986-01-07

    A four-port disc valve is described for sampling erosive, high temperature process streams. A rotatable disc defining opposed first and second sampling cavities rotates between fired faceplates defining flow passageways positioned to be alternatively in axial alignment with the first and second cavities. Silicon carbide inserts and liners composed of [alpha] silicon carbide are provided in the faceplates and in the sampling cavities to limit erosion while providing lubricity for a smooth and precise operation when used under harsh process conditions. 1 fig.

  13. High Performance Valve Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡High PerformancePerformance Valve

  14. Influence of pressurizer relief valves on success of ``feed and bleed`` procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petelin, S.; Mavko, B.; Gortnar, O. [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Reactor Engineering Division

    1994-12-31

    The RELAP5/MOD3.1 analysis of the accident with total loss of secondary heat sink was performed for Krsko nuclear power plant which is a two loop Westinghouse PWR power plant of 1,876 MW thermal power. In the study of ``feed and bleed`` accident managing the particular attention was given to the emergency operating procedures foreseen operator actions. This paper deals with the modeling of saturated liquid and two-phase mixture critical discharge through the pressurizer power operated relief valves and aims to evaluate its influence on the simulation of other thermal-hydraulic processes in the reactor coolant system. The time evolution of simulated accident and the determination of the longest allowed operator response time for the successful accident managing were shown to be much dependent on the prediction of critical flow through the pressurizer relief valves.

  15. Effect of reactor conditions on MSIV (main steam isolation valves)-ATWS power level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diamond, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    In a boiling water reactor (BWR) when there is closure of the main steam isolation valves (MSIVs), the energy generated in the core will be transferred to the pressure suppression pool (PSP) via steam flows out of the relief valves. The pool has limited capacity as a heat sink and hence, if there is no reactor trip (an ATWS event), there is the possibility that the pool temperature may rise beyond acceptable limits. The present study was undertaken to determine how the initial reactor conditions affect the power during an MSIV-ATWS event. The time of interest is during the 20-30 minute period when it is assumed that the reactor is in a quasi-equilibrium condition with the water level and pressure fixed, natural circulation conditions and no control rod movement or significant boron in the core. The initial conditions of interest are the time during the cycle and the operating state. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Optimal synthesis for the minimum time control problems of fed-batch bioprocesses for growth functions with two maxima

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    volume (representing a completely full tank). The optimal synthesis for this problem has been obtained) Departamento de Matem´atica, Universidad T´ecnica Federico Santa Mar´ia, Avenida Espa~na 1680, Valpara´iso´ia, Avenida Espa~na 1680, Valpara´iso, Chile (fran- cis.mairet@usm.cl) 1 hal-00655534,version3-2Apr2012 #12

  17. Optimal synthesis for the minimum time control problems of fed-batch bioprocesses for growth functions with two maxima

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    volume (representing a completely full tank). The optimal synthesis for this problem has been obtained) Departamento de Matem´atica, Universidad T´ecnica Federico Santa Mar´ia, Avenida Espa~na 1680, Valpara´iso´ia, Avenida Espa~na 1680, Valpara´iso, Chile (fran- cis.mairet@usm.cl) 1 hal-00655534,version2-31Dec2011 #12

  18. Stochastic Optimization and Real-Time Scheduling in Cyber-Physical A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Junshan

    , the integration of wind generation at high penetration levels into bulk power grids is considered. Joint Xue Lei Ying ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY December 2012 #12;ABSTRACT A principal goal of this dissertation-term wind farm generation forecast. The third part studies stochastic optimization in distributed control

  19. ON CONDITION MONITORING OF EXHAUST VALVES IN MARINE DIESEL ENGINES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mosegaard, Klaus

    ON CONDITION MONITORING OF EXHAUST VALVES IN MARINE DIESEL ENGINES T. L. Fog x L. K. Hansen z , J : Research & Development, MAN B&W Diesel A/S Teglholmsgade 41, DK­2450, Copenhagen SV, Denmark. E­mail: tof­invasive characterisation of ex­ haust valve conditions in large marine diesel engines, were exper­ imentally investigated

  20. Negative Valve Overlap Reforming Chemistry in Low-Oxygen Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Steeper, Richard R. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)] [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Splitter, Derek A [ORNL] [ORNL; Kalaskar, Vickey B [ORNL] [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Fuel injection into the negative valve overlap (NVO) period is a common method for controlling combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and other forms of advanced combustion. When fuel is injected into O2-deficient NVO conditions, a portion of the fuel can be converted to products containing significant levels of H2 and CO. Additionally, other short chain hydrocarbons are produced by means of thermal cracking, water-gas shift, and partial oxidation reactions. The present study experimentally investigates the fuel reforming chemistry that occurs during NVO. To this end, two very different experimental facilities are utilized and their results are compared. One facility is located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which uses a custom research engine cycle developed to isolate the NVO event from main combustion, allowing a steady stream of NVO reformate to be exhausted from the engine and chemically analyzed. The other experimental facility, located at Sandia National Laboratories, uses a dump valve to capture the exhaust from a single NVO event for analysis. Results from the two experiments are in excellent trend-wise agreement and indicate that the reforming process under low-O2 conditions produces substantial concentrations of H2, CO, methane, and other short-chain hydrocarbon species. The concentration of these species is found to be strongly dependent on fuel injection timing and injected fuel type, with weaker dependencies on NVO duration and initial temperature, indicating that NVO reforming is kinetically slow. Further, NVO reforming does not require a large energy input from the engine, meaning that it is not thermodynamically expensive. The implications of these results on HCCI and other forms of combustion are discussed in detail.

  1. Isolation valve selections play important role in pipelining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hingoraney, R.; Goto, D.N. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1995-08-01

    Isolation valves are an integral part of every pipeline and play an important role in safe and proper operation. For almost every project, pipeline designers wrestle with choosing between the through-conduit gate valves and ball valves and their associated actuating mechanisms. Complicating this selection process are variables such as individual preferences and the lack of broad-based operating experience. As expected, there is no single valve and actuator combination that is correct for every pipeline or every application. Variables which must be considered and specifically evaluated for each valve installation include: operating characteristics, function, location, process fluid, materials options, space availability, maintenance, repair capability, delivery schedule, and costs. This paper reviews these issues.

  2. Throttle valve control device for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ejiri, Y.; Ito, T.

    1988-05-31

    In a throttle valve control device for controlling a position of an engine throttle valve secured to a rotary shaft, which includes a control unit operative to produce a first electrical signal in accordance with a movement of an engine accelerator and an electro-mechanical force transducer operative to impart a first rotational torque to the rotary shaft and thereby to the throttle valve, the first rotational torque corresponding to the first electrical signal, the improvement is described comprising: a throttle valve returning means operative to produce a second rotational torque for biasing the throttle valve to a fully closed position irrespective of the movement of the engine accelerator and means responsive to the second electrical signal to transmit the second rotational torque to the rotary shaft irrespective of the movement of the engine accelerator.

  3. Convex Optimization Convex Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masci, Frank

    Convex Optimization #12;#12;Convex Optimization Stephen Boyd Department of Electrical Engineering Cataloguing-in-Publication data Boyd, Stephen P. Convex Optimization / Stephen Boyd & Lieven Vandenberghe p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0 521 83378 7 1. Mathematical optimization. 2

  4. Optimizing intermittent water supply in urban pipe distribution networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lieb, Anna M; Wilkening, Jon

    2015-01-01

    In many urban areas of the developing world, piped water is supplied only intermittently, as valves direct water to different parts of the water distribution system at different times. The flow is transient, and may transition between free-surface and pressurized, resulting in complex dynamical features with important consequences for water suppliers and users. Here, we develop a computational model of transition, transient pipe flow in a network, accounting for a wide variety of realistic boundary conditions. We validate the model against several published data sets, and demonstrate its use on a real pipe network. The model is extended to consider several optimization problems motivated by realistic scenarios. We demonstrate how to infer water flow in a small pipe network from a single pressure sensor, and show how to control water inflow to minimize damaging pressure gradients.

  5. In-line real time air monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wise, Marcus B. (Kingston, TN); Thompson, Cyril V. (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds.

  6. In-line real time air monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wise, M.B.; Thompson, C.V.

    1998-07-14

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds. 3 figs.

  7. Rotary acting shear valve for drilling fluid telemetry systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larronde, M.L.

    1986-12-16

    This patent describes a valve apparatus useful in a borehole drilling fluid telemetry system for transmitting data pulses from one end of a pipe string to another by imparting pressure pulses to a drilling fluid circulating down the pipe string, through a drilling member and up the annulus between the pipe string and borehole wall. The valve is operated in the drilling fluid flow path to modulate the flow of the drilling fluid and thereby impart detectable pressure pulses to the drilling fluid. The apparatus comprises a housing disposable within the drill string, adapted for the flow of drilling fluid therearound and formed with a passage therethrough for selectable flow communication between the drill string and the borehole annulus; a shear valve mounted within the housing across the passage and comprising a valve seat and rotational gate member having alignable seat and gate openings formed therethrough, the gate opening being movable in an arc into and out of axial alignment with the seat opening; and valve actuation means for coupling to the gate for rotationally moving the gate opening through an arc relative to the seat opening to open the passage and generate a pressure pulse. The valve actuation means comprises a first solenoid and cam means coupled thereto for translating the non-linear, axial forces of the solenoid into generally linear, rotational forces for rotating the valve gate.

  8. Automated Modelling of Cartridge Valve Flow Mapping Song Liu and Bin Yao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Bin

    significantly saving energy usage. Unlike costly conventional four-way valves, the cartridge valve has simple poppet-type cartridge valves are the key elements of the energy saving programmable valves, which have and practicality of the proposed novel automated modelling method. I. INTRODUCTION The energy saving programmable

  9. Micromagnetics Simulation of Asymmetric Pseudo-Spin Valve Dots C. A. Ross,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donahue, Michael J.

    Micromagnetics Simulation of Asymmetric Pseudo-Spin Valve Dots N. Dao,1 C. A. Ross,2 F. J. Castaño)/Co (4nm) pseudo-spin valves. These simulations have been conducted on several different aspect ratios and pseudo-spin valves [2-4]. There have been recent reports of fabrication of pseudo-spin valves with sub

  10. Massive Gas Injection Experiments at JET – Performance and Characterisation of the Disruption Mitigation Valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massive Gas Injection Experiments at JET – Performance and Characterisation of the Disruption Mitigation Valve

  11. Phase diagram of magnetic domain walls in spin valve nano-stripes N. Rougemaille,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Phase diagram of magnetic domain walls in spin valve nano-stripes N. Rougemaille,1 V. Uhlí,2, 1 O walls in Co/Cu/Py spin valve nano-stripes (Py: Permalloy), in which the Co layer is mostly single domain Magneto- Resistance. These stacking are called spin valve for a metal spacer layer, and pseudo spin valve

  12. Review Article The aortic valve microenvironment and its role in calcific aortic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simmons, Craig A.

    Review Article The aortic valve microenvironment and its role in calcific aortic valve disease 21 November 2010; accepted 1 December 2010 Abstract In calcific aortic valve disease, fibrotic and calcific lesions form focally in the fibrosa layer of the valve leaflets. Layer

  13. IN-PLANE BANDPASS REGULATION CHECK VALVE IN HEAT-SHRINK PACKAGING FOR DRUG DELIVERY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Ellis

    IN-PLANE BANDPASS REGULATION CHECK VALVE IN HEAT-SHRINK PACKAGING FOR DRUG DELIVERY R. Lo and E. Meng University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA ABSTRACT The first check valve valve design and these results were confirmed experimentally. The valve regulates flow between 150

  14. Analysis of a Third-Generation Princeton Tri-leaflet Mechanical Heart Valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Analysis of a Third-Generation Princeton Tri-leaflet Mechanical Heart Valve Michael Hsu Advisor heart valve · Static analysis of leaflet under uniform pressure of 10 MPa Summer Objectives · Find Heart valve disease · Over 5 million affected · Over 225,000 valve- replacement surgeries performed

  15. MODELING AND VALIDATION OF A HIGH SPEED ROTARY PWM ON/OFF VALVE Haink C. Tu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    MODELING AND VALIDATION OF A HIGH SPEED ROTARY PWM ON/OFF VALVE Haink C. Tu Center for Compact and Efficient Fluid Power Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota designed specifically for PWM. In comparison to con- ventional valves, the rotary valve reduces valve

  16. Noninvasive valve monitor using constant magnetic and/or DC electromagnetic field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casada, Donald A. (Knoxville, TN); Haynes, Howard D. (Knoxville, TN)

    1993-01-01

    One or more sources of steady magnetic field are carefully located on the outside of a valve body. The constant magnetic field is transmitted into the valve body and valve internals. A magnetic field detector carefully located on the outside of the valve body detects the intensity of the magnetic field at its location. As the position of a valve internal part is changed, there is an alteration in the magnetic field in the valve, and a consequent change in the detected magnetic field. Changes in the detected signal provide an indication of the position and motion of the valve internals.

  17. Turbo-generator control with variable valve actuation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vuk, Carl T. (Denver, IA)

    2011-02-22

    An internal combustion engine incorporating a turbo-generator and one or more variably activated exhaust valves. The exhaust valves are adapted to variably release exhaust gases from a combustion cylinder during a combustion cycle to an exhaust system. The turbo-generator is adapted to receive exhaust gases from the exhaust system and rotationally harness energy therefrom to produce electrical power. A controller is adapted to command the exhaust valve to variably open in response to a desired output for the turbo-generator.

  18. DISCRETE-TIME SIMULATION OF AIR-FLOW CUT-OFF IN PRESSURE-CONTROLLED Tamara Smyth, Jonathan Abel, Julius Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smyth, Tamara

    is similar to that of a leaky valve where the leakage decreases as the volume flow decreases. 1. INTRODUCTIONDISCRETE-TIME SIMULATION OF AIR-FLOW CUT-OFF IN PRESSURE-CONTROLLED VALVES Tamara Smyth, Jonathan of the differential equation govern- ing volume flow through a pressure-controlled valve is examined with particular

  19. Outline Introduction Worst-Case Optimal Search-Time Bounded Preprocessing Space Conclusion Text Indexing with Errors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lonardi, Stefano

    size $n$ and assume a uniform cost model throughout this work.} for exact matching the construction, the index construction time, the lookup time, and the error model. Usually, the least important Indexing with Errors Moritz G. Maaß and Johannes Nowak {maass,nowakj}@in.tum.de Institut f¨ur Informatik

  20. Hemodynamic Changes following Aortic Valve Bypass: A Mathematical Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benevento, Emilia

    Aortic valve bypass (AVB) has been shown to be a viable solution for patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). Under this circumstance, the left ventricle (LV) has a double outlet. The objective was to develop a mathematical ...

  1. Design of an electronically-actuated gas lift safety valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Changkuan, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    Gas lift valves are widely used in oil production fields to pump recycled gas and nitrogen into the production tubing, to sustain production by aerating the oil and lifting it to the ground or sea surface. Today's industry ...

  2. Analog and digital control of an electronic throttle valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martins, Tomás V

    2012-01-01

    Two electronic throttler controllers were designed and implemented for an automotive throttle valve on a four-cylinder, spark-ignition gasoline engine. The first controller was designed using operational amplifiers and ...

  3. Replace Pressure-Reducing Valves with Backpressure Turbogenerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP steam tip sheet on replacing pressure-reducing valves provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  4. Nonlinear springs with applications to flow regulation valves and mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freeman, David Calvin

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the application of nonlinear springs for fluid flow control valves where geometric constraints, or fabrication technologies, limit the use of available solutions. Types of existing nonlinear springs ...

  5. Production-Intent Lost-Motion Variable Valve Actuation Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Variable valve actuation with on/off IEGR pre-bump is an enabling technology for HCCI, PCCI, LTC and other advanced combustion techniques, and designs for production-intent equipment have been developed

  6. Covered Product Category: Pre-Rinse Spray Valves | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Using the Cost-Effectiveness Table In Table 2 above, the Required pre-rinse spray valve is cost-effective if its purchase price is no more than 435 above that of the Base...

  7. Pinch valves fight clogging, leaking and wear in FGD systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, L.

    1982-12-01

    Pinch valves can provide a non-sticking, non-leaking, low maintenance system capable of controlling the flow of abrasive limestone slurries such as are found in flue gas desulphurisation units.

  8. Failure Mode and Sensitivity Analysis of Gas Lift Valves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbertson, Eric W.

    Gas-lifted oil wells are susceptible to failure through malfunction of gas lift valves. This is a growing concern as offshore wells are drilled thousands of meters below the ocean floor in extreme temperature and pressure ...

  9. Energy Savings Potential of Process Control Valve Replacement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holzenthal, L. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A review of current design methods for industrial process control systems that utilize modulated control valves as their final element is presented. The infornUltion that is available is then used to find the theoretic ...

  10. Walking, running, and resting under time, distance, and average speed constraints: Optimality of walk-run-rest mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Manoj

    in a more ecological (non-treadmill) setting. We asked subjects to travel a given distance overground to go from your house to the bus stop and have very little time to do so. You would likely run the whole

  11. Expanding Robust HCCI Operation with Advanced Valve and Fuel Control Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, J. P.; Confer, K.

    2012-09-11

    Delphi Automotive Systems and ORNL established this CRADA to advance the commercialization potential of the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) advanced combustion strategy for gasoline engine platforms. HCCI combustion has been shown by others to produce high diesel-like efficiency on a gasoline engine platform while simultaneously producing low NOX and particulate matter emissions. However, the commercialization barriers that face HCCI combustion are significant, with requirements for a more active engine control system, likely with next-cycle closed-loop feedback control, and with advanced valve train technologies to enable negative valve overlap conditions. In the partnership between Delphi and ORNL, each organization brought a unique and complementary set of skills to the project. Delphi has made a number of breakthroughs with production-intent valve train technologies and controls in recent years to make a part time production-intent HCCI engine plausible. ORNL has extensive knowledge and expertise with HCCI combustion, and also has a versatile research engine with hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) that is useful for guiding production of a cam-based HCCI system. Partnering these knowledge bases and capabilities was essential towards making progress to better understand HCCI combustion and the commercialization barriers that it faces. ORNL and Delphi maintained strong collaboration throughout the project. Meetings were held regularly, with additional reports, presentations, and meetings as necessary to maintain progress. Delphi provided guidance to ORNL regarding operational strategies to investigate on their single-cylinder research engine with HVA and data from their experimental multi-cylinder engine for modeling. ORNL provided single-cylinder engine data and modeling results.

  12. Worcester 1 Inch Solenoid Actuated Gas Operated SCHe System Valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MISKA, C.R.

    2000-09-03

    1 inch gas-operated full-port ball valves incorporate a solenoid and limit switches as integral parts of the actuator. These valves are normally open and fail safe to the open position (GOV-1*02 and 1*06 fail closed) to provide a flow path of helium gas to the MCO under helium purge and off-normal conditions when the MCO is isolated.

  13. Worcester 1 Inch Solenoid Actuated Gas Operated SCHe System Valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MISKA, C.R.

    2000-11-13

    1 inch gas-operated full-port ball valves incorporate a solenoid and limit switches as integral parts of the actuator. These valves are normally open and fail safe to the open position (GOV-1*02 and 1*06 fail closed) to provide a flow path of helium gas to the MCO under helium purge and off-normal conditions when the MCO is isolated.

  14. Worcester 1 Inch Solenoid Actuated Gas Operated SCHe System Valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-06-06

    1 inch Gas-operated full-port ball valves incorporate a solenoid and limit switches as integral parts of the actuator. These valves are normally open and fail safe to the open position (GOV-1*02 and 1*06 fail closed) to provide a flow path of helium gas to the MCO under helium purge and off-normal conditions when the MCO is isolated.

  15. Worcester 1 Inch Solenoid Actuated Gas Operated SCHe System Valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-10-23

    1 inch Gas-operated full-port ball valves incorporate a solenoid and limit switches as integral parts of the actuator. These valves are normally open and fail safe to the open position (GOV-1*02 and 1*06 fall closed) to provide a flow path of helium gas to the MCO under helium purge and off-normal conditions when the MCO is isolated.

  16. The Mercedez-Benz four-valve diesel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This article describes changes made to the standard two-valve-per-cylinder naturally aspirated prechamber engine series produced by Mercedes-Benz since 1983. These changes to valves, prechamber location and intake systems improve torque and allow this diesel engine to be sold in all of the US. Topics of the article include improving air charge, emission behavior, fuel-heating system, and intake system.

  17. Valving for controlling a fluid-driven reciprocating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, John C. (Davis, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A pair of control valve assemblies for alternately actuating a pair of fluid-driven free-piston devices by using fluid pressure communication therebetween. Each control valve assembly is switched by a pressure signal depending on the state of its counterpart's piston. The communication logic is arranged to provide overlap of the forward strokes of the pistons, so that at least one of the pair will always be pressurized. Thus, uninterrupted pumping of liquid is made possible from a pair of free-piston pumps. In addition, the speed and frequency of piston stroking is entirely dependent on the mechanical power load applied. In the case of a pair of pumps, this enables liquid delivery at a substantially constant pressure over the full range of flow rates, from zero to maximum flow. Each of the valve assemblies uses an intake-exhaust valve and a signal valve with the signal valve of one pump being connected to be pressure responsive to the piston of the opposite cylinder or pump.

  18. Valving for controlling a fluid-driven reciprocating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, J.C.

    1995-06-27

    A pair of control valve assemblies is described for alternately actuating a pair of fluid-driven free-piston devices by using fluid pressure communication therebetween. Each control valve assembly is switched by a pressure signal depending on the state of its counterpart`s piston. The communication logic is arranged to provide overlap of the forward strokes of the pistons, so that at least one of the pair will always be pressurized. Thus, uninterrupted pumping of liquid is made possible from a pair of free-piston pumps. In addition, the speed and frequency of piston stroking is entirely dependent on the mechanical power load applied. In the case of a pair of pumps, this enables liquid delivery at a substantially constant pressure over the full range of flow rates, from zero to maximum flow. Each of the valve assemblies uses an intake-exhaust valve and a signal valve with the signal valve of one pump being connected to be pressure responsive to the piston of the opposite cylinder or pump. 15 figs.

  19. Tissue-engineered canine mitral valve constructs as In vitro research models for myxomatous mitral valve disease 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Mengmeng

    2014-11-28

    Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is one of the most common degenerative cardiac diseases affecting humans and dogs; however, its pathogenesis is not completely understood. This study focussed on developing ...

  20. Gas lift valve failure mode analysis and the design of a thermally-actuated positive-locking safety valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbertson, Eric (Eric W.)

    2010-01-01

    Gas-lifted oil wells are susceptible to failure through malfunction of gas lift valves. This is a growing concern as offshore wells are drilled thousands of meters below the ocean floor in extreme temperature and pressure ...

  1. Control Optimization for a Chilled Water Thermal Storage System Under a Complicated Time-of-Use Electricity Rate Schedule 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, J.; Wei, G.; Turner, W.D.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D.E.; Contreras, O.

    2005-01-01

    .6 m) in diameter with a total volume capacity of 1,400,000 gallon (5,299,560 L). Under design conditions, the fully charged thermal storage tank can hold a cooling capacity of 12,000 ton-hr (42,204 kWh). The temperatures of the stratified chilled... of time for the tank to discharge is selected, as many higher-priced hours as possible. The time charge the tank is automatically determined as n, the average chiller production rate required e charging period is calculated from the total campus load...

  2. Multiple time step molecular dynamics in the optimized isokinetic ensemble steered with the molecular theory of solvation: Accelerating with advanced extrapolation of effective solvation forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omelyan, Igor, E-mail: omelyan@ualberta.ca, E-mail: omelyan@icmp.lviv.ua [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada) [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G8 (Canada); Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Svientsitskii Street, Lviv 79011 (Ukraine); Kovalenko, Andriy, E-mail: andriy.kovalenko@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada) [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G8 (Canada)

    2013-12-28

    We develop efficient handling of solvation forces in the multiscale method of multiple time step molecular dynamics (MTS-MD) of a biomolecule steered by the solvation free energy (effective solvation forces) obtained from the 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation (three-dimensional reference interaction site model complemented with the Kovalenko-Hirata closure approximation). To reduce the computational expenses, we calculate the effective solvation forces acting on the biomolecule by using advanced solvation force extrapolation (ASFE) at inner time steps while converging the 3D-RISM-KH integral equations only at large outer time steps. The idea of ASFE consists in developing a discrete non-Eckart rotational transformation of atomic coordinates that minimizes the distances between the atomic positions of the biomolecule at different time moments. The effective solvation forces for the biomolecule in a current conformation at an inner time step are then extrapolated in the transformed subspace of those at outer time steps by using a modified least square fit approach applied to a relatively small number of the best force-coordinate pairs. The latter are selected from an extended set collecting the effective solvation forces obtained from 3D-RISM-KH at outer time steps over a broad time interval. The MTS-MD integration with effective solvation forces obtained by converging 3D-RISM-KH at outer time steps and applying ASFE at inner time steps is stabilized by employing the optimized isokinetic Nosé-Hoover chain (OIN) ensemble. Compared to the previous extrapolation schemes used in combination with the Langevin thermostat, the ASFE approach substantially improves the accuracy of evaluation of effective solvation forces and in combination with the OIN thermostat enables a dramatic increase of outer time steps. We demonstrate on a fully flexible model of alanine dipeptide in aqueous solution that the MTS-MD/OIN/ASFE/3D-RISM-KH multiscale method of molecular dynamics steered by effective solvation forces allows huge outer time steps up to tens of picoseconds without affecting the equilibrium and conformational properties, and thus provides a 100- to 500-fold effective speedup in comparison to conventional MD with explicit solvent. With the statistical-mechanical 3D-RISM-KH account for effective solvation forces, the method provides efficient sampling of biomolecular processes with slow and/or rare solvation events such as conformational transitions of hydrated alanine dipeptide with the mean life times ranging from 30 ps up to 10 ns for “flip-flop” conformations, and is particularly beneficial for biomolecular systems with exchange and localization of solvent and ions, ligand binding, and molecular recognition.

  3. High pressure capillary micro-fluidic valve device and a method of fabricating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crocker, Robert W. (Fremont, CA); Caton, Pamela F. (Berkely, CA); Gerhardt, Geoff C. (Milbury, MA)

    2007-04-17

    A freeze-thaw valve and a method of micro-machining the freeze-thaw valve is provided and includes a valve housing, wherein the valve housing defines a housing cavity and includes a housing inlet, a housing vent, a capillary tubing inlet and a capillary tubing outlet. A valve body is provided, at least a portion of which is lithographically constructed, wherein the valve body includes a refrigerant inlet, a refrigerant outlet and an expansion chamber. The expansion chamber is disposed to communicate the refrigerant inlet with the refrigerant outlet and includes a restriction region having a flow restriction. Additionally, the valve body is disposed within the housing cavity to form an insulating channel between the valve housing and the valve body.

  4. Engine including hydraulically actuated valvetrain and method of valve overlap control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cowgill, Joel (White Lake, MI)

    2012-05-08

    An exhaust valve control method may include displacing an exhaust valve in communication with the combustion chamber of an engine to an open position using a hydraulic exhaust valve actuation system and returning the exhaust valve to a closed position using the hydraulic exhaust valve actuation assembly. During closing, the exhaust valve may be displaced for a first duration from the open position to an intermediate closing position at a first velocity by operating the hydraulic exhaust valve actuation assembly in a first mode. The exhaust valve may be displaced for a second duration greater than the first duration from the intermediate closing position to a fully closed position at a second velocity at least eighty percent less than the first velocity by operating the hydraulic exhaust valve actuation assembly in a second mode.

  5. Monovalve with integrated fuel injector and port control valve, and engine using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milam, David M. (Metamora, IL)

    2001-11-06

    An engine includes an engine casing that defines a hollow piston cavity separated from an exhaust passage and an intake passage by a valve seat. A gas exchange valve member is positioned adjacent the valve seat and is moveable between an open position and a closed position. The gas exchange valve member also defines an opening that opens into the hollow piston cavity. A needle valve member is positioned in the gas exchange valve member adjacent a nozzle outlet and is moveable between an inject position and a blocked position. A port control valve member, which has a hydraulic surface, is mounted around the gas exchange valve member and moveable between an intake position and an exhaust position. A pilot valve is moveable between a first position at which the port control hydraulic surface is exposed to a source of high pressure fluid, and a second position at which the port control hydraulic surface is exposed to a source of low pressure fluid.

  6. Lattice and Off-Lattice Side Chain Models of Protein Folding: Linear Time Structure Prediction Better Than 86% of Optimal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Istrail, Sorin

    Lattice and Off-Lattice Side Chain Models of Protein Folding: Linear Time Structure Prediction This paper considers the protein structure prediction problem for lattice and off-lattice protein folding tools for reasoning about protein folding in unrestricted continuous space through anal- ogy. This paper

  7. Externally heated valve engine -- An alternative to the Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazimierski, Z.; Brzeski, L.

    1996-12-31

    A new concept of the Externally Heated Valve (EHV) engine is presented. The principle of the engine operation is described in the introduction to the paper. Heat delivered to the working medium (air) in the heater, or several heaters working commutatively, can come from a combustion chamber or other heat generator such as nuclear reactors or solar collectors. The engine construction is original entirely different from the well-known Stirling engine. New results of the EHV engine computer modeling are presented. This is connected with a new kind of the annular heater applied to the EHV engine. A whirl motion inside the heater is caused to ensure the proper condition of the heat exchanger during the whole engine cycle. Three heaters working commutatively have been considered in this model. Comparisons between the power and efficiency of the Stirling engine and EHV engine have been performed for the same engine capacity, rotational frequency, maximum and minimum temperatures of the working gas and for the same mean pressures of both the engine cycles. The power of the EHV engine is in this case over three times higher than the Stirling engine power, while the efficiency of both the engines is almost the same.

  8. Biogeography-Based Optimization for Hydraulic Prosthetic Knee Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, Dan

    of energy during the gait cycle with a spring-loaded high pressure hydraulic chamber, a low pressureBiogeography-Based Optimization for Hydraulic Prosthetic Knee Control Tim Wilmot, George Thomas consists of two hydraulic valve settings that control a linear cylinder actuator and provide torque

  9. Robust Optimization of Oil Reservoir Flooding G.M. van Essen, M.J. Zandvliet,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van den Hof, Paul

    Robust Optimization of Oil Reservoir Flooding G.M. van Essen, M.J. Zandvliet, P.M.J. Van den Hof developments have been introduced within the field of oil recovery, with the aim to maximize production of oil wells", which are equipped with control valves to actively control the oil production. The optimal

  10. System and method for controlling hydraulic pressure in electro-hydraulic valve actuation systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brennan, Daniel G; Marriott, Craig D; Cowgill, Joel; Wiles, Matthew A; Patton, Kenneth James

    2014-09-23

    A control system for an engine includes a first lift control module and a second lift control module. The first lift control module increases lift of M valves of the engine to a predetermined valve lift during a period before disabling or re-enabling N valves of the engine. The second lift control module decreases the lift of the M valves to a desired valve lift during a period after enabling or re-enabling the N valves of the engine, wherein N and M are integers greater than or equal to one.

  11. Design and Testing of Vacuum Breaker Check Valve for Simplified Boiling Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishii, M.; Xu, Y.; Revankar, S.T.

    2002-07-01

    A new design of the vacuum breaker check valve was developed to replace the mechanical valve in a simplified boiling water reactor. Scaling and design calculations were performed to obtain the geometry of new passive hydraulic vacuum breaker check valve. In order to check the valve performance, a RELAP5 model of the simplified boiling water reactor system with the new valve was developed. The valve was implemented in an integral facility, PUMA and was tested for large break loss of coolant accident. (authors)

  12. Reduced-impact sliding pressure control valve for pneumatic hammer drill

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Polsky, Yarom (Oak Ridge, TN); Grubelich, Mark C. (Albuquerque, NM); Vaughn, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-05-15

    A method and means of minimizing the effect of elastic valve recoil in impact applications, such as percussive drilling, where sliding spool valves used inside the percussive device are subject to poor positioning control due to elastic recoil effects experienced when the valve impacts a stroke limiting surface. The improved valve design reduces the reflected velocity of the valve by using either an energy damping material, or a valve assembly with internal damping built-in, to dissipate the compression stress wave produced during impact.

  13. Optimization Online Digest -- January 2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optimization Online Digest — January 2015. Applications — OR and Management Sciences The Continuous Time Service Network Design Problem Natashia ...

  14. Simulation of the Three-Dimensional Hinge Flow Fields of a Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve Under Aortic Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, Hélène A.; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

    2010-01-01

    G. Rau. Leakage ?ow at mechanical heart valve prostheses:and the valve housing and forms two strong leakage jets onleakage ?ow rate Simulation of the Three-Dimensional Hinge Flow Fields through the closed valve

  15. Simulation of the Three-Dimensional Hinge Flow Fields of a Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve Under Aortic Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, Hélène A.; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

    2010-01-01

    a bilea?et mechanical heart valve in an axisymmetric aorta.parallel bilea?et mechanical heart valve with clear housing.J. Heart Valve Dis. 5:591–599, 1996. Ellis, J. T. , T. M.

  16. Engine control system having pressure-based timing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willi, Martin L. (Dunlap, IL); Fiveland, Scott B. (Metamora, IL); Montgomery, David T. (Edelstein, IL); Gong, Weidong (Dunlap, IL)

    2011-10-04

    A control system for an engine having a first cylinder and a second cylinder is disclosed having a first engine valve movable to regulate a fluid flow of the first cylinder and a first actuator associated with the first engine valve. The control system also has a second engine valve movable to regulate a fluid flow of the second cylinder and a sensor configured to generate a signal indicative of a pressure within the first cylinder. The control system also has a controller that is in communication with the first actuator and the sensor. The controller is configured to compare the pressure within the first cylinder with a desired pressure and selectively regulate the first actuator to adjust a timing of the first engine valve independently of the timing of the second engine valve based on the comparison.

  17. A FEASIBILITY AND OPTIMIZATION STUDY TO DETERMINE COOLING TIME AND BURNUP OF ADVANCED TEST REACTOR FUELS USING A NONDESTRUCTIVE TECHNIQUE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorge Navarro

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study presented is to determine the best available non-destructive technique necessary to collect validation data as well as to determine burn-up and cooling time of the fuel elements onsite at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) canal. This study makes a recommendation of the viability of implementing a permanent fuel scanning system at the ATR canal and leads3 to the full design of a permanent fuel scan system. The study consisted at first in determining if it was possible and which equipment was necessary to collect useful spectra from ATR fuel elements at the canal adjacent to the reactor. Once it was establish that useful spectra can be obtained at the ATR canal the next step was to determine which detector and which configuration was better suited to predict burnup and cooling time of fuel elements non-destructively. Three different detectors of High Purity Germanium (HPGe), Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr3), and High Pressure Xenon (HPXe) in two system configurations of above and below the water pool were used during the study. The data collected and analyzed was used to create burnup and cooling time calibration prediction curves for ATR fuel. The next stage of the study was to determine which of the three detectors tested was better suited for the permanent system. From spectra taken and the calibration curves obtained, it was determined that although the HPGe detector yielded better results, a detector that could better withstand the harsh environment of the ATR canal was needed. The in-situ nature of the measurements required a rugged fuel scanning system, low in maintenance and easy to control system. Based on the ATR canal feasibility measurements and calibration results it was determined that the LaBr3 detector was the best alternative for canal in-situ measurements; however in order to enhance the quality of the spectra collected using this scintillator a deconvolution method was developed. Following the development of the deconvolution method for ATR applications the technique was tested using one-isotope, multi-isotope and fuel simulated sources. Burnup calibrations were perfomed using convoluted and deconvoluted data. The calibrations results showed burnup prediction by this method improves using deconvolution. The final stage of the deconvolution method development was to perform an irradiation experiment in order to create a surrogate fuel source to test the deconvolution method using experimental data. A conceptual design of the fuel scan system is path forward using the rugged LaBr3 detector in an above the water configuration and deconvolution algorithms.

  18. Throttle valve position-detecting device for a vehicle engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minagawa, K.

    1987-08-25

    A throttle valve position-detecting device is described for a vehicle, for detecting the position of a throttle valve in a throttle body provided for an engine mounted on the vehicle, by detecting rotation of a throttle shaft of the throttle valve, and in which the throttle shaft is supported to the throttle body through a bearing. The throttle valve position-detecting device consists of: a first rotary element fixed to the throttle shaft for rotating together with the throttle shaft; a second rotary element contacting the first rotary element for rotating with the first rotary element by receiving rotary power from the first rotary element; spring means for pressing the second rotary element towards the first rotary element against the rotary power; and detecting means for detecting from a rotary position of the second rotary element at least a position of the throttle valve corresponding to an idling condition of the engine; the first and second rotary elements being positioned with such a relationship as a crossing angle of a moving direction of the throttle shaft by clearance between the throttle shaft and the bearing and a transmitting direction of the rotary power from the first rotary element to the second rotary element during the idling condition of the engine being within a range from 45 to 90 degrees.

  19. I. K. Konstantopoulos, P. J. Antsaklis, "Design of Output Feedback Controllers for Robust Stability and Optimal Performance of Discrete-Time Systems," Technical Report of the ISIS (Interdisciplinary Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antsaklis, Panos

    and Optimal Performance of Discrete-Time Systems," Technical Report of the ISIS (Interdisciplinary Studies of Intelligent Systems) Group, No. ISIS-94-009, Univ of Notre Dame, September 1994. #12;I. K. Konstantopoulos, P of Discrete-Time Systems," Technical Report of the ISIS (Interdisciplinary Studies of Intelligent Systems

  20. Parallel particle swarm optimization and finite-difference time-domain (PSO/FDTD) algorithm for multiband and wide-band patch antenna designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, N B; Rahmat-Samii, Y

    2005-01-01

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) for re?ector antennadesign JIN AND RAHMAT-SAMII: PSO/FDTD ALGORITHM Fig. 5. Con?to be optimized by the parallel PSO/FDTD algorithm. Fig. 4.

  1. Decomposition methods for semidefinite optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yifan

    2015-01-01

    optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Optimization over sparse matrixoptimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  2. Highly accurate and efficient self-force computations using time-domain methods: Error estimates, validation, and optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonathan Thornburg

    2010-06-18

    If a small "particle" of mass $\\mu M$ (with $\\mu \\ll 1$) orbits a Schwarzschild or Kerr black hole of mass $M$, the particle is subject to an $\\O(\\mu)$ radiation-reaction "self-force". Here I argue that it's valuable to compute this self-force highly accurately (relative error of $\\ltsim 10^{-6}$) and efficiently, and I describe techniques for doing this and for obtaining and validating error estimates for the computation. I use an adaptive-mesh-refinement (AMR) time-domain numerical integration of the perturbation equations in the Barack-Ori mode-sum regularization formalism; this is efficient, yet allows easy generalization to arbitrary particle orbits. I focus on the model problem of a scalar particle in a circular geodesic orbit in Schwarzschild spacetime. The mode-sum formalism gives the self-force as an infinite sum of regularized spherical-harmonic modes $\\sum_{\\ell=0}^\\infty F_{\\ell,\\reg}$, with $F_{\\ell,\\reg}$ (and an "internal" error estimate) computed numerically for $\\ell \\ltsim 30$ and estimated for larger~$\\ell$ by fitting an asymptotic "tail" series. Here I validate the internal error estimates for the individual $F_{\\ell,\\reg}$ using a large set of numerical self-force computations of widely-varying accuracies. I present numerical evidence that the actual numerical errors in $F_{\\ell,\\reg}$ for different~$\\ell$ are at most weakly correlated, so the usual statistical error estimates are valid for computing the self-force. I show that the tail fit is numerically ill-conditioned, but this can be mostly alleviated by renormalizing the basis functions to have similar magnitudes. Using AMR, fixed mesh refinement, and extended-precision floating-point arithmetic, I obtain the (contravariant) radial component of the self-force for a particle in a circular geodesic orbit of areal radius $r = 10M$ to within $1$~ppm relative error.

  3. Design and fabrication of microfluidic valves using poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reticker-Flynn, Nathan Edward

    2008-01-01

    A compact printable microfluidic valve composed of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The design of the valve consists of filling microwells with poly(NIPAAm) and bonding PDMS channels ...

  4. Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Spring 2012 Electro-Mechanically Actuated Trip and Throttle Valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    a special type of fail-safe valve for steam turbines. This valve closes rapidly to stop steam flow into a turbine, during emergency situations, to prevent injury and damage to the turbine. Some steam turbine

  5. Vacuum/Compression Valving (VCV) Using Parrafin-Wax on a Centrifugal Microfluidic CD Platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    implementing two valves using a single VCV wax plug. This isvalves such that melted wax from a normally-closed valve (releases it when the wax is melted) is later transferred to

  6. Simultaneous Detection and Registration for Ileo-Cecal Valve Detection in 3D CT Colonography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbu, Adrian

    Simultaneous Detection and Registration for Ileo-Cecal Valve Detection in 3D CT Colonography Le Lu1-Cecal Valve (ICV) detection in both clean and tagged 3D CT colonography scans. Our final ICV detection system

  7. Morphological, cellular and proteomic features of canine myxomatous mitral valve disease 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Richard I-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Myxomatous mitral valve degeneration (MMVD) is the single most common cardiac disease of the dog, and is analogous to Mitral Valve Prolapse in humans. Very little is known about the aetiopathogenesis of this disease or ...

  8. A MEMS Thin Film AlN Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ya-Mei

    2011-01-01

    D. P. Bame, and T. K. Tang, “MEMS micro-valve for spaceof the fabricated thermal MEMS valve by Kim et al. [Y. -C. Tai, and C-M. Ho, “A MEMS thermopneumatic silicone

  9. Drive piston assembly for a valve actuator assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sun, Zongxuan (Troy, MI)

    2010-02-23

    A drive piston assembly is provided that is operable to selectively open a poppet valve. The drive piston assembly includes a cartridge defining a generally stepped bore. A drive piston is movable within the generally stepped bore and a boost sleeve is coaxially disposed with respect to the drive piston. A main fluid chamber is at least partially defined by the generally stepped bore, drive piston, and boost sleeve. First and second feedback chambers are at least partially defined by the drive piston and each are disposed at opposite ends of the drive piston. At least one of the drive piston and the boost sleeve is sufficiently configured to move within the generally stepped bore in response to fluid pressure within the main fluid chamber to selectively open the poppet valve. A valve actuator assembly and engine are also provided incorporating the disclosed drive piston assembly.

  10. Development of a rotary valve for pulse-combustion applications. Annual report, June 1986-June 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, P.E.; Corliss, J.M.

    1987-10-05

    Development of a rotary-valve air inlet for pulse-combustor systems in a variety of industrial applications is reviewed. The work focuses on development of a rotary-valve pulse combustor that will operate at input rates of up to 100,000 Btu/hr with computer control capable of synchronizing a motor-driven valve to combustor pressure oscillations. Activities included integrating the valve and combustor, conducting baseline experiments, developing computer control, integrating components, and performing laboratory evaluation.

  11. Processing optimization and sintering time dependent magnetic and optical behaviors of Aurivillius Bi{sub 5}Ti{sub 3}FeO{sub 15} ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Guang; Sun Lin; Ren Qing; Xu Wenfei; Yang Jing; Tang Xiaodong; Bai Wei; Duan Chungang; Chu Junhao; Wu Jing; Meng Xiangjian

    2013-01-21

    Aurivillius Bi{sub 5}Ti{sub 3}FeO{sub 15} (BTF) ceramics were synthesized using the conventional solid state reaction method by optimizing excess of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and sintering time. Their structures, magnetic, and optical properties were investigated in detail. The optimum process to sinter pure Aurivillius BTF ceramics was confirmed to be 3 wt. % excess Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} to compensate the Bi volatilization at 1050 Degree-Sign C for 240 min (BTF-240M). The microstructure and crystalline structure of the BTF ceramics had little dependence on the sintering time from the x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopic data. Nevertheless, the magnetic and optical properties were closely related with the sintering time. The overall magnetic behavior of these BTF ceramics was superparamagnetic (SPM), whereas there were unambiguous clues for the existence of antiferromagnetic (AFM) interactions. However, whether the SPM behavior was intrinsic or arised from a tiny amount of spinel Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} impurity phase cannot be thoroughly ruled out in the XRD detection limit in the present stage. The AFM interactions were weakened upon extending the sintering time. The effective magnetic moment ({mu}{sub eff}), however, demonstrated different dependency on the sintering time. It increased with the sintering time from 80 min to 240 min, and then dropped with further extending the sintering time. Compared with other BTF ceramics, the BTF-240M ceramic showed the highest values of the refractive index n and real part {epsilon}{sub 1}, as well as the lowest ones of the extinction coefficient k and imagine part {epsilon}{sub 2} in whole photon energy range. Finally, a direct inter-band transition was confirmed for these BTF ceramics and optical energy band gaps were determined to be about 3.08, 3.18, and 3.39 eV for 80 min, 150 min, and 240 min sintered BTF ceramics, respectively, yet abnormal optical behavior was observed in BTF-360M ceramic.

  12. Spherical rotary valve assembly for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coates, G.J.

    1991-02-05

    This patent describes an improved rotary intake valve for use in a rotary valved internal combustion engine. It comprises: a drum body of spherical section formed by two parallel planar side walls of a sphere disposed about a center thereof thereby defining a spherically-shaped end wall and formed with a shaft receiving aperture, the drum body formed with a circularly-shaped cavity in a side wall thereof and with a channel extending between the circularly-shaped cavity and an aperture formed in the spherically-shaped end wall.

  13. Wireless Sensing, Monitoring and Optimization for Campus-Wide Steam Distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Allgood, Glenn O [ORNL; Kuruganti, Phani Teja [ORNL; Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL; Woodworth, Ken [ORNL; Lake, Joe E [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The US Congress has passed legislation dictating that all government agencies establish a plan and process for improving energy efficiencies at their sites. In response to this legislation, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has recently conducted a pilot study to explore the deployment of a wireless sensor system for a real-time measurement-based energy efficiency optimization. With particular focus on the 12-mile long steam distribution network in our campus, we propose an integrated system-level approach to optimize energy delivery within the steam distribution system. Our approach leverages an integrated wireless sensor and real-time monitoring capability. We make real time state assessment on the steam trap health and steam flow estimate of the distribution system by mounting acoustic sensors on the steam pipes/traps/valves and observing measurements of these sensors with state estimators for system health. Our assessments are based on a spectral-based energy signature scheme that interprets acoustic vibration sensor data to estimate steam flow rates and assess steam traps status. Experimental results show that the energy signature scheme has the potential to identify different steam trap states and it has sufficient sensitivity to estimate flow rate. Moreover, results indicate a nearly quadratic relationship over the test region between the overall energy signature factor and flow rate in the pipe. We are able to present the steam flow and steam trap status, sensor readings, and the assessed alerts as an interactive overlay within a web-based Google Earth geographic platform that enables decision makers to take remedial action. The goal is to achieve significant energy-saving in steam lines by monitoring and acting on leaking steam pipes/traps/valves. We believe our demonstration serves as an instantiation of a platform that extends implementation to include newer modalities to manage water flow, sewage and energy consumption.

  14. SOFT SWITCHING APPROACH TO REDUCING TRANSITION LOSSES IN AN ON/OFF HYDRAULIC VALVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    energy by eliminating high pressure throttling of hydraulic oil through metering or relief valves controlled hydraulic system. Cao et. al. [3] suggest that energy can be lost in an on/off valve systemSOFT SWITCHING APPROACH TO REDUCING TRANSITION LOSSES IN AN ON/OFF HYDRAULIC VALVE Michael B

  15. Check all SCHE Supply Purge Check Valves to Prevent Back Flow from SCHE into Helium Supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MISKA, C.R.

    2000-10-23

    These valves are 1/2-inch check valves used to prevent SCHe backflow into the Helium System if pressure in the Helium System drops below the pressure of the control valve downstream of the SCHe supply bottles. (14 psig in trains A and B and 2 psig in trains C and D).

  16. Role of Interface Transparency and Exchange Field in the Superconducting Triplet Spin-Valve Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fominov, Yakov

    Role of Interface Transparency and Exchange Field in the Superconducting Triplet Spin-Valve Effect, The Netherlands a Raphael.Deminov@kpfu.ru Keywords: proximity effect, superconducting, ferromagnetic, triplet spin-valve layers. In this paper we show that it is possible to realize different spin-valve effect modes

  17. Demonstration of spin valve effects in silicon nanowires Jean Tarun,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otani, Yoshichika

    Demonstration of spin valve effects in silicon nanowires Jean Tarun,1,2 Shaoyun Huang,1 Yasuhiro April 2011) We have successfully demonstrated a lateral spin valve device using a silicon nanowire valve behavior with two switching fields. In the nonlocal voltage configuration, distinct dips were

  18. Spin-current-induced dynamics in ferromagnetic nanopillars of lateral spin-valve structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otani, Yoshichika

    Spin-current-induced dynamics in ferromagnetic nanopillars of lateral spin-valve structures J 4 February 2009 Under electrical injection, spin accumulation occurs in lateral spin valves in a lateral spin valve while simultaneously sweeping an external magnetic field. We observe changes

  19. Mathematical Modeling of Flow-Generated Forces in an In Vitro System of Cardiac Valve Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    Mathematical Modeling of Flow-Generated Forces in an In Vitro System of Cardiac Valve Development) Abstract--Heart valve defects are the most common cardiac defects. Therefore, defining the mechanisms of cardiac valve development is critical to our understanding and treatment of these disorders. At early

  20. Determination of magnetic vortex chirality using lateral spin-valve and Y. Otani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otani, Yoshichika

    Determination of magnetic vortex chirality using lateral spin-valve geometry T. Kimuraa and Y October 2005 We demonstrate the determination of the vortex chirality using a nonlocal spin-valve measurement technique in a lateral spin valve consisting of a Permalloy Py disk 1 m in diameter and a Py wire

  1. LOWER TRANSIENT STRESSES IN AN AORTIC VALVE LEAFLET WITH OBLIQUE REINFORCEMENT FIBERS: A FINITE ELEMENT STUDY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LOWER TRANSIENT STRESSES IN AN AORTIC VALVE LEAFLET WITH OBLIQUE REINFORCEMENT FIBERS: A FINITE Cambridge, MA, USA INTRODUCTION Native aortic valve leaflets contain a network of strong collagen fibers the stresses of cyclic loading over billions of heart beats. Replacement valves that consist of animal tissues

  2. Closed-Loop Compensation Method for Oscillations Caused by Control Valve Stiction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jiandong

    Closed-Loop Compensation Method for Oscillations Caused by Control Valve Stiction Jiandong Wang-loop compensation method to remove oscillations caused by control valve stiction. With the control loop operating movements for the control valve to arrive at a desired position. A systematic way to design the parameters

  3. VALVE: Variable Length Value Encoder for Off-Chip Data Buses. Dinesh C. Suresh, Banit Agrawal*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najjar, Walid A.

    VALVE: Variable Length Value Encoder for Off-Chip Data Buses. Dinesh C. Suresh, Banit Agrawal (VALVE) technique to reduce the power consumption in the off-chip data buses. While past research has proposed scheme is capable of detecting and encoding variable length bit patterns in the data values. VALVE

  4. Potential Viability of a Fast-Acting Micro-Solenoid Valve for Pulsed Detonation Fuel Injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    1 Potential Viability of a Fast-Acting Micro-Solenoid Valve for Pulsed Detonation Fuel Injection F-acting solenoid valves to meet the demands of pulsed detonation fuel injection and other high-frequency devices is presented. The micro-valve was found to performance well above the manufacturer's rated frequency under no

  5. Monovalve with integrated fuel injector and port control valve, and engine using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milam, David M. (Metamora, IL)

    2002-01-01

    Each cylinder of an internal combustion engine includes a combined gas exchange valve and fuel injector with a port control valve. The port control valve operates to open either an intake passage or an exhaust passage. The operation of the combined device is controlled by a pair of electrical actuators. The device is hydraulically actuated.

  6. Scaling properties of a low-actuation pressure microfluidic valve Vincent Studer and Giao Hang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quake, Stephen R.

    Scaling properties of a low-actuation pressure microfluidic valve Vincent Studer and Giao Hang a design and method for the fabrication of microfluidic valves using multilayer soft lithography. These on-off valves have extremely low actuation pressures and can be used to fabricate active functions

  7. HIGH-FREQUENCY MAGNETOCAPACITANCE EFFECT IN ORGANIC SPIN VALVE WITH A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Minn-Tsong

    HIGH-FREQUENCY MAGNETOCAPACITANCE EFFECT IN ORGANIC SPIN VALVE WITH A 3,4,9,10-PERYLENE of a series of ferromagnet (FM)/organic semiconductor (OSC)/FM tri-layered organic spin valves (OSV accumulation at the organic­FM interfaces. Keywords: Organic spin valve; magnetoresistance; magnetocapacitance

  8. EXTRACTING GEOMETRIC FEATURES OF AORTIC VALVE ANNULUS MOTION FROM DYNAMIC MRI FOR GUIDING INTERVENTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Zhigang

    EXTRACTING GEOMETRIC FEATURES OF AORTIC VALVE ANNULUS MOTION FROM DYNAMIC MRI FOR GUIDING, Houston, TX 77030, USA ABSTRACT Transcatheter aortic valve implant (TAVI) has emerged as a prominent of the geometric features such as the diameter, center and orien- tation of the aortic valve annulus (AVA

  9. Evidence for Triplet Superconductivity in a Superconductor-Ferromagnet Spin Valve P. V. Leksin,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fominov, Yakov

    Evidence for Triplet Superconductivity in a Superconductor-Ferromagnet Spin Valve P. V. Leksin,1 N on the mutual orientation of magnetizations of Fe1 and Fe2 layers in the spin valve system CoOx=Fe1=Cu=Fe2=Pb of the SC triplet spin valve theory gives direct evidence for the long-range triplet superconductivity

  10. Sensors and Actuators A 136 (2007) 426433 A bi-polymer micro one-way valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beebe, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Sensors and Actuators A 136 (2007) 426­433 A bi-polymer micro one-way valve Dongshin Kima,b,, David December 2006 Abstract We have developed an in-plane bi-polymer check-valve for controlling microfluidic hydrogel. The valve was created using microfluidic tectonics, a fabrication procedure that allows

  11. Electrical bistability and spin valve effect in a ferromagnet/organic semiconductor/ferromagnet heterojunction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eom, Chang Beom

    Letter Electrical bistability and spin valve effect in a ferromagnet/organic semiconductor online 2 April 2010 Keywords: Bistable device Spin valve Organic semiconductor Magnetoresistance a b s t r a c t We report a study of the electrical bistability and bias-controlled spin valve effect

  12. Cyclic strain induces dual-mode endothelial-mesenchymal transformation of the cardiac valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Kevin Kit

    Cyclic strain induces dual-mode endothelial- mesenchymal transformation of the cardiac valve Kartik) is a critical event for the embryonic morphogenesis of cardiac valves. Inducers of EMT during valvulogenesis observed in diseased, strain-over- loaded valve leaflets, suggesting a regulatory role for mechanical

  13. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 91, 214508 (2015) Superconducting spin-valve effect and triplet superconductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fominov, Yakov

    2015-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW B 91, 214508 (2015) Superconducting spin-valve effect and triplet superconductivity 12 June 2015) We report magnetic and superconducting properties of the modified spin-valve system Co theoretical description of the superconducting spin-valve effect and of the manifestation of the long

  14. Second-Best Instruments for Near-Term Climate Policy: Intensity Targets vs. the Safety Valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wing, Ian Sue

    Second-Best Instruments for Near-Term Climate Policy: Intensity Targets vs. the Safety Valve Mort Keywords: Uncertainty, climate change, instrument choice, safety valve, intensity target. Abstract Current to be preferred over a safety valve. 1 #12;1. Introduction As many countries prepare to begin their implementation

  15. Quantification of Mitral Valve Morphology with Three-dimensional Echocardiography: Can Measurement Lead to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Kenneth K.Y.

    ForReview Only Quantification of Mitral Valve Morphology with Three- dimensional Echocardiography. of Medicine & Therapeutics Keywords: mitral valve, echocardiography, imaging Category: Diagnostic imaging/Nuclear medicine Japanese Circulation Society Circulation Journal #12;ForReview Only Quantification of Mitral Valve

  16. The role of protein solubilization in antigen removal from xenogeneic tissue for heart valve tissue engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Athanasiou, Kyriacos

    The role of protein solubilization in antigen removal from xenogeneic tissue for heart valve tissue Extracellular matrix Heart valve tissue engineering a b s t r a c t Decellularization techniques have been of bovine pericardium (BP) for heart valve tissue engineering. Bovine pericardium following AR (BP

  17. Passivity based compressor surge control using a close-coupled valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    Passivity based compressor surge control using a close-coupled valve Jan Tommy Gravdahl and Olav-coupled valve. The analysis shows that the system has certain passivity properties which leads to a simple controller for the close- coupled valve. 1 Introduction If the ow through a compressor is throttled

  18. Fast Interactive Simulations of Mitral Valve Repair Neil A. Tenenholtz, Peter E. Hammer, Robert D. Howe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fast Interactive Simulations of Mitral Valve Repair Neil A. Tenenholtz, Peter E. Hammer, Robert D. Howe Keywords: Surgical simulation, human-computer interaction, haptics, mitral valve, cardiac surgery. I. Problem Solved A healthy mitral valve ensures the one-way flow of oxygenated blood from the left

  19. Quantification of Valve Stiction for Control Loop Performance Assessment Guohua Wang and liandong Wang*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jiandong

    Quantification of Valve Stiction for Control Loop Performance Assessment Guohua Wang and liandong, Beijing, P. R. China (*Email: jiandong@pku.edu.cn) Abstract - Control valves are extensively used in the process industry and valve stiction limits the performance of control loops. This study aims

  20. Chaotic Dynamics of Spin-Valve Oscillators Z. Yang and S. Zhang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Charles

    Chaotic Dynamics of Spin-Valve Oscillators Z. Yang and S. Zhang Department of Physics and Astronomy oscillators with tunable mi- crowave frequencies in spin valves are very desirable for magnetic storage it is not an intrinsic property of the current-driven oscillator. Here we consider a single-domain current-driven spin-valve