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1

w. T. Thorntot-l, OR RADIOLOGICAL STATUS OF FORMER VIRGINIA-CAROLINA...  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

()r' 2J ;3:7 . - w. T. Thorntot-l, OR RADIOLOGICAL STATUS OF FORMER VIRGINIA-CAROLINA CHEMICAL CORPORATION SITE AT.818 PERRY STREET, RICHFIOND, VIRGINIA Your memorandum report of...

2

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Virginia-Carolina Chemical Corp - FL  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Virginia-Carolina Chemical Corp - Virginia-Carolina Chemical Corp - FL 06 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Virginia-Carolina Chemical Corp. (FL.06 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP - Referred to US EPA and State of Florida Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Conserv Corporation FL.06-1 Location: Nichols , Florida FL.06-2 Evaluation Year: 1985 FL.06-1 Site Operations: Process development studies and pilot plant testing of uranium recovery from phosphoric acid during the mid-1950s. Site Disposition: Eliminated - No Authority FL.06-1 FL.06-4 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Uranium Radiological Survey(s): Yes FL.06-2 Site Status: Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP - Referred to US EPA and State of Florida FL.06-1

3

Region-specific study of the electric utility industry. Phase I, final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the financial background of the electric utility industry in VACAR, reports on the present condition of the industry and then assesses the future of this industry. The Virginia-Carolinas subregion (VACAR) of the Southeastern Electric Reliability Council (SERC) was selected for this regional study because of its cooperativeness and its representative mix of powerplants, for example coal, hydro, nuclear, oil. It was found that the supply of future economic electricity is in jeopardy because of the regulatory process, the increasing risk associated with large scale generating stations and the weakening of the nuclear option. A number of options for the future were considered, including deregulation, government ownership and retaining the present system with modifications. The option selected to improve the present condition of the electricity industry was to make the present system work. The present system is sound, and with modifications, problems could be solved within the existing framework. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Wacaster, A.J. (ed.)

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Sustainable Development Strategy for the Greater Mekong Subregion | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mekong Subregion Mekong Subregion Jump to: navigation, search Name Sustainable Development Strategy for the Greater Mekong Subregion Agency/Company /Organization AIT-UNEP Regional Resource Centre for Asia and the Pacific Sector Energy, Land Topics Implementation, Policies/deployment programs, Background analysis Resource Type Guide/manual Website http://www.rrcap.unep.org/nsds Country Cambodia, China, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos UN Region South-Eastern Asia References Sustainable Development Strategy for the Greater Mekong Subregion[1] Overview "This document is expected to provide the strategic direction for the pursuit of sustainable development in the GMS. It is important to note that this document addresses the issues at the sub-regional level, building upon

5

Region-specific study of the electric utility industry. Phases I and II. Executive summary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the problems either confronting or likely to confront the electric utility industry in the event of a return of high rates of inflation. It attempts to assess the future of this industry and makes recommendations to resolve fundamental problems. The Virginia-Carolinas subregion (VACAR) of the Southeastern Electric Reliability Council (SERC) was selected for this regional study because of the willingness of a wide range of parties to participate and its representative mix of powerplants, for example coal, hydro, nuclear and oil. It was found that the future supply of reliable, economic electricity is in jeopardy because of the regulatory process, the increasing risk associated with large scale generating stations and the weakening of the nuclear option. A number of options for the future were considered, including deregulation, government ownership and retaining the present system with modifications. The option selected to improve the condition of the electricity industry was to make the present system work. The present system is sound and, with modifications, problems could be solved within the existing framework. A series of recommendations, developed through a consensus building effort involving state government officials, state regulators and investor-owned utility representatives, are presented. A discussion of the need for innovative solutions and one state's approach to the problem concludes the report.

Not Available

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Microsoft PowerPoint - Subregion 3 Presentation 5-12-09.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Power Pool Power Pool Sub-Regional Planning Meeting Sub-Regional Area 3 David Sargent May 12, 2009 Southwestern Power Administration Slide 2 Southwestern Power Administration Slide 3 Five Year Construction Plan 2009 Bull Shoals Dam Bus Upgrade - from 600 to 1200/2000 amps The bus is a limiting element for the line going from Bull Shoals toward Harrison. New Madrid 161/69 kV Autotransformer Replacement New Madrid-Malden-Piggott-Kennett 69 kV Line Rebuild - 55 miles of line collapsed during an ice storm. We are completely rebuilding the line and doubling its capacity. Southwestern Power Administration Slide 4 2009 Projects Southwestern Power Administration Slide 5 Five Year Construction Plan 2010 Bull Shoals Dam Pothead/Cable Replacement - Potheads on cable from GSUs to substation are old and leaking. Potential for outage of

7

DND: a model for forecasting electrical energy usage by water-resource subregion  

SciTech Connect

A forecast methodology was derived from principles of econometrics using exogenous variables, i.e., cost of electricity, consumer income, and price elasticity as indicators of growth for each consuming sector: residential, commercial, and industrial. The model was calibrated using forecast data submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) by the nine Regional Electric Reliability Councils. Estimates on electrical energy usage by specific water-resource subregion were obtained by normalizing forecasted total electrical energy usage by state into per capita usage. The usage factor and data on forecasted population were applied for each water resource subregion. The results derived using the model are self-consistent and in good agreement with DOE Energy Information Administration projections. The differences that exist are largely the result of assumptions regarding specific aggregations and assignment of regional-system reliability and load factors. 8 references, 2 figures, 13 tables.

Sonnichsen, J.C. Jr.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Patterns of plant diversity in the Hantam-Tanqua-Roggeveld subregion of the succulent Karoo, South Africa.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Hantam-Tanqua-Roggeveld subregion is located within the Succulent Karoo and Fynbos Biomes, in the predominately winter rainfall area of the Northern and Western Cape Provinces. (more)

Van der Merwe, Helga

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Establishing Crop Acreage Flexibility Restraints for Subregions of the Texas High Plains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cropping pattern shifts in many aggregate linear programming (LP) models need to be constrained due to institutional, marketing machinery, and price uncertainty factors. The purpose of this study was to estimate constraints which are referred to as flexibility restraints for major crop acreages in subregions of the Texas High Plains for use in a LP model that was developed to derive water and other input demand. Alternative estimating models for establishing acreage flexibility restraints were developed using methodology and model formulation presented in the literature. The results of these models in estimating flexibility restraints were evaluated using statistical measures and subjective analysis. Models which were analyzed ranged from a simple linear regression model in which the current year's acreage is expressed as a function of last year's acreage to a multiple regression model in which economic and climatological variables were considered. The multiple regression model as formulated and estimated did not provide satisfactory results. However, as in many of the earlier studies the simpler models did provide acceptable performance. From among the simpler models one was selected based on statistical measures and a prioria expectations. The model was used to calculate crop acreage flexibility restraints for three subregions of the Texas High Plains.

Condra, G. D.; Lacewell, R. D.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

INEEL Subregional Conceptual Model Report; Volume 1 - Summary of Existing Knowledge of Natural and Anthropogenic Influences Governing Subsurface Contaminant Transport in the INEEL Subregion of the Eastern Snake River Plain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Research Council has defined a conceptual model as ''an evolving hypothesis identifying the important features, processes, and events controlling fluid flow and contaminant transport of consequence at a specific field site in the context of a recognized problem''. Presently, several subregional conceptual models are under development at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Additionally, facility-specific conceptual models have been described as part of INEEL environmental restoration activities. Compilation of these models is required to develop a comprehensive conceptual model that can be used to strategically plan for future groundwater research activities at the INEEL. Conceptual models of groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the INEEL include the description of the geologic framework, matrix hydraulic properties, and inflows and outflows. They also include definitions of the contaminant source term and contaminant transport mechanisms. The geologic framework of the INEEL subregion is described by the geometry of the system, stratigraphic units within the system, and structural features that affect groundwater flow and contaminant transport. These elements define geohydrologic units that make up the Snake River Plain Aquifer (SRPA). The United States Geological Survey (USGS) conceptual model encompasses approximately 1,920 mi2 of the eastern Snake River Plain. The Waste Area Group (WAG)-10 model includes the USGS area and additional areas to the northeast and southeast. Both conceptual models are bounded to the northwest by the Pioneer Mountains, Lost River Range, and Lemhi Mountains. They are bounded to the southeast by groundwater flow paths determined from aquifer water-level contours. The upgradient extent of the USGS model is a water-level contour that includes the northeastern boundary of the INEEL. The WAG-10 model includes more of the Mud Lake area to utilize previous estimates of underflow into the subregion. Both conceptual models extend approximately 25 miles to the southwest of the INEEL, a distance sufficient to include known concentrations of contaminant tracers. Several hypotheses have been developed concerning the effective thickness of the SRPA at the INEEL. The USGS model has defined the effective thickness from electrical resistivity and borehole data to be as much as 2,500 ft in the eastern part of the subregion and as much as 4,000 ft in the southwestern part. The WAG-10 model has developed two alternatives using aquifer-temperature and electrical resistivity data. The ''thick'' aquifer interpretation utilizes colder temperature data and includes a northtrending zone in which the thickness exceeds 1,300 ft and with a maximum thickness of 1,700 ft. The ''thin'' aquifer interpretation minimizes aquifer thickness, with thickness ranging from 328 to 1,300 ft. Facility-specific models generally have focused efforts on the upper 250 ft of saturation. Conceptual models have utilized a stratigraphic data set to define geohydrologic units within the INEEL subregion. This data set, compiled from geophysical logs and cores from boreholes, correlates the thick, complex stack of basalt flows across the subregion. Conceptual models generally concur that the upper geohydrologic unit consists of a section of highly fractured, multiple, thin basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds. Beneath this unit is an areally extensive, thick, unfractured basalt flow that rises above the water table southwest of the INEEL. The bottom unit consists of a thick section of slightly- to moderately-altered basalt. A key objective of the DOE water-integration project at the INEEL is to coordinate development of a subregional conceptual model of groundwater flow and contaminant transport that is based on the best available understanding of geologic and hydrologic features. The first step in this process is to compile and summarize the current conceptual models of groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the INEEL that have been developed from extensive geohydrologic studies con

Wichlacz, Paul Louis; Orr, Brennan

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... SERC Reliability Corporation / Virginia-Carolina ... (PV). 5/ Includes biogenic ... 2012 are model results and may differ from official EIA data ...

12

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

4/ Does not include off-grid photovoltaics (PV). ... 16 - SERC Reliability Corporation / Virginia-Carolina REG016 REG016:ca_ConventionalH ...

13

Local Option Taxes and the New Subregionalism in Transportation Planning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

share of transportation and other social costs. Developersshare of transportation and other social costs. Developers

Goldman, Todd Mitchel

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Local Option Taxes and the New Subregionalism in Transportation Planning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

designed to link future transportation planning and landPurchase ROW for future transportation corridor Transita model for all future transportation taxes in the state.

Goldman, Todd Mitchel

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

AEO2011: Renewable Energy Generation by Fuel - SERC Reliability...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Virginia-Carolina This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual...

16

Maintaining environmental quality while expanding biomass production: Sub-regional U.S. policy simulations  

SciTech Connect

This paper evaluates environmental policy effects on ligno-cellulosic biomass production and environ- mental outcomes using an integrated bioeconomic optimization model. The environmental policy integrated climate (EPIC) model is used to simulate crop yields and environmental indicators in current and future potential bioenergy cropping systems based on weather, topographic and soil data. The crop yield and environmental outcome parameters from EPIC are combined with biomass transport costs and economic parameters in a representative farmer profit-maximizing mathematical optimization model. The model is used to predict the impact of alternative policies on biomass production and environmental outcomes. We find that without environmental policy, rising biomass prices initially trigger production of annual crop residues, resulting in increased greenhouse gas emissions, soil erosion, and nutrient losses to surface and ground water. At higher biomass prices, perennial bioenergy crops replace annual crop residues as biomass sources, resulting in lower environmental impacts. Simulations of three environmental policies namely a carbon price, a no-till area subsidy, and a fertilizer tax reveal that only the carbon price policy systematically mitigates environmental impacts. The fertilizer tax is ineffectual and too costly to farmers. The no-till subsidy is effective only at low biomass prices and is too costly to government.

Egbendewe-Mondzozo, Aklesso; Swinton, S.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Manowitz, David H.; Zhang, Xuesong

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

NEW MEMBERS OF THE SCORPIUS-CENTAURUS COMPLEX AND AGES OF ITS SUB-REGIONS  

SciTech Connect

We have spectroscopically identified {approx}100 G-, K-, and M-type members of the Scorpius-Centaurus complex. To deduce the age of these young stars we compare their Li {lambda}6708 absorption line strengths against those of stars in the TW Hydrae association and {beta} Pictoris moving group. These line strengths indicate that Sco-Cen stars are younger than {beta} Pic stars whose ages of {approx}12 Myr have previously been derived from a kinematic traceback analysis. Our derived age, {approx}10 Myr, for stars in the Lower Centaurus Crux and Upper Centaurus Lupus subgroups of ScoCen is younger than previously published ages based on the moving cluster method and upper main-sequence fitting. The discrepant ages are likely due to an incorrect (or lack of) cross-calibration between model-dependent and model-independent age-dating methods.

Song, Inseok [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States); Zuckerman, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Bessell, M. S. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Advanced Studies, The Australian National University, ACT 2611 (Australia)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

18

AEO2011: Renewable Energy Generation by Fuel - SERC Reliability Corporation  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Virginia-Carolina Virginia-Carolina Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 113, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses gigawatts, billion kilowatthours and quadrillion Btu. The data is broken down into generating capacity, electricity generation and energy consumption. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO Carolina EIA Renewable Energy Generation SERC Reliability Corporation Virginia Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Renewable Energy Generation by Fuel - SERC Reliability Corporation / Virginia-Carolina- Reference Case (xls, 118.9 KiB) Quality Metrics

19

Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the southeast United States-Southern Piedmont subregion  

SciTech Connect

A literature study was conducted on the geology of the Southern Piedmont province in the states of Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The purpose was to identify geologic areas potentially suitable for containment of a repository for the long-term isolation of solidified radioactive waste. The crystalline rocks of the Southern Piedmont province range in age from Precambrian to Paleozoic, and are predominantly slates, phyllites, argillites, schists, metavolcanics, gneisses, gabbros, and granites. These rock units were classified as either favorable, potentially favorable, or unfavorable as potential study areas based on an evaluation of the geologic, hydrologic, and geotechnical characteristics. No socio-economic factors were considered. Rocks subjected to multiple periods of deformation and metamorphism, or described as highly fractured, or of limited areal extent were generally ranked as unfavorable. Potentially favorable rocks are primarily the high-grade metamorphic gneisses and granites. Sixteen areas were classified as being favorable for additional study. These areas are primarily large igneous granite plutons as follows: the Petersburg granite in Virginia; the Rolesville-Castallia, Churchland, and Landis plutons in North Carolina; the Liberty Hill, Winnsboro, and Ogden plutons in South Carolina; and the Siloam, Elberton, and six unnamed granite plutons in Georgia.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

ASEO2011: Electric Power Projections for EMM Region - SERC Reliability  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ASEO2011: Electric Power Projections for EMM Region - SERC Reliability ASEO2011: Electric Power Projections for EMM Region - SERC Reliability Corporation / Virginia-Carolina Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 88, and contains only the reference case. The data is broken down into electric power sector, cumulative planned additions,cumulative unplanned additions,cumulative retirements, end-use sector, electricity sales, net energy for load, generation by fuel type and price by service category. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO Carolina EIA Electric power projections Virginia Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon ASEO2011: Electric Power Projections for EMM Region - SERC Reliability Corporation / Virginia-Carolina- Reference Case (xls, 259.3 KiB)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vacar virginia-carolinas subregion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

FORMERLY UTILIZED SITES REMEDIAL ACTION PROGRAM ELIMINATION REPORT  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

CONTENTS CONTENTS INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND Site Function Site Description Radiological History and Status ELIMINATION ANALYSIS REFERENCES ii Pa e -5 1 : 2 2 4 ELIMINATION REPORT THE FORMER VIRGINIA-CAROLINA CHEMICAL CORPORATION RICHMOND, VIRGINIA INTROUUCTION The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nuclear Energy, Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology, Division of Facility and Site Decommissioning Projects (and/or predecessor agencies, offices and divisions, has reviewed the past activities of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) at the former Virginia-Carolina Chemical Corporation, Richmond, Virginia. On the basis of historical information, DOE has determined that any radioactive material potentially remaining from these activities would be insignificant in terms of both its quantity and the hazard it would

22

DOE/EV-0005/18  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

8 8 w9-2/ Formerly Utilized MED/AEC Sites Remedial Action Program Radiological Survey of the Former Virginia-Carolina Chemical Corporation Uranium Recovery Pilot Plant, Nichols, Florida January 1980 Final Report Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Assistant Secretary for Environment Office of Environmental Compliance and Overview Division of Environmental Control Technology .-_.--l.."-.-.- .- ..I ._--, * "--. . . .__ DOE/EV-0005/18 UC-70 Formerly Utilized MED/AEC Sites Remedial Action Program Radiological. Survey of the Former Virginia-Carolina Chemical Corporation Uranium Recovery Pilot Want, Nichols, Florida January 1980 Final Report Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Assistant Secretary for Environment Office of Environmental Compliance and Overview

23

FORMERLY UTILIZED SITES REMEDIAL ACTION PROGRAM ELIMINATION REPORT  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

. . CONTENTS INTROOUCTION BACKGROUND Site Function Site Description Radiological History,and Status ELIMINATION ANALYSIS REFERENCES 9 1 1 2 2 2 4 ii ELIMINATION REPORT THE FORMER VIRGINIA-CAROLINA CHEMICAL CORPORATION RICHMOND. VIRGINIA INTROLJUCTION The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nuclear Energy, Office of ,Remedial Action and Waste Technology, Division of Facility and Site Deconunissioning Projects (and/or predecessor agencies, offices and divisions, has reviewed the past activities of the Atomic Energy Carmission (AEC) at the former Virginia-Carolina Chemical Corporation, Richmond, Virginia. On the basis of historical information, DOE has determined that any radioactive material potentially remaining from these activities would oe insignificant in terms of both its quantity and the hazard it would

24

Severe depression is associated with increased microglial quinolinic acid in subregions of the anterior cingulate gyrus: Evidence for an immune-modulated glutamatergic neurotransmission?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

No. Diagnosis (DSM-IV) Gender Age (y) Autolysis time (h) Cause of death 1 Depression, MDD F 53 47 Suicide by electrocution 2 Depression, MDD F 46 48 Suicide by hanging 3 Depression, MDD F 53 46 Suicide by hanging 4 Depression, MDD F 60 24 Suicide...

Steiner, Johann; Walter, Martin; Gos, Tomasz; Guillemin, Gilles J; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Sarnyai, Zoltan; Mawrin, Christian; Brisch, Ralf; Bielau, Hendrik; Meyer zu Schwabedissen, Louise; Bogerts, Bernhard; Myint, Aye-Mu

2011-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

25

Impact of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles on the Electric Grid  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed around the world; much work is going on to optimize engine and battery operations for efficient operation, both during discharge and when grid electricity is available for recharging. However, there has generally been the expectation that the grid will not be greatly affected by the use of the vehicles, because the recharging would only occur during offpeak hours, or the number of vehicles will grow slowly enough that capacity planning will respond adequately. But this expectation does not incorporate that endusers will have control of the time of recharging and the inclination for people will be to plug in when convenient for them, rather than when utilities would prefer. It is important to understand the ramifications of introducing a number of plug-in hybrid vehicles onto the grid. Depending on when and where the vehicles are plugged in, they could cause local or regional constraints on the grid. They could require both the addition of new electric capacity along with an increase in the utilization of existing capacity. Local distribution grids will see a change in their utilization pattern, and some lines or substations may become overloaded sooner than expected. Furthermore, the type of generation used to recharge the vehicles will be different depending on the region of the country and timing when the PHEVs recharge. We conducted an analysis of what the grid impact may be in 2018 with one million PHEVs added to the VACAR sub-region of the Southeast Electric Reliability Council, a region that includes South Carolina, North Carolina, and much of Virginia. To do this, we used the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch model, which simulates the hourly dispatch of power generators to meet demand for a region over a given year. Depending on the vehicle, its battery, the charger voltage level, amperage, and duration, the impact on regional electricity demand varied from 1,400 to 6,000 MW. If recharging occurred in the early evening, then peak loads were raised and demands were met largely by combustion turbines and combined cycle plants. Nighttime recharging had less impact on peak loads and generation adequacy, but the increased use of coal-fired generation changed the relative amounts of air emissions. Costs of generation also fluctuated greatly depending on the timing. However, initial analysis shows that even charging at peak times may be less costly than using gasoline to operate the vehicles. Even if the overall region may have sufficient generating power, the region's transmission system or distribution lines to different areas may not be large enough to handle this new type of load. A largely residential feeder circuit may not be sized to have a significant proportion of its customers adding 1.4 to 6 kW loads that would operate continuously for two to six hours beginning in the early evening. On a broader scale, the transmission lines feeding the local substations may be similarly constrained if they are not sized to respond to this extra growth in demand. This initial analysis identifies some of the complexities in analyzing the integrated system of PHEVs and the grid. Depending on the power level, timing, and duration of the PHEV connection to the grid, there could be a wide variety of impacts on grid constraints, capacity needs, fuel types used, and emissions generated. This paper provides a brief description of plug-in hybrid vehicle characteristics in Chapter 2. Various charging strategies for vehicles are discussed, with a consequent impact on the grid. In Chapter 3 we describe the future electrical demand for a region of the country and the impact on this demand with a number of plug-in hybrids. We apply that demand to an inventory of power plants for the region using the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) model to evaluate the change in power production and emissions. In Chapter 4 we discuss the impact of demand increases on local distribution systems. In Chapter 5 we conclude and provide insights into the impacts of plug-ins. Future

Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Impact of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles on the Electric Grid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed around the world; much work is going on to optimize engine and battery operations for efficient operation, both during discharge and when grid electricity is available for recharging. However, there has generally been the expectation that the grid will not be greatly affected by the use of the vehicles, because the recharging would only occur during offpeak hours, or the number of vehicles will grow slowly enough that capacity planning will respond adequately. But this expectation does not incorporate that endusers will have control of the time of recharging and the inclination for people will be to plug in when convenient for them, rather than when utilities would prefer. It is important to understand the ramifications of introducing a number of plug-in hybrid vehicles onto the grid. Depending on when and where the vehicles are plugged in, they could cause local or regional constraints on the grid. They could require both the addition of new electric capacity along with an increase in the utilization of existing capacity. Local distribution grids will see a change in their utilization pattern, and some lines or substations may become overloaded sooner than expected. Furthermore, the type of generation used to recharge the vehicles will be different depending on the region of the country and timing when the PHEVs recharge. We conducted an analysis of what the grid impact may be in 2018 with one million PHEVs added to the VACAR sub-region of the Southeast Electric Reliability Council, a region that includes South Carolina, North Carolina, and much of Virginia. To do this, we used the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch model, which simulates the hourly dispatch of power generators to meet demand for a region over a given year. Depending on the vehicle, its battery, the charger voltage level, amperage, and duration, the impact on regional electricity demand varied from 1,400 to 6,000 MW. If recharging occurred in the early evening, then peak loads were raised and demands were met largely by combustion turbines and combined cycle plants. Nighttime recharging had less impact on peak loads and generation adequacy, but the increased use of coal-fired generation changed the relative amounts of air emissions. Costs of generation also fluctuated greatly depending on the timing. However, initial analysis shows that even charging at peak times may be less costly than using gasoline to operate the vehicles. Even if the overall region may have sufficient generating power, the region's transmission system or distribution lines to different areas may not be large enough to handle this new type of load. A largely residential feeder circuit may not be sized to have a significant proportion of its customers adding 1.4 to 6 kW loads that would operate continuously for two to six hours beginning in the early evening. On a broader scale, the transmission lines feeding the local substations may be similarly constrained if they are not sized to respond to this extra growth in demand. This initial analysis identifies some of the complexities in analyzing the integrated system of PHEVs and the grid. Depending on the power level, timing, and duration of the PHEV connection to the grid, there could be a wide variety of impacts on grid constraints, capacity needs, fuel types used, and emissions generated. This paper provides a brief description of plug-in hybrid vehicle characteristics in Chapter 2. Various charging strategies for vehicles are discussed, with a consequent impact on the grid. In Chapter 3 we describe the future electrical demand for a region of the country and the impact on this demand with a number of plug-in hybrids. We apply that demand to an inventory of power plants for the region using the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) model to evaluate the change in power production and emissions. In Chapter 4 we discuss the impact of demand increases on local distribution systems. In Chapter 5 we conclude and provide insights into the impacts of plug-ins. Future

Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Electric power projections | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

power projections power projections Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 88, and contains only the reference case. The data is broken down into electric power sector, cumulative planned additions,cumulative unplanned additions,cumulative retirements, end-use sector, electricity sales, net energy for load, generation by fuel type and price by service category. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO Carolina EIA Electric power projections Virginia Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon ASEO2011: Electric Power Projections for EMM Region - SERC Reliability Corporation / Virginia-Carolina- Reference Case (xls, 259.3 KiB)

28

Virginia | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Virginia Virginia Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 88, and contains only the reference case. The data is broken down into electric power sector, cumulative planned additions,cumulative unplanned additions,cumulative retirements, end-use sector, electricity sales, net energy for load, generation by fuel type and price by service category. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO Carolina EIA Electric power projections Virginia Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon ASEO2011: Electric Power Projections for EMM Region - SERC Reliability Corporation / Virginia-Carolina- Reference Case (xls, 259.3 KiB)

29

Carolina | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carolina Carolina Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 88, and contains only the reference case. The data is broken down into electric power sector, cumulative planned additions,cumulative unplanned additions,cumulative retirements, end-use sector, electricity sales, net energy for load, generation by fuel type and price by service category. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO Carolina EIA Electric power projections Virginia Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon ASEO2011: Electric Power Projections for EMM Region - SERC Reliability Corporation / Virginia-Carolina- Reference Case (xls, 259.3 KiB)

30

Mr. Andy Wall0 The Aerospace Corporation  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

'k.f' :, , j '"; ,,' 'k.f' :, , j '"; ,,' DEC 5 1984 Mr. Andy Wall0 The Aerospace Corporation suite 4000 955 L'Enfant Plaza, S.W. Washington, D.C. 20024 Dear Mr. Wallo: The Divisfon of Remedial Action Projects staff has reviewed the authority review documents for Gardinler, Inc., Tampa, Florida; Conserv (formerly Virginia-Carolina Chemical Co.), Nichols, Florida; and Blockson Chemical co., Joliet, Illinois. Based on the content therein and in consultation with Mr. Steve Miller, Office of General Counsel (C&11), Departamt of Energy, It has been determined that the Department has no authority, through the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, to conduct remedial action at the aforementioned sites, Therefore, please prepare the document packages necessary to notify the appropriate state authorities and the

31

Mr. Harold Snyder Chief, Discovery and Investigations Branch  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Harold Snyder Harold Snyder Chief, Discovery and Investigations Branch Hazardous Site Control Division Administration for Solid Waste and Emergency Response U. S. Environmental Protection Agency 401 M Street, S. W. Washington, D. C. 70460 Dear Mr. Snyder: The Department of Energy (DDE) has conducted a radiological survey at the Conserv Corporation (The former Virginia-Carolina Chemical Corporation), Nichols, Florida. This survey indicated that levels of residual radioactive material and associated radiation levels at the sfte are in excess c?f those used by DOE to determine if a site requires remedial actfon. The data did not indicate that, under the current use of the site, there was any hazard to the workers or the general public. However, changes fn site use or modifications to the facility could'possibly result

32

Analysis of the Clean Energy Standard Act of 2012  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 Appendix C: Map of NEMS Electricity Market Module Regions 1 Texas Regional Entity (ERCT) 12 SERC / Delta (SRDA) 2 Florida Reliability Coordinating Council (FRCC) 13 SERC / Gateway (SRGW) 3 Midwest Reliability Organization / East (MROE) 14 SERC / Southeastern (SRSE) 4 Midwest Reliability Organization / West (MROW) 15 SERC / Central (SRCE) 5 NPCC / Northeast (NEWE) 16 SERC / Virginia-Carolina (SRVC) 6 NPCC / NYC-Westchester (NYCW) 17 Southwest Power Pool / North (SPNO) 7 NPCC / Long Island (NYLI) 18 Southwest Power Pool / South (SPSO) 8 NPCC / Upstate New York (NYUP) 19 WECC / Southwest (AZNM) 9 Reliability First Corporation / East (RFCE) 20 WECC / California (CAMX) 10 Reliability First Corporation / Michigan (RFCM) 21 WECC / Northwest Power Pool Area (NWPP)

33

SERC Reliability Corporation | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SERC Reliability Corporation SERC Reliability Corporation Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 113, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses gigawatts, billion kilowatthours and quadrillion Btu. The data is broken down into generating capacity, electricity generation and energy consumption. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO Carolina EIA Renewable Energy Generation SERC Reliability Corporation Virginia Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Renewable Energy Generation by Fuel - SERC Reliability Corporation / Virginia-Carolina- Reference Case (xls, 118.9 KiB) Quality Metrics

34

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Reynolds Metals Co - VA 04  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Reynolds Metals Co - VA 04 Reynolds Metals Co - VA 04 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: REYNOLDS METALS CO. (VA.04 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Virginia-Carolina Chemical Corporation VA.04-1 Location: 818 Perry Street , Richmond , Virginia VA.04-1 Evaluation Year: 1985 VA.04-2 VA.04-3 Site Operations: Preparatory process development involving only gram quantities of uranium performed in the 1950s. VA.04-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination considered remote based on limited materials handled VA.04-2 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Uranium VA.04-1 Radiological Survey(s): None Indicated VA.04-1 VA.04-4 Site Status: Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP

35

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Mobil Oil Corp - VA 01  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Mobil Oil Corp - VA 01 Mobil Oil Corp - VA 01 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Mobil Oil Corp. (VA.01 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Virginia-Carolina Chemical Corporation VA.01-1 Location: 818 Perry Street , Richmond , Virginia VA.01-1 Evaluation Year: Circa 1987 VA.01-2 VA.01-3 Site Operations: Research/Development to recover Uranium as a byproduct of phosphate production; preparatory process for pilot plant scale operation at Nichols, Florida. VA.01-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for residual radioactive contamination from small quantities of material used at the site is considered remote VA.01-1 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Uranium VA.01-1

36

Mr. Harry S. Cohen  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

a50b a50b Mr. Harry S. Cohen 2956 Hathaway Road Apartment 1105 ' Richmond, Virginia 23225 Dear Mr. Cohen: ..:: The Department of Energy (DOE), as part of its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), has reviewed information on the former site of the Virginia-Carolina Chemical Corporation, located.at @I8 Perry Street in Richmond, Virginia, to determine whether It contains residual radioactivity traceable to activities conducted on behalf of the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Conar.ission (predecessors to DOE). Based on this review, DOE has concluded that there are no quantities of radioactive material above current guidelines remaining at the site. Therefore, no remedial action is required, and DOE is eliminating the site

37

The Heat Balance of the Western Hemisphere Warm Pool  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The thermodynamic development of the Western Hemisphere warm pool and its four geographic subregions are analyzed. The subregional warm pools of the eastern North Pacific and equatorial Atlantic are best developed in the boreal spring, while in ...

David B. Enfield; Sang-ki Lee

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Energy Outlook 2011  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

229 229 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Regional maps Figure F2. Electricity market module regions Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Analysis. 12 11 10 19 22 21 20 15 14 9 13 7 5 6 1 2 3 4 16 17 8 18 1. ERCT ERCOT All 2. FRCC FRCC All 3. MROE MRO East 4. MROW MRO West 5. NEWE NPCC New England 6. NYCW NPCC NYC/Westchester 7. NYLI NPCC Long Island 8. NYUP NPCC Upstate NY 9. RFCE RFC East 10. RFCM RFC Michigan 11. RFCW RFC West 12. SRDA SERC Delta 13. SRGW SERC Gateway 14. SRSE SERC Southeastern 15. SRCE SERC Central 16. SRVC SERC VACAR 17. SPNO SPP North 18. SPSO SPP South 19. AZNM WECC Southwest 20. CAMX WECC California 21. NWPP WECC Northwest 22. RMPA WECC Rockies U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Energy Outlook 2011

39

Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 10. Alaska region  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each subregion of Alaska. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a state scale is given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each subregion are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the Alaska wind energy resource. An outline to the descriptions of the wind resource given for each subregion is included. Assessments for individual subregions are presented as separate chapters. The subregion wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the Alaska wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the subregion chapters.

Wise, J.L.; Wentink, T. Jr.; Becker, R. Jr.; Comiskey, A.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FUNDING OPPORTUNITY ANNOUNCEMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the eight NERC regional entities1 plus Alaska and Hawaii, the 27 eGrid subregions (subregions of NERC region or eGrid subregion. However, other regional definitions may be proposed if adequately justified://www.nerc.com/page.php?cid=1%7C9%7C119 2 http://www.epa.gov/cleanenergy/energy-resources/egrid/faq.html#egrid6 #12

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vacar virginia-carolinas subregion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

University of Pittsburgh Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Results ......................................................... 6 Figure 2. Subregions as defined by eGRID present in the CACP calculator. The primary source is from U.S. EPA's EGRID program [15]. EGRID has fuel mix information both on a state level, and on a subregion level based on fuel mix

Sibille, Etienne

42

Microsoft PowerPoint - Kondziolka.ppt  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Robert E. Kondziolka Robert E. Kondziolka Salt River Project March 25-26, 2009 Chicago, Illinois Western Interconnection Subregional Planning and Development U.S. Department Of Energy U.S. Department Of Energy 2009 National Congestion Study Technical Workshop 2009 National Congestion Study Technical Workshop DOE Congestion Workshop 3/25-26/2009 West Subregional Development - RE Kondziolka 2 Southwest Area Transmission SWAT SWAT SWAT Footprint One of the WestConnect Sub-Regional Planning Groups SWAT Footprint One of the WestConnect Sub-Regional Planning Groups http://www.westconnect.com DOE Congestion Workshop 3/25-26/2009 West Subregional Development - RE Kondziolka BUCKLEY SUNDANCE FT. PECK PEACE CANYON MICA VANCOUVER SEATTLE PRINCE RUPERT AREA AREA COLSTRIP BOISE PORTLAND AREA MALIN TABLE MTN ROUND MTN

43

Renewable biomass energy: Understanding regional scale environmental impacts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

If biomass energy is to become a significant component of the US energy sector, millions of acres of farmland must be converted to energy crops. The environmental implications of this change in land use must be quantitatively evaluated. The land use changes will be largely driven by economic considerations. Farmers will grow energy crops when it is profitable to do so. Thus, models which purport to predict environmental changes induced by energy crop production must take into account those economic features which will influence land use change. In this paper, we present an approach for projecting the probable environmental impacts of growing energy crops at the regional scale. The approach takes into account both economic and environmental factors. We demonstrate the approach by analyzing, at a county-level the probable impact of switchgrass production on erosion, evapotranspiration, nitrate in runoff, and phosphorous fertilizer use in multi-county subregions within the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) region. Our results show that the adoption of switchgrass production will have different impacts in each subregion as a result of differences in the initial land use and soil conditions in the subregions. Erosion, evapotranspiration, and nitrate in runoff are projected to decrease in both subregions as switchgrass displaces the current crops. Phosphorous fertilizer applications are likely to increase in one subregion and decrease in the other due to initial differences in the types of conventional crops grown in each subregion. Overall these changes portend an improvement in water quality in the subregions with the increasing adoption of switchgrass.

Graham, R.L.; Downing, M.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

44

Spatial and Temporal Variations in Antarctic Sea-Ice (197382)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monthly estimates of Antarctic sea-ice area for the past decade were extracted from operational churts. Empirical orthogonal function analyses of these satellite-derived data revealed the existence of six distinct ice area sub-regions. Comparison ...

Chester F. Ropelewski

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Anomalous North Pacific Atmospheric Circulation and Large Winter Floods in the Southwestern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Specific anomalous atmospheric circulation conditions over the North Pacific are conducive to the occurrence of the largest winter floods (?10-yr return period) on rivers in six hydroclimatic subregions of Arizona and southern Utah, Nevada, and ...

Lisa L. Ely; Yehouda Enzel; Daniel R. Cayan

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Utility Energy Efficiency Potential Calculator Version 1.0  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the promulgation of energy efficiency savings mandates in many states and other jurisdictions, utilities and policy makers have a keen interest in understanding the potential for energy efficiency at the national, regional, subregional, state, and service-territory ...

2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

47

rIc. IL1 Dorsalvicw ofskulls of(A) round-earcd elephant-shrew (Maloslides proboscdeus) and (B) castern rock elephant-shrew (Elephantulus myuns)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. (7986) listed nvo subspecies: M p' proboscideøs (Shaw, 1800) from the Nama-Karoo and Succulent Karoo part of the south-western subregion in the Nama-Karoo and Succulent Karoo biomes. Southern African

48

The Impact of Recent Heat Waves on Human Health in California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the health impacts of recent heat waves statewide and for six subregions of California: the north and south coasts, Central Valley, Mojave, southern deserts, and northern forests. Using Canonical Correlation Analysis applied to ...

Kristen Guirguis; Alexander Gershunov; Alexander Tardy; Rupa Basu

49

Regional Consumer Hydrogen Demand and Optimal Hydrogen Refueling Station Siting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Using a GIS approach to spatially analyze key attributes affecting hydrogen market transformation, this study proposes hypothetical hydrogen refueling station locations in select subregions to demonstrate a method for determining station locations based on geographic criteria.

Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Surface Wind Regionalization in Complex Terrain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Daily wind variability in the Comunidad Foral de Navarra in northern Spain was studied using wind observations at 35 locations to derive subregions with homogeneous temporal variability. Two different methodologies based on principal component ...

P. A. Jimnez; E. Garca-Bustamante; J. F. Gonzlez-Rouco; F. Valero; J. P. Montvez; J. Navarro

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

the reporting entity. The user must also specify the country and utility region (e.g., eGRID subregion, if applicable). For some countries, the user must specify the fuel mix...

52

Objective Estimation of the 24-h Probability of Tropical Cyclone Formation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new product for estimating the 24-h probability of TC formation in individual 5 5 subregions of the North Atlantic, eastern North Pacific, and western North Pacific tropical basins is developed. This product uses environmental and ...

Andrea B. Schumacher; Mark DeMaria; John A. Knaff

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Hydrological Processes in Regional Climate Model Simulations of the Central United States Flood of JuneJuly 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thirteen regional climate model (RCM) simulations of JuneJuly 1993 were compared with each other and observations. Water vapor conservation and precipitation characteristics in each RCM were examined for a 10 10 subregion of the upper ...

Christopher J. Anderson; Raymond W. Arritt; Zaitao Pan; Eugene S. Takle; William J. Gutowski Jr.; Francis O. Otieno; Renato da Silva; Daniel Caya; Jens H. Christensen; Daniel Lthi; Miguel A. Gaertner; Clemente Gallardo; Filippo Giorgi; Ren Laprise; Song-You Hong; Colin Jones; H-M. H. Juang; J. J. Katzfey; John L. McGregor; William M. Lapenta; Jay W. Larson; John A. Taylor; Glen E. Liston; Roger A. Pielke Sr.; John O. Roads

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Evaluation of IPCC Models Performance in Simulating Late-Twentieth-Century Climatologies and Weather Patterns over North America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors analyze the performance of 22 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) global climate models (GCMs) over all of North America and its western subregion using several different evaluation metrics. They assess the model skill in ...

Valentina Radi?; Garry K. C. Clarke

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

How different home styles are valued in the Salt Lake City market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis focuses on market valuation of attributes of single family housing in the Salt Lake City market. Using data from different sub-regions of Salt Lake County, this paper addresses the question of buyer demand with ...

Peterson, Barrett, 1976-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Regional economic impacts of changes in electricity rates resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives  

SciTech Connect

This technical memorandum describes an analysis of regional economic impacts resulting from changes in retail electricity rates due to six power marketing programs proposed by Western Area Power Administration (Western). Regional economic impacts of changes in rates are estimated in terms of five key regional economic variables: population, gross regional product, disposable income, employment, and household income. The REMI (Regional Impact Models, Inc.) and IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) models simulate economic impacts in nine subregions in the area in which Western power is sold for the years 1993, 2000, and 2008. Estimates show that impacts on aggregate economic activity in any of the subregions or years would be minimal for three reasons. First, the utilities that buy power from Western sell only a relatively small proportion of the total electricity sold in any of the subregions. Second, reliance of Western customers on Western power is fairly low in each subregion. Finally, electricity is not a significant input cost for any industry or for households in any subregion.

Allison, T.; Griffes, P.; Edwards, B.K.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Utility Energy Efficiency Potential Calculator v2.0  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the promulgation of energy efficiency savings mandates in many states and other jurisdictions, utilities and policy makers have a keen interest in understanding the potential for energy efficiency at the national, regional, subregional, state, and service-territory levels. Many load serving entities are required by their regulatory commissions to submit ...

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

58

Interaction Flip Identities for non Centered Spin Glasses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider spin glass models with non-centered interactions and investigate the effect, on the random free energies, of flipping the interaction in a subregion of the entire volume. A fluctuation bound obtained by martingale methods produces, with the help of integration by parts technique, a family of polynomial identities involving overlaps and magnetizations.

Pierluigi Contucci; Cristian Giardina'; Claudio Giberti

2012-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

59

Questioning Inevitability of Energy Pathways: Alternative Energy Scenarios for California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the EPA's Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID) non-baseload sub-regional grid. 17 The EPA's Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID) provides data on power plant of the purchased electricity (using EPA eGRID regional emissions factors), and (2) an adjusted estimate

Kammen, Daniel M.

60

This page intentionally left blank. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ........................................................................................................ xi  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the EPA's Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID) non-baseload sub-regional grid. 17 The EPA's Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID) provides data on power plant of the purchased electricity (using EPA eGRID regional emissions factors), and (2) an adjusted estimate

Argonne National Laboratory

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vacar virginia-carolinas subregion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Ab Initio potential grid based docking: From High Performance Computing to In Silico Screening  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a new and completely parallel method for protein ligand docking. The potential of the docking target structure is obtained directly from the electron density derived through an ab initio computation. A large subregion of the crystal structure of Isocitrate Lyase

Marc R. de Jonge; H. Maarten Vinkers; Joop H. van Lenthe; Frits Daeyaert; Ian J. Bush; Huub J. J. van Dam; Paul Sherwood; Martyn F. Guest

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Draft Conference Paper Prepared for "Renewable Energy" Working Group Global Network on Energy for Sustainable Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Draft Conference Paper Prepared for "Renewable Energy" Working Group Global Network on Energy for Sustainable Development A Sub-Regional Outlook of Renewable Energy Potential: The Case of Jordan, Syria@aub.edu.lb Abstract This paper addresses the current status and the potentials of renewable energy applications

63

Efficient and good Delaunay meshes from random points  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a Conforming Delaunay Triangulation (CDT) algorithm based on maximal Poisson disk sampling. Points are unbiased, meaning the probability of introducing a vertex in a disk-free subregion is proportional to its area, except in a neighborhood ... Keywords: Computational geometry and topology, Computer-aided design, engineering, and manufacturing, Geophysical applications, Mesh generation, Product and assembly modeling

Mohamed S. Ebeida; Scott A. Mitchell; Andrew A. Davidson; Anjul Patney; Patrick M. Knupp; John D. Owens

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

MINERALOGY AND GENESIS OF SMECTITES IN AN ALKALINE-SALINE ENVIRONMENT OF PANTANAL WETLAND, BRAZIL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MINERALOGY AND GENESIS OF SMECTITES IN AN ALKALINE-SALINE ENVIRONMENT OF PANTANAL WETLAND, BRAZIL, Universidade de Sa~o Paulo (USP), Av. Prof. Dr. Lineu Prestes, 338, 05508-900, Sa~o Paulo, Brazil 2 Soil-saline lake of Nhecola^ndia, a sub-region of the Pantanal wetland, Brazil, and then to identify the mechanisms

Ahmad, Sajjad

65

Capacity Building on Promoting Sustainable Development in the GMS | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Promoting Sustainable Development in the GMS Promoting Sustainable Development in the GMS Jump to: navigation, search Name Capacity Building on Promoting Sustainable Development in the GMS Agency/Company /Organization AIT-UNEP Regional Resource Centre for Asia and the Pacific Sector Energy, Land Topics Implementation, Policies/deployment programs, Background analysis Resource Type Guide/manual Website http://www.rrcap.unep.org/nsds Country Cambodia, China, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam, Myanmar UN Region South-Eastern Asia References Capacity Building in GMS[1] Summary "The study assesses the state of sustainable development strategies (SDS) in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) - within each of the six member-countries and in the subregion as a whole - with a view towards identifying appropriate improvements that would bring about strong national

66

Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 12. Puerto Rico and US Virgin Islands  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Puerto Rico/US Virgin Island atlas assimilates three collections of wind resource data: one for the region as a whole and one each for both the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. For the two subregions, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in both subregions are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

Wegley, H.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Appendix E Supporting Information for Ground Water Modeling  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Supporting Information for Ground Water Modeling Supporting Information for Ground Water Modeling This page intentionally left blank Contents Section Geologic Map of Site Area ........................................................................................................ E1.O Stream Flow Measurements ...................................................................................................... E2.0 Estimates of Ground Water Flow .............................................................................................. E3.0 .......................................... MODFLOW Flow Budget Analysis for OU 1 1 1 Model Subregions E4.0 ............................................................................ Burro Canyon Aquifer Ground Water Model E5.0 This page intentionally left blank

68

Carbon flow and ecosystem dynamics in the Mississippi River plume described by inverse analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Planktonic ecosystem dynamics in the buoyant Mississippi River plume were investigated using inverse analysis, a technique that incorporates data describing ecosystem processes and calculates rates of unknown trophic flows and sedimentation in the plume ecosystem. The waters receiving the Mississippi River were divided into four subregions connected by water flow to discretize the gradient of ecosystem properties as river water mixed with ocean water. Each subregion was represented by eight interconnected compartments that were linked to adjacent subregions by advective carbon flow. Models were produced for 4 seasons. Solutions for three seasons (spring, summer, and fall) showed a small region of net autotrophy associated with mid-salinity waters (15-29 psu), surrounded by a larger region of net heterotrophic waters where production did not meet respiratory carbon demand. In addition to moving more than 20% of total plume primary productivity out of the study region, westward water flow moved excess organic carbon from autotrophic regions to heterotrophic regions. In contrast, the winter result indicated a plume that was net-heterotrophic in all 4 subregions with high aerobic bacterial respiration and relatively low primary production that did not meet respiratory demand. Inputs of riverine DOC and carbon from resuspended sediments were required to make up the deficit. Sedimentation of organic carbon was linked to primary production in the mid-salinity regions of the plume, with strongest sedimentation from the productive mid-salinity regions during most of the year. Sedimentation was enhanced beneath less productive, higher salinity areas, due to inputs of organic carbon advected from mid-salinity regions. During winter organic carbon sedimentation was calculated to be zero. The models indicated that a dynamic relationship between primary production and sedimentation exists and provide a good starting point for future development of models which directly address the relationships between nutrient inputs, primary production, sedimentation, and hypoxia in the economically and environmental important regions of the Louisiana Shelf.

Breed, Greg Allen

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

PRE-SW Utility Energy Efficiency Potential Calculator v2.0, Beta  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the promulgation of energy efficiency savings mandates in many states and other jurisdictions, utilities and policy makers have a keen interest in understanding the potential for energy efficiency at the national, regional, subregional, state, and service-territory levels. Many load serving entities are required by their regulatory commissions to submit energy efficiency potential filings on a periodic basis; these undertakings typically require significant investment in consultants. ...

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the southeastern United States. Executive summary  

SciTech Connect

The geology of the southeastern United States was studied to recommend areas that should be considered for field exploration in order to select a site for a radioactive waste repository. The region studied included the Piedmont Province, the Triassic Basins, and the Atlantic Coastal Plain in Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. This study was entirely a review of literature and existing knowledge from a geotechnical point of view and was performed by subcontractors whose individual reports are listed in the bibliography. No field work was involved. The entire study was geotechnical in nature, and no consideration was given to socioeconomic or demographic factors. These factors need to be addressed in a separate study. For all areas, field study is needed before any area is further considered. A total of 29 areas are recommended for further consideration in the Piedmont Province subregion: one area in Maryland, 8 areas in Virginia, 4 areas in North Carolina, 6 areas in South Carolina, and 10 areas in Georgia. Of the 14 exposed and 5 buried or hypothesized basins identified in the Triassic basin subregion, 6 are recommended for further study: one basin in Virginia, 3 basins in North Carolina, and 2 basins in South Carolina. Four potential candidate areas are identified within the Atlantic Coastal Plain subregion: one in Maryland, one in North Carolina, and 2 in Georgia.

Bledsoe, H.W. Jr.; Marine, I.W.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

California/Transmission | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

California/Transmission California/Transmission < California Jump to: navigation, search CaliforniaTransmissionHeader.png Roadmap Agency Links Local Regulations State Regulations Summary General Transmission Dashboard Permitting Atlas Compare States Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming Resource Library NEPA Database The electrical grid in California is part of the WestConnect Transmission Planning area and the California Transmission Planning Group. The desert southwest region of California belongs to the Southwest Area Transmission power grid and the northern region of the state belongs to the Sierra Subregional Planning Group. The SWAT provides the technical forum required to complete reliability assessments, develop joint business opportunities and accomplish

72

Current Conditions Risk Assessment for the 300-FF-5 Groundwater Operable Unit  

SciTech Connect

This report updates a baseline risk assessment for the 300 Area prepared in 1994. The update includes consideration of changes in contaminants of interest and in the environment that have occurred during the period of interim remedial action, i.e., 1996 to the present, as well as the sub-regions, for which no initial risk assessments have been conducted. In 1996, a record of decision (ROD) stipulated interim remedial action for groundwater affected by releases from 300 Area sources, as follows: (a) continued monitoring of groundwater that is contaminated above health-based levels to ensure that concentrations continue to decrease, and (b) institutional controls to ensure that groundwater use is restricted to prevent unacceptable exposure to groundwater contamination. In 2000, the groundwater beneath the two outlying sub-regions was added to the operable unit. In 2001, the first 5-year review of the ROD found that the interim remedy and remedial action objectives were still appropriate, although the review called for additional characterization activities. This report includes a current conditions baseline ecological and human health risk assessment using maximum concentrations in the environmental media of the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and downstream conditions at the City of Richland, Washington. The scope for this assessment includes only current measured environmental concentrations and current use scenarios. Future environmental concentrations and future land uses are not considered in this assessment.

Miley, Terri B.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Napier, Bruce A.; Peterson, Robert E.; Becker, James M.

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Distribution of Cold dust in Orion A and B  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Large scale far-infrared (FIR) observations of the Orion complex at 205 and 138 micron are presented with an aim of studying the distribution of cold (< 25 K) dust. The maps in these FIR bands extend over approximately 3600 sq. arcmin and cover regions around OMC-1, 2, 3 in Orion A and NGC 2023 and NGC 2024 in Orion B. Some limited regions have also been mapped at 57 micron. A total of 15 sources in Orion A and 14 in Orion B (south) have been identified from our FIR maps. Dust temperature distribution in both Orion A and Orion B (south) have been determined reliably using the maps at 205 & 138 micron obtained from simultaneous observations using almost identical beams (1.6 dia). These temperatures have been used to generate map of the optical depth at 150 micron, for the Orion B region. The coldest source detected is in OMC-3 and has a temperature of about 15 K. The diffuse FIR emission in the different sub-regions is found to vary between 25% to 50% of the total FIR emission from that sub-region.

Mookerjea, B; Rengarajan, T N; Tandon, S N; Verma, R P

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Distribution of Cold dust in Orion A and B  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Large scale far-infrared (FIR) observations of the Orion complex at 205 and 138 micron are presented with an aim of studying the distribution of cold (< 25 K) dust. The maps in these FIR bands extend over approximately 3600 sq. arcmin and cover regions around OMC-1, 2, 3 in Orion A and NGC 2023 and NGC 2024 in Orion B. Some limited regions have also been mapped at 57 micron. A total of 15 sources in Orion A and 14 in Orion B (south) have been identified from our FIR maps. Dust temperature distribution in both Orion A and Orion B (south) have been determined reliably using the maps at 205 & 138 micron obtained from simultaneous observations using almost identical beams (1.6 dia). These temperatures have been used to generate map of the optical depth at 150 micron, for the Orion B region. The coldest source detected is in OMC-3 and has a temperature of about 15 K. The diffuse FIR emission in the different sub-regions is found to vary between 25% to 50% of the total FIR emission from that sub-region.

B. Mookerjea; S. K. Ghosh; T. N. Rengarajan; S. N. Tandon; R. P. Verma

2000-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

75

ON THE ANTI-CORRELATION BETWEEN SPECTRAL LINE BROADENING AND INTENSITY IN CORONAL STRUCTURES OBSERVED WITH EIS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The advance in spectral resolution of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging (EIS) spectrometer on board Hinode has allowed for more detailed analysis of coronal spectral lines. Large line broadening and blueshifted velocities have been found in the periphery of active region (AR) cores and near the footpoints of coronal loops. This line broadening is yet to be understood. We study the correlation of intensity and line width for entire ARs and sub-regions selected to include coronal features. The results show that although a slight positive correlation can be found when considering whole images, many sub-regions have a negative correlation between intensity and line width. Sections of a coronal loop display some of the largest anti-correlations found for this study with the increased line broadening occurring directly adjacent to the footpoint section of the loop structure, not at the footpoint itself. The broadened lines may be due to a second Doppler-shifted component that is separate from the main emitting feature such as a coronal loop, but related in their excitation. The small size of these features forces the considerations of investigator and instrumental effects. Preliminary analyses are shown that indicate the possibility of a point-spread function that is not azimuthally symmetric and may affect velocity and line profile measurements.

Scott, J. T.; Martens, P. C. H. [Deptartment of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

The Role of Electricity in Pacific Northwest Irrigated Agriculture, 1979-1987 : A Study of Irrigation Price Elasticity of Demand, the Importance of Irrigated Agriculture to Rural Communities, and an Evaluation of Alternative Targeted Rate Discount Options for Irrigation Consumers, Volume 1.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increased regional pressure for and against the wholesale rate discount has prompted BPA to evaluate the quantitative, qualitative, economic, and policy issues associated with an irrigation rate discount. BPA determined that more information was required in the following areas: Irrigation price elasticities at the subregional level (utility, group of utilities and/or production areas), importance of irrigated agriculture to local and regional economies, issues related to targeting an irrigation rate discount, and the role of BPA wholesale rates and rate discounts on Pacific Northwest sprinkler irrigation and the supporting economies. In response to this request for additional information, the analysis in the present study is conducted in four parts: Document the importance of irrigated agriculture, particularly sprinkler irrigated agriculture, to the Pacific Northwest economy and quantify the impact of the rate discount on regional agriculture and local communities; Estimate irrigation price elasticities for BPA customers at a subregional level, so that load impacts associated with the rate discount can be evaluated at a more localized level; Identify the economic, policy, and practical application issues associated with targeting a rate discount to groups of utilities or irrigators; and Review the short-term economic and policy outlook for irrigated agriculture in the Pacific Northwest and draw implications regarding the impact on producer response to electricity rates. 40 refs., 1 fig., 24 tabs.

Northwest Economic Associates.

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Bypass flow computations on the LOFA transient in a VHTR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bypass flow in the prismatic gas-cooled very high temperature reactor (VHTR) is not intentionally designed to occur, but is present in the gaps between graphite blocks. Previous studies of the bypass flow in the core indicated that the cooling provided by flow in the bypass gaps had a significant effect on temperature and flow distributions for normal operating conditions. However, the flow and heat transports in the core are changed significantly after a Loss of Flow Accident (LOFA). This study aims to study the effect and role of the bypass flow after a LOFA in terms of the temperature and flow distributions and for the heat transport out of the core by natural convection of the coolant for a 1/12 symmetric section of the active core which is composed of images and mirror images of two sub-region models. The two sub-region models, 9 x 1/12 and 15 x 1/12 symmetric sectors of the active core, are employed as the CFD flow models using computational grid systems of 70.2 million and 117 million nodes, respectively. It is concluded that the effect of bypass flow is significant for the initial conditions and the beginning of LOFA, but the bypass flow has little effect after a long period of time in the transient computation of natural circulation.

Yu-Hsin Tung; Richard W. Johnson; Yuh-Ming Ferng; Ching-Chang Chieng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Microsoft PowerPoint - Cauchois.ppt  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Expansion Planning Expansion Planning Policy Committee Spring 2009 Technical Workshop U.S. DOE 2009 Congestion Study Scott Cauchois, TEPPC Chair March 25, 2009 2 TEPPC ● Committee of the WECC Board (2006) ● WECC footprint - Western Interconnection ● 2 board incl. chair/16 stakeholder members ● Dedicated WECC staff ● Regular quarterly meetings ● Western coordination call 2 nd Tuesday each month 3 TEPPC Charter ● Oversee production cost & other data management ● Develop & implement interconnection- wide expansion planning policies and processes in coordination with the Planning Coordination Committee and subregional planning groups (SPGs) ● Guiding/improving economic analysis & modeling of interconnection 4 Organizational Structure Notes Notes : : 1. TEPPC has a balanced governance whose members represent: the

79

Sustainable Development Strategy for South Asia | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Name Sustainable Development Strategy for South Asia Agency/Company /Organization AIT-UNEP Regional Resource Centre for Asia and the Pacific Sector Energy, Land Topics Implementation, Policies/deployment programs, Background analysis Resource Type Guide/manual Website http://www.rrcap.unep.org/nsds Country Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Maldives, Pakistan, Sri Lanka UN Region South-Eastern Asia References AIT-UNEP RRC.AP[1] Purpose "This document is expected to provide the strategic direction for the pursuit of sustainable development in the SAS. It is important to note that this document addresses the issues at the sub-regional level, building upon national level issues and policies but particularly addressing those transcending and common to the countries in the SAS. It is expected that

80

UK Electricity Consumption and Number of Meters at MLSOA level (2008) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

8) 8) Dataset Summary Description The UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) releases annual statistics on domestic and non-domestic electricity and gas consumption (and number of meters) at the Middle Layer Super Output Authority (MLSOA) and Intermediate Geography Zone (IGZ) level (there are over 950 of these subregions throughout England, Scotland and Wales). Both MLSOAs (England and Wales) and IGZs (Scotland) include a minimum of approximately 2,000 households. The electricity consumption data data is split by ordinary electricity and economy7 electricity usage. All data in this set are classified as UK National Statistics. Related socio-economic data for MLSOA and IGZ levels can be accessed: http://decc.gov.uk/assets/decc/Statistics/regional/mlsoa2008/181-mlsoa-i...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vacar virginia-carolinas subregion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Meters | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Meters Meters Dataset Summary Description The UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) releases annual statistics on domestic and non-domestic electricity and gas consumption (and number of meters) at the Middle Layer Super Output Authority (MLSOA) and Intermediate Geography Zone (IGZ) level (there are over 950 of these subregions throughout England, Scotland and Wales). Both MLSOAs (England and Wales) and IGZs (Scotland) include a minimum of approximately 2,000 households. The electricity consumption data data is split by ordinary electricity and economy7 electricity usage. Source UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) Date Released March 25th, 2010 (4 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords Electricity Consumption gas Meters regional

82

United Nations Environment Programme: Global Environment Outlook | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nations Environment Programme: Global Environment Outlook Nations Environment Programme: Global Environment Outlook Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: United Nations Environment Programme: Global Environment Outlook Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Environment Programme Topics: Co-benefits assessment, Policies/deployment programs, Resource assessment, Pathways analysis Resource Type: Dataset, Maps Website: geodata.grid.unep.ch/ United Nations Environment Programme: Global Environment Outlook Screenshot References: UNEP Data[1] Overview "The GEO Data Portal is the authoritative source for data sets used by UNEP and its partners in the Global Environment Outlook (GEO) report and other integrated environment assessments. Its online database holds more than 500 different variables, as national, subregional, regional and global

83

NPP Grassland: Tumentsogt, Mongolia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tumentsogt, Mongolia, 1982-1990 Tumentsogt, Mongolia, 1982-1990 Data Citation Cite this data set as follows: Togtohyn, C., and D. Ojima. 1996. NPP Grassland: Tumentsogt, Mongolia, 1982-1990. Data set. Available on-line [http://www.daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. Description Productivity of a steppe grassland was studied at the Tumentsogt Research Station of the Mongolian Academy of Science from 1982 to 1990. Measurements were made of peak above-ground live biomass for each year. The study site is located on the Eastern Mongolian Plains of the Tumentsogt sub-region (47.4 N 112.5 E), in Sukhbaatar administrative region. The Mongolian steppe occupies a major part of eastern Mongolia and northern China, characterized by an arid continental climate with most rain falling

84

State and Regional Policy Assistance - Program Activities | Department of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

State and Regional Policy Assistance - State and Regional Policy Assistance - Program Activities State and Regional Policy Assistance - Program Activities Providing Technical Assistance to States and Regions The Electric Markets Technical Assistance Program responds to both immediate and long-terms needs of states, regions, and other organizations to implement policy and market solutions that bring about improved demand response, energy efficiency, renewable energy, and transmission utilization. Examples include: Supporting efforts by the Western Governors' Association (WGA), its subsidiary Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB), and related ad-hoc subregional groups in the West as they work toward greater regional coordination and planning of regional electric infrastructure. (see Sample Products and Related Links or FY2003 Grants for details.)

85

The Energy Information Administration is proposing the following revisions to their electricity survey forms in 2011:  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy Information Administration proposed the following revisions to their electricity Energy Information Administration proposed the following revisions to their electricity survey forms in 2011: F or m E I A -411, " C oor dinated B ulk Power Supply Pr ogr am R epor t." * Change form name to "Coordinated Bulk Power Supply & Demand Program Report;" return to collecting projected reliability data on a 10-year basis as opposed to 5 years. Change "Council" to "Regional Entity" and add submission of Sub-regional level breakout of data. * Return to reporting on capacity and transmission planning for a 10-year horizon, rather than a 5-year horizon. * Adopt the current NERC 2009 Schedule 3 for summer and winter aggregated demand and supply information. Changes are as follows: Demand category additions include

86

regional | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

regional regional Dataset Summary Description The UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) releases annual statistics on domestic and industrial/commercial electricity and gas consumption (and number of meters) at the Middle Layer Super Output Authority (MLSOA) and Intermediate Geography Zone (IGZ) level (there are over 950 of these subregions throughout England, Scotland and Wales). Both MLSOAs (England and Wales) and IGZs (Scotland) include a minimum of approximately 2,000 households. Source UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) Date Released March 01st, 2008 (6 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords Electricity Consumption gas regional UK Data application/zip icon Guidance document for interpreting data (zip, 1.2 MiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon Excel file: 2005 MLSOA and IGZ gas and electricity (xls, 10 MiB)

87

Selection of 1998-2003 Technical Assistance Work Products | Department of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Selection Selection of 1998-2003 Technical Assistance Work Products Selection of 1998-2003 Technical Assistance Work Products The following are some Technical Assistance Work Products from 1998-2003. Sponsored Sample Products DOE co-funded report examines the current status of the U.S. Electric Transmission System. Report finds transmission capacity continues to be added at a slower rate than consumer demand is growing. Additional Program-Sponsored Sample Products The Electric Markets Technical Assistance Program is supporting efforts by the Western Governors' Association (WGA), its subsidiary Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB), and related ad-hoc subregional groups in the West as they work toward greater regional coordination and planning of regional electric infrastructure. See November 2003 presentation for more

88

Appendix B Sierra Nevada Region Customer Groups and Economic Regions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A- Not available electronically. A- Not available electronically. Appendix B Sierra Nevada Region Customer Groups and Economic Regions The list included in this appendix shows the Sierra Nevada Region customers with contracts expiring in the year 2004. The list indicates which customer group each customer is considered a part of for purposes of analysis. The list also shows which economic region each customer is located in. Some customers are not included in a subregion of the central and northern California region. Further discussion of the economic regions is included in Section 4.9.4 and in Appendix L. Appendix C Renewable Technology Cost Information Matrix The development of the renewable technology matrix (RTM) was undertaken to determine the primary cost and performance characteristics of renewable technologies in

89

Hourly Energy Emission Factors for Electricity Generation in the United  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hourly Energy Emission Factors for Electricity Generation in the United Hourly Energy Emission Factors for Electricity Generation in the United States Dataset Summary Description Emissions from energy use in buildings are usually estimated on an annual basis using annual average multipliers. Using annual numbers provides a reasonable estimation of emissions, but it provides no indication of the temporal nature of the emissions. Therefore, there is no way of understanding the impact on emissions from load shifting and peak shaving technologies such as thermal energy storage, on-site renewable energy, and demand control. This project utilized GridViewTM, an electric grid dispatch software package, to estimate hourly emission factors for all of the eGRID subregions in the continental United States. These factors took into account electricity imports and exports

90

Wind: wind power density maps at 50 m above ground and 1km resolution for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

eastern China from NREL eastern China from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): PDF maps of Eastern China wind mapping. (Purpose): To provide information on the wind resource potential in eastern China. Includes maps of full mapping region, and 15 sub-regions. (Supplemental Information): The modeling regions do not completely cover eastern China. Projection Parameters Projection LAMBERT_AZIMUTHAL Datum WGS84 Z-units METERS Units METERS Spheroid DEFINED Major Axis 6370997.00000 Minor Axis 0.00000 Parameters: radius of the sphere of reference 6370997.00000 Continue? longitude of center of projection 119 0 0.00 latitude of center of projection 33 30 0.000 false easting (meters) 0.00000 false northing (meters) 0.00000 Spatial Information Raster: Number of Columns: 2658 Number of Rows: 3926

91

On relative permeability of rough-walled fractures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents a conceptual and numerical model of multiphase flow in fractures. The void space of real rough-walled rock fractures is conceptualized as a two-dimensional heterogeneous porous medium, characterized by aperture as a function of position in the fracture plane. Portions of a fracture are occupied by wetting and non-wetting phase, respectively, according to local capillary pressure and accessibility criteria. Phase occupancy and permeability are derived by assuming a parallel-plate approximation for suitably small subregions in the fracture plane. Wetting and non-wetting phase relative permeabilities are calculated by numerically simulating single phase flows separately in the wetted and non-wetted pore spaces. Illustrative examples indicate that relative permeabilities depend sensitively on the nature and range of spatial correlation between apertures. 30 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Pruess, K.; Tsang, Y.W.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Evaluation of Fish Passage Conditions for Juvenile Salmonids Using Sensor Fish at Detroit Dam, Oregon  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fish passage conditions through two spillways at Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River in Oregon were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objective of the study was to describe and compare passage exposure conditions through Spillbay 3 and Spillbay 6 at 1.5- and 3.5-ft gate openings, identifying potential fish injury regions of the routes. The study was performed in July 2009, concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish and live fish were deployed at elevations approximately 3 ft above structure at depths determined using a computational fluid dynamics model. Data collected were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe collision and shear events by passage route sub-regions; 2) differences in passage conditions between passage routes; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates.

Duncan, Joanne P.

2010-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

93

SOLAR POLAR X-RAY JETS AND MULTIPLE BRIGHT POINTS: EVIDENCE FOR SYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY  

SciTech Connect

We present an analysis of X-ray bright points (BPs) and X-ray jets observed by Hinode/X-Ray Telescope on 2007 November 2-4, within the solar northern polar coronal hole. After selecting small subregions that include several BPs, we followed their brightness evolution over a time interval of a few hours, when several jets were observed. We find that most of the jets occurred in close temporal association with brightness maxima in multiple BPs: more precisely, most jets are closely correlated with the brightening of at least two BPs. We suggest that the jets result from magnetic connectivity changes that also induce the BP variability. We surmise that the jets and implied magnetic connectivity we describe are small-scale versions of the active-region-scale phenomenon, whereby flares and eruptions are triggered by interacting bipoles.

Pucci, Stefano; Romoli, Marco [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Poletto, Giannina [INAF-Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, Firenze (Italy); Sterling, Alphonse C., E-mail: stpucci@arcetri.astro.it [Space Science Office, VP 62, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

94

CFD Analysis of Turbulent Flow Phenomena in the Lower Plenum of a Prismatic Gas-Cooled Reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper is concerned with the implementation of a computational model of turbulent flow in a section of the lower plenum of Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). The proposed model has been encoded in a state-of-the-art CFD code, NPHASE. The results of NPHASE predictions have been compared against the experimental data collected using a scaled model of a sub-region in the lower plenum of a modular prismatic gas-cooled reactor. It has been shown that the NPHASE-based model is capable of predicting a three-dimensional velocity field in a complex geometrical configuration of VHTR lower plenum. The current and future validations of computational predictions are necessary for design and analysis of new reactor concepts, as well as for safety analysis and licensing calculations.

T. Gallaway; S.P. Antal; M.Z. Podowski; D.P. Guillen

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

A survey of publicly available transfer capability data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the transmission system data resources used to construct a North American network representation modeled in the Spot Market Network (SMN) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The data, largely available through various FERC Form 715 reports, are used to construct a network representation capable of modeling interarea transfer opportunities between modeled systems. A brief introduction of the SMN model and the desired level of transmission detail is first described. Next, various data resources that report published transfer capabilities essential to model operation are introduced. Modifications or adaptations of individual published network topologies are described, which are supported through extensive examinations of alternate data sources, as well as through discussions with knowledgeable operations experts or regional staff. The method of obtaining the current SMN network formulation is finally presented to illustrate the integration of regional and subregional network detail into the North American SMN transmission representation.

Kavicky, J.A.; VanKuiken, J.C.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

US Renewable Futures in the GCAM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project examines renewable energy deployment in the United States using a version of the GCAM integrated assessment model with detailed a representation of renewables, the GCAM-RE. Electricity generation was modeled in four generation segments and 12-subregions. This level of regional and sectoral detail allows a more explicit representation of renewable energy generation. Wind, solar thermal power, and central solar PV plants are implemented in explicit resource classes with new intermittency parameterizations appropriate for each technology. A scenario analysis examines a range of assumptions for technology characteristics, climate policy, and long-distance transmission. We find that renewable generation levels grow over the century in all scenarios. As expected, renewable generation increases with lower renewable technology costs, more stringent climate policy, and if alternative low-carbon technology are not available. The availability of long distance transmission lowers policy costs and changes the renewable generation mix.

Smith, Steven J.; Mizrahi, Andrew H.; Karas, Joseph F.; Nathan, Mayda

2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

97

Clovis Technology and Settlement in the American Southeast  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation presents new data on Clovis site occupation, technological organization, and settlement in the American Southeast. Evidence suggests that traditionally-accepted, western-centric models do not fully explain Clovis technological characteristics and settlement patterns in the region. My second chapter presents the results of a 40 square meter block excavation on the Topper site (SC) hillside where a buried Clovis assemblage has been recovered. I review the site geomorphology and formation processes to evaluate the context of the Clovis component, characterize the Clovis assemblage and the horizontal distribution of artifacts to understand how the Clovis occupants used this portion of the site, and compare these excavation results to the rest of the archaeological record at Topper to discuss the general nature of the Clovis occupation there. My third chapter focuses on the 174 bifaces from Topper to understand biface production. I present the process of manufacture then measure the variation in production characteristics at the site in terms of our current knowledge of Clovis biface technology. I conclude that Topper flintknappers used reduction strategies typical of Clovis-but created a biface assemblage with greater flexibility in design than documented at most other Clovis sites. Clovis groups adapted to local resource conditions and adjusted the organization of their technology accordingly. My fourth chapter analyzes southeastern Clovis point data and biface assemblages from Carson-Conn-Short (TN), Topper, and Williamson (VA) to test the technological implications of Kelly and Todds (1988) high-technology-forager model and Andersons (1990) staging-area model. Significant subregional variation exists in Clovis biface systems, such as differences in point morphology and the tempo of biface reduction. This variation suggests the subregions represent distinct populations who distinctly altered aspects of their technology but maintained fundamental elements of the Clovis tradition. Ultimately, I demonstrate there was greater variability in Clovis behavior across America. Recognizing regional variation in the archaeological record is key to understanding the complexities of Clovis origins and dispersal.

Smallwood, Ashley Michelle

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Microsoft Word - Document2  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hourly min, average, and max average CO Hourly min, average, and max average CO 2 emissions by month for AZNM subregion (lbs CO 2 /MWh load) 800 1,100 1,400 1,700 January 800 1,100 1,400 1,700 February 800 1,100 1,400 1,700 March 800 1,100 1,400 1,700 April 800 1,100 1,400 1,700 May 800 1,100 1,400 1,700 June 800 1,100 1,400 1,700 July 800 1,100 1,400 1,700 August 800 1,100 1,400 1,700 September 800 1,100 1,400 1,700 October 800 1,100 1,400 1,700 November 800 1,100 1,400 1,700 December Hourly min, average, and max average CO 2 emissions by month for CAMX subregion (lbs CO 2 /MWh load) 500 700 900 1,100 January 500 700 900 1,100 February 500 700 900 1,100 March 500 700 900 1,100 April 500 700 900 1,100 May 500 700 900 1,100 June 500 700 900 1,100 July 500 700 900 1,100 August 500 700 900 1,100 September 500 700 900 1,100 October 500 700 900 1,100 November 500 700 900 1,100 December Hourly min, average, and max average CO

99

Atmospheric Inverse Estimates of Methane Emissions from Central California  

SciTech Connect

Methane mixing ratios measured at a tall-tower are compared to model predictions to estimate surface emissions of CH{sub 4} in Central California for October-December 2007 using an inverse technique. Predicted CH{sub 4} mixing ratios are calculated based on spatially resolved a priori CH{sub 4} emissions and simulated atmospheric trajectories. The atmospheric trajectories, along with surface footprints, are computed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) coupled to the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. An uncertainty analysis is performed to provide quantitative uncertainties in estimated CH{sub 4} emissions. Three inverse model estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions are reported. First, linear regressions of modeled and measured CH{sub 4} mixing ratios obtain slopes of 0.73 {+-} 0.11 and 1.09 {+-} 0.14 using California specific and Edgar 3.2 emission maps respectively, suggesting that actual CH{sub 4} emissions were about 37 {+-} 21% higher than California specific inventory estimates. Second, a Bayesian 'source' analysis suggests that livestock emissions are 63 {+-} 22% higher than the a priori estimates. Third, a Bayesian 'region' analysis is carried out for CH{sub 4} emissions from 13 sub-regions, which shows that inventory CH{sub 4} emissions from the Central Valley are underestimated and uncertainties in CH{sub 4} emissions are reduced for sub-regions near the tower site, yielding best estimates of flux from those regions consistent with 'source' analysis results. The uncertainty reductions for regions near the tower indicate that a regional network of measurements will be necessary to provide accurate estimates of surface CH{sub 4} emissions for multiple regions.

Zhao, Chuanfeng; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Bianco, Laura; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Hirsch, Adam; MacDonald, Clinton; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Fischer, Marc L.

2008-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

100

Regional comparisons of on-site solar potential in the residential and industrial sectors  

SciTech Connect

Regional and sub-regional differences in the potential development of decentralized solar technologies are studied. Two sectors of the economy were selected for intensive analysis: the residential and industrial sectors. In both investigations, the sequence of analysis follows the same general steps: (1) selection of appropriate prototypes within each land-use sector disaggregated by census region; (2) characterization of the end-use energy demand of each prototype in order to match an appropriate decentralized solar technology to the energy demand; (3) assessment of the energy conservation potential within each prototype limited by land use patterns, technology efficiency, and variation in solar insolation; and (4) evaluation of the regional and sub-regional differences in the land use implications of decentralized energy supply technologies that result from the combination of energy demand, energy supply potential, and the subsequent addition of increasingly more restrictive policies to increase the percent contribution of on-site solar energy. Results are presented and discussed. It is concluded that determining regional variations in solar energy contribution for both the residential and industrial sectors appears to be more dependent upon a characterization of existing demand and conservation potential than regional variations in solar insolation. Local governmental decisions influencing developing land use patterns can significantly promote solar energy use and reduce reliance on non-renewable energy sources. These decisions include such measures as solar access protection through controls on vegetation and on building height and density in the residential sector, and district heating systems and industrial co-location in the manufacturing sector. (WHK)

Gatzke, A.E.; Skewes-Cox, A.O.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vacar virginia-carolinas subregion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Comparison of Energy Information Administration and Bonneville Power Administration load forecasts  

SciTech Connect

Comparisons of the modeling methodologies underlying the project Independence Evaluation System (PIES) and the Bonneville Power Administration forecasts are discussed in this paper. This Technical Memorandum is presented in order to reconcile apparent inconsistencies between the forecasts. These represent different purposes for the modeling effort as well as different forecasts. Nonetheless, both are appropriate within the context that they are intended. The BPA forecasts are site-specific, detailed, micro-level, yearly forecasts of the demand for electricity. PIES develops regional, macro forecasts and does not contain estimates of the timing of the completion of plants within the period of the forecast. The BPA forecast is intended to be utilized in analyzing a sub-regional capacity expansion program. PIES is a regional energy market-clearing, non-normative model which allows different scenarios to be compared by changing input variables. Clearly, both forecasts are dependent upon the accuracy of the assumptions and input variables included. However, the differing levels of aggregation and objectives require different types of input variables.

Reed, H.J.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

An improved dosimetric model of the head and brain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the last decade, various brain imaging methods using radionuclides have become available. Due to the introduction of new techniques, a small-scale dosimetry study of the brain, and more specifically the organs of the head (brain, eyes thyroid, skull, skin) was needed. However, the brain and head models developed in the past were crude representations of the human. In this research, a new brain model has been developed which includes eight subregions. This head model was included in a revised head model developed by Posion et al. in 1984. Some corrections and improvements were added to this head model such as the development of a new spinal region and a new cranium region in order to incorporate the cerebrospinal fluid. This model was used with a Monte Carlo code, EGS4, to calculate absorbed fraction of energy and specific absorbed fraction of energy for photon and electron sources located in one of thirteen chosen source regions. These calculations were made for radiations in the energy range 10 keV to 4 MeV. All twenty-three regions included in the revised head and brain model were taken as target regions. S-values were also calculated for several radionuclides used in brain imaging, and also deposited in the thyroid, the skull or the spinal skeleton. The S-values were calculated using discrete energy points on the beta emission spectrum of the radionuclides.

Bouchet, Lionel Gerard

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

UK Electricity Consumption and Number of Meters at MLSOA level (2005 -  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

5 - 5 - 2007) Dataset Summary Description The UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) releases annual statistics on domestic and industrial/commercial electricity and gas consumption (and number of meters) at the Middle Layer Super Output Authority (MLSOA) and Intermediate Geography Zone (IGZ) level (there are over 950 of these subregions throughout England, Scotland and Wales). Both MLSOAs (England and Wales) and IGZs (Scotland) include a minimum of approximately 2,000 households. The domestic electricity consumption data data is split by ordinary electricity and economy7 electricity usage. These data are classified as UK National Statistics. Note about spreadsheets: separate tabs exist for each local authority (LA), but the tabs are hidden. To view data, simply 'unhide' the appropriate tab(s). You do not need to "enable macros" to view the data. Related socio-economic data for MLSOA and IGZ levels can be accessed: http://decc.gov.uk/assets/decc/Statistics/regional/mlsoa2008/181-mlsoa-i...

104

eGRID2007 Version 1.1 - All Files | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

eGRID2007 Version 1.1 - All Files eGRID2007 Version 1.1 - All Files Dataset Summary Description The Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID) is a comprehensive inventory of environmental attributes of electric power systems. The preeminent source of air emissions data for the electric power sector, eGRID is based on available plant-specific data for all U.S. electricity generating plants that provide power to the electric grid and report data to the U.S. government. eGRID integrates many different federal data sources on power plants and power companies, from three different federal agencies: EPA, the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). Emissions data from EPA are carefully integrated with generation data from EIA to produce useful values like pounds per megawatt-hour (lb/MWh) of emissions, which allows direct comparison of the environmental attributes of electricity generation. eGRID also provides aggregated data by state, U.S. total, company, and by three different sets of electric grid boundaries.This particular distribution consists of a single zip file that contains all available eGrid 2007 spreadsheet files, state import-export files, Technical Support Documents, Summary Tables, GHG output emission rates, the EUEC2010 paper, and graphical representations of eGRID subregions and NERC regions maps.

105

Characterization of Fish Passage Conditions through a Francis Turbine, Spillway, and Regulating Outlet at Detroit Dam, Oregon, Using Sensor Fish, 2009  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fish passage conditions through two spillways, a Francis turbine, and a regulating outlet (RO) at Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River in Oregon were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objective of the study was to describe and compare passage exposure conditions, identifying potential fish injury regions within the routes. The study was performed in July, October, and December 2009 concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish data were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe strike, collision, and shear events by passage route sub-regions; 2) differences in passage conditions between passage routes; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates. Comparison of the three passage routes evaluated at Detroit Dam indicates that the RO passage route through the 5-ft gate opening was relatively the safest route for fish passage under the operating conditions tested; turbine passage was the most deleterious. These observations were supported also by the survival and malady estimates obtained from live-fish testing. Injury rates were highest for turbine and spillway passage. However, none of the passage routes tested is safe for juvenile salmonid passage.

Duncan, Joanne P.; Carlson, Thomas J.

2011-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

106

Characterization of Fish Passage Conditions through a Francis Turbine and Regulating Outlet at Cougar Dam, Oregon, Using Sensor Fish, 20092010  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fish passage conditions through a Francis turbine and a regulating outlet (RO) at Cougar Dam on the south fork of the McKenzie River in Oregon were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objective of the study was to describe and compare passage exposure conditions, identifying potential fish injury regions encountered during passage via specific routes. The RO investigation was performed in December 2009 and the turbine evaluation in January 2010, concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish data were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe collision, strike, and shear events by passage route sub-regions; 2) differences in passage conditions between passage routes; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates. Comparison of the three passage routes evaluated at Cougar Dam indicates that the RO passage route through the 3.7-ft gate opening was relatively the safest route for fish passage under the operating conditions tested; turbine passage was the most deleterious. These observations were supported also by the survival and malady estimates obtained from live-fish testing. Injury rates were highest for turbine passage. Compared to mainstem Columbia River passage routes, none of the Cougar Dam passage routes as tested are safe for juvenile salmonid passage.

Duncan, Joanne P.

2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

107

GELBANK : A database of annotated two-dimensional gel electrophoresis patterns of biological systems with completed genomes.  

SciTech Connect

GELBANK is a publicly available database of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) gel patterns of proteomes from organisms with known genome information (available at and ftp://bioinformatics.anl.gov/gelbank/). Currently it includes 131 completed, mostly microbial proteomes available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. A web interface allows the upload of 2D gel patterns and their annotation for registered users. The images are organized by species, tissue type, separation method, sample type and staining method. The database can be queried based on protein or 2DE-pattern attributes. A web interface allows registered users to assign molecular weight and pH gradient profiles to their own 2D gel patterns as well as to link protein identifications to a given spot on the pattern. The website presents all of the submitted 2D gel patterns where the end-user can dynamically display the images or parts of images along with molecular weight, pH profile information and linked protein identification. A collection of images can be selected for the creation of animations from which the user can select sub-regions of interest and unlimited 2D gel patterns for visualization. The website currently presents 233 identifications for 81 gel patterns for Homo sapiens, Methanococcus jannaschii, Pyro coccus furiosus, Shewanella oneidensis, Escherichia coli and Deinococcus radiodurans.

Babnigg, G.; Giometti, C. S.; Biosciences Division

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Market penetration potential of new clean coal technologies  

SciTech Connect

The diverse nature of the electric utility sector, both in terms of supply and demand, will allow numerous new coal-burning technologies to find economic niches within the marketplace. The focus of this paper is on the potential market penetration rate for one clean coal technology, Integrated Gasifier Combined Cycles (IGCC), from 1995 to 2024. The market penetration of IGCC was examined in two power pools that are distinctly different in terms of electric supply and demand. These pools consist of groups of companies that aggregate their resources for dispatching or trading electricity to achieve operating economies through energy exchanges. The first pool is located in the Midwest and is part of the North American Electric Reliability Council's (NERC) East Central Area Reliability Coordination Agreement (ECAR) region. The second pool is the Florida subregion of NERC's Southeastern Electric Reliability Council (SERC) region. Emphasis is placed on how both the current technology configuration of the power pool and how future demand profiles influence the penetration rate of a new technology. The effects of fuel prices on technology penetration are also examined. The argonne Utility Simulation (ARGUS) model is used to estimate IGCC market penetration under various economic assumptions. 20 refs., 8 figs.

Veselka, T.D.; Rose, K.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Self-pulsations and excitability in optically injected quantum-dot lasers: Impact of the excited states and spontaneous emission noise  

SciTech Connect

We study the dynamics of an optically injected quantum-dot laser accounting for excited states. Mapping of the bifurcations in the plane frequency detuning vs. injection strength shows that the relaxation rate scales the regions of locking and single- and double-period solutions, while the capture rate has a minor effect. Within the regions of time-periodic solutions, close to the saddle-node bifurcation boundary, we identify subregions where the output signal resembles excitable pulses as a result of the bottleneck phenomenon. We show that such emission is determined mainly by fluctuations in the occupation of the excited states. The interpulse time follows an inverse square root scaling law as a function of the detuning. In a deterministic system the pulses are periodic regardless of the detuning, but in the presence of noise, close to the locking region, the interpulse time follows a positively skewed normal distribution. For a fixed frequency detuning, increasing the noise strength can shift the mean of the interpulse time distribution and make the pulsations more periodic.

Olejniczak, Lukasz [Department of Applied Physics and Photonics, Brussels Photonics Team B-PHOT, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 2 Pleinlaan, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); SUPELEC, OPTEL, and LMOPS EA 4423 (Laboratoire Materiaux Optiques, Photonique et Systemes), 2 rue Edouard Belin, F-57070 Metz (France); Panajotov, Krassimir [Department of Applied Physics and Photonics, Brussels Photonics Team B-PHOT, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 2 Pleinlaan, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Institute of Solid State Physics, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee Boulevard, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Thienpont, Hugo [Department of Applied Physics and Photonics, Brussels Photonics Team B-PHOT, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 2 Pleinlaan, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Sciamanna, Marc [SUPELEC, OPTEL, and LMOPS EA 4423 (Laboratoire Materiaux Optiques, Photonique et Systemes), 2 rue Edouard Belin, F-57070 Metz (France)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

110

THE INFLUENCE OF INELASTIC NEUTRINO REACTIONS WITH LIGHT NUCLEI ON THE STANDING ACCRETION SHOCK INSTABILITY IN CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We perform numerical experiments to investigate the influence of inelastic neutrino reactions with light nuclei on the standing accretion shock instability (SASI). The time evolution of shock waves is calculated with a simple light-bulb approximation for the neutrino transport and a multi-nuclei equation of state. The neutrino absorptions and inelastic interactions with deuterons, tritons, helions, and alpha particles are taken into account in the hydrodynamical simulations. In addition, the effects of ordinary charged-current interactions with nucleons is addressed in the simulations. Axial symmetry is assumed but no equatorial symmetry is imposed. We show that the heating rates of deuterons reach as high as {approx}10% of those of nucleons around the bottom of the gain region. On the other hand, alpha particles are heated near the shock wave, which is important when the shock wave expands and the density and temperature of matter become low. It is also found that the models with heating by light nuclei evolve differently in the non-linear phase of SASI than do models that lack heating by light nuclei. This result is because matter in the gain region has a varying density and temperature and therefore sub-regions appear that are locally rich in deuterons and alpha particles. Although the light nuclei are never dominant heating sources and they work favorably for shock revival in some cases and unfavorably in other cases, they are non-negligible and warrant further investigation.

Furusawa, Shun; Nagakura, Hiroki; Yamada, Shoichi [Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke, E-mail: furusawa@heap.phys.waseda.ac.jp [Numazu College of Technology, Ooka 3600, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-8501 (Japan)

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

The influence of inelastic neutrino reactions with light nuclei on the standing accretion shock instability in core-collapse supernovae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We perform numerical experiments to investigate the influence of inelastic neutrino reactions with light nuclei on the standing accretion shock instability (SASI). The time evolution of shock waves is calculated with a simple light-bulb approximation for the neutrino transport and a multi-nuclei equation of state. The neutrino absorptions and inelastic interactions with deuterons, tritons, helions and alpha particles are taken into account in the hydrodynamical simulations in addition to the ordinary charged-current interactions with nucleons. Axial symmetry is assumed but no equatorial symmetry is imposed. We show that the heating rates of deuterons reach as high as 10% of those of nucleons around the bottom of the gain region. On the other hand, alpha particles are heated near the shock wave, which is important when the shock wave expands and the density and temperature of matter become low. It is also found that the models with heating by light nuclei have different evolutions from those without it in the non-linear phase of SASI. This results is because matter in the gain region has a varying density and temperature and there appear sub-regions that are locally rich in deuterons and alpha particles. Although the light nuclei are never dominant heating sources and they work favorably for shock revival in some cases and unfavorably in other cases, they are non-negligible and warrant further investigation.

Shun Furusawa; Hiroki Nagakura; Kohsuke Sumiyoshi; Shoichi Yamada

2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

112

Functional autonomy of distant-acting human enhancers  

SciTech Connect

Many human genes are associated with dispersed arrays of transcriptional enhancers that regulate their expression in time and space. Studies in invertebrate model systems have suggested that these elements function as discrete and independent regulatory units, but the in vivo combinatorial properties of vertebrate enhancers remain poorly understood. To explore the modularity and regulatory autonomy of human developmental enhancers, we experimentally concatenated up to four enhancers from different genes and used a transgenic mouse assay to compare the in vivo activity of these compound elements with that of the single modules. In all of the six different combinations of elements tested, the reporter gene activity patterns were additive without signs of interference between the individual modules, indicating that regulatory specificity was maintained despite the presence of closely-positioned heterologous enhancers. Even in cases where two elements drove expression in close anatomical proximity, such as within neighboring subregions of the developing limb bud, the compound patterns did not show signs of cross-inhibition between individual elements or novel expression sites. These data indicate that human developmental enhancers are highly modular and functionally autonomous and suggest that genomic enhancer shuffling may have contributed to the evolution of complex gene expression patterns in vertebrates

Visel, Axel; Akiyama, Jennifer A.; Shoukry, Malak; Afzal, Veena; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.

2009-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

113

The "True" Column Density Distribution in Star-Forming Molecular Clouds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use the COMPLETE Survey's observations of the Perseus star-forming region to assess and intercompare three methods for measuring column density in molecular clouds: extinction mapping (NIR); thermal emission mapping (FIR); and mapping the intensity of CO isotopologues. The structures shown by all three tracers are morphologically similar, but important differences exist. Dust-based measures give similar, log-normal, distributions for the full Perseus region, once careful calibration corrections are made. We also compare dust- and gas-based column density distributions for physically-meaningful sub-regions of Perseus, and we find significant variations in the distributions for those regions. Even though we have used 12CO data to estimate excitation temperatures, and we have corrected for opacity, the 13CO maps seem unable to give column distributions that consistently resemble those from dust measures. We have edited out the effects of the shell around the B-star HD 278942. In that shell's interior and in t...

Goodman, Alyssa A; Schnee, Scott L

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Density equalizing map projections (cartograms) in public health applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In studying geographic disease distributions, one normally compares rates among arbitrarily defined geographic subareas (e.g. census tracts), thereby sacrificing some of the geographic detail of the original data. The sparser the data, the larger the subareas must be in order to calculate stable rates. This dilemma is avoided with the technique of Density Equalizing Map Projections (DEMP){copyright}. Boundaries of geographic subregions are adjusted to equalize population density over the entire study area. Case locations plotted on the transformed map should have a uniform distribution if the underlying disease risk is constant. On the transformed map, the statistical analysis of the observed distribution is greatly simplified. Even for sparse distributions, the statistical significance of a supposed disease cluster can be calculated with validity. The DEMP algorithm was applied to a data set previously analyzed with conventional techniques; namely, 401 childhood cancer cases in four counties of California. The distribution of cases on the transformed map was analyzed visually and statistically. To check the validity of the method, the identical analysis was performed on 401 artificial cases randomly generated under the assumption of uniform risk. No statistically significant evidence for geographic non-uniformity of rates was found, in agreement with the original analysis performed by the California Department of Health Services.

Merrill, D.W.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Use of Density Equalizing Map Projections (DEMP) in the analysis of childhood cancer in four California counties. Revision 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In studying geographic disease distributions, one normally compares rates among arbitrarily defined geographic subareas (e.g. census tracts), thereby sacrificing the geographic detail of the original data. The sparser the data, the larger the subareas must be in order to calculate stable rates. This dilemma is avoided with the technique of Density Equalizing Map Projections (DEMP). Boundaries of geographic subregions are adjusted to equalize population density over the entire study area. Case locations plotted on the transformed map should have a uniform distribution if the underlying disease rates are constant. The present report describes the application of the DEMP technique to 401 childhood cancer cases occurring between 1980 and 1988 in four California counties, with the use of map files and population data for the 262 tracts of the 1980 Census. A k`th nearest neighbor analysis provides strong evidence for geographic non-uniformity in tract rates (p < 10{sup {minus}4}). No such effect is observed for artificial cases generated under the assumption of constant rates. Work is in progress to repeat the analysis with improved population estimates derived from both 1980 and 1990 Census data. Final epidemiologic conclusions will be reported when that analysis is complete.

Merrill, D.W.; Close, E.R.; Holmes, H.H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Selvin, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). School of Public Health

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

The JCMT Legacy Survey of the Gould Belt: a first look at Taurus with HARP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As part of a JCMT Legacy Survey of star formation in the Gould Belt, we present early science results for Taurus. CO J=3-2 maps have been secured along the north-west ridge and bowl, collectively known as L 1495, along with deep 13CO and C18O J=3-2 maps in two sub-regions. With these data we search for molecular outflows, and use the distribution of flows, HH objects and shocked H2 line emission features, together with the population of young stars, protostellar cores and starless condensations to map star formation across this extensive region. In total 21 outflows are identified. It is clear that the bowl is more evolved than the ridge, harbouring a greater population of T Tauri stars and a more diffuse, more turbulent ambient medium. By comparison, the ridge contains a much younger, less widely distributed population of protostars which, in turn, is associated with a greater number of molecular outflows. We estimate the ratio of the numbers of prestellar to protostellar cores in L 1495 to be ~ 1.3-2.3, and...

Davis, C J; Hatchell, J; Wouterloot, J G A; Buckle, J V; Nutter, D; Fich, M; Brunt, C; Butner, H; Cavanagh, B; Curtis, E I; Duarte-Cabral, A; Di Francesco, J; Etxaluze, M; Friberg, P; Friesen, R; Fuller, G A; Graves, S; Greaves, J S; Hogerheijde, M R; Johnstone, D; Matthews, B; Matthews, H; Rawlings, J M C; Richer, J S; Roberts, J; Sadavoy, S; Simpson, R J; Tothill, N; Tsamis, Y; Viti, S; Ward-Thompson, D; White, Glenn J; Yates, J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

AB Blanket for Cities (for continual pleasant weather and protection from chemical, biological and radioactive weapons)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a series of previous articles (see references) the author offered to cover a city or other important large installations or subregions by a transparent thin film supported by a small additional air overpressure under the form of an AB Dome. The building of a gigantic inflatable AB Dome over an empty flat surface is not difficult. However, if we want to cover a city, garden, forest or other obstacle course we cannot easily deploy the thin film over building or trees. In this article is suggested a new method which solves this problem. The idea is to design a double film blanket filled by light gas (for example, methane, hydrogen, or helium). Sections of this AB Blanket are lighter then air and fly in atmosphere. They can be made on a flat area (serving as an assembly area) and delivered by dirigible or helicopter to station at altitude over the city. Here they connect to the already assembled AB Blanket subassemblies, cover the city in an AB Dome and protect it from bad weather, chemical, biological and rad...

Bolonkin, Alexander

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

AB Blanket for Cities (for continual pleasant weather and protection from chemical, biological and radioactive weapons)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a series of previous articles (see references) the author offered to cover a city or other important large installations or subregions by a transparent thin film supported by a small additional air overpressure under the form of an AB Dome. The building of a gigantic inflatable AB Dome over an empty flat surface is not difficult. However, if we want to cover a city, garden, forest or other obstacle course we cannot easily deploy the thin film over building or trees. In this article is suggested a new method which solves this problem. The idea is to design a double film blanket filled by light gas (for example, methane, hydrogen, or helium). Sections of this AB Blanket are lighter then air and fly in atmosphere. They can be made on a flat area (serving as an assembly area) and delivered by dirigible or helicopter to station at altitude over the city. Here they connect to the already assembled AB Blanket subassemblies, cover the city in an AB Dome and protect it from bad weather, chemical, biological and radioactive fallout or particulates. After finish of dome building the light gas can be changed by air. Two projects for Manhattan (NY, USA) and Moscow (Russia) are targets for a sample computation.

Alexander Bolonkin

2009-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

119

THE NORTH AMERICAN AND PELICAN NEBULAE. II. MIPS OBSERVATIONS AND ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

We present observations of {approx}7 deg{sup 2} of the North American and Pelican Nebulae region at 24, 70, and 160 {mu}m with the Spitzer Space Telescope Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). We incorporate the MIPS observations with earlier Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) observations, as well as archival near-infrared (IR) and optical data. We use the MIPS data to identify 1286 young stellar object (YSO) candidates. IRAC data alone can identify 806 more YSO candidates, for a total of 2076 YSO candidates. Prior to the Spitzer observations, there were only {approx}200 YSOs known in this region. Three subregions within the complex are highlighted as clusters: the Gulf of Mexico, the Pelican, and the Pelican's Hat. The Gulf of Mexico cluster is subject to the highest extinction (A{sub V} at least {approx}30) and has the widest range of infrared colors of the three clusters, including the largest excesses and by far the most point-source detections at 70 {mu}m. Just 3% of the cluster members were previously identified; we have redefined this cluster as about 10-100 times larger (in projected area) than was previously realized.

Rebull, L. M.; Stauffer, J. R.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Carey, S. J.; Padgett, D. L. [Spitzer Science Center/Caltech, M/S 220-6, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Guieu, S. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Hillenbrand, L. A.; Carpenter, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stapelfeldt, K. R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Cole, D. M. [Raytheon, Pasadena, CA (United States); Strom, S. E.; Wolff, S. C., E-mail: luisa.rebull@jpl.nasa.gov [NOAO, Tucson, AZ (United States)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

1975 energy conditions in the South  

SciTech Connect

This report depicts energy supply and demand conditions in the South in 1975 and highlights differences in production and utilization patterns relative to the United States (some of the consumption data is for 1974). Significant changes during the previous three years are noted to provide continuity with the predecessor report, Energy Conditions in the South: 1972. The most important changes are the substantial increase in nuclear generation of electricity, the absolute and relative decline in oil and gas production, and the increase in per capita energy consumption relative to the nation. Each state within the region is described in detail to ascertain important sub-regional differences in energy conditions. The intent is to provide a description rather than analysis of regional energy patterns, noting variations and emphasizing the comparative advantages of the South. Such a presentation can yield insight into the future role of the region in contributing to the economic growth and welfare of the nation as its natural resource base is depleted and the transition to alternative energy sources is made.

Rice, P.L.

1978-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "vacar virginia-carolinas subregion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Thermally Induced Groundwater Flow Resulting from an Underground Nuclear Test  

SciTech Connect

The authors examine the transient residual thermal signal resulting from an underground nuclear test (buried below the water table) and its potential to affect local groundwater flow and radionuclide migration in a saturated, fractured, volcanic aquifer system. Thermal profiles measured in a drillback hole between 154 days and 6.5 years after the test have been used to calibrate a non-isothermal model of fluid flow. In this process, they have estimated the magnitude and relative changes in permeability, porosity and fracture density between different portions of the disturbed and undisturbed geologic medium surrounding the test location. The relative impacts of buoyancy forces (arising from the thermal residual of the test and the background geothermal gradient) and horizontal pressure gradients on the post-test flow system are better understood. A transient particle/streamline model of contaminant transport is used to visualize streamlines and streaklines of the flow field and to examine the migration of non-reactive radionuclides. Sensitivity analyses are performed to understand the effects of local and sub-regional geologic features, and the effects of fractured zones on the movement of groundwater and thermal energy. Conclusions regarding the overall effect of the thermal regime on the residence times and fluxes of radionuclides out of the system are drawn, and implications for more complicated, reactive contaminant transport are discussed.

Maxwell, R.M.; Tompson, A.F.B.; Rambo, J.T.; Carle, S.F.; Pawloski, G.A.

2000-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

122

Final cost reduction study for the Geysers Recharge Alternative. Volume 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not cost reduction opportunities exist for the Geysers Recharge Alternative as defined in the Santa Rosa Subregional Long-Term Wastewater Project EIR/EIS. The City of Santa Rosa has been directed to have a plan for reclaimed water disposal in place by 1999 which will meet future capacity needs under all weather conditions. A Draft EIR/EIS released in July 1996 and a Final EIR certified in June 1997 examine four primary alternatives plus the No Action Alternative. Two of the primary alternatives involve agricultural irrigation with reclaimed water, either in western or southern Sonoma County. Another involves increased discharge of reclaimed water into the Russian River. The fourth involves using reclaimed water to replenish the geothermal reservoir at the Geysers. The addition of this water source would enable the Geysers operators to produce more steam from the geothermal area and thereby prolong the life and economic production level of the steamfield and the geothermal power plants supplied by the steamfield. This study provides additional refined cost estimates for new scenarios which utilize an alternative pipeline alignment and a range of reclaimed water flows, which deliver less water to the Geysers than proposed in the EIR/EIS (by distributing flow to other project components). Also, electrical power rates were revised to reflect the recent changes in costs associated with deregulation of the power industry. In addition, this report provides information on sources of potential public and private funding available and future environmental documentation required if the cost reduction scenarios were to be selected by the City as part of their preferred alternative.

NONE

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. VII. CHARACTERIZING THE PROPERTIES OF MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a Green Bank Telescope survey of NH{sub 3}(1,1), (2,2), (3,3) lines toward 631 Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS) sources at a range of Galactic longitudes in the inner Galaxy. We have detected the NH{sub 3}(1,1) line toward 72% of our targets (456), demonstrating that the high column density features identified in the BGPS and other continuum surveys accurately predict the presence of dense gas. We have determined kinematic distances and resolved the distance ambiguity for all BGPS sources detected in NH{sub 3}. The BGPS sources trace the locations of the Scutum and Sagittarius spiral arms, with the number of sources. We measure the physical properties of each source and find that depending on the distance, BGPS sources are primarily clumps, with some cores and clouds. We have examined the physical properties as a function of Galactocentric distance, and find a mean gas kinetic temperature of 15.6 K, and that the NH{sub 3} column density and abundance decrease by nearly an order of magnitude. Comparing sources at similar distances demonstrates that the physical properties are indistinguishable, which suggests a similarity in clump structure across the Galactic disk. We have also compared the BGPS sources to criteria for efficient star formation presented independently by Heiderman et al. and Lada et al., and for massive star formation presented by Kauffmann et al. Forty-eight percent of our sample should be forming stars (including massive stars) with high efficiency, and 87% contain subregions that should be efficiently forming stars. Indeed, we find that 67% of the sample exhibit signs of star formation activity based on an association with a mid-infrared source.

Dunham, Miranda K. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Rosolowsky, Erik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Okanagan, Kelowna BC V1V 1V7 (Canada); Evans II, Neal J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-0259 (United States); Cyganowski, Claudia [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Urquhart, James S., E-mail: miranda.dunham@yale.edu [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)

2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

124

A CORRELATION BETWEEN SURFACE DENSITIES OF YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS AND GAS IN EIGHT NEARBY MOLECULAR CLOUDS  

SciTech Connect

We report the discovery and characterization of a power-law correlation between the local surface densities of Spitzer-identified, dusty young stellar objects (YSOs) and the column density of gas (as traced by near-IR extinction) in eight molecular clouds within 1 kpc and with 100 or more known YSOs. This correlation, which appears in data smoothed over size scales of {approx}1 pc, varies in quality from cloud to cloud; those clouds with tight correlations, MonR2 and Ophiuchus, are fit with power laws of slope 2.67 and 1.87, respectively. The spread in the correlation is attributed primarily to local gas disruption by stars that formed there or to the presence of very young subregions at the onset of star formation. We explore the ratio of the number of Class II to Class I sources, a proxy for the star formation age of a region, as a function of gas column density; this analysis reveals a declining Class II to Class I ratio with increasing column density. We show that the observed star-gas correlation is consistent with a star formation law where the star formation rate per area varies with the gas column density squared. We also propose a simple picture of thermal fragmentation of dense gas in an isothermal, self-gravitating layer as an explanation for the power law. Finally, we briefly compare the star-gas correlation and its implied star formation law with other recent proposed of star formation laws at similar and larger size scales from nearby star-forming regions.

Gutermuth, R. A. [Five College Astronomy Department, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States); Pipher, J. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Megeath, S. T.; Allen, T. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Myers, P. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Allen, L. E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ (United States)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

The WISE Gamma-Ray Strip Parametrization: The Nature of the Gamma-Ray Active Galactic Nuclei of Uncertain Type  

SciTech Connect

Despite the large number of discoveries made recently by Fermi, the origins of the so called unidentified {gamma}-ray sources remain unknown. The large number of these sources suggests that among them there could be a population that significantly contributes to the isotropic gamma-ray background and is therefore crucial to understand their nature. The first step toward a complete comprehension of the unidentified {gamma}-ray source population is to identify those that can be associated with blazars, the most numerous class of extragalactic sources in the {gamma}-ray sky. Recently, we discovered that blazars can be recognized and separated from other extragalactic sources using the infrared (IR) WISE satellite colors. The blazar population delineates a remarkable and distinctive region of the IR color-color space, the WISE blazar strip. In particular, the subregion delineated by the {gamma}-ray emitting blazars is even narrower and we named it as the WISE Gamma-ray Strip (WGS). In this paper we parametrize the WGS on the basis of a single parameter s that we then use to determine if {gamma}-ray Active Galactic Nuclei of the uncertain type (AGUs) detected by Fermi are consistent with the WGS and so can be considered blazar candidates. We find that 54 AGUs out of a set 60 analyzed have IR colors consistent with the WGS; only 6 AGUs are outliers. This result implies that a very high percentage (i.e., in this sample about 90%) of the AGUs detected by Fermi are indeed blazar candidates.

Massaro, F.; /SLAC; D'Abrusco, R.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Tosti, G.; /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia; Ajello, M.; /SLAC; Gasparrini, D.; /ESRIN, Frascati; Grindlay, J.E.; Smith, Howard A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

126

Homoclinic Stripe Patterns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we study homoclinic stripe patterns in the two-dimensional generalized Gierer-Meinhardt equation, where we interpret this equation as a prototypical representative of a class of singularly perturbed mono-stable reaction-diffusion equations. The structure of a stripe pattern is essentially one-dimensional, therefore we can use results from the literature to establish the existence of the homoclinic patterns. However, we extend these results to a maximal domain in the parameter space and establish the existence of a bifurcation that forms a new upper bound on this domain. Beyond this bifurcation, the Gierer-Meinhardt equation exhibits self-replicating pulse, respectively stripe, patterns in one, resp. two, dimension(s). The structure of the self-replication process is very similar to that in the Gray-Scott equation. We investigate the stability of the homoclinic stripe patterns by an Evans function analysis of the associated linear eigenvalue problem. We extend the recently developed NLEP (= NonLocal Eigenvalue Problem) approach to two-dimensional systems. Except for a region near the upper bound of the domain of existence in parameter space, this method enables us to get explicit information on the spectrum of the linear problem. We prove that, in this subregion, all homoclinic stripe patterns must be unstable as solutions on R 2 . However, stripe patterns can be stable on domains of the type R (0; Ly ). Our analysis enables us to determine an upper bound on Ly , moreover, the analysis indicates that stripe patterns can become stable on R 2 near the upper bound of the existence domain. This is confirmed numerically: it is shown by careful simulations that there can be stable homoclinic stripe patterns on R 2 for parameter values near the self-repli...

Arjen Doelman; Harmen; Harmen Van Der Ploeg

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Preliminary investigations of the thermal energy grid concept  

SciTech Connect

This study examines, in a preliminary manner, the feasibility of the thermal grid concept. This concept essentially envisions the supply of heat to a long-distance transmission line from a dual-purpose nuclear or coal-fired power plant. The transmission line delivers heat to a subregion distribution network which delivers it to the consumer. District chilled water supply is also considered, using heat from the grid to power steam-turbine-driven water chillers. Candidate technologies for generation, transmission, and distribution of thermal energy are identified and assessed. Potential applications, including both industrial use and residential space conditioning and hot water supply, are evaluated. Results indicate that high-temperature hot-water transmission lines are favored for longer distances, while steam lines may be acceptable for shorter distances. It is also evident that thermal grid heat is more economically competitive for new applications, as opposed to retrofit situations, in the residential-commercial sector. The two applications are about equally feasible in the industrial sector. The results further indicate that thermal grid heat is most competitive in areas of high-heat-load density and expensive fuel costs. It appears that the thermal grid service area should include the industrial sector as a base load. The multifamily residential-commercial sector space and water heating loads can be added to the service area to maximize utilization of the transmission line and maintain low transmission costs. Supply of chilled water to the multifamily residential-commercial sector can also be included for new applications to increase the transmission line use factor. The thermal grid concept appears to be economically and technically feasible, when compared to oil and electric systems in the multifamily residential-commercial sector and coal- or oil-fired systems in the industrial sector, and should be explored in greater detail.

Olszewski, M.

1977-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Multiscale Analysis of Pebble Bed Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The PEBBED code was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for design and analysis of pebble-bed high temperature reactors. The diffusion-depletion-pebble-mixing algorithm of the original PEBBED code was enhanced through coupling with the THERMIX-KONVEK code for thermal fluid analysis and by the COMBINE code for online cross section generation. The COMBINE code solves the B-1 or B-3 approximations to the transport equation for neutron slowing down and resonance interactions in a homogeneous medium with simple corrections for shadowing and thermal self-shielding. The number densities of materials within specified regions of the core are averaged and transferred to COMBINE from PEBBED for updating during the burnup iteration. The simple treatment of self-shielding in previous versions of COMBINE led to inaccurate results for cross sections and unsatisfactory core performance calculations. A new version of COMBINE has been developed that treats all levels of heterogeneity using the 1D transport code ANISN. In a 3-stage calculation, slowing down is performed in 167 groups for each homogeneous subregion (kernel, particle layers, graphite shell, control rod absorber annulus, etc.) Particles in a local average pebble are homogenized using ANISN then passed to the next (pebble) stage. A 1D transport solution is again performed over the pebble geometry and the homogenized pebble cross sections are passed to a 1-d radial model of a wedge of the pebble bed core. This wedge may also include homogeneous reflector regions and a control rod region composed of annuli of different absorbing regions. Radial leakage effects are therefore captured with discrete ordinates transport while axial and azimuthal effects are captured with a transverse buckling term. In this paper, results of various PBR models will be compared with comparable models from literature. Performance of the code will be assessed.

Hans Gougar; Woo Yoon; Abderrafi Ougouag

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Mixture-process variable approach to optimize a microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography method for the quality control of a nutraceutical based on coenzyme Q10  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, multivariate optimization has played an increasing role in analytical method development. ICH guidelines recommend using statistical design of experiments to identify the design space, in which multivariate combinations of composition variables and process variables have been demonstrated to provide quality results. Considering a microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography method (MEEKC), the performance of the electrophoretic run depends on the proportions of mixture components (MCs) of the microemulsion and on the values of process variables (PVs). In the present work, for the first time in the literature, a mixture-process variable (MPV) approach was applied to optimize a MEEKC method for the analysis of coenzyme Q10 (Q10), ascorbic acid (AA), and folic acid (FA) contained in nutraceuticals. The MCs (buffer, surfactant-cosurfactant, oil) and the PVs (voltage, buffer concentration, buffer pH) were simultaneously changed according to a MPV experimental design. A 62-run MPV design was generated using the I-optimality criterion, assuming a 46-term MPV model allowing for special-cubic blending of the MCs, quadratic effects of the PVs, and some MC-PV interactions. The obtained data were used to develop MPV models that express the performance of an electrophoretic run (measured as peak efficiencies of Q10, AA, and FA) in terms of the MCs and PVs. Contour and perturbation plots were drawn for each of the responses. Finally, the MPV models and criteria for the peak efficiencies were used to develop the design space and an optimal subregion (i.e., the settings of the mixture MCs and PVs that satisfy the respective criteria), as well as a unique optimal combination of MCs and PVs.

Piepel, Gregory F.; Pasquini, Benedetta; Cooley, Scott K.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Orlandini, Serena; Furlanetto, Sandra

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

130

Characterizing Tumor Heterogeneity With Functional Imaging and Quantifying High-Risk Tumor Volume for Early Prediction of Treatment Outcome: Cervical Cancer as a Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Treatment response in cancer has been monitored by measuring anatomic tumor volume (ATV) at various times without considering the inherent functional tumor heterogeneity known to critically influence ultimate treatment outcome: primary tumor control and survival. This study applied dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) functional MRI to characterize tumors' heterogeneous subregions with low DCE values, at risk for treatment failure, and to quantify the functional risk volume (FRV) for personalized early prediction of treatment outcome. Methods and Materials: DCE-MRI was performed in 102 stage IB{sub 2}-IVA cervical cancer patients to assess tumor perfusion heterogeneity before and during radiation/chemotherapy. FRV represents the total volume of tumor voxels with critically low DCE signal intensity (20, >13, and >5 cm{sup 3}, respectively, significantly predicted unfavorable 6-year primary tumor control (p = 0.003, 7.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}, 2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}) and disease-specific survival (p = 1.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}, 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}, respectively). The FRVs were superior to the ATVs as early predictors of outcome, and the differentiating power of FRVs increased during treatment. Discussion: Our preliminary results suggest that functional tumor heterogeneity can be characterized by DCE-MRI to quantify FRV for predicting ultimate long-term treatment outcome. FRV is a novel functional imaging heterogeneity parameter, superior to ATV, and can be clinically translated for personalized early outcome prediction before or as early as 2-5 weeks into treatment.

Mayr, Nina A., E-mail: Nina.Mayr@osumc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Huang Zhibin [Department of Radiation Oncology and Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Wang, Jian Z. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Lo, Simon S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Fan, Joline M. [Department of Molecular Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Grecula, John C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Sammet, Steffen [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Department of Radiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Sammet, Christina L. [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Jia Guang; Zhang Jun; Knopp, Michael V.; Yuh, William T.C. [Department of Radiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

The "True" Column Density Distribution in Star-Forming Molecular Clouds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use the COMPLETE Survey's observations of the Perseus star-forming region to assess and intercompare three methods for measuring column density in molecular clouds: extinction mapping (NIR); thermal emission mapping (FIR); and mapping the intensity of CO isotopologues. The structures shown by all three tracers are morphologically similar, but important differences exist. Dust-based measures give similar, log-normal, distributions for the full Perseus region, once careful calibration corrections are made. We also compare dust- and gas-based column density distributions for physically-meaningful sub-regions of Perseus, and we find significant variations in the distributions for those regions. Even though we have used 12CO data to estimate excitation temperatures, and we have corrected for opacity, the 13CO maps seem unable to give column distributions that consistently resemble those from dust measures. We have edited out the effects of the shell around the B-star HD 278942. In that shell's interior and in the parts where it overlaps the molecular cloud, there appears to be a dearth of 13CO, likely due either to 13CO not yet having had time to form in this young structure, and/or destruction of 13CO in the molecular cloud. We conclude that the use of either dust or gas measures of column density without extreme attention to calibration and artifacts is more perilous than even experts might normally admit. And, the use of 13CO to trace total column density in detail, even after proper calibration, is unavoidably limited in utility due to threshold, depletion, and opacity effects. If one's main aim is to map column density, then dust extinction seems the best probe. Linear fits amongst column density tracers are given, quantifying the inherent uncertainties in using one tracer (when compared with others). [abridged

Alyssa A. Goodman; Jaime E. Pineda; Scott L. Schnee

2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

132

Use of density equalizing map projections (DEMP) in the analysis of childhood cancer in four California counties  

SciTech Connect

In studying geographic disease distributions, one normally compares rates of arbitrarily defined geographic subareas (e.g. census tracts), thereby sacrificing the geographic detail of the original data. The sparser the data, the larger the subareas must be in order to calculate stable rates. This dilemma is avoided with the technique of Density Equalizing Map Projections (DEMP). Boundaries of geographic subregions are adjusted to equalize population density over the entire study area. Case locations plotted on the transformed map should have a uniform distribution if the underlying disease rates are constant. The density equalized map portrays both individual cases and rates, and can be understood by untrained observers. Simple statistical techniques can be used to test the uniformity of the transformed map. This report describes application of the DEMP technique to a sizeable `real-world` data set: 401 childhood cancer cases occurring between 1980 and 1988 in four California counties. In an earlier analysis of the same data, the California Department of Health Services (DHS) calculated rates for 101 communities and found no significant geographic variability. The DDS 1980--88 population estimates are no longer available, so in this analysis 1980 Census data were used; geographic units were 262 census tracts. A k`th nearest neighbor analysis, corrected for boundary effects and for within-tract variability, provides strong evidence for geographic nonuniformity in tract rates ({rho} < l0{sup {minus}4}). No such effect is observed for artificial cases generated under the assumption of constant rates. Pending reanalysis with 1980-88 population estimates, no epidemiologic conclusions can be drawn at this time.

Merrill, D.W. Selvin, S.; Close, E.R.; Holmes, H.H.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Geochemical exploration for uranium in the Red Desert, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Geochemical exploration techniques for uranium were performed at a known deposit, the ENQ uranium deposit, which is in arkosic sandstones of the Battle Spring Formation in the Red Desert of Wyoming. Regional gross-gamma aerial data did not indicate the most favorable terrain for follow-up surveys, but instead the radionuclide distribution mapped radioactive mudstones. The /sup 234/U//sup 238/U activity ratio and total uranium concentration in ground water were successful downflow indicators of the ENQ deposit. Helium concentration increased downflow in the ground water flowing from the deposit, while Cu, Pb, and Ba decreased. Radon emanometric techniques generally produced data that coincided with the equivalent uranium concentrations at shallow depth. Helium content in soil was interpreted to reflect local lithology and gaseous migration. Multielement geochemical analyses on soils were effective in delineating the general vicinity of the orebody. Factor analysis was used to recognize three lithologic subgroups. Leachable uranium in soils was the best indicator of subsurface mineralization for the entire subregional area. Equivalent uranium, as determined from the gamma-spectral borehole logs, revealed a consistent dispersion pattern within the host sand of the Battle Spring Formation, whereas gross gamma logs could not detect the subtle gradients in radioelement content. Halo models developed to explain the distribution of helium, radon, radioelements, and trace elements demonstrate uranium itself as the most mobile indicator. Radon and helium appear to reflect local generation from radium accumulations. Vertical leakage due to hydraulic flow against an impermeable barrier is interpreted to be the major secondary redistribution process responsible for the measureable surface signals.

Pacer, J.C.; Bramlett, L.; Moll, S.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Use of tamarisk as a potential feedstock for biofuel production.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study assesses the energy and water use of saltcedar (or tamarisk) as biomass for biofuel production in a hypothetical sub-region in New Mexico. The baseline scenario consists of a rural stretch of the Middle Rio Grande River with 25% coverage of mature saltcedar that is removed and converted to biofuels. A manufacturing system life cycle consisting of harvesting, transportation, pyrolysis, and purification is constructed for calculating energy and water balances. On a dry short ton woody biomass basis, the total energy input is approximately 8.21 mmBTU/st. There is potential for 18.82 mmBTU/st of energy output from the baseline system. Of the extractable energy, approximately 61.1% consists of bio-oil, 20.3% bio-char, and 18.6% biogas. Water consumptive use by removal of tamarisk will not impact the existing rate of evapotranspiration. However, approximately 195 gal of water is needed per short ton of woody biomass for the conversion of biomass to biocrude, three-quarters of which is cooling water that can be recovered and recycled. The impact of salt presence is briefly assessed. Not accounted for in the baseline are high concentrations of Calcium, Sodium, and Sulfur ions in saltcedar woody biomass that can potentially shift the relative quantities of bio-char and bio-oil. This can be alleviated by a pre-wash step prior to the conversion step. More study is needed to account for the impact of salt presence on the overall energy and water balance.

Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Norman, Kirsten

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

CALCULATING SEPARATE MAGNETIC FREE ENERGY ESTIMATES FOR ACTIVE REGIONS PRODUCING MULTIPLE FLARES: NOAA AR11158  

SciTech Connect

It is well known that photospheric flux emergence is an important process for stressing coronal fields and storing magnetic free energy, which may then be released during a flare. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) captured the entire emergence of NOAA AR 11158. This region emerged as two distinct bipoles, possibly connected underneath the photosphere, yet characterized by different photospheric field evolutions and fluxes. The combined active region complex produced 15 GOES C-class, two M-class, and the X2.2 Valentine's Day Flare during the four days after initial emergence on 2011 February 12. The M and X class flares are of particular interest because they are nonhomologous, involving different subregions of the active region. We use a Magnetic Charge Topology together with the Minimum Current Corona model of the coronal field to model field evolution of the complex. Combining this with observations of flare ribbons in the 1600 A channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board SDO, we propose a minimization algorithm for estimating the amount of reconnected flux and resulting drop in magnetic free energy during a flare. For the M6.6, M2.2, and X2.2 flares, we find a flux exchange of 4.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx, 2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx, and 21.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx, respectively, resulting in free energy drops of 3.89 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg, 2.62 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg, and 1.68 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 32} erg.

Tarr, Lucas; Longcope, Dana; Millhouse, Margaret [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

136

Pathological Predictors for Site of Local Recurrence After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Rational design of targeted radiotherapy (RT) in prostate cancer (Pca) hinges on a better understanding of spatial patterns of recurrence. We sought to identify pathological factors predictive for site of local recurrence (LR) after external beam RT. Methods and Materials: Prospective databases were reviewed to identify men with LR after RT from 1997 through 2009. Patients with biochemical failure and biopsy-confirmed Pca more than 2 years after RT were evaluated. Prediction for site of recurrence based on the following pretreatment factors was determined on independent and cluster-sextant basis: presence of malignancy, dominant vs. nondominant percentage core length (PCL) involvement, PCL {>=} or 5% for each patient. Results: Forty-one patients with low-intermediate risk Pca constituted the study cohort. Median time to biopsy after RT was 51 months (range, 24-145). Of 246 sextants, 74 were involved with tumor at baseline. When sextants are treated as independent observations the presence of malignancy (77% vs. 22%, p = 0.0001), dominant PCL (90% vs. 46%, p = 0.0001), and PCL {>=}40% (89% vs. 68 %, p = 0.04) were found to be significant predictors for LR, although PCL {>=}40% did not retain statistical significance if sextants were considered correlated. The vast majority of patients (95%) recurred at the original site of dominant PCL or PCL {>=}40%, and 44% also recurred in regions of nondominant PCL <40% (n = 8) and/or benign sampling (n = 14) at baseline. Conclusions: LR after RT predominantly occurs in regions bearing higher histological tumor burden but are not isolated to these sites. Our data highlights the value of spatially resolved baseline pathological sampling and may assist in the design of clinical trials tailoring RT dose prescriptions to subregions of the prostate gland.

Chopra, Supriya [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Toi, Ants [Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Taback, Nathan [Division of Biostatistics, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Evans, Andrew [Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Department of Pathology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Haider, Masoom A. [Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto (Canada); Milosevic, Michael; Bristow, Robert G.; Chung, Peter; Bayley, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Morton, Gerard; Vesprini, Danny [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Odette Cancer Center, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto (Canada); Warde, Padraig; Catton, Charles [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Menard, Cynthia, E-mail: Cynthia.Menard@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada)

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Assessing the Feasibility of Using Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) for Assaying Plutonium in Spent Fuel Assemblies  

SciTech Connect

Neutron resonance transmission analysis (NRTA) is an active-interrogation nondestructive assay (NDA) technique capable of assaying spent nuclear fuel to determine plutonium content. Prior experimental work has definitively shown the technique capable of assaying plutonium isotope composition in spent-fuel pins to a precision of approximately 3%, with a spatial resolution of a few millimeters. As a Grand Challenge to investigate NDA options for assaying spent fuel assemblies (SFAs) in the commercial fuel cycle, Idaho National Laboratory has explored the feasibility of using NRTA to assay plutonium in a whole SFA. The goal is to achieve a Pu assay precision of 1%. The NRTA technique uses low-energy neutrons from 0.1-40 eV, at the bottom end of the actinide-resonance range, in a time-of-flight arrangement. Isotopic composition is determined by relating absorption of the incident neutrons to the macroscopic cross-section of the actinides of interest in the material, and then using this information to determine the areal density of the isotopes in the SFA. The neutrons used for NRTA are produced using a pulsed, accelerator-based neutron source. Distinguishable resonances exist for both the plutonium (239,240,241,242Pu) and uranium (235,236,238U) isotopes of interest in spent fuel. Additionally, in this energy range resonances exists for six important fission products (99Tc, 103Rh, 131Xe, 133Cs, 145Nd, and 152Sm) which provide additional information to support spent fuel plutonium assay determinations. Based on extensive modeling of the problem using Monte Carlo-based simulation codes, our preliminary results suggest that by rotating an SFA to acquire four symmetric views, sufficient neutron transmission can be achieved to assay a SFA. In this approach multiple scan information for the same pins may also be unfolded to potentially allow the determination of plutonium for sub-regions of the assembly. For a 17 ? 17 pressurized water reactor SFA, a simplistic preliminary analysis indicates the mass of 239Pu may be determined with a precision on the order of 5%, without the need for operator-supplied fuel information or operational histories. This paper will present our work to date on this topic, indicate our preliminary findings for a conceptual assay approach, discuss resilience against spoofing, and outline our future plans for evaluating the NRTA technique for SFA plutonium determination.

D. L. Chichester; J. W. Sterbentz

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Work Element B: 157. Sampling in Fish-Bearing Reaches [Variation in Productivity in Headwater Reaches of the Wenatchee Subbasin], Final Report for PNW Research Station.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We studied variation in productivity in headwater reaches of the Wenatchee subbasin for multiple field seasons with the objective that we could develop methods for monitoring headwater stream conditions at the subcatchment and stream levels, assign a landscape-scale context via the effects of geoclimatic parameters on biological productivity (macroinvertebrates and fish) and use this information to identify how variability in productivity measured in fishless headwaters is transmitted to fish communities in downstream habitats. In 2008, we addressed this final objective. In collaboration with the University of Alaska Fairbanks we found some broad differences in the production of aquatic macroinvertebrates and in fish abundance across categories that combine the effects of climate and management intensity within the subbasin (ecoregions). From a monitoring standpoint, production of benthic macroinvertebrates was not a good predictor of drifting macroinvertebrates and therefore might be a poor predictor of food resources available to fish. Indeed, there is occasionally a correlation between drifting macroinvertebrate abundance and fish abundance which suggests that headwater-derived resources are important. However, fish in the headwaters appeared to be strongly food-limited and there was no evidence that fishless headwaters provided a consistent subsidy to fish in reaches downstream. Fish abundance and population dynamics in first order headwaters may be linked with similar metrics further down the watershed. The relative strength of local dynamics and inputs into productivity may be constrained or augmented by large-scale biogeoclimatic control. Headwater streams are nested within watersheds, which are in turn nested within ecological subregions; thus, we hypothesized that local effects would not necessarily be mutually exclusive from large-scale influence. To test this we examined the density of primarily salmonid fishes at several spatial and temporal scales within a major sub-basin of the Columbia River and associations of density with ecoregion and individuals drainages within the sub-basin. We further examined habitat metrics that show positive associations with fish abundance to see if these relationships varied at larger spatial scales. We examined the extent to which headwater fish density and temporal variation in density were correlated between the headwaters and the main tributaries of the sub-basin, and the influence of ecoregion influence on density differences, particularly at wider temporal scales. Finally, we examined demographic parameters such as growth and emigration to determine whether density-dependence differs among ecoregions or whether responses were more strongly influenced by the demography of the local fish population.

Polivka, Karl; Bennett, Rita L. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Wenatchee, WA

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

139

Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, 2001-2002 Annual Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Federal hydropower projects as well as private power utility systems have had a major negative impact upon anadromous fish resources that once flourished in the Columbia River and it's tributaries. Several areas have been completely blocked to anadromous fish by dams, destroying the primary food resource (salmon) for many native people forcing them to rely heavily upon resident fish to replace these lost resources. The Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery is an artificial production program that addresses the loss of anadromous fish resources in the Upper Columbia Sub-Region within the ''blocked area'' created by the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. This project enhances resident fisheries located in the Intermountain and Columbia Cascade Provinces, specifically within the Colville Reservation portion of the Upper Columbia, SanPoil and Oakanogan Sub-Basins. The project partially mitigates for anadromous fish losses through protection/augmentation of resident fish populations to enhance fishery potential (i.e. in-place, out-of-kind mitigation) pursuant to Resident Fish Substitution Policy of the Northwest Power Planning Councils Fish and Wildlife Program. The hatchery was accepted into the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program in 1984 and the hatchery was completed in 1990. The Colville Tribal Hatchery (CTH) is located on the northern bank of the Columbia River just down stream of the town of Bridgeport, Washington that is just down stream of Chief Joseph Dam. The hatchery is located on land owned by the Colville Tribes. The minimum production quota for this facility is 22,679 kg (50,000 lbs.) of trout annually. All fish produced are released into reservation waters, including boundary waters in an effort to provide a successful subsistence/recreational fishery for Colville Tribal members and provide for a successful nonmember sport fishery. The majority of the fish distributed from the facility are intended to support ''carry-over'' fisheries. Fish produced at the facility are intended to be of sufficient quality and quantity to meet specific monitoring and evaluation goals and objectives outlines in the 2002 statement of work (SOW).

Arteburn, John; Christensen, David (Colville Confederated Tribes, Nespelem, WA)

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Observation of CH4 and other Non-CO2 Green House Gas Emissions from California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 2006, California passed the landmark assembly bill AB-32 to reduce California's emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that contribute to global climate change. AB-32 commits California to reduce total GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, a reduction of 25 percent from current levels. To verify that GHG emission reductions are actually taking place, it will be necessary to measure emissions. We describe atmospheric inverse model estimates of GHG emissions obtained from the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project. In collaboration with NOAA, we are measuring the dominant long-lived GHGs at two tall-towers in central California. Here, we present estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions obtained by statistical comparison of measured and predicted atmospheric mixing ratios. The predicted mixing ratios are calculated using spatially resolved a priori CH{sub 4} emissions and surface footprints, that provide a proportional relationship between the surface emissions and the mixing ratio signal at tower locations. The footprints are computed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) coupled to the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. Integral to the inverse estimates, we perform a quantitative analysis of errors in atmospheric transport and other factors to provide quantitative uncertainties in estimated emissions. Regressions of modeled and measured mixing ratios suggest that total CH{sub 4} emissions are within 25% of the inventory estimates. A Bayesian source sector analysis obtains posterior scaling factors for CH{sub 4} emissions, indicating that emissions from several of the sources (e.g., landfills, natural gas use, petroleum production, crops, and wetlands) are roughly consistent with inventory estimates, but livestock emissions are significantly higher than the inventory. A Bayesian 'region' analysis is used to identify spatial variations in CH{sub 4} emissions from 13 sub-regions within California. Although, only regions near the tower are significantly constrained by the tower measurements, CH{sub 4} emissions from the south Central Valley appear to be underestimated in a manner consistent with the under-prediction of livestock emissions. Finally, we describe a pseudo-experiment using predicted CH{sub 4} signals to explore the uncertainty reductions that might be obtained if additional measurements were made by a future network of tall-tower stations spread over California. These results show that it should be possible to provide high-accuracy estimates of surface CH{sub 4} emissions for multiple regions as a means to verify future emissions reductions.

Fischer, Marc L.; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Riley, William J.; Andrews, Arlyn C.

2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

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141

Dose-Effect Relationships for Femoral Fractures After Multimodality Limb-Sparing Therapy of Soft-Tissue Sarcomas of the Proximal Lower Extremity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: We investigated the clinical and dosimetric predictors for radiation-associated femoral fractures in patients with proximal lower extremity soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Methods and Materials: We examined 131 patients with proximal lower extremity STS who received limb-sparing surgery and external-beam radiation therapy between 1985 and 2006. Five (4%) patients sustained pathologic femoral fractures. Dosimetric analysis was limited to 4 fracture patients with full three-dimensional dose information, who were compared with 59 nonfracture patients. The mean doses and volumes of bone (V{sub d}) receiving specified doses ({>=}30 Gy, 45 Gy, 60 Gy) at the femoral body, femoral neck, intertrochanteric region, and subtrochanteric region were compared. Clinical predictive factors were also evaluated. Results: Of 4 fracture patients in our dosimetric series, there were three femoral neck fractures with a mean dose of 57.6 {+-} 8.9 Gy, V30 of 14.5 {+-} 2.3 cc, V45 of 11.8 {+-} 1.1 cc, and V60 of 7.2 {+-} 2.2 cc at the femoral neck compared with 22.9 {+-} 20.8 Gy, 4.8 {+-} 5.6 cc, 2.5 {+-} 3.9 cc, and 0.8 {+-} 2.7 cc, respectively, for nonfracture patients (p < 0.03 for all). The femoral neck fracture rate was higher than at the subtrochanteric region despite lower mean doses at these subregions. All fracture sites received mean doses greater than 40 Gy. Also, with our policy of prophylactic femoral intramedullary nailing for high-risk patients, there was no significant difference in fracture rates between patients with and without periosteal excision. There were no significant differences in age, sex, tumor size, timing of radiation therapy, and use of chemotherapy between fracture and nonfracture patients. Conclusions: These dose-volume toxicity relationships provide RT optimization goals to guide future efforts for reducing pathologic fracture rates. Prophylactic femoral intramedullary nailing may also reduce fracture risk for susceptible patients.

Pak, Daniel; Vineberg, Karen A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [Biostatistics Unit, Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sabolch, Aaron [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Chugh, Rashmi [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Biermann, Janet Sybil [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Feng, Mary, E-mail: maryfeng@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

Facies architecture of the upper Calvert Bluff Formation exposed in the highwall of Big Brown Mine, Fairfield, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The facies architecture and geometry of stratigraphic surfaces within a lignite bearing interval of the Paleocene upper Calvert Bluff Formation is mapped on a photomosaic of the 150 ft (50 m) high and 12,000 ft (4km) long â??Câ? area highwall of Big Brown Mine, near Fairfield, Texas. Observed bedding and facies architecture are interpreted in terms of temporal changes, depositional environments and sequence stratigraphic setting. A three dimensional grid of 89 subsurface logs is correlated to this photomosaic to characterize log response patterns of facies. Six facies are observed: 1) lignite, 2) interdistributary bay mud, 3) prograding delta, 4) delta top mud, 5) distributary channels, and 6) incised valley fill. The six facies were defined by a combination of mapped photomosaic observations and subsurface log correlations. The lignite deposit formed in a low depositional energy, low sediment input, high-organic productivity interchannel basin. Overlying mud records overbank flooding followed by avulsion and progradation of delta deposits. Tidal-flat deposits overlying prograding delta deposits record fluctuating energy conditions on the emerging delta top. Channel deposits cutting into the delta top record lateral channel migration across delta top floodplains. These regressive delta deposits are capped by a local incised sequence boundary overlain by fluvial channel deposits inferred to have allowed sediment to bypass further basinward during lowstand. A sheet of channel deposits capping this highwall exposure records more recent erosion, followed by development of modern soil horizons. The Big Brown Mine highwall exposes a relatively complete high-frequency Paleocene stratigraphic sequence developed in an area landward of the shoreline position during maximum transgression, that progresses upsection from: 1) highstand alluvial flood basin coals, 2) a thin condensed maximum flooding interdistributary shale, 3) a thick succession of regressive deltaic strata, and 4) a high-relief, sequence-bounding erosion surface overlain by a lowstand to transgressive fill of channel deposits. Correlations with regional Wilcox Group stratigraphic studies spanning coeval shoreline and shelf strata indicate that this high-frequency sequence is within the transgressive systems tract of a 3rd order stratigraphic sequence. It appears that high-frequency sequences of sub-regional extent control the complex distribution of coal seams within central Texas.

Sturdy, Michael Dale

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Sequence assembly and annotation of the bovine major histocompatibility complex (BoLA) class IIb region, and in silico detection of sequence polymorphisms in BoLA IIb  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cattle are vitally important to American agriculture industry, generating over 24.6 billion pounds of beef (by carcass weight), and 79.5 billion dollars in 2005, and over 27 billion dollars in milk sales in 2004. As of July 2006, the U.S. beef and dairy industry is comprised of 104.5 million head of cattle, 32.4 million of which were processed in 2005. The health of the animals has always been an important concern for breeders, as healthy animals grow faster and are more likely to reach market weight. Animals that exhibit natural resistance to disease do not require chemicals to stimulate normal weight gain, and are less prone to disease related wasting. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a collection of genes, many of which function in antigen processing and presentation. The bovine MHC (BoLA) differs from typical mammalian MHCs in that the class II region was disrupted by a chromosomal inversion into two subregions, designated BoLA IIa and BoLA IIb. BoLA IIb was transposed to a position near the centromere on bovine chromosome 23,while BoLA IIa retains its position in BoLA. Comparative sequence analysis of BoLA IIb with the human MHC revealed the location of the region containing the proximal inversion breakpoint. Gene content, order and orientation of BoLA IIb are consistent with the single inversion hypothesis when compared to the corresponding region of the human class II MHC (HLA class II). BoLA IIb spans approximately 450 kb. The genomic sequence of BoLA IIb was used to detect sequence variation through comparison to other bovine sequences, including data from the bovine genome project, and two regions in the BAC scaffold used to develop the BoLA IIb sequence. Analysis of the bovine genome project sequence revealed a total of 10,408 mismatching bases, 30 out of 231 polymorphic microsatellites, and 15 sequences corresponding to the validated SNP panel generated by the bovine genome sequencing project. The two overlapping regions in the BoLA IIb BAC scaffold were found to have 888 polymorphisms, including a total of 6 out of 42 polymorphic microsatellites indicating that each BAC derived from a different chromosome.

Childers, Christopher P.

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

A survey of nuclear-related agreements and possibilities for nuclear cooperation in South Asia: Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/15  

SciTech Connect

Several existing nuclear-related agreements already require India and Pakistan, as members, to share information. The agreements are bilateral, regional, and international. Greater nuclear transparency between India and Pakistan could be promoted by first understanding the information flows required by existing agreements. This understanding is an essential step for developing projects that can incrementally advance the sensitivity of the information being shared. This paper provides a survey of existing nuclear-related agreements involving India and Pakistan, and suggests future confidence-building projects using the frameworks provided by these agreements. The Bilateral Agreement on the Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear Reactors and Nuclear Facilities is discussed as a basis for creating further agreements on restricting the use and deployment of nuclear weapons. The author suggests options for enhancing the value of the list of nuclear facilities exchanged annually as a part of this agreement. The International Atomic Energy Agency's regional cooperation agreement among countries in the Asia-Pacific region is an opportunity for greater subregional nuclear cooperation in South Asia. Linking the regional agreement with South Asian environmental cooperation and marine pollution protection efforts could provide a framework for projects involving Indian and Pakistani coastal nuclear facilities. Programs of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations that use nuclear techniques to increase food and crop production and optimize water management in arid areas also provide similar opportunities for nuclear cooperation. Other frameworks for nuclear cooperation originate from international conventions related to nuclear safety, transportation of nuclear wastes, worker protection against ionizing radiation, and the nondeployment of nuclear weapons in certain areas. The information shared by existing frameworks includes: laws and regulations (including internal inspection procedures that enforce compliance); lists of nuclear facilities; emergency response procedures and available resources; information related to the transportation of nuclear wastes (particularly via shipping); understanding and notification of accidental releases; and radionuclide release data from select coastal facilities. Incremental increases in the sensitivity of the information being shared could strengthen norms for Indian and Pakistani nuclear transparency. This paper suggests seven technology-based Indian and Pakistani nuclear transparency projects for consideration. Existing nuclear-related agreements provide an information-sharing framework within which the projects could occur. Eventually, as confidence increases and new agreements are negotiated, future projects could begin to deal with the accounting of fissile materials and nuclear weapons disposition and control.

RAJEN,GAURAV

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Cellular consequences in the suppression of antibody response by the antigen-specific T-cell factor.,]. Exp. Med  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Previous studies from our laboratory indicated that a soluble factor extracted from carrier-primed suppressor T cells (TsF) ~ inhibits the in vitro secondary antibody response against a hapten coupled to the same carrier. The factor was found to possess determinants controlled by a locus (Ia-4) mapped in the I-J subregion of the mouse H-2 histocompatibility complex (1). Unlike other antigen-specific TsF, there has been shown a strict genetic restriction in that TsF derived from one strain of animals can suppress the response of only H-2 histocompatible strains (2, 3). Furthermore, TsF was shown to be absorbable by splenic T cells, but not by B cells or macrophages of the same H-2 haplotype origin. Such T cells, which were assumed to be the direct targets of TsF, were adherent to a tightly packed nylon-wool column, but were definitely killed by anti-Thy-I antiserum (2). Thus, the suppression of the antibody response by TsF is mediated by an interaction between the TsF and the acceptor site on the target cells. The most reasonable explanation is that such an acceptor site is controlled by a gene closely linked to that for the TsF within the same H-2 complex, as there have been no exceptional cases in which H-2 histoincompatible TsF can initiate the specific suppression. Because little is known about the consequences of this initial interaction between TsF and acceptor T cells, we have performed a series of experiments in which subsequent cellular events after the TsF-acceptor interaction were studied. In this communication, we wish to report that the final suppression of antibody response was, in fact, achieved via the intermediary type of the acceptor T cells. Some properties and the mode of action of this cell type are described. Materials and Methods Antigens. Keyhole limpet hemoeyanin (KLH) was purchased from Calbiochem-Behring

Taniguchi; Takeshi Tokuhisa

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Estimating carbon dioxide emission factors for the California electric power sector  

SciTech Connect

The California Climate Action Registry (''Registry'') was initially established in 2000 under Senate Bill 1771, and clarifying legislation (Senate Bill 527) was passed in September 2001. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has been asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (CEC) in establishing methods for calculating average and marginal electricity emissions factors, both historic and current, as well as statewide and for sub-regions. This study is exploratory in nature. It illustrates the use of three possible approaches and is not a rigorous estimation of actual emissions factors. While the Registry will ultimately cover emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs), presently it is focusing on carbon dioxide (CO2). Thus, this study only considers CO2, which is by far the largest GHG emitted in the power sector. Associating CO2 emissions with electricity consumption encounters three major complications. First, electricity can be generated from a number of different primary energy sources, many of which are large sources of CO2 emissions (e.g., coal combustion) while others result in virtually no CO{sub 2} emissions (e.g., hydro). Second, the mix of generation resources used to meet loads may vary at different times of day or in different seasons. Third, electrical energy is transported over long distances by complex transmission and distribution systems, so the generation sources related to electricity usage can be difficult to trace and may occur far from the jurisdiction in which that energy is consumed. In other words, the emissions resulting from electricity consumption vary considerably depending on when and where it is used since this affects the generation sources providing the power. There is no practical way to identify where or how all the electricity used by a certain customer was generated, but by reviewing public sources of data the total emission burden of a customer's electricity supplier can b e found and an average emissions factor (AEF) calculated. These are useful for assigning a net emission burden to a facility. In addition, marginal emissions factors (MEFs) for estimating the effect of changing levels of usage can be calculated. MEFs are needed because emission rates at the margin are likely to diverge from the average. The overall objective of this task is to develop methods for estimating AEFs and MEFs that can provide an estimate of the combined net CO2 emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to California electricity customers. The method covers the historic period from 1990 to the present, with 1990 and 1999 used as test years. The factors derived take into account the location and time of consumption, direct contracts for power which may have certain atypical characteristics (e.g., ''green'' electricity from renewable resources), resource mixes of electricity providers, import and export of electricity from utility owned and other sources, and electricity from cogeneration. It is assumed that the factors developed in this way will diverge considerably from simple statewide AEF estimates based on standardized inventory estimates that use conventions inconsistent with the goals of this work. A notable example concerns the treatment of imports, which despite providing a significant share of California's electricity supply picture, are excluded from inventory estimates of emissions, which are based on geographical boundaries of the state.

Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Economic Effect on Agricultural Production of Alternative Energy Input Prices: Texas High Plains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Arab oil embargo of 1973 awakened the world to the reality of energy shortages and higher fuel prices. Agriculture in the United States is highly mechanized and thus energy intensive. This study seeks to develop an evaluative capability to readily determine the short-run effect of rising energy prices on agricultural production. The results are measured in terms of demand schedules for each input investigated, net revenue adjustments, cropping pattern shifts, and changes in agricultural output. The High Plains of Texas was selected as a study area due to the heterogeneous nature of agricultural production in the region and highly energy intensive methods of production employed. The region is associated with a diversity in crops and production practices as well as a high degree of mechanization and irrigation, which means agriculture is very dependent upon energy inputs and, in turn, is significantly affected by energy price changes. The study area was defined by the Texas Agricultural Extension subregions of High Plains II, High Plains III, and High Plains IV. The crops chosen for study were cotton, grain sorghum, wheat, corn, and soybeans. The energy and energy-related inputs under investigation were diesel, herbicide, natural gas, nitrogen fertilizer, and water. Mathematical linear programming was used as the analytical technique with parametric programming techniques incorporated into the LP model to evaluate effect of varying input price parameters over a specified range. Thus, demand schedules were estimated. The objective function was constructed using variable costs only; no fixed costs are considered. Therefore, the objective function maximizes net revenue above variable costs and thus limits the study to the short run. The data bases for the model were crop enterprise budgets developed by the Texas Agricultural Extension Service. These budgets were modified to adapt them to the study. Particularly important was the substitution of owner-operated harvesting equipment for custom-harvesting costs. This procedure made possible the delineation of fuel use by crop and production alternative which was necessary information in the accounting of costs. The completed LP model was applied to 16 alternative situations made up of various input and product price combinations which are considered as feasible in the short run future. The results reveal that diesel consumption would change very little in the short run unless commodity prices simultaneously decline below the lowest prices since 1971 or unless diesel price approaches $2.00 per gallon. Under average commodity price conditions, natural gas consumption would not decline appreciably until the price rose above $4.00 per 1000 cubic feet (mcf). Even when using the least product prices since 1971, natural gas would be consumed in substantial amounts as long as the price was below $1.28 per Mcf. The findings regarding nitrogen indicate that present nitrogen prices are within a critical range such that consumption would be immediately affected by nitrogen price increases. Water price was considered as the price a farmer can afford to pay for water above pumping and distribution costs. Application of water was defined as the price that would be paid for imported water. Under average commodity price conditions, the study results show that as water price rises from zero dollars to $22 per acre foot there would be less than a 4 percent reduction in consumption. However, as the price continues to rise, consumption would decline dramatically reaching zero at a water price of $71.75 per acre foot. This study indicates that rising input prices would cause acreage shifts from irrigated to dryland; however, with average commodity prices, these shifts do not occur until diesel reaches $2.69 per gallon, or natural gas sells for $1.92 per Mcf, or nitrogen price is $.41 per pound, or water price reaches $14.69 per acre foot. In general, the first crops that would shift out of production as energy input prices rise woul

Adams, B. M.; Lacewell, R. D.; Condra, G. D.

1976-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Estimating carbon dioxide emission factors for the California electric power sector  

SciTech Connect

The California Climate Action Registry (''Registry'') was initially established in 2000 under Senate Bill 1771, and clarifying legislation (Senate Bill 527) was passed in September 2001. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has been asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (CEC) in establishing methods for calculating average and marginal electricity emissions factors, both historic and current, as well as statewide and for sub-regions. This study is exploratory in nature. It illustrates the use of three possible approaches and is not a rigorous estimation of actual emissions factors. While the Registry will ultimately cover emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs), presently it is focusing on carbon dioxide (CO2). Thus, this study only considers CO2, which is by far the largest GHG emitted in the power sector. Associating CO2 emissions with electricity consumption encounters three major complications. First, electricity can be generated from a number of different primary energy sources, many of which are large sources of CO2 emissions (e.g., coal combustion) while others result in virtually no CO{sub 2} emissions (e.g., hydro). Second, the mix of generation resources used to meet loads may vary at different times of day or in different seasons. Third, electrical energy is transported over long distances by complex transmission and distribution systems, so the generation sources related to electricity usage can be difficult to trace and may occur far from the jurisdiction in which that energy is consumed. In other words, the emissions resulting from electricity consumption vary considerably depending on when and where it is used since this affects the generation sources providing the power. There is no practical way to identify where or how all the electricity used by a certain customer was generated, but by reviewing public sources of data the total emission burden of a customer's electricity supplier can b e found and an average emissions factor (AEF) calculated. These are useful for assigning a net emission burden to a facility. In addition, marginal emissions factors (MEFs) for estimating the effect of changing levels of usage can be calculated. MEFs are needed because emission rates at the margin are likely to diverge from the average. The overall objective of this task is to develop methods for estimating AEFs and MEFs that can provide an estimate of the combined net CO2 emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to California electricity customers. The method covers the historic period from 1990 to the present, with 1990 and 1999 used as test years. The factors derived take into account the location and time of consumption, direct contracts for power which may have certain atypical characteristics (e.g., ''green'' electricity from renewable resources), resource mixes of electricity providers, import and export of electricity from utility owned and other sources, and electricity from cogeneration. It is assumed that the factors developed in this way will diverge considerably from simple statewide AEF estimates based on standardized inventory estimates that use conventions inconsistent with the goals of this work. A notable example concerns the treatment of imports, which despite providing a significant share of California's electricity supply picture, are excluded from inventory estimates of emissions, which are based on geographical boundaries of the state.

Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z