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  1. Uzbekistan

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    28th country overall, plus Taiwan, to have partnered with DOENNSA to become free of all HEU.

    "This final HEU removal from Uzbekistan under our collaboration with...

  2. Uzbekistan | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Uzbekistan | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Photo Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog

  3. United States Virgin Islands: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rebate Program (Virgin Islands) U.S. Virgin Islands - Energy Efficiency Residential Rebates (Virgin Islands) U.S. Virgin Islands - Net Metering (Virgin Islands) U.S. Virgin...

  4. Virgin Pulse Wellness Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to non-employee spouses. Employees and non-employee spouses can now embark on their fitness journey together. Join today Virgin Pulse resources Program Overview Provider...

  5. Virgin Bioverda LLC VBV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Virgin Bioverda LLC VBV Jump to: navigation, search Name: Virgin Bioverda LLC (VBV) Place: Chicago, Illinois Product: Chicago-based JV established between Virgin & NTR to back US...

  6. NNSA Partnership Successfully Removes All Remaining HEU from Uzbekistan |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration Partnership Successfully Removes All Remaining HEU from Uzbekistan | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact

  7. Radiation Control on Uzbekistan Borders - Results and Perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrenko, Vitaliy; Yuldashev, Bekhzod; Ismailov, Ulughbek; Shipilov, Nikolay; Chipizubov, Sergey; Avezov, Anvar

    2009-12-02

    The measures and actions on prevention, detection and response to criminal or unauthorized acts involving radioactive materials in Uzbekistan are presented. In frames of program of radiation monitoring to prevent illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials main customs border checkpoints were equipped with commercial radiation portal monitors. Special radiation monitors elaborated and manufactured in INP AS RU are installed in INP(main gates, research reactor and laboratory building) to provide nuclear security of Institute facilities. The experience of Uzbekistan in establishing radiation monitoring systems on its borders, their operation and maintenance would be useful for realization of proposed plan of strengthening measures to prevent illicit trafficking in Republics of Central Asia region.

  8. NREL: Technology Deployment - U.S. Virgin Islands Cut Diesel...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. Virgin Islands Cut Diesel Use for Electricity and Water Production by 20% News NREL Helping Virgin Islands Cut Fuel Use U.S. Virgin Islands Begins Collecting Wind Resource...

  9. United States Virgin Islands: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (CLEAN Partner Activity) Energy Incentives for United States Virgin Islands Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (U.S. Virgin Islands) Southern States Energy Compact (Multiple...

  10. US Virgin Islands-Energy Development in Island Nations (EDIN...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    US Virgin Islands-Energy Development in Island Nations (EDIN) Pilot Project Jump to: navigation, search Logo: US Virgin Islands-Energy Development in Island Nations (EDIN) Pilot...

  11. Vietnam National Coal Mineral Industries Group Vinacomin | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    National Coal Mineral Industries Group Vinacomin Jump to: navigation, search Name: Vietnam National Coal-Mineral Industries Group (Vinacomin) Place: Vietnam Product: Vietnam-based...

  12. Virgin Green Fund | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: WC2B 4AS Sector: Efficiency, Renewable Energy Product: The Virgin Green Fund has been established to invest in companies in the...

  13. U.S. Virgin Islands- Net Metering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In February 2007, the U.S. Virgin Islands Public Services Commission approved a limited net-metering program for residential and commercial photovoltaic (PV), wind-energy or other renewable energ...

  14. United States Virgin Islands: St. Thomas (Bovoni) & St. Croix (Longford)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Roberts, O.; Andreas, A.

    Two measurement stations to collect wind data to support future wind power generation in the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  15. Virgin Islands Recovery Act State Memo | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Virgin Islands Recovery Act State Memo Virgin Islands Recovery Act State Memo The American Recovery & Reinvestment Act( ARRA) is making a meaningful down payment on the nation's energy and environmental future. The Recovery Act investments in the U.S. Virgin Islands are supporting a broad range of clean energy projects from energy efficiency and the smart grid to solar power and biofuels. Through these investments, the U.S. Virgin Islands' businesses, universities, non-profits, and local

  16. United States Virgin Islands: St. Thomas (Bovoni) & St. Croix (Longford)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Roberts, O.; Andreas, A.

    1997-01-01

    Two measurement stations to collect wind data to support future wind power generation in the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  17. Recovery Act State Memos Virgin Islands

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Virgin Islands For questions about DOE's Recovery Act activities, please contact the DOE Recovery Act Clearinghouse: 1-888-DOE-RCVY (888-363-7289), Monday through Friday, 9 a.m. to 7 p.m. Eastern Time https://recoveryclearinghouse.energy.gov/contactUs.htm. All numbers and projects listed as of June 1, 2010 TABLE OF CONTENTS RECOVERY ACT SNAPSHOT................................................................................... 1 FUNDING ALLOCATION

  18. Crystallization Behavior of Virgin TR-55 Silicone Rubber Measured Using

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis with Liquid Nitrogen Cooling (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Crystallization Behavior of Virgin TR-55 Silicone Rubber Measured Using Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis with Liquid Nitrogen Cooling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Crystallization Behavior of Virgin TR-55 Silicone Rubber Measured Using Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis with Liquid Nitrogen Cooling Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) of virgin TR-55 silicone rubber

  19. Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis of Virgin TR-55 Silicone Rubber

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis of Virgin TR-55 Silicone Rubber Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis of Virgin TR-55 Silicone Rubber Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) of virgin TR-55 silicone rubber specimens was conducted. Dynamic frequency/temperature sweep tests were conducted over the ranges 0.1-100 rad/s and 30-100 C using a parallel plate test geometry. A strain of 0.2% was used, which was near

  20. NREL Helping Virgin Islands Cut Fuel Use - News Feature | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Helping Virgin Islands Cut Fuel Use January 11, 2012 In this photo, a man and a woman are looking at a huge colorful wall map that shows sun resources in yellows and oranges, wind resources in blues. Enlarge image NREL's Adam Warren, left, and Karen Petersen examine a map that shows the wind and sun resources of the U.S. Virgin Islands. Credit: Dennis Schroeder The U.S. Virgin Islands are a great place to visit, but you wouldn't want to pay energy bills there. The tiny U.S. territory in the

  1. Eyes Witness Report on South Vietnam

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Mons. Nielson, conseiller des Etats Unis auprès de L'ONU, apporte son témoignage et exprime son opinion quand à la guerre du Vietnam (Sud)

  2. U.S. Virgin Islands Leadership Embraces Inclusiveness to Ensure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In 2010, U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI)-serving as a pilot project for the Energy Development ... of this goal, Gov. de Jongh worked to charter and empower an effective, inclusive ...

  3. U.S. Virgin Islands Infographic | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ...em> U.S. Virgin Islands Clears the Way for Unprecedented Levels of Solar Energy USVI Energy Road Map: Charting the Course to a Clean Energy Future (Brochure), EDIN (Energy ...

  4. U.S. Virgin Islands Establishes Interconnection Standards to...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ...em> U.S. Virgin Islands Clears the Way for Unprecedented Levels of Solar Energy USVI Energy Road Map: Charting the Course to a Clean Energy Future (Brochure), EDIN (Energy ...

  5. Energy Office Grant Helps the Virgin Islands Environmental Resource Station

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Install Solar Panels, Improve Efficiency, and Cut Monthly Energy Use Nearly 30% | Department of Energy Office Grant Helps the Virgin Islands Environmental Resource Station Install Solar Panels, Improve Efficiency, and Cut Monthly Energy Use Nearly 30% Energy Office Grant Helps the Virgin Islands Environmental Resource Station Install Solar Panels, Improve Efficiency, and Cut Monthly Energy Use Nearly 30% This fact sheet highlights the energy challenges a USVI nonprofit faced, the energy

  6. Vietnam-USAID Country Report | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    deployment programs, Pathways analysis Resource Type: Publications Website: usaid.eco-asia.orgprogramscdcpreportsIdeas-to-ActionannexesAnnex Country: Vietnam UN...

  7. Energy Transformation in the U.S. Virgin Islands | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Transformation in the U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Transformation in the U.S. Virgin Islands Click on the graphic to learn more the USVI's progress toward its 60% by 2025 goal. Click on the graphic to learn more the USVI's progress toward its 60% by 2025 goal. Location U.S. Virgin Islands Partners National Renewable Energy Laboratory Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority Virgin Islands Energy Office The U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) from 2009 to 2013

  8. Oil and gas production in the Amu Dar`ya Basin of Western Uzbekistan and Eastern Turkmenistan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sagers, M.J.

    1995-05-01

    The resource base, development history, current output, and future outlook for oil and gas production in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are examined by a Western specialist with particular emphasis on the most important gas-oil province in the region, the Amu Dar`ya basin. Oil and gas have been produced in both newly independent countries for over a century, but production from the Amu Dar`ya province proper dates from the post-World War II period. Since that time, however, fields in the basin have provided the basis for a substantial natural gas industry (Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan consistently have trailed only Russia among the former Soviet republics in gas output during the last three decades). Despite high levels of current production, ample oil and gas potential (Turkmenistan, for example, ranks among the top five or six countries in the world in terms of gas reserves) contributes to the region`s prominence as an attractive area for Western investors. The paper reviews the history and status of several international tenders for the development of both gas and oil in the two republics. Sections on recent gas production trends and future outlook reveal considerable differences in consumption patterns and export potential in the region. Uzbekistan consumes most of the gas it produces, whereas Turkmenistan, with larger reserves and a smaller population, exported well over 85% of its output over recent years and appears poised to become a major exporter. A concluding section examines the conditions that will affect these countries` presence on world oil and gas markets over the longer term: reserves, domestic consumption, transportation bottlenecks, the likelihood of foreign investment, and future oil and gas demand. 33 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  9. Asian Development Outlook 2010 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, China, South Korea, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Laos, Vietnam,...

  10. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  11. U.S. Virgin Islands Wind Resources Update 2014 (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    U.S. Virgin Islands Wind Resources Update 2014 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: U.S. Virgin Islands Wind Resources Update 2014 This report summarizes the data collected...

  12. U.S. Virgin Islands Wind Resources Update 2014 Roberts, J. O...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Virgin Islands Wind Resources Update 2014 Roberts, J. O.; Warren, A. 17 WIND ENERGY; 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; 24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION U.S. VIRGIN...

  13. Assessing Pathways in the U.S. Virgin Islands and Hawai'i

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Transition Initiative: Islands lesson learned detailing work done in the U.S. Virgin Islands and Hawai'i.

  14. Waste-to-Energy Evaluation: U.S. Virgin Islands

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Waste-to-Energy Evaluation: U.S. Virgin Islands Jerry Davis, Scott Haase, and Adam Warren Technical Report NREL/TP-7A20-52308 August 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Waste-to-Energy Evaluation: U.S. Virgin Islands Jerry

  15. U.S.-Vietnam Climate Change Working Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    -Vietnam Climate Change Working Group Jump to: navigation, search Name U.S.-Vietnam Climate Change Working Group AgencyCompany Organization United States Geological Survey,...

  16. Vietnam-Sub National Planning for Climate Change (cities, states...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Change (cities, states, districts) Jump to: navigation, search Name Vietnam-Sub National Planning for Climate Change (cities, states, districts) AgencyCompany...

  17. Vietnam-IISD NAMA Support | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name Vietnam-IISDNAMA Support AgencyCompany Organization International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector Climate Topics Background analysis, Low emission...

  18. Vietnam-Danish Government Sector Programmes | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low emission development planning, -LEDS, Policiesdeployment programs Program End 2012 Country Vietnam South-Eastern Asia References Denmark1 Promoting wind energy in...

  19. Vietnam-Renewable Energy Action Plan | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Renewable Energy Action Plan Jump to: navigation, search Name Vietnam-Renewable Energy Action Plan AgencyCompany Organization World Bank Sector Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy...

  20. Forestry and Poverty Data in Vietnam: Status, Gaps, and Potential...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Type: Dataset, Publications Website: recoftc.orgsitefileadmindocspublicationsTheGreyZone2009Forest Country: Vietnam UN Region: South-Eastern Asia Coordinates:...

  1. Forest Tenure Reform in Vietnam | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Land Focus Area Forestry Topics Resource assessment, Background analysis Resource Type Lessons learnedbest practices Website http:recoftc.orgsitefilead Country Vietnam UN...

  2. Vietnam-UNEP Risoe-Technology Needs Assessment Program | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    UNEP Risoe-Technology Needs Assessment Program Jump to: navigation, search Name Vietnam-UNEP Risoe-Technology Needs Assessment Program AgencyCompany Organization UNEP-Risoe...

  3. Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Adaptation in Vietnam...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Change on Agriculture and Adaptation in Vietnam Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Adaptation in...

  4. U.S. Virgin Islands Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan U.S. Virgin Islands Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan This report, funded by DOE and prepared by EDIN's Transportation Working Group (TWG), aims to build on the "2030 USVI Transportation Master Plan" by describing how its recommended projects can be leveraged toward the 60% by 2025 goal. PDF icon U.S. Virgin Islands Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan More Documents & Publications U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Road Map:

  5. Assessing Pathways in the U.S. Virgin Islands and Hawai'i | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by Adam Warren, NREL 18953 U.S. Virgin Islands Establishes Interconnection Standards to Clear the Way for Grid Interconnection Energy Transition Initiative: Islands Playbook...

  6. Working Groups Collaborate on U.S. Virgin Islands Clean Energy Vision and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Road Map | Department of Energy Working Groups Collaborate on U.S. Virgin Islands Clean Energy Vision and Road Map Working Groups Collaborate on U.S. Virgin Islands Clean Energy Vision and Road Map A diverse set of stakeholders brainstorming on the vision for the EDIN-USVI project at the first community energy planning meeting, June 2010, University of the Virgin Islands, St. Thomas, USVI. <em>Photo from Aldeth Lewin, Virgin Islands Daily News</em> A diverse set of stakeholders

  7. Proposed Training Plan to Improve Building Energy Efficiency in Vietnam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced fast growth in energy consumption in the past decade, with annual growth rate of over 12 percent. This is accompanied by the fast increase in commercial energy use, driven by rapid industrialization, expansion of motorized transport, and increasing energy use in residential and commercial buildings. Meanwhile, Vietnam is experiencing rapid urbanization at a rate of 3.4 percent per year; and the majority of the growth centered in and near major cities such as Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. This has resulted in a construction boom in Vietnam.

  8. U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Road Map: Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.; Olis, D.; Warren, A.

    2011-09-01

    This report lays out the strategy envisioned by the stakeholders in the U.S. Virgin Islands, U.S. Department of Energy, and U.S. Department of Interior to achieve the ambitious goal of achieving a 60% reduction in business-as-usual fossil fuel demand by 2025 (60x25) within the electricity sector. This work and supporting analysis provides a framework within which decisions can begin to be made, a concrete vision of what the future might hold, and a guide to determine what questions should follow.

  9. U.S. Virgin Islands Wind Resources Update 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. Virgin Islands Wind Resources Update 2014 Joseph Owen Roberts and Adam Warren National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-7A40-63094 December 2014 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 National

  10. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  11. Vietnam-Nordic Partnership Initiative | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    can be matched with up-scaled host country mitigation action through two programs in Peru and Vietnam. The NPI program in Peru will focus on exploring possibilities to lower CO2...

  12. Waste-to-Energy Evaluation: U.S. Virgin Islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, J.; Hasse, S.; Warren, A.

    2011-08-01

    This NREL technical report evaluates the environmental impact and fundamental economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) technology based on available data from commercially operating WTE facilities in the United States. In particular, it considers life-cycle impacts of WTE as compared to landfill disposal and various forms of electrical generation, as well as WTE impacts on source reduction or recycling programs. In addition, it evaluates the economics and potential environmental impact of WTE in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) based on existing USVI waste stream characterization data, recycling challenges unique to the USVI, and the results of cost and environmental modeling of four municipal solid waste (MSW) management options, including landfill, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) production, recycling, and gassification plus RDF.

  13. Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis of Virgin TR-55 Silicone Rubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Small IV, W; Wilson, T S

    2009-10-09

    Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) of virgin TR-55 silicone rubber specimens was conducted. Dynamic frequency/temperature sweep tests were conducted over the ranges 0.1-100 rad/s and 30-100 C using a parallel plate test geometry. A strain of 0.2% was used, which was near the upper limit of the linear viscoelastic region of the material based on initial dynamic strain sweep tests. Master curves of G{prime} and G{double_prime} as a function of frequency were generated using time-temperature superposition (horizontal shift with initial vertical correction). The activation energy calculated from an Arrhenius fit to the horizontal shift factors was 178-355 kJ/mol. The calculated percent load retention at {approx}50 years was 61-68%.

  14. WINDExchange: Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands 50-Meter Wind Resource

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    Map Maps & Data Printable Version Bookmark and Share Land-Based Utility-Scale Maps Potential Capacity Maps Offshore Wind Maps Community-Scale Maps Residential-Scale Maps Installed Capacity Maps Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands 50-Meter Wind Resource Map Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands wind resource map. Click on the image to view a larger version. Enlarge image This Puerto Rico wind map and the U.S. Virgin Islands wind map shows the wind resource at 50 meters. Download a printable

  15. NREL: Technology Deployment - NREL Helps U.S. Virgin Islands Install Wind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Testing Equipment NREL Helps U.S. Virgin Islands Install Wind Testing Equipment Photo of wind turbines being erected. NREL's analysis and technical expertise is helping the U.S. Virgin Islands find ways to reduce fossil fuel use by 60% through the development of utility-scale wind opportunities. January 10, 2013 With the help of NREL, the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) recently marked a major milestone on the way toward its goal of a 60% reduction in fossil fuel use by 2025. In December, NREL

  16. Waste-to-Energy Evaluation: U.S. Virgin Islands | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This report evaluates the environmental impact and fundamental economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) technology based on available data from commercially operating WTE facilities in the United States. PDF icon waste-to-energy_eval_usvi_nrel_52308_final.pdf More Documents & Publications U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Road Map: Analysis Waste-to-Energy Evaluation: U.S. Virgin Islands U.S. Virgin Islands Infographic USVI Energy Road Map: Charting the Course to a Clean Energy Future (Brochure), EDIN

  17. U.S. Virgin Islands Ramping Up Clean Energy Efforts with an Eye Toward a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sustainable Future | Department of Energy Virgin Islands Ramping Up Clean Energy Efforts with an Eye Toward a Sustainable Future U.S. Virgin Islands Ramping Up Clean Energy Efforts with an Eye Toward a Sustainable Future April 3, 2015 - 11:00am Addthis Renewable energy technologies, such as the 5 MW Estate Donor Solar Project located on St. Thomas, have helped the U.S. Virgin Islands reduce its fossil fuel use by 20% over the last five years. | Photo by Jennifer DeCesaro Renewable energy

  18. Energy Department Supports Clean Energy Development in the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) is working with the Energy Department to transition from fossil fuel energy to the renewable resources that are abundant on the islands.

  19. U.S. Virgin Islands- Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the U.S. Virgin Islands, the owner of a solar or wind-energy system is permitted to negotiate for assurance of continued access to the system’s energy source. "Solar or wind-energy system" is...

  20. U.S. Virgin Islands- Solar Water Heating Requirement for New Construction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In July 2009 the U.S. Virgin Islands enacted legislation creating Act 7075. This legislation requires that all new developments and substantial building modifications install energy efficient solar...

  1. U.S. Virgin Islands - Search - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    US Virgin Islands US Virgin Islands Profile Territory Profile and Energy Estimates Change State/Territory Choose a U.S. State or Territory United States Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio

  2. EDIN Announces New Projects in the U.S. Virgin Islands, Dominica, and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    across the Pacific - News Releases | NREL EDIN Announces New Projects in the U.S. Virgin Islands, Dominica, and across the Pacific April 9, 2009 HONOLULU, HI, - The International Partnership for Energy Development in Island Nations (EDIN) today announced three new pilot projects. The U.S. pilot project participant will be the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI); Iceland's pilot project will be working with Dominica; and New Zealand will work to assess geothermal potential for numerous Pacific Island

  3. NREL: Wind Research - U.S. Virgin Islands Begins Collecting Wind Resource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data: A Wind Powering America Success Story U.S. Virgin Islands Begins Collecting Wind Resource Data: A Wind Powering America Success Story March 25, 2013 In the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI), electricity is so expensive that families struggle to pay utility bills and businesses close due to high energy costs. With technical assistance from the U.S Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the USVI Energy Office is preparing to develop the territory's first

  4. U.S. Virgin Islands Leadership Embraces Inclusiveness to Ensure Community Ownership of Clean Energy Vision

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0: Committing to an Energy Transition U.S. Virgin Islands Leadership Embraces Inclusiveness to Ensure Community Ownership of Clean Energy Vision Getting the Right People in the Room at the Outset Getting the right people in the room is critical to ensuring buy-in from key stakeholders when setting the vision for an energy project or initiative. Like many island communities, the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) was almost 100% depen- dent on imported oil for electricity, water desalinization, and

  5. Advancing Development and Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Vietnam's Wind Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bilello, D.; Katz, J.; Esterly, S.; Ogonowski, M.

    2014-09-01

    Clean energy development is a key component of Vietnam's Green Growth Strategy, which establishes a target to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from domestic energy activities by 20-30 percent by 2030 relative to a business-as-usual scenario. Vietnam has significant wind energy resources, which, if developed, could help the country reach this target while providing ancillary economic, social, and environmental benefits. Given Vietnam's ambitious clean energy goals and the relatively nascent state of wind energy development in the country, this paper seeks to fulfill two primary objectives: to distill timely and useful information to provincial-level planners, analysts, and project developers as they evaluate opportunities to develop local wind resources; and, to provide insights to policymakers on how coordinated efforts may help advance large-scale wind development, deliver near-term GHG emission reductions, and promote national objectives in the context of a low emission development framework.

  6. U.S. Virgin Islands Petroleum Price-Spike Preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-06-01

    This NREL technical report details a plan for the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) to minimize the economic damage caused by major petroleum price increases. The assumptions for this plan are that the USVI will have very little time and money to implement it and that the population will be highly motivated to follow it because of high fuel prices. The plan's success, therefore, is highly dependent on behavior change. This plan was derived largely from a review of the actions taken and behavior changes made by companies and commuters throughout the United States in response to the oil price spike of 2008. Many of these solutions were coordinated by or reported through the 88 local representatives of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides technical and communications support for the Clean Cities program and therefore serves as a de facto repository of these solutions. This plan is the first publication that has tapped this repository.

  7. Challenges to institutionalizing strategic environmental assessment: The case of Vietnam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slunge, Daniel; Tran, Trang Thi Huyen

    2014-09-15

    Building on new institutional theory, this paper develops an analytical framework for analyzing constraints to the institutionalization of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) at four different institutional levels. The framework is tested in an empirical analysis of the environmental assessment system in Vietnam, which is a frontrunner among developing countries regarding the introduction and use of SEA. Building on interviews with Vietnamese and international experts, as well as an extensive literature review, we identify institutional constraints which challenge the effective use of SEA in Vietnam. We conclude that commonly identified constraints, such as inadequate training, technical guidelines, baseline data and financial resources, are strongly linked to constraints at higher institutional levels, such as incentives to not share information between ministries and severe restrictions on access to information and public participation. Without a thorough understanding of these institutional constraints, there is a risk that attempts to improve the use of SEA are misdirected. Thus, a careful institutional analysis should guide efforts to introduce and improve the use of SEA in Vietnam and other developing countries. The analytical framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalization of SEA presented in this paper represents a systematic effort in this direction. - Highlights: • A framework for analyzing constraints to institutionalizing SEA is developed • Empirical analysis of the strategic environmental assessment system in Vietnam • Constraints in the action arena linked to deeper institutional constraints • Institutional analysis needed prior to introducing SEA in developing countries.

  8. Integrating Renewable Energy into the Transmission and Distribution System of the U. S. Virgin Islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burman, K.; Olis, D.; Gevorgian, V.; Warren, A.; Butt, R.; Lilienthal, P.; Glassmire, J.

    2011-09-01

    This report focuses on the economic and technical feasibility of integrating renewable energy technologies into the U.S. Virgin Islands transmission and distribution systems. The report includes three main areas of analysis: 1) the economics of deploying utility-scale renewable energy technologies on St. Thomas/St. John and St. Croix; 2) potential sites for installing roof- and ground-mount PV systems and wind turbines and the impact renewable generation will have on the electrical subtransmission and distribution infrastructure, and 3) the feasibility of a 100- to 200-megawatt power interconnection of the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA), Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority (WAPA), and British Virgin Islands (BVI) grids via a submarine cable system.

  9. Vietnam-NIES Low-Carbon Society Scenarios 2050 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NIES Low-Carbon Society Scenarios 2050 Jump to: navigation, search Name Vietnam-NIES Low-Carbon Society Scenarios 2050 AgencyCompany Organization National Institute for...

  10. U.S. Virgin Islands Regions | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    U.S. Virgin Islands Regions National Science Bowl® (NSB) NSB Home About High School High School Students High School Coaches High School Regionals High School Rules, Forms, and Resources Middle School Attending National Event Volunteers 2015 Competition Results News Media WDTS Home Contact Information National Science Bowl® U.S. Department of Energy SC-27/ Forrestal Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: 202-586-6702 E: Email Us High School Regionals U.S. Virgin Islands

  11. Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands Wind Resource Map at 50 meters

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % 19-JUN-2007 1.1.1 U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands - 50 m Wind Power Mayaguez 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 Kilometers 20 0 20 40 60 Miles Ponce San Juan Charlotte Amalie Cruz Bay PUERTO RICO VIRGIN ISLANDS Wind Power Class 1 2 3 4 5 Resource Potential Poor Marginal Fair Good Excellent Wind Power Density at 50 m W/m 0 - 200 200 - 300 300 - 400 400 - 500 500 - 600 2 Wind Speed at 50 m m/s 0.0 - 5.9

  12. U.S. Virgin Islands Clears the Way for Unprecedented Levels of Solar Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4: Project Execution and Quality Control U.S. Virgin Islands Clears the Way for Unprecedented Levels of Solar Energy In the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI), solar energy is helping to alleviate the territory's dependence on fossil fuel while stabilizing and reducing energy costs. Challenge The territory's successes with solar energy started in 2010 when USVI Gov. John P. de Jongh Jr. set an aggressive goal to reduce the USVI's dependence on fossil fuel 60% by 2025. Like many island communities, USVI

  13. U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Road Map: Analysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Road Map: Analysis U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Road Map: Analysis This report lays out the strategy envisioned by the stakeholders in the U.S. Virgin Islands, U.S. Department of Energy, and U.S. Department of Interior to achieve the ambitious goal of achieving a 60% reduction in business-as-usual fossil fuel demand by 2025 (60x25) within the electricity sector. Instead, this work and supporting analysis provides a framework within which decisions can begin to be made, a concrete vision of

  14. Working Groups Collaborate on U.S. Virgin Islands Clean Energy Vision and Road Map

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1: Setting the Vision Working Groups Collaborate on U.S. Virgin Islands Clean Energy Vision and Road Map The Energy Development in Islands Nations (EDIN)-U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) pilot project offers a valuable example of how to approach vision and goal setting for an energy project or initiative. At the inaugural EDIN-USVI workshop in February 2010, USVI Gov. John P. de Jongh Jr. announced his goal to reduce the territory's dependence on fossil fuel 60% by 2025. To defne and realize the

  15. Method for the addition of vulcanized waste rubber to virgin rubber products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Romine, R.A.; Snowden-Swan, L.J.

    1997-01-28

    The invention is a method of using enzymes from thiophyllic microbes for selectively breaking the sulfur rubber cross-link bonds in vulcanized rubber. The process is halted at the sulfoxide or sulfone step so that a devulcanized layer is reactive with virgin rubber. 8 figs.

  16. Method for the addition of vulcanized waste rubber to virgin rubber products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Romine, Robert A. (Pasco, WA); Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. (Benton City, WA)

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a method of using enzymes from thiophyllic microbes for selectively breaking the sulfur rubber cross-link bonds in vulcanized rubber. The process is halted at the sulfoxide or sulfone step so that a devulcanized layer is reactive with virgin rubber.

  17. Assessing Pathways in the U.S. Virgin Islands and Hawaii

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the U.S. Virgin Islands and Hawai'i Challenge When setting energy goals, a common challenge is measuring success toward meeting those goals. Establishing an energy baseline enables more informed energy decision-making and provides a way to measure progress toward meeting goals. A key step in developing a road map to meet clean energy goals is determining which energy effciency and renewable energy technologies the market will support and best use available resources. Hawai'i Clean Energy

  18. U.S. Virgin Islands Leadership Embraces Inclusiveness to Ensure Community

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ownership of Clean Energy Vision | Department of Energy Leadership Embraces Inclusiveness to Ensure Community Ownership of Clean Energy Vision U.S. Virgin Islands Leadership Embraces Inclusiveness to Ensure Community Ownership of Clean Energy Vision More than 25 government leaders, energy office officials, and utility company executives from the USVI attended a workshop at NREL in Golden, Colorado, in February 2010. <em>Photo by Adam Warren, NREL</em> More than 25 government

  19. Integrating Renewable Energy into the Transmission and Distribution System of the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integrating Renewable Energy into the Transmission and Distribution System of the U.S. Virgin Islands Kari Burman, Dan Olis, Vahan Gevorgian, Adam Warren, and Robert Butt National Renewable Energy Laboratory Peter Lilienthal and John Glassmire HOMER Energy LLC Technical Report NREL/TP-7A20-51294 September 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Contract No.

  20. Attachment L-7b Vietnam Design Requirements Document is an Official

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    b Vietnam Design Requirements Document is an Official Use Only document please see Section NNS-L-2000 for instructions to Obtain. Section NNS-L-2000 (a) (8) Official Use Only (OUO) Document. The Government considers the Vietnam Design Requirements Document, Attachment L-7b an OUO Document and it cannot be made available to the public via any public webpages (e.g. FebBizOpps, FedConnect, DICCE2 acquisition webpage, Reading Room). The Vietnam Design Requirements Document (DRD) may assist Offerors

  1. U.S. Virgin Islands Clears the Way for Unprecedented Levels of Solar Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Clears the Way for Unprecedented Levels of Solar Energy U.S. Virgin Islands Clears the Way for Unprecedented Levels of Solar Energy Almost 1,500 solar water heating and PV systems have popped up throughout the territory since the EDIN-USVI project launched in February 2010, and 15 MW of distributed solar PV are either in place or under construction. <em>Photo from Don Buchanan, VIEO, NREL 20152</em> Almost 1,500 solar water heating and PV systems have

  2. U.S. Virgin Islands Establishes Interconnection Standards to Clear the Way

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Grid Interconnection | Department of Energy Establishes Interconnection Standards to Clear the Way for Grid Interconnection U.S. Virgin Islands Establishes Interconnection Standards to Clear the Way for Grid Interconnection A 448-kW PV system installed at the Cyril E. King Airport on St. Thomas in April 2011. <em>Photo by Adam Warren, NREL 18953</em> A 448-kW PV system installed at the Cyril E. King Airport on St. Thomas in April 2011. Photo by Adam Warren, NREL 18953 Faced

  3. Building on and spinning off: Sandia National Labs` creation of sensors for Vietnam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullrich, R.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses Sandia National Laboratories` development of new technologies for use in the Vietnam War - specifically the seismic sensors deployed to detect troop and vehicle movement - first along the Ho Chi Minh Trail and later in perimeter defense for American military encampments in South Vietnam. Although the sensor story is a small one, it is interesting because it dovetails nicely with our understanding of the war in Vietnam and its frustrations; of the creation of new technologies for war and American enthusiasm for that technology; and of a technological military and the organizational research and a m am development structure created to support it. Within the defense establishment, the sensors were proposed within the context of a larger concept - that of a barrier to prevent the infiltration of troops and supplies from North Vietnam to the South. All of the discussion of the best way to fight in Vietnam is couched in the perception that this was a different kind of war than America was used to fighting. The emphasis was on countering the problems posed by guerrilla/revolutionary warfare and eventually by the apparent constraints of being involved in a military action, not an outright war. The American response was to find the right technology to do the job - to control the war by applying a technological tincture to its wounds and to make the war familiar and fightable on American terms. And, when doubts were raised about the effectiveness of applying existing technologies (namely, the bombing of North Vietnam and Laos), the doubters turned to new technologies. The sensors that were developed for use in Vietnam were a direct product of this sort of thinking - on the part of the engineers at Sandia who created the sensors, the civilian scientific advisors who recommended them, and, ultimately, the soldiers in the field who had to use them.

  4. Final Assessment: U.S. Virgin Islands Industrial Development Park and Adjacent Facilities Energy-Efficiency and Micro-Grid Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, Joseph M.; Boyd, Paul A.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Parker, Graham B.

    2015-12-31

    The purpose of this assessment was to undertake an assessment and analysis of cost-effective options for energy-efficiency improvements and the deployment of a micro-grid to increase the energy resilience at the U.S. Virgin Islands Industrial Development Park (IDP) and adjacent facilities in St. Croix, Virgin Islands. The Economic Development Authority sought assistance from the U.S. Department of Energy to undertake this assessment undertaken by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The assessment included 18 buildings plus the perimeter security lighting at the Virgin Islands Bureau of Correctional Facility, four buildings plus exterior lighting at the IDP, and five buildings (one of which is to be constructed) at the Virgin Islands Police Department for a total of 27 buildings with a total of nearly 323,000 square feet.

  5. Advancing Development and Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Vietnams Wind Sector

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advancing Development and Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Vietnam's Wind Sector June 19, 2014 Daniel Bilello, Jessica Katz, Sean Esterly National Renewable Energy Laboratory Matthew Ogonowski U.S. Agency for International Development EC-LEDS is managed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and Department of State with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and U.S. Forest Service. Printed with a

  6. Reconstituted polymeric materials derived from post-consumer waste, industrial scrap and virgin resins made by solid state shear pulverization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khait, Klementina (Skokie, IL)

    2001-01-30

    A method of making polymeric particulates wherein polymeric scrap material, virgin polymeric material and mixtures thereof are supplied to intermeshing extruder screws which are rotated to transport the polymeric material along their length and subject the polymeric material to solid state shear pulverization and in-situ polymer compatibilization, if two or more incompatible polymers are present. Uniform pulverized particulates are produced without addition of a compatibilizing agent. The pulverized particulates are directly melt processable (as powder feedstock) and surprisingly yield a substantially homogeneous light color product.

  7. Reconstituted polymeric materials derived from post-consumer waste, industrial scrap and virgin resins made by solid state pulverization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khait, Klementina (Skokie, IL)

    1998-09-29

    A method of making polymeric particulates wherein polymeric scrap material, virgin polymeric material and mixtures thereof are supplied to intermeshing extruder screws which are rotated to transport the polymeric material along their length and subject the polymeric material to solid state shear pulverization and in-situ polymer compatibilization, if two or more incompatible polymers are present. Uniform pulverized particulates are produced without addition of a compatibilizing agent. The pulverized particulates are directly melt processable (as powder feedstock) and surprisingly yield a substantially homogeneous light color product.

  8. Reconstituted Polymeric Materials Derived From Post-Consumer Waste, Industrial Scrap And Virgin Resins Made By Solid State Shear Pulverizat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khait, Klementina (Skokie, IL)

    2005-02-01

    A method of making polymeric particulates wherein polymeric scrap material, virgin polymeric material and mixtures thereof are supplied to intermeshing extruder screws which are rotated to transport the polymeric material along their length and subject the polymeric material to solid state shear pulverization and in-situ polymer compatibilization, if two or more incompatible polymers are present. Uniform pulverized particulates are produced without addition of a compatibilizing agent. The pulverized particulates are directly melt processable (as powder feedstock) and surprisingly yield a substantially homogeneous light color product.

  9. Reconstituted polymeric materials derived from post-consumer waste, industrial scrap and virgin resins made by solid state pulverization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khait, K.

    1998-09-29

    A method of making polymeric particulates is described wherein polymeric scrap material, virgin polymeric material and mixtures thereof are supplied to intermeshing extruder screws which are rotated to transport the polymeric material along their length and subject the polymeric material to solid state shear pulverization and in-situ polymer compatibilization, if two or more incompatible polymers are present. Uniform pulverized particulates are produced without addition of a compatible agent. The pulverized particulates are directly melt processable (as powder feedstock) and surprisingly yield a substantially homogeneous light color product. 29 figs.

  10. EDIN-USVI Clean Energy Quarterly: Volume 1, Issue 2, March 2011, Energy Development in Island Nations, U.S. Virgin Islands (Newsletter)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-03-01

    This quarterly newsletter provides timely news and information about the plans and progress of the Energy Development in Island Nations U.S. Virgin Islands pilot project, including significant events and milestones, work undertaken by each of the five working groups, and project-related renewable energy and energy efficiency projects.

  11. EDIN-USVI Clean Energy Quarterly: Volume 1 November 2010, Energy Development in Island Nations, U.S. Virgin Islands (Newsletter)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    This quarterly newsletter provides timely news and information about the plans and progress of the Energy Development in Island Nations U.S. Virgin Islands pilot project, including significant events and milestones, work undertaken by each of the five working groups, and EDIN-sponsored renewable energy and energy efficiency projects.

  12. Uzbekistan: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    coords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":,"controls":"pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview","zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"...

  13. Energy Office Grant Helps the Virgin Islands Environmental Resource Station Install Solar Panels, Improve Efficiency, and Cut Monthly Energy Use Nearly 30% (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet highlights the energy challenges faced by the Virgin Islands Environmental Resource Station (VIERS), the renewable energy and energy efficiency solutions implemented, the resulting energy efficiency savings, and other project benefits. In 2011, VIERS installed a 9.4 kW solar system funded by a $50,000 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) grant, which was administered by VIEO. To identify additional energy-saving opportunities, VIERS performed an energy audit of appliances, which resulted in the removal of two water coolers and the installation of a water meter to monitor water use and how it relates to electric pump use. VIERS also added an educational component to the project, developing a solar classroom near the original solar system. By building on previous energy conservation measures and making additional investments in renewable energy technology, VIERS has lowered its average monthly energy consumption nearly 30%, even with an increase in guests. The VIERS efforts are not limited to the technology installations, however. They also serve to impact the youth of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) by educating young people about energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies and their energy and environmental impacts. VIERS solar system is connected to the Web via a live feed that posts solar output data in real time, increasing the VIERS solar classroom's potential educational impact exponentially.

  14. Dynamos and virgins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roe, D.

    1984-01-01

    A portrait of public interest advocacy and an historic account of how a new idea can make its way in the real world, this book tells the story of a small group's effort to turn the electric power industry around. Zach Willey and the Environmental Defense Fund figured out how to prove that the utilities could have growth in energy and higher profits without the problems of coal and nuclear power plants. They demonstrated the obsolescence of the large-scale power plant, and took on the Pacific Gas and Electric Company in the process. Their approach accepted the principles of the electricity industry that growth should match demand, that investment should seek the cheapest and most reliable technology using private funds, and that charges should reflect costs. By using the utilities' own arguments, the group demonstrated the merits of the soft energy approach in a way the utilities could understand and appreciate.

  15. H. R. 3737: A Bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to impose an excise tax on certain uses of virgin materials and to establish a trust fund for recycling assistance and solid waste management planning. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, November 19, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    H.R. 3737 is a bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to impose an excise tax on certain uses of virgin materials and to establish a trust fund for recycling assistance and solid waste management planning.

  16. Uzbekistan-Supporting RBEC Transition to Low-Emission Development...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (UNDP), UNDP Bratislava Regional Center Partner Interministerial committees headed by the national focal point on climate change Sector Climate, Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy,...

  17. Uzbekistan-Integrated Approaches to the Development of Climate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Efficiency, Food Supply, Industry, People and Policy Topics - Energy Access, - Energy Security, Implementation, Low emission development planning, -LEDS, Market...

  18. Soderberg_RecontresDeVietnam

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1. FIG. 2: The antineutrino mode (top) and neutrino QE MiniBooNE MiniBooNE MicroBooNE: Physics 16 * Prove effectiveness of electrongamma separation technique (e.g. - using dE...

  19. Oil and gas resources of the Fergana basin (Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan, and Kyrgyzstan). Advance summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-07

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA), in cooperation with the US Geological Survey (USGS), has assessed 13 major petroleum producing regions outside of the United States. This series of assessments has been performed under EIA`s Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). The basic approach used in these assessments was to combine historical drilling, discovery, and production data with EIA reserve estimates and USGS undiscovered resource estimates. Field-level data for discovered oil were used for these previous assessments. In FESAP, supply projections through depletion were typically formulated for the country or major producing region. Until now, EIA has not prepared an assessment of oil and gas provinces in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Before breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Fergana basin was selected for a trial assessment of its discovered and undiscovered oil and gas. The object was to see if enough data could be collected and estimated to perform reasonable field-level estimates of oil and gas in this basin. If so, then assessments of other basins in the FSU could be considered. The objective was met and assessments of other basins can be considered. Collected data for this assessment cover discoveries through 1987. Compared to most other oil and gas provinces in the FSU, the Fergana basin is relatively small in geographic size, and in number and size of most of its oil and gas fields. However, with recent emphasis given to the central graben as a result of the relatively large Mingbulak field, the basin`s oil and gas potential has significantly increased. At least 7 additional fields to the 53 fields analyzed are known and are assumed to have been discovered after 1987.

  20. Oil and Gas Resources of the Fergana Basin (Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan, and Kyrgysztan)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    Provides the most comprehensive assessment publicly available for oil and gas resources in the Fergana Basin. Includes projections of potential oil supply and U.S. Geological Survey estimates of undiscovered recoverable oil and gas.

  1. Vietnam: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWhyear 66 2008 NREL Coal Reserves 165.35 Million Short Tons 53 2008 EIA Natural Gas Reserves 680,000,000,000 Cubic Meters (cu m) 31 2010 CIA World Factbook Oil Reserves...

  2. SolarTech | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SolarTech Jump to: navigation, search Name: SolarTech Place: Uzbekistan Product: Korean and Uzbekistan JV that is formed to secure high-purity silica from Uzbekistan for...

  3. Xiongya Virgin Investment Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Investment Co Ltd Place: Hongkong, China Product: An enterprise engages in financing offshore for China Longyuan Electric Power Group. Coordinates: 22.411249, 114.153542 Show...

  4. Virgin Islands Wtr&Pwr Auth | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic SearchQuerying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with...

  5. U.S. Virgin Islands Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.

    2011-09-01

    This NREL technical report determines a way for USVI to meet its petroleum reduction goal in the transportation sector. It does so first by estimating current petroleum use and key statistics and characteristics of USVI transportation. It then breaks the goal down into subordinate goals and estimates the petroleum impacts of these goals with a wedge analysis. These goals focus on reducing vehicle miles, improving fuel economy, improving traffic flow, using electric vehicles, using biodiesel and renewable diesel, and using 10% ethanol in gasoline. The final section of the report suggests specific projects to achieve the goals, and ranks the projects according to cost, petroleum reduction, time frame, and popularity.

  6. U.S. Virgin Islands- Renewables Portfolio Targets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Photovoltaic Energy, wind energy, hydroelectric energy, landfill gas, biomass, ocean and microturbine systems.

  7. U.S. Virgin Islands Wind Resources Update 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, J. O.; Warren, A.

    2014-12-01

    This report summarizes the data collected from two 60-meter meteorological towers and three sonic detection and ranging units on St. Thomas and St. Croix in 2012 and 2013. These results are an update to the previous feasibility study; the collected data are critical to the successful development of a wind project at either site.

  8. U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Road Map: Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Road Map: Analysis Eric Lantz, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren Technical Report NRELTP-7A20-52360 September 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, ...

  9. Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis of Virgin TR-55 Silicone...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    linear viscoelastic region of the material based on initial dynamic strain sweep tests. ... Research Org: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA Sponsoring Org: ...

  10. U.S. Virgin Islands Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    same petroleum savings from pure EVs as it does from EVs with range-extending petroleum engines. We make this assumption because the shorter driving distances in the USVI are...

  11. U.S. Virgin Islands- Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A household can receive a maximum of two solar water heater rebates. Rebate amounts vary slightly based upon installed equipment. Rebates will be $1,250 for solar water heaters with an OG-300 rat...

  12. Energy Office Grant Helps the Virgin Islands Environmental Resource...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Panels, Improve Efficiency, and Cut Monthly Energy Use Nearly 30% More Documents & Publications Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency SITN Regional Outreach Map ...

  13. U.S. Virgin Islands Establishes Interconnection Standards to...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Screen 3: Gross generating facility rating 10 kW? Screen 4: Inverter-based generating facility 250 kW meeting IEEE 1547 & UL 1741? Screen 5: SCCR within acceptable limits? ...

  14. Crystallization Behavior of Virgin TR-55 Silicone Rubber Measured...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; CRYSTALLIZATION; GEOMETRY; HEATING; MELTING; NITROGEN; RUBBERS; SILICONES; STORAGE; STRAINS; THERMAL ANALYSIS; THERMAL EXPANSION; ...

  15. U.S. Virgin Islands Wind Resources Update 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Summarizes the data collected from two 60-meter meteorological towers and three sonic detection and ranging units on St. Thomas and St. Croix in 2012 and 2013. The report leverages previous feasibility studies conducted at NREL, including Wind Power Opportunities in St. Thomas, USVI: A Site-Specific Analysis.

  16. US Virgin Islands-Energy Development in Island Nations (EDIN...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    selected for its interest in energy efficiency and renewable energy, its high energy prices, its close proximity to the mainland US, and its reasonable size and number of...

  17. U.S. Virgin Islands Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... multiple agencies and reports, are compiled for the ... 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 ... (equipment used in a refinery) to produce, so the USVI ...

  18. U.S. Virgin Islands Feed-In Tariff

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In May of 2014, AB 7586 created a feed-in-tariff that would allow owners of solar photovotaic systems ranging between 10 kWh and 500 kWh to sell their energy for approximately 26 cents per kWh. Two...

  19. Vietnam-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    illustrates the U.S. perspective on LEDS: Integrated development goals and objectives, national greenhouse gas inventory, and economic and resource data Long-term projections of...

  20. Vietnam-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Government Partner Danish Ministry for Climate, Energy, and Building; The Danish Energy Agency Sector Energy Topics Implementation, Low emission development planning Program...

  1. Vietnam-Lowering Emissions in Asia's Forests (LEAF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assessing, improving, and implementing REDD+- related forest policies; improving forest management; and encouraging equitable sharing of REDD+ benefits. The program will tailor...

  2. Vietnam-World Bank Climate Projects | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    electricity access will be improved by upgrading, and strengthening the 110 KV sub-transmission line, and substations, restoring five existing hydropower plants, and, by...

  3. Vietnam-EU-UNDP Low Emission Capacity Building Programme (LECBP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Programme (UNDP), German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Australian Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE),...

  4. Vietnam-Development Policy Operation (DPO) Financing | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Policy Operation Financing AgencyCompany Organization France Agency of Development (AFD) Partner JICA, CIDA, WB, Korean Exim, AusAid Sector Climate Focus Area Non-renewable...

  5. Vietnam-Strengthening Public and Private Climate Finance in Asia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to support climate-resilient development in the developing world. Mitigation investment is substantial in parts of Asia, but lacking elsewhere; adaptation investment flows...

  6. Vietnam-The Mitigation Action Implementation Network (MAIN) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Energy Thailand, Ministry of Industry Thailand, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Thailand, Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and...

  7. Vietnam-Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the growth of greenhouse gas emissions. The LEAD program supports and enhances country-led development programs, plans, and policies, and complements efforts of other...

  8. Vietnam-The World Bank Partnership for Market Readiness (PMR...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Morocco Implement climate change mitigation policy as part of National Plan against Global Warming. PMR Support: Establish MRV framework. Identify and develop crediting NAMAs...

  9. Vietnam-Clean Technology Fund (CTF) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Development, Inter-American Development Bank, World Bank Sector Climate, Energy Focus Area Energy Efficiency, Geothermal, Transportation Topics Background analysis,...

  10. Vietnam-NAMA Programme for the Construction Sector in Asia |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Buildings, Industry Topics Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA, Market...

  11. Vietnam-Strengthening Planning Capacity for Low Carbon Growth...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Growth in Developing Asia AgencyCompany Organization Asian Development Bank Partner Japan, United Kingdom Sector Climate, Energy Focus Area Non-renewable Energy, Buildings,...

  12. Multizone subsea completions in the Dai Hung field, Vietnam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lay, K.R.

    1996-09-01

    The early production phase of the Dai Hung field development resulted in the drilling and completion of five subsea wells. Because of the complex nature of the reservoirs, selective multizone completions were installed for effective reservoir data acquisition and reservoir management. The downhole completion designs used equipment that was primarily of existing proven design and downhole equipment installation was successfully achieved in a single trip. Ongoing reservoir management will be aided by the use of a subsea wireline system to facilitate data acquisition.

  13. Brief: Multizone subsea completions in the Dai Hung field, Vietnam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lay, K.R.

    1996-04-01

    The early production phase of the Dai Hung field development involved drilling and completion of five subsea wells. Owing to the complex nature of the reservoirs, selective multizone completions were installed for effective reservoir data acquisition and reservoir management. Downhole completion designs used equipment that was primarily of existing proven design, and downhole equipment was installed in a single trip. Ongoing reservoir management will be aided by use of a subsea wireline system to facilitate data acquisition.

  14. Vietnam-Integrated Action Plan to Reduce Vehicle Emissions |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and reduce air pollution. Furthermore, they are required to ensure that Viet Nam's air quality meets the average standards set by the Association of Southeast Asian Nation...

  15. Vietnam-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    six to eight developing countries to strengthen their national low carbon development strategies and get a "quick start" on NAMAs. The focus will be on reducing emissions of...

  16. Vietnam Research Center for Energy and Environment | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of renewable and clean energy development and energy efficiency. RCEE focuses on climate change issues too, like policies on clean development mechanism (CDM), and developing...

  17. USAID-Central Asian Republics Climate Activities | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ourwork Country Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan Central Asia, Central Asia, Central Asia, Central Asia, Central Asia References USAID Climate...

  18. USAID Europe and Eurasia Climate Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Armenia, Republic of Macedonia, Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Kazakhstan, Hungary, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan Western...

  19. Integrating Renewable Energy into the Transmission and Distribution System of the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report describes one area in which islands may lead: integrating a high percentage of renewable energy resources into an isolated grid. In addition, it explores the challenges, feasibility, and potential benefits of interconnecting the USVI grids with the much larger Puerto Rican grid.

  20. Working Groups Collaborate on U.S. Virgin Islands Clean Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    buy-in. By engaging a wide variety of both public and private stakeholders early on, the team was able to achieve consensus on the clean energy vision for the USVI and secure a...

  1. U.S. Virgin Islands Ramping Up Clean Energy Efforts with an Eye...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... and a significant reduction in pollution An abundance of sunshine and ocean ... in lower electricity costs for consumers, and a significant reduction in pollution. ...

  2. Low-temperature geothermal assessment of the Santa Clara and Virgin River Valleys, Washington County, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budding, K.E.; Sommer, S.N.

    1986-01-01

    Exploration techniques included the following: (1) a temperature survey of springs, (2) chemical analyses and calculated geothermometer temperatures of water samples collected from selected springs and wells, (3) chemical analyses and calculated geothermometer temperatures of spring and well water samples in the literature, (4) thermal gradients measured in accessible wells, and (5) geology. The highest water temperature recorded in the St. George basin is 42/sup 0/C at Pah Tempe Hot Springs. Additional spring temperatures higher than 20/sup 0/C are at Veyo Hot Spring, Washington hot pot, and Green Spring. The warmest well water in the study area is 40/sup 0/C in Middleton Wash. Additional warm well water (higher than 24.5/sup 0/C) is present north of St. George, north of Washington, southeast of St. George, and in Dameron Valley. The majority of the Na-K-Ca calculated reservoir temperatures range between 30/sup 0/ and 50/sup 0/C. Anomalous geothermometer temperatures were calculated for water from Pah Tempe and a number of locations in St. George and vicinity. In addition to the known thermal areas of Pah Tempe and Veyo Hot Spring, an area north of Washington and St. George is delineated in this study to have possible low-temperature geothermal potential.

  3. U.S. Virgin Islands Clears the Way for Unprecedented Levels of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The success of the USVI's solar projects provide a model for other islands to follow by ... Island Clean Energy Goals USVI Energy Road Map: Charting the Course to a Clean Energy ...

  4. U.S. Virgin Islands- Renewable Energy Feed-in-Tariff

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There is a 10 MW limit for aggregate production via feed-in-tariff contracts on the islands of St. Thomas, St. John, Water Island, and other offshore keys and islands and a similar 5 MW limit for...

  5. U.S. Virgin Islands Makes Aggressive Energy Pledge at NREL -...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    experts on renewable energy technologies, integration and transmission of electricity from renewable energy systems, policy and market analysis and project development and finance. ...

  6. Slide 1 | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Virgin Islands Recovery Act State Memo Slide 1

  7. Four-Year Plan | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    HEU Removal South Africa HEU Removal Sweden Plutonium Removal Taiwan HEU Removal Turkey HEU Removal Ukraine HEU Removal United Kingdom HEU Removal Uzbekistan HEU Removal...

  8. Request for Proposal No. DE-SOL-0008418 Section J, Appendix D

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Sudan Syria Taiwan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Ukraine Uzbekistan 2. Due to the dynamic nature of world events, other countries may, at any time, become sensitive. Therefore,...

  9. Vietnam-Low Carbon Asia Research Network (LoCARNet) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy, Land Focus Area Agriculture, Biomass, Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Greenhouse Gas, Hydrogen, Industry, Land Use, People and...

  10. Vietnam-EC-LEDS in the Agriculture Sector | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector Climate, Land Focus Area Agriculture, Economic Development, Greenhouse Gas, Land Use Topics Adaptation, Implementation, Low emission development planning, -LEDS,...

  11. Vietnam-GTZ RE Policy and Wind Power Development Project | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) Partner Ministry of Industry and Trade (MoIT), The Electricity...

  12. Opportunities and Challenges to Scaling-up Wind Power in Vietnam...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AgencyCompany Organization Asian Development Bank Sector Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy, Wind Topics Co-benefits assessment, Market analysis, Pathways analysis, Background...

  13. --No Title--

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    VietNam 2004 5th Rencontres du Vietnam Particle Physics and Astrophysics Conference D. Schmitz Status of MiniBooNE...

  14. NIS receives two NAGC awards | National Nuclear Security Administratio...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    IAEA Additional Protocol in Lao PDR NNSA Partnership Successfully Removes All Remaining HEU from Uzbekistan NNSA Removes U.S.-Origin HEU from Jamaica, Makes the Caribbean HEU Free...

  15. ASEAN-IEA Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Policiesdeployment programs, Technology characterizations Resource Type Workshop, Training materials Country Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines, Vietnam,...

  16. Energy Department Supports Clean Energy Development in the U...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean Energy Development in the U.S. Virgin Islands Energy Department Supports Clean Energy Development in the U.S. Virgin Islands July 25, 2014 - 11:59am Addthis This 10 kW PV ...

  17. CX-009169: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Virgin Islands State Energy Program CX(s) Applied: A9, A11 Date: 09/26/2012 Location(s): Virgin Islands Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  18. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    U S Virgin Islands Wind Resources Update Roberts J O Warren A WIND ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING POLICY AND ECONOMY POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION U S VIRGIN ISLANDS WIND ST THOMAS...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Virgin Islands- Renewables Portfolio Targets Photovoltaic Energy, wind energy, hydroelectric energy, landfill gas, biomass, ocean and microturbine systems. Eligibility:...

  20. Regional nonprofits receive sizeable monetary boost

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    deserved as a result of that war's widespread unpopularity at the time. "A lot of New Mexicans served in Vietnam," Hopwood noted. "The very first soldier who fell in Vietnam, Turk...

  1. Red Sun Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Red Sun Energy Place: Long An Province, Vietnam Product: A Vietnam-based PV module manufacturer References: Red Sun Energy1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  2. UNEP-Risoe-Economics of GHG Limitations: Country Study Series...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Limitations1 Country study series: Argentina, Ecuador, Estonia, Hungary, Indonesia, Mauritius, Senegal, Vietnam Parallel country studies: Botswana, Tanzania, Zambia...

  3. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Issuestrends

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal, nuclear, and renewables expected to boost Vietnam's electricity capacity August 3, 2015 natural gaselectricityinternationalcoalrenewableenergy U.S. nuclear ...

  4. USVI Energy Road Map: Charting the Course to a Clean Energy Future

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Brochure), EDIN (Energy Development in Island Nations), U.S. Virgin Islands | Department of Energy USVI Energy Road Map: Charting the Course to a Clean Energy Future (Brochure), EDIN (Energy Development in Island Nations), U.S. Virgin Islands USVI Energy Road Map: Charting the Course to a Clean Energy Future (Brochure), EDIN (Energy Development in Island Nations), U.S. Virgin Islands This brochure provides an overview of the integrated clean energy deployment process and progress of the

  5. PvT Capital Gmbh | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Germany Product: the company builds, operates and provides multi-feedstock biodiesel plants around the world processing virgin vegetable oil, used cooking oil, animal...

  6. Buffalo Biodiesel Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biodiesel Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Buffalo Biodiesel Inc Place: New York Product: Buffalo Biodiesel is a biodiesel producer that buys recycled and virgin oil to...

  7. Faces of the Recovery Act | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    heating installation training program installing solar water heaters on homes for the elderly on St. Croix. Image: Energy Department Image Going Green in the Virgin Islands 1 11...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    U.S. Virgin Islands- Renewables Portfolio Targets Photovoltaic Energy, wind energy, hydroelectric energy, landfill gas, biomass, ocean and microturbine systems. Eligibility:...

  9. Shenyu New Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    British Virgin Islands-based parent company of Yunnan Shenyu New Energy, a biological research and development company and biofuel producer. References: Shenyu New Energy1...

  10. Evolution Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: British Virgin Islands-based solar energy company dedicated to establishing solar panel factories in the Middle East and Africa using both Crystalline Silicon and...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Puerto Rico Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virgin Islands Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Apply Current search Combined...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Puerto Rico Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virgin Islands Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Apply Current search Solar...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Puerto Rico Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virgin Islands Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Apply Current search Heat...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Puerto Rico Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virgin Islands Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Apply Current search...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    not identified, Anaerobic Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels U.S. Virgin Islands- Renewables Portfolio Targets Photovoltaic Energy, wind energy, hydroelectric...

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Savings Category: Solar Space Heat, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Thermal Process Heat, Solar Photovoltaics U.S. Virgin Islands- Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws In...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Puerto Rico Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virgin Islands Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Apply Current search Anaerobic...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Gas, Tidal, Wave, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Anaerobic Digestion U.S. Virgin Islands- Renewables Portfolio Targets Photovoltaic Energy, wind energy, hydroelectric...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Tribal Government, Institutional Savings Category: Water Heaters, Furnaces, Boilers, Heat Pumps U.S. Virgin Islands- Solar Water Heating Requirement for New Construction In...

  20. Global Alternative Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alternative Fuels Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Alternative Fuels Place: El Paso, Texas Zip: 79922 Product: Global Alternative Fuels processes virgin oils (palm,...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oregon Palau Pennsylvania Puerto Rico Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virgin Islands Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (All), Wind (Small), Other Distributed Generation Technologies U.S. Virgin Islands- Renewables Portfolio Targets Photovoltaic Energy, wind energy, hydroelectric energy, landfill...

  3. Energy Transition Initiative | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Transition Initiative Energy Transition Initiative Blog: Progress Toward a Sustainable Future in the U.S. Virgin Islands Blog: Progress Toward a Sustainable Future in the...

  4. Wind Power Opportunities in St. Thomas, USVI: A Site-Specific...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Association BNEF Bloomberg New Energy Finance BVI British Virgin Islands CapEx Capital ... and Natural Resources EDIN Energy Development in Island Nations EPA Environmental ...

  5. Chile-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kenya, Mexico, South Africa, Thailand and Vietnam), to share practices on setting national greenhouse gas emissions baseline scenarios. The aim of the workstream is to...

  6. UNEP-Risoe-Economics of GHG Limitations: Country Study Series...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Econo References Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations1 Country study series: Argentina, Ecuador, Estonia, Hungary, Indonesia, Mauritius, Senegal, Vietnam Parallel country...

  7. File:NREL-asia-tilt.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Countries Bhutan, China, Nepal, Mongolia, India, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Bangladesh UN Region Southern Asia, Eastern Asia,...

  8. File:NREL-asia-dir.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Countries Bhutan, China, Nepal, Mongolia, India, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Bangladesh UN Region Southern Asia, Eastern Asia,...

  9. File:NREL-asia-glo.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Countries Bhutan, China, Nepal, Mongolia, India, North Korea, South Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Philippines, Bangladesh UN Region Southern Asia, Eastern Asia,...

  10. Nonproliferation | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    dispose of dangerous nuclear and radiological material, and detect and control the proliferation of related WMD technology and expertise. Vietnam Removal Working in close...

  11. Forest Carbon Partnership Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Madagascar, Mexico, Moldova, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Republic of the Congo, Suriname, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam...

  12. LEDSGP/about | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Democratic Republic of Congo Department of Science, Education, Natural Resources & Environment, Ministry of Planning and Investment of Vietnam European Commission German Agency...

  13. Analysis of Technology Transfer in CDM Projects | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    countries, including Bolivia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Indonesia, Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam and significantly lower...

  14. Development of Sea Level Rise Scenarios for Climate Change Assessments...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sea Level Rise Scenarios for Climate Change Assessments of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Development of Sea Level Rise...

  15. Viet Nam Rural Electrification | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rural Electrification Location of project Vietnam Energy Services Lighting, Cooking and water heating, Space heating, Cooling Year initiated 2009 Organization Asian Development...

  16. Radioactive Waste Management in Central Asia - 12034

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhunussova, Tamara; Sneve, Malgorzata; Liland, Astrid

    2012-07-01

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the newly independent states in Central Asia (CA) whose regulatory bodies were set up recently are facing problems with the proper management of radioactive waste and so called 'nuclear legacy' inherited from the past activities. During the former Soviet Union (SU) period, various aspects of nuclear energy use took place in CA republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Activities range from peaceful use of energy to nuclear testing for example at the former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan, and uranium mining and milling industries in all four countries. Large amounts of radioactive waste (RW) have been accumulated in Central Asia and are waiting for its safe disposal. In 2008 the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), with the support of the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, has developed bilateral projects that aim to assist the regulatory bodies in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan (from 2010) to identify and draft relevant regulatory requirements to ensure the protection of the personnel, population and environment during the planning and execution of remedial actions for past practices and radioactive waste management in the CA countries. The participating regulatory authorities included: Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyrgyzstan State Agency on Environmental Protection and Forestry, Nuclear Safety Agency of Tajikistan, and State Inspectorate on Safety in Industry and Mining of Uzbekistan. The scope of the projects is to ensure that activities related to radioactive waste management in both planned and existing exposure situations in CA will be carried out in accordance with the international guidance and recommendations, taking into account the relevant regulatory practice from other countries in this area. In order to understand the problems in the field of radioactive waste management we have analysed the existing regulations through the so called 'Threat assessment' in each CA country which revealed additional problems in the existing regulatory documents beyond those described at the start of our ongoing bilateral projects in Kazakhstan, Kirgizistan Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. (authors)

  17. DNN Sentinel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ii, no. 1  defense by other means u.s. department of energy (doe) national nuclear security administration (nnsa) defense nuclear nonproliferation (dnn) National Nuclear Security Administration 3 DNN Plays Central Role in Implementing Nuclear Security Summits 4 Workshop Furthers Goals of Maritime Security Gift Basket 5 Uzbekistan Becomes 28 th HEU-free Country Under DNN Partnership 6 Innovation: X-Rays that Measure Plutonium Content 7 Grant to Texas A&M Builds Human Capital 8 Thor and

  18. The effect of diet and exercise on incidence of 7,12

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumors in virgin BALB/c mice (Conference) | SciTech Connect The effect of diet and exercise on incidence of 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumors in virgin BALB/c mice Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The effect of diet and exercise on incidence of 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumors in virgin BALB/c mice The effects of rotating-drum treadmill exercise and diet on 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene

  19. Design, Integration, Communication and Construction Engineering 2

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    1, 2016 QUESTIONS SUBMITTED BY DICCE2 INDUSTRY DAY ATTENDEES on 9/23/15 1. The sample task is Vietnam. Is either of the incumbent contractor's currently working there? Conflict? a. The Vietnam project is not a sample task, it is a real project that will be awarded as a Task Order. Neither incumbents are currently working in Vietnam under any NSDD contract. 2. If required to go to a High Risk site, will security and life support be a contractor responsibility? a. Each contractor makes a safety

  20. Design, Integration, Communication and Construction Engineering 2

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    8, 2016 QUESTIONS SUBMITTED AFTER DICCE2 REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL RELEASE DATE OF 2/1/2016 1. Section L Attachment L-7a Vietnam Statement of Work. Does each lane already have adequate electric to power proposed RPM equipment? If not which building should power be routed from? a. Response: This information is contained in the Vietnam Design Requirements Document, specifically section 3.1.4. 2. Section L Attachment L-7a Vietnam Statement of Work. Does each lane where the RPM units are being installed

  1. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Puerto Rico (Fact Sheet); NREL(National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico - a U.S. territory located about 60 miles east of the Dominican Republic and directly west of the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Wind Easements & Rights Laws In the U.S. Virgin Islands, the owner of a solar or wind-energy system is permitted to negotiate for assurance of continued access to the system's...

  3. USVI Energy Road Map: Charting the Course to a Clean Energy Future...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    USVI Energy Road Map Charting the Course to a Clean Energy Future EDIN Energy Development in Island Nations U.S. Virgin Islands EDIN Energy Development in Island Nations U.S. ...

  4. Hawai'i Establishes Goal of Achieving 70% Clean Energy by 2030...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hawai'i Establishes Goal of Achieving 70% Clean Energy by 2030 Assessing Pathways in the U.S. Virgin Islands and Hawai'i Hawai'i's Evolution: Hawai'i Powered. Technology Driven.

  5. This Week In Petroleum Summary Printer-Friendly Version

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    consumption declines in 2011. On January 18, Hess announced the closure of its HOVENSA joint venture refinery in the U.S. Virgin Islands, a major source of product supply to the...

  6. This Week In Petroleum Summary Printer-Friendly Version

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    crude oil imports of 912,000 bbld comprised the majority of those volumes. Even factoring in 255,000 bbld of petroleum product imports from the U.S. Virgin Islands (about 60...

  7. Obama Administration Delivers More than $60 Million for Weatherization Programs in Six States and Territories

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recovery Act funding to expand weatherization assistance programs, create jobs and weatherize nearly 17,000 homes in American Samoa, Northern Arapahoe Tribe, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, Tennessee and the U.S. Virgin Islands

  8. This Week In Petroleum Summary Printer-Friendly Version

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    was the largest employer in the U.S. Virgin Islands, will likely have a major adverse impact on the economy of that U.S. territory. The impact on the mainland United States is...

  9. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    US Virgin Islands US Virgin Islands Profile Territory Profile and Energy Estimates Change State/Territory Choose a U.S. State or Territory United States Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio

  10. NREL's Renewable Energy Development Expertise Reduces Project Risks (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-12-01

    This National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) success story fact sheet highlights a June 2012 solar power purchase agreement between the Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority and three corporations. The fact sheet describes how technical assistance from DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory enabled the U.S. Virgin Islands to realistically assess its clean energy resources and identify the most viable and cost-effective solutions to its energy challenges--resulting in a $65 million investment in solar energy in the territory.

  11. Energy Transition Initiative | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Transition Initiative Energy Transition Initiative Blog: Progress Toward a Sustainable Future in the U.S. Virgin Islands Blog: Progress Toward a Sustainable Future in the U.S. Virgin Islands Read more Islands Playbook Islands Playbook Read more Island Energy Snapshots Island Energy Snapshots Read more State and Local Energy Data Tool State and Local Energy Data Tool Read more Through the Energy Transition Initiative (ETI), the U.S. Department of Energy and its partners work with

  12. Y-12s Training and Technology ? TAT and John Ray

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFB in North Carolina. He completed a tour of Vietnam during the war and a tour of Turkey, earning a bronze medal and the distinguished flying cross. During both tours we lived...

  13. armed forces

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    organization that takes World War II, Korean War and Vietnam War veterans to the U.S. capital to see the memorials built in their honor at zero cost to the veteran.

  14. veterans

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    organization that takes World War II, Korean War and Vietnam War veterans to the U.S. capital to see the memorials built in their honor at zero cost to the veteran.

  15. NREL: Technology Deployment - Success Stories from Developing Countries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Demonstrate Impacts of Low Emission Development Strategies Success Stories from Developing Countries Demonstrate Impacts of Low Emission Development Strategies News EC-LEDS Highlights Renewable Energy Resource Data at COP21 Vietnam Makes Strides to Lower Emissions Thru Green Building Code, High-Performance Buildings Colombia Makes Major Strides in Low Emission Development Payments for Forest Environmental Services in Vietnam Preserves Forests, Engages Communities Presidential Engagement on

  16. Attachment L-7a U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AM52-08NAXXXXX Task Order No: DT000XXXX Statement of Work August 7, 2015 Task Order Title: Design, Integration, Construction, Communications, and Engineering (DICCE) Services for Port of Cat Lai, Vietnam. Scope: The Contractor shall design, construct, and integrate fully functional portal monitor and communications systems at designated sites in Vietnam.  Port of Cat Lai Requirements Documents: The following task order requirements describe key milestones and deliverables. For a more complete

  17. Attachment L-7c

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    c [Type here] VIETNAM MOBILIZATION PLAN DE-SOL-0008449 1.0 INTRODUCTION Based on the information presented below, the Statement of Work requirements relating to in- country deployments, and the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) provided in Table 1, the Offeror shall develop a mobilization plan that describes its approach to a comprehensive Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence (NSDD) deployment involving Port of Cat Lai seaport in Vietnam. 2.0 REQUIREMENTS The Offeror shall provide a plan for

  18. DE-SOL-0008449 Attachment L-7c

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    DE-SOL-0008449 Attachment L-7c [Type here] VIETNAM MOBILIZATION PLAN DE-SOL-0008449 1.0 INTRODUCTION Based on the information presented below, the Statement of Work requirements relating to in- country deployments, and the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) provided in Table 1, the Offeror shall develop a mobilization plan that describes its approach to a comprehensive Nuclear Smuggling Detection and Deterrence (NSDD) deployment involving Port of Cat Lai seaport in Vietnam. 2.0 REQUIREMENTS The

  19. TASK ORDER

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NA0000XXX Task Order No: DE-DT000XXXX Statement of Work August 7, 2015 Task Order Title: Design, Integration, Construction, Communications, and Engineering (DICCE) Services for Port of Cat Lai, Vietnam. Scope: The Contractor shall design, construct, and integrate fully functional portal monitor and communications systems at designated sites in Vietnam. * Port of Cat Lai Requirements Documents: The following task order requirements describe key milestones and deliverables. For a more complete

  20. Progress Toward Remediation of Uranium Tailings in Mailuu-Suu, Kyrgyzstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, P B; Ranville, J; Honeyman, B D; Smith, D K; Rosenberg, N; Knapp, R B

    2003-07-09

    The town of Mailuu-Suu in Kyrgyzstan inherited 23 distinct tailings deposits from Soviet-Era uranium mining operations. Mailuu-Suu is located in the narrow landslide-prone valley of the Mailuu-Suu River about 25 km from the Uzbekistan border. Large-scale release of the radioactive tailings, as a result of landslides, could lead to irreversible contamination of the river and downstream areas. The Mailuu-Suu River is a tributary to the Syr-Darya River, the Fergana valley's main source of irrigation water. The Fergana Valley is a key agricultural region and major population center that spans Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The trans-boundary nature of the Mailuu-Suu tailings issue presents an opportunity for collaboration among these Central Asian states. A cooperative approach to addressing environmental issues such as Mailuu-Suu may contribute to the region's stability by facilitating peaceful associations. Experience from remediation of sites in the US under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Action Project (UMTRA) will be useful in progressing toward remediation at Mailuu-Suu.

  1. The Nuvruz Project: Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Transboundary Rivers End of Year One Reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    YULDASHEV, BEKHZAD; SALIKHBAEV, UMAR; RADYUK, RAISA; DJURAEV, AKRAM; DJURAEV, ANWAR; VASILIEV, IVAN; TOLONGUTOV, BAJGABYL; VALENTINA, ALEKHINA; SOLODUKHIN, VLADIMIR; POZNIAK, VICTOR; LITTLEFIELD, ADRIANE C.

    2002-09-01

    The Navruz Project is a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors. The Navruz project has a duration of three years. This document contains the reports from each of the participating institutions following the first year of data collection. While a majority of samples from the Navruz project are within normal limits, a preliminary analysis does indicate a high concentration of selenium in the Kazakhstan samples. Uzbekistan samples contain high uranium and thorium concentrations, as well as elevated levels of chromium, antimony and cesium. Additionally, elevated concentrations of radioactive isotopes have been detected at one Tajikistan sampling location. Further analysis will be published in a subsequent report.

  2. SPECIAL COLLOQUIUM : Building a Commercial Space Launch System and the Role of Space Tourism in the Future (exceptionally on Tuesday)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    The talk will explore a little of the history of space launch systems and rocketry, will explain why commercial space tourism did not take off after Apollo, and what is happening right now with commercial space systems such as Virgin's, utilising advances in aerospace technology not exploited by conventional ground-based rocket systems. I will then explain the Virgin Galactic technology, its business plan as a US-regulated space tourism company, and the nature of its applications. I will then go on to say a little of how our system can be utilised for sub-orbital space science based on a commercial business plan

  3. Dupoly process for treatment of depleted uranium and production of beneficial end products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Adams, Jay W. (Stony Brook, NY); Lageraaen, Paul R. (Seaford, NY); Cooley, Carl R. (Gaithersburg, MD)

    2000-02-29

    The present invention provides a process of encapsulating depleted uranium by forming a homogenous mixture of depleted uranium and molten virgin or recycled thermoplastic polymer into desired shapes. Separate streams of depleted uranium and virgin or recycled thermoplastic polymer are simultaneously subjected to heating and mixing conditions. The heating and mixing conditions are provided by a thermokinetic mixer, continuous mixer or an extruder and preferably by a thermokinetic mixer or continuous mixer followed by an extruder. The resulting DUPoly shapes can be molded into radiation shielding material or can be used as counter weights for use in airplanes, helicopters, ships, missiles, armor or projectiles.

  4. USVI Makes Headway Toward Goal to Reduce Fossil Fuel 60% by 2025

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil prices spike to over $145/ barrel and price of electricity exceeds $0.50/kWh in U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) USVI announces goal to reduce fossil fuel use 60% by 2025 In 3rd most active hurricane season on record, Earl hits USVI Virgin Islands Energy O ce (VIEO) launches Sun Power Loan Program WAPA installs waste heat recovery plant, adding 19 MW of power without burning a single drop of additional oil VIEO awards nearly $1 million to USVI nonpro ts for energy e ciency and renewable energy

  5. Energy Department Helps Advance Island Clean Energy Goals (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-10-01

    This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) fact sheet highlights a June 2012 solar power purchase agreement between the Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority and three corporations. The fact sheet describes how financial support from DOE and technical assistance from DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory enabled the U.S. Virgin Islands to realistically assess its clean energy resources and identify the most viable and cost-effective solutions to its energy challenges--resulting in a $65 million investment in solar energy in the territory.

  6. Cost estimate for muddy water palladium production facility at Mound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAdams, R.K.

    1988-11-30

    An economic feasibility study was performed on the ''Muddy Water'' low-chlorine content palladium powder production process developed by Mound. The total capital investment and total operating costs (dollars per gram) were determined for production batch sizes of 1--10 kg in 1-kg increments. The report includes a brief description of the Muddy Water process, the process flow diagram, and material balances for the various production batch sizes. Two types of facilities were evaluated--one for production of new, ''virgin'' palladium powder, and one for recycling existing material. The total capital investment for virgin facilities ranged from $600,000 --$1.3 million for production batch sizes of 1--10 kg, respectively. The range for recycle facilities was $1--$2.3 million. The total operating cost for 100% acceptable powder production in the virgin facilities ranged from $23 per gram for a 1-kg production batch size to $8 per gram for a 10-kg batch size. Similarly for recycle facilities, the total operating cost ranged from $34 per gram to $5 per gram. The total operating cost versus product acceptability (ranging from 50%--100% acceptability) was also evaluated for both virgin and recycle facilities. Because production sizes studied vary widely and because scale-up factors are unknown for batch sizes greater than 1 kg, all costs are ''order-of-magnitude'' estimates. All costs reported are in 1987 dollars.

  7. Energy Development in Island Nations (EDIN), Partnering to Increase Island Energy Security Around the World (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the international partnership for Energy Development in Island nations, including mission, goals, and organization. It also includes background on EDIN's three pilot projects: U.S. Virgin Islands, Iceland-Dominica Collaboration, and New Zealand-Geothermal Potential in the Pacific.

  8. EDIN-USVI Clean Energy Quarterly: Volume 2, Issue 1, June 2012 (Newsletter)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    This quarterly newsletter provides timely news and information about the plans and progress of the Energy Development in Island Nations-U.S. Virgin Islands pilot project, including significant events and milestones, work undertaken by each of the working groups, and project-related technology deployment efforts.

  9. EDIN-USVI Clean Energy Quarterly: Volume 1, Issue 3, September 2011 (Newsletter)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    This quarterly newsletter provides timely news and information about the plans and progress of the Energy Development in Island Nations-U.S. Virgin Islands pilot project, including significant events and milestones, work undertaken by each of the five working groups, and project-related renewable energy and energy efficiency educational outreach and technology deployment efforts.

  10. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    U.S. Virgin Islands Wind Resources Update 2014","Roberts, J. O.; Warren, A.","2014-12-01T05:00:00Z",1166661,"10.21721166661","NRELTP-7A40-63094","AC36-08GO28308",,"Technical...

  11. USVI Energy Road Map: Charting the Course to a Clean Energy Future (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the integrated clean energy deployment process and progress of the Energy Development in Island Nations U.S. Virgin Islands pilot project road map, including over-arching goals, organization, strategy, technology-specific goals and accomplishments, challenges, solutions, and upcoming milestones.

  12. NREL: Technology Deployment - Fossil Fuel Dependency Falls from 100% to 56%

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on Alcatraz Island Fossil Fuel Dependency Falls from 100% to 56% on Alcatraz Island News Solar Cells Light Up Prison Cells on 'The Rock' Sponsors U.S. National Park Service American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Key Partners National Park Service Golden Gate National Recreation Area National Park Service Denver Services Center Princeton Power Inc. University of Washington Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory U.S. DOE Federal Energy Management Program Related Stories U.S. Virgin Islands

  13. NREL: Technology Deployment - Technical Assistance for Islands

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Islands NREL provides technical assistance to help islands reduce dependence on fossil fuels and increase energy security by implementing energy efficiency measures and leveraging indigenous renewable resources. Hawaii NREL Helps Design LEED Platinum Affordable Housing U.S. Virgin Islands Landmark Solar Deal Completed with NREL Support This tailored technical assistance includes: Establishing baseline energy use Measuring available renewable resources Assessing the viability of various energy

  14. A Study of the Stability and Characterization Plutonium Dioxide and Chemical Characterization [of] Rocky Flats and Los Alamos Plutonium-Containing Incinerator Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, A.K.; Boettger, J.C.; Behrens, Robert G.

    1999-11-29

    In the presentation ''A Study of the Stability and Characterization of Plutonium Dioxide'', the authors discuss their recent work on actinide stabilities and characterization, in particular, plutonium dioxide PuO{sub 2}. Earlier studies have indicated that PuO{sub 2} has the fluorite structure of CaF{sub 2} and typical oxide semiconductor properties. However, detailed results on the bulk electronic structure of this important actinide oxide have not been available. The authors have used all-electron, full potential linear combinations Gaussian type orbitals fitting function (LCGTO-FF) method to study PuO{sub 2}. The LCGTO-FF technique characterized by its use of three independent GTO basis sets to expand the orbitals, charge density, and exchange-correlation integral kernels. Results will be presented on zero pressure using both the Hedin-Lundquist local density approximation (LDA) model or the Perdew-Wang generalized gradient approximation (GGA) model. Possibilities of different characterizations of PuO{sub 2} will be explored. The paper ''Chemical Characterization Rocky Flats and Los Alamos Plutonium-Containing Incinerator Ash'' describes the results of a comprehensive study of the chemical characteristics of virgin, calcined and fluorinated incinerator ash produced at the Rocky Flats Plant and at the Los Alamos National Laboratory prior to 1988. The Rocky Flats and Los Alamos virgin, calcined, and fluorinated ashes were also dissolved using standard nitrate dissolution chemistry. Corresponding chemical evaluations were preformed on the resultant ash heel and the results compared with those of the virgin ash. Fluorination studies using FT spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool were also performed to evaluate the chemistry of phosphorus, sulfur, carbon, and silicon containing species in the ash. The distribution of plutonium and other chemical elements with the virgin ash, ash heel, fluorinated ash, and fluorinated ash heel particulates were studied in detail using microprobe analysis. Some of the more interesting results of these investigations are presented.

  15. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Stocks by Type Definitions Key Terms Definition Alaskan in Transit Alaskan crude oil stocks in transit by water between Alaska and the other States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of

  16. Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast Petroleum Product Markets

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2012-01-01

    Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast Petroleum Product Markets is an update to a previous Energy Information Administration (EIA) report, Reductions in Northeast Refining Activity: Potential Implications for Petroleum Product Markets, released in December 2011. This update analyzes possible market responses and impacts in the event Sunoco's Philadelphia refinery closes this summer, in addition to the recently idled refineries on the East Coast and in the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  17. WINDExchange: Community-Scale 50-Meter Wind Maps

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    Community-Scale 50-Meter Wind Maps The U.S. Department of Energy provides 50-meter (m) height, high-resolution wind resource maps for most of the states and territories of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands in the United States. Counties, towns, utilities, and schools use community-scale wind resource maps to locate and quantify the wind resource, identifying potentially windy sites determining a potential site's economic and technical viability. Map of the updated wind resource assessment

  18. U.S. Downstream Charge Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Day, Except Where Noted) Area: U.S. PAD District 1 Delaware Florida Georgia Maryland New Jersey New York North Carolina Pennsylvania Virginia West Virginia PAD District 2 Illinois Indiana Kansas Kentucky Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Tennessee Wisconsin PAD District 3 Alabama Arkansas Louisiana Mississippi New Mexico Texas PAD District 4 Colorado Montana Utah Wyoming PAD District 5 Alaska Arizona California Hawaii Nevada Oregon Washington Guam Puerto Rico Virgin

  19. U.S. Production Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Day, Except Where Noted) Area: U.S. PAD District 1 Delaware Florida Georgia Maryland New Jersey New York North Carolina Pennsylvania Virginia West Virginia PAD District 2 Illinois Indiana Kansas Kentucky Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Tennessee Wisconsin PAD District 3 Alabama Arkansas Louisiana Mississippi New Mexico Texas PAD District 4 Colorado Montana Utah Wyoming PAD District 5 Alaska Arizona California Hawaii Nevada Oregon Washington Guam Puerto Rico Virgin

  20. Energy Department Helps Advance Island Clean Energy Goals | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Department Helps Advance Island Clean Energy Goals Energy Department Helps Advance Island Clean Energy Goals Highlights a solar power purchase agreement between the Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority and three corporations. It describes how financial support from DOE and technical assistance from NREL enabled the USVI to realistically assess its clean energy resources and identify the most viable and cost-effective solutions to its energy challenges-resulting in a $65 million

  1. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Overview U.S. Territories: American Samoa | Guam | Northern Mariana Islands | Puerto Rico | U.S. Virgin Islands More State Data & Analysis by Source Petroleum Natural Gas Electricity Coal Renewable & Alternative Fuels Nuclear Environment Total Energy Summary Reports Household Energy Use State Electricity Summaries State Renewable Electricity Statistics State Nuclear Summaries Natural Gas Summary Statistics Today In Energy Crude oil shipments by rail from Midwest to coastal regions

  2. Slide 1

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    VISION * Zero emissions industry * Especially energy intensive manufacturing sectors (e.g., refining, cement, chemicals, steel) * Energy and resource efficient manufacturing * Reduce GHG emissions, reduce virgin materials consumption, etc. TARGETS/METRICS * Reduce the time of feedstock technology development to 2 years * Quantify impacts of business-as-usual vs. sustainable manufacturing * Make use of alternative feedstocks cost effective * De-risk and reduce cost * Need a functional replacement

  3. Wind Power Opportunities in St. Thomas, USVI: A Site-Specific Evaluation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Analysis | Department of Energy Wind Power Opportunities in St. Thomas, USVI: A Site-Specific Evaluation and Analysis Wind Power Opportunities in St. Thomas, USVI: A Site-Specific Evaluation and Analysis Utilizes a development framework to assist the USVI in identifying and understanding concrete opportunities for wind power development in the territory. PDF icon Wind Power Opportunities in St. Thomas, USVI: A Site-Specific Analysis More Documents & Publications U.S. Virgin Islands

  4. Lessons Learned in Islands | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Transition Initiative » Lessons Learned in Islands Lessons Learned in Islands Hawai'i, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and other island communities have successfully implemented renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies to decrease their reliance on fossil fuels and achieve sustainability, economic development, and other goals. Read how in these lessons learned, which are also featured in the Islands Energy Playbook. Assessing Pathways in Aruba Learn how Aruba developed an actionable

  5. Waste-to-Energy Technologies and Project Development | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presentation at Waste-to-Energy using Fuel Cells Webinar, July 13, 2011 PDF icon wte_dod-doe_wkshp71311_davis.pdf More Documents & Publications Waste-to-Energy: Waste Management and Energy Production Opportunities Waste-to-Energy Evaluation: U.S. Virgin Islands Report of the DOD-DOE Workshop on Converting Waste to Energy Using Fuel Cells: Workshop Summary and Action Plan

  6. Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Non-Contiguous United States

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    7 - Chapter 9 U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS -Page Intentionally Left Blank- First Responder Network Authority Nationwide Public Safety Broadband Network Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Non-Contiguous United States Volume 7 Amanda Goebel Pereira, AICP NEPA Coordinator First Responder Network Authority U.S. Department of Commerce 12201 Sunrise Valley Dr. M/S 243 Reston, VA 20192 Cooperating Agencies Federal Communications Commission General Services Administration U.S. Department

  7. Meeting today's challenges to supply tomorrow's energy. Clean fossil energy technical and policy seminar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-07-01

    Papers discussed the coal policy of China, Russia, Indonesia and Vietnam; clean coal technology (small-scale coal power plants, carbon capture and sequestration, new coking process SCOPE21, coal gasification (HyPr-RING), CO{sub 2} reduction technology, Supercritical coal-fired units and CFB boilers, EAGLE project, coal liquefaction), the coal consumer's view of clean fossil energy policy, and natural gas policy and technology. Some of the papers only consist of the presentation overheads/viewgraphs.

  8. SREL Reprint #3149

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Nesting Behavior of the Red-necked Pond Turtle (Mauremys [Chinemys] nigricans) in Captivity Andrew M. Grosse, Kurt A. Buhlmann, and Cris Hagen University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Building 737-A, Drawer E, Aiken, South Carolina 29802 Abstract: The Red-necked Pond Turtle (Mauremys [Chinemys] nigricans) is a small, semi-aquatic turtle known to occur in southern China (Guangdong Province) and perhaps in extreme northern Vietnam (Bonin et al., 2006; Fig. 1). This species is

  9. Voluntary Self-Identification of Veterans

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Voluntary Self-Identification of Veterans This employer is a Government contractor subject to the Vietnam Era Veterans' Readjustment Assistance Act of 1974, as amended by the Jobs for Veterans Act of 2002, 38 U.S.C. 4212 (VEVRAA), which requires Government contractors to take affirmative action to employ and advance in employment: (1) disabled veterans; (2) recently separated veterans; (3) active duty wartime or campaign badge veterans; and (4) Armed Forces service medal veterans. These

  10. Investigation of approximations in thermal-hydraulic modeling of core conversions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garner, Patrick L.; Hanan, Nelson A.

    2008-07-15

    Neutronics analyses for core conversions are usually fairly detailed, for example representing all 4 flats and all 4 corners of all 6 tubes of all 20 IRT-3M or -4M fuel assemblies in the core of the VVR-SM reactor in Uzbekistan. The coupled neutronics and thermal-hydraulic analysis for safety analysis transients is usually less detailed, for example modeling only a hot and an average fuel plate and the associated coolant. Several of the approximations have been studied using the RELAP5 and PARET computer codes in order to provide assurance that the lack of full detail is not important to the safety analysis. Two specific cases studied are (1) representation of a core of same- type fuel assemblies by a hot and an average assembly each having multiple channels as well as by merely a hot and average channel and (2) modeling a core containing multiple fuel types as the sum of fractional core models for each fuel type. (author)

  11. Detecting and monitoring UCG subsidence with InSAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mellors, R J; Foxall, W; Yang, X

    2012-03-23

    The use of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) to measure surface subsidence caused by Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is tested. InSAR is a remote sensing technique that uses Synthetic Aperture Radar images to make spatial images of surface deformation and may be deployed from satellite or an airplane. With current commercial satellite data, the technique works best in areas with little vegetation or farming activity. UCG subsidence is generally caused by roof collapse, which adversely affects UCG operations due to gas loss and is therefore important to monitor. Previous studies have demonstrated the usefulness of InSAR in measuring surface subsidence related to coal mining and surface deformation caused by a coal mining roof collapse in Crandall Canyon, Utah is imaged as a proof-of-concept. InSAR data is collected and processed over three known UCG operations including two pilot plants (Majuba, South Africa and Wulanchabu, China) and an operational plant (Angren, Uzbekistan). A clear f eature showing approximately 7 cm of subsidence is observed in the UCG field in Angren. Subsidence is not observed in the other two areas, which produce from deeper coal seams and processed a smaller volume. The results show that in some cases, InSAR is a useful tool to image UCG related subsidence. Data from newer satellites and improved algorithms will improve effectiveness.

  12. New automated inventory/material accounting system (AIMAS) version for former Soviet Union countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzminski, Jozef; Ewing, Tom; Sakunov, Igor; Drapey, Sergey; Nations, Jim

    2009-01-01

    AIMAS (Automated Inventory/Material Accounting System) is a PC-based application for site-level nuclear material accountancy that was originally developed in the late 90's as a part of the U.S Department of Energy Assistance Program to Ukraine. Designed to be flexible and secure, plus place minimal demands on computing infrastructure, it was originally developed to run in early Windows operating system (OS) environments like W98 and W3.1. The development, support, and maintenance of AIMAS were transferred to Ukraine in 2002. Because it is highly flexible and can be configured to meet diverse end-user's needs, the software has been used at several facilities in Ukraine. Incorporating added functionality is planned to support nuclear installations in the Republic of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, as well. An improved 32-bit version of AIMAS has recently been developed to operate effectively on modern PCs running the latest Windows OS by AVIS, the Ukrainian developer. In the paper we discuss the status of AIMAS, plans for new functions, and describe the strategy for addressing a sustainable software life-cycle while meeting user requirements in multiple FSU countries.

  13. Energy implications of integrated solid waste management systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Little, R.E.; McClain, G.; Becker, M.; Ligon, P.; Shapiro, K.

    1994-07-01

    This study develops estimates of energy use and recovery from managing municipal solid waste (MSW) under various collection, processing, and disposal scenarios. We estimate use and recovery -- or energy balance -- resulting from MSW management activities such as waste collection, transport, processing, and disposal, as well as indirect use and recovery linked to secondary materials manufacturing using recycled materials. In our analysis, secondary materials manufacturing displaces virgin materials manufacturing for 13 representative products. Energy implications are expressed as coefficients that measure the net energy saving (or use) of displacing products made from virgin versus recycled materials. Using data developed for the 1992 New York City Master Plan as a starting point, we apply our method to an analysis of various collection systems and 30 types of facilities to illustrate bow energy balances shift as management systems are modified. In sum, all four scenarios show a positive energy balance indicating the energy and advantage of integrated systems versus reliance on one or few technology options. That is, energy produced or saved exceeds the energy used to operate the solid waste system. The largest energy use impacts are attributable to processing, including materials separation and composting. Collection and transportation energy are relatively minor contributors. The largest two contributors to net energy savings are waste combustion and energy saved by processing recycled versus virgin materials. An accompanying spatial analysis methodology allocates energy use and recovery to New York City, New York State outside the city, the U.S., and outside the U.S. Our analytical approach is embodied in a spreadsheet model that can be used by energy and solid waste analysts to estimate impacts of management scenarios at the state and substate level.

  14. Olive oil compounds inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamy, Sylvie Ouanouki, Amira; Bliveau, Richard; Desrosiers, Richard R.

    2014-03-10

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) triggers crucial signaling processes that regulate tumor angiogenesis and, therefore, represents an attractive target for the development of novel anticancer therapeutics. Several epidemiological studies have confirmed that abundant consumption of foods from plant origin is associated with reduced risk of developing cancers. In the Mediterranean basin, the consumption of extra virgin olive oil is an important constituent of the diet. Compared to other vegetable oils, the presence of several phenolic antioxidants in olive oil is believed to prevent the occurrence of a variety of pathological processes, such as cancer. While the strong antioxidant potential of these molecules is well characterized, their antiangiogenic activities remain unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate whether tyrosol (Tyr), hydroxytyrosol (HT), taxifolin (Tax), oleuropein (OL) and oleic acid (OA), five compounds contained in extra virgin olive oil, can affect in vitro angiogenesis. We found that HT, Tax and OA were the most potent angiogenesis inhibitors through their inhibitory effect on specific autophosphorylation sites of VEGFR-2 (Tyr951, Tyr1059, Tyr1175 and Tyr1214) leading to the inhibition of endothelial cell (EC) signaling. Inhibition of VEGFR-2 by these olive oil compounds significantly reduced VEGF-induced EC proliferation and migration as well as their morphogenic differentiation into capillary-like tubular structures in Matrigel. Our study demonstrates that HT, Tax and OA are novel and potent inhibitors of the VEGFR-2 signaling pathway. These findings emphasize the chemopreventive properties of olive oil and highlight the importance of nutrition in cancer prevention. - Highlights: We investigated five compounds contained in extra virgin olive oil on angiogenesis. Hydroxytyrosol, taxifolin and oleic acid are the best angiogenesis inhibitors. Olive oil compounds affect endothelial cell functions essential for angiogenesis. Olive oil compounds inhibit specific autophosphorylation sites of VEGFR-2. Hydroxytyrosol, taxifolin and oleic acid inhibit VEGFR-2 signaling pathway.

  15. The AISI direct steelmaking program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aukrust, E. ); Downing, K.B. )

    1991-01-01

    After six months of operation of the pilot plant, the viability of in-bath smelting combined with a high level of post combustion has been demonstrated, and the opportunity exists for an early commercialization of the direct ironmaking part of the process while we continue to research direct steelmaking. The program should be of equal interest to integrated and electric furnace producers. Smelting of ore provides virgin iron units. Additionally, the process has the flexibility of melting scrap and varying the ore-to-scrap ratio over wide ranges. This process does not require coke, thus eliminating the cokemaking operation, a major source of environmental concern.

  16. 07%20SEATTLE%20Best%20Practices%20in%20Transportation%20Demand%20Management.pdf

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy 07%20SEATTLE%20Best%20Practices%20in%20Transportation%20Demand%20Management.pdf 07%20SEATTLE%20Best%20Practices%20in%20Transportation%20Demand%20Management.pdf 07%20SEATTLE%20Best%20Practices%20in%20Transportation%20Demand%20Management.pdf PDF icon 07%20SEATTLE%20Best%20Practices%20in%20Transportation%20Demand%20Management.pdf More Documents & Publications EA-1440-S-I: Mitigation Action Plan Completion Report U.S. Virgin Islands Transportation Petroleum Reduction

  17. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    U.S. Crude Oil Supply & Disposition Balance Definitions Key Terms Definition Alaskan in Transit Alaskan crude oil stocks in transit by water between Alaska and the other States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Crude Adjustments A balancing item to account for the difference between the supply and disposition of crude oil (formerly called "unaccounted for crude oil"). Crude Oil A mixture of hydrocarbons

  18. Word Pro - S3

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7 Table 3.3d Petroleum Trade: Imports From Non-OPEC Countries (Thousand Barrels per Day) Brazil Canada Colombia Mexico Nether- lands Norway Russia a United Kingdom U.S. Virgin Islands Other Total Non-OPEC 1960 Average ...................... 1 120 42 16 NA NA - (s) NA NA 581 1965 Average ...................... - 323 51 48 1 - - (s) - 606 1,029 1970 Average ...................... 2 766 46 42 39 - 3 11 189 1,027 2,126 1975 Average ...................... 5 846 9 71 19 17 14 14 406 1,052 2,454 1980

  19. Word Pro - Untitled1

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 Table 5.7 Petroleum Net Imports by Country of Origin, Selected Years, 1960-2011 Year Persian Gulf 2 Selected OPEC 1 Countries Selected Non-OPEC 1 Countries Total Net Imports Total Net Imports as Share of Consumption 5 Net Imports From OPEC 1 Algeria Nigeria Saudi Arabia 3 Venezuela Total OPEC 4 Canada Mexico United Kingdom U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico Total Non-OPEC 4 Share of Total Net Imports 6 Share of Consumption 7 Thousand Barrels per Day Percent 1960 NA 8 ( ) 9 ( ) 84 910 1,232 86

  20. Chemi-microbial processing of waste tire rubber: A project overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romine, R.A.; Snowden-Swan, L.

    1993-12-01

    PNL is developing a method to use thiophillic microorganisms to devulcanize (biodesulfurize) the surface of ground rubber particles, which will improve the bonding and adhesion of the ground tire rubber into the virgin tire rubber matrix. The Chemi-microbial processing approach, introduced in this paper, is targeted at alleviating the waste tire problem in an environmentally conscious manner; it may also be applied to improve asphaltic materials and rubber and polymeric wastes to facilite their recycling. This paper outlines the logic and technical methods that will be used.

  1. Table 5.7 Petroleum Net Imports by Country of Origin, 1960-2011

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Net Imports by Country of Origin, 1960-2011 Year Persian Gulf 2 Selected OPEC 1 Countries Selected Non-OPEC 1 Countries Total Net Imports Total Net Imports as Share of Consumption 5 Net Imports From OPEC 1 Algeria Nigeria Saudi Arabia 3 Venezuela Total OPEC 4 Canada Mexico United Kingdom Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico Total Non-OPEC 4 Share of Total Net Imports 6 Share of Consumption 7 Thousand Barrels Percent 1960 NA [8] [9] 30,786 333,046 450,799 31,454 -620 -4,267 12,553 139,406

  2. DOE National Science Bowl Kicks Off Tomorrow, April 27 | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Off Tomorrow, April 27 DOE National Science Bowl Kicks Off Tomorrow, April 27 April 26, 2012 - 12:11pm Addthis WASHINGTON, D.C. - Friday, April 27, through Monday, April 30, 113 regional high school and middle school championship teams from 42 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands will compete in the 22nd annual U.S. Department of Energy National Science Bowl final competition in Washington D.C. The students will be quizzed on all science

  3. DOE National Science Bowl Kicks off Saturday, April 30 | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy off Saturday, April 30 DOE National Science Bowl Kicks off Saturday, April 30 April 28, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, D.C. - 110 regional high school and middle school championship teams from 44 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands will compete in the 21st annual U.S. Department of Energy National Science Bowl final competition in Washington D.C. April 30th through May 2nd. The students will be quizzed on all science disciplines, including

  4. 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report The cover of the 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report. According to the 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report, distributed wind reached a cumulative capacity of almost 1 GW (906 MW) in the United States in 2014, reflecting nearly 74,000 wind turbines deployed across all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. In total, 63.6 MW of new distributed wind capacity was added in 2014, representing nearly 1,700 units and $170 million in investment

  5. TTW 11-9-06

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9, 2006 WIPP Quick Facts (As of 11-8-06) 5,235 Shipments received since opening 43,621 Cubic meters of waste disposed 84,477 Containers disposed in the underground Veterans' Day November 11, 2006 The following comments are from just a sample of veterans that are part of the WIPP family. I'm a Vietnam Veteran...served at DaNang (1971-72) with the U.S. Air Force. Assigned to 366th Tactical Fighter Wing "The Gunfighters" (F- 4s). When I returned to the USA in December of '72, I recall a

  6. Microsoft Word - Espanola Dec 15.doc

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    5, 2005 10 4:00 P.M. Senior Stroke Center 11 735 Vietnam Veterans Memorial Road Espanola, New Mexico 87532 12 13 14 15 16 FACILITATED BY: MARGO COVINGTON 17 18 19 20 REPORTED BY: Betty J. Lanphere, NM CCR #70 21 Betty J. Lanphere & Associates, Inc. Post Office Box 449 22 Santa Fe, New Mexico 87504 23 24 25 Betty J. Lanphere & Associates, Inc. P. O. Box 449 Santa Fe, New Mexico 87504 - (505) 983-7367 1 2 A P P E A R A N C E S 3 FOR DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY: 4 Lisa Cummings EIS Document

  7. Mechanisms of degradation in adhesive joint strength: Glassy polymer thermoset bond in a humid environment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kropka, Jamie Michael; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Spangler, Scott Wilmer; Austin, Kevin N.; Chambers, Robert S.

    2015-08-06

    The degradation in the strength of napkin-ring (NR) joints bonded with an epoxy thermoset is evaluated in a humid environment. While adherend composition (stainless steel and aluminum) and surface preparation (polished, grit blasted, primed, coupling agent coated) do not affect virgin (time=0) joint strength, they can significantly affect the role of moisture on the strength of the joint. Adherend surface abrasion and corrosion processes are found to be key factors in determining the reliability of joint strength in humid environments. In cases where surface specific joint strength degradation processes are not active, decreases in joint strength can be accounted formore » by the glass transition temperature, Tg, depression of the adhesive associated with water sorption. Under these conditions, joint strength can be rejuvenated to virgin strength by drying. In addition, the decrease in joint strength associated with water sorption can be predicted by the Simplified Potential Energy Clock (SPEC) model by shifting the adhesive reference temperature, Tref, by the same amount as the Tg depression. When surface specific degradation mechanisms are active, they can reduce joint strength below that associated with adhesive Tg depression, and joint strength is not recoverable by drying. Furthermore, a critical relative humidity (or, potentially, critical water sorption concentration), below which the surface specific degradation does not occur, appears to exist for the polished stainless steel joints.« less

  8. Mechanisms of degradation in adhesive joint strength: Glassy polymer thermoset bond in a humid environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kropka, Jamie Michael; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Spangler, Scott Wilmer; Austin, Kevin N.; Chambers, Robert S.

    2015-08-06

    The degradation in the strength of napkin-ring (NR) joints bonded with an epoxy thermoset is evaluated in a humid environment. While adherend composition (stainless steel and aluminum) and surface preparation (polished, grit blasted, primed, coupling agent coated) do not affect virgin (time=0) joint strength, they can significantly affect the role of moisture on the strength of the joint. Adherend surface abrasion and corrosion processes are found to be key factors in determining the reliability of joint strength in humid environments. In cases where surface specific joint strength degradation processes are not active, decreases in joint strength can be accounted for by the glass transition temperature, Tg, depression of the adhesive associated with water sorption. Under these conditions, joint strength can be rejuvenated to virgin strength by drying. In addition, the decrease in joint strength associated with water sorption can be predicted by the Simplified Potential Energy Clock (SPEC) model by shifting the adhesive reference temperature, Tref, by the same amount as the Tg depression. When surface specific degradation mechanisms are active, they can reduce joint strength below that associated with adhesive Tg depression, and joint strength is not recoverable by drying. Furthermore, a critical relative humidity (or, potentially, critical water sorption concentration), below which the surface specific degradation does not occur, appears to exist for the polished stainless steel joints.

  9. Mechanisms of degradation in adhesive joint strength: Glassy thermoset polymer bond in a humid environment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kropka, Jamie Michael; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Spangler, Scott Wilmer; Austin, Kevin N.; Chambers, Robert S.

    2015-08-06

    The degradation in the strength of napkin-ring (NR) joints bonded with an epoxy thermoset is evaluated in a humid environment. While adherend composition (stainless steel and aluminum) and surface preparation (polished, grit blasted, primed, coupling agent coated) do not affect virgin (time=0) joint strength, they can significantly affect the role of moisture on the strength of the joint. Adherend surface abrasion and corrosion processes are found to be key factors in determining the reliability of joint strength in humid environments. In cases where surface specific joint strength degradation processes are not active, decreases in joint strength can be accounted formoreby the glass transition temperature, Tg, depression of the adhesive associated with water sorption. Under these conditions, joint strength can be rejuvenated to virgin strength by drying. In addition, the decrease in joint strength associated with water sorption can be predicted by the Simplified Potential Energy Clock (SPEC) model by shifting the adhesive reference temperature, Tref, by the same amount as the Tg depression. When surface specific degradation mechanisms are active, they can reduce joint strength below that associated with adhesive Tg depression, and joint strength is not recoverable by drying. Furthermore, a critical relative humidity (or, potentially, critical water sorption concentration), below which the surface specific degradation does not occur, appears to exist for the polished stainless steel joints.less

  10. Remediation of former uranium mining and milling activities in Central Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waggitt, Peter

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Several of the Central Asian countries of the former Soviet Union were involved in the uranium mining and milling industry from about 1945 for varying periods until the break up of the Soviet Union in 1991 and beyond. Some facilities are still producing in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. However, before the break up, many facilities had been abandoned and in only a few cases had any remediation been undertaken. Since 1991 the newly independent states of the region have been seeking assistance for the remediation of the multitude of tailings piles, waste rock stockpiles and abandoned, and often semi dismantled, production facilities that may be found throughout the region. Many of these sites are close to settlements that were established as service towns for the mines. Most towns still have populations, although the mining industry has departed. In some instances there are cases of pollution and contamination and in many locations there is a significant level of public concern. The IAEA has been undertaking a number of Technical Cooperation (TC) projects throughout the region for some time to strengthen the institutions in the relevant states and assist them to establish monitoring and surveillance programs as an integral part of the long term remediation process. The IAEA is liaising with other agencies and donors who are also working on these problems to optimise the remediation effort. The paper describes the objectives and operation of the main TC regional program, liaison efforts with other agencies, the achievements so far and the long term issues for remediation of these legacies of the 'cold war' era. (authors)

  11. Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obozov, A.J.; Loscutoff, W.V.

    1998-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

  12. Hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Torget, Robert W. (Littleton, CO); Padukone, Nandan (Denver, CO); Hatzis, Christos (Denver, CO); Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO)

    2000-01-01

    A multi-function process is described for the hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass to separate hemicellulosic sugars from other biomass components such as extractives and proteins; a portion of the solubilized lignin; cellulose; glucose derived from cellulose; and insoluble lignin from said biomass comprising one or more of the following: optionally, as function 1, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing a lignocellulosic biomass material at a temperature of about 94 to about 160.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 120 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of extractives, lignin, and protein by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; as function 2, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0, either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing either fresh biomass or the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 1 at a temperature of about 94-220.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of hemicellulosic sugars, semisoluble sugars and other compounds, and amorphous glucans by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; as function 3, optionally, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 2 at a temperature of about 180-280.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of cellulosic sugars by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; and as function 4, optionally, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 3 at a temperature of about 180-280.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of cellulosic sugars by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process.

  13. Wake-up effects in Si-doped hafnium oxide ferroelectric thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Dayu, E-mail: zhoudayu@dlut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory for Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Xu, Jin [Department of Electronic Engineering, Dalian Neusoft University of Information, Dalian 116023 (China)] [Department of Electronic Engineering, Dalian Neusoft University of Information, Dalian 116023 (China); Li, Qing; Guan, Yan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Cao, Fei; Dong, Xianlin [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Mller, Johannes [Fraunhofer IPMS-CNT, Koengisbruecker Strasse 180, 01109 Dresden (Germany)] [Fraunhofer IPMS-CNT, Koengisbruecker Strasse 180, 01109 Dresden (Germany); Schenk, Tony; Schrder, Uwe [Namlab gGmbH/TU Dresden, Noethnitzer Strasse 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany)] [Namlab gGmbH/TU Dresden, Noethnitzer Strasse 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2013-11-04

    Hafnium oxide based ferroelectric thin films have shown potential as a promising alternative material for non-volatile memory applications. This work reports the switching stability of a Si-doped HfO{sub 2} film under bipolar pulsed-field operation. High field cycling causes a wake-up in virgin pinched polarization hysteresis loops, demonstrated by an enhancement in remanent polarization and a shift of negative coercive voltage. The rate of wake-up is accelerated by either reducing the frequency or increasing the amplitude of the cycling field. We suggest de-pinning of domains due to reduction of the defect concentration at bottom electrode interface as origin of the wake-up.

  14. Challenges to achievement of metal sustainability in our high-tech society

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izatt, Reed M.; Izatt, Steven R.; Bruening, Ronald L.; Izatt, Neil; Moyer, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    Achievement of sustainability in metal life cycles from mining of virgin ore to consumer and industrial devices to end-of-life products requires greatly increased recycling and improved processing of metals. Electronic and other high-tech products containing precious, toxic, and specialty metals usually have short lifetimes and low recycling rates. Products containing these metals generally are incinerated, discarded as waste in landfills, or dismantled in informal recycling using crude and environmentally irresponsible procedures. Low metal recycling rates coupled with increasing demand for products containing them necessitate increased mining with attendant environmental, health, energy, water, and carbon-footprint consequences. In this tutorial review, challenges to achieving metal sustainability in present high-tech society are presented; health, environmental, and economic incentives for various stakeholders to improve metal sustainability are discussed; a case for technical improvements in separations technology, especially employing molecular recognition, is given; and global consequences of continuing on the present path are examined.

  15. Geothermal resource area 11, Clark County area development plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pugsley, M.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal Resource Area 11 includes all of the land in Clark County, Nevada. Within this area are nine geothermal anomalies: Moapa Area, Las Vegas Valley, Black Canyon, Virgin River Narrows, Roger's Springs, Indian Springs, White Rock Springs, Brown's Spring, and Ash Creek Spring. All of the geothermal resources in Clark County have relatively low temperatures. The highest recorded temperature is 145{sup 0}F at Black Canyon. The temperatures of the other resources range from 70 to 90{sup 0}F. Because of the low temperature of the resources and, for the most part, the distance of the resources from any population base, the potential for the development of the resources are considered to be somewhat limited.

  16. EXAMINATION OF 80 DEGREES C DESORPTION ISOTHERMS OFTRITIUM AGED PD/K AND LANA.75

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staack, G; Kirk Shanahan, K; Tom Walters, T; Roger Pilgrim, R

    2007-08-28

    Metal hydrides, specifically Pd deposited on kieselguhr (Pd/k) and LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA.75), have been used at the Savannah River Site for almost twenty years for hydrogen isotope separation and storage. Radiolytic decay of tritium to helium-3 in the metal matrix causes three classic changes in the performance of the hydride: the plateau pressure decreases, the plateau slope increases, and a heel forms, reducing the reversible capacity of the hydride. Deuterium and tritium isotherms were collected on the virgin materials, only tritium isotherms were collected at approximately 2 years, and both deuterium and tritium isotherms were collected at approximately 3.5 years of quiescent aging. Points of interest include those mentioned above as well as the effects of cycling the materials. The methods and results are presented.

  17. Estimated Water Flows in 2005: United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-16

    Flow charts depicting water use in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of water use patterns. Approximately 410,500 million gallons per day of water are managed throughout the United States for use in farming, power production, residential, commercial, and industrial applications. Water is obtained from four major resource classes: fresh surface-water, saline (ocean) surface-water, fresh groundwater and saline (brackish) groundwater. Water that is not consumed or evaporated during its use is returned to surface bodies of water. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states in addition to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands) and one national water flow chart representing a comprehensive systems view of national water resources, use, and disposition.

  18. 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orell, A.; Foster, N.

    2015-08-01

    The cover of the 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report.According to the 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report, distributed wind reached a cumulative capacity of almost 1 GW (906 MW) in the United States in 2014, reflecting nearly 74,000 wind turbines deployed across all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. In total, 63.6 MW of new distributed wind capacity was added in 2014, representing nearly 1,700 units and $170 million in investment across 24 states. In 2014, America's distributed wind energy industry supported a growing domestic industrial base as exports from United States-based small wind turbine manufacturers accounted for nearly 80% of United States-based manufacturers' sales.

  19. Topological and thermal properties of polypropylene composites based on oil palm biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhat, A. H. E-mail: anie-yal88@yahoo.com; Dasan, Y. K. E-mail: anie-yal88@yahoo.com

    2014-10-24

    Roughness on pristine and polymer composite surfaces is of enormous practical importance for polymer applications. This study deals with the use of varying quantity of oil palm ash as a nanofiller in a polypropylene based matrix. The oil palm ash sample was preprocessed to break the particles into small diameter by using ultra sonication before using microfluidizer for further deduction in size and homogenization. The oil palm ash was made to undergo many passes through the microfluidizer for fine distribution of particles. Polypropylene based composites containing different loading percentage oil palm ash was granulated by twin screw extruder and then injection molded. The surface morphology of the OPA passed through microfluidizer was analyzed by Tapping Mode - Atomic Force Microscopy (TMAFM). Thermal analysis results showed an increase in the activation energy values. The thermal stability of the composite samples showed improvement as compared to the virgin polymer as corroborated by the on-set degradation temperatures and the temperatures at which 50% degradation occurred.

  20. Word Pro - Untitled1

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 Table 5.6 Petroleum Exports by Country of Destination, Selected Years, 1960-2011 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Belgium 1 Brazil Canada France Italy Japan Mexico Nether- lands South Korea Spain United Kingdom U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico Other Total 1960 3 4 34 4 6 62 18 6 NA NA 12 1 52 202 1965 3 3 26 3 7 40 27 10 NA NA 12 1 54 187 1966 3 4 32 4 7 36 39 9 NA NA 12 3 49 198 1967 5 6 50 3 9 51 36 13 NA NA 62 7 65 307 1968 4 8 39 4 8 56 31 10 NA NA 14 2 55 231 1969 4 7 44 4 9 47 33 9 NA

  1. Table 5.6 Petroleum Exports by Country of Destination, 1960-2011 (Thousand Barrels)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Exports by Country of Destination, 1960-2011 (Thousand Barrels) Year Belgium 1 Brazil Canada France Italy Japan Mexico Nether- lands South Korea Spain United Kingdom U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico Other Total 1960 1,128 1,547 12,622 1,591 2,184 22,681 6,428 2,057 NA NA 4,273 487 18,908 73,906 1961 1,418 1,337 8,401 1,442 1,706 21,473 4,548 1,496 NA NA 3,705 400 17,637 63,563 1962 1,182 1,649 7,714 969 1,994 19,687 4,981 1,671 NA NA 3,044 344 18,155 61,390 1963 3,191 1,335 7,987

  2. Nanostructure of Solid Precipitates Obtained by Expansion of Polystyrene-block-Polybutadiene Solutions in Near Critical Propane: Block Ratio and Micellar Solution Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Jade; Tyrrell, Zachary; Radosz, Maciej; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to incompressible liquid solutions, compressible near-critical solutions of block copolymers allow for controlling rapid structure transformations with pressure alone. For example, when dissolved in near-critical propane, polystyrene-block-polybutadiene can form a random molecular solution at high pressures, a micellar solution at moderate pressures, and a solvent-free precipitate at low pressures. In contrast to the unstructured virgin copolymer, such a propane-treated precipitate rapidly self-assembles toward structures characteristic of equilibrated block copolymers, such as lamellae, spheres, or cylinders, which depend on the block ratio rather than on the decompression rate or temperature, at least within the rate and temperature ranges investigated in this work. At lower temperatures, however, say below 40 C, glass transition of the styrene-butadiene diblocks can inhibit independent structure formation, while crystallization of their hydrogenated-butadiene analogues can preserve the micellar-solution structure.

  3. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  4. Residual stress relief due to fatigue in tetragonal lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, D. A.; Mori, T. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor St., Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Comyn, T. P. [Institute for Materials Research, Woodhouse Lane, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Ringgaard, E. [Meggitt Sensing Systems, Hejreskovvej 18A, 3490 Kvistgaard (Denmark); Wright, J. P. [ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2013-07-14

    High energy synchrotron XRD was employed to determine the lattice strain {epsilon}{l_brace}111{r_brace}and diffraction peak intensity ratio R{l_brace}200{r_brace}in tetragonal PZT ceramics, both in the virgin poled state and after a bipolar fatigue experiment. It was shown that the occurrence of microstructural damage during fatigue was accompanied by a reduction in the gradient of the {epsilon}{l_brace}111{r_brace}-cos{sup 2} {psi} plot, indicating a reduction in the level of residual stress due to poling. In contrast, the fraction of oriented 90 Degree-Sign ferroelectric domains, quantified in terms of R{l_brace}200{r_brace}, was not affected significantly by fatigue. The change in residual stress due to fatigue is interpreted in terms of a change in the average elastic stiffness of the polycrystalline matrix due to the presence of inter-granular microcracks.

  5. UVI Cyber-security Workshop Workshop Analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuykendall, Tommie G.; Allsop, Jacob Lee; Anderson, Benjamin Robert; Boumedine, Marc; Carter, Cedric; Galvin, Seanmichael Yurko; Gonzalez, Oscar; Lee, Wellington K.; Lin, Han Wei; Morris, Tyler Jake; Nauer, Kevin S.; Potts, Beth A.; Ta, Kim Thanh; Trasti, Jennifer; White, David R.

    2015-07-08

    The cybersecurity consortium, which was established by DOE/NNSAs Minority Serving Institutions Partnerships Program (MSIPP), allows students from any of the partner schools (13 HBCUs, two national laboratories, and a public school district) to have all consortia options available to them, to create career paths and to open doors to DOE sites and facilities to student members of the consortium. As a part of this year consortium activities, Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Virgin Islands conducted a week long cyber workshop that consisted of three courses; Digital Forensics and Malware Analysis, Python Programming, and ThunderBird Cup. These courses are designed to enhance cyber defense skills and promote learning within STEM related fields.

  6. Refinery Capacity Report

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    Data series include fuel, electricity, and steam purchased for consumption at the refinery; refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation; and current and projected atmospheric crude oil distillation, downstream charge, and production capacities. Respondents are operators of all operating and idle petroleum refineries (including new refineries under construction) and refineries shut down during the previous year, located in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and other U.S. possessions. The Refinery Capacity Report does not contain working and shell storage capacity data. This data is now being collected twice a year as of March 31 and September 30 on the Form EIA-810, "Monthly Refinery Report", and is now released as a separate report Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity.

  7. Scrap uranium recycling via electron beam melting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKoon, R.

    1993-11-01

    A program is underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to recycle scrap uranium metal. Currently, much of the material from forging and machining processes is considered radioactive waste and is disposed of by oxidation and encapsulation at significant cost. In the recycling process, uranium and uranium alloys in various forms will be processed by electron beam melting and continuously cast into ingots meeting applicable specifications for virgin material. Existing vacuum processing facilities at LLNL are in compliance with all current federal and state environmental, safety and health regulations for the electron beam melting and vaporization of uranium metal. One of these facilities has been retrofitted with an auxiliary electron beam gun system, water-cooled hearth, crucible and ingot puller to create an electron beam melt furnace. In this furnace, basic process R&D on uranium recycling will be performed with the goal of eventual transfer of this technology to a production facility.

  8. Energy Vulnerability Assessment for the US Pacific Islands. Technical Appendix 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fesharaki, F.; Rizer, J.P.; Greer, L.S.

    1994-05-01

    The study, Energy Vulnerability Assessment of the US Pacific Islands, was mandated by the Congress of the United States as stated in House Resolution 776-220 of 1992, Section 1406. The resolution states that the US Secretary of Energy shall conduct a study of the implications of the unique vulnerabilities of the insular areas to an oil supply disruption. Such study shall outline how the insular areas shall gain access to vital oil supplies during times of national emergency. The resolution defines insular areas as the US Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Palau. The US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico are not included in this report. The US Department of Energy (USDOE) has broadened the scope of the study contained in the House Resolution to include emergency preparedness and response strategies which would reduce vulnerability to an oil supply disruption as well as steps to ameliorate adverse economic consequences. This includes a review of alternative energy technologies with respect to their potential for reducing dependence on imported petroleum. USDOE has outlined the four tasks of the energy vulnerability assessment as the following: (1) for each island, determine crude oil and refined product demand/supply, and characterize energy and economic infrastructure; (2) forecast global and regional oil trade flow patterns, energy demand/supply, and economic activities; (3) formulate oil supply disruption scenarios and ascertain the general and unique vulnerabilities of these islands to oil supply disruptions; and (4) outline emergency preparedness and response options to secure oil supplies in the short run, and reduce dependence on imported oil in the longer term.

  9. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES REVIEW & EVALUATION OF INTERNAL PIPELINE REPAIR TRIALS REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-09-01

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is generally ineffective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressure for pipe repaired with carbon fiber-reinforced composite liner was greater than that of the un-repaired pipe section with damage, indicating that this type of liner is effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the next phase of this project.

  10. The chemical industry, by country

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-03-01

    Beijing will be the site for the third ACHEMASIA, international petrochemical and chemical exhibition and conference, May 15--20, 1995. In preparation for this conference, Hydrocarbon Processing contacted executives of petrochemical/chemical industries and trade associations, seeking views on the state of the industry. The Asia-Pacific region is the center of new construction and expanded capacity and also a mixture of mature, developing and emerging petrochemical industries. Established countries must mold and grow with emerging economies as the newcomers access natural resources and develop their own petrochemical infrastructures. The following nation reports focus on product supply/demand trends, economic forecasts, new construction, etc. Space limitations prohibit publishing commentaries from all countries that have petrochemical/chemical capacity. Reports are published from the following countries: Australia, China, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.

  11. Technical Training Workshop on International Safeguards: An Introduction to Safeguards for Emerging Nuclear States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Olson, Jarrod; Mathews, Caroline E.; Solodov, Alexander; Zhernosek, Alena; Raffo-Caiado, Ana; Baldwin, George; Horak, Karl; McClelland-Kerr, John; VanSickle, Matthew; Mininni, Margot; Kovacic, Donald

    2009-10-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) hosted a workshop from May 4-22, 2009, on the fundamental elements of international safeguards. Entitled "A Technical Training Workshop on International Safeguards," the workshop introduced post-graduate students from Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Thailand, Morocco, Egypt, Algeria and Tunisia to the fundamental issues and best practices associated with international safeguards and encouraged them to explore potential career paths in safeguards. Workshops like these strengthen the international safeguards regime by promoting the development of a "safeguards culture" among young nuclear professionals within nascent nuclear countries. While this concept of safeguards culture is sometimes hard to define and even harder to measure, this paper will demonstrate that the promotion of safeguards cultures through workshops like these justifies the investment of U.S. taxpayer dollars.

  12. AIR SHIPMENT OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL FROM THE BUDAPEST RESEARCH REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewes, J.

    2014-02-24

    The shipment of spent nuclear fuel is usually done by a combination of rail, road or sea, as the high activity of the SNF needs heavy shielding. Air shipment has advantages, e.g. it is much faster than any other shipment and therefore minimizes the transit time as well as attention of the public. Up to now only very few and very special SNF shipments were done by air, as the available container (TUK6) had a very limited capacity. Recently Sosny developed a Type C overpack, the TUK-145/C, compliant with IAEA Standard TS-R-1 for the VPVR/M type Skoda container. The TUK-145/C was first used in Vietnam in July 2013 for a single cask. In October and November 2013 a total of six casks were successfully shipped from Hungary in three air shipments using the TUK-145/C. The present paper describes the details of these shipments and formulates the lessons learned.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of a gecko and the phylogeneticposition of the Middle Eastern teratoscincus keyserlingii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macey, J. Robert; Fong, Jonathan J.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Shafiei,Soheila; Ananjeva, Natalia B.; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-04-22

    Sqamate reptiles are traditionally divided into six groups: Iguania, Anguimorpha, Scincomorpha, Gekkota (these four are lizards), Serpentes (snakes), and Amphisbaenia (the so-called worm lizards). Currently there are complete mitochondrial genomes from two representatives of the Iguania (Janke et al., 2001; Kumazawa, 2004), three from the Anguimorpha (Kumazawa, 2004; Kumazawa and Endo, 2004), two from the Scincomorpha (Kumazawa and Nishida, 1999; Kumazawa, 2004), two from Serpentes (Kumazawa et al., 1998; Kumazawa, 2004) and 12 from Amphisbaenia (Macey et al., 2004). The only traditional group of Squamata from which a complete mitochondrial genome has not been sequenced is the Gekkota. Here we report the complete mitochondrial genome of Teratoscincus keyserlingii, a Middle Eastern representative of the Gekkota. The gekkonid lizard genus Teratoscincus is distributed throughout the deserts of central and southwest Asia as shown in figure 1, with five species currently recognized (Macey et al. 1997a, 1999b). Included in this figure are the positions of mountain ranges discussed in the text; see also figure 1 in Macey et al. (1999b). Two species, T. bedriagai and T. microlepis, are restricted to Southwest Asia south of the Kopet Dagh and Hindu Kush in Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan (Anderson, 1999). Two species are found in the deserts of western China and Mongolia, with T. przewalskii occurring in the Taklimakan and lowland Gobi deserts, and T. roborowskii restricted to the Turpan Depression. The fifth species, T. scincus, is sometimes considered to be restricted to the Caspian Basin in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzistan, Tadjikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Alternatively, Teratoscincus populations in Southwest Asia, primarily on the Iranian Plateau, situated directly north of the Arabian Plate, are sometimes considered to be a subspecies of T. scincus or, otherwise, to constitute a sixth species, T. keyserlingii. Macey et al. (1999b) assessed the phylogenetic relationships of four Teratoscincus species with mitochondrial DNA sequences from a {approx}1800 base-pair segment spanning from nad1 to cox1. Phylogenetic analysis places T. microlepis in a basal position to a clade containing T. scincus, T. przewalskii and T. roborowskii, with the later two as sister taxa. This phylogenetic arrangement suggests that tectonic plate movements in Southwest Asia and western China due to the Indian and Arabian collisions caused speciation among Teratoscincus species. No molecular phylogenetic study has included the putative species T. keyserlingii.

  14. Romania: Brand-New Engineering Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Allen; Lucian Biro; Nicolae Zamfir; Madalina Budu

    2011-01-01

    The HEU spent nuclear fuel transport from Romania was a pilot project in the framework of the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), being the first fully certified spent nuclear fuel shipment by air. The successful implementation of the Romanian shipment also brought various new technology in the program, further used by other participating countries. Until 2009, the RRRFR program repatriated to the Russian Federation HEU spent nuclear fuel of Russian origin from many countries, like Uzbekistan, Czech Republic, Latvia, Hungary, Kazakhstan and Bulgaria. The means of transport used were various; from specialized TK-5 train for the carriage of Russian TUK-19 transport casks, to platform trains for 20 ft freight ISO containers carrying Czech Skoda VPVR/M casks; from river barge on the Danube, to vessel on the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. Initially, in 2005, the transport plan of the HEU spent nuclear fuel from the National Institute for R&D in Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Engineering 'Horia Hulubei' in Magurele, Romania considered a similar scheme, using the specialized TK-5 train transiting Ukraine to the destination point in the Russian Federation, or, as an alternative, using the means and route of the spent nuclear fuel periodically shipped from the Bulgarian nuclear power plant Kosloduy (by barge on the Danube, and by train through Ukraine to the Russian Federation). Due to impossibility to reach an agreement in due time with the transit country, in February 2007 the US, Russian and Romanian project partners decided to adopt the air shipment of the spent nuclear fuel as prime option, eliminating the need for agreements with any transit countries. By this time the spent nuclear fuel inspections were completed, proving the compliance of the burn-up parameters with the international requirements for air shipments of radioactive materials. The short air route avoiding overflying of any other countries except the country of origin and the country of destination also contributed to the decision making in this issue. The efficient project management and cooperation between the three countries (Russia, Romania and USA) made possible, after two and a half years of preparation work, for the first fully certified spent nuclear fuel air shipment to take place on 29th of June 2009, from Romanian airport 'Henri Coanda' to the Russian airport 'Koltsovo' near Yekaterinburg. One day before that, after a record period of 3 weeks of preparation, another HEU cargo was shipped by air from Romanian Institute for Nuclear Research in Pitesti to Russia, containing fresh pellets and therefore making Romania the third HEU-free country in the RRRFR program.

  15. Expression of Autoactivated Stromelysin-1 in Mammary Glands of Transgenic Mice Leads to a Reactive Stroma During Early Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomasset, N.; Lochter, A.; Sympson, C.J.; Lund, L.R.; Williams, D.R.; Behrendtsen, O.; Werb, Z.; Bissell, M.J.

    1998-04-24

    Extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix-degrading matrix metalloproteinases play a key role in interactions between the epithelium and the mesenchyme during mammary gland development and disease. In patients with breast cancer, the mammary mesenchyme undergoes a stromal reaction, the etiology of which is unknown. We previously showed that targeting of an autoactivating mutant of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1 to mammary epithelia of transgenic mice resulted in reduced mammary function during pregnancy and development of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Here we examine the cascade of alterations before breast tumor formation in the mammary gland stroma once the expression of the stromelysin-1 transgene commences. Beginning in postpubertal virgin animals, low levels of transgene expression in mammary epithelia led to increased expression of endogenous stromelysin-1 in stromal fibroblasts and up-regulation of other matrix metalloproteinases, without basement membrane disruption. These changes were accompanied by the progressive development of a compensatory reactive stroma, characterized by increased collagen content and vascularization in glands from virgin mice. This remodeling of the gland affected epithelial-mesenchymal communication as indicated by inappropriate expression of tenascin-C starting by day 6 of pregnancy. This, together with increased transgene expression, led to basement membrane disruption starting by day 15 of pregnancy. We propose that the highly reactive stroma provides a prelude to breast epithelial tumors observed in these animals. Epithelial development depends on an exquisite series of inductive and instructive interactions between the differentiating epithelium and the mesenchymal (stromal) compartment. The epithelium, which consists of luminal and myoepithelial cells, is separated from the stroma by a basement membrane (BM), which plays a central role in mammary gland homeostasis and gene expression. In vivo, stromal cells produce fibronectin, collagens, proteoglycans, and some components of the BM, as well as a number of proteinases that can effectively degrade BM constituents. Stromal and epithelial cells of the mammary gland interact to regulate BM synthesis and degradation and, thus, mammary function. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading enzymes involved in mammary gland morphogenesis and involution. During late pregnancy and lactation, when the gland becomes fully functional, the expression of MMPs is low however, during involution, when the gland loses function and is remodeled, synthesis of ECM-degrading proteinases increases dramatically.11 Disturbance of the balance between MMPs and MMP inhibitors leads to either unscheduled involution or prolonged lactation. Mammary glands of virgin mice expressing an autoactivating stromelysin-1 (SL-1) transgene display supernumerary branches and precocious alveolar development, accompanied by the synthesis of {beta}-casein at levels found normally only during early pregnancy. During late pregnancy, increased expression of the SL-1 transgene leads to a reduction in expression of pregnancy-specific genes. Later in life, some SL-1 transgenic mice develop hyperplastic, dysplastic, and ductal carcinoma in situ-like lesions, as well as malignant tumors. Little is known about the sequence of changes that occurs before formation of an overt reactive stroma in breast cancer. In the present study, we address the question of whether and how the stromal compartment is altered as a consequence of inappropriate SL-1 transgene expression in the epithelium.

  16. Inhalation reproductive toxicology studies: Male dominant lethal study of n-hexane in Swiss (CD-1) mice: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mast, T.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Evanoff, J.J.; Sasser, L.B.; Decker, J.R.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1988-08-01

    The straight-chain hydrocarbon, n-hexane, is a volatile, ubiquitous solvent routinely used in industrial environments; consequently, the opportunity for industrial, environmental or accidental exposure to hexane vapors is significant. Although myelinated nerve tissue is the primary target organ of hexane, the testes have also been identified as being sensitive to hexacarbon exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate male dominant lethal effects in Swiss (CD-1) mice after exposure to 0, 200, 1000, or 5000 ppM n-hexane, 20 h/day for 5 consecutive days. Each exposure concentration consisted of 30 randomly selected, proven male breeders; 4 groups. The mice were weighed just prior to the first day of exposure and at weekly intervals until sacrifice. Ten males in each dose group were sacrificed one day after the cessation of exposure, and their testes and epididymides were removed for evaluation of the germinal epithelium. The remaining male mice, 20 per group, were individually housed in hanging wire-mesh breeding cages where they were mated with unexposed, virgin females for eight weekly intervals; new females were provided each week. The mated females were sacrificed 12 days after the last day of cohabitation and their reproductive status and the number and viability of the implants were recorded. The appearance and behavior of the male mice were unremarkable throughout the study period and no evidence of n-hexane toxicity was observed. 18 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Solar in Remote Applications in the U.S.: Challenges & Implications for Local Policy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Since the landfall of Hurricane Sandy in October 2012, municipalities and jurisdictions in the United States have been increasingly focused on the vulnerability of their electricity infrastructure and enhancing resilience to extreme events. Renewable energy and distributed generation resources have a critical role to play in increasing the resilience of electric grids. In remote areas and on islands, these issues have risen to the forefront because remote electric grids function in near isolation, making grid reliability, electricity supply, cost controls, and stability essential. The integration of such resources into smaller, isolated grids poses unique challenges given the relatively high penetration rates of solar photovoltaics (PV). In the U.S. these remote locations include Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, Marianas, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, communities off the coast of Maine and Massachusetts, mainland communities in Alaska, and even U.S. government installations such as national parks and military bases. This paper explores how policy makers and planners interested in furthering grid resilience and increasing reliance on renewable energy resources can learn from the opportunities and challenges facing remote communities as they work to shift their generation mix to higher levels of solar PV.

  18. Experimental characterization of fire-induced response of rigid polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.Y.; Gill, W.; Moore, J.W.; Hobbs, M.L.; Gritzo, L.A.; Moya, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Reported is the result of an experimental investigation of fire-induced response of a 96 kg/m{sup 3} closed cell rigid polyurethane foam. The specimen is 0.37 m in diameter, and 152 mm thick, placed in a cylindrical test vessel. The fire condition is simulated by heating the bottom of the test vessel to 1283 K using a radiant heat source. Real-time x-ray shows that the degradation process involves the progression of a charring front into the virgin material. The charred region has a regular and graded structure consisting of a packed bubble outer layer and successive layers of thin shells. The layer-to-layer permeability appears to be poor. There are indications that gas vents laterally. The shell-like structure might be the result of lateral venting. Although the foam degradation process is quite complicated, the in-depth temperature responses in the uncharted foam appear to be consistent with steady state ablation. The measured temperature responses are well represented by the exponential distribution for steady state ablation. An estimate of the thermal diffusivity of the foam is obtained from the ablation model. The experiment is part of a more comprehensive program to develop material response models of foams and encapsulants.

  19. X-ray Emission from Thunderstorms and Lightning

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dwyer, Joseph [Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Florida, United States

    2010-01-08

    How lightning is initiated in the relatively low electric fields inside thunderclouds and how it can then propagate for tens of kilometers through virgin air are two of the great unsolved problems in the atmospheric sciences.  Until very recently it was believed that lightning was entirely a conventional discharge, involving only low-energy (a few eV) electrons.  This picture changed completely a few years ago with the discovery of intense x-ray emission from both natural cloud-to-ground lightning and rocket-triggered lightning.  This energetic emission cannot be produced by a conventional discharge, and so the presence of x-rays strongly implies that runaway breakdown plays a role in lightning processes.  During runaway breakdown, electrons are accelerated through air to nearly the speed of light by strong electric fields.  These runaway electrons then emit bremsstrahlung x-rays and gamma-rays during collisions with air.  Indeed, the x-ray and gamma-ray emission produced by runaway breakdown near the tops of thunderstorms is bright enough to be seen from outer space, 600 km away.  As a result, the physics used for decades to describe thunderstorm electrification and lightning discharges is incomplete and needs to be revisited. 

  20. Wind Power Opportunities in St. Thomas, USVI: A Site-Specific Evaluation and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.; Warren, A.; Roberts, J. O.; Gevorgian, V.

    2012-09-01

    This NREL technical report utilizes a development framework originated by NREL and known by the acronym SROPTTC to assist the U.S. Virgin Islands in identifying and understanding concrete opportunities for wind power development in the territory. The report covers each of the seven components of the SROPTTC framework: Site, Resource, Off-take, Permitting, Technology, Team, and Capital as they apply to wind power in the USVI and specifically to a site in Bovoni, St. Thomas. The report concludes that Bovoni peninsula is a strong candidate for utility-scale wind generation in the territory. It represents a reasonable compromise in terms of wind resource, distance from residences, and developable terrain. Hurricane risk and variable terrain on the peninsula and on potential equipment transport routes add technical and logistical challenges but do not appear to represent insurmountable barriers. In addition, integration of wind power into the St. Thomas power system will present operational challenges, but based on experience in other islanded power systems, there are reasonable solutions for addressing these challenges.

  1. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of tetrahydrofuran in mice and rats: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1988-08-01

    Tetrahydrofuran (THF), a four-carbon cyclic ether, is widely used as an industrial solvent. Although it has been used in large quantities for many years, few long-term toxicology studies, and no reproductive or developmental studies, have been conducted on THF. This study addresses the potential for THF to cause developmental toxicity in rodents by exposing Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss (CD-1) mice to 0, 600, 1800, or 5000 ppm tetrahydrofuran (THF) vapors, 6 h/day, 7 dy/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.33 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6--17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as O dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded and live fetuses were examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 27 refs., 6 figs., 23 tabs.

  2. The Federal manufactured home construction and safety standards -- implications for foam panel construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, A.D.; Schrock, D.W.; Flintoft, S.A.

    1997-03-01

    This report reviews the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development construction code for (HUD-code) manufactured homes, Part 3280: Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards (the HUD Code), to identify sections that might be relevant in determining if insulated foam core panels (or structural insulated panels, SIPs) meet the requirements of Part 3280 for use in manufactured home construction. The U.S. Department of Energy and other parties are interested in the use of SIPs in residential construction, including HUD-Code manufactured homes, because the foam panels can have a higher effective insulation value than standard stud-framed construction and use less dimensional lumber. Although SIPs have not been used in manufactured housing, they may be well suited to the factory production process used to manufacture HUD-Code homes and the fact that they require less virgin timber may reduce the effect of volatile and increasing timber prices. Part 3280 requirements for fire resistance, wind resistance, structural load strength, ventilation, transportation shock, and thermal protection are reviewed. A brief comparison is made between the HUD Code requirements and data collected from foam panel manufacturers. 8 refs.

  3. Evaluation of the State Energy Conservation Program from program initiation to September 1978. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heller, James N.; Grossmann, John R.; Shochet, Susan; Bresler, Joel; Duggan, Noreene

    1980-03-01

    The State Energy Conservation Program was established in 1975 to promote energy conservation and to help states develop and implement their own conservation programs. Base (5) and supplemental (3) programs required states to implement programs including: mandatory thermal-efficiency standards and insulation requirements for new and renovated buildings; mandatory lighting efficiency standards for public buildings; mandatory standards and policies affecting the procurement practices of the state and its political subdivisions; program measures to promote the availability and use of carpools, vanpools, and public transportation; a traffic law or regulation which permits a right turn-on-red; and procedures to carry out a continuing public education effort to increase awareness of energy conservation; procedures which promote effective coordination among local, state, and Federal energy conservation programs; and procedures for carrying out energy audits on buildings and industrial plants. All 50 states and Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the District of Columbia participated in the program. The total 1980 energy savings projected by the states is about 5.9 quadrillion Btu's or about 7% of the DOE projected 1980 baseline consumption of just under 83 quads. The detailed summary is presented on the following: information the SECP evaluation; DOE response to the SECP; DOE's role in the program management process; the effectiveness of the states in managing the SECP; the status of program measure implementation; innovative state energy conservation programs; and the evaluation methodology.

  4. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of acetone in mice and rats: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1988-11-01

    Acetone, an aliphatic ketone, is a ubiquitous industrial solvent and chemical intermediate; consequently, the opportunity for human exposure is high. The potential for acetone to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 0, 440, 2200, or 11000 ppm, and in Swiss (CD-1) mice exposed to 0, 440, 2200, and 6600 ppm acetone vapors, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.32 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 46 refs., 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  5. Magnetization-steps in Y?CoMnO? double perovskite: The role of antisite disorder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nair, Harikrishnan S. Xiao, Yinguo; Brckel, Th.; Cherian, Dona; Elizabeth, Suja; Hansen, Thomas; Chatterji, Tapan

    2014-09-28

    Antisite disorder is observed to have significant impact on the magnetic properties of the double perovskite YCoMnO? which has been recently identified as a multiferroic. A paramagnetic-ferromagnetic phase transition occurs in this material at Tc ? 75 K. At 2 K, it displays a strong ferromagnetic hysteresis with a significant coercive field of Hc ? 15 kOe. Sharp steps are observed in the hysteresis curves recorded below 8 K. In the temperature range 2 K ? T ? 5 K, the hysteresis loops are anomalous as the virgin curve lies outside the main loop. The field-cooling conditions as well as the rate of field-sweep are found to influence the steps. Quantitative analysis of the neutron diffraction data shows that at room temperature, Y?CoMnO? consists of 62% of monoclinic P2?/n with nearly 70% antisite disorder and 38% Pnma. The bond valence sums indicate the presence of other valence states for Co and Mn which arise from disorder. We explain the origin of steps by using a model for pinning of magnetization at the antiphase boundaries created by antisite disorder. The steps in magnetization closely resemble the martensitic transformations found in intermetallics and display first-order characteristics as revealed in the Arrott's plots.

  6. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of isoprene in mice and rats: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Isoprene, a reactive, branched diene, is used in large quantities in the manufacture of polyisoprene and as a copolymer in the synthesis of butyl rubber. The potential for isoprene to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in rodents, by exposing four groups each of Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss (CD-1) mice to 0, 280, 1400, or 7000 ppM isoprene vapors, 6 h/day, 7 day/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.30 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 31 refs., 6 figs., 19 tabs.

  7. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Gallium arsenide in mice and rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mast, T.J.; Greenspan, B.J.; Dill, J.A.; Stoney, K.H.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    Gallium arsenide is a crystalline compound used extensively in the semiconductor industry. Workers preparing solar cells and gallium arsenide ingots and wafers are potentially at risk from the inhalation of gallium arsenide dust. The potential for gallium arsenide to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague- Dawley rats and CD-1 (Swiss) mice exposed to 0, 10, 37, or 75 mg/m{sup 3} gallium arsenide, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and {approx}30 positively mated rats or {approx}24 positively mated mice. Mice were exposed on 4--17 days of gestation (dg), and rats on 4--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Gallium and arsenic concentrations were determined in the maternal blood and uterine contents of the rats (3/group) at 7, 14, and 20 dg. 37 refs., 11 figs., 30 tabs.

  8. Structural insulated panels produced from recycled Expanded-Polystrene (EPS) foam scrap. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grinnell, A.

    1996-11-01

    This report documents a research project undertaken to assess the feasibility of using scrap reground expanded polystyrene (EPS) in the manufacture of structural insulated panels (SIPs) in order to save material costs and reduce the amount of EPS waste products to be disposed. The project team, managed by Steven Winter Associates, Inc., a Norwalk, Connecticut-based building systems research and consulting firm included: Thermal Foams, Inc., a Buffalo-based manufacturer of EPS products; BASF Corp., the world`s largest producer of EPS beads; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which performed thermal tests (ASTM C-518); RADCO, Inc. which performed material properties tests: density (ASTM C-303), flexural strength (ASTM C-203), tensile strength (ASTM D-1623), and transverse load test of SIPs panels (ASTM E-72). The report documents the manufacturing and testing process and concludes that there was relatively little difference in the thermal and structural characteristics under normal loading conditions of the panels tested with varying amount of regrind (from 10% - 25%) and those made with 100% virgin beads. The report recommends that additional tests be undertaken, but suggests that, based on the test results, reground EPS can be successfully used in the cores of SIPs in amounts up to 25%.

  9. High dose neutron irradiation of Hi-Nicalon Type S silicon carbide composites, Part 1: Microstructural evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Bergquist, Alex G; Nozawa, Takashi; Shih, Chunghao Phillip; Leonard, Keith J; Snead, Lance Lewis; Katoh, Yutai

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in the development of silicon carbide (SiC) composites, composed of near-stoichiometric SiC fibers embedded in a crystalline SiC matrix, to the point that such materials can now be considered nuclear grade. Recent neutron irradiation studies of Hi-Nicalon Type S SiC composites showed excellent radiation response at damage levels of 30 40 dpa at temperatures of 300 800 C. However, more recent studies of these same fiber composites irradiated to damage levels of >70 dpa at similar temperatures showed a marked decrease in ultimate flexural strength, particularly at 300 C. Here, electron microscopy is used to analyze the microstructural evolution of these irradiated composites in order to investigate the cause of the degradation. While minimal changes were observed in Hi-Nicalon Type S SiC composites irradiated at 800 C, substantial microstructural evolution is observed in those irradiated at 300 C. Specifically, carbonaceous particles in the fibers grew by 25% compared to the virgin case, and severe cracking occurred at interphase layers.

  10. Uncatalysed and catalysed soot combustion under NO{sub x} + O{sub 2}: Real diesel versus model soots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atribak, I.; Bueno-Lopez, A.; Garcia-Garcia, A.

    2010-11-15

    In this work, the uncatalysed and catalysed combustion of two commercial carbon blacks and three diesel soot samples were analysed and related to the physico-chemical properties of these carbon materials. Model soot samples are less reactive than real soot samples, which can be attributed, mainly, to a lower proportion in heteroatoms and a higher graphitic order for the case of one of the carbon blacks. Among the diesel soot samples tested, the most relevant differences are the volatile matter/fixed carbon contents, which are directly related to the engine operating conditions (idle or loaded) and to the use of an oxidation catalyst or not in the exhaust. The soot collected after an oxidation catalyst (A-soot) is more reactive than the counterpart virgin soot obtained under the same engine operating modes but before the oxidation catalyst. The reactivity of the different soot samples follows the same trend under uncatalysed and catalysed combustion, the combustion profiles being always shifted towards lower temperatures for the catalysed reactions. The differences between the soot samples become less relevant in the presence of a catalyst. The ceria-zirconia catalysts tested are very effective not only to oxidise soot but also to combust the soluble organic fraction emitted at low temperatures. The most reactive soot (A-soot) exhibits a T{sub 50%} parameter of 450 C when using the most active catalyst. (author)

  11. Sensitive fast electron spectrometer in adjustable triode configuration with pulsed tunable laser for research on photo-induced field emission cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mingels, S. Porshyn, V.; Bornmann, B.; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Müller, G.

    2015-04-15

    We have completed an ultra-high vacuum system for sensitive fast electron spectroscopy from cold cathodes in triode configuration under high electric fields E (<100 MV/m) and pulsed tunable laser illumination (3.5 ns, 10 Hz, hν = 0.5-5.9 eV, and 0.3-17 mJ). The cathodes are prepared and inserted under clean room conditions and can be precisely 3D-positioned, cooled or heated (77-400 K). Commissioning results with the upgraded system are presented. Field emission measurements with a W tip yielded an energy resolution of 14 meV at 4 eV pass energy and a precise determination of the emitter work function, size, and temperature. Photoemission spectroscopy of short electron bunches from a virgin and laser-ablated S-GaP crystal and quantum efficiency measurements revealed surface states, energy relaxation, and band structure effects. In conclusion, this novel system is ready now for the development and characterization of photo-induced field emission cathodes.

  12. Multiphoton photoluminescence contrast in switched Mg:LiNbO{sub 3} and Mg:LiTaO{sub 3} single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichenbach, P., E-mail: philipp.reichenbach@iapp.de; Kmpfe, T.; Thiessen, A.; Haumann, A.; Eng, L. M. [Institut fr Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitt Dresden, George-Bhr-Str. 1, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Woike, T. [Institut fr Strukturphysik, Technische Universitt Dresden, Zellescher Weg 16, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-09-22

    We observed a multiphoton luminescence contrast between virgin and single-switched domains in Mg-doped LiNbO{sub 3} (LNO) and LiTaO{sub 3} (LTO) single crystals with different doping levels of 07?mol. % and 08?mol. %, respectively. A luminescence contrast in the range of 3% was measured between as-grown and electrically inverted domain areas in Mg:LNO samples, while the contrast reaches values of up to 30% for the Mg:LTO case. Under annealing, an exponential decay of the domain contrast was observed. The activation energy of about 1?eV being determined for the decay allowed a comparison with reported activation energies of associated defects, clearly illustrating a strong connection between thermal contrast decay and the H{sup +} and Li{sup +}-ion mobility. Finally, performing similar experiments on oxidized samples undoubtedly demonstrated that the origin of the reported luminescence contrast is strongly connected with lithium ions.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Ultrathin Stainless Steel Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahoo, B.; Schlage, K.; Roehlsberger, R.; Major, J.; Hoersten, U. von; Keune, W.; Wende, H.

    2011-06-30

    We report on the preparation of polycrystalline austenitic 310 ({sup 57}Fe{sub 0.55}Cr{sub 0.25}Ni{sub 0.20}) stainless steel (SS) thin films on Si substrates and the characterization of their residual magnetism via {sup 57}Fe conversion-electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS). The films were structurally characterized at room temperature by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The virgin films were found to be structurally disordered. Subsequent annealing at moderate temperatures in ultrahigh vacuum produces the ordered martensitic and austenitic SS phases. Further annealing at higher temperatures (up to temperatures where long-range diffusion into the substrate is still weak) transforms the films into the austenitic phase with no trace of a magnetic hyperfine interaction. However, when a 2 nm thick SS thin film is embedded between two carbon layers, the as prepared disordered SS film does not transform to the martensitic or austenitic SS phase irrespective of the annealing temperature, probably because the interdiffusion with C prohibits the formation of these phases.

  14. Pressure-composition-isotherms of palladium alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanagan, T.B.

    1996-11-01

    About one year ago a summary report was submitted covering the previous three years of the contract. This earlier report should be consulted as a useful survey and evaluation of the research carried out by the authors. Because of difficulties during the current contract period arising from the anomalous nature of the melt-spun alloys received from LANL, it is not possible to contribute much beyond that given in last year's summary with regard to the overall picture of the behavior of Pd-rich alloys towards hydrogen and its isotopes. In this contract year deuterium was employed instead of hydrogen and instead of using cycled alloys, the alloys employed for each isotherm measurement were in their virgin condition. Because of the anomalous behavior of the melt-spun alloys, it was not feasible or worthwhile in some cases, e.g., when the alloy behaved anomalously, to carry out all of the originally proposed work. Nonetheless considering these obstacles, some useful data were obtained. For example, the obtaining of deuterium isotherms for the Pd-Rh alloys down to {minus}40 C using internally oxidized melt-spun alloys may prove to be useful.

  15. Examination of 80 deg. C desorption isotherms of tritium aged Pd/k and LANA.75

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staack, G. C.; Shanahan, K. L.; Walters, R. T.; Pilgrim, R. D.

    2008-07-15

    Metal hydrides, specifically Pd deposited on kieselguhr (Pd/k) and LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA.75), have been used at the Savannah River Site for almost twenty years for hydrogen isotope separation and storage. Radiolytic decay of tritium to helium-3 in the metal matrix causes three classic changes in the performance of the hydride: the plateau pressure decreases, the plateau slope increases, and a heel forms, reducing the reversible capacity of the hydride. Deuterium and tritium isotherms were collected on the virgin materials, only tritium isotherms were collected at approximately 2 years, and both deuterium and tritium isotherms were collected at approximately 3.5 years of quiescent aging at 26 deg. C. Each sample was loaded to 0.5-0.6 T/M prior to each aging period. Points of interest include comparisons of each sample at different aging periods and isotope effects on aged hydride isotherms. Partial restoration of thermodynamic properties by sample cycling has been observed in LANA. 75, though not previously reported in Pd. The methods and results are presented. (authors)

  16. Pollution prevention in the pharmaceutical industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkataramani, E.S.

    1995-09-01

    A clear understanding of the process, reaction pathways, process equipment, operational requirements, and waste stream characteristics are critical for the evaluation, selection, and implementation of pollution prevention in the pharmaceutical industry. Although pollution prevention opportunities are always preferred over treatment and disposal techniques, consideration of a full range of options--including at-source treatments and disposal--is a practical necessity to ensure protection of the environment using best available technology. General housekeeping can also play a major role in waste minimization. Waste minimization and pollution prevention are not new concepts for the pharmaceutical industry. But the confidential and highly competitive nature of the business stands in the way of disseminating information regarding specific activities in this area. The pharmaceutical industry could probably do much better in this respect. Successful implementation of waste minimization in the pharmaceutical industry requires that a process modification not have a negative impact on product quality. Recovered and recycled materials must meet quality specifications that are similar to those for virgin raw materials.

  17. Failure Predictions for VHTR Core Components using a Probabilistic Contiuum Damage Mechanics Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fok, Alex

    2013-10-30

    The proposed work addresses the key research need for the development of constitutive models and overall failure models for graphite and high temperature structural materials, with the long-term goal being to maximize the design life of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). To this end, the capability of a Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM) model, which has been used successfully for modeling fracture of virgin graphite, will be extended as a predictive and design tool for the core components of the very high- temperature reactor (VHTR). Specifically, irradiation and environmental effects pertinent to the VHTR will be incorporated into the model to allow fracture of graphite and ceramic components under in-reactor conditions to be modeled explicitly using the finite element method. The model uses a combined stress-based and fracture mechanics-based failure criterion, so it can simulate both the initiation and propagation of cracks. Modern imaging techniques, such as x-ray computed tomography and digital image correlation, will be used during material testing to help define the baseline material damage parameters. Monte Carlo analysis will be performed to address inherent variations in material properties, the aim being to reduce the arbitrariness and uncertainties associated with the current statistical approach. The results can potentially contribute to the current development of American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes for the design and construction of VHTR core components.

  18. Nuclear energy: Where do we go from here?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muslim, Dato’ Dr Noramly

    2015-04-29

    As Malaysia progresses towards 2020, the depleting resource of oil and gas has forced a re-look at alternatives to replace fossil fuels as energy sources. Among the viable options is nuclear energy, enabling us to meet energy needs and sustain national development in the twenty-first century. Three essential steps Malaysia must take to introduce nuclear power into its energy mix are: energy planning, infrastructure development, and deployment. Malaysia has to face a series of challenges, including public acceptance, waste management, minimizing proliferation risk, and ensuring the security of nuclear plants and materials. Timely development of qualified and competent manpower is a key limiting factor in the development and transfer of nuclear technologies — and education and training take time, effort and money. There is a need for political will. Within the Asian region, China, Korea and Japan are in the forefront in utilizing nuclear power to meet electricity demands. Countries such as UAE, Bangladesh, Vietnam and Turkey are moving ahead with the nuclear option for electricity generation and they have begun planning and construction of nuclear power plants. Against this backdrop, what are Malaysia’s moves? This paper discusses various options and challenges, obstacles and repercussions in meeting future energy demands.

  19. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE - A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnis Judzis

    2002-10-01

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE -- A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING contract for the quarter starting July 2002 through September 2002. Even though we are awaiting the optimization portion of the testing program, accomplishments include the following: (1) Smith International agreed to participate in the DOE Mud Hammer program. (2) Smith International chromed collars for upcoming benchmark tests at TerraTek, now scheduled for 4Q 2002. (3) ConocoPhillips had a field trial of the Smith fluid hammer offshore Vietnam. The hammer functioned properly, though the well encountered hole conditions and reaming problems. ConocoPhillips plan another field trial as a result. (4) DOE/NETL extended the contract for the fluid hammer program to allow Novatek to ''optimize'' their much delayed tool to 2003 and to allow Smith International to add ''benchmarking'' tests in light of SDS Digger Tools' current financial inability to participate. (5) ConocoPhillips joined the Industry Advisors for the mud hammer program. (6) TerraTek acknowledges Smith International, BP America, PDVSA, and ConocoPhillips for cost-sharing the Smith benchmarking tests allowing extension of the contract to complete the optimizations.

  20. Why the Gulf War still matters: Foreign perspectives on the war and the future of international security. Report No. 16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrity, P.J.

    1993-07-01

    This report summarizes the main findings of a Center for National Security Studies (CNSS) project that examined how a number of nations other than the United States have reacted to the course and outcome of the Persian Gulf War of 1991. The project was built around studies of key countries on which the Gulf War might reasonably be expected to have had a significant impact: Argentina, the ASEAN states, Brazil, China, Cuba, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Libya, North Korea, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Spain, Syria, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, Vietnam, and the states of the former Yugoslavia. These country studies were written by well-recognized independent experts following a common set of guidelines provided by CNSS. When the country studies were completed, they were reviewed and supplemented through a series of peer assessments and workshops. The report represents a synthesis of material generated through this process, and is intended to stimulate thought and further analysis on the critical topics discussed herein.

  1. Bibliography of information sources on East Asian energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salosis, J.

    1982-11-01

    The first section of this bibliography is a subject index by title to sources of information on East Asian energy. The countries considered were: Brunei, the PRC, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, the Koreas, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. If the geographic coverage by any source is restricted to a particular country and was not indicated by the title, a country abbreviation in parentheses was added. Titles that include the term data base are computerized. The second section contains the Title Index which lists each printed publication alphabetically with frequency of publication and the US$ price for a yearly air mail subscription. The publisher or distribution office is listed below the title. The Data Base Index lists computerized sources with the author and the vendor providing either online access or tapes. No prices have been quoted in this section because of the wide range of methods in use and the impossibility of running benchmarks for this study. The Address Index lists the publishers, data base authors and vendors alphabetically.

  2. Growth mechanisms, polytypism, and real structure of kaolinite microcrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samotoin, N. D.

    2008-09-15

    The mechanisms of growth of kaolinite microcrystals (0.1-5.0 {mu}m in size) at deposits related to the cluvial weathering crust, as well as to the low-temperature and medium-temperature hydrothermal processes of transformations of minerals in different rocks in Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Czechia, Vietnam, India, Cuba, and Madagascar, are investigated using transmission electron microscopy and vacuum decoration with gold. It is established that kaolinite microcrystals grow according to two mechanisms: the mechanism of periodic formation of two-dimensional nuclei and the mechanism of spiral growth. The spiral growth of kaolinite microcrystals is dominant and occurs on steps of screw dislocations that differ in sign and magnitude of the Burgers vector along the c axis. The layered growth of kaolinite originates from a widespread source in the form of a step between polar (+ and -) dislocations, i.e., a growth analogue of the Frank-Read dislocation source. The density of growth screw dislocations varies over a wide range and can be as high as {approx}10{sup 9} cm{sup -2}. Layered stepped kaolinite growth pyramids for all mechanisms of growth on the (001) face of kaolinite exhibit the main features of the triclinic 1Tc and real structures of this mineral.

  3. How can environmental regulations promote clean coal technology adoption in APEC developing economies?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-11-15

    The study examines both existing and emerging regulatory frameworks in order to determine which type of regulations that would be most effective at promoting clean coal technology adoption in development Asia Pacific Economic Co-operation (APEC) economies and would be practical to implement. regulations targeting air emissions; regulations targeting water use; and regulations concerning coal combustion by-products. When considering the potential effect of existing and new environmental regulations on the adoption of clean coal the analysis of technologies was organised into three categories: environmental control technologies; high efficiency coal combustion technologies; and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). To target the recommendations towards APEC economies that would benefit the most from this analysis, the study focused on developing and transition APEC economies that are expected to rely on coal for a large part of their future generating capacity. These economies include China, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Russian Federation, Thailand, and Vietnam. ACARP provided funding to this study, under Project C15078. 10 figs., 14 tabs., 10 apps.

  4. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the field trial portion of this program.

  5. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. The first round of optimization and validation activities for carbon-fiber repairs are complete. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the field trial portion of this program.

  6. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. In lieu of a field installation on an abandoned pipeline, a preliminary nondestructive testing protocol is being developed to determine the success or failure of the fiber-reinforced liner pipeline repairs. Optimization and validation activities for carbon-fiber repair methods are ongoing.

  7. A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. A. Robbins; R. A. Winschel; S. D. Brandes

    1998-06-09

    CONSOL characterized 38 process strea m samples from HTI Run PB- 04, in which Black Thunder Mine Coal, Hondo vacuum resid, autom obile shredder residue (ASR), and virgin plastics were used as liquefaction feedstocks with dispersed catalyst. A paper on kinetic modeling of resid reactivity was presented at the DOE Coal Lique -faction and Solid Fuels Contractors Review Conference, September 3- 4, 1997, i n Pittsburgh, PA. The paper, "The Reactivity of Direct Coal Liquefaction Resids", i s appended (Appendix 1). Three papers on characterization of samples from coal/ resid/ waste p lastics co- liquefaction were presented or submitted for presen tation at conferences. Because of their similarity, only one of the papers is appended to this report. The paper, "Characterization o f Process Samples From Co- Liquefaction of Coal and Waste Polymers", (Appendix 2) was presented at the DOE Coal Liquefaction and Solid Fuels C ontractors Review Conference, September 3- 4, 1997, in Pittsburgh, PA. The paper, "Characterization of Process Stream Samples From Bench- Scale Co -Liquefaction Runs That Utilized Waste Polymers as Feedstocks" was presented at the 214th National Meeting of the Ameri can Chemical Society, September 7- 11, 1997, in Las Vegas, NV. The paper, "Characterization of Process Oils from Coal/ Waste Co- Liquefaction" wa s submitted for presentation at the 14th Japan/ U. S. Joint Technical Meeting on Coa l Liquefaction and Materials for Coal Liquefaction on October 28, 1997, in Tokyo, Japan. A joint Burns and Roe Services Corp. and CONSOL pap er on crude oil assays of product oils from HTI Run PB- 03 was presented at the DOE Coal Liquefaction and Solid Fuel s Contractors Review Conference, September 3- 4, 1997, in Pittsburgh, PA. The paper , "Characterization of Liquid Products from All- Slurry Mode Liquefaction", is appende d (Appendix 3).

  8. Synthesis and structural and magnetic characterization of the frustrated magnetic system La{sub 2}Ni{sub 4/3?x}Co{sub x}Sb{sub 2/3}O{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franco, D.G.; Carbonio, R.E.; Nieva, G.

    2013-11-15

    We report the synthesis of double perovskites La{sub 2}Ni{sub 4/3?x}Co{sub x}Sb{sub 2/3}O{sub 6} with x=0, 1/3, 2/3 and 1 by a solid state method. Rietveld refinements of X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data show that all samples crystallize in space group P2{sub 1}/n, with almost perfect occupation of the 2d octahedral site with the transition metals, while all Sb{sup 5+} are randomly distributed in a 2c octahedral site. The saturation magnetization in hysteresis loops indicates that the samples are ferrimagnetic throughout all the series. Virgin magnetization curves lie outside hysteresis loops at low temperatures and thermal evolution of H{sub m} defined as the inflection point of these curves follows the de AlmeidaThouless dependence for x?0. This spin glass like behavior below 30 K is also supported by thermal evolution of the coercivity, which follows an exponential law typical of magnetic clusters, not found in the pure Ni{sup 2+} perovskite, x=0 extreme. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Author-Highlights: We synthesized new double perovskites: La{sub 2}Ni{sub 4/3?x}Co{sub x}SbO{sub 6} (x=1/3, 2/3, 1). The cations occupying octahedral sites are highly ordered in all samples. Magnetic transition occurs as a consequence of superexchange paths. Frustration is found and attributed to competition between different interactions.

  9. National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) Networks: Data on the chemistry of precipitation

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) is a nationwide network of sites collecting data on the chemistry of precipitation for monitoring of geographical and temporal long-term trends. The precipitation at each station is collected weekly according to strict clean-handling procedures. It is then sent to the Central Analytical Laboratory where it is analyzed for hydrogen (acidity as pH), sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, chloride, and base cations (such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium). The network is a cooperative effort between many different groups, including the State Agricultural Experiment Stations, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and numerous other governmental and private entities. DOE is one of these cooperating agencies, though it plays a smaller funding role than some of the other federal sources. Since 1978, the NADP/NTN has grown from 22 stations to over 250 sites spanning the continental United States, Alaska, and Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The National Atmospheric Deposition Program has also expanded its sampling to two additional networks: 1) the Mercury Deposition Network (MDN), currently with over 90 sites, was formed in 1995 to collect weekly samples of precipitation which are analyzed by Frontier Geosciences for total mercury, and 2) the Atmospheric Integrated Research Monitoring Network (AIRMoN), formed for the purpose of studying precipitation chemistry trends with greater temporal resolution than the NTN. [taken from the NADP History and Overview page at http://nadp.sws.uiuc.edu/nadpoverview.asp] Data from these networks are freely available in via customized search interfaces linked to interactive maps of the stations in the three networks. Animated Isopleth maps in Flash and PowerPoint are also available to display concentrations and depositions various substances such as sulfate, nitrate, etc. (Specialized Interface)

  10. Comparing bacterial community composition of healthy and dark spot-affected Siderastrea siderea in Florida and the Caribbean

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kellogg, Christina A.; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Gray, Michael A.; Andersen, Gary L.; Mormile, Melanie R.

    2014-10-07

    Coral disease is one of the major causes of reef degradation. Dark Spot Syndrome (DSS) was described in the early 1990's as brown or purple amorphous areas of tissue on a coral and has since become one of the most prevalent diseases reported on Caribbean reefs. It has been identified in a number of coral species, but there is debate as to whether it is in fact the same disease in different corals. Further, it is questioned whether these macroscopic signs are in fact diagnostic of an infectious disease at all. The most commonly affected species in the Caribbean ismore » the massive starlet coral Siderastrea siderea. We sampled this species in two locations, Dry Tortugas National Park and Virgin Islands National Park. Tissue biopsies were collected from both healthy colonies and those with dark spot lesions. Microbial-community DNA was extracted from coral samples (mucus, tissue, and skeleton), amplified using bacterial-specific primers, and applied to PhyloChip G3 microarrays to examine the bacterial diversity associated with this coral. Samples were also screened for the presence of a fungal ribotype that has recently been implicated as a causative agent of DSS in another coral species, but the amplifications were unsuccessful. S. siderea samples did not cluster consistently based on health state (i.e., normal versus dark spot). Various bacteria, including Cyanobacteria and Vibrios, were observed to have increased relative abundance in the discolored tissue, but the patterns were not consistent across all DSS samples. Overall, our findings do not support the hypothesis that DSS in S. siderea is linked to a bacterial pathogen or pathogens. This dataset provides the most comprehensive overview to date of the bacterial community associated with the scleractinian coral S. siderea.« less

  11. CABLE AGING AND CONDITION MONITORING OF RADIATION RESISTANT NANO-DIELECTRICS IN ADVANCED REACTOR APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duckworth, Robert C; Aytug, Tolga; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Kidder, Michelle; Polyzos, Georgios; Leonard, Keith J

    2015-01-01

    Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) nanocomposites have been developed in an effort to improve cable insulation lifetime to serve in both instrument cables and auxiliary power systems in advanced reactor applications as well as to provide an alternative for new or retro-fit cable insulation installations. Nano-dielectrics composed of different weight percentages of MgO & SiO2 have been subjected to radiation at accumulated doses approaching 20 MRad and thermal aging temperatures exceeding 100 C. Depending on the composition, the performance of the nanodielectric insulation was influenced, both positively and negatively, when quantified with respect to its electrical and mechanical properties. For virgin unradiated or thermally aged- samples, XLPE nanocomposites with 1wt.% SiO2 showed improvement in breakdown strength and reduction in its dissipation factor when compared to pure undoped- XLPE, while XLPE 3wt.% SiO2 resulted in lower breakdown strength. When aged in air at 120 C, retention of electrical breakdown strength and dissipation factor was observed for XLPE 3wt.% MgO nanocomposites. Irrespective of the nanoparticle species, XLPE nanocomposites that were gamma irradiated up to the accumulated dose of 18 MRad showed a significant drop in breakdown strength especially for particle concentrations greater than 3 wt.%. Additional attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy measurements suggest changes in the structure of the XLPE SiO2 nanocomposites associated with the interaction of silicon and oxygen. Discussion on the relevance of property changes with respect to cable aging and condition monitoring is presented.

  12. Structural Analysis of Sandwich Foam Panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, Jan; Huo, X. Sharon

    2010-04-01

    The Sandwich Panel Technologies including Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs) can be used to replace the conventional wooden-frame construction method. The main purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and SGI Venture, Inc. was to design a novel high R-value type of metal sandwich panelized technology. This CRADA project report presents design concept discussion and numerical analysis results from thermal performance study of this new building envelope system. The main objective of this work was to develop a basic concept of a new generation of wall panel technologies which will have R-value over R-20 will use thermal mass to improve energy performance in cooling dominated climates and will be 100% termite resistant. The main advantages of using sandwich panels are as follows: (1) better energy saving structural panels with high and uniform overall wall R-value across the elevation that could not be achieved in traditional walls; and (2) reducing the use of raw materials or need for virgin lumber. For better utilization of these Sandwich panels, engineers need to have a thorough understanding of the actual performance of the panels and system. Detailed analysis and study on the capacities and deformation of individual panels and its assembly have to be performed to achieve that goal. The major project activity was to conduct structural analysis of the stresses, strains, load capacities, and deformations of individual sandwich components under various load cases. The analysis simulated the actual loading conditions of the regular residential building and used actual material properties of the steel facings and foam.

  13. Comparing bacterial community composition of healthy and dark spot-affected Siderastrea siderea in Florida and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kellogg, Christina A.; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Gray, Michael A.; Andersen, Gary L.; Mormile, Melanie R.

    2014-10-07

    Coral disease is one of the major causes of reef degradation. Dark Spot Syndrome (DSS) was described in the early 1990's as brown or purple amorphous areas of tissue on a coral and has since become one of the most prevalent diseases reported on Caribbean reefs. It has been identified in a number of coral species, but there is debate as to whether it is in fact the same disease in different corals. Further, it is questioned whether these macroscopic signs are in fact diagnostic of an infectious disease at all. The most commonly affected species in the Caribbean is the massive starlet coral Siderastrea siderea. We sampled this species in two locations, Dry Tortugas National Park and Virgin Islands National Park. Tissue biopsies were collected from both healthy colonies and those with dark spot lesions. Microbial-community DNA was extracted from coral samples (mucus, tissue, and skeleton), amplified using bacterial-specific primers, and applied to PhyloChip G3 microarrays to examine the bacterial diversity associated with this coral. Samples were also screened for the presence of a fungal ribotype that has recently been implicated as a causative agent of DSS in another coral species, but the amplifications were unsuccessful. S. siderea samples did not cluster consistently based on health state (i.e., normal versus dark spot). Various bacteria, including Cyanobacteria and Vibrios, were observed to have increased relative abundance in the discolored tissue, but the patterns were not consistent across all DSS samples. Overall, our findings do not support the hypothesis that DSS in S. siderea is linked to a bacterial pathogen or pathogens. This dataset provides the most comprehensive overview to date of the bacterial community associated with the scleractinian coral S. siderea.

  14. Towards SEA for the developing nations of Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briffett, Clive; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip; Mackee, Jamie

    2003-03-01

    In the developing and transitional countries of Asia, environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been widely practiced as a planning tool that identifies the potential impacts associated with developments and determines their level of significance and the need for mitigating measures. Not withstanding its extensive use in many Asian countries, certain limitations are now being increasingly recognised with regard to achieving sustainable development within the planning process. It is also noted that the natural environment in Asia has continued to be severely degraded despite the adoption of EIA. This research project was undertaken at the National University of Singapore to review the status on the implementation of EIA procedures and to investigate the status and potential of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in Asia. The research project generally investigated the existing physical attributes of six countries including Hong Kong and Singapore, Malaysia and the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Vietnam and discussed their prevailing environmental conditions. It more specifically reviewed policymaking and environmental planning, environmental legislation and the practice and procedures of environmental impact assessment. It also evaluated environmental assessment education and training activities. In some cases such as Hong Kong, an opportunity to analyse actual SEA practice was included. In other cases, the potential for possible take up of formal SEA was assessed. A comparative review assesses the degree to which EIA and SEA procedures have been utilized, considers how the use of SEA could overcome the deficiencies of the EIA project-based system and includes aspects of meeting sustainability criteria. Results show that the use and application of EIA is relatively strong across all countries with the possible exception of Singapore which relies more heavily on its planning and control system to address potential environmental impacts arising from development projects. Despite this, EIAs have been undertaken in every country due to aid and bank lending agencies requiring them and multinational companies and many local NGOs completing voluntary EIAs. Even though the mandatory introduction of EIA into some countries is fairly recent such as Hong Kong (1999) and Vietnam (1994), efforts to conduct such investigations may have started many years before. The country reviews highlight many common problems and adverse influences that give rise to inadequate EIA practice, and in some cases, recommendations for improvement are proposed. The potential for SEA is assessed on the basis of its present usage which is generally small except for Hong Kong and the environmental strategic decision-making that is being conducted in policy, plan and programme formulations. While the more comprehensive and well-refined westernized model of SEA is generally weakly implemented at present, there is evidence to suggest that Agenda 21, along with other international treaties such as the Biodiversity Charter and the Ramsar Convention, has motivated certain sustainability initiatives that are resulting in increased environmental considerations at a strategic level. In some cases, these may be reflected in National Plan policymaking or in the sector and area-based activities of various ministries and departments. It is concluded that SEA potential is generally strong in those countries with smaller centralized bureaucracies but that its successful implementation will be highly dependent on changing the mind-sets and motivations of top personnel at ministerial level.

  15. Profiteering on the Iran-Iraq war

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brzoska, M.

    1987-06-01

    The military gear delivered from the US in the Iran-contra affair represents only a minor portion of arms sales to the combatants in the Iraq-Iran war. That war has now lasted more than six years and has deeply influenced the international arms market. Occurring during a period when other demand for arms has been relatively low, the war has nourished new suppliers and has revived both the legal and illegal private arms market. The erratic behavior of the USSR and the US, until recently by far the most important arms suppliers to the Third World, has pushed Iran and Iraq toward more commercially oriented sources, including many in the Third World. Both countries have had ample supplies of weapons during the war, and these weapons have served their purpose. Mainly because of its duration, the war already ranks third among post-World War II wars - after the Vietnam war and the Biafra war - in battlefield victims, with 300,000-500,000 casualties. The economic cost has risen to nearly $500 billion in weapons, destruction, and lost income. While it is hard to see anything but losers on the battlefield, the arms traffickers are profiting. Total Iranian arms imports since August 1980 have been higher than $10 billion, while Iraq has imported more than $30 billion worth. It is difficult to know whether making arms more difficult to obtain would have stopped the war, but judging from other recent wars, such as those between India and Pakistan, between Uganda and Tanzania, and in the Middle East, it seems likely that hostilities could have been stopped long ago. 12 references.

  16. Recyclability assessment of nano-reinforced plastic packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sánchez, C.; Hortal, M.; Aliaga, C.; Devis, A.; Cloquell-Ballester, V.A.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The study compares the recyclability of polymers with and without nanoparticles. • Visual appearance, material quality and mechanical properties are evaluated. • Minor variations in mechanical properties in R-PE and R-PP with nanoparticles. • Slight degradation of R-PET which affect mechanical properties. • Colour deviations in recycled PE, PP and PET in ranges higher that 0.3 units. - Abstract: Packaging is expected to become the leading application for nano-composites by 2020 due to the great advantages on mechanical and active properties achieved with these substances. As novel materials, and although there are some current applications in the market, there is still unknown areas under development. One key issue to be addressed is to know more about the implications of the nano-composite packaging materials once they become waste. The present study evaluates the extrusion process of four nanomaterials (Layered silicate modified nanoclay (Nanoclay1), Calcium Carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), Silver (Ag) and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) as part of different virgin polymer matrices of polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP) and Polyethyleneterephtalate (PET). Thus, the following film plastic materials: (PE–Nanoclay1, PE–CaCO{sub 3}, PP–Ag, PET–ZnO, PET–Ag, PET–Nanoclay1) have been processed considering different recycling scenarios. Results on recyclability show that for PE and PP, in general terms and except for some minor variations in yellowness index, tensile modulus, tensile strength and tear strength (PE with Nanoclay1, PP with Ag), the introduction of nanomaterial in the recycling streams for plastic films does not affect the final recycled plastic material in terms of mechanical properties and material quality compared to conventional recycled plastic. Regarding PET, results show that the increasing addition of nanomaterial into the recycled PET matrix (especially PET–Ag) could influence important properties of the recycled material, due to a slight degradation of the polymer, such as increasing pinholes, degradation fumes and elongation at break. Moreover, it should be noted that colour deviations were visible in most of the samples (PE, PP and PET) in levels higher than 0.3 units (limit perceivable by the human eye). The acceptance of these changes in the properties of recycled PE, PP and PET will depend on the specific applications considered (e.g. packaging applications are more strict in material quality that urban furniture or construction products)

  17. Commercial Demonstration of Wood Recovery, Recycling, and Value Adding Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auburn Machinery, Inc.

    2004-07-15

    This commercial demonstration project demonstrated the technical feasibility of converting low-value, underutilized and waste stream solid wood fiber material into higher valued products. With a growing need to increase product/production yield and reduce waste in most sawmills, few recovery operations and practically no data existed to support the viability of recovery operations. Prior to our efforts, most all in the forest products industry believed that recovery was difficult, extremely labor intensive, not cost effective, and that recovered products had low value and were difficult to sell. This project provided an opportunity for many within the industry to see through demonstration that converting waste stream material into higher valued products does in fact offer a solution. Our work, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, throughout the project aimed to demonstrate a reasonable approach to reducing the millions of recoverable solid wood fiber tons that are annually treated as and converted into low value chips, mulch and fuel. Consequently sawmills continue to suffer from reduced availability of forest resources, higher raw material costs, growing waste disposal problems, increased global competition, and more pressure to operate in an Environmentally Friendly manner. It is our belief (based upon the experience of this project) that the successful mainstreaming of the recovery concept would assist in alleviating this burden as well as provide for a realistically achievable economic benefit to those who would seriously pursue the concept and tap into the rapidly growing ''GREEN'' building marketplace. Ultimately, with participation and aggressive pursuit of the recovery concept, the public would benefit in that: (1) Landfill/disposal waste volume could be reduced adding greater life to existing municipal landfill sites thereby minimizing the need to prematurely license and open added facilities. Also, there would be a cost avoidance benefit associated to what would have been the added municipal (community) management costs involved with maintaining closed landfills. (2) With greater quantities of recovered material being returned to and integrated into manufacturing and the marketplace, reduced demand upon virgin wood sources could help lead the way to promoting improved relations and environmental balance between producers and consumers further expanding the value of our natural resource without adding environmental burden.

  18. Mobile Munitions Assessment System Field Capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; K. D. Watts

    1999-05-27

    The US has developed, stored, tested, and conducted disposal operations on various forms of chemical munitions for several decades. The remnants of these activities have resulted in the presence of suspect CWM at more than 200 sites in the US, the District of Columbia, and the US Virgin Islands. An advanced Mobile Munitions Assessment System (Phase II MMAS) has been designed, fabricated, assembled, and tested by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory under contract to the US Army's Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel for use in the assessment and characterization of ''non-stockpile'' chemical warfare materiel (CWM). The Phase II MMAS meets the immediate need to augment response equipment currently used by the US Army with a system that includes state-of-the-art assessment equipment and advanced sensors. The Phase II MMAS will be used for response to known storage and remediation sites. This system is designed to identify the munition type; evaluate the condition of the CWM; evaluate the environmental conditions in the vicinity of the CWM; determine if fuzes, bursters, or safety and arming devices are in place; identify the chemical fill; provide other data (e.g., meteorological data) necessary for assessing the risk associated with handling, transporting, and disposing of CWM; and record the data on a dedicated computer system. The Phase II MMAS is capable of over-the-road travel and air transport to any site for conducting rigorous assessments of suspect CWM. The Phase II MMAS utilizes a specially-designed commercial motor home to provide a means to transport an interactive network of non-intrusive characterization and assessment equipment. The assessment equipment includes radiography systems, a gamma densitometer system, a Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy (PINS) system, a Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) system, air monitoring equipment (i.e., M-90s and a field ion spectroscopy system), and a phase determination equipment Command and control equipment includes a data acquisition and handling system, two meteorological stations, video equipment, and multiple communication systems. The Phase II MMAS motor home also serves an as environmentally controlled on-site command post for the MMAS operators when deployed. The data developed by the MMAS will be used to help determine the appropriate methods and safeguards necessary to transport, store, and dispose of agent-filled munitions in a safe and environmentally acceptable manner.

  19. Energy implications of mechanical and mechanicalbiological treatment compared to direct waste-to-energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cimpan, Ciprian Wenzel, Henrik

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: Compared systems achieve primary energy savings between 34 and 140 MJ{sub primary}/100 MJ{sub input} {sub waste.} Savings magnitude is foremost determined by chosen primary energy and materials production. Energy consumption and process losses can be upset by increased technology efficiency. Material recovery accounts for significant shares of primary energy savings. Direct waste-to-energy is highly efficient if cogeneration (CHP) is possible. - Abstract: Primary energy savings potential is used to compare five residual municipal solid waste treatment systems, including configurations with mechanical (MT) and mechanicalbiological (MBT) pre-treatment, which produce waste-derived fuels (RDF and SRF), biogas and/or recover additional materials for recycling, alongside a system based on conventional mass burn waste-to-energy and ash treatment. To examine the magnitude of potential savings we consider two energy efficiency levels (state-of-the-art and best available technology), the inclusion/exclusion of heat recovery (CHP vs. PP) and three different background end-use energy production systems (coal condensing electricity and natural gas heat, Nordic electricity mix and natural gas heat, and coal CHP energy quality allocation). The systems achieved net primary energy savings in a range between 34 and 140 MJ{sub primary}/100 MJ{sub input} {sub waste}, in the different scenario settings. The energy footprint of transportation needs, pre-treatment and reprocessing of recyclable materials was 39.5%, 118% and 18% respectively, relative to total energy savings. Mass combustion WtE achieved the highest savings in scenarios with CHP production, nonetheless, MBT-based systems had similarly high performance if SRF streams were co-combusted with coal. When RDF and SRF was only used in dedicated WtE plants, MBT-based systems totalled lower savings due to inherent system losses and additional energy costs. In scenarios without heat recovery, the biodrying MBS-based system achieved the highest savings, on the condition of SRF co-combustion. As a sensitivity scenario, alternative utilisation of SRF in cement kilns was modelled. It supported similar or higher net savings for all pre-treatment systems compared to mass combustion WtE, except when WtE CHP was possible in the first two background energy scenarios. Recovery of plastics for recycling before energy recovery increased net energy savings in most scenario variations, over those of full stream combustion. Sensitivity to assumptions regarding virgin plastic substitution was tested and was found to mostly favour plastic recovery.

  20. War, peace, and international politics. Fourth edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziegler, D.W. )

    1987-01-01

    We must conclude that war remains a major problem in the last quarter of the twentieth century. My intention in this book is to introduce you to international relations by focusing on this problem. War is not the only problem of international relations, and so this book does not exhaust the field. But war is a central problem, and the possibility of resort to war affects other aspects of international relations. Whatever else we may look at, we cannot avoid looking at war. In fact, in looking at war, we will touch on most of the other subjects important in international relations. War is conflict among states carried on by their armed forces. To distinguish war from border skirmishes and other minor incidents we usually say it must reach a certain magnitude (for example, at least 1,000 soldiers killed in battle over a year). It would be ideal if we could systematically study all the wars in the last hundred years, but such an exhaustive study would be out of place here. At the same time we cannot discuss such subjects as the cause of war or proposals for preventing it without some knowledge about actual wars. We must test theories against historical facts. What follows in Part I is a somewhat detailed history of seven wars (or groups of wars) fought in the last hundred years. These include the most destructive of the wars World War I (1914-1918), World War II (1939-1945), and the Korean War (1950-1953). By way of background to World War I, we will look at the wars of German unification (1864-1871), which preceded and in some ways prepared the way for it. To balance our account, we will also look at several recent wars India and Pakistan (1971), Uganda and Tanzania (1978-1979), and Cambodia, Vietnam, and China (1978-1980). After looking at some of the major wars of the last hundred years, we will look at what people have the about the causes of war in general.

  1. 2012 Market Report on U.S. Wind Technologies in Distributed Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orrell, Alice C.; Flowers, L. T.; Gagne, M. N.; Pro, B. H.; Rhoads-Weaver, H. E.; Jenkins, J. O.; Sahl, K. M.; Baranowski, R. E.

    2013-08-06

    At the end of 2012, U.S. wind turbines in distributed applications reached a 10-year cumulative installed capacity of more than 812 MW from more than 69,000 units across all 50 states. In 2012 alone, nearly 3,800 wind turbines totaling 175 MW of distributed wind capacity were documented in 40 states and in the U.S. Virgin Islands, with 138 MW using utility-scale turbines (i.e., greater than 1 MW in size), 19 MW using mid-size turbines (i.e., 101 kW to 1 MW in size), and 18.4 MW using small turbines (i.e., up to 100 kW in size). Distributed wind is defined in terms of technology application based on a wind project’s location relative to end-use and power-distribution infrastructure, rather than on technology size or project size. Distributed wind systems are either connected on the customer side of the meter (to meet the onsite load) or directly to distribution or micro grids (to support grid operations or offset large loads nearby). Estimated capacity-weighted average costs for 2012 U.S. distributed wind installations was $2,540/kW for utility-scale wind turbines, $2,810/kW for mid-sized wind turbines, and $6,960/kW for newly manufactured (domestic and imported) small wind turbines. An emerging trend observed in 2012 was an increased use of refurbished turbines. The estimated capacity-weighted average cost of refurbished small wind turbines installed in 2012 was $4,080/kW. As a result of multiple projects using utility-scale turbines, Iowa deployed the most new overall distributed wind capacity, 37 MW, in 2012. Nevada deployed the most small wind capacity in 2012, with nearly 8 MW of small wind turbines installed in distributed applications. In the case of mid-size turbines, Ohio led all states in 2012 with 4.9 MW installed in distributed applications. State and federal policies and incentives continued to play a substantial role in the development of distributed wind projects. In 2012, U.S. Treasury Section 1603 payments and grants and loans from the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Rural Energy for America Program were the main sources of federal funding for distributed wind projects. State and local funding varied across the country, from rebates to loans, tax credits, and other incentives. Reducing utility bills and hedging against potentially rising electricity rates remain drivers of distributed wind installations. In 2012, other drivers included taking advantage of the expiring U.S. Treasury Section 1603 program and a prosperous year for farmers. While 2012 saw a large addition of distributed wind capacity, considerable barriers and challenges remain, such as a weak domestic economy, inconsistent state incentives, and very competitive solar photovoltaic and natural gas prices. The industry remains committed to improving the distributed wind marketplace by advancing the third-party certification process and introducing alternative financing models, such as third-party power purchase agreements and lease-to-own agreements more typical in the solar photovoltaic market. Continued growth is expected in 2013.

  2. SEEA SOUTHEAST CONSORTIUM FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Block, Timothy; Ball, Kia; Fournier, Ashley

    2014-01-21

    In 2010 the Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance (SEEA) received a $20 million Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) under the U.S. Department of Energys Better Building Neighborhood Program (BBNP). This grant, funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, also included sub-grantees in 13 communities across the Southeast, known as the Southeast Consortium. The objective of this project was to establish a framework for energy efficiency retrofit programs to create models for replication across the Southeast and beyond. To achieve this goal, SEEA and its project partners focused on establishing infrastructure to develop and sustain the energy efficiency market in specific localities across the southeast. Activities included implementing minimum training standards and credentials for marketplace suppliers, educating and engaging homeowners on the benefits of energy efficiency through strategic marketing and outreach and addressing real or perceived financial barriers to investments in whole-home energy efficiency through a variety of financing mechanisms. The anticipated outcome of these activities would be best practice models for program design, marketing, financing, data collection and evaluation as well as increased market demand for energy efficiency retrofits and products. The Southeast Consortiums programmatic impacts along with the impacts of the other BBNP grantees would further the progress towards the overall goal of energy efficiency market transformation. As the primary grantee SEEA served as the overall program administrator and provided common resources to the 13 Southeast Consortium sub-grantees including contracted services for contractor training, quality assurance testing, data collection, reporting and compliance. Sub-grantee programs were located in cities across eight states including Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Each sub-grantee program was designed to address the unique local conditions and population of its community. There was great diversity in programs design, types of financing and incentives, building stock characteristics, climate and partnerships. From 2010 through 2013, SEEA and its sub-grantee programs focused on determining best practices in program administration, workforce development, marketing and consumer education, financing, and utility partnerships. One of the common themes among programs that were most successful in each of these areas was strong partnerships and collaborations with people or organizations in the community. In many instances engaged partners proved to be the key to addressing barriers such as access to financing, workforce development opportunities and access to utility bill data. The most challenging barrier proved to be the act of building a market for energy efficiency where none previously existed. With limited time and resources, educating homeowners of the value in investing in energy efficiency while engaging electric and gas utilities served as a significant barrier for several programs. While there is still much work to be done to continue to transform the energy efficiency market in the Southeast, the programmatic activities led by SEEA and its sub-grantees resulted in 8,180 energy audits and 5,155 energy efficiency retrofits across the Southeast. In total the Southeast Consortium saved an estimated 27,915,655.93 kWh and generated an estimated $ 2,291,965.90 in annual energy cost savings in the region.

  3. GRAFEC: A New Spanish Program to Investigate Waste Management Options for Radioactive Graphite - 12399

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marquez, Eva; Pina, Gabriel; Rodriguez, Marina; Fachinger, Johannes; Grosse, Karl-Heinz; Leganes Nieto, Jose Luis; Quiros Gracian, Maria

    2012-07-01

    Spain has to manage about 3700 tons of irradiated graphite from the reactor Vandellos I as radioactive waste. 2700 tons are the stack of the reactor and are still in the reactor core waiting for retrieval. The rest of the quantities, 1000 tons, are the graphite sleeves which have been already retrieved from the reactor. During operation the graphite sleeves were stored in a silo and during the dismantling stage a retrieval process was carried out separating the wires from the graphite, which were crushed and introduced into 220 cubic containers of 6 m{sup 3} each and placed in interim storage. The graphite is an intermediate level radioactive waste but it contains long lived radionuclides like {sup 14}C which disqualifies disposal at the low level waste repository of El Cabril. Therefore, a new project has been started in order to investigate two new options for the management of this waste type. The first one is based on a selective decontamination of {sup 14}C by thermal methods. This method is based on results obtained at the Research Centre Juelich (FZJ) in the Frame of the EC programs 'Raphael' and 'Carbowaste'. The process developed at FZJ is based on a preferential oxidation of {sup 14}C in comparison to the bulk {sup 12}C. Explanations for this effect are the inhomogeneous distribution and a weaker bounding of {sup 14}C which is not incorporated in the graphite lattice. However these investigations have only been performed with graphite from the high temperature reactor Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor Juelich AVR which has been operated in a non-oxidising condition or research reactor graphite operated at room temperature. The reactor Vandellos I has been operated with CO{sub 2} as coolant and significant amounts of graphite have been already oxidised. The aim of the project is to validate whether a {sup 14}C decontamination can also been achieved with graphite from Vandellos I. A second possibility under investigation is the encapsulation of the graphite in a long term stable glass matrix. The principal applicability has been already proved by FNAG. Crushed graphite mixed with a suitable glass powder has been pressed at elevated temperature under vacuum. The vacuum is required to avoid gas enclosures in the obtained product. The obtained products, named IGM for 'Impermeable Graphite Matrix', have densities above 99% of theoretical density. The amount of glass has been chosen with respect to the pore volume of the former graphite parts. The method allows the production of encapsulated graphite without increasing the disposal volume. This paper will give a short overview of characterisation results of different irradiated graphite materials obtained at CIEMAT and in the Carbowaste project as well as the proposed methods and the actual status of the program including first results about leaching of non-radioactive IGM samples and hopefully first tendencies concerning the C-14 separation from graphite of Vandellos I by thermal treatment. Both processes, the thermal treatment as well as the IGM, have the potential to solve problems related to the management of irradiated graphite in Spain. However the methods have only been tested with different types of i-graphite and virgin graphite, respectively. Only investigations with real i-graphite from Spain will reveal whether the described methods are applicable to graphite from Vandellos I. However all partners are convinced that one of these new methods or a combination of them will lead to a feasible option to manage i-graphite in Spain on an industrial scale. (authors)

  4. Composite Materials for Hazard Mitigation of Reactive Metal Hydrides.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Joseph William; Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Sartor, George B.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Reeder, Craig L.

    2012-02-01

    In an attempt to mitigate the hazards associated with storing large quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. The composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride. Composites with vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were also polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. The composites were found to be initially effective at reducing the amount of heat released during oxidation. However, upon cycling the composites, the mitigating behavior was lost. While the polymer composites we investigated have mitigating potential and are physically robust, they undergo a chemical change upon cycling that makes them subsequently ineffective at mitigating heat release upon oxidation of the metal hydride. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the following people who participated in this project: Ned Stetson (U.S. Department of Energy) for sponsorship and support of the project. Ken Stewart (Sandia) for building the flow-through calorimeter and cycling test stations. Isidro Ruvalcaba, Jr. (Sandia) for qualitative experiments on the interaction of sodium alanate with water. Terry Johnson (Sandia) for sharing his expertise and knowledge of metal hydrides, and sodium alanate in particular. Marcina Moreno (Sandia) for programmatic assistance. John Khalil (United Technologies Research Corp) for insight into the hazards of reactive metal hydrides and real-world accident scenario experiments. Summary In an attempt to mitigate and/or manage hazards associated with storing bulk quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials (a mixture of a mitigating polymer and a metal hydride) were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. Mitigating the hazards associated with reactive metal hydrides during an accident while finding a way to keep the original capability of the active material intact during normal use has been the focus of this work. These composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride, in this case a prepared sodium alanate (chosen as a representative reactive metal hydride). It was found that the polymerization of styrene and divinyl benzene could be initiated using AIBN in toluene at 70 degC. The resulting composite materials can be either hard or brittle solids depending on the cross-linking density. Thermal decomposition of these styrene-based composite materials is lower than neat polystyrene indicating that the chemical nature of the polymer is affected by the formation of the composite. The char-forming nature of cross-linked polystyrene is low and therefore, not an ideal polymer for hazard mitigation. To obtain composite materials containing a polymer with higher char-forming potential, siloxane-based monomers were investigated. Four vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Like the styrene materials, these composite materials exhibited thermal decomposition behavior significantly different than the neat polymers. Specifically, the thermal decomposition temperature was shifted approximately 100 degC lower than the neat polymer signifying a major chemical change to the polymer network. Thermal analysis of the cycled samples was performed on the siloxane-based composite materials. It was found that after 30 cycles the siloxane-containing polymer composite material has similar TGA/DSC-MS traces as the virgin composite material indicating that the polymer is physically intact upon cycling. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride in the form of a composite material reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. This

  5. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.

    2002-02-07

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFO{trademark} exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer- coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, whereas the other set of 12 files has a spatial resolution of 0.25 degree. The remaining two ASCII data files combine all of the data from the 24 ASCII data files into 2 single generic data files. The first file has a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, and the second has a resolution of 0.25 degree. Both files also provide a grid-cell identification number and the longitude and latitude of the centerpoint of each grid cell. The 3.75-km data in this numeric data package yield an actual total carbon estimate of 42.1 Pg (1 petagram = 10{sup 15} grams) and a potential carbon estimate of 73.6 Pg; whereas the 0.25-degree data produced an actual total carbon estimate of 41.8 Pg and a total potential carbon estimate of 73.9 Pg. Fortran and SASTM access codes are provided to read the ASCII data files, and ARC/INFO and ARCVIEW command syntax are provided to import the ARC/INFO exported integer grid files. The data files and this documentation are available without charge on a variety of media and via the Internet from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC).

  6. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S

    2001-05-22

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFOTM exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer-coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, whereas the other set of 12 files has a spatial resolution of 0.25 degree. The remaining two ASCII data files combine all of the data from the 24 ASCII data files into 2 single generic data files. The first file has a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, and the second has a resolution of 0.25 degree. Both files also provide a grid-cell identification number and the longitude and latitude of the center-point of each grid cell. The 3.75-km data in this numeric data package yield an actual total carbon estimate of 42.1 Pg (1 petagram = 10{sup 15} grams) and a potential carbon estimate of 73.6 Pg; whereas the 0.25-degree data produced an actual total carbon estimate of 41.8 Pg and a total potential carbon estimate of 73.9 Pg. Fortran and SAS{trademark} access codes are provided to read the ASCII data files, and ARC/INFO and ARCVIEW command syntax are provided to import the ARC/INFO exported integer grid files. The data files and this documentation are available without charge on a variety of media and via the Internet from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC).

  7. Final Project Report: Development of Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells: Morphological Simulations and Experimental Approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wessel, Silvia; Harvey, David

    2013-06-28

    The durability of PEM fuel cells is a primary requirement for large scale commercialization of these power systems in transportation and stationary market applications that target operational lifetimes of 5,000 hours and 40,000 hours by 2015, respectively. Key degradation modes contributing to fuel cell lifetime limitations have been largely associated with the platinum-based cathode catalyst layer. Furthermore, as fuel cells are driven to low cost materials and lower catalyst loadings in order to meet the cost targets for commercialization, the catalyst durability has become even more important. While over the past few years significant progress has been made in identifying the underlying causes of fuel cell degradation and key parameters that greatly influence the degradation rates, many gaps with respect to knowledge of the driving mechanisms still exist; in particular, the acceleration of the mechanisms due to different structural compositions and under different fuel cell conditions remains an area not well understood. The focus of this project was to address catalyst durability by using a dual path approach that coupled an extensive range of experimental analysis and testing with a multi-scale modeling approach. With this, the major technical areas/issues of catalyst and catalyst layer performance and durability that were addressed are: 1. Catalyst and catalyst layer degradation mechanisms (Pt dissolution, agglomeration, Pt loss, e.g. Pt in the membrane, carbon oxidation and/or corrosion). a. Driving force for the different degradation mechanisms. b. Relationships between MEA performance, catalyst and catalyst layer degradation and operational conditions, catalyst layer composition, and structure. 2. Materials properties a. Changes in catalyst, catalyst layer, and MEA materials properties due to degradation. 3. Catalyst performance a. Relationships between catalyst structural changes and performance. b. Stability of the three-phase boundary and its effect on performance/catalyst degradation. The key accomplishments of this project are: The development of a molecular-dynamics based description of the carbon supported-Pt and ionomer system The development of a composition-based, 1D-statistical Unit Cell Performance model A modified and improved multi-pathway ORR model An extension of the existing micro-structural catalyst model to transient operation The coupling of a Pt Dissolution model to the modified ORR pathway model The Development A Semi-empirical carbon corrosion model The integration and release of an open-source forward predictive MEA performance and degradation model Completion of correlations of BOT (beginning of test) and EOT (end of test) performance loss breakdown with cathode catalyst layer composition, morphology, material properties, and operational conditions Catalyst layer durability windows and design curves A design flow path of interactions from materials properties and catalyst layer effective properties to performance loss breakdown for virgin and degraded catalyst layers In order to ensure the best possible user experience we will perform a staged release of the software leading up to the webinar scheduled in October 2013. The release schedule will be as follows (please note that the manual will be released with the beta release as direct support is provided in Stage 1): Stage 0 - Internal Ballard Release o Cross check of compilation and installation to ensure machine independence o Implement code on portable virtual machine to allow for non-UNIX use (pending) Stage 1 - Alpha Release o The model code will be made available via a GIT, sourceforge, or other repository (under discussion at Ballard) for download and installation by a small pre-selected group of users o Users will be given three weeks to install, apply, and evaluate features of the code, providing feedback on issues or software bugs that require correction prior to beta release Stage 2 - Beta Release o The model code repository is opened to the general public on a beta release concept, with a mechanism for bug tracking and feedback from a large user group o Code will be tracked and patched for any discovered bugs or relevant feedback from the user community, upon the completion of three months without a major bug submission the code will be moved to a full version release Stage 3 - Full Version Release o Code is version to revision 1.0 and that version is frozen in development/patching

  8. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David W. Mazyck; Angela Lindner; CY Wu, Rick Sheahan, Ashok Jain

    2007-06-30

    Forest products provide essential resources for human civilization, including energy and materials. In processing forest products, however, unwanted byproducts, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) are generated. The goal of this study was to develop a cost effective and reliable air pollution control system to reduce VOC and HAP emissions from pulp, paper and paperboard mills and solid wood product facilities. Specifically, this work focused on the removal of VOCs and HAPs from high volume low concentration (HVLC) gases, particularly methanol since it is the largest HAP constituent in these gases. Three technologies were developed and tested at the bench-scale: (1) A novel composite material of activated carbon coated with a photocatalyst titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) (referred to as TiO{sub 2}-coated activated carbon or TiO{sub 2}/AC), (2) a novel silica gel impregnated with nanosized TiO{sub 2} (referred to as silica-titania composites or STC), and (3) biofiltration. A pilot-scale reactor was also fabricated and tested for methanol removal using the TiO{sub 2}/AC and STC. The technical feasibility of removing methanol with TiO{sub 2}/AC was studied using a composite synthesized via a spay desiccation method. The removal of methanol consists of two consecutive operation steps: removal of methanol using fixed-bed activated carbon adsorption and regeneration of spent activated carbon using in-situ photocatalytic oxidation. Regeneration using photocatalytic oxidation employed irradiation of the TiO{sub 2} catalyst with low-energy ultraviolet (UV) light. Results of this technical feasibility study showed that photocatalytic oxidation can be used to regenerate a spent TiO{sub 2}/AC adsorbent. A TiO{sub 2}/AC adsorbent was then developed using a dry impregnation method, which performed better than the TiO{sub 2}/AC synthesized using the spray desiccation method. The enhanced performance was likely a result of the better distribution of TiO2 particles on the activated carbon surface. A method for pore volume impregnation using microwave irradiation was also developed. A commercial microwave oven (800 W) was used as the microwave source. Under 2450 MHz microwave irradiation, TTIP was quickly hydrolyzed and anatase TiO2 was formed in a short time (< 20 minutes). Due to the volumetric heating and selective heating of microwave, the solvent and by-products were quickly removed which reduced energy consumption and processing time. Activated carbon and TiO{sub 2}/AC were also tested for the removal of hydrogen sulfide, which was chosen as the representative total reduced sulfur (TRS) species. The BioNuchar AC support itself was a good H{sub 2}S remover. After coating TiO{sub 2} by dry impregnation, H{sub 2}S removal efficiency of TiO{sub 2}/AC decreased compared with the virgin AC due to the change of surface pH. Under UV light irradiation, H{sub 2}S removal efficiency of TiO{sub 2}/AC composite doubled, and its sulfate conversion efficiency was higher than that of AC. The formation of sulfate is preferred since the sulfate can be removed from the composite by rising with water. A pilot-scale fluidized bed reactor was designed to test the efficiency of methanol oxidation with TiO{sub 2}/AC in the presence of UV light. TiO{sub 2}/AC was prepared using the spray desiccation method. The TiO{sub 2}/AC was pre-loaded with (1) methanol (equivalent to about 2%wt) and (2) methanol and water. When the TiO{sub 2}/AC loaded with methanol only was exposed to UV light for one hour in the reactor, most of the methanol remained in the carbon pores and, thus, was not oxidized. The TiO{sub 2}/AC loaded with methanol and water desorbed about 2/3 of the methanol from its pores during fluidization, however, only a small portion of this desorbed methanol was oxidized. A biofilter system employing biological activated carbon was developed for methanol removal. The biofilter contained a mixed packing with Westvaco BioNuchar granular activated carbon, perlite, Osmocote slow release ammonium nitrate pellets, and