National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for uus kr xe

  1. Metal-organic frameworks for Xe/Kr separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, Patrick J.; Farha, Omar K.; Broadbelt, Linda J.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Bae, Youn-Sang

    2014-07-22

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) materials are provided and are selectively adsorbent to xenon (Xe) over another noble gas such as krypton (Kr) and/or argon (Ar) as a result of having framework voids (pores) sized to this end. MOF materials having pores that are capable of accommodating a Xe atom but have a small enough pore size to receive no more than one Xe atom are desired to preferentially adsorb Xe over Kr in a multi-component (Xe--Kr mixture) adsorption method. The MOF material has 20% or more, preferably 40% or more, of the total pore volume in a pore size range of 0.45-0.75 nm which can selectively adsorb Xe over Kr in a multi-component Xe--Kr mixture over a pressure range of 0.01 to 1.0 MPa.

  2. Metal-organic frameworks for Xe/Kr separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, Patrick J.; Farha, Omar K.; Broadbelt, Linda J.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Bae, Youn-Sang

    2013-08-27

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) materials are provided and are selectively adsorbent to xenon (Xe) over another noble gas such as krypton (Kr) and/or argon (Ar) as a result of having framework voids (pores) sized to this end. MOF materials having pores that are capable of accommodating a Xe atom but have a small enough pore size to receive no more than one Xe atom are desired to preferentially adsorb Xe over Kr in a multi-component (Xe--Kr mixture) adsorption method. The MOF material has 20% or more, preferably 40% or more, of the total pore volume in a pore size range of 0.45-0.75 nm which can selectively adsorb Xe over Kr in a multi-component Xe--Kr mixture over a pressure range of 0.01 to 1.0 MPa.

  3. Direct Observation of Xe and Kr Adsorption in a Xe-selective Microporous Metal Organic Framework

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Xianyin; Plonka, Anna M.; Banerjee, Debasis; Krishna, Rajamani; Schaef, Herbert T.; Ghose, Sanjit; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Parise, John B.

    2015-05-22

    We found that the cryogenic separation of noble gases is energy-intensive and expensive, especially when low concentrations are involved. Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) containing polarizing groups within their pore spaces are predicted to be efficient Xe/Kr solid-state adsorbents, but no experimental insights into the nature of the Xe–network interaction are available to date. Here we report a new microporous MOF (designated SBMOF-2) that is selective toward Xe over Kr under ambient conditions, with a Xe/Kr selectivity of about 10 and a Xe capacity of 27.07 wt % at 298 K. Single-crystal diffraction results show that the Xe selectivity may be attributedmore » to the specific geometry of the pores, forming cages built with phenyl rings and enriched with polar -OH groups, both of which serve as strong adsorption sites for polarizable Xe gas. The Xe/Kr separation in SBMOF-2 was investigated with experimental and computational breakthrough methods. These experiments showed that Kr broke through the column first, followed by Xe, which confirmed that SBMOF-2 has a real practical potential for separating Xe from Kr. Our calculations showed that the capacity and adsorption selectivity of SBMOF-2 are comparable to those of the best-performing unmodified MOFs such as NiMOF-74 or Co formate.« less

  4. Characterization and Modeling of Materials for Kr-Xe Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forster, Paul; Naduvalath, Balakrishnan; Czerwinski, Ken

    2015-11-16

    We sought to identify practical adsorbents for the separation of Kr from Xe through pressure swing adsorption. We spent appreciable efforts on two categories of materials: metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolites. MOFs represent a new and exciting sorbent with numerous new framework topologies and surface chemistries. Zeolites are widely used and available commercial adsorbents. We have employed a combination of gas sorption analysis to analyze gas surface interactions, computational modelling to both aid in interpreting experimental results and to predict practical adsorbents, and in-situ crystallographic studies to confirm specific experimental results.

  5. Xe/Kr Selectivity Measurements using AgZ-PAN at Various Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garn, Troy Gerry; Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy; Watson, Tony Leroy

    2015-05-01

    In preparation for planned FY-15 Xe/Kr multi-column testing, a series of experiments were performed to determine the selectivity of Xe over Kr using the silver converted mordenite-polyacrylonitrile (AgZ-PAN) sorbent. Results from these experiments will be used for parameter selection guidelines to define test conditions for Kr gas capture purity evaluations later this year. The currently configured experimental test bed was modified by installing a new cooling apparatus to permit future multi-column testing with independent column temperature control. The modified test bed will allow for multi-column testing to facilitate a Xe separation followed by a Kr separation using engineered form sorbents. Selectivity experiments were run at temperatures of 295, 250 and 220 K. Two feed gas compositions of 1000 ppmv Xe, 150 ppmv Kr in either a He or an air balance were used. AgZ-PAN sorbent selectivity was calculated using Xe and Kr capacity determinations. AgZ-PAN sorbent selectivities for Xe over Kr of 72 were calculated at room temperature (295 K) using the feed gas with a He balance and 34 using the feed gas with an air balance. As the test temperatures were decreased the selectivity of Xe over Kr also decreased due to an increase in both Xe and Kr capacities. At 220 K, the sorbent selectivities for Xe over Kr were 22 using the feed gas with a He balance and 28 using the feed gas with an air balance. The selectivity results indicate that AgZ-PAN used in the first column of a multi-column configuration will provide adequate partitioning of Xe from Kr in the tested temperature range to produce a more pure Kr end product for collection.

  6. Development and design of a multi-column experimental setup for Kr/Xe separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garn, Troy G.; Greenhalgh, Mitchell; Watson, Tony

    2014-12-01

    As a precursor to FY-15 Kr/Xe separation testing, design modifications to an existing experimental setup are warranted. The modifications would allow for multi-column testing to facilitate a Xe separation followed by a Kr separation using engineered form sorbents prepared using an INL patented process. A new cooling apparatus capable of achieving test temperatures to -40 C and able to house a newly designed Xe column was acquired. Modifications to the existing setup are being installed to allow for multi-column testing and gas constituent analyses using evacuated sample bombs. The new modifications will allow for independent temperature control for each column enabling a plethora of test conditions to be implemented. Sample analyses will be used to evaluate the Xe/Kr selectivity of the AgZ-PAN sorbent and determine the Kr purity of the effluent stream following Kr capture using the HZ-PAN sorbent.

  7. Metal-Organic Frameworks for Removal of Xe and Kr from Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jian; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Strachan, Denis M.

    2012-08-07

    Removal of Xenon (Xe) and Krypton (Kr) from in parts per million (ppm) levels were demonstrated for the first time using two well known metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), HKUST-1 and Ni/DOBDC. Results of an activated carbon were also included for comparison. Ni/DOBDC has higher Xe/Kr selectivities than those of the activated carbon. Moreover, results show that the Ni/DOBDC and HKUST-1 can selectively adsorb Xe and Kr from air even at 1000 ppm concentration. This shows a promising future for MOFs in a radioactive nuclides separation from spent fuel.

  8. Removal of I, Rn, Xe and Kr from off gas streams using PTFE membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siemer, Darryl D.; Lewis, Leroy C.

    1990-01-01

    A process for removing I, R, Xe and Kr which involves the passage of the off gas stream through a tube-in-shell assembly, whereby the tubing is a PTFE membrane which permits the selective passages of the gases for removing and isolating the gases.

  9. A Two-Column Method for the Separation of Kr and Xe from Process Off-Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jian; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Martin, Paul F.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Strachan, Denis M.

    2014-07-29

    Two metal organic framework materials were investigated to determine the removal efficiency and capacity of MOF materials for krypton recovery from air at non-cryogenic temperatures. Our two bed breakthrough measurements on NiDOBDC and a partially fluorinated FMOFCu indicate these materials can capture and separate parts per million levels of Xe and Kr from air and, with a two-bed system, separate Xe from Kr. In a two-bed system, the he removal efficiency and adsorption capacity for Kr on these two MOFs were further increased Xe was removed in the first bed. This shows a promising future for MOFs in a radioactive nuclides separation from spent fuel.

  10. Matrix effect on vibrational frequencies: Experiments and simulations for HCl and HNgCl (Ng = Kr and Xe)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalinowski, Jaroslaw; Rsnen, Markku; Lignell, Antti; Khriachtchev, Leonid; Gerber, R. Benny; Department of Physical Chemistry, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904, Israel and Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697

    2014-03-07

    We study the environmental effect on molecules embedded in noble-gas (Ng) matrices. The experimental data on HXeCl and HKrCl in Ng matrices is enriched. As a result, the H?Xe stretching bands of HXeCl are now known in four Ng matrices (Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe), and HKrCl is now known in Ar and Kr matrices. The order of the H?Xe stretching frequencies of HXeCl in different matrices is ?(Ne) < ?(Xe) < ?(Kr) < ?(Ar), which is a non-monotonous function of the dielectric constant, in contrast to the classical order observed for HCl: ?(Xe) < ?(Kr) < ?(Ar) < ?(Ne). The order of the H?Kr stretching frequencies of HKrCl is consistently ?(Kr) < ?(Ar). These matrix effects are analyzed theoretically by using a number of quantum chemical methods. The calculations on these molecules (HCl, HXeCl, and HKrCl) embedded in single Ng{sup ?} layer cages lead to very satisfactory results with respect to the relative matrix shifts in the case of the MP4(SDQ) method whereas the B3LYP-D and MP2 methods fail to fully reproduce these experimental results. The obtained order of frequencies is discussed in terms of the size available for the Ng hydrides in the cages, probably leading to different stresses on the embedded molecule. Taking into account vibrational anharmonicity produces a good agreement of the MP4(SDQ) frequencies of HCl and HXeCl with the experimental values in different matrices. This work also highlights a number of open questions in the field.

  11. Multi-Column Experimental Test Bed for Xe/Kr Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy; Garn, Troy Gerry; Welty, Amy Keil; Lyon, Kevin Lawrence; Watson, Tony Leroy

    2015-08-31

    Previous research studies have shown that INL-developed engineered form sorbents are capable of capturing both Kr and Xe from various composite gas streams. The previous experimental test bed provided single column testing for capacity evaluations over a broad temperature range. To advance research capabilities, the employment of an additional column to study selective capture of target species to provide a defined final gas composition for waste storage was warranted. The second column addition also allows for compositional analyses of the final gas product to provide for final storage determinations. The INL krypton capture system was modified by adding an additional adsorption column in order to create a multi-column test bed. The purpose of this modification was to investigate the separation of xenon from krypton supplied as a mixed gas feed. The extra column was placed in a Stirling Ultra-low Temperature Cooler, capable of controlling temperatures between 190 and 253K. Additional piping and valves were incorporated into the system to allow for a variety of flow path configurations. The new column was filled with the AgZ-PAN sorbent which was utilized as the capture medium for xenon while allowing the krypton to pass through. The xenon-free gas stream was then routed to the cryostat filled with the HZ-PAN sorbent to capture the krypton at 191K. Selectivities of xenon over krypton were determined using the new column to verify the system performance and to establish the operating conditions required for multi-column testing. Results of these evaluations verified that the system was operating as designed and also demonstrated that AgZ-PAN exhibits excellent selectivity for xenon over krypton in air at or near room temperature. Two separation tests were performed utilizing a feed gas consisting of 1000 ppmv xenon and 150 ppmv krypton with the balance being made up of air. The AgZ-PAN temperature was held at 295 or 253K while the HZ-PAN was held at 191K for both tests. The effluent from the AgZ-PAN column was monitored via GC-TCD during the tests with no xenon being observed exiting the column during either test. Samples from each column were taken via evacuated sample bombs and were analyzed by GC-MS analysis. The results demonstrated the ability to separate xenon from krypton from a mixed gas feed utilizing the new multi-column system.

  12. Methane activation using Kr and Xe in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Sungkwon; Lee, Dae Hoon Kim, Kwan-Tae; Kang, Woo Seok; Song, Young-Hoon

    2014-10-15

    Methane has interested many researchers as a possible new energy source, but the high stability of methane causes a bottleneck in methane activation, limiting its practical utilization. To determine how to effectively activate methane using non-thermal plasma, the conversion of methane is measured in a planar-type dielectric barrier discharge reactor using three different noble gases—Ar, Kr, and Xe—as additives. In addition to the methane conversion results at various applied voltages, the discharge characteristics such as electron temperature and electron density were calculated through zero-dimensional calculations. Moreover, the threshold energies of excitation and ionization were used to distinguish the dominant particle for activating methane between electrons, excited atoms, and ionized atoms. From the experiments and calculations, the selection of the additive noble gas is found to affect not only the conversion of methane but also the selectivity of product gases even under similar electron temperature and electron density conditions.

  13. Theoretical investigation of HNgNH{sub 3}{sup +} ions (Ng = He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Kunqi; Sheng, Li

    2015-04-14

    The equilibrium geometries, harmonic frequencies, and dissociation energies of HNgNH{sub 3}{sup +} ions (Ng = He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) were investigated using the following method: Becke-3-parameter-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP), Boese-Matrin for Kinetics (BMK), second-order Mller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and coupled-cluster with single and double excitations as well as perturbative inclusion of triples (CCSD(T)). The results indicate that HHeNH{sub 3}{sup +}, HArNH{sub 3}{sup +}, HKrNH{sub 3}{sup +}, and HXeNH{sub 3}{sup +} ions are metastable species that are protected from decomposition by high energy barriers, whereas the HNeNH{sub 3}{sup +} ion is unstable because of its relatively small energy barrier for decomposition. The bonding nature of noble-gas atoms in HNgNH{sub 3}{sup +} was also analyzed using the atoms in molecules approach, natural energy decomposition analysis, and natural bond orbital analysis.

  14. Mutual neutralization of atomic rare-gas cations (Ne{sup +}, Ar{sup +}, Kr{sup +}, Xe{sup +}) with atomic halide anions (Cl{sup −}, Br{sup −}, I{sup −})

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shuman, Nicholas S.; Miller, Thomas M.; Viggiano, Albert A.; Johnsen, Rainer

    2014-01-28

    We report thermal rate coefficients for 12 reactions of rare gas cations (Ne{sup +}, Ar{sup +}, Kr{sup +}, Xe{sup +}) with halide anions (Cl{sup −}, Br{sup −}, I{sup −}), comprising both mutual neutralization (MN) and transfer ionization. No rate coefficients have been previously reported for these reactions; however, the development of the Variable Electron and Neutral Density Attachment Mass Spectrometry technique makes it possible to measure the difference of the rate coefficients for pairs of parallel reactions in a Flowing Afterglow-Langmuir Probe apparatus. Measurements of 18 such combinations of competing reaction pairs yield an over-determined data set from which a consistent set of rate coefficients of the 12 MN reactions can be deduced. Unlike rate coefficients of MN reactions involving at least one polyatomic ion, which vary by at most a factor of ∼3, those of the atom-atom reactions vary by at least a factor 60 depending on the species. It is found that the rate coefficients involving light rare-gas ions are larger than those for the heavier rare-gas ions, but the opposite trend is observed in the progression from Cl{sup −} to I{sup −}. The largest rate coefficient is 6.5 × 10{sup −8} cm{sup 3} s{sup −1} for Ne{sup +} with I{sup −}. Rate coefficients for Ar{sup +}, Kr{sup +}, and Xe{sup +} reacting with Br{sub 2}{sup −} are also reported.

  15. Cray XE Documentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cray XE Documentation Cray XE Documentation Last edited: 2014-01-22 15:12:50

  16. XeCl avalanche discharge laser employing Ar as a diluent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, R.C.

    1979-10-10

    A XeCl avalanche discharge exciplex laser which uses a gaseous lasing starting mixture of: 0.2 to 0.4% chlorine donor/2.5% to 10% Xe/97.3% to 89.6% Ar) is provided. The chlorine donor normally comprises HCl but can also comprise CCl/sub 4/ BCl/sub 3/. Use of Ar as a diluent gas reduces operating pressures over other rare gas halide lasers to near atmospheric pressure, increases output lasing power of the XeCl avalanche discharge laser by 30% to exceed KrF avalanche discharge lasing outputs, and is less expensive to operate.

  17. Intel® Advisor XE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advisor XE 2013 Threading Assistant Copyright© 2012, Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. *Other brands and names are the property of their respective owners. Simplify and Speed Threading Design Intel ® Advisor XE - Threading Assistant The Challenge of Parallel Design: * Need to implement to measure performance * Implementation is time consuming * Disrupts regular product development * Testing difficult without tools Intel Advisor XE Separates Design & Implementation * Fast exploration

  18. Intel® Inspector XE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inspector XE 2013 Memory Checker Thread Checker Static Analysis Pointer Checker Copyright© 2012, Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. *Other brands and names are the property of their respective owners. Dynamic Analysis Memory Errors Static Analysis Code & Security Errors Deliver More Reliable Applications Intel ® Inspector XE and Intel ® Parallel Studio XE family of suites 2 Find errors earlier with less effort Threading Errors Static Analysis & Pointer Checker are only available

  19. Using the Cray XE6

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using the Cray XE6 February 7, 2011 Presented by NERSC, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Cray, Inc. February 7-8, 2011, Oakland, CA The Cray XE6 Workshop will cover Day 1: An introduction to using modern supercomputers with an emphasis on the Cray XE6, including an introduction to thread programming with OpenMP. Day 2: Intermmediate instruction on effective and efficient use of the Cray XE6. Intended Audience The workshop is aimed at both new and intermediate users of the Cray X line of

  20. Milestone Report - M4FT-15OR03120218 - A Literature Search on the Effects of the Decay of 85Kr to 85Rb on Long-term Storage Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruffey, Stephanie H.; Strachan, Denis M.; Jubin, Robert Thomas; Spencer, Barry B.

    2015-10-01

    Reprocessing of UNF that has been out of the reactor for less than about 50 y requires the removal of 85Kr from the process off-gas streams. This is needed despite the relatively small amount of that isotope in the combined Xe and Kr inventory (Table 1). The decay of 85Kr to 85Rb presents challenges to the materials that will potentially be used to remove and store the Kr recovered from the off-gas. To address some of these problems, a thorough literature survey was completed, and the results of that analysis are summarized in this document.

  1. Probing the photochemistry of chemisorbed oxygen on TiO2(110) with Kr and other co-adsorbates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrik, Nikolay G.; Kimmel, Gregory A.

    2014-02-14

    Weakly bound (physisorbed) atoms and molecules such as Ar, Kr, Xe, CO, CH4, CH3OH, CO2 and N2 are used to probe the photochemical interactions of O2 on rutile TiO2(110). UV irradiation of chemisorbed O2 along with the physisorbed probe species leads to photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) of Ar, Kr, CO, CH4 and N2. Without co-adsorbed O2, the PSD yields of the probe species are very low or not observed. No PSD was observed for CO2, N2O, CH3OH and the PSD yield for Xe is very low compared to the other probe atoms or molecules. The angular distribution of the photo-desorbing Kr, which is broad and cosine, is quite different from the O2 PSD angular distribution, which is sharply peaked along the surface normal. The Kr PSD yields increase with increasing coverage of Kr and of chemisorbed O2. We propose a mechanism for the observed phenomena where the chemisorbed O2 serves as photoactive center, excited via electronic excitations (electrons and/or holes) created in the TiO2 substrate by UV photon irradiation. The photo-excited O2 may transfer its energy to neighboring co-adsorbed atom or molecule resulting in desorption of the latter. Simple momentum transfer considerations suggest that heavier adsorbates (like Xe) and adsorbates with higher binding energy (like CO2) should desorb less efficiently according to the proposed mechanism. Various forms of chemisorbed O2 appeared photoactive in such stimulated desorption of Kr atoms: molecular anions (O22-, O2-), adatoms (Oa), and others. The observed phenomenon provides a new tool for study of photocatalysis.

  2. Xe-135 Production from Cf-252

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. A. McGrath; T. P. Houghton; J. K. Pfeiffer; R. K. Hague

    2012-03-01

    135Xe is a good indicator that fission has occurred and is a valuable isotope that helps enforce the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Due to its rather short half life and minimal commercial interest, there are no known sources where 135Xe can be purchased. Readily available standards of this isotope for calibrating collection and analytical techniques would be very useful. 135Xe can be produced in the fissioning of actinide isotopes, or by neutron capture on 134Xe. Since the neutron capture cross section of 134Xe is 3 mB, neutron capture is a low yield, though potentially useful, production route. 135Xe is also produced by spontaneous fission of 252Cf. 252Cf has a spontaneous fission rate of about 6 x 1011 s-1g-1. The cumulative yield from the spontaneous fission of 252Cf is 4.19%; and the competing neutron capture reaction that depletes 135Xe in thermal reactor systems is negligible because the neutron capture cross-section is low for fast fission neutrons. At the INL, scientists have previously transported fission products from an electroplated 252Cf thin source for the measurement of nuclear data of short-lived fission products using a technique called He-Jet collection. We have applied a similar system to the collection of gaseous 135Xe, in order to produce valuable standards of this isotope.

  3. {sup 85}Kr induced global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakharov, V.I.

    1996-12-31

    It`s well known that the trace atmospheric constituent as {sup 85}Kr is at present about 10{sup 6} cm{sup {minus}3} and increasing considerably (twice every 8--10 years) as a result of nuclear fuel utilization. This paper presents the model of influence of {sup 85}Kr accumulation in the earth atmosphere on climate perturbation and global warming. The process of increasing the concentrations in the troposphere due to the anthropogenic emission of {sup 85}Kr and its radioactive decay is analyzed, based on master kinetic equations. Results indicate that anthropogenic emissions contributing to the total equilibrium concentration of tropospheric ions due to {sup 85}Kr is about equal to the natural level of tropospheric ions. The influence of atmospheric electricity on the transformation between water vapor and clouds which result in an increase in the concentration of ions in troposphere is investigated. The paper shows that the process of anthropogenic accumulation of {sup 85}Kr in the troposphere at present rate up to 2005--2010 increases the mean of the dew-point temperature several degrees on the global scale. Relevant change of height for the lower level of clouds has been obtained. Positive feedback between the process of warming of the lower atmosphere and the concentration of tropospheric ions has been considered.

  4. High energy XeBr electric discharge laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Robert C.; Scott, Peter B.

    1981-01-01

    A high energy XeBr laser for producing coherent radiation at 282 nm. The XeBr laser utilizes an electric discharge as the excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HBr is used as the halogen donor which undergoes harpooning reactions with Xe.sub.M * to form XeBr*.

  5. High energy XeBr electric discharge laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, R.C.; Scott, P.B.

    A high energy XeBr laser for producing coherent radiation at 282 nm is disclosed. The XeBr laser utilizes an electric discharge as the excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HBr, is used as the halogen donor which undergoes harpooning reactions with Xe/sub M/ to form XeBr.

  6. Analysis of 125Xe electron–photon coincidence decay

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Klingberg, Franziska J.; Biegalski, Steven R.; Prinke, Amanda; Haas, Derek A.; Lowrey, Justin D.

    2015-10-26

    In this study, as part of the verification component of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), environmental gas samples originating from nuclear fission are analyzed for the presence of 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe, and 135Xe. In this work, the non-traditional radioxenon isotope 125Xe was investigated. The isotope was produced as an isotopically pure sample via neutron activation of 124Xe at the University of Texas at Austin Nuclear Engineering Teaching Lab’s TRIGA MARK II Reactor. The sample was then measured using a HPGe detector as well as an ARSA-style β–γ coincidence detector. Potential sources and sensitivities for production of 125Xe are also consideredmore » for relevance to the CTBT verification mission.« less

  7. Xenon in the protoplanetary disk (PPD-XE)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marti, K.; Mathew, K. J.

    2015-06-18

    Relationships among solar system Xe components as observed in the solar wind (SW), in planetary atmospheres and in meteorites are investigated using isotopic correlations. The term PPD-Xe is used for components inferred to have been present in the molecular cloud material that formed the protoplanetary disk (PPD). The evidence of the lack of simple relationships between terrestrial atmospheric Xe and solar or meteoritic components is confirmed. Xe isotopic correlations indicate a heterogeneous PPD composition with variable mixing ratios of the nucleosynthetic component Xe-HL. Solar Xe represents a bulk PPD component, and the isotopic abundances did not change from the timemore » of incorporation into the interior of Mars, through times of regolith implantations to the present.« less

  8. Hydration of Kr(aq) in dilute and concentrated solutions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chaudhari, Mangesh I.; Sabo, Dubravko; Pratt, Lawrence R.; Rempe, Susan B.

    2014-10-13

    Molecular dynamics simulations of water with both multi-Kr and single Kr atomic solutes are carried out to implement quasi-chemical theory evaluation of the hydration free energy of Kr(aq). This approach obtains free energy differences reflecting Kr–Kr interactions at higher concentrations. Those differences are negative changes in hydration free energies with increasing concentrations at constant pressure. The changes are due to a slight reduction of packing contributions in the higher concentration case. The observed Kr–Kr distributions, analyzed with the extrapolation procedure of Krüger et al., yield a modestly attractive osmotic second virial coefficient, B2 ≈ -60 cm3/mol. Moreover, the thermodynamic analysismore » interconnecting these two approaches shows that they are closely consistent with each other, providing support for both approaches.« less

  9. Hanford Site - 100-KR-4 | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    KR-4 Hanford Site - 100-KR-4 July 1, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis US Department of Energy Groundwater Database Groundwater Master Report InstallationName, State: Hanford Site, WA Responsible DOE Office: Office of Environmental Management Plume Name: 100-KR-4 Remediation Contractor: CHPRC PBS Number: 30 Report Last Updated: July 2014 with CY2013 data Contaminants Halogenated VOCs/SVOCs Present?: Yes VOC Name Concentration (ppb) Regulatory Driver Cleanup Requirement TCE 8.3 Yes 5 (DWS) Fuel Present? No

  10. High energy KrCl electric discharge laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Robert C. (Santa Fe, NM); Scott, Peter B. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    A high energy KrCl laser for producing coherent radiation at 222 nm. Output energies on the order of 100 mJ per pulse are produced utilizing a discharge excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions, thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HCl is used as a halogen donor which undergoes a harpooning reaction with metastable Kr.sub.M * to form KrCl.

  11. Xe and Ar nanobubbles in Al studied by photoemission spectroscopy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Xe and Ar bombardment is observed by low energy electron diffraction, but this does not ... Road, Indore 452001, Madhya Pradesh (India) (India) Publication Date: 2008-03-01 OSTI ...

  12. Origin of anomalous Xe-H in nanodiamond stardust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kratz, K. L.; Farouqi, K.; Hallmann, O.; Pfeiffer, B.; Ott, U.

    2014-05-09

    Still today, the nucleosynthesis origin of Xe-H in presolar nanodiamonds is far from understood. Historically possible explanations were proposed by a secondary neutron-burst process occurring in the He- or C/O-shells of a type-II supernova (SN-II), which are, however, not fully convincing in terms of modern nucleosynthesis conditions. Therefore, we have investigated Xe isotopic abundance features that may be diagnostic for different versions of a classical, primary r-process in high-entropy-wind (HEW) ejecta of core-collapse SN-II. We report here on parameter tests for non-standard r-process variants, by varying electron abundances (Y{sub e}), ranges of entropies (S) and expansion velocities (V{sub exp}) with their correlated neutron-freezeout times (?(freeze)) and temperatures (T{sub 9}(freeze)). From this study, we conclude that a best fi to the measured Xe-H abundance ratios {sup i}Xe/{sup 136}Xe can be obtained with the high-S main component of a cold r-process variant.

  13. Driving photochemistry by clustering: The ICl-Xe case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glodic, Pavle; Kartakoullis, Andreas; Kitsopoulos, Theofanis N.; Farnik, Michal; Samartzis, Peter C.

    2012-10-21

    We present slice imaging data demonstrating the influence of clustering on the photodissociation dynamics of a diatomic molecule: iodine monochloride (ICl) was dissociated at 235 nm in He and Xe seed gasses, probing both Cl and I photofragment energy and angular distributions. We observe that the kinetic energy releases of both Cl and I fragments change from He to Xe seeding. For Cl fragments, the seeding in Xe increases the kinetic energy release of some Cl fragments with a narrow kinetic energy distribution, and leads to some fragments with rather broad statistical distribution falling off exponentially from near-zero energies up to about 2.5 eV. Iodine fragment distribution changes even more dramatically from He to Xe seeding: sharp features essentially disappear and a broad distribution arises reaching to about 2.5 eV. Both these observations are rationalized by a simple qualitative cluster model assuming ICl dissociation inside larger xenon clusters and 'on surface' of smaller Xe species.

  14. New Features of the Hopper XE6 - Differences from Franklin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Features of the Hopper XE6 New Features of the Hopper XE6 - Differences from Franklin While the Franklin and Hopper systems are both have similar programming environments and user software, there are some key architectural differences between the two systems. This page describes those differences and how they may improve your productivity. More Cores per Node and Multiple Sockets per Node Hopper has a total of 24 cores on each node. With more cores per node, you may want to explore adding

  15. Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay in 136Xe with EXO-200...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay in 136Xe with EXO-200 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay in 136Xe with EXO-200 Authors: Auger, M. ;...

  16. Milestone Report - M41SW030910 - Test Plan for Kr Loaded Zeolite...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Milestone Report - M41SW030910 - Test Plan for Kr Loaded Zeolite Samples Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Milestone Report - M41SW030910 - Test Plan for Kr Loaded Zeolite ...

  17. Xe capillary target for laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inoue, Takahiro; Okino, Hideyasu; Nica, Petru Edward; Amano, Sho; Miyamoto, Shuji; Mochizuki, Takayasu

    2007-10-15

    A cryogenic Xe jet system with an annular nozzle has been developed in order to continuously fast supply a Xe capillary target for generating a laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The cooling power of the system was evaluated to be 54 W, and the temperature stability was {+-}0.5 K at a cooling temperature of about 180 K. We investigated experimentally the influence of pressure loss inside an annular nozzle on target formation by shortening the nozzle length. Spraying caused by cavitation was mostly suppressed by mitigating the pressure loss, and a focused jet was formed. Around a liquid-solid boundary, a solid-Xe capillary target (100/70 {mu}m {phi}) was formed with a velocity of {<=}0.01 m/s. Laser-plasma EUV generation was tested by focusing a Nd:YAG laser beam on the target. The results suggested that an even thinner-walled capillary target is required to realize the inertial confinement effect.

  18. Kr Ion Irradiation Study of the Depleted-Uranium Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Gan; D. Keiser; B. Miller; M. Kirk; J. Rest; T. Allen; D. Wachs

    2010-12-01

    Fuel development for the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor program is tasked with the development of new low-enriched uranium nuclear fuels that can be employed to replace existing highly enriched uranium fuels currently used in some research reactors throughout the world. For dispersion-type fuels, radiation stability of the fuel/cladding interaction product has a strong impact on fuel performance. Three depleted uranium alloys are cast for the radiation stability studies of the fuel/cladding interaction product using Kr ion irradiation to investigate radiation damage from fission products. SEM analysis indicates the presence of the phases of interest: U(Si, Al)3, (U, Mo)(Si, Al)3, UMo2Al20, U6Mo4Al43, and UAl4. Irradiations of TEM disc samples were conducted with 500 keV Kr ions at 200C to ion doses up to 2.5 1015 ions/cm2 (~ 10 dpa) with an Kr ion flux of 1012 ions/cm2-sec (~ 4.0 10-3 dpa/sec). Microstructural evolution of the phases relevant to fuel-cladding interaction products was investigated using transmission electron microscopy.

  19. Excess /sup 129/Xe in terrestrial samples: A non-primordial hypothesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caffee, M.W.; Hudson, G.B.

    1987-03-01

    Excesses of /sup 129/Xe relative to the isotopic composition in air are observed in some terrestrial samples. Traditionally these /sup 129/Xe excesses have been thought to be related to /sup 129/I that was present in abundance in the early solar system. We propose an alternative hypothesis to explain terrestrial /sup 129/Xe excesses based on the production of /sup 129/I from the spontaneous fission of /sup 238/U.

  20. NEUTRON REACTOR HAVING A Xe$sup 135$ SHIELD

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stanton, H.E.

    1957-10-29

    Shielding for reactors of the type in which the fuel is a chain reacting liquid composition comprised essentially of a slurry of fissionable and fertile material suspended in a liquid moderator is discussed. The neutron reflector comprises a tank containing heavy water surrounding the reactor, a shield tank surrounding the reflector, a gamma ray shield surrounding said shield tank, and a means for conveying gaseous fission products, particularly Xe/sup 135/, from the reactor chamber to the shield tank, thereby serving as a neutron shield by capturing the thermalized neutrons that leak outwardly from the shield tank.

  1. Observation of Two-Neutrino Double-Beta Decay in Xe-136 with EXO-200

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Observation of Two-Neutrino Double-Beta Decay in Xe-136 with EXO-200 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Observation of Two-Neutrino Double-Beta Decay in Xe-136 with EXO-200 We report the observation of two-neutrino double-beta decay in {sup 136}Xe with T{sub 1/2} = 2.11 {+-} 0.04(stat) {+-} 0.21(syst) x 10{sup 21} yr. This second-order process, predicted by the standard model, has been observed for several nuclei but not for {sup 136}Xe. The

  2. Periodicity, Electronic Structures, and Bonding of Gold Tetrahalides [AuX4](-) (X = F, CI, Br, I, At, Uus)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wan-Lu; Li, Yong; Xu, Congqiao; Wang, Xue B.; Vorpagel, Erich R.; Li, Jun

    2015-12-07

    Systematic theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed to understand the periodicity and electronic structures of trivalent-gold halides using gold tetrahalides [AuX4]⁻ anions (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, Uus). The [AuX4]⁻ (X = Cl, Br, I) anions were produced in gas phase and their negative-ion photoelectron spectra were obtained, which exhibited rich and well-resolved spectral peaks. We calculated the adiabatic as well as vertical electron detachment energies using density functional methods with scalar and spin-orbit coupling relativistic effects. The simulated photoelectron spectra based on these calculations are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Our results show that the trivalent Au(III) oxidation state becomes progressively less stable while Au(I) is preferred when the halides become heavier along the Period Table. This trend reveals that the oxidation state of metals in complexes can be manipulated through ligand design

  3. Uv-preionized ArF and KrF excimer lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, S.; Cailai, Y.; Alrong, Y.C.D.

    1981-11-01

    Experimental investigations of UV-preionized ArF and KrF excimer lasers are reported. The output laser energies of 105 mJ for ArF and 185 mJ for KrF are obtained. Effects of various parameters on the laser characteristics are discussed.

  4. Demonstration of a 13 keV Kr K-shell X-Ray Source at the National...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Demonstration of a 13 keV Kr K-shell X-Ray Source at the National Ignition Facility Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Demonstration of a 13 keV Kr K-shell ...

  5. 12.6 keV Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density Physics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density Physics Experiments A high contrast 12.6 keV Kr Kalpha source has been demonstrated on the petawatt-class Titan laser facility. ...

  6. GraXe, graphene and xenon for neutrinoless double beta decay searches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gmez-Cadenas, J.J.; Martn-Albo, J.; Monrabal, F.; Vidal, J. Muoz [Instituto de Fsica Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC and Universitat de Valencia, Calle Catedrtico Jos Beltrn, 2, 46980 Valencia (Spain); Guinea, F. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM), CSIC, Calle Sor Juana Ins de la Cruz, 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Fogler, M.M. [Department of Physics, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Katsnelson, M.I., E-mail: gomez@mail.cern.ch, E-mail: paco.guinea@icmm.csic.es, E-mail: mfogler@ucsd.edu, E-mail: katsnel@sci.kun.nl, E-mail: justo.martin-albo@ific.uv.es, E-mail: francesc.monrabal@ific.uv.es, E-mail: jmunoz@ific.uv.es [Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heijendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2012-02-01

    We propose a new detector concept, GraXe (to be pronounced as grace), to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 136}XE. GraXe combines a popular detection medium in rare-event searches, liquid xenon, with a new, background-free material, graphene. In our baseline design of GraXe, a sphere made of graphene-coated titanium mesh and filled with liquid xenon (LXe) enriched in the {sup 136}XE isotope is immersed in a large volume of natural LXe instrumented with photodetectors. Liquid xenon is an excellent scintillator, reasonably transparent to its own light. Graphene is transparent over a large frequency range, and impermeable to the xenon. Event position could be deduced from the light pattern detected in the photosensors. External backgrounds would be shielded by the buffer of natural LXe, leaving the ultra-radiopure internal volume virtually free of background. Industrial graphene can be manufactured at a competitive cost to produce the sphere. Enriching xenon in the isotope {sup 136}XE is easy and relatively cheap, and there is already near one ton of enriched xenon available in the world (currently being used by the EXO, KamLAND-Zen and NEXT experiments). All the cryogenic know-how is readily available from the numerous experiments using liquid xenon. An experiment using the GraXe concept appears realistic and affordable in a short time scale, and its physics potential is enormous.

  7. Microstructure evolution in Xe-irradiated UO2 at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.F. He; J. Pakarinen; M.A. Kirk; J. Gan; A.T. Nelson; X.-M. Bai; A. El-Azab; T.R. Allen

    2014-07-01

    In situ Transmission Electron Microscopy was conducted for single crystal UO2 to understand the microstructure evolution during 300 keV Xe irradiation at room temperature. The dislocation microstructure evolution was shown to occur as nucleation and growth of dislocation loops at low irradiation doses, followed by transformation to extended dislocation segments and tangles at higher doses. Xe bubbles with dimensions of 1-2 nm were observed after room-temperature irradiation. Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy indicated that UO2 remained stoichiometric under room temperature Xe irradiation.

  8. Workshop on Cray XE6 User Experiences September 27-28

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Workshop on Cray XE6 User Experiences September 27-28 Workshop on Cray XE6 User Experiences September 27-28 July 11, 2011 by Francesca Verdier Sandia National Laboratory and Cray Inc are hosting a Workshop on Cray XE6 User Experiences in Albuquerque, New Mexico, on September 27 -28, 2011. The workshop will focus on: Node performance including how NUMA affects node performance, Hybrid OpenMP-MPI performance and Scaling to large core counts Attendance at the workshop is limited and you are

  9. A XeCl laser with a controlled radiation pulse shape

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorov, A I

    2009-04-30

    The pump parameters of a three-contour excitation system are studied in a gas-discharge excimer XeCl laser using a Ne-Xe-HCl mixture. A computation model is developed for finding the parameters of multi-contour excitation systems. A setup incorporating a three-contour system for excitation and automatic UV preionisation is designed, which provides multipulse generation of 65-ns, 26-mJ laser pulses at the laser efficiency of 1%. It is shown that generation of short radiation pulses of duration 7 ns and relatively long pulses of duration 65 ns in the multipulse generation regime is possible in the excitation system under study in Xe:HCl = 20:1 mixtures containing neon as buffer gas. (lasers)

  10. Apparatus for improving the working time of the XeBr laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sander, R.K.; Balog, G.; Seegmiller, E.T.

    1980-03-04

    In XeBr lasers which make use of HBr as the source of bromine, it has been found that the working life of the laser is limited because of dissociation of the HBr in the lasing region to form H/sub 2/ and Br/sub 2/. Accordingly, apparatus is disclosed for substantially improving the working time of the XeBr laser wherein means are provided for recombining H/sub 2/ and Br/sub 2/ into HBr and for continuously circulating the gaseous working medium from the lasing region through the recombination region.

  11. Disproportionation of Ag+ by pressure-and heat-induced Xe insertion into

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ag-natrolite (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Disproportionation of Ag+ by pressure-and heat-induced Xe insertion into Ag-natrolite Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Disproportionation of Ag+ by pressure-and heat-induced Xe insertion into Ag-natrolite Authors: Seoung, D ; Cynn, H ; Park, C ; Choi, K Y ; Blom, D A ; Evans, W J ; Kao, C C ; Vogt, T ; Lee, Y Publication Date: 2014-01-13 OSTI Identifier: 1158896 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-648696 DOE Contract Number:

  12. Search for Majoron-emitting modes of double-beta decay of Xe 136 with

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    EXO-200 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Search for Majoron-emitting modes of double-beta decay of Xe 136 with EXO-200 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Search for Majoron-emitting modes of double-beta decay of Xe 136 with EXO-200 Authors: Albert, J. B. ; Auty, D. J. ; Barbeau, P. S. ; Beauchamp, E. ; Beck, D. ; Belov, V. ; Benitez-Medina, C. ; Breidenbach, M. ; Brunner, T. ; Burenkov, A. ; Cao, G. F. ; Chambers, C. ; Chaves, J. ; Cleveland, B. ; Coon, M. ; Craycraft, A. ;

  13. Apparatus for improving the working time of the XeBr laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sander, Robert K.; Balog, George; Seegmiller, Emma T.

    1982-01-01

    In XeBr lasers which make use of HBr as the source of bromine, it has been found that the working life of the laser is limited because of dissociation of the HBr in the lasing region to form H.sub.2 and Br.sub.2. Accordingly, apparatus is disclosed for substantially improving the working time of the XeBr laser wherein means are provided for recombining H.sub.2 and Br.sub.2 into HBr and for continuously circulating the gaseous working medium from the lasing region through the recombination region. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

  14. KrF amplifier design issues and application to ICF system design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, J.A.; Allen, G.R.; Berggren, R.R.; Czuchlewski, S.J.; Harris, D.B.; Jones, M.E.; Krohn, B.J.; Kurnit, N.A.; Leland, W.T.; Mansfield, C.; McLeod, J.; McCown, A.W.; McLeod, J.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Rose, E.A.; Rosocha, L.A.; Thomas, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has assembled an array of experimental and theoretical tools to optimize amplifier design for future KrF lasers. The next opportunity to exercise these tools is with the design of the second generation NIKE system under construction at the Naval Research Laboratory with the collaboration of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Major issues include laser physics (energy extraction in large modules with amplified spontaneous emission) and diode performance and efficiency. High efficiency and low cost are increasingly important for larger future KrF amplifiers. In this paper we present our approach to amplifier scaling and discuss the more important design considerations for large KrF amplifiers. We point out where improvements in the fundamental data base for KrF amplifiers could lead to increased confidence in performance predictions for large amplifiers, and we address the currently unresolved issues of anomalous absorption near line center and the possibility of diode instabilities for low impedance designs. Los Alamos has designed a 100-kJ KrF laser-fusion system for both direct- and indirect-drive target physics experiments using 60-kJ amplifier modules. The design of this system will be reviewed. 38 refs., 110 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Measurement of XeI and XeII velocity in the near exit plane of a low-power Hall effect thruster by light induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dancheva, Y.; Biancalana, V.; Pagano, D.; Scortecci, F.

    2013-06-15

    Near exit plane non-resonant light induced fluorescence spectroscopy is performed in a Hall effect low-power Xenon thruster at discharge voltage of 250 V and anode flow rate of 0.7 mg/s. Measurements of the axial and radial velocity components are performed, exciting the 6s{sup 2}[3/2]{sub 2}{sup o}{yields}6p{sup 2}[3/2]{sub 2} transition at 823.16 nm in XeI and the 5d[4]{sub 7/2}{yields}6p[3]{sub 5/2}{sup o} transition at 834.724 nm in XeII. No significant deviation from the thermal velocity is observed for XeI. Two most probable ion velocities are registered at a given position with respect to the thruster axis, which are mainly attributed to different areas of creation of ions inside the acceleration channel. The spatial resolution of the set-up is limited by the laser beam size (radius of the order of 0.5 mm) and the fluorescence collection optics, which have a view spot diameter of 8 mm.

  16. Residual Nuclei Production in the reaction {sup 136}Xe+ deuterium at 500 A MeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alcantara-Nunez, J. A.; Benlliure, J.; Perez-Loureiro, D.; Casarejos, E.; Fernandez Ordonez, M.; Pereira, J.; Armbruster, P.; Enqvist, T.; Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Kelic, A.; Pleskac, R.; Ricciardi, M. V.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Schmitt, C.; Yordanov, O.; Audouin, L.; Bernas, M.; Lafriaskh, A.; Stephan, C.

    2010-04-26

    More than six hundred nuclei produced in the fragmentation of {sup 136}Xe projectiles at 500 A MeV on a liquid deuterium target were identified using inverse kinematics at the GSI Fragment Separator (FRS). These data are relevant for understanding of spallation reactions.

  17. Milestone Report - M41SW030910 - Test Plan for Kr Loaded Zeolite Samples

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Milestone Report - M41SW030910 - Test Plan for Kr Loaded Zeolite Samples Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Milestone Report - M41SW030910 - Test Plan for Kr Loaded Zeolite Samples Authors: Jubin, Robert Thomas [1] ; Patton, Bradley D [1] + Show Author Affiliations ORNL Publication Date: 2010-12-01 OSTI Identifier: 1134625 Report Number(s): ORNL/LTR-2010/327 AF5805000; NEAF327 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type:

  18. FY-12 INL KR CAPTURE ACTIVITIES SUPPORTING THE OFF-GAS SIGMA TEAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy G. Garn; Mitchell R. Greenhalgh; Jack D Law

    2012-08-01

    Tasks performed this year by INL Kr capture off-gas team members can be segregated into three separate task sub-sections which include: 1) The development and testing of a new engineered form sorbent, 2) An initial NDA gamma scan effort performed on the drum containing the Legacy Kr-85 sample materials, and 3) Collaborative research efforts with PNNL involving the testing of the Ni-DOBDC MOF and an initial attempt to make powdered chalcogel material into an engineered form using our binding process. This document describes the routes to success for the three task sub-sections.

  19. 12.6 keV Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density Physics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    12.6 keV Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density Physics Experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 12.6 keV Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density...

  20. Properties of steady discharge in Ar-Kr-F2 gas mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chengen, Z.

    1981-11-01

    Some properties of Ar-Kr-F/sub 2/ laser gas mixture plasma under steady discharge conditions are computed and discussed. Both the excitation rate of the discharging electrons and the distribution of the discharge energy are discussed. The effects of fluoride gas content and impurity gas content on the discharge property are studied.

  1. REVISED AND EXTENDED ANALYSIS OF FIVE TIMES IONIZED XENON, Xe VI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallardo, M.; Raineri, M.; Reyna Almandos, J.; Pagan, C. J. B.; Abraho, R. A. E-mail: cesarpagan@fee.unicamp.br

    2015-01-01

    A capillary discharge tube was used to record the Xe spectrum in the 400-5500 Š region. A set of 243 lines of the Xe VI spectrum was observed, and 146 of them were classified for the first time. For all known lines, we calculated the weighted oscillator strengths (gf) and weighted transition probabilities (gA) using the configuration interaction in a relativistic Hartree-Fock approach. The energy matrix was calculated using energy parameters adjusted to fit the experimental energy levels. Core polarization effects were taken into account in our calculations. Experimental energy values and calculated lifetimes are also presented for a set of 88 levels. From these levels, 32 were classified for the first time and 33 had their values revised. Our analysis of the 5s5p5d and 5s5p6s configurations was extended in order to clarify discrepancies among previous works.

  2. Demonstration of a 13 keV Kr K-shell X-Ray Source at the National...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Demonstration of a 13 keV Kr K-shell X-Ray Source at the National Ignition Facility Authors: Fournier, K B ; May, M J ; Colvin, J D ; Barrios, M A ; Patterson, J R ; Regan, ...

  3. Actinide production in /sup 136/Xe bombardments of /sup 249/Cf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregorich, K.E.

    1985-08-01

    The production cross sections for the actinide products from /sup 136/Xe bombardments of /sup 249/Cf at energies 1.02, 1.09, and 1.16 times the Coulomb barrier were determined. Fractions of the individual actinide elements were chemically separated from recoil catcher foils. The production cross sections of the actinide products were determined by measuring the radiations emitted from the nuclides within the chemical fractions. The chemical separation techniques used in this work are described in detail, and a description of the data analysis procedure is included. The actinide production cross section distributions from these /sup 136/Xe + /sup 249/Cf bombardments are compared with the production cross section distributions from other heavy ion bombardments of actinide targets, with emphasis on the comparison with the /sup 136/Xe + /sup 248/Cm reaction. A technique for modeling the final actinide cross section distributions has been developed and is presented. In this model, the initial (before deexcitation) cross section distribution with respect to the separation energy of a dinuclear complex and with respect to the Z of the target-like fragment is given by an empirical procedure. It is then assumed that the N/Z equilibration in the dinuclear complex occurs by the transfer of neutrons between the two participants in the dinuclear complex. The neutrons and the excitation energy are statistically distributed between the two fragments using a simple Fermi gas level density formalism. The resulting target-like fragment initial cross section distribution with respect to Z, N, and excitation energy is then allowed to deexcite by emission of neutrons in competition with fission. The result is a final cross section distribution with respect to Z and N for the actinide products. 68 refs., 33 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Relativistic Many-body Moller-Plesset Perturbation Theory Calculations of the Energy Levels and Transition Probabilities in Na- to P-like Xe Ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vilkas, M J; Ishikawa, Y; Trabert, E

    2007-03-27

    Relativistic multireference many-body perturbation theory calculations have been performed on Xe{sup 43+}-Xe{sup 39+} ions, resulting in energy levels, electric dipole transition probabilities, and level lifetimes. The second-order many-body perturbation theory calculation of energy levels included mass shifts, frequency-dependent Breit correction and Lamb shifts. The calculated transition energies and E1 transition rates are used to present synthetic spectra in the extreme ultraviolet range for some of the Xe ions.

  5. Franklin XT4 to Hopper XE6 Katie Antypas and Helen He NERSC User Services Group

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transitioning Users from Franklin XT4 to Hopper XE6 Katie Antypas and Helen He NERSC User Services Group May 23-26, CUG 2011 2 Outline * Introduction * Hopper Early User Program * Effectively Using 24 Cores Per Node * I/O Performance * Bugs Found and Fixed * Error Messages * User Feedback * Ongoing Issues * Summary 3 Franklin and Hopper Franklin: Cray XT4 * 9,532 nodes, 38,128 cores * ~32 TFlop/s sustained * 356 TFlop/s peak Hopper: * Phase 1: Cray XT5, 668 nodes, 5,344 cores * Phase 2: Cray

  6. Probing the Geometry and Interconnectivity of Pores in Organic Aerogels Using Hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moudrakovski, Igor L.; Wang, Li Q.; Baumann, T.; Satcher, J. H.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Ratcliffe, C. I.; Ripmeester, J. A.

    2004-04-28

    Aerogels represent a class of novel open-pore materials with high surface area and nanometer pore sizes. They exhibit extremely low mass densities, low thermal conductivity, good acoustic insulation, and low dielectric constants. These materials have potential applications in catalysis, advanced separation techniques, energy storage, environmental remediation, and as insulating materials. Organic aerogels are stiffer and stronger than silica aerogels and are better insulators with higher thermal resistance. Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) aerogels are typically prepared through the base-catalyzed sol-gel polymerization of resorcinol with formaldehyde in aqueous solution to produce gels, which are then dried in supercritical CO2.1,2 The [resorcinol]/ [catalyst] (R/C) ratio of the starting sol-gel solution has been determined to be the dominant factor that affects the properties of RF aerogels. Since the unique microstructures of aerogels are responsible for their unusual properties, characterizing the detailed porous structures and correlating them with the processing parameters are vital to establish rational design principles for novel organic aerogels with tailored properties. In this communication we report the first use of hyperpolarized (HP) 129Xe NMR to probe the geometry and interconnectivity of pores in RF aerogels and to correlate these with synthetic conditions. Our work demonstrates that HP 129Xe NMR is so far the only method for accurately measuring the free volume-to-surface-area (Vg/S) ratios for soft mesoporous materials without using any geometric models.

  7. Hyperpolarized Xe-129 NMR Investigation of Ammonia Borane in Mesoporous Silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Li Q.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Autrey, Thomas; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    2009-04-23

    Hyperpolarized (HP) 129Xe NMR was used for the first time to probe the porosity for nanophase ammonium borane (AB) infused in mesoporous silica (MCM). Variable temperature HP 129Xe NMR measurements have been systematically carried out on a series of AB:MCM materials with different AB loading. Three distinct types of pore environments are clearly evident: pristine mesopores; pores coated with AB inside the meso-channels, and inter-particle spacing formed from AB aggregates outside the meso-channels. We found similarly uniform coating of AB on mesoporous silica channels with 1:2 and 1:1 AB:MCM loading (ratio of weight percent). When the loading of AB to MCM is larger than 1:1, AB starts to aggregate outside the meso-channels. Further increases in loading (? 3:1) result in the formation of partially blocked meso-channels as a result of excessive AB loading. The detailed information obtained from this study on how supported AB resides in nanoporous channels and how it evolves with the increase of AB loading is helpful for rational design of novel materials with optimal hydrogen storage and release properties.

  8. Search for 2 ν β β decay of Xe 136 to the 0 1 + excited state of Ba 136

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with the EXO-200 liquid xenon detector (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Search for 2 ν β β decay of Xe 136 to the 0 1 + excited state of Ba 136 with the EXO-200 liquid xenon detector Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on March 8, 2017 Title: Search for 2 ν β β decay of Xe 136 to the 0 1 + excited state of Ba 136 with the EXO-200 liquid xenon detector Authors: Albert, J. B. ; Auty, D. J. ; Barbeau, P. S. ; Beck, D. ; Belov, V. ;

  9. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-KR-4 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). This work plan and the attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-KR-4 operable unit. The 100-K Area consists of the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit and three source operable units. The 100-KR-4 operable unit includes all contamination found in the aquifer soils and water beneath the 100-K Area. Source operable units include facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of contamination.

  10. Demonstration of a 13 keV Kr K-shell X-Ray Source at the National Ignition

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Facility (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Demonstration of a 13 keV Kr K-shell X-Ray Source at the National Ignition Facility Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Demonstration of a 13 keV Kr K-shell X-Ray Source at the National Ignition Facility Authors: Fournier, K B ; May, M J ; Colvin, J D ; Barrios, M A ; Patterson, J R ; Regan, S P Publication Date: 2013-05-29 OSTI Identifier: 1095970 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-638276 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48

  11. Microscopic description of spherical to {gamma}-soft shape transitions in Ba and Xe nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Z. P.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Meng, J.

    2010-03-15

    The rapid transition between spherical and {gamma}-soft shapes in Ba and Xe nuclei in the mass region A>=130 is analyzed using excitation spectra and collective wave functions obtained by diagonalization of a five-dimensional Hamiltonian for quadrupole vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom, with parameters determined by constrained self-consistent relativistic mean-field calculations for triaxial shapes. The results reproduce the characteristic evolution of excitation spectra and E2 transition probabilities, and in general, a good agreement with available data is obtained. The calculated spectra display fingerprints of a second-order shape phase transition that can approximately be described by analytic solutions corresponding to the E(5) dynamical symmetry.

  12. Extreme ultraviolet spectra of highly ionized Ge, Kr and Mo emitted by imploding plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldsmith, S.; Feldman, U.; Cohen, L.; Behring, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    Spectra of highly ionized Ge, Kr and Mo in the spectral region of 10 to 80A were excited in laser-produced plasmas. The plasma was obtained by focusing the energy of the 24 laser beams of the University of Rochester Omega system on 0.4 mm diameter microballoon targets. The laser pulse duration was in the range of 0.87 to 1.09 ns, with total energy in the range of 1.8 to 2.2 kJ. The observed spectral lines include n = 2-2 transitions in the oxygen and fluorine isoelectronic sequences and n = 3 to 4 transitions in the sodium, magnesium and aluminum isoelectronic sequences. The present observations are compared with previous experimental and theoretical studies.

  13. Resonant third harmonic generation of KrF laser in Ar gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakowski, R.; Barna, A.; Suta, T.; Földes, I. B.; Bohus, J.; Szatmári, S.; Mikołajczyk, J.; Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Verona, C.; Verona Rinati, G.; Margarone, D.; Nowak, T.; and others

    2014-12-15

    Investigations of emission of harmonics from argon gas jet irradiated by 700 fs, 5 mJ pulses from a KrF laser are presented. Harmonics conversion was optimized by varying the experimental geometry and the nozzle size. For the collection of the harmonic radiation silicon and solar-blind diamond semiconductor detectors equipped with charge preamplifiers were applied. The possibility of using a single-crystal CVD diamond detector for separate measurement of the 3rd harmonic in the presence of a strong pumping radiation was explored. Our experiments show that the earlier suggested 0.7% conversion efficiency can really be obtained, but only in the case when phase matching is optimized with an elongated gas target length corresponding to the length of coherence.

  14. Measurement of the Double-Beta Decay Half-life of {sup 136}Xe in KamLAND-Zen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KamLAND-Zen Collaboration; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hanakago, H.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kato, R.; Koga, M.; Matsuda, S.; Mitsui, T.; Nakada, T.; Nakamura, K.; Obata, A.; Oki, A.; Ono, Y.; Shimizu, I.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B. D.; Yamada, S.; Yoshida, H.; Kozlov, A.; Yoshida, S.; Banks, T. I.; Detwiler, J. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Han, K.; O'Donnell, T.; Berger, B. E.; Efremenko, Y.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Enomoto, S.; Decowski, M. P.

    2012-01-23

    We present results from the KamLAND-Zen double-beta decay experiment based on an exposure of 77.6 days with 129 kg of {sup 136}Xe. The measured two-neutrino double-beta decay half-life of {sup 136}Xe is T{sup 2{nu}}{sub 1/2} = 2:38 {+-}#6; 0:02(stat)#6;{+-}0.14(syst)#2;x10{sup 21} yr, consistent with a recent measurement by EXO-200. We also obtain a lower limit for the neutrinoless double-beta decay half-life, T{sup 0{nu}}{sub 1/2} > 5.7 x#2; 10{sup 24} yr at 90% C.L.

  15. Pattern recognition techniques to reduce backgrounds in the search for the {sup 136}Xe double beta decay with gaseous TPCs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iguaz, F. J.; Cebrin, S.; Dafni, T.; Gmez, H.; Herrera, D. C.; Irastorza, I. G.; Luzon, G.; Segui, L.; Tomas, A. [Laboratorio de Fsica Nuclear y Astropartculas, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)] [Laboratorio de Fsica Nuclear y Astropartculas, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-08-08

    The observation of the neutrinoless double beta decay may provide essential information on the nature of neutrinos. Among the current experimental approaches, a high pressure gaseous TPC is an attractive option for the search of double beta decay due to its good energy resolution and the detailed topological information of each event. We present in this talk a detailed study of the ionization topology of the {sup 136}Xe double beta decay events in a High Pressure Xenon TPC, as well as that of the typical competing backgrounds. We define some observables based on graph theory concepts to develop automated discrimination algorithms. Our criteria are able to reduce the background level by about three orders of magnitude in the region of interest of the {sup 136}Xe Q{sub ??} for a signal acceptance of 40%. This result provides a quantitative assessment of the benefit of topological information offered by gaseous TPCs for double beta decay search, and proves that it is a promising feature in view of future experiments in the field. Possible ideas for further improvement in the discrimination algorithms and the dependency of these results with the gas diffusion and readout granularity will be also discussed.

  16. A performance comparison of current HPC systems: Blue Gene/Q, Cray XE6 and InfiniBand systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerbyson, Darren J.; Barker, Kevin J.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Hoisie, Adolfy

    2014-01-01

    We present here a performance analysis of three of current architectures that have become commonplace in the High Performance Computing world. Blue Gene/Q is the third generation of systems from IBM that use modestly performing cores but at large-scale in order to achieve high performance. The XE6 is the latest in a long line of Cray systems that use a 3-D topology but the first to use its Gemini interconnection network. InfiniBand provides the flexibility of using compute nodes from many vendors that can be connected in many possible topologies. The performance characteristics of each vary vastly, and the way in which nodes are allocated in each type of system can significantly impact on achieved performance. In this work we compare these three systems using a combination of micro-benchmarks and a set of production applications. In addition we also examine the differences in performance variability observed on each system and quantify the lost performance using a combination of both empirical measurements and performance models. Our results show that significant performance can be lost in normal production operation of the Cray XE6 and InfiniBand Clusters in comparison to Blue Gene/Q.

  17. Comparing the Performance of Blue Gene/Q with Leading Cray XE6 and InfiniBand Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerbyson, Darren J.; Barker, Kevin J.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Hoisie, Adolfy

    2013-01-21

    AbstractThree types of systems dominate the current High Performance Computing landscape: the Cray XE6, the IBM Blue Gene, and commodity clusters using InfiniBand. These systems have quite different characteristics making the choice for a particular deployment difficult. The XE6 uses Crays proprietary Gemini 3-D torus interconnect with two nodes at each network endpoint. The latest IBM Blue Gene/Q uses a single socket integrating processor and communication in a 5-D torus network. InfiniBand provides the flexibility of using nodes from many vendors connected in many possible topologies. The performance characteristics of each vary vastly along with their utilization model. In this work we compare the performance of these three systems using a combination of micro-benchmarks and a set of production applications. In particular we discuss the causes of variability in performance across the systems and also quantify where performance is lost using a combination of measurements and models. Our results show that significant performance can be lost in normal production operation of the Cray XT6 and InfiniBand Clusters in comparison to Blue Gene/Q.

  18. Development of laser-based resonance ionization techniques for 81-Kr and 85-Kr measurements in the geosciences, II. December 1, 1994 through December 31, 2000 reporting period. Final technical report for Grant No. DE-FG05-95ER14497

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thonnard, Norbert; McKay, Larry D.; Labotka, Theodore C.

    2001-02-05

    A facility for measurement of rare Kr-81 and Kr-85 isotope concentration in hydrogeologic samples, and isotopic composition of minute quantities of krypton and xenon from extraterrestrial samples, was established, requiring refinement of an emerging mass spectrometric-based analytical technique and securing of laboratory space and equipment. The analytical process consists of (1) collecting a groundwater sample, (2) degassing the water, (3) separating Kr from the recovered gases, (4&5) two isotopic enrichments to reduce interfering isotopes by E9, and (6) detecting the rare krypton isotope in a unique time-of-flight mass spectrometer detecting as few as 100 Kr atoms. All equipment is installed and operating, with only some additional adjustment and testing of the last step (6, above) remaining to be completed. Collaborations have been established with a number of researchers and organizations world wide, and both groundwater and extraterrestrial samples have been collected. Completion of analyses awaits full operation of step 6.

  19. Atomistic modeling of intrinsic and radiation-enhanced fission gas (Xe) diffusion in UO2 +/- x: Implications for nuclear fuel performance modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giovanni Pastore; Michael R. Tonks; Derek R. Gaston; Richard L. Williamson; David Andrs; Richard Martineau

    2014-03-01

    Based on density functional theory (DFT) and empirical potential calculations, the diffusivity of fission gas atoms (Xe) in UO2 nuclear fuel has been calculated for a range of non-stoichiometry (i.e. UO2x), under both out-of-pile (no irradiation) and in-pile (irradiation) conditions. This was achieved by first deriving expressions for the activation energy that account for the type of trap site that the fission gas atoms occupy, which includes the corresponding type of mobile cluster, the charge state of these defects and the chemistry acting as boundary condition. In the next step DFT calculations were used to estimate migration barriers and internal energy contributions to the thermodynamic properties and calculations based on empirical potentials were used to estimate defect formation and migration entropies (i.e. pre-exponentials). The diffusivities calculated for out-of-pile conditions as function of the UO2x nonstoichiometrywere used to validate the accuracy of the diffusion models and the DFT calculations against available experimental data. The Xe diffusivity is predicted to depend strongly on the UO2x non-stoichiometry due to a combination of changes in the preferred Xe trap site and in the concentration of uranium vacancies enabling Xe diffusion, which is consistent with experiments. After establishing the validity of the modeling approach, it was used for studying Xe diffusion under in-pile conditions, for which experimental data is very scarce. The radiation-enhanced Xe diffusivity is compared to existing empirical models. Finally, the predicted fission gas diffusion rates were implemented in the BISON fuel performance code and fission gas release from a Ris fuel rod irradiation experiment was simulated. 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  20. High dose Xe ion irradiation of yttria stabilized zirconia : influence of sputtering on implanted ion profile and retained damage /.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afanasyev, I. V.; Sickafus, K.

    2001-01-01

    Fully-stabilized zirconia is known as a radiation resistant material. The objective of many experinients on zirconia has been to test the susceptibility of this material to amorphization. Because zirconia exhibits high radiation tolerance, this has made very high fluence ion irradiation experiments a necessity and so, additional iiradiation-inducetl effects such as surface sputtering become important. In this paper, we present results from 340 keV Xe' irradiations of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) to fluences ranging froiri 1.10' to 1.5.1OZ1 ions/m2. No iunorphization of YSZ was observed after irradiation to even the highest ion fluences. To assess sputtering effects at high fluence, an analytical model was developed, using ion range and damage distribulions calculated using Monte Carlo simulations for ion-solid interactions. Analysis results and experimental data revealed that at high fluences, the implanted ion and damago distribution profiles are significantly modified by sputtering.

  1. Vacuum ultra-violet emission of plasma discharges with high Xe partial pressure using a cathode protective layer with high secondary electron emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Di; Song, Le; Zhang, Xiong; Kajiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-02-14

    In this work, the mechanism of the vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) emission of plasma discharges, with high Xe partial pressure and high ion-induced secondary electrons emission protective layer, is studied by measuring the VUV light emission directly and comparing it with two-dimensional simulations. From the panel measurement, we find that the high intensity of excimer VUV mainly contributes to the high luminous efficacy of SrCaO-plasma display panels (PDP) at a low sustain voltage. The unchanged Xe excitation efficiency indicates that the electron temperature is not decreased by the high secondary electrons emission protective layer, even though the sustain voltage is much lower. From the two-dimensional simulations, we can find that the ratio of excimer VUV to resonant VUV, which is determined by the collision rate in the discharge, is only significantly affected by the Xe partial pressure, while it is independent of the sustain voltage and the secondary-electrons-emission capability of protective layer. The unchanged average electron energy at the moment when the electric field becomes maximum confirms that the improvement of the VUV production efficiency mainly is attributed to the increase in electron heating efficiency of a PDP with high ion-induced secondary electrons emission protective layer. Combining the experimental and the simulation results, we conclude about the mechanism by which the VUV production is improved for the plasma display panel with a high Xe partial pressure and a cold cathode with high ion-induced secondary electrons emission.

  2. In situ observation of defect annihilation in Kr ion-irradiated bulk Fe/amorphous-Fe 2 Zr nanocomposite alloy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, K. Y.; Fan, Z.; Chen, Y.; Song, M.; Liu, Y.; Wang, H.; Kirk, M. A.; Li, M.; Zhang, X.

    2014-08-26

    Enhanced irradiation tolerance in crystalline multilayers has received significant attention lately. However, little is known on the irradiation response of crystal/amorphous nanolayers. We report on in situ Kr ion irradiation studies of a bulk Fe96Zr4 nanocomposite alloy. Irradiation resulted in amorphization of Fe2Zr and formed crystal/amorphous nanolayers. α-Fe layers exhibited drastically lower defect density and size than those in large α-Fe grains. In situ video revealed that mobile dislocation loops in α-Fe layers were confined by the crystal/amorphous interfaces and kept migrating to annihilate other defects. This study provides new insights on the design of irradiation-tolerant crystal/amorphous nanocomposites.

  3. Measurements of charge and light in pure high pressure Xe towards the study of Xe+TMA mixtures with dark matter directionality sensitivity and supra-intrinsic energy resolution for 0νββ decay searches

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Oliveira, C. A.B.; Gehman, V.; Goldschmidt, A.; Nygren, D.; Renner, J.

    2015-03-24

    Trimethylamine (TMA) may improve the energy resolution of gaseous xenon based detectors for 0νββ decay searches through the reduction of the Fano factor by the Penning effect. This molecule may also be the key for sensing directionality of nuclear recoils induced by Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) in monolithic massive (ton-scale) detectors, without the need of track imaging, by making use of columnar recombination. Nuclear recoil directionality may be the path for a definite discovery of the WIMP nature of Dark Matter. An ionization chamber has been constructed and operated to explore the properties of high pressure gaseous Xe +more »TMA mixtures for particle detection in rare-event experiments. The ionization, scintillation and electroluminescence (EL) signals are measured as function of pressure and electric field. We present results for pure xenon at pressures up to 8 bar. This work has been carried out within the context of the NEXT collaboration.« less

  4. Measurements of charge and light in pure high pressure Xe towards the study of Xe+TMA mixtures with dark matter directionality sensitivity and supra-intrinsic energy resolution for 0νββ decay searches

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Oliveira, C. A.B.; Gehman, V.; Goldschmidt, A.; Nygren, D.; Renner, J.

    2015-03-24

    Trimethylamine (TMA) may improve the energy resolution of gaseous xenon based detectors for 0νββ decay searches through the reduction of the Fano factor by the Penning effect. This molecule may also be the key for sensing directionality of nuclear recoils induced by Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) in monolithic massive (ton-scale) detectors, without the need of track imaging, by making use of columnar recombination. Nuclear recoil directionality may be the path for a definite discovery of the WIMP nature of Dark Matter. An ionization chamber has been constructed and operated to explore the properties of high pressure gaseous Xe +more » TMA mixtures for particle detection in rare-event experiments. The ionization, scintillation and electroluminescence (EL) signals are measured as function of pressure and electric field. We present results for pure xenon at pressures up to 8 bar. This work has been carried out within the context of the NEXT collaboration.« less

  5. Damage Accumulation in MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Yttria-Stabilized ZrO{sub 2} by Xe-Ion Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afanasyev-Charkin, I.V.; Gritsyna, V.T.; Cooke, D.W.; Bennett, B.L.; Sickafus, K.E.

    1999-04-25

    Magnesium-aluminate spinel (MAS) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) are being considered for use as ceramic matrices in proliferation resistant fuels and radioactive storage systems, and may be used either as individual entities or as constituents in multicomponent ceramic systems. It is worthwhile, therefore, to compare radiation damage in these two potentially important materials when subjected to similar irradiation conditions, e.g., ion beam irradiation. To compare radiation damage properties of these two materials, single crystals of spinel and zirconia were irradiated with 340 keV Xe{sup ++} ions at 120 K, and subsequently investigated by Rutherford backscattering and ion channeling (RBS/C), and optical absorption spectroscopy. Results indicate that damage accumulation in both spinel and zirconia follow a three stage process: (1) very slow damage accumulation over a wide range of dose; (2) rapid changes in damage over a range of doses from about 0.25 to 25 displacements per atom (DPA); (3) slower damage accumulation at very high doses and possibly saturation. Optical absorption results indicate that F-centers form in Xe ion-irradiated spinel and that the concentration of these centers saturates at high dose. Absorption bands are also formed in both spinel and zirconia that are due to point defect complexes formed upon irradiation. These bands increase in intensity with increasing Xe dose, and, in the case of zirconia, without saturation. Finally the rate of change in intensity of these bands with increasing Xe dose, mimic the changes in damage observed by RBS/C with increasing dose.

  6. Intel Advisor XE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    * Design without disrupting development * New Linux* and Windows* * New C, C++, Fortran and C code 2 Add Parallelism with Less Effort, Less Risk and More Impact Copyright...

  7. Cray XE6 Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    parallel execution. * Each thread executes within the OpenMP parallel region. A Simple HelloWorld OpenMP Program 15 FORTRAN: Program main use omplib (or: include "omplib.h")...

  8. d-alpha correlation functions and collective motion in Xe+Au collisions at E/A=50 MeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verde, G; Danielewicz, P; Lynch, W; Chan, C; Gelbke, C; Kwong, L; Liu, T; Liu, X; Seymour, D; Tan, W; Tsang, M; Wagner, A; Xu, H; Brown, D; Davin, B; Larochelle, Y; de Souza, R; Charity, R; Sobotka, L

    2006-07-27

    The interplay of the effects of geometry and collective motion on d-{alpha} correlation functions is investigated for central Xe+Au collisions at E/A=50 MeV. The data cannot be explained with out collective motion, which could be partly along the beam axis. A semi-quantitative description of the data can be obtained using a Monte -Carlo model, where thermal emission is superimposed on collective motion. Both the emission volume and the competition between the thermal and collective motion influence significantly the shape of the correlation function, motivating new strategies for extending intensity interferometry studies to massive particles.

  9. Microsoft Word - DOE-ID-15-034 Colorado SofM EC B3-6.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 SECTION A. Project Title: KrXe Separation over Metal Organic Framework Membranes - Colorado School of Mines SECTION B. Project Description The Colorado School of Mines proposes...

  10. In situ observation of defect annihilation in Kr ion-irradiated bulk Fe/amorphous-Fe 2 Zr nanocomposite alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, K. Y.; Fan, Z.; Chen, Y.; Song, M.; Liu, Y.; Wang, H.; Kirk, M. A.; Li, M.; Zhang, X.

    2014-08-26

    Enhanced irradiation tolerance in crystalline multilayers has received significant attention lately. However, little is known on the irradiation response of crystal/amorphous nanolayers. We report on in situ Kr ion irradiation studies of a bulk Fe96Zr4 nanocomposite alloy. Irradiation resulted in amorphization of Fe2Zr and formed crystal/amorphous nanolayers. α-Fe layers exhibited drastically lower defect density and size than those in large α-Fe grains. In situ video revealed that mobile dislocation loops in α-Fe layers were confined by the crystal/amorphous interfaces and kept migrating to annihilate other defects. This study provides new insights on the design of irradiation-tolerant crystal/amorphous nanocomposites.

  11. Mechanism and computational model for Lyman-{alpha}-radiation generation by high-intensity-laser four-wave mixing in Kr-Ar gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louchev, Oleg A.; Saito, Norihito; Wada, Satoshi; Bakule, Pavel; Yokoyama, Koji; Ishida, Katsuhiko; Iwasaki, Masahiko

    2011-09-15

    We present a theoretical model combined with a computational study of a laser four-wave mixing process under optical discharge in which the non-steady-state four-wave amplitude equations are integrated with the kinetic equations of initial optical discharge and electron avalanche ionization in Kr-Ar gas. The model is validated by earlier experimental data showing strong inhibition of the generation of pulsed, tunable Lyman-{alpha} (Ly-{alpha}) radiation when using sum-difference frequency mixing of 212.6 nm and tunable infrared radiation (820-850 nm). The rigorous computational approach to the problem reveals the possibility and mechanism of strong auto-oscillations in sum-difference resonant Ly-{alpha} generation due to the combined effect of (i) 212.6-nm (2+1)-photon ionization producing initial electrons, followed by (ii) the electron avalanche dominated by 843-nm radiation, and (iii) the final breakdown of the phase matching condition. The model shows that the final efficiency of Ly-{alpha} radiation generation can achieve a value of {approx}5x10{sup -4} which is restricted by the total combined absorption of the fundamental and generated radiation.

  12. XE6_Tips_022011.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For m ost u sers a nd a pplica1ons, u sing d efault s e5ngs w ork very well  For users who want to experiment to get the best performance t hey c an, t he f ollowing p resenta1on g ives y ou some informa1on on compilers and se5ngs to try  While i t d oesn't c over a bsolutely e verything, t he p resenta7on tries t o a ddress s ome o f t he t unable p arameters w hich w e h ave found t o p rovide i ncreased p erformance i n t he s itua7ons discussed 2 xtpe---mc12 If n o m odule i s l oaded,

  13. XE6_Tips_09302010.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For
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  For
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  While
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  14. Acute alteration of cardiac ECG, action potential, I{sub Kr} and the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) K{sup +} channel by PCB 126 and PCB 77

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Mi-Hyeong; Park, Won Sun; Jo, Su-Hyun

    2012-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been known as serious persistent organic pollutants (POPs), causing developmental delays and motor dysfunction. We have investigated the effects of two PCB congeners, 3,3′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77) and 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) on ECG, action potential, and the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K{sup +} current (I{sub Kr}) of guinea pigs' hearts, and hERG K{sup +} current expressed in Xenopus oocytes. PCB 126 shortened the corrected QT interval (QTc) of ECG and decreased the action potential duration at 90% (APD{sub 90}), and 50% of repolarization (APD{sub 50}) (P < 0.05) without changing the action potential duration at 20% (APD{sub 20}). PCB 77 decreased APD{sub 20} (P < 0.05) without affecting QTc, APD{sub 90}, and APD{sub 50}. The PCB 126 increased the I{sub Kr} in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes held at 36 °C and hERG K{sup +} current amplitude at the end of the voltage steps in voltage-dependent mode (P < 0.05); however, PCB 77 did not change the hERG K{sup +} current amplitude. The PCB 77 increased the diastolic Ca{sup 2+} and decreased Ca{sup 2+} transient amplitude (P < 0.05), however PCB 126 did not change. The results suggest that PCB 126 shortened the QTc and decreased the APD{sub 90} possibly by increasing I{sub Kr}, while PCB 77 decreased the APD{sub 20} possibly by other modulation related with intracellular Ca{sup 2+}. The present data indicate that the environmental toxicants, PCBs, can acutely affect cardiac electrophysiology including ECG, action potential, intracellular Ca{sup 2+}, and channel activity, resulting in toxic effects on the cardiac function in view of the possible accumulation of the PCBs in human body. -- Highlights: ► PCBs are known as serious environmental pollutants and developmental disruptors. ► PCB 126 shortened QT interval of ECG and action potential duration. ► PCB 126 increased human ether-a-go-go-related K{sup +} current and I{sub Kr}. ► PCB 77 decreased action potential duration and increased intracellular Ca{sup 2+} content. ► PCBs acutely change cardiac electrophysiology and rhythmicity.

  15. Analytical Hartree-Fock wave functions subject to cusp and asymptotic constraints: He to Xe, Li{sup +} to Cs{sup +}, H{sup {minus}} to I{sup {minus}}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koga, Toshikatsu; Kanayama, Katsutoshi; Watanabe, Shinya; Thakkar, A.J.

    1999-02-20

    Analytical, variational approximations to Hartree-Fock wave functions are constructed for the ground states of all the neutral atoms from He to Xe, the cations from Li{sup +} to Cs{sup +}, and the stable anions from H{sup {minus}} to I{sup {minus}}. The wave functions are constrained so that each atomic orbital agrees well with the electron-nuclear cusp condition and has good long-range behavior. Painstaking optimization of the exponents and principal quantum numbers of the Slater-type basis functions allows one to reach this goal while obtaining total energies that, at worst, are a few microHartrees above the numerical Hartree-Fock limit values. The wave functions are freely available by anonymous ftp from okapi-chem.unb,ca or upon request to the authors.

  16. CX-013827: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kr/Xe Separation over Metal Organic Framework Membranes - Colorado School of Mines CX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 06/17/2015 Location(s): IdahoOffices(s): Nuclear Energy

  17. Microsoft Word - DOE-ID-14-045 Georgia Institute of Tech. ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Description Georgia Tech Research Corporation will develop a novel, high-performance, low-energy intensity, lower-cost zeolite membrane process for KrXe separation during spent...

  18. Barrier Distribution of Quasi-elastic Backward Scattering of {sup 48}Ti, {sup 54}Cr, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 70}Zn and {sup 86}Kr on {sup 208}Pb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitsuoka, S.; Ikezoe, H.; Nishio, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Jeong, S. C.

    2009-03-04

    In order to study the nucleus-nucleus interaction in Pb-based cold fusion, we have measured excitation functions for quasi-elastic scattering of {sup 48}Ti, {sup 54}Cr, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 70}Zn and {sup 86}Kr projectiles on {sup 208}Pb target at backward angles. The barrier distributions were derived from the first derivative of measured quasi-elastic scattering cross sections relative to the Rutherford scattering cross section. The centroids of the barrier distributions show a deviation from several predicted barrier heights toward the low energy side. The shape of the barrier distributions is well reproduced by the results of a coupled-channel calculation taking account of the coupling effects of two phonon excitations of the quadrupole vibration for the projectiles and of the octupole vibration for the {sup 208}Pb target.

  19. Systematic Method for Evaluating Extraction and Injection Flow Rates for 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit Pump-and-Treat Interim Actions for Hydraulic Containment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spiliotopoulos, Alexandros A.

    2013-03-20

    This document describes a systematic method to develop flow rate recommendations for Pump-and-Treat (P&T) extraction and injection wells in 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Units (OU) of the Hanford Site. Flow rate recommendations are developed as part of ongoing performance monitoring and remedy optimization of the P&T interim actions to develop hydraulic contairnnent of the dissolved chromium plume in groundwater and protect the Columbia River from further discharges of groundwater from inland. This document details the methodology and data required to infer the influence of individual wells near the shoreline on hydraulic containment and river protection and develop flow rate recommendations to improve system performance and mitigate potential shortcomings of the system configuration in place.

  20. GASEOUS DISPOSAL PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, R.F.; Thomasson, F.R.; Hicks, J.H.

    1963-01-22

    A method is described of removing gaseous radioactive Xe and Kr from water containing O. The method consists in stripping the gases from the water stream by means of H flowing countercurrently to the stream. The gases are then heated in a deoxo bed to remove O. The carrier gas is next cooled and passed over a charcoal adsorbent bed maintained at a temperature of about --280 deg F to remove the Xe and Kr. (AEC)

  1. Fission Product Monitoring and Release Data for the Advanced Gas Reactor -1 Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawn M. Scates; John B. Walter; Jason M. Harp; Mark W. Drigert; Edward L. Reber

    2010-10-01

    The AGR-1 experiment is a fueled multiple-capsule irradiation experiment that was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) from December 26, 2006 until November 6, 2009 in support of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Fuel Development and Qualification program. An important measure of the fuel performance is the quantification of the fission product releases over the duration of the experiment. To provide this data for the inert fission gasses(Kr and Xe), a fission product monitoring system (FPMS) was developed and implemented to monitor the individual capsule effluents for the radioactive species. The FPMS continuously measured the concentrations of various krypton and xenon isotopes in the sweep gas from each AGR-1 capsule to provide an indicator of fuel irradiation performance. Spectrometer systems quantified the concentrations of Kr-85m, Kr-87, Kr-88, Kr-89, Kr-90, Xe-131m, Xe-133, Xe 135, Xe 135m, Xe-137, Xe-138, and Xe-139 accumulated over repeated eight hour counting intervals.-. To determine initial fuel quality and fuel performance, release activity for each isotope of interest was derived from FPMS measurements and paired with a calculation of the corresponding isotopic production or birthrate. The release activities and birthrates were combined to determine Release-to-Birth ratios for the selected nuclides. R/B values provide indicators of initial fuel quality and fuel performance during irradiation. This paper presents a brief summary of the FPMS, the release to birth ratio data for the AGR-1 experiment and preliminary comparisons of AGR-1 experimental fuels data to fission gas release models.

  2. KR Energy Spa | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    energy holding company, formed in 2008 from the merger of Kaitech and Eurinvest Energia. Coordinates: 45.468945, 9.18103 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappin...

  3. Summary Report on the Volatile Radionuclide and Immobilization Research for FY2011 at PNNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Chun, Jaehun; Matyas, Josef; Lepry, William C.; Riley, Brian J.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2011-09-01

    The materials development summarized here is in support of the Waste Forms campaign, Volatile Radionuclide task. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal and immobilization of iodine and krypton, specifically 129I and 85Kr. During FY 2011, aerogel materials were investigated for removal and immobilization of 129I. Two aerogel formulations were investigated, one based on silica aerogels and the second on chalcogen-based aerogels (i.e., chalcogels). A silica aerogel was tested at ORNL for total I2 sorption capacity. It was determined to have 48 mass% capacity while having little physisorbed I2 (I2 not taken up in the aerogel pores). For 85Kr, metal organic framework (MOF) structures were investigated and a new MOF with about 8 mass% capacity for Xe and Kr. The selectivity can be changed from Xe > Kr to Xe < Kr simply by lowering the temperature below 0 C. A patent disclosure has been filed. Lastly, silicon carbide (SiC) was loaded with Kr. The diffusion of Kr in SiC was found to be less than detectable at 500 C.

  4. Cray XE6 Architecture John Shalf NERSC XE6 User Training

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    +1-0 2018 +1-0 System peak 2 Peta 100-300 Peta 1 Exa Power 6 MW 15 MW 20 MW System memory 0.3 PB 5 PB 64 PB (+) Node performance 125 GF 0.5 TF or 7 TF 2 TF or 10TF Node memory...

  5. Cryogenic system with GM cryocooler for krypton, xenon separation from hydrogen-helium purge gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, X. X.; Zhang, D. X.; Qian, Y.; Liu, W.; Zhang, M. M.; Xu, D.

    2014-01-29

    In the thorium molten salt reactor (TMSR), fission products such as krypton, xenon and tritium will be produced continuously in the process of nuclear fission reaction. A cryogenic system with a two stage GM cryocooler was designed to separate Kr, Xe, and H{sub 2} from helium purge gas. The temperatures of two stage heat exchanger condensation tanks were maintained at about 38 K and 4.5 K, respectively. The main fluid parameters of heat transfer were confirmed, and the structural heat exchanger equipment and cold box were designed. Designed concentrations after cryogenic separation of Kr, Xe and H{sub 2} in helium recycle gas are less than 1 ppb.

  6. REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS TESTING CONTAINER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.

    1963-01-15

    This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)

  7. Adsorption Isotherms for Xenon and Krypton using INL HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy G. Garn; Mitchell Greenhalgh; Veronica J. Rutledge; Jack D. Law

    2014-08-01

    The generation of adsorption isotherms compliments the scale-up of off-gas processes used to control the emission of encapsulated radioactive volatile fission and activation products released during Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) reprocessing activities. A series of experiments were conducted to obtain capacity results for varying Kr and Xe gas concentrations using HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN engineered form sorbents. Gas compositions for Kr ranged from 150-40,000 ppmv and 250-5020 ppmv for Xe in a helium balance. The experiments were all performed at 220 K at a flowrate of 50 sccm. Acquired capacities were then respectively fit to the Langmuir equation using the Langmuir linear regression method to obtain the equilibrium parameters Qmax and Keq. Generated experimental adsorption isotherms were then plotted with the Langmuir predicted isotherms to illustrate agreement between the two. The Langmuir parameters were provided for input into the OSPREY model to predict breakthrough of single component adsorption of Kr and Xe on HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN sorbents at the experimental conditions tested. Kr and Xe capacities resulting from model breakthrough predictions were then compared to experimental capacities for model validation.

  8. Development and Test Evaluations for Ni-DOBDC Metal Organic Framework (MOF) Engineered Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy G. Garn; Mitchell Greenhalgh

    2013-07-01

    A joint effort to prepare engineered forms of a Ni-DOBDC metal organic framework (MOF) was completed with contributions from PNNL, SNL and the INL. Two independent methods were used at INL and SNL to prepare engineered form (EF) sorbents from Ni-DOBDC MOF powder developed and prepared at PNNL. Xe and Kr capacity test evaluations were performed at ambient temperature with the cryostat experimental setup at INL. The initial INL EF MOF test results indicated a Xe capacity of 1.6 mmol/kg sorbent and no Kr capacity. A large loss of surface area also occurred during minimal testing rendering the INL EF MOF unusable. Four capacity tests were completed using the SNL EF MOF at ambient temperature and resulted in Xe capacities of 1.4, 4.2, 5.0 and 3.8 mmol/kg sorbent with no Kr capacity observed in any ambient temperature tests. Two additional capacity tests were performed at 240 K to further evaluate SNL EF MOF performance. Xe capacities of 50.7 and 49.3 mmol/kg of sorbent and Kr capacities of 0.77 and 0.69 mmol/kg of sorbent were obtained, respectively. Following the adsorption evaluations, the SNL EF MOF material had lost about 40 % of the initial mass and 40 % of the initial surface area. In general, the Xe capacity results at ambient temperature for the INL and SNL EF Ni-DOBDC MOFs were lower than 9.8 mmol Xe/kg sorbent test results reported by INL in FY-12 using PNNLs inital EF supplied material.

  9. New Features of the Hopper XE6 - Differences from Franklin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    project and home file systm when system undergoing maintenance. NA Ability to submit jobs when system undergoing maintenance. (Jobs are forwarded to the main system when it...

  10. Beam Time Changes.xls

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    He 45 55 55 55 55 55 55 55 70 70 70 14 N 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 50 50 50 20 Ne 50 40 25* 35 30 30 30 30 45 45 45 40 Ar 50 40 25* 35 30 30 30 30 45 45 45 63 Cu 50 40 35 35 35 35 35 35 45 45 45 84 Kr 50 40 30 30 35 25* 25 30 45 45 45 109 Ag 50 40 30 30* 35 15 15 30 45 45 45 129 Xe 50 40 30 30 35 25 25* 30 45 45 45 141 Pr 50 40 25 20* 35 25 25 25 45 45 45 165 Ho 60 50 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 30 30 181 Ta 60 50 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 30 20 197 Au 60 55 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 30 20 He N Ne Ar Cu Kr Ag Xe

  11. Direct Photolysis of Chlorophenols In Aqueous Solution By Ultraviolet Excilamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matafonova, Galina; Philippova, Natalya; Batoev, Valeriy

    2011-08-25

    The direct photolysis of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) in model aqueous solution was studied using UV XeBr (282 nm) and KrCl (222 nm) excilamps. The highest pseudo-first order rate constants and quantum yields were found for molecular form of 4-CP (at pH 2 and 5.7) and anionic forms of 2-CP and 2,4-DCP (at pH 11) when irradiated by XeBr excilamp. The maximum removal efficiency of molecular form of 2-CP and 2,4-DCP with the lowest UV dose of absorbed energy was observed using KrCl excilamp. On the contrary, the XeBr excilamp required the lowest dose ({approx}2 J{center_dot}cm{sup -2}) for complete degradation of molecular 4-CP and anionic 2-CP. The highest removal efficiency of anionic form of 4-CP (65%) was achieved when using KrCl excilamp.

  12. Supersonic cluster jet source for debris-free extreme ultraviolet production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubiak, G.D.; Bernardez, L.J.

    1997-09-01

    The supersonic cluster jet has been developed and characterized for use as a target medium to produce a clean source of extreme ultraviolet radiation for extreme ultraviolet lithography and other applications. Spectroscopic characterization of the laser plasma emission produced from Xe, O{sub 2} and Kr cluster gas targets has been performed. Xe is the most efficient target gas, exhibiting a conversion efficiency at 13.5 nm of 0.8% into the relevant 2.5% spectral bandwidth. The other target gases are less efficient in the spectral region of interest and, in the case of oxygen, emit {approximately}5 times less off-band radiation. The angular distribution of the Xe plasma emission has also been characterized.

  13. Environmental effects on noble-gas hydrides: HXeBr, HXeCCH, and HXeH in noble-gas and molecular matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsuge, Masashi E-mail: leonid.khriachtchev@helsinki.fi; Lignell, Antti; Rsnen, Markku; Khriachtchev, Leonid E-mail: leonid.khriachtchev@helsinki.fi

    2013-11-28

    Noble-gas hydrides HNgY (Ng is a noble-gas atom and Y is an electronegative group) are sensitive probes of local environment due to their relatively weak bonding and large dipole moments. We experimentally studied HXeBr in Ar, Kr, and N{sub 2} matrices, HXeCCH in Ne and N{sub 2} matrices, and HXeH in an N{sub 2} matrix. These are the first observations of noble-gas hydrides in an N{sub 2} matrix. An N{sub 2} matrix strongly increases the HXe stretching frequency of HXeBr and HXeCCH with respect to a Ne matrix, which is presumably due to a strong interaction between the HNgY dipole moment and quadrupole moments of the surrounding lattice N{sub 2} molecules. The spectral shift of HXeBr in an N{sub 2} matrix is similar to that in a CO{sub 2} matrix, which is a rather unexpected result because the quadrupole moment of CO{sub 2} is about three times as large as that of N{sub 2}. The HXe stretching frequencies of HXeBr and HXeCCH in noble-gas matrices show a trend of ?(Ne) < ?(Xe) < ?(Kr) < ?(Ar), which is a non-monotonous function of the dielectric constants of the noble-gas solids. The MP2(full) calculations of HXeBr and HXeCCH with the polarizable continuum model as well as the CCSD(T) calculations of the HXeBrNg and HXeCCHNg (Ng = Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) complexes cannot fully explain the experimental observations. It is concluded that more sophisticated computational models should be used to describe these experimental findings.

  14. Multiple Electron Stripping of Heavy Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Mueller; L. Grisham; I. Kaganovich; R. L. Watson; V. Horvat; K. E. Zaharakis; Y. Peng

    2002-06-25

    One approach being explored as a route to practical fusion energy uses heavy ion beams focused on an indirect drive target. Such beams will lose electrons while passing through background gas in the target chamber, and therefore it is necessary to assess the rate at which the charge state of the incident beam evolves on the way to the target. Accelerators designed primarily for nuclear physics or high energy physics experiments utilize ion sources that generate highly stripped ions in order to achieve high energies economically. As a result, accelerators capable of producing heavy ion beams of 10 to 40 Mev/amu with charge state 1 currently do not exist. Hence, the stripping cross-sections used to model the performance of heavy ion fusion driver beams have, up to now, been based upon theoretical calculations. We have investigated experimentally the stripping of 3.4 Mev/amu Kr 7+ and Xe +11 in N2; 10.2 MeV/amu Ar +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 19 MeV/amu Ar +8 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 30 MeV He 1 + in He, N2, Ar and Xe; and 38 MeV/amu N +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe. The results of these measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations to assess their applicability over a wide range of parameters.

  15. Molecular interactions with ice: Molecular embedding, adsorption, detection, and release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, K. D.; Langlois, Grant G.; Li, Wenxin; Sibener, S. J.; Killelea, Daniel R.

    2014-11-14

    The interaction of atomic and molecular species with water and ice is of fundamental importance for chemistry. In a previous series of publications, we demonstrated that translational energy activates the embedding of Xe and Kr atoms in the near surface region of ice surfaces. In this paper, we show that inert molecular species may be absorbed in a similar fashion. We also revisit Xe embedding, and further probe the nature of the absorption into the selvedge. CF{sub 4} molecules with high translational energies (?3 eV) were observed to embed in amorphous solid water. Just as with Xe, the initial adsorption rate is strongly activated by translational energy, but the CF{sub 4} embedding probability is much less than for Xe. In addition, a larger molecule, SF{sub 6}, did not embed at the same translational energies that both CF{sub 4} and Xe embedded. The embedding rate for a given energy thus goes in the order Xe > CF{sub 4} > SF{sub 6}. We do not have as much data for Kr, but it appears to have a rate that is between that of Xe and CF{sub 4}. Tentatively, this order suggests that for Xe and CF{sub 4}, which have similar van der Waals radii, the momentum is the key factor in determining whether the incident atom or molecule can penetrate deeply enough below the surface to embed. The more massive SF{sub 6} molecule also has a larger van der Waals radius, which appears to prevent it from stably embedding in the selvedge. We also determined that the maximum depth of embedding is less than the equivalent of four layers of hexagonal ice, while some of the atoms just below the ice surface can escape before ice desorption begins. These results show that energetic ballistic embedding in ice is a general phenomenon, and represents a significant new channel by which incident species can be trapped under conditions where they would otherwise not be bound stably as surface adsorbates. These findings have implications for many fields including environmental science, trace gas collection and release, and the chemical composition of astrophysical icy bodies in space.

  16. Stable formation of ultrahigh power-density 248 nm channels in Xe cluster targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borisov, Alex B.; Racz, Ervin; Khan, Shahab F.; Poopalasingam, Sankar; McCorkindale, John C.; Boguta, John; Longworth, James W.; Rhodes, Charles K.

    2012-07-11

    The optimization of relativistic and ponderomotive self-channeling of ultra-powerful 248 nm laser pulses launched in underdense plasmas with an appropriate longitudinal gradient in the electron density profile located at the initial stage of the self-channeling leads to (1) stable channel formation and (2) highly efficient power compression producing power densities in the 10{sup 19}-10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 3} range. The comparison of theoretical studies with experimental results involving the correlation of (a) Thomson images of the electron density with (b) x-ray images of the channel morphology demonstrates that more than 90% of the incident 248 nm power can be trapped in stable channels and that this stable propagation can be extended to power levels significantly exceeding the critical power of the self-channeling process.

  17. Materials Data on SbXe2F9 (SG:9) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Xe-Implanted Uranium Dioxide Thick Films using Multilayer Laser Flash Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Andrew T.

    2012-08-30

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program's Advanced Fuels campaign is currently pursuing use of ion beam assisted deposition to produce uranium dioxide thick films containing xenon in various morphologies. To date, this technique has provided materials of interest for validation of predictive fuel performance codes and to provide insight into the behavior of xenon and other fission gasses under extreme conditions. In addition to the structural data provided by such thick films, it may be possible to couple these materials with multilayer laser flash analysis in order to measure the impact of xenon on thermal transport in uranium dioxide. A number of substrate materials (single crystal silicon carbide, molybdenum, and quartz) containing uranium dioxide films ranging from one to eight microns in thickness were evaluated using multilayer laser flash analysis in order to provide recommendations on the most promising substrates and geometries for further investigation. In general, the uranium dioxide films grown to date using ion beam assisted deposition were all found too thin for accurate measurement. Of the substrates tested, molybdenum performed the best and looks to be the best candidate for further development. Results obtained within this study suggest that the technique does possess the necessary resolution for measurement of uranium dioxide thick films, provided the films are grown in excess of fifty microns. This requirement is congruent with the material needs when viewed from a fundamental standpoint, as this length scale of material is required to adequately sample grain boundaries and possible second phases present in ceramic nuclear fuel.

  19. Materials Data on XeIF7 (SG:87) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  20. Observation of Two-Neutrino Double-Beta Decay in Xe-136 with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    P.S. ; Barry, K. ; Bartoszek, L. ; Stanford U., Phys. Dept. ; Beauchamp, E. ; Laurentian U. ; Belov, V. ; Moscow, ITEP ; Benitez-Medina, C. ; Colorado State U. ; ...

  1. Pore-structure determinations of silica aerogels by {sup 129}Xe NMR spectroscopy and imaging.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory, D. M.; Gerald, R. E., II; Botto, R. E.; Chemistry

    1998-04-01

    Silica aerogels represent a new class of open-pore materials with pore dimensions on a scale of tens of nanometers, and are thus classified as mesoporous materials. In this work, we show that the combination of NMR spectroscopy and chemical-shift selective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can resolve some of the important aspects of the structure of silica aerogels. The use of xenon as a gaseous probe in combination with spatially resolved NMR techniques is demonstrated to be a powerful, new approach for characterizing the average pore structure and steady-state spatial distributions of xenon atoms in different physicochemical environments. Furthermore, dynamic NMR magnetization transfer experiments and pulsed-field gradient (PFG) measurements have been used to characterize exchange processes and diffusive motion of xenon in samples at equilibrium. In particular, this new NMR approach offers unique information and insights into the nanoscopic pore structure and microscopic morphology of aerogels and the dynamical behavior of occluded adsorbates. MRI provides spatially resolved information on the nature of the flaw regions found in these materials. Pseudo-first-order rate constants for magnetization transfer among the bulk and occluded xenon phases indicate xenon-exchange rate constants on the order of 1 s-1 for specimens having volumes of 0.03 cm3. PFG diffusion measurements show evidence of anisotropic diffusion for xenon occluded within aerogels, with nominal self-diffusivity coefficients on the order of D= 10-3cm2/s.

  2. Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay in $^{136}$Xe with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Stanford U., Phys. Dept. ; Beauchamp, E. ; Laurentian U. ; Belov, V. ; Moscow, ITEP ; Benitez-Medina, C. ; Colorado State U. ; Breidenbach, M. ; SLAC ; Brunner, T. ; Stanford ...

  3. Search for Majoron-emitting modes of double-beta decay ofXe136with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A. ; Rowson, P. C. ; Rozo, M. P. ; Russell, J. J. ; Schubert, A. ; Sinclair, D. ; Smith, E. ; Stekhanov, V. ; Tarka, M. ; Tolba, T. ; Tosi, D. ; Tsang, R. ; Twelker, K. ;...

  4. Disproportionation of Ag+ by pressure-and heat-induced Xe insertion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  5. Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay in $^{136}$Xe with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dept. ; Beauchamp, E. ; Laurentian U. ; Belov, V. ; Moscow, ITEP ; Benitez-Medina, C. ; Colorado State U. ; Breidenbach, M. ; SLAC ; Brunner, T. ; Stanford U., Phys. Dept. ; ...

  6. Search for 2 ν β β decay of Xe 136 to the 0 1 + excited state...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Albert, J. B. ; Auty, D. J. ; Barbeau, P. S. ; Beck, D. ; Belov, V. ; Breidenbach, M. ; Brunner, T. ; Burenkov, A. ; Cao, G. F. ; Chambers, C. ; Chaves, J. ; Cleveland, B. ...

  7. Disproportionation of Ag+ by pressure-and heat-induced Xe insertion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS

  8. Collision lifetimes of polyatomic molecules at low temperatures: Benzenebenzene vs benzenerare gas atom collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Jie; Krems, Roman V.; Li, Zhiying

    2014-10-28

    We use classical trajectory calculations to study the effects of the interaction strength and the geometry of rigid polyatomic molecules on the formation of long-lived collision complexes at low collision energies. We first compare the results of the calculations for collisions of benzene molecules with rare gas atoms He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe. The comparison illustrates that the mean lifetimes of the collision complexes increase monotonically with the strength of the atommolecule interaction. We then compare the results of the atombenzene calculations with those for benzenebenzene collisions. The comparison illustrates that the mean lifetimes of the benzenebenzene collision complexes are significantly reduced due to non-ergodic effects prohibiting the molecules from sampling the entire configuration space. We find that the thermally averaged lifetimes of the benzenebenzene collisions are much shorter than those for Xe with benzene and similar to those for Ne with benzene.

  9. A room temperature electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the DC-110 cyclotron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Efremov, A. Bogomolov, S.; Lebedev, A.; Loginov, V.; Yazvitsky, N.

    2014-02-15

    The project of the DC-110 cyclotron facility to provide applied research in the nanotechnologies (track pore membranes, surface modification of materials, etc.) has been designed by the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna). The facility includes the isochronous cyclotron DC-110 for accelerating the intensive Ar, Kr, Xe ion beams with 2.5 MeV/nucleon fixed energy. The cyclotron is equipped with system of axial injection and ECR ion source DECRIS-5, operating at the frequency of 18 GHz. This article reviews the design and construction of DECRIS-5 ion source along with some initial commissioning results.

  10. Analysis of fission gas release kinetics by on-line mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zerega, Y.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Parrat, D.; Carette, M.; Brkic, B.; Lyoussi, A.; Bignan, G.; Janulyte, A.; Andre, J.; Pontillon, Y.; Ducros, G.; Taylor, S.

    2011-07-01

    The release of fission gas (Xe and Kr) and helium out of nuclear fuel materials in normal operation of a nuclear power reactor can constitute a strong limitation of the fuel lifetime. Moreover, radioactive isotopes of Xe and Kr contribute significantly to the global radiological source term released in the primary coolant circuit in case of accidental situations accompanied by fuel rod loss of integrity. As a consequence, fission gas release investigation is of prime importance for the nuclear fuel cycle economy, and is the driven force of numerous R and D programs. In this domain, for solving current fuel behavior understanding issues, preparing the development of new fuels (e.g. for Gen IV power systems) and for improving the modeling prediction capability, there is a marked need for innovations in the instrumentation field, mainly for: . Quantification of very low fission gas concentrations, released from fuel sample and routed in sweeping lines. Monitoring of quick gas release variations by quantification of elementary release during a short period of time. Detection of a large range of atomic masses (e.g. H{sub 2}, HT, He, CO, CO{sub 2}, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe), together with a performing separation of isotopes for Xe and Kr elements. Coupling measurement of stable and radioactive gas isotopes, by using in parallel mass spectrometry and gamma spectrometry techniques. To fulfill these challenging needs, a common strategy for analysis equipment implementation has been set up thanks to a recently launched collaboration between the CEA and the Univ. of Provence, with the technological support of the Liverpool Univ.. It aims at developing a chronological series of mass spectrometer devices based upon mass filter and 2D/3D ion traps with Fourier transform operating mode and having increasing levels of performances to match the previous challenges for out-of pile and in-pile experiments. The final objective is to install a high performance online mass spectrometer coupled to a gamma spectrometer in the fission product laboratory of the future Jules Horowitz Material Test Reactor. An intermediate step will consist of testing first equipment on an existing experimental facility in the LECA-STAR Hot Cell Laboratory of the CEA Cadarache. This paper presents the scientific and operational stakes linked to fission gas issues, resumes the current state of art for analyzing them in nuclear facilities, then presents the skills gathered through this collaboration to overcome technological bottlenecks. Finally it describes the implementation strategy in nuclear research facilities of the CEA Cadarache. (authors)

  11. MULTI-KEV X-RAY YIELDS FROM HIGH-Z GAS TARGETS FIELDED AT OMEGA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, J O; Fournier, K B; May, M J; Colvin, J D; Thomas, C A; Marrs, R E; Compton, S M; Moody, J D; Bond, E J; Davis, J F

    2010-11-04

    The authors report on modeling of x-ray yield from gas-filled targets shot at the OMEGA laser facility. The OMEGA targets were 1.8 mm long, 1.95 mm in diameter Be cans filled with either a 50:50 Ar:Xe mixture, pure Ar, pure Kr or pure Xe at {approx} 1 atm. The OMEGA experiments heated the gas with 20 kJ of 3{omega} ({approx} 350 nm) laser energy delivered in a 1 ns square pulse. the emitted x-ray flux was monitored with the x-ray diode based DANTE instruments in the sub-keV range. Two-dimensional x-ray images (for energies 3-5 keV) of the targets were recorded with gated x-ray detectors. The x-ray spectra were recorded with the HENWAY crystal spectrometer at OMEGA. Predictions are 2D r-z cylindrical with DCA NLTE atomic physics. Models generally: (1) underpredict the Xe L-shell yields; (2) overpredict the Ar K-shell yields; (3) correctly predict the Xe thermal yields; and (4) greatly underpredict the Ar thermal yields. However, there are spreads within the data, e.g. the DMX Ar K-shell yields are correctly predicted. The predicted thermal yields show strong angular dependence.

  12. Processes for Removal and Immobilization of 14C, 129I, and 85Kr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Henager, Charles H.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Matyas, Josef; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Weber, William J.; Zheng, Feng

    2009-10-05

    This is a white paper covering the results of a literature search and preliminary experiments on materials and methods to remove and immobilize gaseous radionuclided that come from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel.

  13. Microsoft Word - LATEST_Final Report_KR_v03_2_22.doc

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High Efficiency Syngas Generation Final Report By: Robert J. Copeland Yevgenia Gershanovich Brian Windecker TDA Research, Inc. 12345 W. 52nd Ave. Wheat Ridge, CO 80033-1916 For: National Energy Technology Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy 3610 Collins Ferry Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 Contract No. FE-FC26-01NT41226 Aaron Yocum, Project Officer Period of Performance: Oct. 1, 2001 - Sept. 30, 2003 February 2005 2 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work

  14. Milestone Report - M41SW030910 - Test Plan for Kr Loaded Zeolite...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    APA Chicago Bibtex Export Metadata Endnote Excel CSV XML Save to My Library Send to Email Send to Email Email address: Content: Close Send Cite: MLA Format Close Cite: APA ...

  15. Operation of cover-gas system during SLSF tests. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braid, T.H.; Harper, H.A.; Wilson, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    During two tests in the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (W1 and P4), high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy was used to detect pin failure by observing radioactive fission product isotopes of Kr and Xe from exposed fuel. A continuous stream of argon cover gas from the in-pile loop was transferred to a shielded sample volume. Two germanium crystal spectrometers continuously recorded spectra of gamma rays in the energy range 80 keV to approx. 2.7 MeV. A very wide range of signal strength was accommodated without saturation by dilution of the sample, reduction of the sample chamber volume and insertion of detecter collimators. The cover gas system provided an unambiguous indication of fuel failure during a series of boiling tests in W1. In P4, spectra were recorded after a power transient that released molten fuel and from a mass of exposed fuel at a range of reactor power levels. Gamma rays were observed from isotopes of Kr and Xe with half-lives from 3.8 m to 5.2 d.

  16. Configuration-interaction relativistic-many-body-perturbation-theory calculations of photoionization cross sections from quasicontinuum oscillator strengths

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Savukov, I. M.; Filin, D. V.

    2014-12-29

    Many applications are in need of accurate photoionization cross sections, especially in the case of complex atoms. Configuration-interaction relativistic-many-body-perturbation theory (CI-RMBPT) has been successful in predicting atomic energies, matrix elements between discrete states, and other properties, which is quite promising, but it has not been applied to photoionization problems owing to extra complications arising from continuum states. In this paper a method that will allow the conversion of discrete CI-(R)MPBT oscillator strengths (OS) to photoionization cross sections with minimal modifications of the codes is introduced and CI-RMBPT cross sections of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe are calculated. A consistent agreementmore » with experiment is found. RMBPT corrections are particularly significant for Ar, Kr, and Xe and improve agreement with experimental results compared to the particle-hole CI method. As a result, the demonstrated conversion method can be applied to CI-RMBPT photoionization calculations for a large number of multivalence atoms and ions.« less

  17. Highly concentrated nebular noble gases in porous nanocarbon separates from the Saratov (L4) meteorite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amari, Sachiko; Matsuda, Jun-ichi; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Chisholm, Matthew F.

    2013-11-20

    The majority of heavy noble gases (Ar, Kr, and Xe) in primitive meteorites are stored in a poorly understood phase called Q. Although Q is thought to be carbonaceous, the full identity of the phase has remained elusive for almost four decades. In order to better characterize phase Q and, in turn, the early solar nebula, we separated carbon-rich fractions from the Saratov (L4) meteorite. We chose this meteorite because Q is most resistant in thermal alteration among carbonaceous noble gas carriers in meteorites and we hoped that, in this highly metamorphosed meteorite, Q would be present but not diamond: these two phases are very difficult to separate from each other. One of the fractions, AJ, has the highest {sup 132}Xe concentration of 2.1 10{sup 6} cm{sup 3} STP g{sup 1}, exceeding any Q-rich fractions that have yet been analyzed. Transmission electron microscopy studies of the fraction AJ and a less Q-rich fraction AI indicate that they both are primarily porous carbon that consists of domains with short-range graphene orders, with variable packing in three dimensions, but no long-range graphitic order. The relative abundance of Xe and C atoms (6:10{sup 9}) in the separates indicates that individual noble gas atoms are associated with only a minor component of the porous carbon, possibly one or more specific arrangements of the nanoparticulate graphene.

  18. Layer Information for Interactive State Maps

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GGulf of Mexico Fact Sheet PMajor Oil and Gas Plays SState Energy Profile Maps UU.S. ... including flood hazard zones, Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) boundaries, Coastal ...

  19. Sailor, V.L.; Perkins, K.R.; Weeks, J.R.; Connell, H.R. 11 NUCLEAR...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    21 SPECIFIC NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS; BWR TYPE REACTORS; SPENT FUEL STORAGE; PWR TYPE REACTORS; FUEL POOLS; STORAGE FACILITIES; ACCIDENTS; FAILURES; FISSION...

  20. Formation of superheavy elements in cold fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolanczuk, Robert

    2001-04-01

    We calculate the formation cross sections of transactinides (superheavy elements), as well as heavy actinides (No and Lr), which have been or might be obtained in fusion reactions with the evaporation of only one neutron. We use both more realistic fusion barrier and survival probability of the compound nucleus in comparison with the original phenomenological model [Phys. Rev. C 59, 2634 (1999)] that prompted the Berkeley experiment on the synthesis of a new superheavy element 118 [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1104 (1999)]. Calculations are performed for asymmetric and symmetric target-projectile combinations and for reactions with stable and radioactive-ion beams. The formation cross sections measured at GSI-Darmstadt for transactinides and heavy actinides, as well as that for superheavy element 118 reported by the LBNL-Berkeley group, are reproduced within a factor of 2.4, on average. Based on the obtained relatively large cross sections, we predict that optimal reactions with stable beams for the synthesis of so far unobserved superheavy elements 119, 120, and 121 are {sup 209}Bi({sup 86}Kr, 1n){sup 294}119, {sup 208}Pb({sup 88}Sr, 1n){sup 295}120, and {sup 209}Bi({sup 88}Sr, 1n){sup 296}121, respectively. This is because of the magic of both the target and the projectile that leads to larger Q value and, consequently, lower effective fusion barrier with larger transmission probability. The same effect is responsible for relatively large cross sections predicted for the symmetric reactions {sup 136}Xe({sup 124}Sn, 1n){sup 259}Rf, {sup 136}Xe({sup 136}Xe, 1n){sup 271}Hs,{sup 138}Ba({sup 136}Xe, 1n){sup 273}110, and {sup 140}Ce({sup 136}Xe, 1n){sup 275}112. Although shell effects in the magic nuclei {sup 124}Sn, {sup 136}Xe, {sup 138}Ba, and {sup 140}Ce are not as strong as in {sup 208}Pb and {sup 209}Bi, they act on both the target and the projectile and lead to the prediction of measurable cross sections.

  1. Determination of the Quantity of I-135 Released from the AGR Experiment Series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scates, Dawn Marie; Walter, John Bradley; Reber, Edward Lawrence; Sterbentz, James William; Petti, David Andrew

    2014-10-01

    A series of three Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) experiments have been conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). From 2006 through 2014, these experiments supported the development and qualification of the new U.S. tri structural isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel for Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR). Each AGR experiment consisted of multiple fueled capsules, each plumbed for independent temperature control using a mix of helium and neon gases. The gas leaving a capsule was routed to individual Fission Product Monitor (FPM) detectors. For intact fuel particles, the TRISO particle coatings provide a substantial barrier to fission product release. However, particles with failed coatings, whether because of a minute percentage of initially defective particles, those which fail during irradiation, or those designed to fail (DTF) particles, can release fission products to the flowing gas stream. Because reactive fission product elements like iodine and cesium quickly deposit on cooler capsule components and piping structures as the effluent gas leaves the reactor core, only the noble fission gas isotopes of Kr and Xe tend to reach FPM detectors. The FPM system utilizes High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors coupled with a thallium activated sodium iodide NaI(Tl) scintillator. The germanium detector provides individual isotopic information, while the NaI(Tl) scintillator is used as a gross count rate meter. During irradiation, the 135mXe concentration reaching the FPM detectors is from both direct fission and by decay of the accumulated 135I. About ~2.5 hours after irradiation (ten 15.3 minute 135mXe half lives) the directly produced 135mXe has decayed and only the longer lived 135I remains as a source. Decay systematics dictate that 135mXe will be in secular equilibrium with its 135I parent, such that its production rate very nearly equals the decay rate of the parent, and its concentration in the flowing gas stream will appear to decay with the parent half life. This equilibrium condition enables the determination of the amount of 135I released from the fuel particles by measurement of the 135mXe at the FPM following reactor shutdown. In this paper, the 135I released will be reported and compared to similar releases for noble gases as well as the unexpected finding of 131I deposition from intentional impure gas injection into capsule 11 of experiment AGR 3/4.

  2. Quantity of 135I Released from the AGR 1, AGR 2, and AGR 3/4 Experiments and Discovery of 131I at the FPMS Traps during the AGR-3/4 Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawn Scates

    2014-09-01

    A series of three Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) experiments have been conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). From 2006 through 2014, these experiments supported the development and qualification of the new U.S. tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel for Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR). Each AGR experiment consisted of multiple fueled capsules, each plumbed for independent temperature control using a mix of helium and neon gases. The gas leaving a capsule was routed to individual Fission Product Monitor (FPM) detectors. For intact fuel particles, the TRISO particle coatings provide a substantial barrier to fission product release. However, particles with failed coatings, whether because of a minute percentage of initially defective particles, those which fail during irradiation, or those designed to fail (DTF) particles, can release fission products to the flowing gas stream. Because reactive fission product elements like iodine and cesium quickly deposit on cooler capsule components and piping structures as the effluent gas leaves the reactor core, only the noble fission gas isotopes of Kr and Xe tend to reach FPM detectors. The FPM system utilizes High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors coupled with a thallium activated sodium iodide NaI(Tl) scintillator. The HPGe detector provides individual isotopic information, while the NaI(Tl) scintillator is used as a gross count rate meter. During irradiation, the 135mXe concentration reaching the FPM detectors is from both direct fission and by decay of the accumulated 135I. About 2.5 hours after irradiation (ten 15.3 minute 135mXe half lives) the directly produced 135mXe has decayed and only the longer lived 135I remains as a source. Decay systematics dictate that 135mXe will be in secular equilibrium with its 135I parent, such that its production rate very nearly equals the decay rate of the parent, and its concentration in the flowing gas stream will appear to decay with the parent half life. This equilibrium condition enables the determination of the amount of 135I released from the fuel particles by measurement of the 135mXe at the FPM following reactor shutdown. In this paper, the 135I released will be reported and compared to similar releases for noble gases as well as the unexpected finding of 131I deposition from intentional impure gas injection into capsule 11 of experiment AGR 3/4.

  3. Plasma focus ion beam fluence and fluxFor various gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. [Centre for Plasma Research, INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia) [Centre for Plasma Research, INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia); Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone 3148 (Australia); Physics Department, University of Malaya (Malaysia); Saw, S. H. [Centre for Plasma Research, INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia) [Centre for Plasma Research, INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia); Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone 3148 (Australia)

    2013-06-15

    A recent paper derived benchmarks for deuteron beam fluence and flux in a plasma focus (PF) [S. Lee and S. H. Saw, Phys. Plasmas 19, 112703 (2012)]. In the present work we start from first principles, derive the flux equation of the ion beam of any gas; link to the Lee Model code and hence compute the ion beam properties of the PF. The results show that, for a given PF, the fluence, flux, ion number and ion current decrease from the lightest to the heaviest gas except for trend-breaking higher values for Ar fluence and flux. The energy fluence, energy flux, power flow, and damage factors are relatively constant from H{sub 2} to N{sub 2} but increase for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe due to radiative cooling and collapse effects. This paper provides much needed benchmark reference values and scaling trends for ion beams of a PF operated in any gas.

  4. Process for the regeneration of metallic catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katzer, James R.; Windawi, Hassan

    1981-01-01

    A method for the regeneration of metallic hydrogenation catalysts from the class consisting of Ni, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt and Ru poisoned with sulfur, with or without accompanying carbon deposition, comprising subjecting the catalyst to exposure to oxygen gas in a concentration of about 1-10 ppm. intermixed with an inert gas of the group consisting of He, A, Xe, Kr, N.sub.2 and air substantially free of oxygen to an extent such that the total oxygen molecule throughout is in the range of about 10 to 20 times that of the hydrogen sulfide molecular exposure producing the catalyst poisoning while maintaining the temperature in the range of about 300.degree. to 500.degree. C.

  5. Additive effects of electronic and nuclear energy loss in irradiation-induced amorphization of zircon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Toulemonde, Marcel; Weber, William J.

    2015-12-29

    We used a combination of ion cascades and the unified thermal spike model to study the electronic effects from 800 keV Kr and Xe ion irradiation in zircon. We compared the damage production for four cases: (a) due to ion cascades alone, (b) due to ion cascades with the electronic energy loss activated as a friction term, (c) due to the thermal spike from the combined electronic and nuclear energy losses, and (d) due to ion cascades with electronic stopping and the electron-phonon interactions superimposed. As a result, we found that taking the electronic energy loss out as a friction term results in reduced damage, while the electronic electron-phonon interactions have additive impact on the final damage created per ion.

  6. The analog of Blanc`s law for drift velocities of electrons in gas mixtures in weakly ionized plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiflikian, R.V.

    1995-10-01

    The analog of Blanc`s law for drift velocities of electrons in multicomponent gas mixtures in weakly ionized spatially homogeneous low-temperature plasma is derived. The obtained approximate-analytical expressions are valid for average electron energy in the 1--5 eV range typical for plasma conditions of low-pressure direct current (DC) discharges. The accuracy of these formulas is {plus_minus}5%. The analytical criterion of the negative differential conductivity (NDC) of electrons in binary mixtures of gases is obtained. NDC of electrons is predicted in He:Kr and He:Xe rare gas mixtures. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  7. Additive effects of electronic and nuclear energy loss in irradiation-induced amorphization of zircon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Toulemonde, Marcel; Weber, William J.

    2015-12-29

    We used a combination of ion cascades and the unified thermal spike model to study the electronic effects from 800 keV Kr and Xe ion irradiation in zircon. We compared the damage production for four cases: (a) due to ion cascades alone, (b) due to ion cascades with the electronic energy loss activated as a friction term, (c) due to the thermal spike from the combined electronic and nuclear energy losses, and (d) due to ion cascades with electronic stopping and the electron-phonon interactions superimposed. As a result, we found that taking the electronic energy loss out as a frictionmore » term results in reduced damage, while the electronic electron-phonon interactions have additive impact on the final damage created per ion.« less

  8. Microsoft Word - 2011_1205_Engstrom_RAP_100-K-comments.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 By Dale Engstrom, HAB Issue Manager and RAP Vice-chair The Remedial InvestigationFeasibility Study for the 100-KR-1, 100-KR-2 and 100-KR-4 Operable Units (DOERL-2010-97, Draft...

  9. Microsoft PowerPoint - 100-K_PropPlan(de).pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of 100-KR-, KR-2 and KR-4 Operable Units Units A brief comparison of the two 100-K R di i Al i ( i h Remediation Alternatives (not counting the "No Action" Alternative) H d th...

  10. First-principles study of noble gas impurities and defects in UO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Alexander E.; Wolverton, C.

    2011-10-01

    We performed a series of density functional theory + U (DFT + U) calculations to explore the energetics of various defects in UO{sub 2}, i.e., noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe), Schottky defects, and the interaction between these defects. We found the following: (1) collinear antiferromagnetic UO{sub 2} has an energy-lowering distortion of the oxygen sublattice from ideal fluorite positions; (2) DFT + U qualitatively affects the formation volume of Schottky defect clusters in UO{sub 2} (without U the formation volume is negative, but including U the formation volume is positive); (3) the configuration of the Schottky defect cluster is dictated by a competition between electrostatic and surface energy effects; (4) the incorporation energy of inserting noble gas atoms into an interstitial site has a strong dependence on the volume of the noble gas atom, corresponding to the strain it causes in the interstitial site, from He (0.98 eV) to Xe (9.73 eV); (5) the energetics of each of the noble gas atoms incorporated in Schottky defects show strong favorable binding, due to strain relief associated with moving the noble gas atom from the highly strained interstitial position into the vacant space of the Schottky defect; and (6) for argon, krypton, and xenon, the binding energy of a noble gas impurity with the Schottky defect is larger than the formation energy of a Schottky defect, thereby making the formation of Schottky defects thermodynamically favorable in the presence of these large impurities.

  11. Low energy beam transport system developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudnikov, V.; Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Dudnikova, G.

    2015-04-08

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H{sup ?} beams up to 60?mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100?mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 ? mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1?m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H{sup ?} beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H{sup ?} beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H{sup ?} beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  12. Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) following a postulated accident in PHWRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soni, N.; Kansal, M.; Rammohan, H. P.; Malhotra, P. K.

    2012-07-01

    Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) following postulated accident i.e Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) with failed Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS), performed as part of the reactor safety analysis of a typical 700 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor(PHWR). The rationale behind the assessment is that the public needs to be protected in the event that the postulated accident results in radionuclide release outside containment. Radionuclides deliver dose to the human body through various pathways namely, plume submersion, exposure due to ground deposition, inhalation and ingestion. The total exposure dose measured in terms of total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) is the sum of doses to a hypothetical adult human at exclusion zone boundary by all the exposure pathways. The analysis provides the important inputs to decide upon the type of emergency counter measures to be adopted during the postulated accident. The importance of the various pathways in terms of contribution to the total effective dose equivalent(TEDE) is also assessed with respect to time of exposure. Inhalation and plume gamma dose are the major contributors towards TEDE during initial period of accident whereas ingestion and ground shine dose start dominating in TEDE in the extended period of exposure. Moreover, TEDE is initially dominated by I-131, Kr-88, Te-132, I-133 and Sr-89, whereas, as time progresses, Xe-133,I-131 and Te-132 become the main contributors. (authors)

  13. Ion beam nanopatterning of III-V semiconductors: Consistency of experimental and simulation trends within a chemistry-driven theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Atwani, O.; Norris, S. A.; Ludwig, K.; Gonderman, S.; Allain, J. P.

    2015-12-16

    In this study, several proposed mechanisms and theoretical models exist concerning nanostructure evolution on III-V semiconductors (particularly GaSb) via ion beam irradiation. However, making quantitative contact between experiment on the one hand and model-parameter dependent predictions from different theories on the other is usually difficult. In this study, we take a different approach and provide an experimental investigation with a range of targets (GaSb, GaAs, GaP) and ion species (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) to determine new parametric trends regarding nanostructure evolution. Concurrently, atomistic simulations using binary collision approximation over the same ion/target combinations were performed to determine parametric trends on several quantities related to existing model. A comparison of experimental and numerical trends reveals that the two are broadly consistent under the assumption that instabilities are driven by chemical instability based on phase separation. Furthermore, the atomistic simulations and a survey of material thermodynamic properties suggest that a plausible microscopic mechanism for this process is an ion-enhanced mobility associated with energy deposition by collision cascades.

  14. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 3, Inorganic instrumental methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The methods cover: C in solutions, F (electrode), elements by atomic emission spectrometry, inorganic anions by ion chromatography, Hg in water/solids/sludges, As, Se, Bi, Pb, data calculations for SST (single shell tank?) samples, Sb, Tl, Ag, Pu, O/M ratio, ignition weight loss, pH value, ammonia (N), Cr(VI), alkalinity, U, C sepn. from soil/sediment/sludge, Pu purif., total N, water, C and S, surface Cl/F, leachable Cl/F, outgassing of Ge detector dewars, gas mixing, gas isotopic analysis, XRF of metals/alloys/compounds, H in Zircaloy, H/O in metals, inpurity extraction, reduced/total Fe in glass, free acid in U/Pu solns, density of solns, Kr/Xe isotopes in FFTF cover gas, H by combustion, MS of Li and Cs isotopes, MS of lanthanide isotopes, GC operation, total Na on filters, XRF spectroscopy QC, multichannel analyzer operation, total cyanide in water/solid/sludge, free cyanide in water/leachate, hydrazine conc., ICP-MS, {sup 99}Tc, U conc./isotopes, microprobe analysis of solids, gas analysis, total cyanide, H/N{sub 2}O in air, and pH in soil.

  15. A gas-loading system for LANL two-stage gas guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, Lloyd Lee; Bartram, Brian Douglas; Dattelbaum, Dana Mcgraw; Lang, John Michael; Morris, John Scott

    2015-09-01

    A novel gas loading system was designed for the specific application of remotely loading high purity gases into targets for gas-gun driven plate impact experiments. The high purity gases are loaded into well-defined target configurations to obtain Hugoniot states in the gas phase at greater than ambient pressures.The small volume of the gas samples is challenging, as slight changing in the ambient temperature result in measurable pressure changes. Therefore, the ability to load a gas gun target and continually monitor the sample pressure prior to firing provides the most stable and reliable target fielding approach. We present the design and evaluation of a gas loading system built for the LANL 50 mm bore two-stage light gas gun. Targets for the gun are made of 6061 Al or OFHC Cu, and assembled to form a gas containment cell with a volume of approximately 1.38 cc. The compatibility of materials was a major consideration in the design of the system, particularly for its use with corrosive gases. Piping and valves are stainless steel with wetted seals made from Kalrez® and Teflon®. Preliminary testing was completed to ensure proper flow rate and that the proper safety controls were in place. The system has been used to successfully load Ar, Kr, Xe, and anhydrous ammonia with purities of up to 99.999 percent. The design of the system and example data from the plate impact experiments will be shown.

  16. Improved Ion Resistance for III-V Photocathodes in High Current Guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulhollan, Gregory, A.

    2012-11-16

    The two photocathode test systems were modified, baked and recommissioned. The first system was dedicated to ion studies and the second to electron stimulated recovery (ESR) work. The demonstration system for the electron beam rejuvenation was set up, tested and demonstrated to one of the SSRL team (Dr. Kirby) during a site visit. The requisite subsystems were transferred to SSRL, installed and photoemission studies conducted on activated surfaces following electron beam exposure. Little surface chemistry change was detected in the photoemission spectra following the ESR process. The yield mapping system for the ion (and later, the electron beam rejuvenation) studies was implemented and use made routine. Ion species and flux measurements were performed for H, He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe ions at energies of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 kV. Gas induced photoyield measurements followed each ion exposure measurement. These data permit the extraction of photoyield induced change per ion (by species) at the measured energies. Electron beam induced rejuvenation was first demonstrated in the second chamber with primary electron beam energy and dependency investigations following. A Hiden quadrupole mass spectrometer for the electron stimulated desorption (ESD) measurements was procured. The UHV test systems needed for subsequent measurements were configured, baked, commissioned and utilized for their intended purposes. Measurements characterizing the desorption products from the ESD process and secondary electron (SE) yield at the surfaces of negative electron affinity GaAs photocathodes have been performed. One US Utility Patent was granted covering the ESR process.

  17. Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) Furnace for Post-Irradiation Heating Tests of VHTR Fuel Compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A Demkowicz; Paul Demkowicz; David V Laug

    2010-10-01

    Abstract Fuel irradiation testing and post-irradiation examination are currently in progress as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Fuels Development and Qualification Program. The PIE campaign will include extensive accident testing of irradiated very high temperature reactor fuel compacts to verify fission product retention characteristics at high temperatures. This work will be carried out at both the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, beginning with accident tests on irradiated fuel from the AGR-1 experiment in 2010. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested at INL to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, Eu, and I) and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  18. Mobility of Supercooled liquid Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Benzene near their Glass Transition Temperatures Investigated using Inert Gas Permeation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Robert A.; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.

    2013-11-21

    We investigate the mobility of supercooled liquid toluene, ethylbenzene, and benzene near their respective glass transition temperatures (Tg). The permeation rate of Ar, Kr, and Xe through the supercooled liquid created when initially amorphous overlayers heated above their glass transition temperature is used to determine the diffusivity. Amorphous benzene crystallizes at temperatures well below its Tg and as a result the inert gas underlayer remains trapped until the onset of benzene desorption. In contrast, for toluene and ethylbenzene the onset of inert gas permeation is observed at temperatues near Tg. The inert gas desorption peak temperature as a function of the heating rate and overlayer thickness is used to quantify the diffusivity of supercooled liquid toluene and ethylbenzene from 115 K to 135 K. In this temperature range, diffusivities are found to vary across five orders of magnitude (~10-14 to 10-9 cm2/s). These data are compared to viscosity measurements and used to determine the low temperature fractional Stokes-Einstein exponent. Efforts to determine the diffusivity of a mixture of benzene and ethylbenzene are detailed, and the effect of mixing these materials on benzene crystallization is explored using infrared spectroscopy.

  19. EXTERNAL PHOTOEVAPORATION OF THE SOLAR NEBULA: JUPITER's NOBLE GAS ENRICHMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monga, Nikhil; Desch, Steven

    2015-01-01

    We present a model explaining the elemental enrichments in Jupiter's atmosphere, particularly the noble gases Ar, Kr, and Xe. While He, Ne, and O are depleted, seven other elements show similar enrichments (∼3 times solar, relative to H). Being volatile, Ar is difficult to fractionate from H{sub 2}. We argue that external photoevaporation by far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from nearby massive stars removed H{sub 2}, He, and Ne from the solar nebula, but Ar and other species were retained because photoevaporation occurred at large heliocentric distances where temperatures were cold enough (≲ 30 K) to trap them in amorphous water ice. As the solar nebula lost H, it became relatively and uniformly enriched in other species. Our model improves on the similar model of Guillot and Hueso. We recognize that cold temperatures alone do not trap volatiles; continuous water vapor production is also necessary. We demonstrate that FUV fluxes that photoevaporated the disk generated sufficient water vapor in regions ≲ 30 K to trap gas-phase species in amorphous water ice in solar proportions. We find more efficient chemical fractionation in the outer disk: whereas the model of Guillot and Hueso predicts a factor of three enrichment when only <2% of the disk mass remains, we find the same enrichments when 30% of the disk mass remains. Finally, we predict the presence of ∼0.1 M {sub ⊕} of water vapor in the outer solar nebula and protoplanetary disks in H II regions.

  20. Design of an Online Fission Gas Monitoring System for Post-irradiation Examination Heating Tests of Coated Fuel Particles for High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawn Scates

    2010-10-01

    A new Fission Gas Monitoring System (FGMS) has been designed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for use of monitoring online fission gas-released during fuel heating tests. The FGMS will be used with the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) at the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) located at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) within the INL campus. Preselected Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) TRISO (Tri-isotropic) fuel compacts will undergo testing to assess the fission product retention characteristics under high temperature accident conditions. The FACS furnace will heat the fuel to temperatures up to 2,000C in a helium atmosphere. Released fission products such as Kr and Xe isotopes will be transported downstream to the FGMS where they will accumulate in cryogenically cooledcollection traps and monitored with High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors during the heating process. Special INL developed software will be used to monitor the accumulated fission products and will report data in near real-time. These data will then be reported in a form that can be readily available to the INL reporting database. This paper describes the details of the FGMS design, the control and acqusition software, system calibration, and the expected performance of the FGMS. Preliminary online data may be available for presentation at the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) conference.

  1. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system for high temperature performance testing of VHTR fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Demkowicz; David V. Laug; Dawn M. Scates; Edward L. Reber; Lyle G. Roybal; John B. Walter; Jason M. Harp; Robert N. Morris

    2012-10-01

    The AGR-1 irradiation of TRISO-coated particle fuel specimens was recently completed and represents the most successful such irradiation in US history, reaching peak burnups of greater than 19% FIMA with zero failures out of 300,000 particles. An extensive post-irradiation examination (PIE) campaign will be conducted on the AGR-1 fuel in order to characterize the irradiated fuel properties, assess the in-pile fuel performance in terms of coating integrity and fission metals release, and determine the fission product retention behavior during high temperature safety testing. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000 degrees C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, and Eu), iodine, and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system and the associated fission gas monitoring system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  2. Quenching of electron transfer reactions through coadsorption: A study of oxygen photodesorption from TiO2(110)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Petrik, Nikolay G.; Kimmel, Greg A.; Shen, Mingmin; Henderson, Michael A.

    2016-01-11

    Using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and photon-stimulated desorption (PSD), we show that coadsorbates of varying binding energies on the rutile TiO2(110) surface exert a commensurate inhibiting influence on the hole-mediated photodesorption of adsorbed O2. A variety of coadsorbates (Ar, Kr, Xe, N2, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, acetone, methanol or water) were shown to quench O2 photoactivity, with the extent correlating with the coadsorbate's gas phase basicity, which in turn determines the strength of the coadsorbate–Ti4+ bond. Coadsorbed rare gases inhibited the photodesorption of O2 by ~ 10–25%, whereas strongly bound species (water, methanol, and acetone) nearly completely inhibited O2 PSD.more » We suggest that coadsorption of these molecules inhibit the arrival probability of holes to the surface. Band-bending effects, which vary with the extent of charge transfer between the coadsorbate and the TiO2(110) surface, are not expected to be significant in the cases of the rare gases and physisorbed species. Furthermore, these results indicate that neutral coadsorbates can exert a significant influence on charge transfer events by altering the interfacial dipole in the vicinity of the target molecule.« less

  3. Method for introduction of gases into microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, C.D.; Koo, J.C.; Rosencwaig, A.

    A method is described for producing small hollow glass spheres filled with a gas by introduction of the gas during formation of the hollow glass spheres. Hollow glass microspheres having a diameter up to about 500..mu.. with both thin walls (0.5 to 4/sub ..mu../) and thick walls (5 to 20/sub ..mu../) that contain various fill gases, such as Ar, Kr, Xe, Br, D, H/sub 2/, DT, He, N/sub 2/, Ne, CO/sub 2/, etc., in the interior thereof, can be produced by the diffusion of the fill gas or gases into the microsphere during the formation thereof from a liquid droplet of glass-form-forming solution. This is accomplished by filling at least a portion of the multiple-zone drop-furnace used in producing hollow microspheres with the gas or gases of interest, and then taking advantage of the high rate of gaseous diffusion of the fill gas through the wall of the gel membrane before it transforms into a glass microsphere as it is processed in the multiple-zone furnace.

  4. Ion beam nanopatterning of III-V semiconductors: Consistency of experimental and simulation trends within a chemistry-driven theory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    El-Atwani, O.; Norris, S. A.; Ludwig, K.; Gonderman, S.; Allain, J. P.

    2015-12-16

    In this study, several proposed mechanisms and theoretical models exist concerning nanostructure evolution on III-V semiconductors (particularly GaSb) via ion beam irradiation. However, making quantitative contact between experiment on the one hand and model-parameter dependent predictions from different theories on the other is usually difficult. In this study, we take a different approach and provide an experimental investigation with a range of targets (GaSb, GaAs, GaP) and ion species (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) to determine new parametric trends regarding nanostructure evolution. Concurrently, atomistic simulations using binary collision approximation over the same ion/target combinations were performed to determine parametric trends onmore » several quantities related to existing model. A comparison of experimental and numerical trends reveals that the two are broadly consistent under the assumption that instabilities are driven by chemical instability based on phase separation. Furthermore, the atomistic simulations and a survey of material thermodynamic properties suggest that a plausible microscopic mechanism for this process is an ion-enhanced mobility associated with energy deposition by collision cascades.« less

  5. A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alessi, James Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John

    2014-02-15

    A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented.

  6. icf | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    (KrF) laser. Nike was developed primarily to investigate interactions of high intensity KrF light with matter. The target facility is well equipped for experiments on laser ...

  7. Nike | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    (KrF) laser. Nike was developed primarily to investigate interactions of high intensity KrF light with matter. The target facility is well equipped for experiments on laser ...

  8. technology | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    (KrF) laser. Nike was developed primarily to investigate interactions of high intensity KrF light with matter. The target facility is well equipped for experiments on laser ...

  9. nike | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    (KrF) laser. Nike was developed primarily to investigate interactions of high intensity KrF light with matter. The target facility is well equipped for experiments on laser ...

  10. Hopping conduction in p-type MoS{sub 2} near the critical regime...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ; Park, Joonsuk 4 ; Lin, Der-Yuh 5 ; Huang, Ying-Sheng 6 ; Choi, Heon-Jin 7 ; Chang, Joonyeon, E-mail: cujang@kist.re.kr, E-mail: presto@kist.re.kr 1 ; Department of ...

  11. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Environmenta...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    - Nanosolar, Inc. Kr, Sren Knudsen (Sren Knudsen Kr) - Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University Go back to Individual Researchers Collections: A B C D E F G H I...

  12. Bulk and surface controlled diffusion of fission gas atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersson, Anders D.

    2012-08-09

    Fission gas retention and release impact nuclear fuel performance by, e.g., causing fuel swelling leading to mechanical interaction with the clad, increasing the plenum pressure and reducing the gap thermal conductivity. All of these processes are important to understand in order to optimize operating conditions of nuclear reactors and to simulate accident scenarios. Most fission gases have low solubility in the fuel matrix, which is especially pronounced for large fission gas atoms such as Xe and Kr, and as a result there is a significant driving force for segregation of gas atoms to extended defects such as grain boundaries or dislocations and subsequently for nucleation of gas bubbles at these sinks. Several empirical or semi-empirical models have been developed for fission gas release in nuclear fuels, e.g. [1-6]. One of the most commonly used models in fuel performance codes was published by Massih and Forsberg [3,4,6]. This model is similar to the early Booth model [1] in that it applies an equivalent sphere to separate bulk UO{sub 2} from grain boundaries represented by the sphere circumference. Compared to the Booth model, it also captures trapping at grain boundaries, fission gas resolution and it describes release from the boundary by applying timedependent boundary conditions to the circumference. In this work we focus on the step where fission gas atoms diffuse from the grain interior to the grain boundaries. The original Massih-Forsberg model describes this process by applying an effective diffusivity divided into three temperature regimes. In this report we present results from density functional theory calculations (DFT) that are relevant for the high (D{sub 3}) and intermediate (D{sub 2}) temperature diffusivities of fission gases. The results are validated by making a quantitative comparison to Turnbull's [8-10] and Matzke's data [12]. For the intrinsic or high temperature regime we report activation energies for both Xe and Kr diffusion in UO{sub 2{+-}x}, which compare favorably to available experiments. This is an extension of previous work [13]. In particular, it applies improved chemistry models for the UO{sub 2{+-}x} nonstoichiometry and its impact on the fission gas activation energies. The derivation of these models follows the approach that used in our recent study of uranium vacancy diffusion in UO{sub 2} [14]. Also, based on the calculated DFT data we analyze vacancy enhanced diffusion mechanisms in the intermediate temperature regime. In addition to vacancy enhanced diffusion we investigate species transport on the (111) UO{sub 2} surface. This is motivated by the formation of small voids partially filled with fission gas atoms (bubbles) in UO{sub 2} under irradiation, for which surface diffusion could be the rate-limiting transport step. Diffusion of such bubbles constitutes an alternative mechanism for mass transport in these materials.

  13. U-138: Cisco IOS IPSec IKE Unspecified Denial of Service Vulnerability |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 38: Cisco IOS IPSec IKE Unspecified Denial of Service Vulnerability U-138: Cisco IOS IPSec IKE Unspecified Denial of Service Vulnerability April 2, 2012 - 7:00am Addthis PROBLEM: A vulnerability has been reported in Cisco IOS, which can be exploited by malicious people to cause a DoS (Denial of Service). PLATFORM: Cisco IOS XE 2.1.x Cisco IOS XE 2.2.x Cisco IOS XE 2.3.x Cisco IOS XE 2.4.x Cisco IOS XE 2.5.x Cisco IOS XE 2.6.x Cisco IOS XE 3.1.x Cisco IOS XE 3.3.x

  14. NERSC Users Group Meeting October 18-21, 2010 Presentations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    architecture of XE6), Launch of parallel applicationsbatch system, User Environment, Compilers of the XE6 (PGI, Pathscale, GNU, Cray) October 18, 2010 | Author(s): The Cray Team |...

  15. Featured Announcements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    July 2011 Workshop on Cray XE6 User Experiences September 27-28 July 11, 2011 by Francesca Verdier Sandia National Laboratory and Cray Inc are hosting a Workshop on Cray XE6 User...

  16. Molecular dynamics simulation of framework flexibility effects on noble gas diffusion in HKUST-1 and ZIF-8

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Parkes, Marie V.; Demir, Hakan; Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie L.; Sholl, David S.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Allendorf, Mark D.

    2014-03-28

    Molecular dynamics simulations were used to investigate trends in noble gas (Ar, Kr, Xe) diffusion in the metal-organic frameworks HKUST-1 and ZIF-8. Diffusion occurs primarily through inter-cage jump events, with much greater diffusion of guest atoms in HKUST-1 compared to ZIF-8 due to the larger cage and window sizes in the former. We compare diffusion coefficients calculated for both rigid and flexible frameworks. For rigid framework simulations, in which the framework atoms were held at their crystallographic or geometry optimized coordinates, sometimes dramatic differences in guest diffusion were seen depending on the initial framework structure or the choice of frameworkmore » force field parameters. When framework flexibility effects were included, argon and krypton diffusion increased significantly compared to rigid-framework simulations using general force field parameters. Additionally, for argon and krypton in ZIF-8, guest diffusion increased with loading, demonstrating that guest-guest interactions between cages enhance inter-cage diffusion. No inter-cage jump events were seen for xenon atoms in ZIF-8 regardless of force field or initial structure, and the loading dependence of xenon diffusion in HKUST-1 is different for rigid and flexible frameworks. Diffusion of krypton and xenon in HKUST-1 depends on two competing effects: the steric effect that decreases diffusion as loading increases, and the “small cage effect” that increases diffusion as loading increases. Finally, a detailed analysis of the window size in ZIF-8 reveals that the window increases beyond its normal size to permit passage of a (nominally) larger krypton atom.« less

  17. A class of ejecta transport test problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammerberg, James E; Buttler, William T; Oro, David M; Rousculp, Christopher L; Morris, Christopher; Mariam, Fesseha G

    2011-01-31

    Hydro code implementations of ejecta dynamics at shocked interfaces presume a source distribution function ofparticulate masses and velocities, f{sub 0}(m, v;t). Some of the properties of this source distribution function have been determined from extensive Taylor and supported wave experiments on shock loaded Sn interfaces of varying surface and subsurface morphology. Such experiments measure the mass moment of f{sub o} under vacuum conditions assuming weak particle-particle interaction and, usually, fully inelastic capture by piezo-electric diagnostic probes. Recently, planar Sn experiments in He, Ar, and Kr gas atmospheres have been carried out to provide transport data both for machined surfaces and for coated surfaces. A hydro code model of ejecta transport usually specifies a criterion for the instantaneous temporal appearance of ejecta with source distribution f{sub 0}(m, v;t{sub 0}). Under the further assumption of separability, f{sub 0}(m,v;t{sub 0}) = f{sub 1}(m)f{sub 2}(v), the motion of particles under the influence of gas dynamic forces is calculated. For the situation of non-interacting particulates, interacting with a gas via drag forces, with the assumption of separability and simplified approximations to the Reynolds number dependence of the drag coefficient, the dynamical equation for the time evolution of the distribution function, f(r,v,m;t), can be resolved as a one-dimensional integral which can be compared to a direct hydro simulation as a test problem. Such solutions can also be used for preliminary analysis of experimental data. We report solutions for several shape dependent drag coefficients and analyze the results of recent planar dsh experiments in Ar and Xe.

  18. Characterization of collision cascade damage in Ca{sub 2}La{sub 8}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2} by HRTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, W.J.; Wang, L.M.

    1994-12-01

    Ca{sub 2}La{sub 8}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2} thin crystals become amorphous under ion beam irradiation. The ion dose required for complete amorphization of the thin crystal (critical amorphization dose, D{sub c}) increased with the increasing irradiation temperature and decreased with ion mass at elevated temperatures. Samples irradiated with 1-1.5 MeV Ar{sup +}, Kr{sup +} and Xe{sup +} ions to doses much lower than Dc, in the temperature range from 20 to 498 K were used for a detailed HRTEM study to better understand the amorphization process. The residual collision cascade damage after irradiation appeared as manometer scale amorphous domains. The images of these domains are extremely sensitive to the sample thickness. Small domains of cascade size were only found at the very thin edge of the sample. In thicker regions, amorphous domains appear after higher doses as the result of cascade overlap in projection. At higher temperatures, the observed amorphous domains are smaller indicating thermal recovery at the amorphous/crystalline interface. The amorphous domains are also larger in size after irradiation with ions of higher mass at a fixed ion dose. These results are consistent with the Dc-temperature curves determined by in situ TEM with the HVEM-Tandem Facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The width of the amorphous rim along the edge of the specimen grew with increasing ion dose suggesting that amorphization also proceeds from the sample surface. Images of the collision cascade damage were compared to the cascade sizes calculated with the TRIM code. Some digitally acquired HRTEM images of the cascade damage were processed to reveal more detailed information.

  19. Method for introduction of gases into microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Charles D.; Koo, Jackson C.; Rosencwaig, Allan

    1981-01-01

    A method for producing small hollow glass spheres filled with a gas by introduction of the gas during formation of the hollow glass spheres. Hollow glass microspheres having a diameter up to about 500.mu. with both thin walls (0.5 to 4.mu.) and thick walls (5 to 20.mu.) that contain various fill gases, such as Ar, Kr, Xe, Br, DT, H.sub.2, D.sub.2, He, N.sub.2, Ne, CO.sub.2, etc. in the interior thereof, can be produced by the diffusion of the fill gas or gases into the microsphere during the formation thereof from a liquid droplet of glass-forming solution. This is accomplished by filling at least a portion of the multiple-zone drop-furnace used in producing hollow microspheres with the gas or gases of interest, and then taking advantage of the high rate of gaseous diffusion of the fill gas through the wall of the gel membrane before it transforms into a glass microsphere as it is processed in the multiple-zone furnace. Almost any gas can be introduced into the inner cavity of a glass microsphere by this method during the formation of the microsphere provided that the gas is diffused into the gel membrane or microsphere prior to its transformation into glass. The process of this invention provides a significant savings of time and related expense of filling glass microspheres with various gases. For example, the time for filling a glass microballoon with 1 atmosphere of DT is reduced from about two hours to a few seconds.

  20. Metastable Radioxenon Verification Laboratory (MRVL) Year-End Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Matthew W.; Hayes, James C.; Lidey, Lance S.

    2014-11-07

    This is the year end report that is due to the client. The MRVL system is designed to measure multiple radioxenon isotopes (135Xe, 133Xe, 133mXe and 133mXe) simultaneously. The system has 12 channels to load samples and make nuclear measurements. Although the MRVL system has demonstrated excellent stability in measurements of Xe-133 and Xe-135 over the year of evaluation prior to delivery, there has been concern about system stability over measurements performed on samples with orders of magnitude different radioactivity, and samples containing multiple isotopes. To address these concerns, a series of evaluation test have been performed at the end-user laboratory. The evaluation was performed in two separate phases. Phase 1 made measurements on isotopically pure Xe-133 from high radioactivity down to the system background levels of activity, addressing the potential count rate dependencies when activities change from extreme high to very low. The second phase performed measurements on samples containing multiple isotopes (Xe-135, Xe-133 and Xe-133m), and addressed concerns about the dependence of isotopic concentrations on the presence of additional isotopes. The MRVL showed a concentration dependence on the Xe-133 due to the amount of Xe-133m that was in the sample. The dependency is due to the decay of Xe-133m into Xe-133. This document focuses on the second phase and will address the analysis used to account for ingrowth of Xe-133 from Xe-133m.

  1. The Enriched Xenon Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolinski, M. J. [Stanford University Physics Department, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2009-12-17

    The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) experiment will search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 136}Xe. The EXO Collaboration is actively pursuing both liquid-phase and gas-phase Xe detector technologies with scalability to the ton-scale. The search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 136}Xe is especially attractive because of the possibility of tagging the resulting Ba daughter ion, eliminating all sources of background other than the two neutrino decay mode. EXO-200, the first phase of the project, is a liquid Xe time projection chamber with 200 kg of Xe enriched to 80% in {sup 136}Xe. EXO-200, which does not include Ba-tagging, will begin taking data in 2009, with two-year sensitivity to the half-life for neutrinoless double beta decay of 6.4x10{sup 25} years. This corresponds to an effective Majorana neutrino mass of 0.13 to 0.19 eV.

  2. The Enriched Xenon Observatory (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Enriched Xenon Observatory Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Enriched Xenon Observatory The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) experiment will search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 136}Xe. The EXO Collaboration is actively pursuing both liquid-phase and gas-phase Xe detector technologies with scalability to the ton-scale. The search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 136}Xe is especially attractive because of the possibility of tagging the resulting Ba daughter

  3. Sorption Modeling and Verification for Off-Gas Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tavlarides, Lawrence L.; Lin, Ronghong; Nan, Yue; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas; Ladshaw, Austin; Sharma, Ketki; Gabitto, Jorge; DePaoli, David

    2015-04-29

    The project has made progress toward developing a comprehensive modeling capability for the capture of target species in off gas evolved during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. The effort has integrated experimentation, model development, and computer code development for adsorption and absorption processes. For adsorption, a modeling library has been initiated to include (a) equilibrium models for uptake of off-gas components by adsorbents, (b) mass transfer models to describe mass transfer to a particle, diffusion through the pores of the particle and adsorption on the active sites of the particle, and (c) interconnection of these models to fixed bed adsorption modeling which includes advection through the bed. For single-component equilibria, a Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) code was developed to represent experimental data from a broad range of isotherm types; this is equivalent to a Langmuir isotherm in the two-parameter case, and was demonstrated for Kr on INL-engineered sorbent HZ PAN, water sorption on molecular sieve A sorbent material (MS3A), and Kr and Xe capture on metal-organic framework (MOF) materials. The GSTA isotherm was extended to multicomponent systems through application of a modified spreading pressure surface activity model and generalized predictive adsorbed solution theory; the result is the capability to estimate multicomponent adsorption equilibria from single-component isotherms. This advance, which enhances the capability to simulate systems related to off-gas treatment, has been demonstrated for a range of real-gas systems in the literature and is ready for testing with data currently being collected for multicomponent systems of interest, including iodine and water on MS3A. A diffusion kinetic model for sorbent pellets involving pore and surface diffusion as well as external mass transfer has been established, and a methodology was developed for determining unknown diffusivity parameters from transient uptake data. Two parallel approaches have been explored for integrating the kernels described above into a mass-transport model for adsorption in fixed beds. In one, the GSTA isotherm kernel has been incorporated into the MOOSE framework; in the other approach, a focused finite-difference framework and PDE kernels have been developed. Issues, including oscillatory behavior in MOOSE solutions to advection-diffusion problems, and opportunities have been identified for each approach, and a path forward has been identified toward developing a stronger modeling platform. Experimental systems were established for collection of microscopic kinetics and equilibria data for single and multicomponent uptake of gaseous species on solid sorbents. The systems, which can operate at ambient temperature to 250°C and dew points from -69 to 17°C, are useful for collecting data needed for modeling performance of sorbents of interest. Experiments were conducted to determine applicable models and parameters for isotherms and mass transfer for water and/or iodine adsorption on MS3A. Validation experiments were also conducted for water adsorption on fixed beds of MS3A. For absorption, work involved modeling with supportive experimentation. A dynamic model was developed to simulate CO2 absorption with chemical reaction using high alkaline content water solutions. A computer code was developed to implement the model based upon transient mass and energy balances. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory-scale column to determine model parameters. The influence of geometric parameters and operating variables on CO2 absorption was studied over a wide range of conditions. This project has resulted in 7 publications, with 3 manuscripts in preparation. Also, 15 presentations were given at national meetings of ANS and AIChE and at Material Recovery and Waste Forms Campaign Working Group meetings.

  4. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... heated above the melting point using nanosecond laser pulses are studied with infrared refection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) and Kr temperature programmed desorption (TPD). ...

  5. Sleuthing the Fate of Water in Ancient Aquifers and Ice Cores...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    ... When combined with other tracers, 85Kr measurements will improve the quality and reliability of groundwater flow and vulnerability assessments. A systematic survey of 39Ar ...

  6. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... on the National Ignition Facilitymore (NIF) laser. We employ a model, benchmarked against Kr data collected on the NIF, that uses flux-limited Lee-More thermal ...

  7. Gaseous fission product management for molten salt reactors and vented fuel systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messenger, S. J.; Forsberg, C.; Massie, M.

    2012-07-01

    Fission gas disposal is one of the unresolved difficulties for Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs) and advanced reactors with vented fuel systems. As these systems operate, they produce many radioactive isotopes of xenon and krypton (e.g. {sup 135}Xe t{sub 1/2} = 9.14 hours and {sup 85}Kr t{sub 1/2}= 10.73 years). Removing these gases proves vital to the success of such reactor designs for two reasons. First, the gases act as large neutron sinks which decrease reactivity and must be counterbalanced by increasing fuel loading. Second, for MSRs, inert fission product gases naturally separate quickly from high temperature salts, thus creating high vapor pressure which poses safety concerns. For advanced reactors with solid vented fuel, the gases are allowed to escape into an off-gas system and thus must be managed. Because of time delays in transport of fission product gases in vented fuel systems, some of the shorter-lived radionuclides will decay away thereby reducing the fission gas source term relative to an MSR. To calculate the fission gas source term of a typical molten salt reactor, we modeled a 1000 MWe graphite moderated thorium MSR similar to that detailed in Mathieu et al. [1]. The fuel salt used in these calculations was LiF (78 mole percent) - (HN)F 4 (22 mole percent) with a heavy nuclide composition of 3.86% {sup 233}U and 96.14% {sup 232}Th by mass. Before we can remove the fission product gases produced by this reactor configuration, we must first develop an appropriate storage mechanism. The gases could be stored in pressurized containers but then one must be concerned about bottle failure. Methods to trap noble gases in matrices are expensive and complex. Alternatively, there are direct storage/disposal options: direct injection into the Earth or injecting a grout-based product into the Earth. Advances in drilling technologies, hydro fracture technologies, and methods for the sequestration of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel plants are creating new options for disposal of fission gas wastes. In each option, lithostatic pressure, a kilometer or more underground, eliminates the pressure driving force for noble gas release and dissolves any untrapped gas in deep groundwater or into incorporated solid waste forms. The options, challenges, and potential for these methods to dispose of gaseous fission products are described. With this research, we hope to help both MSRs and other advanced reactors come one step closer to commercialization. (authors)

  8. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... The intensity and temperature of sonoluminescence increases from He to Xe. The intensity ... consumes a significant fraction of the energy generated by the collapsing bubble, which ...

  9. Effect of Noble Gases on Sonoluminescence Temperatures during...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The intensity and temperature of sonoluminescence increases from He to Xe. The intensity ... consumes a significant fraction of the energy generated by the collapsing bubble, which ...

  10. ALSNews Vol. 310

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    processes and subsequent ion fragmentation dynamics in nanoclusters composed of argon (Ar) shells and xenon (Xe) cores. The clusters were site-selectively ionized (i.e,...

  11. Presentations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Adobe Acrobat PDF file A description of the Cray XE6 architecture. Presented by John Shalf, NERSC. Compiling-Cunningham.pdf | Adobe Acrobat PDF file An introduction to...

  12. Performance Tools Harvey Wasserman Woo-Sun Yang NERSC User Services...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimization and Performance Tools Harvey Wasserman Woo-Sun Yang NERSC User Services Group Cray XE6 Workshop February 7-8, 2011 NERSC Oakland Scientific Facility Outline *...

  13. Compiler Comparisons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Comparisons Compiler Comparisons Compiler Comparisons on Hopper There are five compilers available to users on Hopper, the NERSC XE6. All of the compilers on this system are...

  14. Jay Srinivasan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    before coming to Berkeley Lab. Conference Papers Jay Srinivasan, Richard Shane Canon, "Evaluation of A Flash Storage Filesystem on the Cray XE-6", CUG 2013, May 2013,...

  15. VTune

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intel VTUNE Amplifier XE is a performance analysis tool that enables you to find serial and parallel code bottlenecks and speed execution. VTUNE provides both the GUI...

  16. Effect of Grain Boundaries on Krypton Segregation Behavior in Irradiated Uranium Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valderrama, Billy; He, Lingfeng; Henderson, Hunter B.; Pakarinen, Janne; Jaques, Brian; Gan, Jian; Butt, Darryl P.; Allen, Todd R.; Manuel, Michele V.

    2014-11-01

    Fission products, such as krypton (Kr), are known to be insoluble within UO2, segregating towards grain boundaries, eventually leading to a lowering of the thermal conductivity and fuel swelling. Recent computational studies have identified that differences in grain boundary structure have a significant effect on the segregation behavior of fission products. However, experimental work supporting these simulations is lacking. Atom probe tomography was used to measure the Kr distribution across grain boundaries in UO2. Polycrystalline depleted-UO2 samples was irradiated with 0.7 and 1.8 MeV Kr-ions and annealed to 1000C, 1300C, and 1600C for 1 hour to produce a Kr-bubble dominated microstructure. The results of this work indicate a strong dependence of Kr concentration as a function of grain boundary structure. Temperature also influences grain boundary chemistry with greater Kr concentration evident at higher temperatures, resulting in a reduced Kr concentration in the bulk. While Kr migration is active at elevated temperatures, no changes in grain size or texture were observed in the irradiated UO2 samples.

  17. Agenda

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9:45 Introduction to HPC Systems Richard Gerber, NERSC 9:45- 10:15 Cray XE6 Architecture John Shalf, NERSC 10:15-10:30 Break 10:30-11:30 Compiling Code on the XE6 (with hands-on)...

  18. Actinide production from xenon bombardments of curium-248

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welch, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    Production cross sections for many actinide nuclides formed in the reaction of /sup 129/Xe and /sup 132/Xe with /sup 248/Cm at bombarding energies slightly above the coulomb barrier were determined using radiochemical techniques to isolate these products. These results are compared with cross sections from a /sup 136/Xe + /sup 248/Cm reaction at a similar energy. When compared to the reaction with /sup 136/Xe, the maxima in the production cross section distributions from the more neutron deficient projectiles are shifted to smaller mass numbers, and the total cross section increases for the production of elements with atomic numbers greater than that of the target, and decreases for lighter elements. These results can be explained by use of a potential energy surface (PES) which illustrates the effect of the available energy on the transfer of nucleons and describes the evolution of the di-nuclear complex, an essential feature of deep-inelastic reactions (DIR), during the interaction. The other principal reaction mechanism is the quasi-elastic transfer (QE). Analysis of data from a similar set of reactions, /sup 129/Xe, /sup 132/Xe, and /sup 136/Xe with /sup 197/Au, aids in explaining the features of the Xe + Cm product distributions, which are additionally affected by the depletion of actinide product yields due to deexcitation by fission. The PES is shown to be a useful tool to predict the general features of product distributions from heavy ion reactions.

  19. Publisher's Note: High-spin lifetime measurements in the N=Z nucleus {sup

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    72}Kr [Phys. Rev. C 75, 041301(R) (2007)] (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Publisher's Note: High-spin lifetime measurements in the N=Z nucleus {sup 72}Kr [Phys. Rev. C 75, 041301(R) (2007)] Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Publisher's Note: High-spin lifetime measurements in the N=Z nucleus {sup 72}Kr [Phys. Rev. C 75, 041301(R) (2007)] No abstract prepared. Authors: Andreoiu, C. ; Svensson, C. E. ; Afanasjev, A. V. ; Austin, R. A. E. ; Carpenter, M. P. ; Dashdorj, D. ; Finlay,

  20. Continuous realtime radioiodine monitor employing on-line methyl iodide conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, S.J.; Motes, B.G.

    1980-01-01

    An integrated /sup 14/C, /sup 129/I, and /sup 85/Kr monitor was proposed by Fernandez, et al. that separates /sup 129/I from /sup 85/Kr by selective permeation across thin silicone rubber membranes. Subsequent studies of the permeation of CH/sub 3/I and I/sub 2/ through silicone rubber membranes demonstrated that I/sub 2/ transport across the membranes is too slow to be useful in a realtime monitor. Transport of methyl iodide, however, is rapid and gives a separation factor of greater than 100 from /sup 85/Kr.

  1. Table of Contents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    IV: ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR SCIENCE Target Z-dependence of Cross Sections for Multiple Electron Loss by 6 A MeV Xe18+ Ions R. L. Watson, Y. Peng, and V. Horvat Additivity of Cross Sections for Electron Loss from 6 A MeV Xe18+ in Molecular Targets R. L. Watson, Y. Peng, and V. Horvat Systematics of the Energy Dependence of Projectile Charge-changing Cross Sections V. Horvat and R. L. Watson Multiple Electron Capture and Loss of 2 MeV/u Xe Ions in Nitrogen V. Horvat and R. L. Watson Charge

  2. 2006 ORAU/ORISE Bibliography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    C. R. Bingham, I. G. Draby, G. Drafta, C. Goodin, C. J. Gross, J. H. Hamilton, A. A. Hecht, J. K. Hwang, D. T. Joss, A. Korgul, W. Kr'olas, K. Lagergren, K. Li, M. N. Tantawy,...

  3. Mathematical modeling of cold cap

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pohang, Republic of Korea. E-mail address: pavelhrma@postech.ac.kr (P. Hrma). Journal of Nuclear Materials 429 (2012) 245-256 Contents lists available at SciVerse...

  4. Publisher's Note: "Electrical spin injection in modulation-doped...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Science and Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 2 ; Lee, Yun-Hi 3 ; Chang, Joonyeon, E-mail: presto@kist.re.kr 1 ; Department of Nanomaterials Science and ...

  5. The microscopic structure of charge density waves in underdoped...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Forgan, E. M. ; Blackburn, E. ; Holmes, A. T. ; Briffa, A. K.R. ; Chang, J. ; Bouchenoire, L. ; Brown, S. D. ; Liang, Ruixing ; Bonn, D. ; Hardy, W. N. ; Christensen, N. ...

  6. baepgac_ccdd | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1995) K.R. Benedek, C.E. Benson, and R.P. Wilson (Arthur D. Little, Inc.); J.W. Parkinson ... Modular Power Generation (Sept 1994) R.P. Wilson, Jr., (Arthur D. Little, Inc.), Third ...

  7. Microsoft Word - 3m NIM paperv3a.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    poly-vinylidenefluoride with trifluoroethylene. PACS: 87.61.Ff, 87.64.Lg, 63.20.Kr Key words: high resolution photoemission, phonon-electron interactions, Franck-Condon...

  8. HEI Report 133 Characterization of Metals Emitted from Motor...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... the help of Min-Suk Bae. Dr Robert Smith and students at the University of ... Atmos Environ 37:1163-1173. Aust AE, Ball JC, Hu AA, Lighty JS, Smith KR, Straccia AM, ...

  9. South Korea: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name South Korea Population 51,302,044 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code KR 3-letter ISO code KOR Numeric ISO code...

  10. A=5Li (1979AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 5Li) GENERAL: See also (1974AJ01) and Table 5.3 Table of Energy Levels (in PDF or PS) here. Model calculations: (1975KR1A). Special states:...

  11. Microsoft Word - S06178_MP.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... S06178 Page 3 Examples from the Nevada Test Site can be seen in Kersting and Smith (2006). ... 1060 of the 1100 curies of Kr-85 were removed by the production testing (Smith 1971). ...

  12. Bright high-repetition-rate source of narrowband extreme-ultraviolet...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Table-top sources of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light based on high-harmonic generation ... 50-kHz repetition rate using ultraviolet second-harmonic pulses focused tightly into Kr. ...

  13. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2009 Temperature and Scaling Studies from Projectile Fragmentation of 86,78 Kr + 64,58 Ni at 35MeVA S. J. Yennello Post Doc., Department of Radiation Oncology, School of...

  14. Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Engineering...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Naval Research Laboratory, Plasma Physics Division, Electra KrF Laser Program Naval Research Laboratory, Plasma Physics Division, Laser-Plasma Branch

  15. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Demonstration of a 13 keV Kr K-shell X-Ray Source at the National Ignition Facility Fournier, K B ; May, M J ; Colvin, J D ; Barrios, M A ; Patterson, J R ; Regan, S P Full Text ...

  16. MANUFACTURED TO AIIM STANOAROS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Technology(NIST) traceable lXe were obtained from DuPontNew England Nuclear. ... Figure C.1 showsthe DNA organizationat the Nevada Test Site, and identifiesthe FCNV ...

  17. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay in 136Xe with EXO-200","Auger, M.; Bern U.; Auty, D.J.; Alabama U.; Barbeau, P.S.; Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Beauchamp, E.;...

  18. M.; /Bern U.; Auty, D.J.; /Alabama U.; Barbeau, P.S.; /Stanford...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay in 136Xe with EXO-200 Auger, M.; Bern U.; Auty, D.J.; Alabama U.; Barbeau, P.S.; Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Beauchamp, E.; Laurentian U.;...

  19. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Search for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay in Xe with EXO Auger M Bern U Auty D J Alabama U Barbeau P S Stanford U Phys Dept Beauchamp E Laurentian U Belov V Moscow ITEP Benitez...

  20. Simulation of xenon, uranium vacancy and interstitial diffusion and grain boundary segregation in UO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersson, Anders D.; Tonks, Michael R.; Casillas, Luis; Nerikar, Pankaj; Vyas, Shyam; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Stanek, Christopher R.

    2014-10-31

    In light water reactor fuel, gaseous fission products segregate to grain boundaries, resulting in the nucleation and growth of large intergranular fission gas bubbles. Based on the mechanisms established from density functional theory (DFT) and empirical potential calculations 1, continuum models for diffusion of xenon (Xe), uranium (U) vacancies and U interstitials in UO2 have been derived for both intrinsic conditions and under irradiation. Segregation of Xe to grain boundaries is described by combining the bulk diffusion model with a model for the interaction between Xe atoms and three different grain boundaries in UO2 ( ?5 tilt, ?5 twist and a high angle random boundary),as derived from atomistic calculations. All models are implemented in the MARMOT phase field code, which is used to calculate effective Xe and U diffusivities as well as redistribution for a few simple microstructures.

  1. Yun (Helen) He

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The Hopper XE6 system, NERSC's first peta-flop system with ... Oakland, CA, February 15, 2013, Zhengji Zhao, Yun (Helen) ...gradesslidesfinal.pdf (pdf: 227 KB) James M. Craw, Nicholas ...

  2. September is Scientific Supercomputing Month

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is Scientific Supercomputing Month DOE celebrates the science and technology that drive modern discovery September 3, 2013 hopper2cshp.jpg NERSC's flagship Cray XE6 system is...

  3. Ab initio study of MXe{sub n}{sup +} (M=Cu, Ag, and Au; n=1,2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Xinying; Cao Xue

    2008-02-15

    The equilibrium geometries, vibrational frequencies, dissociation energies, and populations of the title species were studied at Hartree-Fock (HF), second-order Moeller-Plesset (MP2), and coupled-cluster singles-doubles (triples) [CCSD(T)] levels. The electron correlation effects and relativistic effects on the geometry and stability were investigated at the CCSD(T) level. Both effects stabilize title species. The populations analyses show that M-Xe bonding is dominated by electrostatic interactions and the best theoretical estimate of the dissociation energies are 1.104 and 2.260 eV for AuXe{sup +} and AuXe{sub 2}{sup +}, respectively. The Cu and Ag are weakly bonded to Xe compared to Au.

  4. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Have feedback or suggestions for a way to improve these results? 3-Dimensional Root ... this implementation scales up to 15,360 cores of a Cray XE6 machine and is 70% ...

  5. tamain_form_gulm.dvi

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... FASA data34; squares: 32MeVu Xe+Sn INDRA data10 ; triangles: ISIS data13. ... Fig. 10. Analysis of the ISIS data showing that the probability for emitting a given ...

  6. Oriel UV Exposure Station

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a mask holder for standard 5" x 5" optical masks. Capabilities: Light Source 1000 Watt Hg(Xe) lamp Wavelength range: 220-450 nm Digital timer for exposure control with...

  7. Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Materials Access to Hopper Phase II (Cray XE6) If you are a current NERSC user, you are enabled to use Hopper Phase II. Use your SSH client to connect to Hopper II:...

  8. National Infrastructure Protection Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Infrastructure Protection Plan National Infrastructure Protection Plan Protecting the critical infrastructure and key resources (CI/KR) of the United States is essential to the Nation's security, public health and safety, economic vitality, and way of life. Attacks on CI/KR could significantly disrupt the functioning of government and business alike and produce cascading effects far beyond the targeted sector and physical location of the incident. Direct terrorist attacks and natural, manmade,

  9. Summary Report for the Development of Materials for Volatile Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Chun, Jaehun; Henager, Charles H.; Matyas, Josef; Riley, Brian J.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2010-11-22

    The materials development summarized here is in support of the Waste Forms campaign, Volatile Radionuclide task. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal and immobilization of iodine and krypton, specifically 129I and 85Kr. During FY 2010, aerogel materials were investigated for removal and immobilization of 129I. Two aerogel formulations were investigated, one based on silica aerogels and the second on chalcogenides. For 85Kr, metal organic framework (MOF) structures were investigated.

  10. Nike | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nike Nike mirror array and lens array Named after the Greek goddess of victory, the Nike facility includes the world's largest krypton fluoride (KrF) laser. Nike was developed primarily to investigate interactions of high intensity KrF light with matter. The target facility is well equipped for experiments on laser generated shocks, high velocity ablative acceleration of targets, hydrodynamic instabilities, laser-produced x-rays, and studies of laser plasma instabilities. The system is capable

  11. Using OpenMP with MPI

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Running Jobs Overview Interactive Jobs Batch Jobs Example Batch Scripts Using aprun Queues and Policies Monitoring Jobs Using OpenMP with MPI Memory Considerations Runtime Tuning Options Running Large Scale Jobs Trouble Shooting and Error Messages Completed Jobs How Usage Is Charged File Storage and I/O Software and Tools Debugging and profiling Performance and Optimization Cray XE Documentation Cluster Compatibility Mode Hopper, Cray XE6 Carver Jesup Dirac Edison Phase I Euclid - Retired

  12. Shell model estimate of electric dipole moment in medium and heavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshinaga, Naotaka; Higashiyama, Koji

    2011-05-06

    The nuclear electric dipole moment (EDM) and the nuclear Schiff moment for the lowest 1/2{sup +} state of {sup 129}Xe are investigated in terms of the nuclear shell model. We estimate the upper limit for the EDM of neutral {sup 129}Xe atom using the Schiff moment. We also estimate the upper limit of the nuclear EDM, which may be directly measured through ionic atoms.

  13. Running Jobs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Queues and Policies Monitoring Jobs Using OpenMP with MPI Memory Considerations Runtime Tuning Options Running Large Scale Jobs Trouble Shooting and Error Messages Completed Jobs How Usage Is Charged File Storage and I/O Software and Tools Debugging and profiling Performance and Optimization Cray XE Documentation Cluster Compatibility Mode Hopper, Cray XE6 Carver Jesup Dirac Edison Phase I Euclid - Retired 01/31/2013 Franklin - Retired 04/30/12 Bassi Storage & File Systems Data &

  14. Fortran MPI/OpenMP example

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Getting Started Configuration Programming Running Jobs Overview Interactive Jobs Batch Jobs Example Batch Scripts Using aprun Queues and Policies Monitoring Jobs Using OpenMP with MPI Memory Considerations Runtime Tuning Options Running Large Scale Jobs Trouble Shooting and Error Messages Completed Jobs How Usage Is Charged File Storage and I/O Software and Tools Debugging and profiling Performance and Optimization Cray XE Documentation Cluster Compatibility Mode Hopper, Cray XE6 Carver Jesup

  15. Software and Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    File Storage and I/O Software and Tools Debugging and profiling Performance and Optimization Cray XE Documentation Cluster Compatibility Mode Hopper, Cray XE6 Carver Jesup Dirac Edison Phase I Euclid - Retired 01/31/2013 Franklin - Retired 04/30/12 Bassi Storage & File Systems Data & Analytics Connecting to NERSC Queues and Scheduling Job Logs & Statistics Application Performance Training & Tutorials Software Policies User Surveys NERSC Users Group User Announcements Help Staff

  16. DATE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 SECTION A. Project Title: Solving Critical Challenges to Enable the Xe-100 Pebble Bed Advanced Reactor Concept - X Energy, LLC SECTION B. Project Description X Energy, in collaboration with BWXT Nuclear Energy, Inc. (BWXT), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and Oregon State University (OSU), proposes to leverage prior and current DOE programs and previous Xe-100 design investments to further key pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR)

  17. Multiscale simulation of xenon diffusion and grain boundary segregation in UO₂

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Andersson, David A.; Tonks, Michael R.; Casillas, Luis; Vyas, Shyam; Nerikar, Pankaj; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Stanek, Christopher R.

    2015-07-01

    In light water reactor fuel, gaseous fission products segregate to grain boundaries, resulting in the nucleation and growth of large intergranular fission gas bubbles. The segregation rate is controlled by diffusion of fission gas atoms through the grains and interaction with the boundaries. Based on the mechanisms established from earlier density functional theory (DFT) and empirical potential calculations, diffusion models for xenon (Xe), uranium (U) vacancies and U interstitials in UO₂ have been derived for both intrinsic (no irradiation) and irradiation conditions. Segregation of Xe to grain boundaries is described by combining the bulk diffusion model with a model formore » the interaction between Xe atoms and three different grain boundaries in UO₂ (Σ5 tilt, Σ5 twist and a high angle random boundary), as derived from atomistic calculations. The present model does not attempt to capture nucleation or growth of fission gas bubbles at the grain boundaries. The point defect and Xe diffusion and segregation models are implemented in the MARMOT phase field code, which is used to calculate effective Xe and U diffusivities as well as to simulate Xe redistribution for a few simple microstructures.« less

  18. Atomistic Simulations of Mass and Thermal Transport in Oxide Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersson, Anders D.; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Du, Shiyu; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Nerikar, Pankaj; Stanek, Christopher R.; Tonks, Michael; Millet, Paul; Biner, Bulent

    2012-06-04

    In this talk we discuss simulations of the mass and thermal transport in oxide nuclear fuels. Redistribution of fission gases such as Xe is closely coupled to nuclear fuel performance. Most fission gases have low solubility in the fuel matrix, specifically the insolubility is most pronounced for large fission gas atoms such as Xe, and as a result there is a significant driving force for segregation of gas atoms to grain boundaries or dislocations and subsequently for nucleation of gas bubbles at these sinks. The first step of the fission gas redistribution is diffusion of individual gas atoms through the fuel matrix to existing sinks, which is governed by the activation energy for bulk diffusion. Fission gas bubbles are then formed by either separate nucleation events or by filling voids that were nucleated at a prior stage; in both cases their formation and latter growth is coupled to vacancy dynamics and thus linked to the production of vacancies via irradiation or thermal events. In order to better understand bulk Xe behavior (diffusion mechanisms) in UO{sub 2{+-}x} we first calculate the relevant activation energies using density functional theory (DFT) techniques. By analyzing a combination of Xe solution thermodynamics, migration barriers and the interaction of dissolved Xe atoms with U, we demonstrate that Xe diffusion predominantly occurs via a vacancy-mediated mechanism, though other alternatives may exist in high irradiation fields. Since Xe transport is closely related to diffusion of U vacancies, we have also studied the activation energy for this process. In order to explain the low value of 2.4 eV found for U migration from independent damage experiments (not thermal equilibrium) the presence of vacancy clusters must be included in the analysis. Next a continuum transport model for Xe and U is formulated based on the diffusion mechanisms established from DFT. After combining this model with descriptions of the interaction between Xe and grain boundaries derived from separate atomistic calculations, we simulate Xe redistribution for a few simple microstructures using finite element methods (FEM), as implemented in the MOOSE framework from Idaho National Laboratory. Thermal transport together with the power distribution determines the temperature distribution in the fuel rod and it is thus one of the most influential properties on nuclear fuel performance. The fuel thermal conductivity changes as function of time due to microstructure evolution (e.g. fission gas redistribution) and compositional changes. Using molecular dynamics simulations we have studied the impact of different types of grain boundaries and fission gas bubbles on UO{sub 2} thermal conductivity.

  19. The effect of cathode geometry on barium transport in hollow cathode plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, James E. Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Capece, Angela M.

    2014-05-14

    The effect of barium transport on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in numerical modeling of a cathode with two different orifice sizes. Despite large differences in cathode emitter temperature, emitted electron current density, internal xenon neutral and plasma densities, and size of the plasma-surface interaction region, the barium transport in the two geometries is qualitatively very similar. Barium is produced in the insert and flows to the surface through the porous structure. A buildup of neutral Ba pressure in the plasma over the emitter surface can suppress the reactions supplying the Ba, restricting the net production rate. Neutral Ba flows into the dense Xe plasma and has a high probability of being ionized at the periphery of this zone. The steady state neutral Ba density distribution is determined by a balance between pressure gradient forces and the drag force associated with collisions between neutral Ba and neutral Xe atoms. A small fraction of the neutral Ba is lost upstream. The majority of the neutral Ba is ionized in the high temperature Xe plasma and is pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field. The steady state Ba{sup +} ion density distribution results from a balance between electrostatic and pressure forces, neutral Xe drag and Xe{sup +} ion drag with the dominant forces dependent on location in the discharge. These results indicate that hollow cathodes are very effective at recycling Ba within the discharge and therefore maintain a high coverage of Ba on the emitter surface, which reduces the work function and sustains high electron emission current densities at moderate temperatures. Barium recycling is more effective in the cathode with the smaller orifice because the Ba is ionized in the dense Xe plasma concentrated just upstream of the orifice and pushed back into the hollow cathode. Despite a lower emitter temperature, the large orifice cathode has a higher Ba loss rate through the orifice because the Xe plasma density peaks further upstream.

  20. Migration of defect clusters and xenon-vacancy clusters in uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Dong; Gao, Fei; Deng, Huiqiu; Hu, Wangyu; Sun, Xin

    2014-07-01

    The possible transition states, minimum energy paths and migration mechanisms of defect clusters and xenon-vacancy defect clusters in uranium dioxide have been investigated using the dimer and the nudged elastic-band methods. The nearby O atom can easily hop into the oxygen vacancy position by overcoming a small energy barrier, which is much lower than that for the migration of a uranium vacancy. A simulation for a vacancy cluster consisting of two oxygen vacancies reveals that the energy barrier of the divacancy migration tends to decrease with increasing the separation distance of divacancy. For an oxygen interstitial, the migration barrier for the hopping mechanism is almost three times larger than that for the exchange mechanism. Xe moving between two interstitial sites is unlikely a dominant migration mechanism considering the higher energy barrier. A net migration process of a Xe-vacancy pair containing an oxygen vacancy and a xenon interstitial is identified by the NEB method. We expect the oxygen vacancy-assisted migration mechanism to possibly lead to a long distance migration of the Xe interstitials in UO2. The migration of defect clusters involving Xe substitution indicates that Xe atom migrating away from the uranium vacancy site is difficult.

  1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moudrakovski, Igor L.; Ratcliffe, C I.; Ripmeester, J A.; Wang, Li Q.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Baumann, T; Satcher, J H.

    2005-06-09

    In this article we report a detailed study of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels prepared under different processing conditions, [resorcinol]/[catalyst] (R/C) ratios in the starting sol-gel solutions, using continuous flow hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR in combination with solid-state 13C and two-dimensional wide-line separation (2D-WISE) NMR techniques. The degree of polymerization and the mobility of the cross-linking functional groups in RF aerogels are examined and correlated with the R/C ratios. The origin of different adsorption regions is evaluated using both co-adsorption of chloroform and 2D EXSY 129Xe NMR. A hierarchical set of Xe exchange processes in RF aerogels is found using 2D EXSY 129Xe NMR. The exchange of Xe gas follows the sequence (from fastest to slowest): mesopores with free gas, gas in meso- and micro-pores, free gas with micropores, and, finally, among micropore sites. The volume-to-surface-area (Vg/S) ratios for aerogels are measured for the first time without the use of geometric models. The Vg/S parameter, which is related both to the geometry and the interconnectivity of the pore space, has been found to correlate strongly with the R/C ratio and exhibits an unusually large span: an increase in the R/C ratio from 50 to 500 results in about a 5-fold rise in Vg/S.

  2. Optimization of Xenon Difluoride Vapor Delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeney, Joseph; Marganski, Paul; Kaim, Robert; Wodjenski, Mike; Gregg, John; Yedave, Sharad; Sergi, Steve; Bishop, Steve; Eldridge, David; Zou Peng [ATMI, Inc., Danbury, Connecticut 06810 (United States)

    2008-11-03

    Xenon difluoride (XeF{sub 2}) has been shown to provide many process benefits when used as a daily maintenance recipe for ion implant. Regularly flowing XeF{sub 2} into the ion source cleans the deposits generated by ion source operation. As a result, significant increases in productivity have been demonstrated. However, XeF{sub 2} is a toxic oxidizer that must be handled appropriately. Furthermore, it is a low vapor pressure solid under standard conditions ({approx}4.5 torr at 25 deg. C). These aspects present unique challenges for designing a package for delivering the chemistry to an ion implanter. To address these challenges, ATMI designed a high-performance, re-usable cylinder for dispensing XeF{sub 2} in an efficient and reliable manner. Data are presented showing specific attributes of the cylinder, such as the importance of internal heat transfer media and the cylinder valve size. The impact of mass flow controller (MFC) selection and ion source tube design on the flow rate of XeF{sub 2} are also discussed. Finally, cylinder release rate data are provided.

  3. Ejecta model development at pRad (u)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buttler, William T; Oro, David M; Dimonte, Guy; Terrones, Guillermo; Morris, Christopher; Bainbridge, J R; Hogan, Gary E.; Hollander, Brian J.; Holtkamp, David B.; Kwiathowski, Kris; Marr-Lyon, Mark; Mariam, Fesseha G.; Merrill, Frank E; Nedrow, Paul; Saunders, Alexander; Schwartz, C L; Stone, B; Tupa, Dale; Vogan-McNeil, Wendy S

    2010-02-09

    In July 2009 we fielded three explosively (HE) driven Richtmyer-Meshkov instability experiments at the LANSCE Proton Radiography Facility (pRad), and in August of 2009 we fielded one flyer plate experiment on the pRad 40 mm powder gun. One HE experiment was done in vacuum, and the other two within four atmospheres of noble gasses: Xe and Ne. These two gases were chosen to study the viscous effects on ejecta formation. It is unexpected, but the viscosity {eta} of Ne is twice that of Xe, and, due to the atomic mass difference between the two, the kinematic viscosity ({eta}/{rho}) of Ne is about ten times that of Xe. The results showed that ejecta formation is sensitively linked to the gas density, which implies that the Weber number is more important in ejecta formation than the Reynolds number.

  4. Large area liquid argon detectors for interrogation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, Charles; Kane, Steve; Firestone, Murray I.; Smith, Gregory [Adelphi Technology LLC, Purdue Technology Center, 5225 Exploration Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46241 (United States); Gozani, Tsahi; Brown, Craig; Kwong, John; King, Michael J. [Rapiscan Laboratories, 520 Almanor Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA 94085 (United States); Nikkel, James A.; McKinsey, Dan [Physics Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Measurements of the efficiency, pulse shape, and energy and time resolution of liquid argon (LAr) detectors are presented. Liquefied noble gas-based (LNbG) detectors have been developed for the detection of dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, the same qualities that make LNbG detectors ideal for these applications, namely their size, cost, efficiency, pulse shape discrimination and resolution, make them promising for portal screening and the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Two 18-liter prototype detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested, one with pure LAr and the other doped with liquid Xe (LArXe). The LArXe detector presented the better time and energy resolution of 3.3 ns and 20% at 662 KeV, respectively. The total efficiency of the detector was measured to be 35% with 4.5% of the total photons detected in the photopeak.

  5. Calculation of large scale relative permeabilities from stochastic properties of the permeability field and fluid properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenormand, R.; Thiele, M.R.

    1997-08-01

    The paper describes the method and presents preliminary results for the calculation of homogenized relative permeabilities <Kr> using stochastic properties of the permeability field. In heterogeneous media, the spreading of an injected fluid is mainly sue to the permeability heterogeneity and viscosity fingering. At large scale, when the heterogeneous medium is replaced by a homogeneous one, we need to introduce a homogenized (or pseudo) relative permeability <Kr> to obtain the same spreading. Generally, <Kr> is derived by using fine-grid numerical simulations (Kyte and Berry). However, this operation is time consuming and cannot be performed for all the meshes of the reservoir. We propose an alternate method which uses the information given by the stochastic properties of the field without any numerical simulation. The method is based on recent developments on homogenized transport equations (the {open_quotes}MHD{close_quotes} equation, Lenormand SPE 30797). The MHD equation accounts for the three basic mechanisms of spreading of the injected fluid: (1) Dispersive spreading due to small scale randomness, characterized by a macrodispersion coefficient D. (2) Convective spreading due to large scale heterogeneities (layers) characterized by a heterogeneity factor H. (3) Viscous fingering characterized by an apparent viscosity ration M. In the paper, we first derive the parameters D and H as functions of variance and correlation length of the permeability field. The results are shown to be in good agreement with fine-grid simulations. The <Kr> are then derived a function of D, H and M. The main result is that this approach lead to a time dependent <Kr>. Finally, the calculated <Kr> are compared to the values derived by history matching using fine-grid numerical simulations.

  6. OSIRIS and SOMBRERO Inertial Fusion Power Plant Designs, Volume 1: Executive Summary & Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W. R.; Bieri, R. L.; Monsler, M. J.; Hendricks, C.D.; Laybourne, P.; Shillito, K. R.

    1992-03-01

    This is a comprehensive design study of two Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) electric power plants. Conceptual designs are presented for a fusion reactor (called Osiris) using an induction-linac heavy-ion beam driver, and another (called SOMBRERO) using a KrF laser driver. The designs covered all aspects of IFE power plants, including the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, balance-of-plant facilities, target fabrication, target injection and tracking, as well as the heavy-ion and KrF drivers. The point designs were assessed and compared in terms of their environmental & safety aspects, reliability and availability economics, and technology development needs.

  7. OSIRIS and SOMBRERO Inertial Fusion Power Plant Designs, Volume 2: Designs, Assessments, and Comparisons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W. R.; Bieri, R. L.; Monsler, M. J.; Hendricks, C. D.; Laybourne, P.; Shillito, K. R.

    1992-03-01

    This is a comprehensive design study of two Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) electric power plants. Conceptual designs are presented for a fusion reactor (called Osiris) using an induction-linac heavy-ion beam driver, and another (called SOMBRERO) using a KrF laser driver. The designs covered all aspects of IFE power plants, including the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, balance-of-plant facilities, target fabrication, target injection and tracking, as well as the heavy-ion and KrF drivers. The point designs were assessed and compared in terms of their environmental & safety aspects, reliability and availability, economics, and technology development needs.

  8. igcc config | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    icf Nike Named after the Greek goddess of victory, the Nike facility includes the world's largest krypton fluoride (KrF) laser. Nike was developed primarily to investigate interactions of high intensity KrF light with matter. The target facility is well equipped for experiments on laser generated shocks,... OMEGA and OMEGA EP Two glass laser systems make up the Omega Laser Facility: the 60-beam, 30kJ UV OMEGA laser that has been operational since 1995, and the OMEGA EP addition with four new

  9. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 91

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baglin, Coral M.

    2013-10-15

    Experimental nuclear structure and decay data for all known A=91 nuclides (As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd) have been evaluated. This evaluation, covering data received by 1 September 2013, supersedes the 1998 evaluation by C. M. Baglin published in Nuclear Data Sheets86, 1 (1999) (15 December 1998 literature cutoff), and subsequent evaluations by C. M. Baglin added to the ENSDF database for Kr, Sr and Zr (29 December 2000 literature cutoff) and by B. Singh for {sup 91}Tc (6 November 2000 literature cutoff)

  10. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 92

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baglin, Coral M.

    2012-10-15

    Nuclear structure and decay data pertaining to all nuclides with mass number A = 92 (As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd) have been compiled and evaluated, and incorporated into the ENSDF data file. All literature available by 15 September 2012 has been considered. This evaluation supersedes the previous publication for this mass chain (Coral M. Baglin, Nuclear Data Sheets 91, 423 (2000) (November 2000 cutoff date)), and subsequent unpublished reevaluations by C.M. Baglin for {sup 92}Kr (January 2004 literature cut-off) and {sup 92}Sr (August 2003 literature cut-off).

  11. NUG 2013: Training -- Edison

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Training -- Edison NUG 2013: Training -- Edison February 14, 2013 Edison Jeff3 Thursday, Feb. 14 - Training: Edison, NERSC's new Cray XC30 NERSC Oakland Scientific Facility 8:30 - Welcome 9:00 - Overview of Edison and the NERSC 7 Project - Richard Gerber, NERSC 9:30 - System Overview of the Cray XE30 - Nathan Wichmann, Cray Inc. 10:30 - Break 10:45 - Moving from Hopper (Cray XE6) to Edison (Cray XC30) - Zhengji Zhao, NERSC 11:15 - Performance Tricks and Tips on the Cray XC30 - Nathan Wichmann,

  12. Microsoft Word - McIntosh_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    23 at 2:00 PM Binary and Ternary Break-up of Excited Projectile-like Fragments Produced in 124 Xe + 112,124 Sn Reactions at E/A = 50MeV. Alan McIntosh Indiana University Abstract: Peripheral reactions of 124 Xe ions with 112,124 Sn target nuclei were examined by measuring charged particles in a highly segmented silicon/CsI(Tl) array at forward angles together with the measurement of coincident neutrons. Charged particles were identified for Z≤54 and isotopically resolved for Z≤14. Of

  13. Method of locating a leaking fuel element in a fast breeder power reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honekamp, John R.; Fryer, Richard M.

    1978-01-01

    Leaking fuel elements in a fast reactor are identified by measuring the ratio of .sup.134 Xe to .sup.133 Xe in the reactor cover gas following detection of a fuel element leak, this ratio being indicative of the power and burnup of the failed fuel element. This procedure can be used to identify leaking fuel elements in a power breeder reactor while continuing operation of the reactor since the ratio measured is that of the gases stored in the plenum of the failed fuel element. Thus, use of a cleanup system for the cover gas makes it possible to identify sequentially a multiplicity of leaking fuel elements without shutting the reactor down.

  14. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Severe accidents in spent fuel pools in support of generic safety, Issue 82","Sailor, V.L.; Perkins, K.R.; Weeks, J.R.; Connell, H.R.","1987-07-01T04:00:00Z",6135335,"10.2172...

  15. Site C

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... Wor k.r l'u bllc T"l al Pn n otl A H. A t ......"", Lo** Tim . ,...**... RC Radio.h *tty Io.ln o Ho un Accident. ) looll .rl'd H..tl i.riun ,., I) o C . . nrrallo n * * ...

  16. RangeTables.xlsx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    30 35 40 45 eVcmmg) LET vs. Range in Si for 40 MeV SEE Beams 14 N 20 Ne 40 Ar 0 3 6 9 0 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 1 H 0 0.1 0.2 40 Ar 78 Kr 0 5 10 15 20 0 100 200 300 400 500...

  17. Revised Manuscript

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Rev. 88 (1952) 969 1953KR16 J.J. Kraushaar, E.D. Wilson and K.T. Bainbridge, Phys. Rev. 90 ... J. Phys. 32 (1954) 49 1954JO17 C.H. Johnson, H.B. Willard and J.K. Bair, Phys. Rev. 96 ...

  18. Revised Manuscript

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... A66 (1953) 1032 18 1953KR16 J.J. Kraushaar, E.D. Wilson and K.T. Bainbridge, Phys. Rev. 90 ... Rev. 94 (1954) 947 1954JO17 C.H. Johnson, H.B. Willard and J.K. Bair, Phys. Rev. 96 (1954) ...

  19. A=17N (1982AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (1977AJ02) and Table 17.1 Table of Energy Levels (in PDF or PS). Theoretical papers and reviews:(1978KR19, 1979AL22, 1979BE1H, 1979BO22, 1980MI1G, 1981OS04). Experimental...

  20. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED AT THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE„4/1/00-3/31/01

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    09 - March 31, 2010 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor Present Position Sara Wuenschel 2009 Temperature and Scaling Studies from Projectile Fragmentation of 86,78 Kr + 64,58 Ni at 35MeV/A S. J. Yennello Post Doc., Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri

  1. Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    D.M. Vigil, T.M. Wildey, W.J. Bohnhoff, K.R. Dalbey, J.P. Eddy, K.T. Hu, L.E. Bauman and P.D. Hough, DAKOTA: A Multilevel Parallel Object-Oriented Framework for Design...

  2. A=13N (1981AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    measurements are also reported at Ep-bar 0.45 to 0.60 MeV (1979KR18; study of Mott-Schwinger interaction), Ep 7.16 to 7.43 MeV (1977ME06), Ep-bar 14.2 MeV (WI80D),...

  3. Imision, Sohmso~ operatlonr Offloe

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    3ayslde, Long fElti, 8. Y. Sylvaaia'o prooorr for pa-oduofng unmiunr pwdor by rtoaimtloa ir rtU1 .kr tha amly mpertal rtqpr and ot thllr tlma it la nof poirible to supply pou with...

  4. Center for Inverse Design: Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    prepared CsNiX3 (XCl, Br, I) A.D. Raw, J.A. Ibers, and K.R. Poeppelmeier, Journal of Solid State Chemistry 192, 34-37 (2012). DOI: 10.1016j.jssc.2012.03.037 Foundational:...

  5. A=9Be (1979AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PDF or PS). Shell model: (1975KU27, 1975SC1K, 1977CA08, 1977JA14, 1978BO31). and cluster models: (1974CH19, 1974GR42, 1974PA1B, 1975AB1E, 1975CH28, 1975KR1D, 1975RO1B,...

  6. A=10B (1984AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    deformed models: (1978FU13, 1979FL06, 1979KU05, 1980NI1F, 1981BO1Y, 1981DE2G, 1982BA52). Cluster and -particle models: (1979AD1A, 1980FU1G, 1980NI1F, 1980OK1B, 1981KR1J,...

  7. A=17O (1982AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1977HA1Z, 1977PO16, 1978CH26, 1978KR02, 1979KA06, 1980BR13, 1980VA05). Collective and cluster models: (1978CH26, 1978TA1A, 1978TH1A, 1980FU1G). Special states: (1977HE18,...

  8. Nuclear structure relevant to neutrinoless double beta decay candidate {sup 130}Te and other recent results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kay, B. P. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2013-12-30

    We have undertaken a series of single-nucleon and pair transfer reaction measurements to help constrain calculations of the nuclear matrix elements for neutrinoless double beta decay. In this talk, a short overview of measurements relevant to the {sup 130}Te?{sup 130}Xe system is given. Brief mention is made of other recent and forthcoming results.

  9. Status of EXO-200

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackerman, Nicole; /SLAC

    2011-12-06

    EXO-200 is the first phase of the Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) experiment, which searches for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 136}Xe to measure the mass and probe the Majorana nature of the neutrino. EXO-200 consists of 200 kg of liquid Xe enriched to 80% in {sup 136}Xe in an ultra-low background TPC. Energy resolution is enhanced through the simultaneous collection of scintillation light using Large Area Avalanche Photodiodes (LAAPD's) and ionization charge. It is being installed at the WIPP site in New Mexico, which provides a 2000 meter water-equivalent overburden. EXO-200 will begin taking data in 2009, with the expected two-year sensitivity to the half-life for neutrinoless double beta decay of 6.4 x 10{sup 25} years. According to the most recent nuclear matrix element calculations, this corresponds to an effective Majorana neutrino mass of 0.13 to 0.19 eV. It will also measure the two neutrino mode for the first time in {sup 136}Xe.

  10. Search

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Double-Beta Decay in 136 Xe with EXO-200 M. Auger, 1 D.J. Auty, 2 P.S. Barbeau, 3, E. Beauchamp, 4 V. Belov, 5 C. Benitez-Medina, 6 M. Breidenbach, 7 T. Brunner, 3 A....

  11. Phase II: Field Detector Development For Undeclared/Declared Nuclear Testing For Treaty Verfiation Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriz, M.; Hunter, D.; Riley, T.

    2015-10-02

    Radioactive xenon isotopes are a critical part of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) for the detection or confirmation of nuclear weapons tests as well as on-site treaty verification monitoring. On-site monitoring is not currently conducted because there are no commercially available small/robust field detector devices to measure the radioactive xenon isotopes. Xenon is an ideal signature to detect clandestine nuclear events since they are difficult to contain and can diffuse and migrate through soils due to their inert nature. There are four key radioxenon isotopes used in monitoring: 135Xe (9 hour half-life), 133mXe (2 day half-life), 133Xe (5 day half-life) and 131mXe (12 day half-life) that decay through beta emission and gamma emission. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a leader in the field of gas collections and has developed highly selective molecular sieves that allow for the collection of xenon gas directly from air. Phase I assessed the development of a small, robust beta-gamma coincidence counting system, that combines collection and in situ detection methodologies. Phase II of the project began development of the custom electronics enabling 2D beta-gamma coincidence analysis in a field portable system. This will be a significant advancement for field detection/quantification of short-lived xenon isotopes that would not survive transport time for laboratory analysis.

  12. Three-terminal magnetic tunneling junction device with perpendicular anisotropy CoFeB sensing layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honjo, H. Nebashi, R.; Tokutome, K.; Miura, S.; Sakimura, N.; Sugibayashi, T.; Fukami, S.; Kinoshita, K.; Murahata, M.; Kasai, N.; Ishihara, K.; Ohno, H.

    2014-05-07

    We demonstrated read and write characteristics of a three terminal memory device with a perpendicular anisotropy-free layer of a strip of [Co/Ni] and a low-switching perpendicular-anisotropy CoFeB/MgO sensing layer. This new design of the cell results in a small cell area. The switching magnetic field of the sensing layer can be decreased by changing sputtering gas for the Ta-cap from Ar to Kr. An electron energy-loss spectroscopy analysis of the cross-section of the magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ) revealed that the boron content in CoFeB with a Kr-sputtered Ta-cap was smaller than that with an Ar-sputtered one. A change in resistance for the MTJ was observed that corresponded to the magnetic switching of the Co/Ni wire and its magnetoresistance ratio and critical current were 90% and 0.8 mA, respectively.

  13. Accelerated high-temperature tests with spent PWR and BWR fuel rods under dry storage conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porsch, G.; Fleisch, J.; Heits, B.

    1986-09-01

    Accelerated high-temperature tests on 25 intact pressurized water and boiling water reactor rods were conducted for more than 16 months at 400, 430, and 450/sup 0/C in a helium gas atmosphere. The pretest characterized rods were examined by nondestructive methods after each of the three test cycles. No cladding breaches occurred and the creep deformation remained below 1%, which was in good agreement with model calculations. The test atmospheres were analyzed for /sup 85/Kr and tritium. The /sup 85/Kr concentrations were negligible and the tritium release agreed with the theoretical predictions. It can be concluded that for Zircaloy-clad fuel, cladding temperatures up to 450/sup 0/C are acceptable for dry storage in inert cover gases.

  14. A=12N (1990AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    90AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 12N) GENERAL: See also (1985AJ01) and Table Prev. Table 12.22 preview 12.22 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. Model calculations:(1984KA1H, 1984SA19). Astrophysical questions:(1985CA41, 1987RA1D, 1988CA26, 1988LE08, 1989KR1C). Applied work:(1987KU17, 1987MI24). Complex reactions involving 12N:(1985NO1E, 1986GA1P, 1987BA1T, 1987RI03, 1988BE02, 1988LE08). Muon and neutrino capture and reactions:(1986DA1J, 1987KR1L, 1988AL1O, 1988BO1X, 1988FU08,

  15. 32.8-nm X-ray laser produced in a krypton cluster jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanova, E P; Vinokhodov, A Yu

    2013-12-31

    We have interpreted the well-known experimental quantum yield data for a 32.8-nm X-ray laser operating at the 3d{sup 9}4d (J = 0) 3d{sup 9}4p (J = 1) transition of Kr{sup 8+} with the use of gaseous krypton or a krypton cluster jet. Proceeding from our model we propose a novel scheme for the 32.8-nm laser produced in a krypton cluster jet. The quantum yield is shown to saturate for a plasma length of ?300 ?m, a krypton ion density n{sub Kr} ? (4 9) 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, and an electron temperature Te ? 5000 eV. In this case, the energy conversion coefficient amounts to ?5 10{sup -3} of the pump pulse energy. We propose the experimental setup for producing a highefficiency subpicosecond X-ray laser in a krypton cluster jet. (lasers)

  16. Method for production of an isotopically enriched compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watrous, Matthew G.

    2012-12-11

    A method is presented for producing and isolating an isotopically enriched compound of a desired isotope from a parent radionuclide. The method includes forming, or placing, a precipitate containing a parent radionuclide of the desired daughter isotope in a first reaction zone and allowing sufficient time for the parent to decay into the desired gaseous daughter radioisotope. The method further contemplates collecting the desired daughter isotope as a solid in a second reaction zone through the application of temperatures below the freezing point of the desired isotope to a second reaction zone that is connected to the first reaction zone. Specifically, a method is presented for producing isotopically enriched compounds of xenon, including the radioactive isotope Xe-131m and the stable isotope Xe-131.

  17. Radiopurity control in the NEXT-100 double beta decay experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    lvarez, V.; Crcel, S.; Cervera, A.; Daz, J.; Ferrario, P.; Gil, A.; Gmez-Cadenas, J. J.; Laing, A.; Liubarsky, I.; Lorca, D.; Martn-Albo, J.; Martnez, A.; Monrabal, F.; Muoz Vidal, J.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Rodrguez, J.; Serra, L.; Simn, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M. [Instituto de Fsica Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC and Universitat de Valncia, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)] [Instituto de Fsica Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC and Universitat de Valncia, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); and others

    2013-08-08

    An extensive material screening and selection process is underway in the construction of the 'Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC' (NEXT), intended to investigate neutrinoless double beta decay using a high-pressure xenon gas TPC filled with 100 kg of Xe enriched in {sup 136}Xe. Determination of the radiopurity levels of the materials is based on gamma-ray spectroscopy using ultra-low background germanium detectors at the Laboratorio Subterrneo de Canfranc (Spain) and also on Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry. Materials to be used in the shielding, pressure vessel, electroluminescence and high voltage components and energy and tracking readout planes have been already taken into consideration. The measurements carried out are presented, describing the techniques and equipment used, and the results obtained are shown, discussing their implications for the NEXT experiment.

  18. Comparative Study of Structural Damage Under Irradiation in SiC Nano-structured and Conventional Ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leconte, Yann; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie; Reynaud, Cecile; Thome, Lionel

    2008-07-01

    In the context of research on new materials for next generation nuclear reactors, it becomes more and more interesting to know what can be the advantages of nano-structured materials for such applications. In this study, we performed irradiation experiments on micro-structured and nano-structured {beta}-SiC samples, with 95 MeV Xe and 4 MeV Au ions. The structure of the samples was characterized before and after irradiation by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed the occurrence of a synergy between electronic and nuclear energy loss in both samples with 95 MeV Xe ions, while the nano-structured pellet was found to have a better resistance to the irradiation with 4 MeV Au ions. (authors)

  19. Measurement of the density profile of pure and seeded molecular beams by femtosecond ion imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng, Congsen; Janssen, Maurice H. M.

    2015-02-15

    Here, we report on femtosecond ion imaging experiments to measure the density profile of a pulsed supersonic molecular beam. Ion images are measured for both a molecular beam and bulk gas under identical experimental conditions via femtosecond multiphoton ionization of Xe atoms. We report the density profile of the molecular beam, and the measured absolute density is compared with theoretical calculations of the centre line beam density. Subsequently, we discuss reasons accounting for the differences between measurements and calculations and propose that strong skimmer interference is the most probable cause for the differences. Furthermore, we report on experiments measuring the centre line density of seeded supersonic beams. The femtosecond ion images show that seeding the heavy Xe atom at low relative seed fractions (1%-10%) in a light carrier gas like Ne results in strong relative enhancements of up to two orders of magnitude.

  20. Process for depositing I-125 onto a substrate used to manufacture I-125 sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGovern, James J.; Olynyk, Joseph M.

    1988-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for depositing I-125 on a substrate which comprises contacting a predetermined surface area of substrate with Xe-125 gas, whereby the Xe-125 decays to I-125 and the I-125 in turn deposits as a solid on the surface of the substrate, the contact being for a time sufficient to deposit at least about 1 microcurie of I-125. I-125 is thereby deposited in a relatively uniform amount over the surface area of the substrate. The substrate is then assayed to determine how much I-125 has been deposited. The substrate is then divided into pieces of measured surface area, each piece therefore containing a measured amount of deposited I-125, and each piece can then be used in the manufacture of an I-125 source.

  1. Advanced NMR-based techniques for pore structure analysis of coal. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.M.; Hua, D.W.

    1996-02-01

    During the 3 year term of the project, new methods have been developed for characterizing the pore structure of porous materials such as coals, carbons, and amorphous silica gels. In general, these techniques revolve around; (1) combining multiple techniques such as small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and adsorption of contrast-matched adsorbates or {sup 129}Xe NMR and thermoporometry (the change in freezing point with pore size), (2) combining adsorption isotherms over several pressure ranges to obtain a more complete description of pore filling, or (3) applying NMR ({sup 129}Xe, {sup 14}N{sub 2}, {sup 15}N{sub 2}) techniques with well-defined porous solids with pores in the large micropore size range (>1 nm).

  2. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs. Volume 1, Executive summary and overview, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    Conceptual designs and assessments have been completed for two inertial fusion energy (IFE) electric power plants. The detailed designs and results of the assessment studies are presented in this report. Osiris is a heavy-ion-beam (HIB) driven power plant and SOMBRERO is a Krypton-Fluoride (KrF) laser-driven power plant. Both plants are sized for a net electric power of 1000 MWe.

  3. Extraction of exchange parameters in transition-metal perovskites (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Extraction of exchange parameters in transition-metal perovskites Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on September 14, 2016 Title: Extraction of exchange parameters in transition-metal perovskites Authors: Furrer, A. ; Podlesnyak, A. ; Krämer, K. W. Publication Date: 2015-09-15 OSTI Identifier: 1215771 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review B Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume:

  4. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 75

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negret, Alexandru; Singh, Balraj

    2013-08-15

    The experimental nuclear spectroscopic data for known nuclides of mass number 75 (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr) have been evaluated and presented together with Adopted properties for levels and ? rays. New high-spin data are available for {sup 75}Ga, and {sup 75}Rb; and lifetime data for high-spin states in {sup 75}Br and {sup 75}Kr. For ?J =1, M1+E2 transitions in two rotational bands in {sup 75}Kr, several B(E2)(W.u.) values are anomalously high, deviating by 23 ? values from currently accepted RUL(E2) = 300. In the opinion of the evaluators, there is need to remeasure level lifetimes and multipole mixing ratios in {sup 75}Kr to resolve this serious discrepancy. New precise single-particle transfer cross section data are available for {sup 75}Ga, {sup 75}Ge, {sup 75}As and {sup 75}Se from several different reactions (2009Ka06,2008Sc03); these data give information for occupancy of valence neutron orbitals in the ground states of target nuclides: {sup 76}Ge, {sup 76}Se and {sup 78}Se. No significant new data since the 1999 NDS for A = 75 have been reported for {sup 75}As and {sup 75}Se. No data are yet available for excited states in {sup 75}Co, {sup 75}Ni and {sup 75}Sr. For {sup 75}Fe, only the isotopic identification is made with one observed event. The radioactive decay schemes of {sup 75}Co and {sup 75}Ni are unknown while those for {sup 75}Rb and {sup 75}Sr are incomplete. This work supersedes the data presented in the previous NDS evaluation of A = 75 published by 1999Fa05.

  5. NE-23 W

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    >:-1. ,- '"CC3 . ' NE-23 .+ W h itm~ l-l& Mr. Victor 3. Canilov, Director Museum of Science and Industry East 57th Street and Lake Shore Drive Chicago, Illinois 60037 Dear kr. Danilov: The Department of Energy (DOE), as part of its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSPSIP), has reviewed information on the Museum cf Science and Industry, Chicago, Illinois, to determine whether it contains residual radioactivity traceable to activities conducted on behalf of the

  6. Electron-Cloud Build-Up: Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furman, M.A.

    2007-06-18

    I present a summary of topics relevant to the electron-cloud build-up and dissipation that were presented at the International Workshop on Electron-Cloud Effects 'ECLOUD 07' (Daegu, S. Korea, April 9-12, 2007). This summary is not meant to be a comprehensive review of the talks. Rather, I focus on those developments that I found, in my personal opinion, especially interesting. The contributions, all excellent, are posted in http://chep.knu.ac.kr/ecloud07/.

  7. High-gain direct-drive target design for laser fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodner, S. E.; Colombant, D. G.; Schmitt, A. J.; Klapisch, M.

    2000-06-01

    A new laser fusion target concept is presented with a predicted energy gain of 127 using a 1.3 MJ KrF laser. This energy gain is sufficiently high for an economically attractive fusion reactor. X rays from high- and low-Z materials are used in combination with a low-opacity ablator to spatially tune the isentrope, thereby providing both high fuel compression and a reduction of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Particle Identification in the NIMROD-ISiS Detector Array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wuenschel, S.; Hagel, K.; May, L. W.; Wada, R.; Yennello, S. J.

    2009-03-10

    Interest in the influence of the neutron-to-proton (N/Z) ratio on multifragmenting nuclei has demanded an improvement in the capabilities of multi-detector arrays as well as the companion analysis methods. The particle identification method used in the NIMROD-ISiS 4{pi} array is described. Performance of the detectors and the analysis method are presented for the reaction of {sup 86}Kr+{sup 64}Ni at 35 MeV/u.

  9. Untitled Document

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy systematics of vanadium Kα x-ray satellites and hypersatellites R. L. Watson, V. Horvat, and Y. Peng Energy and charge state dependence of electron capture and loss cross sections for Kr ions traveling in He R. L. Watson, V. Horvat, and D. J. Morrissey Cross sections for charge change of 4 MeV/u argon ions traveling in argon V. Horvat and R.L

  10. A=19F (72AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RI67J, SH67K, ZA67C, EI68A, HA68M, RI68N, UN68, BE69G, BH69, CU69B, KR69A, WA70B, LE72). Cluster model: (WI59D, SH60C, MA63Q, MA64HH, ME68H, BA69E, HI69, ME69K, TA69G, BA70F)....

  11. NERSC Announces Winners of Inaugural HPC Achievement Awards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Announces Winners of Inaugural HPC Achievement Awards NERSC Announces Winners of Inaugural HPC Achievement Awards February 14, 2013 Contact: Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, +1 510 495 2402 XBD201009 01166 03 NERSC's Cray XE6 "Hopper" The Department of Energy's National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) announced the winners of their inaugural High Performance Computing (HPC) Achievement Awards on Wednesday at the annual NERSC User Group meeting at the Lawrence Berkeley

  12. NERSC-6/7 Benchmarks

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6/7 Benchmarks NERSC-6/7 Benchmarks The NERSC-6/7 application benchmarks were used in the acquisition process that resulted in the NERSC Cray XE6 ("Hopper") system and the follow on Cray XC30 system ("Edison") . A technical report describing the benchmark programs used in the NERSC-6 acquisition and the science drivers behind them is available here. Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:34:40

  13. Noble gas component organization in Apollo 14 breccia 14318: /sup 129/I and /sup 244/Pu regolith chronology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swindle, T.D.; Caffee, M.W.; Hohenberg, C.M.; Hudson, G.B.; Laul, J.C.; Simon, S.B.; Papike, J.J.

    1985-02-15

    Noble gas, petrological, and chemical studies made on grain-size separates from lunar regolith breccia 14318 demonstrate that the noble gases are organized into two functional components, volume-correlated and surface-correlated. As in regolith breccia 14301, volume-correlated xenon in 14318 is primarily spallation-derived and the surface-correlated component contains not only solar wind xenon but also significant amounts of ''parentless' xenon from the fission of now extinct /sup 244/Pu and the decay of now extinct /sup 129/I (''parentless'' means the daughter products were incorporated onto grain surfaces following decay of the parent nuclide elsewhere). The ratio of /sup 129/Xe//sup 136/Xe in the total surface-correlated parentless component, as identified in grain-size analysis, is substantially higher than in the least tightly bound parentless component identified in stepwise heating analyses, confirming the trend seen in 14301. If the order of release of gases in stepwise heating is related to the order of incorporation in the simplest way (first in, last out), incorporation of these grain-surface components was probably time-ordered. The /sup 129/Xe//sup 136/Xe ratio in each identifiable parentless component would then be characteristic of the xenon available for surface adsorption at the particular time of acquisition. Continuous variations in this ratio further suggest that incorporation of the parentless xenon was closely coupled with production. Such observations provide the basis for a new chronometer from which we conclude that acquisition of parentless xenon was an ongoing process spanning at least 90 m.y., beginning no more than 44 +- 34 m.y. after the formation of the most meteorites and possibly predating xenon acquisition for the earth.

  14. Atomic ionization by keV-scale pseudoscalar dark-matter particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.; Pospelov, M.

    2010-05-15

    Using the relativistic Hartree-Fock approximation, we calculate the rates of atomic ionization by absorption of pseudoscalar particles in the mass range from 10 to {approx}50 keV. We present numerical results for atoms relevant for the direct dark-matter searches (e.g. Ar, Ge, I and Xe), as well as the analytical formula which fits numerical calculations with few per cent accuracy and may be used for multielectron atoms, molecules and condensed matter systems.

  15. Hopper Featured Announcements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    April 2012 Cluster Compatibility Mode is now available on Hopper April 10, 2012 We are pleased to announce a new feature on Hopper, Cray Cluster Compatibility Mode (CCM) which allows applications that previously could only run on Carver to run on Hopper. Cluster Compatibility Mode (CCM) is a Cray software solution that provides services needed to run most cluster-based independent software vendor (ISV) applications on the Cray XE6. It supports the standard Linux services, such as ssh, rsh, nscd,

  16. COE_NERSCtraining_Feb8_2011.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    practices for writing and running mix- mode MPI and OpenMP codes on the Cray XE6 LBNL NERSC Nicholas J Wright, Karl Fuerlinger, John Shalf LBNL Computing Research Division Hongzhang Shan, Tony Drummond, Andrew Canning PPPL Stephane Ethier Cray Inc. Nathan Wichmann, Marcus Wagner, Sarah Anderson, Ryan Olsen, Mike Aamodt 2 The Multicore era * Moore's Law continues * Traditional sources of performance improvement ending - Old Trend: double clock frequency every 18 th months - New Trend: Double #

  17. Magellan-Tutorial.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magellan A Test Bed to Explore Cloud Computing for Science Shane Canon and Lavanya Ramakrishnan Cray XE6 Training February 8, 2011 Magellan - Exploring Cloud Computing Co-located at two DOE-SC Facilities * Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) * National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) * Funded by DOE under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) 2 Magellan Mission * Determine the appropriate role for commercial and/or private cloud computing for DOE/SC

  18. Application Performance Variability on Hopper

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Application Performance Variability on Hopper Application Performance Variability on Hopper Introduction The Hopper system is a Cray XE6 system with roughly 6300 compute nodes. In normal day to day operations, Hopper can be running hundreds of individual applications at any given time. Some users have reported application runtime variability, in some cases as large as 30-40%. Non-uniform runtimes makes it more difficult for scientists to measure the performance of their codes and to estimate the

  19. Shell model nuclear matrix elements for competing mechanisms contributing to double beta decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horoi, Mihai

    2013-12-30

    Recent progress in the shell model approach to the nuclear matrix elements for the double beta decay process are presented. This includes nuclear matrix elements for competing mechanisms to neutrionless double beta decay, a comparison between closure and non-closure approximation for {sup 48}Ca, and an updated shell model analysis of nuclear matrix elements for the double beta decay of {sup 136}Xe.

  20. September is Scientific Supercomputing Month

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    September is Scientific Supercomputing Month September is Scientific Supercomputing Month DOE celebrates the science and technology that drive modern discovery September 3, 2013 hopper2cshp.jpg NERSC's flagship Cray XE6 system is called "Hopper" in honor of American computer scientist Grace Murray Hopper. Whether it's building a car battery that will take you 500 miles on a single charge or understanding the impact of Earth's changing climate on agriculture-advanced computing is a

  1. Support Nodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Support Nodes Support Nodes xe6blade.png Hopper has nodes connected to the internal Gemini network that provide functions that support the compute nodes. These include job launch nodes (MOM nodes), Lustre router nodes, DVS nodes, networking nodes and nodes that support shared and dynamic libraries. MOM Nodes (On Compute Blades) manage and launch parallel applications execute job scripts 24 nodes 32 GB of memory per node Lustre Router Nodes (Service Nodes) route IO data to the /scratch file

  2. Compiler Comparisons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Compiler Comparisons Compiler Comparisons Compiler Comparisons on Hopper There are five compilers available to users on Hopper, the NERSC XE6. All of the compilers on this system are provided by Cray, and they are invoked with wrapper modules that ensure that each compiler links with the proper system and MPI libraries. Each of the compilers have a wide variety of options that control the level of optimization of the exectuable code they produce. We have collected several optimization

  3. Source Term Estimates of Radioxenon Released from the BaTek Medical Isotope Production Facility Using External Measured Air Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Cameron, Ian M.; Dumais, Johannes R.; Imardjoko, Yudi; Marsoem, Pujadi; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Stoehlker, Ulrich; Widodo, Susilo; Woods, Vincent T.

    2015-10-01

    Abstract Batan Teknologi (BaTek) operates an isotope production facility in Serpong, Indonesia that supplies 99mTc for use in medical procedures. Atmospheric releases of Xe-133 in the production process at BaTek are known to influence the measurements taken at the closest stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). The purpose of the IMS is to detect evidence of nuclear explosions, including atmospheric releases of radionuclides. The xenon isotopes released from BaTek are the same as those produced in a nuclear explosion, but the isotopic ratios are different. Knowledge of the magnitude of releases from the isotope production facility helps inform analysts trying to decide whether a specific measurement result came from a nuclear explosion. A stack monitor deployed at BaTek in 2013 measured releases to the atmosphere for several isotopes. The facility operates on a weekly cycle, and the stack data for June 15-21, 2013 show a release of 1.84E13 Bq of Xe-133. Concentrations of Xe-133 in the air are available at the same time from a xenon sampler located 14 km from BaTek. An optimization process using atmospheric transport modeling and the sampler air concentrations produced a release estimate of 1.88E13 Bq. The same optimization process yielded a release estimate of 1.70E13 Bq for a different week in 2012. The stack release value and the two optimized estimates are all within 10 percent of each other. Weekly release estimates of 1.8E13 Bq and a 40 percent facility operation rate yields a rough annual release estimate of 3.7E13 Bq of Xe-133. This value is consistent with previously published estimates of annual releases for this facility, which are based on measurements at three IMS stations. These multiple lines of evidence cross-validate the stack release estimates and the release estimates from atmospheric samplers.

  4. Cavity morphology in a Ni based superalloy under heavy ion irradiation with hot pre-injected helium. II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, He; Yao, Zhongwen, E-mail: yaoz@me.queensu.ca; Daymond, Mark R. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen's University Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Kirk, Marquis A. [Material Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-03-14

    In the current investigation, TEM in-situ heavy ion (1?MeV Kr{sup 2+}) irradiation with helium pre-injected at elevated temperature (400?C) was conducted to simulate in-reactor neutron irradiation induced damage in CANDU spacer material Inconel X-750, in an effort to understand the effects of helium on irradiation induced cavity microstructures. Three different quantities of helium, 400 appm, 1000 appm, and 5000 appm, were pre-injected directly into TEM foils at 400?C. The samples containing helium were then irradiated in-situ with 1?MeV Kr{sup 2+} at 400?C to a final dose of 5.4 dpa (displacement per atom). Cavities were formed from the helium injection solely and the cavity density and size increased with increasing helium dosage. In contrast to previous heavy ion irradiations with cold pre-injected helium, heterogeneous nucleation of cavities was observed. During the ensuing heavy ion irradiation, dynamical observation showed noticeable size increase in cavities which nucleated close to the grain boundaries. A bubble-void transformation was observed after Kr{sup 2+} irradiation to high dose (5.4?dpa) in samples containing 1000 appm and 5000 appm helium. Cavity distribution was found to be consistent with in-reactor neutron irradiation induced cavity microstructures. This implies that the distribution of helium is greatly dependent on the injection temperature, and helium pre-injection at high temperature is preferred for simulating the migration of the transmutation produced helium.

  5. When are surface plasmon polaritons excited in the Kretschmann-Raether configuration?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Foley, IV, Jonathan J.; Harutyunyan, Hayk; Rosenmann, Daniel; Divan, Ralu; Wiederrecht, Gary P.; Gray, Stephen K.

    2015-04-23

    It is widely believed that the reflection minimum in a Kretschmann-Raether experiment results from direct coupling into surface plasmon polariton modes. Our experimental results provide a surprising discrepancy between the leakage radiation patterns of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) launched on a layered gold/germanium film compared to the K-R minimum, clearly challenging this belief. We provide definitive evidence that the reflectance dip in K-R experiments does not correlate with excitation of an SPP mode, but rather corresponds to a particular type of perfectly absorbing (PA) mode. Results from rigorous electrodynamics simulations show that the PA mode can only exist under externalmore » driving, whereas the SPP can exist in regions free from direct interaction with the driving field. These simulations show that it is possible to indirectly excite propagating SPPs guided by the reflectance minimum in a K-R experiment, but demonstrate the efficiency can be lower by more than a factor of 3. We find that optimal coupling into the SPP can be guided by the square magnitude of the Fresnel transmission amplitude.« less

  6. Derivation of effective fission gas diffusivities in UO2 from lower length scale simulations and implementation of fission gas diffusion models in BISON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersson, Anders David Ragnar; Pastore, Giovanni; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Perriot, Romain Thibault; Tonks, Michael; Stanek, Christopher Richard

    2014-11-07

    This report summarizes the development of new fission gas diffusion models from lower length scale simulations and assessment of these models in terms of annealing experiments and fission gas release simulations using the BISON fuel performance code. Based on the mechanisms established from density functional theory (DFT) and empirical potential calculations, continuum models for diffusion of xenon (Xe) in UO2 were derived for both intrinsic conditions and under irradiation. The importance of the large XeU3O cluster (a Xe atom in a uranium + oxygen vacancy trap site with two bound uranium vacancies) is emphasized, which is a consequence of its high mobility and stability. These models were implemented in the MARMOT phase field code, which is used to calculate effective Xe diffusivities for various irradiation conditions. The effective diffusivities were used in BISON to calculate fission gas release for a number of test cases. The results are assessed against experimental data and future directions for research are outlined based on the conclusions.

  7. The Radiochemical Analysis of Gaseous Samples (RAGS) apparatus for nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaughnessy, D. A.; Velsko, C. A.; Jedlovec, D. R.; Yeamans, C. B.; Moody, K. J.; Tereshatov, E.; Stoeffl, W.; Riddle, A.

    2012-10-15

    The Radiochemical Analysis of Gaseous Samples (RAGS) diagnostic apparatus was recently installed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Following a NIF shot, RAGS is used to pump the gas load from the NIF chamber for purification and isolation of the noble gases. After collection, the activated gaseous species are counted via gamma spectroscopy for measurement of the capsule areal density and fuel-ablator mix. Collection efficiency was determined by injecting a known amount of {sup 135}Xe into the NIF chamber, which was then collected with RAGS. Commissioning was performed with an exploding pusher capsule filled with isotopically enriched {sup 124}Xe and {sup 126}Xe added to the DT gas fill. Activated xenon species were recovered post-shot and counted via gamma spectroscopy. Results from the collection and commissioning tests are presented. The performance of RAGS allows us to establish a noble gas collection method for measurement of noble gas species produced via neutron and charged particle reactions in a NIF capsule.

  8. Distribution of metal and adsorbed guest species in zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chmelka, B.F.

    1989-12-01

    Because of their high internal surface areas and molecular-size cavity dimensions, zeolites are used widely as catalysts, shape- selective supports, or adsorbents in a variety of important chemical processes. For metal-catalyzed reactions, active metal species must be dispersed to sites within the zeolite pores that are accessible to diffusing reactant molecules. The distribution of the metal, together with transport and adsorption of reactant molecules in zeolite powders, are crucial to ultimate catalyst performance. The nature of the metal or adsorbed guest distribution is known, however, to be dramatically dependent upon preparatory conditions. Our objective is to understand, at the molecular level, how preparatory treatments influence the distribution of guest species in zeolites, in order that macroscopic adsorption and reaction properties of these materials may be better understood. The sensitivity of xenon to its adsorption environment makes {sup 129}Xe NMR spectroscopy an important diagnostic probe of metal clustering and adsorbate distribution processes in zeolites. The utility of {sup 129}Xe NMR depends on the mobility of the xenon atoms within the zeolite-guest system, together with the length scale of the sample heterogeneity being studied. In large pore zeolites containing dispersed guest species, such as Pt--NaY, {sup 129}Xe NMR is insensitive to fine structural details at room temperature.

  9. Method for the simultaneous preparation of radon-211, xenon-125, xenon-123, astatine-211, iodine-125 and iodine-123

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirzadeh, S.; Lambrecht, R.M.

    1985-07-01

    The invention relates to a practical method for commercially producing radiopharmaceutical activities and, more particularly, relates to a method for the preparation of about equal amount of Radon-211 (/sup 211/Rn) and Xenon-125 (/sup 125/Xe) including a one-step chemical procedure following an irradiation procedure in which a selected target of Thorium (/sup 232/Th) or Uranium (/sup 238/U) is irradiated. The disclosed method is also effective for the preparation in a one-step chemical procedure of substantially equal amounts of high purity /sup 123/I and /sup 211/At. In one preferred arrangement of the invention almost equal quantities of /sup 211/Rn and /sup 125/Xe are prepared using a onestep chemical procedure in which a suitably irradiated fertile target material, such as thorium-232 or uranium-238, is treated to extract those radionuclides from it. In the same one-step chemical procedure about equal quantities of /sup 211/At and /sup 123/I are prepared and stored for subsequent use. In a modified arrangement of the method of the invention, it is practiced to separate and store about equal amounts of only /sup 211/Rn and /sup 125/Xe, while preventing the extraction or storage of the radionuclides /sup 211/At and /sup 123/I.

  10. Recombination laser by laser-produced xenon plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lanying, L.; Zaitong, L.; Dounan, Z.; Zemin, W.

    1982-09-01

    A recombination laser of Xe plasma produced in a gaseous mixture of He and Xe with a CO/sub 2/ laser pulse of 10.6 micron wave is reported. The particle number is the result of electron-ion recombination. The wavelength of the Xe recombination laser obtained in the experiment is 2.03 microns with an output power of more than 80 watts and a pulse width of 2 microsec. The input CO/sub 2/ laser energy is supplied by a CO/sub 2/ laser with cold cathode electron beam controlled discharge. Each pulse has an energy of over 30 joules (pulse width 1 to 2 microsec). After being reflected by a cylindrical reflector of 6 cm focal length in the target chamber, the CO/sub 2/ laser beam is focussed on a metal target 8 cm long 3 mm wide. At the two ends of the chamber are Brewster angle windows at 2.03 microns made by quartz plates.

  11. Multiscale modeling of thermal conductivity of high burnup structures in UO2 fuels

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bai, Xian -Ming; Tonks, Michael R.; Zhang, Yongfeng; Hales, Jason D.

    2015-12-22

    The high burnup structure forming at the rim region in UO2 based nuclear fuel pellets has interesting physical properties such as improved thermal conductivity, even though it contains a high density of grain boundaries and micron-size gas bubbles. To understand this counterintuitive phenomenon, mesoscale heat conduction simulations with inputs from atomistic simulations and experiments were conducted to study the thermal conductivities of a small-grain high burnup microstructure and two large-grain unrestructured microstructures. We concluded that the phonon scattering effects caused by small point defects such as dispersed Xe atoms in the grain interior must be included in order to correctlymore » predict the thermal transport properties of these microstructures. In extreme cases, even a small concentration of dispersed Xe atoms such as 10-5 can result in a lower thermal conductivity in the large-grain unrestructured microstructures than in the small-grain high burnup structure. The high-density grain boundaries in a high burnup structure act as defect sinks and can reduce the concentration of point defects in its grain interior and improve its thermal conductivity in comparison with its large-grain counterparts. Furthermore, an analytical model was developed to describe the thermal conductivity at different concentrations of dispersed Xe, bubble porosities, and grain sizes. Upon calibration, the model is robust and agrees well with independent heat conduction modeling over a wide range of microstructural parameters.« less

  12. Density Functional Theory Calculations of Mass Transport in UO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersson, Anders D.; Dorado, Boris; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Stanek, Christopher R.

    2012-06-26

    In this talk we present results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations of U, O and fission gas diffusion in UO{sub 2}. These processes all impact nuclear fuel performance. For example, the formation and retention of fission gas bubbles induce fuel swelling, which leads to mechanical interaction with the clad thereby increasing the probability for clad breach. Alternatively, fission gas can be released from the fuel to the plenum, which increases the pressure on the clad walls and decreases the gap thermal conductivity. The evolution of fuel microstructure features is strongly coupled to diffusion of U vacancies. Since both U and fission gas transport rates vary strongly with the O stoichiometry, it is also important to understand O diffusion. In order to better understand bulk Xe behavior in UO{sub 2{+-}x} we first calculate the relevant activation energies using DFT techniques. By analyzing a combination of Xe solution thermodynamics, migration barriers and the interaction of dissolved Xe atoms with U, we demonstrate that Xe diffusion predominantly occurs via a vacancy-mediated mechanism. Since Xe transport is closely related to diffusion of U vacancies, we have also studied the activation energy for this process. In order to explain the low value of 2.4 eV found for U migration from independent damage experiments (not thermal equilibrium) the presence of vacancy clusters must be included in the analysis. Next we investigate species transport on the (111) UO{sub 2} surface, which is motivated by the formation of small voids partially filled with fission gas atoms (bubbles) in UO{sub 2} under irradiation. Surface diffusion could be the rate-limiting step for diffusion of such bubbles, which is an alternative mechanism for mass transport in these materials. As expected, the activation energy for surface diffusion is significantly lower than for bulk transport. These results are further discussed in terms of engineering-scale fission gas release models. Finally, oxidation of UO{sub 2} and the importance of cluster formation for understanding thermodynamic and kinetic properties of UO{sub 2+x} are investigated.

  13. Cavity morphology in a Ni based superalloy under heavy ion irradiation with cold pre-injected helium. I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, He; Yao, Zhongwen Daymond, Mark R.; Kirk, Marquis A.

    2014-03-14

    In order to understand radiation damage in the nickel based superalloy Inconel X-750 in thermal reactors, where (n, ?) transmutation reaction also occurred in addition to fast neutron induced atomic displacement, heavy ion (1?MeV Kr{sup 2+}) irradiation with pre-injected helium was performed under in-situ observations of an intermediate voltage electron microscope at Argonne National Laboratory. By comparing to our previous studies using 1?MeV Kr{sup 2+} irradiation solely, the pre-injected helium was found to be essential in cavity nucleation. Cavities started to be visible after Kr{sup 2+} irradiation to 2.7 dpa at ?200?C in samples containing 200 appm, 1000 appm, and 5000 appm helium, respectively, but not at lower temperatures. The cavity growth was observed during the continuous irradiation. Cavity formation appeared along with a reduced number density of stacking fault tetrahedra, vacancy type defects. With higher pre-injected helium amount, a higher density of smaller cavities was observed. This is considered to be the result of local trapping effect of helium which disperses vacancies. The average cavity size increases with increasing irradiation temperatures; the density reduced; and the distribution of cavities became heterogeneous at elevated temperatures. In contrast to previous characterization of in-reactor neutron irradiated Inconel X-750, no obvious cavity sink to grain boundaries and phase boundaries was found even at high doses and elevated temperatures. MC-type carbides were observed as strong sources for agglomeration of cavities due to their enhanced trapping strength of helium and vacancies.

  14. Adsorptive Separation and Sequestration of Krypton, I and C14 on Diamond Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosh, Tushar; Loyalka, Sudarsha; Prelas, Mark; Viswanath, Dabir

    2015-03-31

    The objective of this research proposal was to address the separation and sequestration of Kr and I from each other using nano-sized diamond particles and retaining these in diamond until they decay to the background level or can be used as a byproduct. Following removal of Kr and I, an adsorbent will be used to adsorb and store CO2 from the CO2 rich stream. A Field Enhanced Diffusion with Optical Activation (FEDOA-a large scale process that takes advantage of thermal, electrical, and optical activation to enhance the diffusion of an element into diamond structure) was used to load Kr and I on micron or nano sized particles having a larger relative surface area. The diamond particles can be further increased by doping it with boron followed by irradiation in a neutron flux. Previous studies showed that the hydrogen storage capacity could be increased significantly by using boron-doped irradiated diamond particles. Diamond powders were irradiated for a longer time by placing them in a quartz tube. The surface area was measured using a Quantachrome Autosorb system. No significant increase in the surface area was observed. Total surface area was about 1.7 m2/g. This suggests the existence of very minimal pores. Interestingly it showed hysteresis upon desorption. A reason for this may be strong interaction between the surface and the nitrogen molecules. Adsorption runs at higher temperatures did not show any adsorption of krypton on diamond. Use of a GC with HID detector to determine the adsorption capacity from the breakthrough curves was attempted, but experimental difficulties were encountered.

  15. Simulated dry storage test of a spent PWR nuclear fuel assembly in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Gilbert, E.R.; Oden, D.R.; Stidham, D.L.; Garnier, J.E.; Weeks, D.L.; Dobbins, J.C.

    1985-02-01

    The purpose of the dry storage test was to investigate the behavior of Zircaloy-clad spent fuel in air between 200 and 275/sup 0/C. Atmospheric air was used for the cover gas because of the interest in establishing regimes where air inleakage into an initially inert system would not cause potential fuel degradation. Samples of the cover gas atmosphere were extracted monthly to determine fission gas concentrations as a function of time. The oxygen concentration was monitored to detect oxygen depletion, which would signal oxidation of the fuel. The gas analyses indicated very low but detectable levels of /sup 85/Kr during the first month of the test. A large increase (five orders of magnitude) in /sup 85/Kr and the appearance of helium in the cover gas indicated that a fuel rod had breached during the second month of the test. Stress rupture calculations showed that the stresses and temperatures were too low to expect breaches to form in defect-free cladding. It is theorized that the breach occurred in a fuel rod weakened by an existing cladding or end cap defect. Calculations based on the rate of /sup 85/Kr release suggest that the diameter of the initial breach was about 25 microns. A post-test fuel examination will be performed to locate and investigate the cause of the cladding breach and to determine if detectable fuel degradation progressed after the breach occurred. The post-test evaluation will define the consequences of a fuel rod breach occurring in an air cover gas at 270/sup 0/C, followed by subsequent exposure to air at a prototypic descending temperature.

  16. Optical pumping and xenon NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raftery, M.D.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of xenon has become an important tool for investigating a wide variety of materials, especially those with high surface area. The sensitivity of its chemical shift to environment, and its chemical inertness and adsorption properties make xenon a particularly useful NMR probe. This work discusses the application of optical pumping to enhance the sensitivity of xenon NMR experiments, thereby allowing them to be used in the study of systems with lower surface area. A novel method of optically-pumping [sup 129]Xe in low magnetic field below an NMR spectrometer and subsequent transfer of the gas to high magnetic field is described. NMR studies of the highly polarized gas adsorbed onto powdered samples with low to moderate surface areas are now possible. For instance, NMR studies of optically-pumped xenon adsorbed onto polyacrylic acid show that xenon has a large interaction with the surface. By modeling the low temperature data in terms of a sticking probability and the gas phase xenon-xenon interaction, the diffusion coefficient for xenon at the surface of the polymer is determined. The sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping also allows the NMR observation of xenon thin films frozen onto the inner surfaces of different sample cells. The geometry of the thin films results in interesting line shapes that are due to the bulk magnetic susceptibility of xenon. Experiments are also described that combine optical pumping with optical detection for high sensitivity in low magnetic field to observe the quadrupoler evolution of 131 Xe spins at the surface of the pumping cells. In cells with macroscopic asymmetry, a residual quadrupolar interaction causes a splitting in the [sup 131]Xe NMR frequencies in bare Pyrex glass cells and cells with added hydrogen.

  17. Optical pumping and xenon NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raftery, M.D.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of xenon has become an important tool for investigating a wide variety of materials, especially those with high surface area. The sensitivity of its chemical shift to environment, and its chemical inertness and adsorption properties make xenon a particularly useful NMR probe. This work discusses the application of optical pumping to enhance the sensitivity of xenon NMR experiments, thereby allowing them to be used in the study of systems with lower surface area. A novel method of optically-pumping {sup 129}Xe in low magnetic field below an NMR spectrometer and subsequent transfer of the gas to high magnetic field is described. NMR studies of the highly polarized gas adsorbed onto powdered samples with low to moderate surface areas are now possible. For instance, NMR studies of optically-pumped xenon adsorbed onto polyacrylic acid show that xenon has a large interaction with the surface. By modeling the low temperature data in terms of a sticking probability and the gas phase xenon-xenon interaction, the diffusion coefficient for xenon at the surface of the polymer is determined. The sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping also allows the NMR observation of xenon thin films frozen onto the inner surfaces of different sample cells. The geometry of the thin films results in interesting line shapes that are due to the bulk magnetic susceptibility of xenon. Experiments are also described that combine optical pumping with optical detection for high sensitivity in low magnetic field to observe the quadrupoler evolution of 131 Xe spins at the surface of the pumping cells. In cells with macroscopic asymmetry, a residual quadrupolar interaction causes a splitting in the {sup 131}Xe NMR frequencies in bare Pyrex glass cells and cells with added hydrogen.

  18. 10C

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    C β+-Decay Evaluated Data Measurements for Superallowed Beta Decay 1975HA45: 10C; calculated ft for known superallowed β decays. 1988BA55: 10C(β+); measured Eγ, Iγ; deduced Q(β+). Superallowed beta decay. 1989BA28: 10C(β+); measured Eγ; deduced Qβ. 10B superallowed deduced transition Eγ. 1991KR19: 10C(β+); measured Eγ Iγ, β-delayed γ deduced superallowed β-decay branching ratio. 1991NA01: 10C(β+); measured Eγ Iγ; log ft. 1991RA09: 10C; calculated radiative corrections to

  19. 12B

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    β--Decay Evaluated Data Measurements 1948JE03: 12B; measured T1/2. 1956TA07, 1957CO59, 1958CO66, 1958KA31: 12B. 1957CO57: 12B; measured T1/2. 1958KR65: 12B; measured T1/2. 1959FA03: 12B; measured T1/2. 1961SC09: 12B; measured not abstracted; deduced nuclear properties. 1962NE14: 12B; measured not abstracted; deduced nuclear properties. 1962PO02: 12B; measured not abstracted; deduced nuclear properties. 1963AL15: 12B; measured not abstracted; deduced nuclear properties. 1963FI05: 12B; measured

  20. Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data and Data Plots from Project Vulcan

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gurney, Kevin

    Explore the Vulcan website for the Vulcan gridded data, methodological details, publications, plots and analysis.[Taken from "About Project Vulcan" at http://www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/index.php]Also, see the peer-reviewed paper that provides a "core" description for this project: Gurney, K.R., D. Mendoza, Y. Zhou, M Fischer, S. de la Rue du Can, S. Geethakumar, C. Miller (2009) The Vulcan Project: High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emissions fluxes for the United States, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, doi:10.1021/es900,806c.

  1. Carbon nanotube formation by laser direct writing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Y.-T.; Su, H.-C.; Tsai, C.-M.; Liu, K.-L.; Chen, G.-D.; Huang, R.-H.; Yew, T.-R.

    2008-07-14

    This letter presents carbon nanotube (CNT) formation by laser direct writing using 248 nm KrF excimer pulsed laser in air at room temperature, which was applied to irradiate amorphous carbon (a-C) assisted by Ni catalysts underneath for the transformation of carbon species into CNTs. The CNTs were synthesized under appropriate combination of laser energy density and a-C thickness. The growth mechanism and key parameters to determine the success of CNT formation were also discussed. The demonstration of the CNT growth by laser direct writing in air at room temperature opens an opportunity of in-position CNT formation at low temperatures.

  2. approved_list

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3Mar00 Exp # Spokesperson Title Days 762-2 Dunford K-Shell Excitation of He-Like Ni at Intermediate Energy-II 3 763-2X Seweryniak Test of a Method to Study Sub-ms Proton and a Emitters 2 849 Davids Proton Emission Studies of Spherical and Highly Deformed Odd-Odd Nuclei Produced with a 78Kr Beam 6 850 Davids Proton Decay of Highly Deformed La Isotopes 5 851 Kwok Investigation of Vortex Physics: phase transitions, dynamics and weak links 2 853X Lister Test of New FMA Focal Plane Microchannel Plate

  3. Characterization of the Kootenai River Algae Community and Primary Productivity Before and After Experimental Nutrient Addition, 2004–2007 [Chapter 2, Kootenai River Algal Community Characterization, 2009 KTOI REPORT].

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holderman, Charlie; Anders, Paul; Shafii, Bahman

    2009-07-01

    The Kootenai River ecosystem (spelled Kootenay in Canada) has experienced numerous ecological changes since the early 1900s. Some of the largest impacts to habitat, biological communities, and ecological function resulted from levee construction along the 120 km of river upstream from Kootenay Lake, completed by the 1950s, and the construction and operation of Libby Dam on the river near Libby Montana, completed in 1972. Levee construction isolated tens of thousands of hectares of historic functioning floodplain habitat from the river channel downstream in Idaho and British Columbia (B.C.) severely reducing natural biological productivity and habitat diversity crucial to large river-floodplain ecosystem function. Libby Dam greatly reduces sediment and nutrient transport to downstream river reaches, and dam operations cause large changes in the timing, duration, and magnitude of river flows. These and other changes have contributed to the ecological collapse of the post-development Kootenai River ecosystem and its native biological communities. In response to large scale loss of nutrients, experimental nutrient addition was initiated in the North Arm of Kootenay Lake in 1992, in the South Arm of Kootenay Lake in 2004, and in the Kootenai River at the Idaho-Montana border during 2005. This report characterizes baseline chlorophyll concentration and accrual (primary productivity) rates and diatom and algal community composition and ecological metrics in the Kootenai River for four years, one (2004) before, and three (2005 through 2007) after nutrient addition. The study area encompassed a 325 km river reach from the upper Kootenay River at Wardner, B.C. (river kilometer (rkm) 445) downstream through Montana and Idaho to Kootenay Lake in B.C. (rkm 120). Sampling reaches included an unimpounded reach furthest upstream and four reaches downstream from Libby Dam affected by impoundment: two in the canyon reach (one with and one without nutrient addition), a braided reach, and a meandering reach. The study design included 14 sampling sites: an upstream, unimpounded reference site (KR-14), four control (non-fertilized) canyon sites downstream from Libby Dam, but upstream from nutrient addition (KR-10 through KR-13), two treatment sites referred to collectively as the nutrient addition zone (KR-9 and KR-9.1, located at and 5 km downstream from the nutrient addition site), two braided reach sites (KR-6 and KR-7), and four meander reach sites (KR-1 through KR-4). A series of qualitative evaluations and quantitative analyses were used to assess baseline conditions and effects of experimental nutrient addition treatments on chlorophyll, primary productivity, and taxonomic composition and metric arrays for the diatom and green algae communities. Insufficient density in the samples precluded analyses of bluegreen algae taxa and metrics for pre- and post-nutrient addition periods. Chlorophyll a concentration (mg/m{sup 2}), chlorophyll accrual rate (mg/m{sup 2}/30d), total chlorophyll concentration (chlorophyll a and b) (mg/m{sup 2}), and total chlorophyll accrual rate (mg/m{sup 2}/30d) were calculated. Algal taxa were identified and grouped by taxonomic order as Cyanophyta (blue-greens), Chlorophyta (greens), Bacillariophyta (diatoms), Chrysophyta (goldens), and dominant species from each sample site were identified. Algal densities (number/ml) in periphyton samples were calculated for each sample site and sampling date. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to reduce the dimension of diatom and algae data and to determine which taxonomic groups and metrics were contributing significantly to the observed variation. PCA analyses were tabulated to indicate eigenvalues, proportion, and cumulative percent variation, as well as eigenvectors (loadings) for each of the components. Biplot graphic displays of PCA axes were also generated to characterize the pattern and structure of the underlying variation. Taxonomic data and a series of biological and ecological metrics were used with PCA for diatoms and algae. Algal metrics included a suite of abundance, diversity, richness, dominance, and other measures, whereas additional trophic status and chemical limnology metrics, Van Dam indices and morphological groupings were employed in diatom PCAs. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was carried out using chlorophyll metrics and taxa and metric arrays for the diatom and green algae community data for comparing site differences from 2004 through 2007. Clear, statistically significant, biological responses from chlorophyll metrics, and taxa and metrics of the diatom and algal communities were revealed following experimental nutrient addition in the Kootenai River. Chlorophyll metric responses were more often significant and generally greater in magnitude than diatom and green algae taxa and metric responses.

  4. Laboratory and field studies related to the radionuclide migration project. Progress report, October 1, 1982-September 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniels, W.R.; Thompson, J.L.

    1984-04-01

    The FY 1983 laboratory and field studies related to the Radionuclide Migration project are described. Results are presented for radiochemical analyses of water samples collected from the RNM-1 well and the RNM-2S satellite well at the Cambric site. Data are included for tritium, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 85}Kr, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 129}I, and {sup 137}Cs. Preliminary results from water collection at the Cheshire site are reported. Laboratory studies emphasize the sorptive behavior of tuff and its dependence on mineralogy. 18 references, 7 figures, 13 tables.

  5. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    More Like Shades of Gray: the Effects of Black Carbon in Aerosols Submitter: McComiskey, A. C., National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Area of Research: Aerosol Properties Working Group(s): Aerosol Life Cycle Journal Reference: Cappa CD, TB Onasch, P Massoli, DR Worsnop, TS Bates, ES Cross, P Davidovits, J Hakala, KL Hayden, BT Jobson, KR Kolesar, DA Lack, BM Lerner, SM Li, D Mellon, I Nuaaman, JS Olfert, T Petaja, PK Quinn, C Song, R Subramanian, EJ Williams, and RA Zaveri. 2012.

  6. DESIGNATION SURVEY ADDENDUM REPORT II COMBUSTION ENGINEERING SITE

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ,111 DESIGNATION SURVEY ADDENDUM REPORT II COMBUSTION ENGINEERING SITE *I W INDSOR, CONNECTICUT 111 E. W . ABELQUIST Prepared for the Office of Environmental Restoration U.S. Department of Energy I- II I- .:jj;jiE// .:::=::::: .ipij!li' ,:::i::.:. ..::I::::/. ,:ii~iiiiai, ..' iiiiiiiiii!!liiii~~~~,~:~:. ~i!i.~iii~' :' -' +g?' gg;; ,- ZY :i/ .:;i" .:!! .:::a .(/i?j i:/i;jl? I!kr ' -:~i~jg~;...,.;, ..,::&Si! :(j)//ji//(!: 3.. :jijiiiiiiqi:wi l~,. ,,v..::;:~/j~B/; g#;$ .;::::::::::!

  7. ATLAS APPROVED IN-BEAM EXPERIMENTS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9NOV98 Exp # Spokesperson Experiment Title Days 713-2 Sonzogni Study of 44Ti(a,p)47V at Energies of Astrophysical Interest 6 718-2 Krücken B(M1)-Values in the Band Crossing Region of the Strongest Shears Band in 197Pb 5 749-2 Devlin Superdeformation in Neutron-Rich A ~ 70 Nuclei 5 755 Reviol Study of Excited States in 181Tl and 179Au - Spectroscopy beyond the Neutron Midshell 2 757 Janssens Proton Transfer Reactions in Actinide Nuclei: Spectroscopy beyond Pu and Cm? 2 759 Chowdhury High-K

  8. Damage thresholds of thin film materials and high reflectors at 248 nm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rainer, F.; Lowdermilk, W.H.; Milam, D.; Carniglia, C.K.; Hart, T.T.; Lichtenstein, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-ns, 248-nm KrF laser pulses were used to measure laser damage thresholds for halfwave-thick layers of 15 oxide and fluoride coating materials, and for high reflectance coatings made with 13 combinations of these materials. The damage thresholds of the reflectors and single-layer films were compared to measurements of several properties of the halfwave-thick films to determine whether measurements of these properties of single-layer films to determine whether measurements of these properties of single-layer films were useful for identifying materials for fabrication of damage resistant coatings.

  9. Polymer network/carbon layer on monolith support and monolith catalytic reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nordquist, Andrew Francis; Wilhelm, Frederick Carl; Waller, Francis Joseph; Machado, Reinaldo Mario

    2003-08-26

    The present invention relates to an improved monolith catalytic reactor and a monolith support. The improvement in the support resides in a polymer network/carbon coating applied to the surface of a porous substrate and a catalytic metal, preferably a transition metal catalyst applied to the surface of the polymer network/carbon coating. The monolith support has from 100 to 800 cells per square inch and a polymer network/carbon coating with surface area of from 0.1 to 15 m.sup.2 /gram as measured by adsorption of N.sub.2 or Kr using the BET method.

  10. Method for detecting trace impurities in gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freund, Samuel M.; Maier, II, William B.; Holland, Redus F.; Beattie, Willard H.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for considerably improving the sensitivity and specificity of infrared spectrometry as applied to quantitative determination of trace impurities in various carrier or solvent gases is presented. A gas to be examined for impurities is liquefied and infrared absorption spectra of the liquid are obtained. Spectral simplification and number densities of impurities in the optical path are substantially higher than are obtainable in similar gas-phase analyses. Carbon dioxide impurity (.about.2 ppm) present in commercial Xe and ppm levels of Freon 12 and vinyl chloride added to liquefied air are used to illustrate the method.

  11. Method for detecting trace impurities in gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freund, S.M.; Maier, W.B. II; Holland, R.F.; Beattie, W.H.

    A technique for considerably improving the sensitivity and specificity of infrared spectrometry as applied to quantitative determination of trace impurities in various carrier or solvent gases is presented. A gas to be examined for impurities is liquefied and infrared absorption spectra of the liquid are obtained. Spectral simplification and number densities of impurities in the optical path are substantially higher than are obtainable in similar gas-phase analyses. Carbon dioxide impurity (approx. 2 ppM) present in commercial Xe and ppM levels of Freon 12 and vinyl chloride added to liquefied air are used to illustrate the method.

  12. Helen He!

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NUG Meeting, 10/08/2015 Nested OpenMP OpenMP Execution Model * Fork and Join Model - Master thread forks new threads at the beginning of parallel regions. - Mul6ple threads share work in parallel. - Threads join at the end of the parallel regions. - 2 - Hopper/Edison Compute Nodes - 3 - * Hopper: NERSC Cray XE6, 6,384 nodes, 153,126 cores. * 4 NUMA domains per node, 6 cores per NUMA domain. * Edison: NERSC Cray XC30, 5,576 nodes, 133,824 cores. * 2 NUMA domains per node, 12 cores per NUMA

  13. dlfm_user_guide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the DLFM Package on the Cray XE6 System Mike Davis, Cray Inc. Version 1.4 - October 2013 1.0: Introduction The DLFM package is a set of libraries and tools that can be applied to a dynamically-linked application, or an application that uses Python, to provide improved performance during the loading of dynamic libraries and importing of Python modules when running the application at large scale. Included in the DLFM package are: a set of wrapper functions that interface with the dynamic linker

  14. Present Status and Future Perspectives of the NEXT Experiment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gómez Cadenas, J. J.; Álvarez, V.; Borges, F. I. G.; Cárcel, S.; Castel, J.; Cebrián, S.; Cervera, A.; Conde, C. A. N.; Dafni, T.; Dias, T. H. V. T.; et al

    2014-01-01

    NEXT is an experiment dedicated to neutrinoless double beta decay searches in xenon. The detector is a TPC, holding 100 kg of high-pressure xenon enriched in the136Xe isotope. It is under construction in the Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc in Spain, and it will begin operations in 2015. The NEXT detector concept provides an energy resolutionbetter than 1% FWHM and a topological signal that can be used to reduce the background. Furthermore, the NEXT technology can be extrapolated to a 1 ton-scale experiment.

  15. Nuclear Data Sheets for A-142

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, T.D.; Johnson,T.D.; Symochko,D.; Fadil,M.; Tuli,J.K.

    2011-08-01

    The 2000 Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 142 by J. K. Tuli, with literature cutoff date of February 4, 2000, has been revised. The evaluated experimental data are presented for 16 known nuclides of mass 142 (Ba, Ce, Cs, Dy, Eu, Gd, Ho, I, La, Nd, Pm, Pr, Sm, Tb, Te, Xe). Comparing to the previous evaluation (2000Tu01) significant changes were done to the level schemes of Gd, Cs, Ce and Nd. For all nuclides, the more recent Q values have been added.

  16. Gauged B-xiL origin of R parity and its implications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, Hye-Sung; Ma, Ernest

    2010-05-01

    Gauged B-L is a popular candidate for the origin of the conservation of R parity, i.e.R=(-)3B+L+2j, in supersymmetry, but it fails to forbid the effective dimension-five terms arising from the superfield combinations QQQL, ucucdcec, and ucdcdcNc, which allow the proton to decay. Changing it to B-xiL, where xe+xμ+xτ=3 (with xi≠1) for the three families, would forbid these terms while still serving as a gauge origin of Rparity. We show how this is achieved in two minimal models with realistic neutrino mass matrices, and discuss their phenomenological implications.

  17. Mechanisms of neutrinoless double-beta decay: A comparative analysis of several nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, A. [DESY, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (Germany); Borisov, A. V., E-mail: borisov@phys.msu.r [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Zhuridov, D. V. [Scuola Normale Superiore (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    The neutrinoless double beta decay of several nuclei that are of interest from the experimental point of view ({sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 130}Te, and {sup 136}Xe) is investigated on the basis of a general Lorentzinvariant effective Lagrangian describing physics effects beyond the Standard Model. The half-lives and angular-correlation coefficients for electrons are calculated for various decay mechanisms associated, in particular, with the exchange of Majorana neutrinos, supersymmetric particles (with R-parity violation), leptoquarks, and right-handed W{sub R} bosons. The effect of theoretical uncertainties in the values of relevant nuclear matrix elements on decay features is considered.

  18. HXeOBr in a xenon matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khriachtchev, Leonid; Tapio, Salla; Domanskaya, Alexandra V.; Raesaenen, Markku; Isokoski, Karoliina; Lundell, Jan

    2011-03-28

    We report on a new noble-gas molecule HXeOBr prepared in a low-temperature xenon matrix from the HBr and N{sub 2}O precursors by UV photolysis and thermal annealing. This molecule is assigned with the help of deuteration experiments and ab initio calculations including anharmonic methods. The H-Xe stretching frequency of HXeOBr is observed at 1634 cm{sup -1}, which is larger by 56 cm{sup -1} than the frequency of HXeOH identified previously. The experiments show a higher thermal stability of HXeOBr molecules in a xenon matrix compared to HXeOH.

  19. © 2013, Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. Intel and the Intel logo are tr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3, Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. Intel and the Intel logo are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the U.S. and/or other countries. *Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others. Composer XE 2013 SP1 Getting Started Xeon Phi edition Fall 2013 1 © 2013, Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. Intel and the Intel logo are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the U.S. and/or other countries. *Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others. Agenda New User

  20. S. R. Lee, A. F. Wright, M. H. Crawford, G. A. Petersen, J. Han, and R. M. Biefeld

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to be submitted to APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS The band gap of AlGaN alloys S. R. Lee, A. F. Wright, M. H. Crawford, G. A. Petersen, J. Han, and R. M. Biefeld Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 871 85-0601 (February 1999) The band gap of Al,Gal.,N is measured for the composition range 01xe0.45; the resulting bowing parameter, b=+0.69 eV, is compared to 20 previous works. A correlation is found between the measured band gaps and the methods used for epitaxial growth of the A1,Gal.,N:

  1. Microsoft PowerPoint - 01XEPO-0_SystemOverview.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Cray XE y y System Overview Customer Documentation and Training Overview Topics * System Overview - Cabinets, Chassis, and Blades - Compute and Service Nodes - Components of a Node Opteron Processor Opteron Processor SeaStar ASIC * Portals API Design Gemini ASIC * System Networks * Interconnection Topologies 10/18/2010 2 Cray Private Cray XT System 10/18/2010 3 Cray Private System Overview GigE X Y Z 10 GigE GigE Fibre SMW RAID Subsystem Channels Compute node Login node g Network node Boot

  2. Microsoft PowerPoint - 02XEPO-0_Lustre.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lustre File System Lustre File System Customer Documentation and Training Cray XT/XE Systems I/O Support - The compute nodes usually hand off I/O to the SIO or XIO (service I/O) nodes Th li ti l h h dl tdi - The aprun application launcher handles stdin, stdout, and stderr Refer to the Cray XT Programming Environment User's Guide y g g (S-2396), "I/O Support" in the "Catamount Programming Considerations" section 10/18/2010 2 Cray Private Cray I/O Architecture A li ti Login

  3. JGI Compute User Training Series

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data Transfer and Archiving Using the Cray XE6 NERSC User Group Training Remote Setup 2010 Training Events Online Tutorials Courses NERSC Training Accounts Request Form Training Links OSF HPC Seminars Software Policies User Surveys NERSC Users Group User Announcements Help Staff Blogs Request Repository Mailing List Operations for: Passwords & Off-Hours Status 1-800-66-NERSC, option 1 or 510-486-6821 Account Support https://nim.nersc.gov accounts@nersc.gov 1-800-66-NERSC, option 2 or

  4. Link error from craype/2.5.0

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Link error from craype/2.5.0 Link error from craype/2.5.0 January 13, 2016 by Woo-Sun Yang If you build a code using a file called 'configure' with craype/2.5.0, Cray build-tools assumes that you want to use the 'native' link mode (e.g., gcc defaults to dynamic linking), by adding '-Wl,-rpath=/opt/intel/composer_xe_2015/compiler/lib/intel64 -lintlc'. This creates a link error: /usr/bin/ld: cannot find -lintlc A temporary work around is to swap the default craype (2.5.0) with an older or newer

  5. Population of 195Os via a deep-inelastic reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valiente-Dobon, J.J.; Wheldon, C.; Regan, P.H.; Langdown, S.D.; Yamamoto, A.D.; Wu, C.Y.; Cline, D.; Hayes, A.; Hua, H.; Teng, R.; Andreoiu, C.; Svensson, C.E.; Chapman, R.; Liang, X.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Ward, D.; Freeman, S. J.; Smith, J.F.

    2004-09-13

    The present work reports on the {sub 76}{sup 195}Os isotope, which is the most neutron-rich osmium isotope for which transitions have been measured. It has been populated following a multi-nucleon transfer reaction between a thin {sub 78}{sup 198}Pt target and an 850-MeV {sub 54}{sup 136}Xe beam. Evidence from {gamma}-ray coincidences has been found for an I{sup {pi}} = ((27/2){sup -}) isomeric state with a measured half-life of 26 {+-} 9ns.

  6. Ultranarrow linewidth waveguide excimer lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, C.P. ); Feldman, B.J.; Huston, A.

    1989-09-01

    We have constructed a single longitudinal mode XeCl laser using microwave discharge waveguide laser technology. The pulse duration, repetition rate, and simplicity of construction associated with waveguide excimer lasers lend this system unique capabilities and a broad utility for interfacing with other excimer devices. The coherence length of the laser emission has been found to be {similar to}6 m with a corresponding bandwidth of {l brace}22 MHz that is near the transform limit. The laser has been used to demonstrate pulsed UV Doppler velocity measurement in a simple homodyne configuration.

  7. Decreasing Beam Auto Tuning Interruption Events with In-Situ Chemical Cleaning on Axcelis GSD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuchs, Dieter; Spreitzer, Stefan; Vogl, Josef [Infineon Technologies AG., Wernerwerkstr.2, 93049 Regensburg (Germany); Bishop, Steve; Eldridge, David; Kaim, Robert [ATMI Inc., 7 Commerce Drive, Danbury, CT 06810 (United States)

    2008-11-03

    Ion beam auto tuning time and success rate are often major factors in the utilization and productivity of ion implanters. Tuning software frequently fails to meet specified setup times or recipe parameters, causing production stoppages and requiring manual intervention. Build-up of conductive deposits in the arc chamber and extraction gap can be one of the main causes of auto tuning problems. The deposits cause glitching and ion beam instabilities, which lead to errors in the software optimization routines. Infineon Regensburg has been testing use of XeF{sub 2}, an in-situ chemical cleaning reagent, with positive results in reducing auto tuning interruption events.

  8. UPC-Yelick.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UPC Overview
 http://upc.lbl.gov
 Katherine Yelick
 NERSC Director" Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
 2/7/11" 1" Cray XE Training" What's Wrong with MPI Everywhere * We can run 1 MPI process per core ("flat MPI") - This works now on dual and quad-core machines - It will work on 12-24 core machines like Hopper as well * What are the problems? - Latency: some copying required by semantics - Memory utilization: partitioning data for separate address space

  9. Chemistry and Material Sciences Applications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    User Feedback JGI Intro to NERSC Data Transfer and Archiving Using the Cray XE6 NERSC User Group Training Remote Setup 2010 Training Events Online Tutorials Courses NERSC Training Accounts Request Form Training Links OSF HPC Seminars Software Policies User Surveys NERSC Users Group User Announcements Help Staff Blogs Request Repository Mailing List Operations for: Passwords & Off-Hours Status 1-800-66-NERSC, option 1 or 510-486-6821 Account Support https://nim.nersc.gov accounts@nersc.gov

  10. Configuration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Configuration Configuration Hopper is NERSC's first peta-flop system, a Cray XE6, with a peak performance of 1.28 Petaflops/sec, 153,216 compute cores for running scientific applications, 217 Terabytes of memory, and 2 Petabytes of online disk storage. MC-proc.png Compute Nodes Hopper has 6,384 compute nodes made up of 2 twelve-core AMD 'MagnyCours'. Read More » login.jpg Login Nodes When you ssh to hopper.nersc.gov, you are connecting to a "login node." Read More » jaguar xt4

  11. Data Transfer and Archiving

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    User Feedback Using the Cray XE6 NERSC User Group Training Remote Setup 2010 Training Events Online Tutorials Courses NERSC Training Accounts Request Form Training Links OSF HPC Seminars Software Policies User Surveys NERSC Users Group User Announcements Help Staff Blogs Request Repository Mailing List Operations for: Passwords & Off-Hours Status 1-800-66-NERSC, option 1 or 510-486-6821 Account Support https://nim.nersc.gov accounts@nersc.gov 1-800-66-NERSC, option 2 or 510-486-8612

  12. Erosion resistant nozzles for laser plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kubiak, Glenn D.; Bernardez, II, Luis J.

    2000-01-04

    A gas nozzle having an increased resistance to erosion from energetic plasma particles generated by laser plasma sources. By reducing the area of the plasma-facing portion of the nozzle below a critical dimension and fabricating the nozzle from a material that has a high EUV transmission as well as a low sputtering coefficient such as Be, C, or Si, it has been shown that a significant reduction in reflectance loss of nearby optical components can be achieved even after exposing the nozzle to at least 10.sup.7 Xe plasma pulses.

  13. Enhancement of NMR and MRI in the presence of hyperpolarized noble gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pines, Alexander; Budinger, Thomas; Navon, Gil; Song, Yi-Qiao; Appelt, Stephan; Bifone, Angelo; Taylor, Rebecca; Goodson, Boyd; Seydoux, Roberto; Room, Toomas; Pietrass, Tanja

    2004-11-16

    The present invention relates generally to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques for both spectroscopy and imaging. More particularly, the present invention relates to methods in which hyperpolarized noble gases (e.g., Xe and He) are used to enhance and improve NMR and MRI. Additionally, the hyperpolarized gas solutions of the invention are useful both in vitro and in vivo to study the dynamics or structure of a system. When used with biological systems, either in vivo or in vitro, it is within the scope of the invention to target the hyperpolarized gas and deliver it to specific regions within the system.

  14. Apparatus for preparing a solution of a hyperpolarized noble gas for NMR and MRI analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pines, Alexander; Budinger, Thomas; Navon, Gil; Song, Yi-Qiao; Appelt, Stephan; Bifone, Angelo; Taylor, Rebecca; Goodson, Boyd; Seydoux, Roberto; Room, Toomas; Pietrass, Tanja

    2008-06-10

    The present invention relates generally to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques for both spectroscopy and imaging. More particularly, the present invention relates to methods in which hyperpolarized noble gases (e.g., Xe and He) are used to enhance and improve NMR and MRI. Additionally, the hyperpolarized gas solutions of the invention are useful both in vitro and in vivo to study the dynamics or structure of a system. When used with biological systems, either in vivo or in vitro, it is within the scope of the invention to target the hyperpolarized gas and deliver it to specific regions within the system.

  15. Hopper Workload Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austin, Brian; Butler, Tina; Gerber, Richard; Whitney, Cary; Wright, Nicholas; Yang, Woo-Sun; Zhao, Zhengji

    2014-05-02

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing (NERSC) Center is the primary computing facility for the United States Department of Energy, Office of Science. With over 5,000 users and over 600 different applications utilizing NERSC systems, it is critically important to examine the workload running on NERSCs large supercomputers in order to procure systems that perform well for a broad workload. In this paper we show the breakdown of the NERSC workload by science area, algorithm, memory, thread usage and more. We also describe the methods used to collect data from NERSCs Hopper (Cray XE6) system.

  16. Survey of Laser Markets Relevant to Inertial Fusion Energy Drivers, information for National Research Council

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayramian, A J; Deri, R J; Erlandson, A C

    2011-02-24

    Development of a new technology for commercial application can be significantly accelerated by leveraging related technologies used in other markets. Synergies across multiple application domains attract research and development (R and D) talent - widening the innovation pipeline - and increases the market demand in common components and subsystems to provide performance improvements and cost reductions. For these reasons, driver development plans for inertial fusion energy (IFE) should consider the non-fusion technology base that can be lveraged for application to IFE. At this time, two laser driver technologies are being proposed for IFE: solid-state lasers (SSLs) and KrF gas (excimer) lasers. This document provides a brief survey of organizations actively engaged in these technologies. This is intended to facilitate comparison of the opportunities for leveraging the larger technical community for IFE laser driver development. They have included tables that summarize the commercial organizations selling solid-state and KrF lasers, and a brief summary of organizations actively engaged in R and D on these technologies.

  17. Stability Study of the RERTR Fuel Microstructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jian Gan; Dennis Keiser; Brandon Miller; Daniel Wachs

    2014-04-01

    The irradiation stability of the interaction phases at the interface of fuel and Al alloy matrix as well as the stability of the fission gas bubble superlattice is believed to be very important to the U-Mo fuel performance. In this paper the recent result from TEM characterization of Kr ion irradiated U-10Mo-5Zr alloy will be discussed. The focus will be on the phase stability of Mo2-Zr, a dominated second phase developed at the interface of U-10Mo and the Zr barrier in a monolithic fuel plate from fuel fabrication. The Kr ion irradiations were conducted at a temperature of 200 degrees C to an ion fluence of 2.0E+16 ions/cm2. To investigate the thermal stability of the fission gas bubble superlattice, a key microstructural feature in both irradiated dispersion U-7Mo fuel and monolithic U-10Mo fuel, a FIB-TEM sample of the irradiated U-10Mo fuel (3.53E+21 fission/cm3) was used for a TEM in-situ heating experiment. The preliminary result showed extraordinary thermal stability of the fission gas bubble superlattice. The implication of the TEM observation from these two experiments on the fuel microstructural evolution under irradiation will be discussed.

  18. A=12C (68AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    68AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 12C) GENERAL: See also Table 12.7 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (KU56, PE56A, KU57A, ME60D, TA60L, WE60B, BA61N, TR61, NA63A, VI63A, AM64, CL64, GI64C, GI64D, NE64C, BA65E, CO65I, FA65C, NE65, GI66A, HA66F, VA66A, YO66A, CO67M, EV67A, KU67B, HI68A). Collective model: (BA59F, BR59M, CL61D, CL62G, GO62I, WA62, GO63G, BR64Z, VO64C, ST65C, UB65, UB65A, VO65A, BO66H, DA66G, DR66B, KR66A, BA67D, BO67D, BO67J, BR67, KR67, LA67F, LA67M,

  19. Turning things downside up: Adsorbate induced water flipping on Pt(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimmel, Greg A. E-mail: bruce.kay@pnnl.gov; Zubkov, Tykhon; Smith, R. Scott; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Kay, Bruce D. E-mail: bruce.kay@pnnl.gov

    2014-11-14

    We have examined the adsorption of the weakly bound species N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO, and Kr on the (?(37)?(37))R25.3{sup ?} water monolayer on Pt(111) using a combination of molecular beam dosing, infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, and temperature programmed desorption. In contrast to multilayer crystalline ice, the adsorbate-free water monolayer is characterized by a lack of dangling OH bonds protruding into the vacuum (H-up). Instead, the non-hydrogen-bonded OH groups are oriented downward (H-down) to maximize their interaction with the underlying Pt(111) substrate. Adsorption of Kr and O{sub 2} have little effect on the structure and vibrational spectrum of the ?(37) water monolayer while adsorption of both N{sub 2}, and CO are effective in flipping H-down water molecules into an H-up configuration. This flipping occurs readily upon adsorption at temperatures as low as 20 K and the water monolayer transforms back to the H-down, ?(37) structure upon adsorbate desorption above 35 K, indicating small energy differences and barriers between the H-down and H-up configurations. The results suggest that converting water in the first layer from H-down to H-up is mediated by the electrostatic interactions between the water and the adsorbates.

  20. Turning things downside up: Adsorbate induced water flipping on Pt(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimmel, Gregory A.; Zubkov, Tykhon; Smith, R. Scott; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Kay, Bruce D.

    2014-11-14

    We have examined the adsorption of the weakly bound species N2, O2, CO and Kr on the water monolayer on Pt(111) using a combination of molecular beam dosing, infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). In contrast to multilayer crystalline ice, the adsorbate-free water monolayer is characterized by a lack of dangling OH bonds protruding into the vacuum (H-up). Instead, the non-hydrogen-bonded OH groups are oriented downward (H-down) to maximize their interaction with the underlying Pt(111) substrate. Adsorption of Kr and O2 have little effect on the structure and vibrational spectrum of the water monolayer while adsorption of both N2, and CO are effective in flipping H-down water molecules into an H-up configuration. This flipping occurs readily upon adsorption at temperatures as low as 20 K and the water monolayer transforms back to the H-down, structure upon adsorbate desorption above 35 K, indicating small energy differences and barriers between the H-down and H-up configurations. The results suggest that converting water in the first layer from H-down to H-up is mediated by the electrostatic interactions between the water and the adsorbates.

  1. Data summary report for fission product release Test VI-7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osborne, M.F.; Lorentz, R.A.; Travis, J.R.; Collins, J.L.; Webster, C.S.

    1995-05-01

    Test VI-7 was the final test in the VI series conducted in the vertical furnace. The fuel specimen was a 15.2-cm-long section of a fuel rod from the Monticello boiling water reactor (BWR). The fuel had experienced a burnup of {approximately}-40 Mwd/kg U. It was heated in an induction furnace for successive 20-min periods at 2000 and 2300 K in a moist air-helium atmosphere. Integral releases were 69% for {sup 85}Kr, 52% for {sup 125}Sb, 71% for both {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs, and 0.04% for {sup 154}Eu. For the non-gamma-emitting species, release values for 42% for I, 4.1% for Ba, 5.3% for Mo, and 1.2% for Sr were determined. The total mass released from the furnace to the collection system, including fission products, fuel, and structural materials, was 0.89 g, with 37% being collected on the thermal gradient tubes and 63% downstream on filters. Posttest examination of the fuel specimen indicated that most of the cladding was completely oxidized to ZrO{sub 2}, but that oxidation was not quite complete at the upper end. The release behaviors for the most volatile elements, Kr and Cs, were in good agreement with the ORNL-Booth Model.

  2. Light-emitting Si nanostructures formed in SiO{sub 2} on irradiation with swift heavy ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kachurin, G. A. Cherkova, S. G.; Skuratov, V. A.; Marin, D. V.; Cherkov, A. G.

    2010-04-15

    SiO{sub 2} layers containing implanted excess Si are irradiated with Xe ions with an energy of 130 MeV and doses of 3 x 10{sup 12}-10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. In the samples irradiated with a dose of 3 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}, {approx}10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} segregated clusters 3-4 nm in dimension are detected by transmission electron microscopy. With increasing dose, the dimensions and number of these clusters increase. In the photoluminescence spectrum, a 660- to 680-nm band is observed, with the intensity dependent on the dose. After passivation of the sample with hydrogen at 500 deg. C, the band disappears, but a new {approx}780-nm band typical of Si nanocrystals becomes evident. On the basis of the entire set of data, it is concluded that the 660- to 680-nm band is associated with imperfect Si nanocrystals grown in the tracks of Xe ions due to high ionization losses. The nonmonotonic dependence of the photoluminescence intensity on the dose is attributed to the difference between the diameters of tracks and the diameters of the displacements' cascades responsible for defect formation.

  3. Source Term Estimation of Radioxenon Released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Reactors Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Biegalski, S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Hoffman, Ian; Korpach, E.; Yi, Jing; Miley, Harry S.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Ungar, R. Kurt; White, Brian; Woods, Vincent T.

    2014-01-01

    Systems designed to monitor airborne radionuclides released from underground nuclear explosions detected radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011. Atmospheric transport modeling (ATM) of plumes of noble gases and particulates were performed soon after the accident to determine plausible detection locations of any radioactive releases to the atmosphere. We combine sampling data from multiple International Modeling System (IMS) locations in a new way to estimate the magnitude and time sequence of the releases. Dilution factors from the modeled plume at five different detection locations were combined with 57 atmospheric concentration measurements of 133-Xe taken from March 18 to March 23 to estimate the source term. This approach estimates that 59% of the 1.24×1019 Bq of 133-Xe present in the reactors at the time of the earthquake was released to the atmosphere over a three day period. Source term estimates from combinations of detection sites have lower spread than estimates based on measurements at single detection sites. Sensitivity cases based on data from four or more detection locations bound the source term between 35% and 255% of available xenon inventory.

  4. Single crystalline multi-petal Cd nanoleaves prepared by thermal reduction of CdO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Waheed S.; National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering , P.O. Box No. 577, Jhang Road, Faisalabad ; Cao, Chuanbao; Aslam, Imran; Ali, Zulfiqar; Butt, Faheem K.; Mahmood, Tariq; Nabi, Ghulam; Ihsan, Ayesha; Usman, Zahid; Rehman, Asma

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ? Cd nanoleaves are obtained on abraded Cu substrate by thermal reduction of CdO. ? Vapour solid (VS) growth mechanism governs the formation of Cd nanoleaves (CdNLs). ? PL spectrum for CdNLs exhibits a strong ultraviolet (UV) emission band at 353 nm. ? UV band is attributed to interband radiative recombination under Xe illumination. -- Abstract: Multi-petal cadmium metal nanoleaves with 3040 nm thickness were fabricated on abraded copper substrate by simple thermal reduction of cadmium oxide (CdO) powder at 1050 C inside horizontal tube furnace (HTF) under nitrogen gas flow. The structural, compositional and morphological characterizations of the as-prepared cadmium nanoleaves (CdNLs) were performed by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. Non-catalytic vapoursolid (VS) process based growth mechanism governing the formation of CdNLs has been proposed and discussed briefly. Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum for CdNLs measured at room temperature exhibited a single prominent emission band at 353 nm which may either be ascribed to surface oxidation effects or interband radiative recombination under Xe light illumination.

  5. Thermodynamics of fission products in dispersion fuel designs - first principles modeling of defect behavior in bulk and at interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiang-yand; Uberuaga, Blas P; Nerikar, Pankaj; Sickafus, Kurt E; Stanek, Chris R

    2009-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of fission product (Xe, Sr, and Cs) incorporation and segregation in alkaline earth metal oxides, HfO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} oxides, and the MgO/(U, Hf, Ce)O{sub 2} interfaces have been carried out. In the case of UO{sub 2}, the calculations were performed using spin polarization and with a Hubbard U term characterizing the on-sit Coulomb repulsion between the localized 5f electrons. The fission product solution energies in bulk UO{sub 2{+-}x} have been calculated as a function of non-stoichiometry x, and were compared to that in MgO. These calculations demonstrate that the fission product incorporation energies in MgO are higher than in HfO{sub 2}. However, this trend is reversed or reduced for alkaline earth oxides with larger cation sizes. The solution energies of fission products in MgO are substantially higher than in UO{sub 2{+-}x}, except for the case of Sr in the hypostoichiometric case. Due to size effects, the thermodynamic driving force of segregation for Xe and Cs from bulk MgO to the MgO/fluorite interface is strong. However, this driving force is relatively weak for Sr.

  6. Axial asymmetry in the IBA and an extensive new 0(6) region near A=130

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casten, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Although the IBA-1 contains no solutions corresponding to a rigid triaxial shape, it does contain an effective asymmetry arising from zero point motion in a ..gamma..-soft potential leading to a non-zero mean or rms ..gamma... In the consistent Q Formalism (CQF) of the IBA, most results of calculation depend only on one parameter chi. A relation will be established between chi and the effective asymmetry parameter ..gamma... The relation between the asymmetry occurring naturally in IBA-1 and the triaxiality arising from the introduction of cubic terms into the IBA Hamiltonian will be discussed. It will be shown that ..gamma..-band energy staggering is a particularly sensitive indicator of the degree of ..gamma.. rigidity. Finally, an extensive new region of 0(6) like Xe and Ba nuclei near A=130 will be discussed. Their remarkable similarity to Pt will be explored. Deviations from the strict 0(6) limit can be described in terms of the interplay of soft and rigid axial asymmetry and calculations will be presented that interpret the Xe, Ba and Pt isotopes in this way. 25 references.

  7. Axial asymmetry in the IBA and an extensive new 0(6) region near A = 130

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casten, R.F.

    1985-01-15

    Although the IBA-1 contains no solutions corresponding to a rigid triaxial shape, it does contain an effective asymmetry arising from zero point motion in a ..gamma..-soft potential leading to a non-zero mean or rms ..gamma... In the Consistent Q Formalism (CQF) of the IBA, most results of a calculation depend only on one parameter chi. A relation will be established between chi and the effective asymmetry parameter ..gamma... The relation between the asymmetry occurring naturally in IBA-1 and the triaxiality arising from the introduction of cubic terms into the IBA Hamiltonian will be discussed. It will be shown that ..gamma..-band energy staggering is a particularly sensitive indicator of the degree of ..gamma.. rigidity. Finally, an extensive new region of 0(6) like Xe and Ba nuclei near A = 130 will be discussed. Their remarkable similarity to Pt will be explored. Deviations from the strict 0(6) limit can be described in terms of the interplay of soft and rigid axial asymmetry and calculations will be presented that interpret the Xe, Ba and Pt isotopes in this way.

  8. Radio frequency emission from high-pressure xenon arcs: A systematic experimental analysis of the underlying near-anode plasma instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hechtfischer, Ulrich

    2011-10-01

    High-pressure Xe discharge lamps at DC operation can show unwanted strong RF (radio-frequency) emission to beyond 1 GHz, correlated to a sharp periodic lamp-voltage instability in the near-anode plasma with a pulse repetition rate {epsilon} of 1-10 MHz. The physical origin of the instability is unclear. Here, its existence and pulse rate have been measured as a function of arc current I = 0.2-1.2 A and anode temperature T{sub a} = 1700-3400 K independently, in experimental lamps with pure-tungsten electrodes and a Xe operating pressure around p = 10 MPa. Surprisingly, the instability is not affected by I or current density j but exists if T{sub a} is lower than a threshold value around 2800-2900 K. The pulse rate {epsilon} is simply a rising linear function of the inverse anode temperature 1/T{sub a}, with only a small I-dependent correction. The average anode heat load is slightly lower in the unstable regime and possibly depends on {epsilon}. The results allow a consistent re-interpretation of earlier and present experimental observations and should be both a valuable help in practical lamp engineering and a tight constraint for future theories of this effect.

  9. Preparation of blue-emitting CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphors in reverse micellar system and their application to transparent emissive display devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Sungho; Tae, Se-Won; Seo, Jung-Hyun; Jung, Ha-Kyun

    2011-06-15

    Blue-emitting Eu{sup 2+}-doped CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} phosphors were prepared by the reverse micelle method. The resultant particles were nanocrystalline with a grain size of about <300 nm and exhibited a characteristic blue emission spectrum centered at 445 nm induced by the oxygen coordinated Eu{sup 2+} ions. By using the corresponding nanophosphors followed by the formation of a uniform phosphor layer, we have demonstrated the mini-sized transparent plasma-discharge panels and investigated their luminance characteristics. Phosphor coated panel is properly transparent, {>=}65%, at the visible wavelength region and illuminates a characteristic blue emission under Ne/Xe plasma discharge conditions. Thus, we can obtain a fast decaying, robust blue-emitting silicate phosphor layer under excited plasma radiation for upcoming emissive display devices like as transparent and three-dimensional plasma display panels. - Graphical abstract: Blue-emitting CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors coated transparent luminescent layers can be obtained. It illuminates the characteristic blue emission, spectrum centered at 425 nm wavelength, under the Ne-Xe mixed gas plasma discharge condition. Highlights: > Blue-emitting CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors via reverse micelle method. > Transparent blue-emitting layer was prepared by using corresponding phosphors. > Fast decaying with degradation-free luminescent layer under plasma radiation. > Promising luminescent layer for the upcoming plasma discharged transparent displays.

  10. Studies of heavy-ion reactions and transuranic nuclei. Progress report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, W.U.

    1993-08-01

    This report contain papers on the following topics: The Cold-Fusion Saga; Decay Patterns of Dysprosium Nuclei Produced in {sup 32}S + {sup 118,124}Sn Fusion Reactions; Unexpected Features of Reactions Between Very Heavy Ions at Intermediate Bombarding Energies; Correlations Between Neutrons and Charged Products from the Dissipative Reaction {sup 197}Au+{sup 208}Pb at E/A = 29 MeV; Dissipative Dynamics of Projectile-Like Fragment Production in the Reaction {sup 209}Bi+{sup 136}Xe at E/A = 28.2 MeV; Dynamical Production of Intermediate-Mass Fragments in Peripheral {sup 209}Bi+{sup 136}Xe Collisions at E{sub lab}/A = 28.2 MeV; The Rochester 960-Liter Neutron Multiplicity Meter; A Simple Pulse Processing Concept for a Low-Cost Pulse-Shape-Based Particle Identification; A One-Transistor Preamplifier for PMT Anode Signals; A Five-Channel Multistop TDC/Event Handler for the SuperBall Neutron Multiplicity Meter; Construction of the SuperBall -- a 16,000-Liter Neutron Detector for Calorimetric Studies of Intermediate-Energy Heavy-Ion Reactions; A Computer Code for Light Detection Efficiency Calculations for Photo-multipliers of a Neutron Detector; Evaluation of Gd-Loaded Liquid Scintillators for the SuperBall Neutron Calorimeter; and Measurement of the Interaction of Cosmic-Ray {mu}{sup {minus}} with a Muon Telescope.

  11. FASTGRASS implementation in BISON and Fission gas behavior characterization in UO2 and connection to validating MARMOT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Di; Mo, Kun; Ye, Bei; Jamison, Laura M.; Miao, Yinbin; Lian, Jie; Yao, Tiankei

    2015-09-30

    This activity is supported by the US Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Product Line (FPL). Two major accomplishments in FY 15 are summarized in this report: (1) implementation of the FASTGRASS module in the BISON code; and (2) a Xe implantation experiment for large-grained UO2. Both BISON AND MARMOT codes have been developed by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to enable next generation fuel performance modeling capability as part of the NEAMS Program FPL. To contribute to the development of the Moose-Bison-Marmot (MBM) code suite, we have implemented the FASTGRASS fission gas model as a module in the BISON code. Based on rate theory formulations, the coupled FASTGRASS module in BISON is capable of modeling LWR oxide fuel fission gas behavior and fission gas release. In addition, we conducted a Xe implantation experiment at the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) in order to produce the needed UO2 samples with desired bubble morphology. With these samples, further experiments to study the fission gas diffusivity are planned to provide validation data for the Fission Gas Release Model in MARMOT codes.

  12. Estimates of Radioxenon Released from Southern Hemisphere Medical isotope Production Facilities Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Schrom, Brian T.

    2014-09-01

    Abstract The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitors the atmosphere for radioactive xenon leaking from underground nuclear explosions. Emissions from medical isotope production represent a challenging background signal when determining whether measured radioxenon in the atmosphere is associated with a nuclear explosion prohibited by the treaty. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a reactor and medical isotope production facility in Lucas Heights, Australia. This study uses two years of release data from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility and Xe-133 data from three IMS sampling locations to estimate the annual releases of Xe-133 from medical isotope production facilities in Argentina, South Africa, and Indonesia. Atmospheric dilution factors derived from a global atmospheric transport model were used in an optimization scheme to estimate annual release values by facility. The annual releases of about 6.81014 Bq from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility are in good agreement with the sampled concentrations at these three IMS sampling locations. Annual release estimates for the facility in South Africa vary from 1.21016 to 2.51016 Bq and estimates for the facility in Indonesia vary from 6.11013 to 3.61014 Bq. Although some releases from the facility in Argentina may reach these IMS sampling locations, the solution to the objective function is insensitive to the magnitude of those releases.

  13. Strongly correlated f-electron systems: A PES study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arko, A.J.; Joyce, J.J.; Sarrao, J.; Thompson, J.D.; Morales, L.; Fisk, Z.; Henkie, Z.; Cichorek, T.

    1998-12-31

    The term heavy fermions refers to materials (thus far only compounds with elements having an unfilled 4f or 5f shells) whose large specific heat {gamma}-values suggest that the conduction electrons at low temperatures have a very heavy effective mass. Magnetic susceptibility measurements, {chi}, generally yield a Curie-Weiss behavior at high temperatures with a well developed moment, which would be consistent with localized behavior of the f-electrons. Thus, the f-electrons appear to behave as non-interacting single impurities at elevated temperature. Below a characteristic Kondo temperature, T{sub K}, the susceptibility levels off or even decreases. This is interpreted as a compensation of the f-moment by the ligand conduction electrons that are believed to align anti-parallel to form a singlet state and has led to the widespread use of the Anderson Impurity Hamiltonian and the Single Impurity Model (SIM). Weak hybridization with these conduction electrons yields a narrow, highly temperature dependent, DOS at the Fermi energy, often referred to as the Kondo resonance (KR). At still lower temperatures it is generally agreed that in stoichiometric compounds a lattice of these singlet states finally results in extremely narrow bands at the Fermi energy, whose bandwidth is of the order k{sub B}T{sub K}. Clearly coherent bands cannot form above T{sub K} owing to the narrow width. A model for periodic Kondo systems will inevitably have to include the lattice. Preliminary PAM calculations indicate that this inclusion yields results differing qualitatively, rather than just quantitatively, from the SIM predictions. The photoemission data on single crystal heavy fermions are consistent with the following PAM predictions: (1) the temperature dependence of the KR is much slower than expected from the SIM; indeed, it is primarily7 due to broadening and Fermi function truncation; (2) the spectral weight of the KR relative to the localized 4f feature (not discussed here) is much larger than the SIM expectations (equivalently, n{sub f} values are far too small); (3) the KR and its sidebands does not lose spectral weight with T, but rather only broadens; (4) f-electrons in both Ce and U systems form narrow bands already far above T{sub K} (the jury is still out for Yb systems); (5) the width of these bands is much larger than k{sub B}T{sub K}; (6) f-character is obtained in only some regions of the Brillouin zone; i.e., momentum dependence of the KR above T{sub K}. While the PAM seems to predict the correct trends, they have no reason yet to rule out other models, such as those of Liu and Sheng and Cooper. Such discrimination may occur when the models develop sufficiently to allow real system calculations.

  14. Nuclear Data Sheets for A=85

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Balraj; Chen, Jun

    2014-02-01

    Evaluated experimental data are presented for 13 known nuclides of mass 85 (Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo). Since the previous 1990 evaluation of A=85, {sup 85}Zn, {sup 85}Ga, {sup 85}Ge and {sup 85}nuclides are newly added here. Excited state data for {sup 85}Se, {sup 85}Zr have become available from radioactive decay and inbeam ?ray studies. New and improved highspin data are available for {sup 85}Br, {sup 85}Kr, {sup 85}Rb, {sup 85}Y, {sup 85}Nb and {sup 85}Mo. New direct and precise measurement of atomic masses of {sup 85}Ge, {sup 85}As, {sup 85}Se, {sup 85}Br, {sup 85}Rb, {sup 85}Zr, {sup 85}Nb and {sup 85}Mo have greatly improved the landscape of ? decayQ values and separation energies in this mass region. In spite of extensive experimental work on the isobaric nuclei of this mass chain several deficiencies remain. No excited states are known in {sup 85}Zn, {sup 85}Ga, {sup 85}As. Only a few excited state are assigned in {sup 85}Ge from {sup 85}Ga ? decay. From radioactivity studies, the decay schemes of {sup 85}Zn and {sup 85}Mo are not known, and those for {sup 85}Ga, {sup 85}Ge, {sup 85}As and 10.9s isomer of {sup 85}Zr are incomplete. Level lifetimes are not known for excited states in {sup 85}Se, {sup 85}Br, {sup 85}Nb and {sup 85}Mo. The {sup 85}Tc nuclide has not been detected in fragmentation experiments at GANIL, alluding to its unbound nature for proton emission. The {sup 85}Kr, {sup 85}Rb, {sup 85}Sr, and {sup 85}Y nuclides remain the most extensively studied from many different reactions and decays. The evaluation of A=85 nuclides has been done after a span of 23 years, thus includes an extensive amount of new data for almost each nuclide. This work supersedes the data for A=85 nuclides presented in earlier full NDS publication by J. Tepel in 1980Te04 and a later one published in an update mode by H. Sievers in 1991Si01.

  15. Acupuncture-Like Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Versus Pilocarpine in Treating Radiation-Induced Xerostomia: Results of RTOG 0537 Phase 3 Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Raimond K.W.; Deshmukh, Snehal; Wyatt, Gwen; Sagar, Stephen; Singh, Anurag K.; Sultanem, Khalil; Nguyen-Tân, Phuc F.; Yom, Sue S.; Cardinale, Joseph; Yao, Min; Hodson, Ian; Matthiesen, Chance L.; Suh, John; Thakrar, Harish; Pugh, Stephanie L.; Berk, Lawrence

    2015-06-01

    Purpose and Objectives: This report presents the analysis of the RTOG 0537 multicenter randomized study that compared acupuncture-like transcutaneous stimulation (ALTENS) with pilocarpine (PC) for relieving radiation-induced xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients were randomized to twice-weekly 20-minute ALTENS sessions for 24 sessions during 12 weeks or PC (5 mg 3 times daily for 12 weeks). The primary endpoint was the change in the University of Michigan Xerostomia-Related Quality of Life Scale (XeQOLS) scores from baseline to 9 months from randomization (MFR). Secondary endpoints included basal and citric acid primed whole salivary production (WSP), ratios of positive responders (defined as patients with ≥20% reduction in overall radiation-induced xerostomia symptom burden), and the presence of adverse events based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3. An intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. Results: One hundred forty-eight patients were randomized. Only 96 patients completed the required XeQOLS and were evaluable at 9 MFR (representing merely 68.6% statistical power). Seventy-six patients were evaluable at 15 MFR. The median change in the overall XeQOLS in ALTENS and PC groups at 9 and 15 MFR were −0.53 and −0.27 (P=.45) and −0.6 and −0.47 (P=.21). The corresponding percentages of positive responders were 81% and 72% (P=.34) and 83% and 63% (P=.04). Changes in WSP were not significantly different between the groups. Grade 3 or less adverse events, mostly consisting of grade 1, developed in 20.8% of patients in the ALTENS group and in 61.6% of the PC group. Conclusions: The observed effect size was smaller than hypothesized, and statistical power was limited because only 96 of the recruited 148 patients were evaluable. The primary endpoint—the change in radiation-induced xerostomia symptom burden at 9 MFR—was not significantly different between the ALTENS and PC groups. There was significantly less toxicity in patients receiving ALTENS.

  16. 16B

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    B Ground-State Decay Evaluated Data Measured Ground-State Γcm(T1/2) for 16B Adopted value: < 190 ps (2003AU02) Measured Mass Excess for 16B Adopted value: 37080 ± 60 keV (2003AU02) Measurements 1995BO10: 14C(14C, 12N), E = 336 MeV; measured particle spectra, σ(θ). 16B deduced levels. 1996KR05: 12C(17C, 16B), (16C, 15B), E = 880 MeV; measured spectra; deduced one-proton stripping σ from ejectile yields. 16B deduced T1/2 upper limit. 2000KA21: 14C(14C, 12N), E ≈ 335 MeV; measured

  17. Validating density-functional theory simulations at high energy-density conditions with liquid krypton shock experiments to 850 GPa on Sandia's Z machine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattsson, Thomas R.; Root, Seth; Mattsson, Ann E.; Shulenburger, Luke; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Flicker, Dawn G.

    2014-11-11

    We use Sandia's Z machine and magnetically accelerated flyer plates to shock compress liquid krypton to 850 GPa and compare with results from density-functional theory (DFT) based simulations using the AM05 functional. We also employ quantum Monte Carlo calculations to motivate the choice of AM05. We conclude that the DFT results are sensitive to the quality of the pseudopotential in terms of scattering properties at high energy/temperature. A new Kr projector augmented wave potential was constructed with improved scattering properties which resulted in excellent agreement with the experimental results to 850 GPa and temperatures above 10 eV (110 kK). In conclusion, we present comparisons of our data from the Z experiments and DFT calculations to current equation of state models of krypton to determine the best model for high energy-density applications.

  18. Optical and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline ZrC thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition.

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Craciun, D.; Socol, G.; Lambers, E.; McCumiskey, E. J.; Taylor, C. R.; Martin, C.; Argibay, Nicolas; Craciun, V.; Tanner, D. B.

    2015-01-17

    Thin ZrC films (<500 nm) were grown on (100) Si substrates at a substrate temperature of 500 °C by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique using a KrF excimer laser under different CH4 pressures. Glancing incidence X-ray diffraction showed that films were nanocrystalline, while X-ray reflectivity studies found out films were very dense and exhibited a smooth surface morphology. Optical spectroscopy data shows that the films have high reflectivity (>90%) in the infrared region, characteristic of metallic behavior. Nanoindentation results indicated that films deposited under lower CH4 pressures exhibited slightly higher nanohardness and Young modulus values than films deposited undermore » higher pressures. As a result, tribological characterization revealed that these films exhibited relatively high wear resistance and steady-state friction coefficients on the order of μ = 0.4.« less

  19. Efficient optical pulse stacker system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seppala, Lynn G.; Haas, Roger A.

    1982-01-01

    Method and apparatus for spreading and angle-encoding each pulse of a multiplicity of small area, short pulses into several temporally staggered pulses by use of appropriate beam splitters, with the optical elements being arranged so that each staggered pulse is contiguous with one or two other such pulses, and the entire sequence of stacked pulses comprising a single, continuous long pulse. The single long pulse is expanded in area, and then doubly passed through a nonstorage laser amplifier such as KrF. After amplification, the physically separated, angle-encoded and temporally staggered pulses are recombined into a single pulse of short duration. This high intensity output beam is well collimated and may be propagated over long distance, or used for irradiating inertial confinement fusion targets.

  20. Search for the Pygmy Dipole Resonance in {sup 68}Ni at 600 MeV/nucleon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wieland, O.; Benzoni, G.; Blasi, N.; Brambilla, S.; Million, B.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Leoni, S.; Nicolini, R.; Maj, A.; Bednarczyk, P.; Grebosz, J.; Kmiecik, M.; Meczynski, W.; Styczen, J.; Wollersheim, H. J.; Aumann, T.; Banu, A.; Beck, T.

    2009-03-06

    The {gamma} decay from Coulomb excitation of {sup 68}Ni at 600 MeV/nucleon on a Au target was measured using the RISING setup at the fragment separator of GSI. The {sup 68}Ni beam was produced by a fragmentation reaction of {sup 86}Kr at 900 MeV/nucleon on a {sup 9}Be target and selected by the fragment separator. The {gamma} rays produced at the Au target were measured with HPGe detectors at forward angles and with BaF{sub 2} scintillators at backward angles. The measured spectra show a peak centered at approximately 11 MeV, whose intensity can be explained in terms of an enhanced strength of the dipole response function (pygmy resonance). Such pygmy structure has been predicted in this unstable neutron-rich nucleus by theory.

  1. Solving the Self-Interaction Problem in Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory. Application to Atoms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Daene, M.; Gonis, A.; Nicholson, D. M.; Stocks, G. M.

    2014-10-14

    Previously, we proposed a computational methodology that addresses the elimination of the self-interaction error from the Kohn–Sham formulation of the density functional theory. We demonstrated how the exchange potential can be obtained, and presented results of calculations for atomic systems up to Kr carried out within a Cartesian coordinate system. In our paper, we provide complete details of this self-interaction free method formulated in spherical coordinates based on the explicit equidensity basis ansatz. We also prove analytically that derivatives obtained using this method satisfy the Virial theorem for spherical orbitals, where the problem can be reduced to one dimension. Wemore » present the results of calculations of ground-state energies of atomic systems throughout the periodic table carried out within the exchange-only mode.« less

  2. Nonstoichiometric material transfer in the pulsed laser deposition of LaAlO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Droubay, T. C.; Qiao, L.; Kaspar, T. C.; Engelhard, M. H.; Shutthanandan, V.; Chambers, S. A.

    2010-09-20

    Inequivalent angular distributions have been found for La and Al in the ablation plume from LaAlO{sub 3} single crystal targets using a KrF laser during pulsed laser deposition. Angular distributions and stoichiometries in the condensate were measured and reveal decidedly nonstoichiometric transfer from target to substrate over most of the angular range. Composition varied dramatically for plume angles parallel to the long axis of the laser spot with the on-axis position exhibiting a peak in the La/Al atom ratio at {approx}1.5. The distributions were more diffuse in the perpendicular direction. Stoichiometric LaAlO{sub 3} was found in the condensate only at an extreme off-axis position.

  3. Non-stoichiometric material transfer in the pulsed laser deposition of LaAlO3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Droubay, Timothy C.; Qiao, Liang; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Shutthanandan, V.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2010-09-22

    Inequivalent angular distributions have been found for La and Al in the ablation plume from LaAlO3 single crystal targets using a KrF laser during pulsed laser deposition. Angular distributions and stoichiometries in the condensate were measured and reveal decidedly non-stoichiometric transfer from target to substrate over most of the angular range. Composition varied dramatically for plume angles parallel to the long axis of the laser spot with the on-axis position exhibiting a peak in the La/Al atom ratio at ~1.5. The distributions were more diffuse in the perpendicular direction. Stoichiometric LaAlO3 was found in the condensate only at an extreme off-axis position.

  4. Laser-fusion rocket for interplanetary propulsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyde, R.A.

    1983-09-27

    A rocket powered by fusion microexplosions is well suited for quick interplanetary travel. Fusion pellets are sequentially injected into a magnetic thrust chamber. There, focused energy from a fusion Driver is used to implode and ignite them. Upon exploding, the plasma debris expands into the surrounding magnetic field and is redirected by it, producing thrust. This paper discusses the desired features and operation of the fusion pellet, its Driver, and magnetic thrust chamber. A rocket design is presented which uses slightly tritium-enriched deuterium as the fusion fuel, a high temperature KrF laser as the Driver, and a thrust chamber consisting of a single superconducting current loop protected from the pellet by a radiation shield. This rocket can be operated with a power-to-mass ratio of 110 W gm/sup -1/, which permits missions ranging from occasional 9 day VIP service to Mars, to routine 1 year, 1500 ton, Plutonian cargo runs.

  5. Beta-decay spectroscopy relevant to the r-process nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishimura, Shunji; Collaboration: RIBF Decay Collaboration

    2012-11-12

    A scientific program of beta-decay spectroscopy relevant to r-process nucleosynthesis has been started using high intensity U-beam at the RIBF. The first results of {beta}-decay half-lives of very neutron-rich Kr to Tc nuclides, all of which lie close to the r-process path, suggest a systematic enhancement of the the {beta}-decay rates of the Zr and Nb isotopes around A110 with respect to the predictions of the deformed quasiparticle-random-phase-approximation model (FRDM + QRPA). An impact of the results on the astrophysical r-process is discussed together with the future perspective of the {beta}-decay spectroscopy with the EURICA.

  6. Device and method for noresonantly Raman shifting ultraviolet radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loree, Thomas R.; Barker, Dean L.

    1979-01-01

    A device and method for nonresonantly Raman shifting broad band uv excimer laser radiation, which enhances preselected Stokes signals by varying the pressure of the Raman scattering medium, the focal interaction length of the incident radiation within the Raman scattering medium and its power density level. Gaseous molecular H.sub.2, D.sub.2, CH.sub.4 (methane), HD and mixes thereof, and liquid N.sub.2 are used as the Raman scattering medium to frequency shift the outputs of high power KrF and ArF lasers. A cable fed discharge with an unstable resonant cavity configuration is utilized to produce the output laser power levels required for operation.

  7. Validating density-functional theory simulations at high energy-density conditions with liquid krypton shock experiments to 850 GPa on Sandia's Z machine

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mattsson, Thomas R.; Root, Seth; Mattsson, Ann E.; Shulenburger, Luke; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Flicker, Dawn G.

    2014-11-11

    We use Sandia's Z machine and magnetically accelerated flyer plates to shock compress liquid krypton to 850 GPa and compare with results from density-functional theory (DFT) based simulations using the AM05 functional. We also employ quantum Monte Carlo calculations to motivate the choice of AM05. We conclude that the DFT results are sensitive to the quality of the pseudopotential in terms of scattering properties at high energy/temperature. A new Kr projector augmented wave potential was constructed with improved scattering properties which resulted in excellent agreement with the experimental results to 850 GPa and temperatures above 10 eV (110 kK). Inmore » conclusion, we present comparisons of our data from the Z experiments and DFT calculations to current equation of state models of krypton to determine the best model for high energy-density applications.« less

  8. Effects of Laser Wavelength and Fluence in Pulsed Laser Deposition of Ge Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yap, Seong Shan; Reenaas, Turid Worren; Siew, Wee Ong; Tou, Teck Yong; Ladam, Cecile

    2011-03-30

    Nanosecond lasers with ultra-violet, visible and infrared wavelengths: KrF (248 nm, 25 ns) and Nd:YAG (1064 nm, 532 nm, 355 nm, 5 ns) were used to ablate polycrystalline Ge target and deposit Ge films in vacuum (<10-6 Torr). Time-integrated optical emission spectra were obtained for laser fluence from 0.5-10 J/cm{sup 2}. Neutrals and ionized Ge species in the plasma plume were detected by optical emission spectroscopy. Ge neutrals dominated the plasma plume at low laser fluence while Ge{sup +} ions above some threshold fluence. The deposited amorphous thin-film samples consisted of particulates of size from nano to micron. The relation of the film properties and plume species at different laser fluence and wavelengths were discussed.

  9. Beyond the random phase approximation: Stimulated Brillouin backscatter for finite laser coherence times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korotkevich, Alexander O.; Lushnikov, Pavel M.; Rose, Harvey A.

    2015-01-15

    We developed a linear theory of backward stimulated Brillouin scatter (BSBS) of a spatially and temporally random laser beam relevant for laser fusion. Our analysis reveals a new collective regime of BSBS (CBSBS). Its intensity threshold is controlled by diffraction, once cT{sub c} exceeds a laser speckle length, with T{sub c} the laser coherence time. The BSBS spatial gain rate is approximately the sum of that due to CBSBS, and a part which is independent of diffraction and varies linearly with T{sub c}. The CBSBS spatial gain rate may be reduced significantly by the temporal bandwidth of KrF-based laser systems compared to the bandwidth currently available to temporally smoothed glass-based laser systems.

  10. Cr.sup.3+ -doped colquiriite solid state laser material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A.; Chase, Lloyd L.; Newkirk, Herbert W.; Krupke, William F.

    1989-01-01

    Chromium doped colquiriite, LiCaAlF.sub.6 :Cr.sup.3+, is useful as a tunable laser crystal that has a high intrinsic slope efficiency, comparable to or exceeding that of alexandrite, the current leading performer of vibronic sideband Cr.sup.3+ lasers. The laser output is tunable from at least 720 nm to 840 nm with a measured slop efficiency of about 60% in a Kr laser pumped laser configuration. The intrinsic slope efficiency (in the limit of large output coupling) may approach the quantum defect limited value of 83%. The high slope efficiency implies that excited state absorption (ESA) is negligible. The potential for efficiency and the tuning range of this material satisfy the requirements for a pump laser for a high density storage medium incorporating Nd.sup.3+ or Tm.sup.3+ for use in a multimegajoule single shot fusion research facility.

  11. Cr/sup 3 +/-doped colquiriite solid state laser material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, S.A.; Chase, L.L.; Newkirk, H.W.; Krupke, W.F.

    1988-03-31

    Chromium doped colquiriite, LiCaAlF/sub 6/:Cr/sup 3 +/, is useful as a tunable laser crystal that has a high intrinsic slope efficiency, comparable to or exceeding that of alexandrite, the current leading performer of vibronic sideband Cr/sup 3 +/ lasers. The laser output is tunable from at least 720 nm to 840 nm with a measured slope efficiency of about 60% in a Kr laser pumped laser configuration. The intrinsic slope efficiency (in the limit of large output coupling) may approach the quantum defect limited value of 83%. The high slope efficiency implies that excited state absorption (ESA) is negligible. The potential for efficiency and the tuning range of this material satisfy the requirements for a pump laser for a high density storage medium incorporating Nd/sup 3 +/ or Tm/sup 3 +/ for use in a multimegajoule single shot fusion research facility. 4 figs.

  12. Drifting localization of ionization runaway: Unraveling the nature of anomalous transport in high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ni, Pavel; Rauch, Albert

    2011-12-04

    The plasma over the magnetrons erosion racetrack is not azimuthally uniform but concentrated in distinct dense plasma zones which move in the {vector E}{vector B} direction with about 10% of the electrons {vector E}{vector B}/B{sup 2} drift velocity. The plasma zones are investigated with a gated camera working in concert with a streak camera for Al, Nb, Cu, and W targets in Ar or Kr background gas. It is found that each plasma zone has a high density edge which is the origin of a plasma-generating electron jet leaving the target zone. Each region of strong azimuthal density gradient generates an azimuthal electric field which promotes the escape of magnetized electrons and the formation of electron jets and plasma flares. The phenomena are proposed to be caused by an ionization instability where each dense plasma zone exhibits a high stopping power for drifting high energy electrons, thereby enhancing itself.

  13. Electron cyclotron resonance plasma photos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Racz, R.; Palinkas, J.; Biri, S.

    2010-02-15

    In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open ECR plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from Ne, Ar, and Kr gases and from their mixtures. We studied and recorded the effect of ion source setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, and microwave power) to the shape, color, and structure of the plasma. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas.

  14. Development of a spatially resolving x-ray crystal spectrometer for measurement of ion-temperature (T{sub i}) and rotation-velocity (v) profiles in ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Johnson, D.; Feder, R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Dunn, J.; Morris, K.; Wang, E.; Reinke, M.; Podpaly, Y.; Rice, J. E.; Barnsley, R.; O'Mullane, M.; Lee, S. G.

    2010-10-15

    Imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) arrays are being developed as a US-ITER activity for Doppler measurement of T{sub i} and v profiles of impurities (W, Kr, and Fe) with {approx}7 cm (a/30) and 10-100 ms resolution in ITER. The imaging XCS, modeled after a prototype instrument on Alcator C-Mod, uses a spherically bent crystal and 2D x-ray detectors to achieve high spectral resolving power (E/dE>6000) horizontally and spatial imaging vertically. Two arrays will measure T{sub i} and both poloidal and toroidal rotation velocity profiles. The measurement of many spatial chords permits tomographic inversion for the inference of local parameters. The instrument design, predictions of performance, and results from C-Mod are presented.

  15. Development of a Spatially Resolving X-Ray Crystal Spectrometer (XCS) for Measurement of Ion-Temperature (Ti) and Rotation-Velocity (v) Profiles in ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K W; Delgado-Aprico, L; Johnson, D; Feder, R; Beiersdorfer,; Dunn, J; Morris, K; Wang, E; Reinke, M; Podpaly, Y; Rice, J E; Barnsley, R; O'Mullane, M; Lee, S G

    2010-05-21

    Imaging XCS arrays are being developed as a US-ITER activity for Doppler measurement of Ti and v profiles of impurities (W, Kr, Fe) with ~7 cm (a/30) and 10-100 ms resolution in ITER. The imaging XCS, modeled after a PPPL-MIT instrument on Alcator C-Mod, uses a spherically bent crystal and 2d x-ray detectors to achieve high spectral resolving power (E/dE>6000) horizontally and spatial imaging vertically. Two arrays will measure Ti and both poloidal and toroidal rotation velocity profiles. Measurement of many spatial chords permits tomographic inversion for inference of local parameters. The instrument design, predictions of performance, and results from C-Mod will be presented.

  16. High-resolution monochromatic x-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Obenschain, S.; Bodner, S.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Sethian, J.; Brown, C.M.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.

    1998-08-01

    We have developed an improved x-ray imaging system based on spherically curve crystals. It is designed and used for diagnostics of targets ablatively accelerated by the Nike KrF laser. A spherically curved quartz crystal (2d=6.687 {Angstrom}, R=200 mm) has been used to produce monochromatic backlit images with the He-like Si resonance line (1865 eV) as the source of radiation. The spatial resolution of the x-ray optical system is 1.7 {mu}m in selected places and 2{endash}3 {mu}m over a larger area. Time-resolved backlit monochromatic images of polystyrene planar targets driven by the Nike facility have been obtained with a spatial resolution of 2.5 {mu}m in selected places and 5 {mu}m over the focal spot of the Nike laser. {copyright} 1998 Optical Society of America

  17. High resolution monochromatic X-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Obenschain, S.; Bodner, S.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Sethian, J.; Brown, C. M.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.

    1997-05-05

    We have developed a new X-ray imaging system based on spherically curved crystals. It is designed and used for diagnostics of targets ablatively accelerated by the Nike KrF laser. The imaging system is used for plasma diagnostics of the main target and for characterization of potential backlighters. A spherically curved quartz crystal (2d=6.687 A, R=200 mm) is used to produce monochromatic backlit images with the He-like Si resonance line (1865 eV) as the source of radiation. The spatial resolution of the X-ray optical system is 3-4 {mu}m. Time resolved backlit monochromatic images of CH planar targets driven by the Nike facility have been obtained with 6-7 {mu}m spatial resolution.

  18. High resolution monochromatic X-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Obenschain, S.; Bodner, S.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Sethian, J.; Brown, C.M.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.

    1997-05-01

    We have developed a new X-ray imaging system based on spherically curved crystals. It is designed and used for diagnostics of targets ablatively accelerated by the Nike KrF laser [1,2]. The imaging system is used for plasma diagnostics of the main target and for characterization of potential backlighters. A spherically curved quartz crystal (2d=6.687{Angstrom}, R=200mm) is used to produce monochromatic backlit images with the He-like Si resonance line (1865 eV) as the source of radiation. The spatial resolution of the X-ray optical system is 3{endash}4 {mu}m. Time resolved backlit monochromatic images of CH planar targets driven by the Nike facility have been obtained with 6{endash}7 {mu}m spatial resolution. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Apparatus for the field determination of concentration of radioactive constituents in a medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perkins, R.W.; Schilk, A.J.; Warner, R.A.; Wogman, N.A.

    1995-08-15

    The instant invention is an apparatus for determining the concentration of radioactive constituents in a test sample; such as surface soils, via rapid real-time analyses, and direct readout on location utilizing a probe made up of multiple layers of detection material used in combination with an analyzer and real-time readout unit. This is accomplished by comparing the signal received from the probe, which can discriminate between types of radiation and energies with stored patterns that are based upon experimental results. This comparison can be used in the calibration of a readout display that reads out in real-time the concentrations of constituents per given volume. For example, the concentration of constituents such as Cs-137, Sr-90, U-238 in the soil, and noble gas radionuclides such as Kr-85 in the atmosphere, can be measured in real-time, on location, without the need for laboratory analysis of samples. 14 figs.

  20. Apparatus for the field determination of concentration of radioactive constituents in a medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perkins, Richard W.; Schilk, Alan J.; Warner, Ray A.; Wogman, Ned A.

    1995-01-01

    The instant invention is an apparatus for determining the concentration of radioactive constituents in a test sample; such as surface soils, via rapid real-time analyses, and direct readout on location utilizing a probe made up of multiple layers of detection material used in combination with an analyzer and real-time readout unit. This is accomplished by comparing the signal received from the probe, which can discriminate between types of radiation and energies with stored patterns that are based upon experimental results. This comparison can be used in the calibration of a readout display that reads out in real-time the concentrations of constituents per given volume. For example, the concentration of constituents such as Cs-137, Sr-90, U-238 in the soil, and noble gas radionuclides such as Kr-85 in the atmosphere, can be measured in real-time, on location, without the need for laboratory analysis of samples.

  1. Formation of Heavy Compound Nuclei, Their Survival and Correlation with Longtime-Scale Fission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karamian, S. A.; Yakushev, A.-B.

    2007-05-22

    Fusion of two massive nuclei with formation of super-heavy compound nucleus (CN) is driven by the potential energy gradient, as follows from the analysis of nuclear reaction cross-sections. The conservative energy of the system is deduced in simple approximation using regularized nuclear mass and interaction barrier values. Different reaction for the synthesis of Zc (110-118) nuclei are compared and the favourable conditions are found for fusion of the stable (W-Pt) isotopes with radioactive fission fragment projectiles, like 94Kr or 100Sr. Thus, the cold fusion method can be extended for a synthesis of elements with Z > 113. Survival of the evaporation residue is defined by the neutron-to-fission probability ratio and by the successful emission of gammas at final step of the reaction. Numerical estimates are presented. Fixation of evaporation residue products must correlate with longtime-scale fission and available experimental results are discussed.

  2. Excitation functions for the production of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolanczuk, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Excitation energy dependence of the cross sections of the reactions {sup 208}Pb{sub 126}({sup 50}Ti{sub 28},1n){sup 257}Rf{sub 153} and {sup 208}Pb{sub 126}({sup 58}Fe{sub 32},1n){sup 265}Hs{sub 157} is calculated and compared with the experimental data measured at GSI-Darmstadt. Such a dependence is also calculated for the reaction {sup 208}Pb{sub 126}({sup 86}Kr{sub 50},1n){sup 293}118{sub 175} reported recently by the Berkeley group, and for reactions which may lead to the synthesis of element 119 and production of its odd-Z descendants. Recommendations for future experiments based on the present study are presented. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  3. Barrier distribution of quasi-elastic backward scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitsuoka, S.; Ikezoe, H.; Nishio, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Jeong, S. C.; Ishiyama, H.; Hirayama, Y.; Imai, N.; Miyatake, H.

    2009-05-04

    In order to study the nucleus-nucleus interaction in Pb-based cold fusion, we have measured excitation functions for quasi-elastic scattering of {sup 48}Ti, {sup 54}Cr, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 70}Zn and {sup 86}Kr projectiles on {sup 208}Pb target at backward angles. The barrier distributions were derived from the first derivative of measured quasi-elastic scattering cross sections relative to the Rutherford scattering cross section. The centroids of the barrier distributions show a deviation from several predicted barrier heights toward the low energy side. The shape of the barrier distributions is well reproduced by the results of a coupled-channel calculation taking account of the coupling effects of two phonon excitations of the quadrupole vibration for the projectiles and of the octupole vibration for the {sup 208}Pb target.

  4. 7Be

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Be β+ Decay Evaluated Data Measurements for Half-Life Time 1940HI01: 7Be. 1949SE20: 7Be. 1953KR16: 7Be. 1956BO36: 7Be. 1957WR37: 7Be; T1/2. 1965EN01: 7Be; T1/2. 1970JO21: 7Be; T1/2 in chemical compounds. 1974CR05: 7Be; T1/2. 1975LA16: 7Be; T1/2. 1982CHZF: 7Be. 1982RUZV: 7Be; T1/2, γ-emission probability data. 1996JA10: 7Be(EC); measured Eγ, Iγ, T1/2. 1999HU20: 7Be(EC); measured Eγ, Iγ, T1/2. 1999RA12: 7Be(EC); measured T1/2 for source implanted in various materials. 2000HU20: 7Be(EC);

  5. A=11C (1985AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 11C) GENERAL: See also (1980AJ01) and Table 11.17 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Model calculations:(1981RA06, 1983SH38). Special states:(1981RA06). Complex reactions involving 11C:(1979BO22, 1980GR10, 1980WI1K, 1980WI1L, 1981MO20, 1982GE05, 1982LY1A, 1982RA31, 1983FR1A, 1983OL1A, 1983WI1A, 1984GR08, 1984HI1A). Electromagnetic transitions:(1978KR19). Applied work:(1979DE1H, 1982BO1N, 1982HI1H, 1982KA1R, 1982ME1C, 1982NE1D, 1982PI1H, 1982YA1C,

  6. A=12C (1990AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    90AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 12C) GENERAL: See also (1985AJ01) and Table 12.6 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. Shell model: (1984CA1N, 1984ZW1A, 1985AN16, 1985AR07, 1985CA23, 1985KO2B, 1985MI23, 1986YO1F, 1987DZ1A, 1987GU1C, 1987KI1C, 1987PR01, 1987SC1J, 1988GU13, 1988JA13, 1988OR1C, 1988WO04, 1989KW1A). Deformed Models: (1984LO05, 1984SA37, 1985RO1G, 1986KU1P, 1986LE16, 1987HO1C, 1987PR03, 1988KH07). Cluster Model: (1983DZ1A, 1983JA09, 1984KR10, 1985DE05, 1985KO2B,

  7. A=13C (1981AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 13C) GENERAL: See also (1976AJ04) and Table 13.4 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1977TE01, 1978BO31, 1979HO17). Collective, rotational and deformed models:(1976BR26, 1977ME1E). Cluster model: (1977SA19). Special levels: (1977ME1E, 1977TE01, 1977RI08, 1978BO31, 1978MI04, 1979RO1E, 1980BA54). Electromagnetic transitions: (1977ME1E, 1977YO1D, 1978KI08, 1978KR19, 1978MI04, 1980BA54). Giant resonances: (1977AL18, 1977MA06, 1979DO17,

  8. A=15O (1981AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    81AJ01) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 15O) GENERAL: See also (1976AJ04) and Table 15.18 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS) here. Shell model: (1976LI16, 1976SA37, 1977EM01, 1977PO16). Special states: (1976LI16, 1977RI08). Electromagnetic transitions: (1976LI16, 1976SH04, 1977HO04, 1978KR19). Astrophysical questions: (1977BA1V, 1977SI1D, 1978BU1B, 1978WO1E, 1979PE1E). Special reactions involving 15O: (1976AB04, 1976BU16, 1976HE1H, 1976HI05, 1976LE1F, 1977AR06, 1977SC1G, 1978AB08, 1978BO1W,

  9. Nuclear shape transitions in neutron-rich medium-mass nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarriguren, P.; Rodriguez-Guzman, R.; Robledo, L. M.

    2012-10-20

    We study the isotopic evolution of the ground-state nuclear shapes in neutron-rich Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, and Mo isotopic chains. Both even-even and odd-A nuclei are included in the analysis. For the latter we also study the systematics of their one-quasiparticle low-lying configurations. The theoretical approach is based on a selfconsistent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov formalism with finite range Gogny energy density functionals. Neutron separation energies, charge radii, and the spin-parity of the ground states are calculated and compared with available data. Shape-transition signatures are identified around N= 60 isotones as discontinuities in both charge radii isotopic shifts and spin-parities of the ground states. The nuclear deformation including triaxiality is shown to play a relevant role in the understanding of the bulk and spectroscopic features of the ground and low-lying one-quasiparticle states.

  10. Laser induced diffusion of ion-implanted bismuth in fused silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, S.Y.; Weeks, R.A.; Zuhr, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    The near surface regions of optical grade fused silica discs (Spectrosil A) were modified by implantation with bismuth ions at 160 and 320 keV and at room temperature. The glasses implanted with a nominal dose of 6 {times} l0{sup 16} Bi{sup 2+} ions/cm{sup 2} were subsequently annealed with a 5 eV KrF pulsed excimer laser and by a furnace in oxygen atmosphere. Rutherford backscattering and optical absorption were measured before and after the anneals. Backscattering profiles after laser anneal showed shifts of the profiles toward the surface with decrease in retained dose. We attribute the diffusion of bismuth to Soret effect. Profiles of furnace annealed samples showed that the diffusion was both toward and away from the surface.

  11. I

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    --&) /+' ) 3 -i/ ii!' M/k "3 . . * . ~T~&,TTSTT:~ .: -~53~~i!&i-:r~ 1: c r I * .I " / : , ; . . . 3. .i - w ~trial IIyi-;iene Orand Re&lh and safety Laboratmy Im,mdc Octokr 21, u% 2' ' - ' 1' !!T?H _ - .a r. ,...~.b,)i~XTia~ !I4%L, XYm 2. ..T* 2zdJ-- l ,,C 1 .rJh, !' 11., ;dv 2: ;" 11 I:r,t, :433kr 3- :r. L. r> .-. ? Ly-m-i, ! pm* j!., >- I I;- ,:r* : "y l hl~wt, li:.!l, iah pm ~iL.A.4 ;'A0 U.S. .' .LJf& Er++r;;;- LI3zL?.i !!w ' Lsriz Qcr&N.~~3

  12. Optical and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline ZrC thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craciun, D.; Socol, G.; Lambers, E.; McCumiskey, E. J.; Taylor, C. R.; Martin, C.; Argibay, Nicolas; Craciun, V.; Tanner, D. B.

    2015-01-17

    Thin ZrC films (<500 nm) were grown on (100) Si substrates at a substrate temperature of 500 °C by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique using a KrF excimer laser under different CH4 pressures. Glancing incidence X-ray diffraction showed that films were nanocrystalline, while X-ray reflectivity studies found out films were very dense and exhibited a smooth surface morphology. Optical spectroscopy data shows that the films have high reflectivity (>90%) in the infrared region, characteristic of metallic behavior. Nanoindentation results indicated that films deposited under lower CH4 pressures exhibited slightly higher nanohardness and Young modulus values than films deposited under higher pressures. As a result, tribological characterization revealed that these films exhibited relatively high wear resistance and steady-state friction coefficients on the order of μ = 0.4.

  13. Model for assessing bronchial mucus transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agnew, J.E.; Bateman, J.R.M.; Pavia, D.; Clarke, S.W.

    1984-02-01

    The authors propose a scheme for the assessment of regional mucus transport using inhaled Tc-99m aerosol particles and quantitative analysis of serial gamma-camera images. The model treats input to inner and intermediate lung regions as the total of initial deposition there plus subsequent transport into these regions from more peripheral airways. It allows for interregional differences in the proportion of particles deposited on the mucus-bearing conducting airways, and does not require a gamma image 24 hr after particle inhalation. Instead, distribution of particles reaching the respiratory bronchioles or alveoli is determined from a Kr-81m ventilation image, while the total amount of such deposition is obtained from 24-hr Tc-99m retention measured with a sensitive counter system. The model is applicable to transport by mucociliary action or by cough, and has been tested in ten normal and ten asthmatic subjects.

  14. Remote NMR/MRI detection of laser polarized gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pines, Alexander; Saxena, Sunil; Moule, Adam; Spence, Megan; Seeley, Juliette A.; Pierce, Kimberly L.; Han, Song-I; Granwehr, Josef

    2006-06-13

    An apparatus and method for remote NMR/MRI spectroscopy having an encoding coil with a sample chamber, a supply of signal carriers, preferably hyperpolarized xenon and a detector allowing the spatial and temporal separation of signal preparation and signal detection steps. This separation allows the physical conditions and methods of the encoding and detection steps to be optimized independently. The encoding of the carrier molecules may take place in a high or a low magnetic field and conventional NMR pulse sequences can be split between encoding and detection steps. In one embodiment, the detector is a high magnetic field NMR apparatus. In another embodiment, the detector is a superconducting quantum interference device. A further embodiment uses optical detection of Rb--Xe spin exchange. Another embodiment uses an optical magnetometer using non-linear Faraday rotation. Concentration of the signal carriers in the detector can greatly improve the signal to noise ratio.

  15. Simulation information regarding Sandia National Laboratories%3CU%2B2019%3E trinity capability improvement metric.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agelastos, Anthony Michael; Lin, Paul T.

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory each selected a representative simulation code to be used as a performance benchmark for the Trinity Capability Improvement Metric. Sandia selected SIERRA Low Mach Module: Nalu, which is a uid dynamics code that solves many variable-density, acoustically incompressible problems of interest spanning from laminar to turbulent ow regimes, since it is fairly representative of implicit codes that have been developed under ASC. The simulations for this metric were performed on the Cielo Cray XE6 platform during dedicated application time and the chosen case utilized 131,072 Cielo cores to perform a canonical turbulent open jet simulation within an approximately 9-billion-elementunstructured- hexahedral computational mesh. This report will document some of the results from these simulations as well as provide instructions to perform these simulations for comparison.

  16. Electron emission and defect formation in the interaction of slow,highly charged ions with diamond surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sideras-Haddad, E.; Shrivastava, S.; Rebuli, D.B.; Persaud, A.; Schneider, D.H.; Schenkel, T.

    2006-05-31

    We report on electron emission and defect formation in theinteraction between slow (v~;0.3 vBohr) highly charged ions (SHCI) withinsulating (type IIa) and semiconducting (type IIb) diamonds. Electronemission induced by 31Pq+ (q=5 to 13), and 136Xeq+ (q=34 to 44) withkinetic energies of 9 kVxq increase linearly with the ion charge states,reaching over 100 electrons per ion for high xenon charge states withoutsurface passivation of the diamond with hydrogen. Yields from bothdiamond types are up to a factor of two higher then from reference metalsurfaces. Crater like defects with diameters of 25 to 40 nm are formed bythe impact of single Xe44+ ions. High secondary electron yields andsingle ion induced defects enable the formation of single dopant arrayson diamond surfaces.

  17. Lasing in the UV, IR and visible spectral ranges in a runaway-electron-preionised diffuse dischrage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vil'tovskii, P O; Lomaev, Mikhail I; Panchenko, Aleksei N; Panchenko, N A; Rybka, D V; Tarasenko, Viktor F

    2013-07-31

    Lasers on the mixtures of inert gases, H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, and nitrogen with NF{sub 3} and (or) SF{sub 6} are studied under pumping by the volume (diffusive) discharge formed in a nonuniform electric field due to runaway-electron preionisation. Generation in the IR, visible and UV spectral ranges is obtained on atomic transitions of neon ({lambda} = 585.3 nm), argon (750.3 nm) and fluorine (712.8 and 731.1 nm), and on molecular transitions of N2 (337.1 nm), XeF * (351 and 353 nm), HF (2.8 - 3.2 {mu}m) and DF (3.8 - 4.2 {mu}m). It is shown that in N{sub 2} - SF{sub 6}, H{sub 2} - SF{sub 6} and D{sub 2} - SF{sub 6} mixtures the generation efficiency approaches the limiting values. (lasers)

  18. Results from KamLAND-Zen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asakura, K.; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hachiya, T.; Hayashida, S.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Ishio, S.; Koga, M.; Matsuda, R.; Matsuda, S.; Mitsui, T.; Motoki, D.; Nakamura, K.; Obara, S.; Oki, Y.; Otani, M.; Oura, T.; Shimizu, I.; Shirahata, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Tachibana, H.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B. D.; Yamauchi, Y.; Yoshida, H.; Kozlov, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Yoshido, S.; Fushimi, K.; Banks, T. I.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; O'Donnell, T.; Winslow, L. A.; Berger, B. E.; Efremenko, Y.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Detwiler, J. A.; Enomoto, S.; Decowski, M. P.

    2015-07-15

    KamLAND-Zen reports on a preliminary search for neutrinoless double-beta decay with 136Xe based on 114.8 live-days after the purification of the xenon loaded liquid scintillator. In this data, the problematic 110mAg background peak identified in previous searches is reduced by more than a factor of 10. By combining the KamLAND-Zen pre- and post-purification data, we obtain a preliminary lower limit on the 0??? decay half-life of T0?1/2 > 2.61025 yr at 90% C.L. The search sensitivity will be enhanced with additional low background data after the purification. As a result, prospects for further improvements with future KamLAND-Zen upgrades are also presented.

  19. HopperToEdison.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Moving from Hopper (Cray XE6) to Edison (Cray XC30) --- 1 --- NUG 2 013, F ebruary 2 5, 2 013 Edison-NERSC Newest HPC Machine * Easy to use - Edison p rogramming e nvironment i s r emarkably s imilar t o t hat o f Hopper * Supports a rich set of produc=on so?ware applica=ons, libraries, a nd t ools n eeded b y t he e n=re N ERSC w orkload - A r obust s et o f p rogramming l anguages, m odels - A r ich s et o f h ighly o p=mized l ibraries, t ools a nd a pplica=ons - Community a nd p

  20. Results from KamLAND-Zen

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Asakura, K.; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hachiya, T.; Hayashida, S.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Ishio, S.; et al

    2015-07-15

    KamLAND-Zen reports on a preliminary search for neutrinoless double-beta decay with 136Xe based on 114.8 live-days after the purification of the xenon loaded liquid scintillator. In this data, the problematic 110mAg background peak identified in previous searches is reduced by more than a factor of 10. By combining the KamLAND-Zen pre- and post-purification data, we obtain a preliminary lower limit on the 0νββ decay half-life of T0ν1/2 > 2.6×1025 yr at 90% C.L. The search sensitivity will be enhanced with additional low background data after the purification. As a result, prospects for further improvements with future KamLAND-Zen upgrades are alsomore » presented.« less

  1. Collision-spike sputtering of Au nanoparticles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sandoval, Luis; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2015-08-06

    Ion irradiation of nanoparticles leads to enhanced sputter yields if the nanoparticle size is of the order of the ion penetration depth. While this feature is reasonably well understood for collision-cascade sputtering, we explore it in the regime of collision-spike sputtering using molecular-dynamics simulation. For this specific case of 200-keV Xe bombardment of Au particles, we show that collision spikes lead to abundant sputtering with an average yield of 397 ± 121 atoms compared to only 116 ± 48 atoms for a bulk Au target. Only around 31% of the impact energy remains in the nanoparticles after impact; the remaindermore » is transported away by the transmitted projectile and the ejecta. The sputter yield of supported nanoparticles is estimated to be around 80% of that of free nanoparticles due to the suppression of forward sputtering.« less

  2. Local search to improve coordinate-based task mapping

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Balzuweit, Evan; Bunde, David P.; Leung, Vitus J.; Finley, Austin; Lee, Alan C. S.

    2015-10-31

    We present a local search strategy to improve the coordinate-based mapping of a parallel job’s tasks to the MPI ranks of its parallel allocation in order to reduce network congestion and the job’s communication time. The goal is to reduce the number of network hops between communicating pairs of ranks. Our target is applications with a nearest-neighbor stencil communication pattern running on mesh systems with non-contiguous processor allocation, such as Cray XE and XK Systems. Utilizing the miniGhost mini-app, which models the shock physics application CTH, we demonstrate that our strategy reduces application running time while also reducing the runtimemore » variability. Furthermore, we further show that mapping quality can vary based on the selected allocation algorithm, even between allocation algorithms of similar apparent quality.« less

  3. Rotating Aperture System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rusnak, Brian; Hall, James M.; Shen, Stewart; Wood, Richard L.

    2005-01-18

    A rotating aperture system includes a low-pressure vacuum pumping stage with apertures for passage of a deuterium beam. A stator assembly includes holes for passage of the beam. The rotor assembly includes a shaft connected to a deuterium gas cell or a crossflow venturi that has a single aperture on each side that together align with holes every rotation. The rotating apertures are synchronized with the firing of the deuterium beam such that the beam fires through a clear aperture and passes into the Xe gas beam stop. Portions of the rotor are lapped into the stator to improve the sealing surfaces, to prevent rapid escape of the deuterium gas from the gas cell.

  4. Formation of a metastable crystalline phase during ion irradiation of spinel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devanathan, R.; Yu, Ning; Sickafus, K.; Nastasi, M.

    1995-12-31

    We have examined the radiation resistance of magnesio-aluminate spinel by irradiating single crystals of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} with 400 keV Xe++ions at 100 K. At low irradiation doses, the material transformed into a metastable crystalline phase with half the lattice spacing of the original crystal. Electron diffraction analysis revealed that this structural change can be explained in terms of the redistribution of cations among octahedral, tetrahedral, and three- fold coordinated interstitial sites of the close-packed anion lattice. Corresponding to this transformation, the hardness and elastic modulus increased with dose to values about 10% greater than those of unirradiated spinel. We believe that the formation of this metastable phase plays an important role in determining the radiation resistance of spinel.

  5. Probing particle and nuclear physics models of neutrinoless double beta decay with different nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fogli, G. L.; Rotunno, A. M. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica 'Michelangelo Merlin', Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Lisi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    Half-life estimates for neutrinoless double beta decay depend on particle physics models for lepton-flavor violation, as well as on nuclear physics models for the structure and transitions of candidate nuclei. Different models considered in the literature can be contrasted - via prospective data - with a 'standard' scenario characterized by light Majorana neutrino exchange and by the quasiparticle random phase approximation, for which the theoretical covariance matrix has been recently estimated. We show that, assuming future half-life data in four promising nuclei ({sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 130}Te, and {sup 136}Xe), the standard scenario can be distinguished from a few nonstandard physics models, while being compatible with alternative state-of-the-art nuclear calculations (at 95% C.L.). Future signals in different nuclei may thus help to discriminate at least some decay mechanisms, without being spoiled by current nuclear uncertainties. Prospects for possible improvements are also discussed.

  6. Energy Density Functional Study of Nuclear Matrix Elements for Neutrinoless {beta}{beta} Decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Tomas R. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, D-64259 Darmstadt (Germany); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); CEA, Irfu, SPhN, Centre de Saclay, F-911191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Martinez-Pinedo, Gabriel [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, D-64259 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-12-17

    We present an extensive study of nuclear matrix elements (NME) for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of the nuclei {sup 48}Ca, {sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 96}Zr, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 116}Cd, {sup 124}Sn, {sup 128}Te, {sup 130}Te, {sup 136}Xe, and {sup 150}Nd based on state-of-the-art energy density functional methods using the Gogny D1S functional. Beyond-mean-field effects are included within the generating coordinate method with particle number and angular momentum projection for both initial and final ground states. We obtain a rather constant value for the NMEs around 4.7 with the exception of {sup 48}Ca and {sup 150}Nd, where smaller values are found. We analyze the role of deformation and pairing in the evaluation of the NME and present detailed results for the decay of {sup 150}Nd.

  7. Studies of heavy ion reactions and transuranic nuclei. Progress report, August 1, 1979-July 31, 1980. [Univ. of Rochester, New York, 8/1/79-7/31/80

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huizenga, J.R.

    1980-07-01

    The study of heavy-ion reaction mechanisms at the SuperHILAC and LAMPF is reported. Preprints of five articles and manuscripts of four recent conference papers are given, along with complete citations of publications and a list of personnel. Significant work was performed in the following areas: the bombarding energy dependence of the /sup 209/Bi + /sup 136/Xe reaction; the fragment yields for specific Z and A for projectile-like fragments produced in the reaction of 8.3-MeV/u /sup 56/Fe ions with targets of /sup 56/Fe, /sup 165/Ho, /sup 209/Bi, and /sup 238/U; and time distributions of fragments from delayed fission after muon capture for muonic /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, /sup 237/Np, /sup 239/Pu, and /sup 242/Pu. (RWR)

  8. Detailed optical characterization of a near diffraction limited xenon fluoride laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Londono, C. ); Smith, M.J.; Trainor, D.W.; Itzkan, I. ); Berggren, R. ); Fulghum, S.F. )

    1988-12-01

    A 1 m gain length, electron beam pumped xenon fluoride laser (lambda = 353, 351 nm) utilizing two laser mixtures of lean and rich NF/sub 3/, with Xe and balance Ne, was operated with a confocal unstable resonator with magnification of 2.24. The resultant beam quality was diagnosed with both shearing interferometry to measure near-field phase and far-field focal spot evaluation techniques. These measurements resulted in a beam quality of <1.15 times the diffraction limit with no evidence of the wide angle energy loss. This laser device was fully characterized with regard to electron beam deposition uniformity, transient refractive index effects, and optical quality of the resonator and diagnostic components.

  9. Performance Tuning of Fock Matrix and Two-Electron Integral Calculations for NWChem on Leading HPC Platforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shan, Hongzhan; Austin, Brian M.; De Jong, Wibe A.; Oliker, Leonid; Wright, Nicholas J.; Apra, Edoardo

    2014-10-01

    Attaining performance in the evaluation of two-electron repulsion integrals and constructing the Fock matrix is of considerable importance to the computational chemistry community. Due to its numerical complexity improving the performance behavior across a variety of leading supercomputing platforms is an increasing challenge due to the significant diversity in high-performance computing architectures. In this paper, we present our successful tuning methodology for these important numerical methods on the Cray XE6, the Cray XC30, the IBM BG/Q, as well as the Intel Xeon Phi. Our optimization schemes leverage key architectural features including vectorization and simultaneous multithreading, and results in speedups of up to 2.5x compared with the original implementation.

  10. Orientation and alignment effects in ion-induced fragmentation of water: A triple coincidence study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajput, Jyoti; Safvan, C. P.

    2014-10-28

    The technique of recoil ion momentum spectroscopy is employed to determine the complete momentum vectors for three fragment dissociation channels, [D{sub 2}O]{sup (q+2)} ? (D{sup +} + D{sup +} + O{sup q+}) with q = 1, 2, or 3 formed in collisions of isolated water molecules with 450 keV Xe{sup 9+} ions. The kinetic energy released in each of these dissociation channels is measured and angular correlations between the fragment momenta are determined. From the angular correlations of the three fragment ions with the direction of the incoming beam, a strong anisotropy in the emission of recoil fragments is reported. It is inferred that the molecular plane prefers to lie orthogonal to the incoming beam direction with certain orientations being more preferred than others and a clear signature of non-coplanar dissociation is also observed.

  11. Wavelength and Intensity Dependence of Short Pulse Laser Xenon Double Ionization between 500 and 2300 nm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gingras, G.; Tripathi, A.; Witzel, B.

    2009-10-23

    The wavelength and intensity dependence of xenon ionization with 50 fs laser pulses has been studied using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We compare the ion yield distribution of singly and doubly charged xenon with the Perelomov-Popov-Terent'ev (PPT) theory, Perelomov, Popov, and Terent'ev, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 50, 1393 (1966) [Sov. Phys. JETP 23, 924 (1966)], in the regime between 500 and 2300 nm. The intensity dependence for each wavelength is measured in a range between 1x10{sup 13} and 1x10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. The Xe{sup +}-ion signal is in good agreement with the PPT theory at all used wavelengths. In addition we demonstrate that ionic 5s5p{sup 6} {sup 2}S state is excited by an electron impact excitation process and contributes to the nonsequential double ionization process.

  12. Multiphase imaging of gas flow in a nanoporous material usingremote detection NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harel, Elad; Granwehr, Josef; Seeley, Juliette A.; Pines, Alex

    2005-10-03

    Pore structure and connectivity determine how microstructured materials perform in applications such as catalysis, fluid storage and transport, filtering, or as reactors. We report a model study on silica aerogel using a recently introduced time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance imaging technique to characterize the flow field and elucidate the effects of heterogeneities in the pore structure on gas flow and dispersion with Xe-129 as the gas-phase sensor. The observed chemical shift allows the separate visualization of unrestricted xenon and xenon confined in the pores of the aerogel. The asymmetrical nature of the dispersion pattern alludes to the existence of a stationary and a flow regime in the aerogel. An exchange time constant is determined to characterize the gas transfer between them. As a general methodology, this technique provides new insights into the dynamics of flow in porous media where multiple phases or chemical species may be present.

  13. Collision-spike sputtering of Au nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandoval, Luis; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2015-08-06

    Ion irradiation of nanoparticles leads to enhanced sputter yields if the nanoparticle size is of the order of the ion penetration depth. While this feature is reasonably well understood for collision-cascade sputtering, we explore it in the regime of collision-spike sputtering using molecular-dynamics simulation. For this specific case of 200-keV Xe bombardment of Au particles, we show that collision spikes lead to abundant sputtering with an average yield of 397 ± 121 atoms compared to only 116 ± 48 atoms for a bulk Au target. Only around 31% of the impact energy remains in the nanoparticles after impact; the remainder is transported away by the transmitted projectile and the ejecta. The sputter yield of supported nanoparticles is estimated to be around 80% of that of free nanoparticles due to the suppression of forward sputtering.

  14. Reconstruction of ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in N dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strohaber, J.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Schuessler, H. A.

    2010-07-15

    We present an analytical inversion technique, which can be used to recover ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in an N-dimensional detection scheme. The solution is given as a power series in intensity. For this reason, we call this technique a multiphoton expansion (MPE). The MPE formalism was verified with an exactly solvable inversion problem in two dimensions, and probabilities in the postsaturation region, where the intensity-selective scanning approach breaks down, were recovered. In three dimensions, ionization probabilities of Xe were successfully recovered with MPE from simulated (using the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov tunneling theory) ion yields. Finally, we tested our approach with intensity-resolved benzene-ion yields, which show a resonant multiphoton ionization process. By applying MPE to this data (which were artificially averaged), the resonant structure was recovered, which suggests that the resonance in benzene may have been observed in spatially averaged data taken elsewhere.

  15. Location of the spinal cerebellar ataxia 2 locus to a 1 cM interval on chromsome 12q23-24.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allotey, R.; Twells, R.; Orozco, G.

    1994-09-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia 2 (SCA2) is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterised by progressive ataxia, dysarthria, dysmetria and dysdiadochokinesia. We have previously assigned the disease locus to chromosome 12q23-24.1 in a population from the Holguin province, Cuba, within a 31 cM interval flanked by the anonymous marker D12S53 and the phospholipase A2 gene (PLA2). Clinical as much as genealogical and geographical evidence indicate that the Cuban pedigrees are homogeneous and descend from a common ancestor. We now report fine genetic mapping of the disease locus with fourteen microsatellite loci known to span this region, which positions SCA2 in a 1 cM interval defined by the loci D12S84-AFM291xe9. Observation of a common haplotype segregating with the disease supports the existence of a founder effect in the Holguin pedigrees.

  16. Local search to improve coordinate-based task mapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balzuweit, Evan; Bunde, David P.; Leung, Vitus J.; Finley, Austin; Lee, Alan C. S.

    2015-10-31

    We present a local search strategy to improve the coordinate-based mapping of a parallel job’s tasks to the MPI ranks of its parallel allocation in order to reduce network congestion and the job’s communication time. The goal is to reduce the number of network hops between communicating pairs of ranks. Our target is applications with a nearest-neighbor stencil communication pattern running on mesh systems with non-contiguous processor allocation, such as Cray XE and XK Systems. Utilizing the miniGhost mini-app, which models the shock physics application CTH, we demonstrate that our strategy reduces application running time while also reducing the runtime variability. Furthermore, we further show that mapping quality can vary based on the selected allocation algorithm, even between allocation algorithms of similar apparent quality.

  17. Optimization of Xenon Biosensors for Detection of ProteinInteractions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowery, Thomas J.; Garcia, Sandra; Chavez, Lana; Ruiz, E.Janette; Wu, Tom; Brotin, Thierry; Dutasta, Jean-Pierre; King, David S.; Schultz, Peter G.; Pines, Alex; Wemmer, David E..

    2005-08-03

    Hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR can detect the presence of specific low-concentration biomolecular analytes by means of the xenon biosensor, which consists of a water-soluble, targeted cryptophane-A cage that encapsulates xenon. In this work we use the prototypical biotinylated xenon biosensor to determine the relationship between the molecular composition of the xenon biosensor and the characteristics of protein-bound resonances. The effects of diastereomer overlap, dipole-dipole coupling, chemical shift anisotropy, xenon exchange, and biosensor conformational exchange on protein-bound biosensor signal were assessed. It was found that optimal protein-bound biosensor signal can be obtained by minimizing the number of biosensor diastereomers and using a flexible linker of appropriate length. Both the linewidth and sensitivity of chemical shift to protein binding of the xenon biosensor were found to be inversely proportional to linker length.

  18. Ultrabright multikilovolt x-ray source: saturated amplification on noble gas transition arrays from hollow atom states

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Charles K.; Boyer, Keith

    2004-02-17

    An apparatus and method for the generation of ultrabright multikilovolt x-rays from saturated amplification on noble gas transition arrays from hollow atom states is described. Conditions for x-ray amplification in this spectral region combine the production of cold, high-Z matter, with the direct, selective multiphoton excitation of hollow atoms from clusters using ultraviolet radiation and a nonlinear mode of confined, self-channeled propagation in plasmas. Data obtained is consistent with the presence of saturated amplification on several transition arrays of the hollow atom Xe(L) spectrum (.lambda..about.2.9 .ANG.). An estimate of the peak brightness achieved is .about.10.sup.29 .gamma..multidot.s.sup.-1.multidot.mm.sup.-2.multidot.mr.sup.-2 (0.1% Bandwidth).sup.-1, that is .about.10.sup.5 -fold higher than presently available synchotron technology.

  19. Structure and band gap determination of irradiation-induced amorphous nano-channels in LiNbO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sachan, R. Pakarinen, O. H.; Chisholm, M. F.; Liu, P.; Patel, M. K.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, X. L.; Weber, W. J.

    2015-04-07

    The irradiation of lithium niobate with swift heavy ions results in the creation of amorphous nano-sized channels along the incident ion path. These nano-channels are on the order of a hundred microns in length and could be useful for photonic applications. However, there are two major challenges in these nano-channels characterization: (i) it is difficult to investigate the structural characteristics of these nano-channels due to their very long length and (ii) the analytical electron microscopic analysis of individual ion track is complicated due to electron beam sensitive nature of lithium niobate. Here, we report the first high resolution microscopic characterization of these amorphous nano-channels, widely known as ion-tracks, by direct imaging them at different depths in the material, and subsequently correlating the key characteristics with electronic energy loss of ions. Energetic Kr ions ({sup 84}Kr{sup 22} with 1.98?GeV energy) are used to irradiate single crystal lithium niobate with a fluence of 2 10{sup 10} ions/cm{sup 2}, which results in the formation of individual ion tracks with a penetration depth of ?180??m. Along the ion path, electron energy loss of the ions, which is responsible for creating the ion tracks, increases with depth under these conditions in LiNbO{sub 3}, resulting in increases in track diameter of a factor of ?2 with depth. This diameter increase with electronic energy loss is consistent with predictions of the inelastic thermal spike model. We also show a new method to measure the band gap in individual ion track by using electron energy-loss spectroscopy.

  20. Nuclear Data Sheets for A=77

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh B.; Nica N.; Singh,B.; Nica,N.

    2012-05-01

    The experimental nuclear spectroscopic data for known nuclides of mass number 77 (Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y) have been evaluated and presented together with adopted properties for levels and {gamma} rays. New high-spin data are available for {sup 77}Ga, {sup 77}Br and {sup 77}Kr. New precise single-particle transfer cross section data are available for {sup 77}Ge, {sup 77}As, {sup 77}Se and {sup 77}Br from eight different reactions (2009Ka06,2008Sc03); these data give information for occupancy of valence neutron orbitals in the ground states of target nuclides: {sup 76}Ge, {sup 76}Se and {sup 78}Se. No significant new data since the 1997 NDS for A = 77 (1997Fa12) have been reported for {sup 77}Rb and {sup 77}Sr. No data are yet available for excited states in {sup 77}Ni, {sup 77}Cu and {sup 77}Y. Level schemes from the radioactive decays of {sup 77}Ni to {sup 77}Cu and {sup 77}Y to {sup 77}Sr are unknown, while those for the decays of {sup 77}Cu to {sup 77}Zn and {sup 77}Ga to {sup 77}Ge are incomplete. Detailed gamma-ray data for {sup 77}Ge from thermal-neutron capture in {sup 76}Ge, together with extensive gamma-ray data from {sup 77}Ge decay to {sup 77}As have become available from 2012Me04. This work benefited from earlier evaluations (1997Fa12,1989Fa07,1980Si05,1973Ur02) of A = 77 nuclides, however, the data presented here supersede those in above evaluations.

  1. The solvation radius of silicate melts based on the solubility of noble gases and scaled particle theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ottonello, Giulio; Richet, Pascal

    2014-01-28

    The existing solubility data on noble gases in high-temperature silicate melts have been analyzed in terms of Scaling Particle Theory coupled with an ab initio assessment of the electronic, dispersive, and repulsive energy terms based on the Polarized Continuum Model (PCM). After a preliminary analysis of the role of the contracted Gaussian basis sets and theory level in reproducing appropriate static dipole polarizabilities in a vacuum, we have shown that the procedure returns Henry's law constants consistent with the values experimentally observed in water and benzene at T = 25?C and P = 1 bar for the first four elements of the series. The static dielectric constant (?) of the investigated silicate melts and its optical counterpart (?{sup ?}) were then resolved through the application of a modified form of the Clausius-Mossotti relation. Argon has been adopted as a probe to depict its high-T solubility in melts through an appropriate choice of the solvent diameter ?{sub s}, along the guidelines already used in the past for simple media such as water or benzene. The ?{sub s} obtained was consistent with a simple functional form based on the molecular volume of the solvent. The solubility calculations were then extended to He, Ne, and Kr, whose dispersive and repulsive coefficients are available from theory and we have shown that their ab initio Henry's constants at high T reproduce the observed increase with the static polarizability of the series element with reasonable accuracy. At room temperature (T = 25?C) the calculated Henry's constants of He, Ne, Ar, and Kr in the various silicate media predict higher solubilities than simple extrapolations (i.e., Arrhenius plots) based on high-T experiments and give rise to smooth trends not appreciably affected by the static polarizabilities of the solutes. The present investigation opens new perspectives on a wider application of PCM theory which can be extended to materials of great industrial interest at the core of metallurgical processes, ceramurgy, and the glass industry.

  2. Radiation Stability of Mo2Zr Phase as an Interaction Product in U-10M0/Zr/Al 6061 Monolithic Fuel Plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jian Gan; Brandon D. Miller; Dennis D. Keiser; Daniel M. Wachs; W. Sprowes; Y. H. Sohn; M. Kirk

    2015-04-01

    Abstract Monolithic U-10Mo alloy fuel plates with Al-6061 cladding are being developed for use in research and test reactors as low enrichment fuel (< 20% U-235 enrichment). These fuel plates contain a Zr diffusion barrier between the U-10Mo fuel and Al-6061 cladding that suppresses the interaction between the two that is known to be problematic under irradiation. However, the Zr also interacts with the U-10Mo and Al-6061 cladding during fuel fabrication to produce a variety of interaction phases. The results from recent post-irradiation-examination (PIE) of the irradiated monolithic fuel plates suggested that the microstructural development of the U-10Mo/Zr interaction phases under irradiation may have an impact on fuel performance. The Mo2Zr phase has been identified as a major interaction product at the interface of U-10Mo and Zr. TEM in-situ irradiation with 500 keV Kr ions at 200 ?C temperature to 2?1016 ions/cm2 was carried out to investigate its radiation stability. The Mo2Zr undergoes a radiation-induced structural change, from a large cubic (cF24, a0 = 0.7588 nm) to a small bcc cubic (cI2, a0 = 0.3185 nm), along with an estimated 11.3% volume contraction without changing its composition. The Mo2Zr phase demonstrated exceptional radiation tolerance with the development of dislocation showing no evidence of bubble formation. The irradiation to the same ion dose with the reduced ion energy at 250 keV reveals a high concentration of small bubbles (< 2 nm) as a result of increased Kr ion retention in the sample. .

  3. Final Report: Computer Simulation of Osmosis and Reverse Osmosis in Structured Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sohail Murad

    2012-01-03

    Molecular simulation methods were developed as part of this project to increase our fundamental understanding of membrane based separation systems. Our simulations clarified for example that steric (size) effects had a significant impact on the desalination membranes. Previously it was thought the separation was entirely driven by coulombic force (attractive/repulsive forces at the membrane surfaces). Steric effects played an important role, because salt ions in brackish water are never present alone, but are strongly hydrated which effectively increases their size, and makes it impossible to enter a membrane, while the smaller water molecules can enter more readily. Membrane surface effects did play a role in increasing the flux of water, but not in the separation itself. In addition we also developed simulation methods to study ion exchange, gas separations, and pervaporation. The methods developed were used to once again increase our fundamental understanding of these separation processes. For example our studies showed that when the separation factor of gases in membranes can be significantly affected by the presence of another gas, it is generally because the separation mechanism has changed. For example in the case of nitrogen and carbon dioxide, in their pure state the separation factor is determined by diffusion, while in mixtures it is influenced more by adsorption in the membrane (zeolite in our case) Finally we developed a new technique using the NMR chemical shift to determine intermolecular interactions for mixtures. For polar-nonpolar systems such as Xe dissolved in water we were able to significantly improve the accuracy of gas solubilities, which are very sensitive to the cross interaction between water and Xe.

  4. Design of Solid Form Xenon-124 Target for Producing I-123 Radioisotope Using Computer Simulation Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamali Moghaddam, K.; Sadeghi, M.; Kakavand, T.; Shokri Bonab, S.

    2006-07-01

    Recently in Cyclotron and Nuclear Medicine Department of NRCAM, at Atomic Energy organization of Iran (AEOI), a system for producing 1-123 via Xe-124 gas target technology, has been constructed and installed. One of the major problems in this system is the highly expensive cost of the enriched Xenon-124 gas. Therefore, saving this gas inside the system is very important. Unfortunately, by accidental rupture of the window foil or bad function of O-rings, the whole Xenon gas will escape from the system immediately. In this paper, by using computer codes; ALICE91, SRIM and doing some calculations we are going to demonstrate our latest effort for feasibility study of producing I-123 with the above mentioned reactions, but using Xe-124 solid target instead. According to our suggested design, a conical shaped irradiation vessel made of copper with 1 mm thickness, 1 cm outlet diameter, 5 cm length and 12 deg. angle at summit can be fixed inside a liquid nitrogen housing chamber. The Xenon-124 gas will be sent to the inside of this very cold conical trap and eventually deposited on its surface in solid form. Our calculation shows that during bombardment with 17-28 MeV proton energy, the thickness of solidified Xenon layer will remain around .28 mm. Likewise; thermo-dynamical calculation shows that in order to prevent the evaporation of solidified Xenon, the maximum permissible proton beam current for this system should be less than 1.4 {mu}A. According to these working conditions, the production yield of I-123 can be predicted to be around 150 mCi/{mu}Ah. (authors)

  5. Beta-decay measurements of neutron-deficient cesium isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parry, R.F.

    1983-03-01

    Beta decay endpoint energy measurements of the neutron deficient cesium isotopes were done using an energy spectrum shape fitting technique. This was a departure from the typical method of endpoint energy analysis, the Fermi-Kurie plot. A discussion of the shape fitting procedure and its improved features are discussed. These beta endpoint measurements have led to total decay energies (Q/sub EC/) of the neutron deficient /sup 119/ /sup 123/Cs isotopes. The total decay energies of /sup 122m/Cs (Q/sub EC/ = 6.95 +- 0.25 MeV) and /sup 119/Cs (Q/sub EC/ = 6.26 +- 0.29 MeV) were new measurements. The total decay energies of /sup 123/Cs (Q/sub EC/ = 4.05 +- 0.18 MeV), /sup 122g/Cs (Q/sub EC/ = 7.05 +- 0.18 MeV), /sup 121/Cs (Q/sub EC/ = 5.21 +- 0.22 MeV), and /sup 120/Cs (Q/sub EC/ = 7.38 +- 0.23 MeV) were measurements with significantly improved uncertainties as compared to the literature. Further, a combination of the energy levels derived from previous literature gamma-gamma coincident measurements and the experimental beta-coincident gamma decay energies has supported an improved level scheme for /sup 121/Xe and the proposal of three new energy levels in /sup 119/Xe. Comparison of the experimental cesium mass excesses (determined with our Q/sub EC/ values and known xenon mass excesses) with both the literature and theoretical predicted values showed general agreement except for /sup 120/Cs. Possible explanations for this deviation are discussed.

  6. Theoretical investigation of the impact of grain boundaries and fission gases on UO2 thermal conductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Shiyu; Andersson, Anders D.; Germann, Timothy C.; Stanek, Christopher R.

    2012-05-02

    Thermal conductivity is one of the most important metrics of nuclear fuel performance. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the impact of microstructure features on thermal conductivity, especially since the microstructure evolves with burn-up or time in the reactor. For example, UO{sub 2} fuels are polycrystalline and for high-burnup fuels the outer parts of the pellet experience grain sub-division leading to a very fine grain structure. This is known to impact important physical properties such as thermal conductivity as fission gas release. In a previous study, we calculated the effect of different types of {Sigma}5 grain boundaries on UO{sub 2} thermal conductivity and predicted the corresponding Kapitza resistances, i.e. the resistance of the grain boundary in relation to the bulk thermal resistance. There have been reports of pseudoanisotropic effects for the thermal conductivity in cubic polycrystalline materials, as obtained from molecular dynamics simulations, which means that the conductivity appears to be a function of the crystallographic direction of the temperature gradient. However, materials with cubic symmetry should have isotropic thermal conductivity. For this reason it is necessary to determine the cause of this apparent anisotropy and in this report we investigate this effect in context of our earlier simulations of UO{sub 2} Kapitza resistances. Another source of thermal resistance comes from fission products and fission gases. Xe is the main fission gas and when generated in sufficient quantity it dissolves from the lattice and forms gas bubbles inside the crystalline structure. We have performed studies of how Xe atoms dissolved in the UO{sub 2} matrix or precipitated as bubbles impact thermal conductivity, both in bulk UO{sub 2} and in the presence of grain boundaries.

  7. Performance of AGR-1 High-Temperature Reactor Fuel During Post-Irradiation Heating Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Robert Noel; Baldwin, Charles A; Hunn, John D; Demkowicz, Paul; Reber, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The fission product retention of irradiated low-enriched uranium oxide/uranium carbide TRISO fuel compacts from the AGR-1 experiment has been evaluated at temperatures of 1600 1800 C during post-irradiation safety tests. Fourteen compacts (a total of ~58,000 particles) with a burnup ranging from 13.4 to 19.1% FIMA have been tested using dedicated furnace systems at Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The release of fission products 110mAg, 134Cs, 137Cs, 154Eu, 155Eu, 90Sr, and 85Kr was monitored while heating the fuel specimens in flowing helium. The behavior of silver, europium, and strontium appears to be dominated by inventory that was originally released through intact SiC coating layers during irradiation, but was retained in the compact at the end of irradiation and subsequently released during the safety tests. However, at a test temperature of 1800 C, the data suggest that release of these elements through intact coatings may become significant after ~100 h. Cesium was very well retained by intact SiC layers, with a fractional release <5 10-6 after 300 h at 1600 C or 100 h at 1800 C. However, it was rapidly released from individual particles if the SiC layer failed, and therefore the overall cesium release fraction was dominated by the SiC defect and failure fractions in the fuel compacts. No complete TRISO coating layer failures were observed after 300 h at 1600 or 1700 C, and 85Kr release was very low during the tests (particles with breached SiC, but intact outer pyrocarbon, retained most of their krypton). Krypton release from TRISO failures was only observed after ~210 h at 1800 C in one compact. Post-safety-test examination of fuel compacts and particles has focused on identifying specific particles from each compact with notable fission product release and detailed analysis of the coating layers to understand particle behavior.

  8. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 84

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abriola, Daniel; Bostan, Melih; Erturk, Sefa; Fadil, Manssour; Galan, Monica; Juutinen, Sakari; Kibedi, Tibor; Kondev, Filip; Luca, Aurelian; Negret, Alexandru; Nica, Ninel; Pfeiffer, Bernd; Singh, Balraj; Sonzogni, Alejandro; Timar, Janos; Tuli, Jagdish; Venkova, Tsanka; Zuber, Kazimierz

    2009-11-15

    The evaluated spectroscopic data are presented for 12 known nuclides of mass 84 (Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo). Except for the stable nuclides {sup 84}Sr and {sup 84}Kr, extensive new data are available for all the other nuclides since the 1997 evaluation by J.K. Tuli (1997Tu02) of A = 84 nuclides. Many precise Penning-trap mass measurements since AME-2003 for A = 84 nuclides (2009Re03,2008Ha23,2008We10,2007Ke09,2006Ka48,2006De36,2006Ri15) have resulted in improved Q values and separation energies. However, many deficiencies still remain. Some examples are given below. Excited-state data for {sup 84}Ga and {sup 84}As are nonexistent, and those for {sup 84}Ge are scarce. The radioactive decay schemes of {sup 84}Ga, {sup 84}Ge, {sup 84}Se, {sup 84}Y (39.5 min), {sup 84}Y (4.6 s), {sup 84}Zr and {sup 84}Nb suffer from incompleteness and that for {sup 84}Mo decay is not known at all. The energy ordering of the two activities (39.5 min and and 4.6 s) of {sup 84}Y is not well established, although, high-spin with tentative spin-parity of (6+) is adopted here as the ground state of {sup 84}Y based on weak arguments. From a conference report published in 2000, it is clear that extensive experiments were done to investigate decays of {sup 84}Zr and {sup 84}Y, but details of these studies never appeared in literature and none were made available to the evaluators when requested from original authors. This evaluation was carried out as part of ENSDF workshop for Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Evaluators, organized and hosted by the 'Horia Hulubei' National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, Romania during March 30, 2009 - April 3, 2009. Names of the evaluators principally responsible for evaluation of individual nuclides are given under the respective Adopted data sets.

  9. Nuclear data sheets for A=84.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abriola, D.; Bostan, M.; Erturk, S.; Fadil, M.; Galan, M; Juutinen, S.; Luca, A.; Negret, A.; Nica, N.; Pfeiffer, B.; Singh, B.; Sonzogni, A.; Timar, J.; Tuli, J.; Venkova, T.; Zuber, K.; Kondev, F.; Nuclear Engineering Division; IAEA, Austria; Istanbul Univ.; Nigde Univ.; GANIL, France; CIEMAT, Spain; Univ. Jyvaskyla; ANU, Austrialia; IFIN-HH, Romania; Texas A&M; GSI, Germany; McMaster,Canada; NNDC; ATOMKI, Hungary; INRNE, Bulgaria; IFJ-PAN, Poland

    2009-01-01

    The evaluated spectroscopic data are presented for 12 known nuclides of mass 84 (Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo). Except for the stable nuclides {sup 84}Sr and {sup 84}Kr, extensive new data are available for all the other nuclides since the 1997 evaluation by J.K. Tuli (1997Tu02) of A = 84 nuclides. Many precise Penning-trap mass measurements since AME-2003 for A = 84 nuclides (2009Re03,2008Ha23,2008We10,2007Ke09,2006Ka48,2006De36,2006Ri15) have resulted in improved Q values and separation energies. However, many deficiencies still remain. Some examples are given below. Excited-state data for {sup 84}Ga and {sup 84}As are nonexistent, and those for {sup 84}Ge are scarce. The radioactive decay schemes of {sup 84}Ga, {sup 84}Ge, {sup 84}Se, {sup 84}Y (39.5 min), {sup 84}Y (4.6 s), {sup 84}Zr and {sup 84}Nb suffer from incompleteness and that for {sup 84}Mo decay is not known at all. The energy ordering of the two activities (39.5 min and 4.6 s) of {sup 84}Y is not well established, although, high-spin with tentative spin-parity of (6+) is adopted here as the ground state of {sup 84}Y based on weak arguments. From a conference report published in 2000, it is clear that extensive experiments were done to investigate decays of {sup 84}Zr and {sup 84}Y, but details of these studies never appeared in literature and none were made available to the evaluators when requested from original authors. This evaluation was carried out as part of ENSDF workshop for Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Evaluators, organized and hosted by the 'Horia Hulubei' National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, Romania during March 30, 2009 - April 3, 2009. Names of the evaluators principally responsible for evaluation of individual nuclides are given under the respective Adopted data sets.

  10. Nuclear Data Sheets A = 84

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abriola, D.; Sonzogni, A.; Bostan,M. Erturk,S.; Fadi,M.; Galan,M.; Juutinen,S.; Kibed,T.; Kondev,F.; Luca,A.; Negret,A.; Nica,N.; Pfeiffer,B.; Singh.B.; Sonzogni,A.; Timar,J.; Tuli,J.; Venkova,T.; Zuber,K.

    2009-11-01

    The evaluated spectroscopic data are presented for 12 known nuclides of mass 84 (Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo). Except for the stable nuclides {sup 84}Sr and {sup 84}Kr, extensive new data are available for all the other nuclides since the 1997 evaluation by J.K. Tuli (1997Tu02) of A = 84 nuclides. Many precise Penning-trap mass measurements since AME-2003 for A = 84 nuclides (2009Re03,2008Ha23,2008We10,2007Ke09,2006Ka48,2006De36,2006Ri15) have resulted in improved Q values and separation energies. However, many deficiencies still remain. Some examples are given below. Excited-state data for {sup 84}Ga and {sup 84}As are nonexistent, and those for {sup 84}Ge are scarce. The radioactive decay schemes of {sup 84}Ga, {sup 84}Ge, {sup 84}Se, {sup 84}Y (39.5 min), {sup 84}Y (4.6 s), {sup 84}Zr and {sup 84}Nb suffer from incompleteness and that for {sup 84}Mo decay is not known at all. The energy ordering of the two activities (39.5 min and and 4.6 s) of {sup 84}Y is not well established, although, high-spin with tentative spin-parity of (6+) is adopted here as the ground state of {sup 84}Y based on weak arguments. From a conference report published in 2000, it is clear that extensive experiments were done to investigate decays of {sup 84}Zr and {sup 84}Y, but details of these studies never appeared in literature and none were made available to the evaluators when requested from original authors. This evaluation was carried out as part of ENSDF workshop for Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Evaluators, organized and hosted by the 'Horia Hulubei' National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, Romania during March 30, 2009 - April 3, 2009. Names of the evaluators principally responsible for evaluation of individual nuclides are given under the respective Adopted data sets.

  11. Abundances of presolar graphite and SiC from supernovae and AGB stars in the Murchison meteorite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amari, Sachiko; Zinner, Ernst; Gallino, Roberto

    2014-05-02

    Pesolar graphite grains exhibit a range of densities (1.65 – 2.20 g/cm{sup 3}). We investigated abundances of presolar graphite grains formed in supernovae and in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the four density fractions KE3, KFA1, KFB1 and KFC1 extracted from the Murchison meteorite to probe dust productions in these stellar sources. Seventy-six and 50% of the grains in the low-density fractions KE3 and KFA1, respectively, are supernova grains, while only 7.2% and 0.9% of the grains in the high-density fractions KFB1 and KFC1 have a supernova origin. Grains of AGB star origin are concentrated in the high-density fractions KFB1 and KFC1. From the C isotopic distributions of these fractions and the presence of s-process Kr with {sup 86}Kr/{sup 82}Kr = 4.43±0.46 in KFC1, we estimate that 76% and 80% of the grains in KFB1 and KFC1, respectively, formed in AGB stars. From the abundance of graphite grains in the Murchison meteorite, 0.88 ppm, the abundances of graphite from supernovae and AGB stars are 0.24 ppm and 0.44 ppm, respectively: the abundances of graphite in supernovae and AGB stars are comparable. In contrast, it has been known that 1% of SiC grains formed in supernovae and 95% formed in AGB stars in meteorites. Since the abundance of SiC grains is 5.85 ppm in the Murchison meteorite, the abundances of SiC from supernovae and AGB stars are 0.063 ppm and 5.6 ppm, respectively: the dominant source of SiC grains is AGB stars. Since SiC grains are harder and likely to survive better in space than graphite grains, the abundance of supernova graphite grains, which is higher than that of supernova SiC grains, indicates that supernovae proficiently produce graphite grains. Graphite grains from AGB stars are, in contrast, less abundant that SiC grains from AGB stars (0.44 ppm vs. 5.6 ppm). It is difficult to derive firm conclusions for graphite and SiC formation in AGB stars due to the difference in susceptibility to grain destruction. Metallicity of the parent AGB stars of graphite grains is much lower than that of SiC grains and the difference in metallicity might also have affected to the difference in the abundances in the Murchison meteorite.

  12. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. II. Isotopic effects and wavelength dependence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berhanu, Tesfaye A.; Erbland, Joseph; Savarino, Jol [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Gophysique de lEnvironnement, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LGGE, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Meusinger, Carl; Johnson, Matthew S. [Copenhagen Center for Atmospheric Research (CCAR), Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jost, Rmy [Laboratoire de Interdisciplinaire de Physique (LIPHY) Univ. de Grenoble, Grenoble (France); Bhattacharya, S. K. [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Nangang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-28

    Atmospheric nitrate is preserved in Antarctic snow firn and ice. However, at low snow accumulation sites, post-depositional processes induced by sunlight obscure its interpretation. The goal of these studies (see also Paper I by Meusinger et al. [Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. I. Observed quantum yield, domain of photolysis, and secondary chemistry, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 244305 (2014)]) is to characterize nitrate photochemistry and improve the interpretation of the nitrate ice core record. Naturally occurring stable isotopes in nitrate ({sup 15}N, {sup 17}O, and {sup 18}O) provide additional information concerning post-depositional processes. Here, we present results from studies of the wavelength-dependent isotope effects from photolysis of nitrate in a matrix of natural snow. Snow from Dome C, Antarctica was irradiated in selected wavelength regions using a Xe UV lamp and filters. The irradiated snow was sampled and analyzed for nitrate concentration and isotopic composition (?{sup 15}N, ?{sup 18}O, and ?{sup 17}O). From these measurements an average photolytic isotopic fractionation of {sup 15}? = (?15 1.2) was found for broadband Xe lamp photolysis. These results are due in part to excitation of the intense absorption band of nitrate around 200 nm in addition to the weaker band centered at 305 nm followed by photodissociation. An experiment with a filter blocking wavelengths shorter than 320 nm, approximating the actinic flux spectrum at Dome C, yielded a photolytic isotopic fractionation of {sup 15}? = (?47.9 6.8), in good agreement with fractionations determined by previous studies for the East Antarctic Plateau which range from ?40 to ?74.3. We describe a new semi-empirical zero point energy shift model used to derive the absorption cross sections of {sup 14}NO{sub 3}{sup ?} and {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup ?} in snow at a chosen temperature. The nitrogen isotopic fractionations obtained by applying this model under the experimental temperature as well as considering the shift in width and center well reproduced the values obtained in the laboratory study. These cross sections can be used in isotopic models to reproduce the stable isotopic composition of nitrate found in Antarctic snow profiles.

  13. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs. Volume 2, Designs, assessments, and comparisons, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    The primary objective of the of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was to provide the Office of Fusion Energy with an evaluation of the potential of inertial fusion for electric power production. The term reactor studies is somewhat of a misnomer since these studies included the conceptual design and analysis of all aspects of the IFE power plants: the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, other balance of plant facilities, target systems (including the target production, injection, and tracking systems), and the two drivers. The scope of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was quite ambitious. The majority of our effort was spent on the conceptual design of two IFE electric power plants, one using an induction linac heavy ion beam (HIB) driver and the other using a Krypton Fluoride (KrF) laser driver. After the two point designs were developed, they were assessed in terms of their (1) environmental and safety aspects; (2) reliability, availability, and maintainability; (3) technical issues and technology development requirements; and (4) economics. Finally, we compared the design features and the results of the assessments for the two designs.

  14. Sonication-based isolation and enrichment of Chlorella protothecoides chloroplasts for illumina genome sequencing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angelova, Angelina; Park, Sang-Hycuk; Kyndt, John; Fitzsimmons, Kevin; Brown, Judith K

    2013-09-01

    With the increasing world demand for biofuel, a number of oleaginous algal species are being considered as renewable sources of oil. Chlorella protothecoides Krüger synthesizes triacylglycerols (TAGs) as storage compounds that can be converted into renewable fuel utilizing an anabolic pathway that is poorly understood. The paucity of algal chloroplast genome sequences has been an important constraint to chloroplast transformation and for studying gene expression in TAGs pathways. In this study, the intact chloroplasts were released from algal cells using sonication followed by sucrose gradient centrifugation, resulting in a 2.36-fold enrichment of chloroplasts from C. protothecoides, based on qPCR analysis. The C. protothecoides chloroplast genome (cpDNA) was determined using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform and found to be 84,576 Kb in size (8.57 Kb) in size, with a GC content of 30.8 %. This is the first report of an optimized protocol that uses a sonication step, followed by sucrose gradient centrifugation, to release and enrich intact chloroplasts from a microalga (C. prototheocoides) of sufficient quality to permit chloroplast genome sequencing with high coverage, while minimizing nuclear genome contamination. The approach is expected to guide chloroplast isolation from other oleaginous algal species for a variety of uses that benefit from enrichment of chloroplasts, ranging from biochemical analysis to genomics studies.

  15. Heavy-ion irradiation induced diamond formation in carbonaceous materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daulton, T. L.

    1999-01-08

    The basic mechanisms of metastable phase formation produced under highly non-equilibrium thermodynamic conditions within high-energy particle tracks are investigated. In particular, the possible formation of diamond by heavy-ion irradiation of graphite at ambient temperature is examined. This work was motivated, in part, by earlier studies which discovered nanometer-grain polycrystalline diamond aggregates of submicron-size in uranium-rich carbonaceous mineral assemblages of Precambrian age. It was proposed that the radioactive decay of uranium formed diamond in the fission particle tracks produced in the carbonaceous minerals. To test the hypothesis that nanodiamonds can form by ion irradiation, fine-grain polycrystalline graphite sheets were irradiated with 400 MeV Kr ions. The ion irradiated graphite (and unirradiated graphite control) were then subjected to acid dissolution treatments to remove the graphite and isolate any diamonds that were produced. The acid residues were then characterized by analytical and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The acid residues of the ion-irradiated graphite were found to contain ppm concentrations of nanodiamonds, suggesting that ion irradiation of bulk graphite at ambient temperature can produce diamond.

  16. The effect of the partner atom on the spectra of interatomic Coulombic decay triggered by resonant Auger processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miteva, T. Chiang, Y.-C.; Kuleff, A. I.; Cederbaum, L. S.; Gokhberg, K.; Koloren?, P.

    2014-10-28

    The resonant-Auger interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) cascade was recently suggested as an efficient means of controlling the course of the ICD process. Recent theoretical and experimental works show that control over the energies of the emitted ICD electrons can be achieved either by varying the photon energy to produce different initial core excitations or by changing the neighboring species. This work presents a theoretical investigation on the role of the rare-gas neighbor and clarifies how the latter influences the ICD process. For this purpose, we compare fully ab initio computed ICD-electron and kinetic energy release spectra following the 2p{sub 3/2} ? 4s, 2p{sub 1/2} ? 4s and 2p{sub 3/2} ? 3d of Ar in ArKr and Ar{sub 2}. We demonstrate that the presence of the chemically softer partner atom results in an increase in the energies of the emitted ICD electrons, and also in the appearance of additional ICD-active states. The latter leads to a threefold increase in the ICD yield for the case of the 2p{sub 3/2,} {sub 1/2} ? 4s parent core excitations.

  17. Localization and mass spectra of various matter fields on scalar-tensor brane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Qun-Ying; Zhao, Zhen-Hua; Zhong, Yi; Yang, Jie; Zhou, Xiang-Nan

    2015-03-10

    Recently, a new scalar-tensor braneworld model was presented in [http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.86.127502]. It not only solves the gauge hierarchy problem but also reproduces a correct Friedmann-like equation on the brane. In this new model, there are two different brane solutions, for which the mass spectra of gravity on the brane are the same. In this paper, we investigate localization and mass spectra of various bulk matter fields (i.e., scalar, vector, Kalb-Ramond, and fermion fields) on the brane. It is shown that the zero modes of all the matter fields can be localized on the positive tension brane under some conditions, and the mass spectra of each kind of bulk matter field for the two brane solutions are different except for some special cases, which implies that the two brane solutions are not physically equivalent. When the coupling constants between the dilaton and bulk matter fields take special values, the mass spectra for both solutions are the same, and the scalar and vector zero modes are localized on the negative tension brane, while the KR zero mode is still localized on the positive tension brane.

  18. Development of an Integrated Natural Barrier Database System for Site Evaluation of a Deep Geologic Repository in Korea - 13527

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Haeryong; Lee, Eunyong; Jeong, YiYeong; Lee, Jeong-Hwan

    2013-07-01

    Korea Radioactive-waste Management Corporation (KRMC) established in 2009 has started a new project to collect information on long-term stability of deep geological environments on the Korean Peninsula. The information has been built up in the integrated natural barrier database system available on web (www.deepgeodisposal.kr). The database system also includes socially and economically important information, such as land use, mining area, natural conservation area, population density, and industrial complex, because some of this information is used as exclusionary criteria during the site selection process for a deep geological repository for safe and secure containment and isolation of spent nuclear fuel and other long-lived radioactive waste in Korea. Although the official site selection process has not been started yet in Korea, current integrated natural barrier database system and socio-economic database is believed that the database system will be effectively utilized to narrow down the number of sites where future investigation is most promising in the site selection process for a deep geological repository and to enhance public acceptance by providing readily-available relevant scientific information on deep geological environments in Korea. (authors)

  19. Low Radioactivity Argon Dark Matter Search Results from the DarkSide-50 Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agnes, P.

    2015-10-02

    Our DarkSide-50 dark matter search reports the first results obtained using a target of lowradioactivity argon extracted from underground sources. The experiment is located at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and uses a two-phase time projection chamber as a detector. A total of 155 kg of low radioactivity argon has been obtained, and we have determined that underground argon is depleted in 39Ar by a factor (1.4 ±0.2) x 103 relative to atmospheric argon. The underground argon was also found to contain (2.05 ± 0.13)mBq=kg of 85Kr. We also found no evidence for dark matter in the form of WIMPs in 70.9 live-days of data with a fiducial mass of (36.9 ± 0.6) kg. When combined with our preceding search with an atmospheric argon target, we set a 90% C.L. upper limit on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section of 2.0 x 10-44 cm2 (8.6 x 10-44 cm2, 8.0 x 10-43 cm2) for a WIMP mass of 100 GeV=c2 (1TeV=c2, 10TeV=c2).

  20. Experimental Test Of Whether Electrostatically Charged Micro-organisms And Their Spores Contribute To The Onset Of Arcs Across Vacuum Gaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,; Grisham, Larry R.

    2014-02-24

    Recently it was proposed [L.R. Grisham, A. vonHalle, A.F. Carpe, Guy Rossi, K.R. Gilton, E.D. McBride, E.P. Gilson, A. Stepanov, T.N. Stevenson, Physics of Plasma 19 023107 (2012)] that one of the initiators of vacuum voltage breakdown between condu cting electrodes might be micro-organisms and their spores, previously deposited during exposure to air, which tnen become electrostatically charged when an electric potential is applied across the vacuum gap. The note describes a simple experiment to compare the number of voltage-conditioning pulses required to reach the nominal maxium operating voltage across a gap between two metallic conductors in a vacuum, comparing cases in which biological cleaning was done just prior to pump-down with cases where this was not done, with each preceded by exposure to ambient air for three days. Based upon these results, it does not appear that air-deposited microbes and their spores constitute a major pathway for arc initiation, at least for exposure periods of a few days, and for vacuum gaps of a few millimeters, in the regime where voltage holding is usually observed to vary linearly with gap distance

  1. Semiclassical multi-phonon theory for atom-surface scattering: Application to the Cu(111) system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daon, Shauli; Pollak, Eli

    2015-05-07

    The semiclassical perturbation theory of Hubbard and Miller [J. Chem. Phys. 80, 5827 (1984)] is further developed to include the full multi-phonon transitions in atom-surface scattering. A practically applicable expression is developed for the angular scattering distribution by utilising a discretized bath of oscillators, instead of the continuum limit. At sufficiently low surface temperature good agreement is found between the present multi-phonon theory and the previous one-, and two-phonon theory derived in the continuum limit in our previous study [Daon, Pollak, and Miret-Arts, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 201103 (2012)]. The theory is applied to the measured angular distributions of Ne, Ar, and Kr scattered from a Cu(111) surface. We find that the present multi-phonon theory substantially improves the agreement between experiment and theory, especially at the higher surface temperatures. This provides evidence for the importance of multi-phonon transitions in determining the angular distribution as the surface temperature is increased.

  2. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS SUMMARY REPORT [VOLUME 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FREDERICKSON JR; ROURK RJ; HONEYMAN JO; JOHNSON ME; RAYMOND RE

    2009-01-19

    Highly radioactive sludge (containing up to 300,000 curies of actinides and fission products) resulting from the storage of degraded spent nuclear fuel is currently stored in temporary containers located in the 105-K West storage basin near the Columbia River. The background, history, and known characteristics of this sludge are discussed in Section 2 of this report. There are many compelling reasons to remove this sludge from the K-Basin. These reasons are discussed in detail in Section1, and they include the following: (1) Reduce the risk to the public (from a potential release of highly radioactive material as fine respirable particles by airborne or waterborn pathways); (2) Reduce the risk overall to the Hanford worker; and (3) Reduce the risk to the environment (the K-Basin is situated above a hazardous chemical contaminant plume and hinders remediation of the plume until the sludge is removed). The DOE-RL has stated that a key DOE objective is to remove the sludge from the K-West Basin and River Corridor as soon as possible, which will reduce risks to the environment, allow for remediation of contaminated areas underlying the basins, and support closure of the 100-KR-4 operable unit. The environmental and nuclear safety risks associated with this sludge have resulted in multiple legal and regulatory remedial action decisions, plans,and commitments that are summarized in Table ES-1 and discussed in more detail in Volume 2, Section 9.

  3. Absolute Time-Resolved Emission of Non-LTE L-Shell Spectra from Ti-Doped Aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back,C.; Feldman, U.; Weaver, J.; Seely, J.; Constantin, C.; Holland, G.; Lee, R.; Chung, H.; Scott, H.

    2006-01-01

    Outstanding discrepancies between data and calculations of laser-produced plasmas in recombination have been observed since the 1980s. Although improvements in hydrodynamic modeling may reduce the discrepancies, there are indications that non-LTE atomic kinetics may be the dominant cause. Experiments to investigate non-LTE effects were recently performed at the NIKE KrF laser on low-density Ti-doped aerogels. The laser irradiated a 2 mm diameter, cylindrical sample of various lengths with a 4-ns square pulse to create a volumetrically heated plasma. Ti L-shell spectra spanning a range of 0.47-3 keV were obtained with a transmission grating coupled to Si photodiodes. The diagnostic can be configured to provide 1-dimensional spatial resolution at a single photon energy, or 18 discrete energies with a resolving power, {gamma}/{delta}{gamma} of 3-20. The data are examined and compared to calculations to develop absolute emission measurements that can provide new tests of the non-LTE physics.

  4. Thermal decomposition of CF{sub 2}HCl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, M.C.; Kumaran, S.S.; Lim, K.P.; Michael, J.V.; Wagner, A.F.; Dixon, D.A.; Kiefer, J.H.; DiFelice, J.

    1996-09-26

    The development of a multipass optical absorption (MPA) technique for detecting CF{sub 2} radicals behind reflected shock waves and its application for studying the thermal dissociation of CF{sub 2}HCl in Kr are reported. The effective absorption cross section is 2.86x10{sup -18} cm{sup 2} at 249.8 nm. In the CF{sub 2}HCl experiments, the yield was measured to be 1.01{+-}0.06, confirming that the thermal decomposition pathway is molecular HCl elimination; i.e., CF{sub 2}HCl (+ M) {yields} CF{sub 2} + HCl (+ M). Above 1900 K, C-Cl bond fission was measured to be <1%. Rate constants for the title reaction were measured. Also, rate constants were measured and the overall enthalpy change was determined. Over 1047 <= T <= 1731 K and 113 <= P <= 589 Torr, both the magnitude and the T dependence of the measured rate constants from the two techniques are in good agreement. 43 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Radionuclide Migration at the Rio Blanco Site, A Nuclear-stimulated Low-permeability Natural Gas Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clay A. Cooper; Ming Ye; Jenny Chapman; Craig Shirley

    2005-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies conducted a program in the 1960s and 1970s that evaluated technology for the nuclear stimulation of low-permeability gas reservoirs. The third and final project in the program, Project Rio Blanco, was conducted in Rio Blanco County, in northwestern Colorado. In this experiment, three 33-kiloton nuclear explosives were simultaneously detonated in a single emplacement well in the Mesaverde Group and Fort Union Formation, at depths of 1,780, 1,899, and 2,039 m below land surface on May 17, 1973. The objective of this work is to estimate lateral distances that tritium released from the detonations may have traveled in the subsurface and evaluate the possible effect of postulated natural-gas development on radionuclide migration. Other radionuclides were considered in the analysis, but the majority occur in relatively immobile forms (such as nuclear melt glass). Of the radionuclides present in the gas phase, tritium dominates in terms of quantity of radioactivity in the long term and contribution to possible whole body exposure. One simulation is performed for {sup 85}Kr, the second most abundant gaseous radionuclide produced after tritium.

  6. Data summary report for fission product release test HI-1. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osborne, M.F.; lorenz, R.A.; Travis, J.R.; Webster, C.S.

    1982-12-01

    This first in a series of high-temperature fission product release tests was conducted for 30 min at 1400/sup 0/C, with the release taking place into flowing steam. The fuel specimen was a 20-cm-long section of H.B. Robinson fuel rod, irradiated to 28,000 MWd per metric ton (t). After the test, the Zircaloy cladding of the specimen was almost completely oxidized and was quite fragile. The fission product collection system included a thermal gradient tube (700-150/sup 0/C), filters, heated charcoal, and cooled charcoal. Gamma ray analysis of apparatus components and collectors showed that about 2.83% of the /sup 85/Kr and 1.75% of the /sup 137/Cs were released from the fuel. Activation analysis of leach solutions from these components indicated that 2.04% of the /sup 129/I was released. Other analyses revealed small but significant releases of the radionuclides /sup 125/Sb and /sup 106/Ru, and of the elements Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Ag, Sn, Te, Ba, and La.

  7. Optical models from low-energy s-, p- and d-wave cross sections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.H.

    1984-01-01

    From transmission measurements with good resolution at low energies one can obtain data on the optical model potential (OMP) for individual partical waves by first making a multilevel analysis to isolate the partial waves and then averaging for comparison to the OMP. For each J..pi.. the averaging yields two quantities which are related to the amplitude and phase of the OMP scattering function or, alternatively, to the volume integrals of the real and imaginary potentials. Historically, the experimental average have been represented by the s- and p-wave strength functions, S/sub 0/ and S/sub 1/, and the s-wave scattering radius R'. To make full use of data from modern time-of-flight facilities such as ORELA it is necessary to re-examine the averaging procedure in order to extend it upward both in energy and neutron l-value. This averaging is discussed and applied to data on /sup 30/Si, /sup 32/S, /sup 34/S, /sup 40/Ca, /sup 60/Ni, /sup 86/Kr and /sup 208/Pb. The resulting OMP shows a systematic real potential with some indication of a parity dependence. The imaginary potential shows considerable fluctuations indicating the importance of nuclear structure at neutron eneries below 1 MeV. A coupled channel OMP is also discussed for some of the nulei. 19 references.

  8. 3He Cross Section

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    α, X) (Current as of 05/14/2012) NSR Reaction Eα (MeV) Cross Section File X4 Dataset Date Added 1982KR05 3He(α, γ): σ Ecm = 107 - 1266 keV X4 01/05/2012 1969NA24 3He(α, γ): σ and S-factor 164 - 245 keV σ, S(E) X4 07/19/2011 1984OS03 3He(α, γ): σ 165 - 1169 keV X4 01/05/2012 1982OS02 3He(α, γ): S-factor 165 - 1170 keV S34(Ecm) X4 07/19/2011 1988HI06 3He(α, γ): σ Ecm = 195 - 686 keV X4 01/05/2012 2007CO17 3He(α, γ): deduced σ and S-factor 220, 250, 400 keV X4 01/05/2012

  9. 4He Cross Section

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    p, X) (Current as of 03/01/2016) NSR Reaction Ep (MeV) Cross Section File X4 Dataset Date Added 1974KR07 4He(p, p): σ 0.5 - 3 X4 10/23/2014 2004PU02 4He(p, p): σ(θ = 128.7°) 1.2 - 5.2 X4 10/23/2014 1997NU02 4He(p, p): σ 1.4 - 6 X4 10/23/2014 1976BR17 4He(p, p): σ(168.8°)/σ(104.4°) 2.24 - 5.90 X4 10/23/2014 1977DO01 4He(p, p): σ 11 - 14 X4 10/23/2014 1969GA12 4He(p, p): σ 12.04, 14.23, 17.45 X4 10/23/2014 1974SO06 4He(p, X): total reaction σ 18 - 48 1 03/08/2011 1976SO01 4He(p, X),

  10. Tritium Specific Adsorption Simulation Utilizing the OSPREY Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veronica Rutledge; Lawrence Tavlarides; Ronghong Lin; Austin Ladshaw

    2013-09-01

    During the processing of used nuclear fuel, volatile radionuclides will be discharged to the atmosphere if no recovery processes are in place to limit their release. The volatile radionuclides of concern are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I. Methods are being developed, via adsorption and absorption unit operations, to capture these radionuclides. It is necessary to model these unit operations to aid in the evaluation of technologies and in the future development of an advanced used nuclear fuel processing plant. A collaboration between Fuel Cycle Research and Development Offgas Sigma Team member INL and a NEUP grant including ORNL, Syracuse University, and Georgia Institute of Technology has been formed to develop off gas models and support off gas research. This report is discusses the development of a tritium specific adsorption model. Using the OSPREY model and integrating it with a fundamental level isotherm model developed under and experimental data provided by the NEUP grant, the tritium specific adsorption model was developed.

  11. OSPREY Model Development Status Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veronica J Rutledge

    2014-04-01

    During the processing of used nuclear fuel, volatile radionuclides will be discharged to the atmosphere if no recovery processes are in place to limit their release. The volatile radionuclides of concern are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I. Methods are being developed, via adsorption and absorption unit operations, to capture these radionuclides. It is necessary to model these unit operations to aid in the evaluation of technologies and in the future development of an advanced used nuclear fuel processing plant. A collaboration between Fuel Cycle Research and Development Offgas Sigma Team member INL and a NEUP grant including ORNL, Syracuse University, and Georgia Institute of Technology has been formed to develop off gas models and support off gas research. Georgia Institute of Technology is developing fundamental level model to describe the equilibrium and kinetics of the adsorption process, which are to be integrated with OSPREY. This report discusses the progress made on expanding OSPREY to be multiple component and the integration of macroscale and microscale level models. Also included in this report is a brief OSPREY user guide.

  12. Dynamics of excimer formation and decay in supercritical krypton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holroyd, Richard A.; Cook, Andrew R.; Preses, Jack M.

    2009-12-14

    New infrared absorbing species are identified in the pulse radiolysis of supercritical Kr at high pressures. The species are believed to be excimers. Their formation and decay rates have been time resolved using the Laser Electron Accelerator Facility. An initial species, formed in less than 1 ns, absorbs at several wavelengths between 790 and 1300 nm; The decay of this species is initially fast, followed by a slower component; the decay rate increases with pressure. As this initial species decays a second excimer is formed absorbing at 830, 890, and 990 nm. The growth and decay rates of this excimer are also pressure dependent. A third excimer, absorbing between 1000 and 1200 nm grows at a rate similar to that of the decay of the second species. The decay rate of the third species is also pressure dependent; the lifetime increases from 9.4 ns at 109 bar to 49 ns at 15 bar. A kinetic mechanism is proposed that satisfactorily reproduces the experimental results. The first species is identified as a higher energy gerade triplet state excimer and the second as the singlet gerade state.

  13. The Effect of Excimer Laser Treatment on the Surface Roughness and Fracture Strength of Alumina Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smoot, J.E.

    1998-05-13

    The microelectronics industry requires alumina substrates with exceptionally smooth surfaces and few surface defects to allow successful deposition of metallic films for reliable electronic performance. Irradiation by a 248-nm wavelength excimer laser beam (KrF) at a fluence of 125 mJ/mm{sup 2} and at various angles of incidence is shown to significantly reduce the surface roughness of alumina substrates. However, irradiation also creates a fine particulate deposit of alumina that only partially adheres to the substrate and impedes deposition of metal films. Annealing in air between 1350 C and 1450 C was found to remove the particles by sintering. As-received material showed surface roughness average (R{sub a}) mean values of 457 nm, which was reduced to 60 nm (mean) following irradiation and 71 nm (mean) following irradiation and annealing at 1350 C. Irradiation also produced a decrease in the number and severity of surface defects. The flexural strength and Weibull modulus were both increased by laser irradiation and thermal treatment. Flexural strength went from an as-received value of 450 MPa to 560 MPa following irradiation/sintering, measured at 10% probability of failure. The Weibull modulus was increased from the as-received value of about 9, to about 13 following irradiation/sintering. It was concluded that irradiation at an angle of incidence of 60{degree} from perpendicular was most effective in producing a low surface roughness.

  14. Characteristic on the thermal stresses near apex in dissimilar materials (Relation between the intensity of stress field and the bonded wedge angle)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inoue, T.; Koguchi, H.

    1995-11-01

    The characteristic of thermal stresses near the apex in dissimilar materials under a uniform temperature change is theoretically and numerically investigated. The materials are composed of two isotropic homogeneous wedges with arbitrary angles. The dominant factor of thermal stresses near the apex is represented by Kr{sup p{minus}1}, where p{minus}1 is the order of the stress singularity and K indicates the intensity of the stress field. For the bonded structures of Cu/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, the relationship between the wedge angle {var_phi}{sub 1} of material 1 and the total angle {var_phi}{sub 1} + {var_phi}{sub 2} of the bonded wedge, in which K becomes zero, is clarified theoretically. Also, it is shown that the distribution of the intensity K for each root p is divided into two forms. Finally, a relation between the distribution of the thermal stresses near apex and characteristic length of the bonded structure is examined by FEM.

  15. APEX nuclear fuel cycle for production of LWR fuel and elimination of radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Powell, J.R.

    1981-08-01

    The development of a nuclear fission fuel cycle is proposed which eliminates all the radioactive fission product waste effluent and the need for geological-age high level waste storage and provides a long term supply of fissile fuel for an LWR power reactor economy. The fuel cycle consists of reprocessing LWR spent fuel (1 to 2 years old) to remove the stable nonradioactive (NRFP, e.g. lanthanides, etc.) and short-lived fission products (SLFP e.g. half-lives of (1 to 2 years) and returning, in dilute form, the long-lived fission products, ((LLFPs, e.g. 30 y half-life Cs, Sr, and 10 y Kr, and 16 x 10/sup 6/ y I) and the transuranics (TUs, e.g. Pu, Am, Cm, and Np) to be refabricated into fresh fuel elements. Makeup fertile and fissile fuel are to be supplied through the use of a Spallator (linear accelerator spallation-target fuel-producer). The reprocessing of LWR fuel elements is to be performed by means of the Chelox process which consists of Airox treatment (air oxidation and hydrogen reduction) followed by chelation with an organic reagent (..beta..-diketonate) and vapor distillation of the organometallic compounds for separation and partitioning of the fission products.

  16. Identification of {gamma} rays from {sup 172}Au and {alpha} decays of {sup 172}Au, {sup 168}Ir, and {sup 164}Re

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadinia, B.; Cederwall, B.; Andgren, K.; Baeck, T.; Johnson, A.; Khaplanov, A.; Wyss, R.; Page, R. D.; Grahn, T.; Paul, E. S.; Sandzelius, M.; Scholey, C.; Greenlees, P. T.; Jakobsson, U.; Jones, P. M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, J.; Ketelhut, S.; Leino, M.; Nyman, M.

    2009-12-15

    The very neutron deficient odd-odd nucleus {sup 172}Au was studied in reactions of 342 and 348 MeV {sup 78}Kr beams with an isotopically enriched {sup 96}Ru target. The {alpha} decays previously reported for {sup 172}Au were confirmed and the decay chain extended down to {sup 152}Tm through the discovery of a new {alpha}-decaying state in {sup 164}Re[E{sub {alpha}}=5623(10) keV; t{sub 1/2}=864{sub -110}{sup +150} ms; b{sub {alpha}}=3(1)%]. Fine structure in these {alpha} decays of {sup 172}Au and {sup 168}Ir were identified. A new {alpha}-decaying state was also observed and assigned as the ground state in {sup 172}Au[E{sub {alpha}}=6762(10) keV; t{sub 1/2}=22{sub -5}{sup +6} ms]. This decay chain was also correlated down to {sup 152}Tm through previously reported {alpha} decays. Prompt {gamma} rays from excited states in {sup 172}Au have been identified using the recoil-decay tagging technique. The partial level scheme constructed for {sup 172}Au indicates that it has an irregular structure. Possible configurations of the {alpha}-decaying states in {sup 172}Au are discussed in terms of the systematics of nuclei in this region and total Routhian surface calculations.

  17. Modeling of nonlinear vibrational relaxation of large molecules in shock waves with a nonlinear, temperature-varying master equation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, M. J.; Kiefer, J. H.; Chemistry; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2002-05-08

    We model recent experiments on the vibrational relaxation of oxirane in a shock tube. A master equation is developed which includes self-collisions of the oxirane, leading to a nonlinear master equation. This master equation is also applied to a more limited study of vibrational relaxation for cyclopropane in a shock tube. The time variation of the temperature dependence of the bath is also included in the calculations. Good agreement between the modeling and experiments are obtained through a fit to the energy transfer parameters. These fits demonstrate that self-collisions are dominant in promoting the relaxation even for mixtures of Kr and oxirane where the oxirane is 2% and 4% dilute. This dominance comes from two sources: (1) much larger energy transfer per collision for oxirane-oxirane collisions and (2) resonant energy transfer effects. For cyclopropane, some of the good fits show smaller energy transfer characteristics for self-collisions than buffer gas collisions. Even in these cases self-collisions are an important part of the energy transfer process through resonant energy transfer effects.

  18. The Physics of Confinement Improvement with Impurity Seeding in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Murakami; G.R. McKee; G.L. Jackson; G.M. Staebler; D.R. Baker; J.A. Boedo; N.H. Brooks; K.H. Burrell; D.R. Ernst; T.E. Evans; C.M. Greenfield; R.J. Groebner; J.E. Kinsey; R.J. La Haye; L.L. Lao; A. Messiaen; J. Mandrekas; J. Ongena; C.L. Rettig; B.W. Rice; D.W. Ross; H.E. St.John; R.D. Sydora; D.M. Thomas; M.R. Wade; W.P. West

    2000-08-01

    Clear increases in confinement (from H{sub 89P} {approx} 1 to H{sub 89P} {<=} 2) and simultaneous reductions of long-wavelength turbulence have been observed in L-mode discharges in DIII-D, which are directly correlated with external impurity injection [1]. These observations provide an opportunity to understand the mechanism for confinement improvement with impurity seeding observed in a number of tokamaks [2], and to make quantitative tests of theory-based turbulence and transport models with experimental measurements. Impurity seeding can be used not only to produce a radiative mantle to reduce heat fluxes to the first wall material [3], but also as a tool to control profiles in Advanced Tokamak (AT) plasmas. Significant confinement improvements are observed with injection of noble gases (Ne, Ar, and Kr) into L-mode edge, negative central shear (sawtooth-free) discharges in DIII-D. Compared to similar reference discharges without impurity injection, confinement enhancement factor and neutron emission in neon-injected discharges are nearly doubled [Fig. 1(a,b)]. The ion and electron temperature with neon injection exhibit increased central values and profile broadening while the electron density profile becomes more peaked.

  19. Ion beam-induced amorphous-to-tetragonal phase transformation and grain growth of nanocrystalline zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lian, Jie; Zhang, Jiaming; Namavar, Fereydoon; Zhang, Yanwen; Lu, Fengyuan; Haider, Hani; Garvin, Kevin; Weber, William J.; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2009-05-26

    Nanocrystalline zirconia has recently attracted extensive research interest due to its unique mechanical, thermal and electrical properties as compared to bulk zirconia counterparts, and it is of particular importance to control the phase stability of different polymorphs (amorphous, cubic, tetragonal and monoclinic phases) at different size regimes. In this paper, we performed ion beam bombardments on bilayers (amorphous and cubic) of pure nano-zirconia using 1 MeV Kr2+ irradiation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis reveals that amorphous zirconia transforms to a tetragonal structure under irradiation at room temperature, suggesting that the tetragonal phase is more energetically favorable under these conditions. The final grain size of the tetragonal zirconia can be controlled by irradiation conditions. The irradiation-induced nanograins of tetragonal ZrO2 are stable at ambient conditions and maintain their physical integrity over a long period of time after irradiation. These results demonstrated that ion-beam modification methods provide the means to control the phase stability and structure of zirconia polymorphs.

  20. F Y

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    r t l t ( o F Y . -'d$ , ; i ;:1 .. i''ft |'i:l E3 11t{ [:'1] kr! lird tsT.' D : N ii3 i'r{ H B$ t.,:::\ tiil rc t'1;tl l : $ !& tr$ i"d ttsF t;'.1 F i tr Flt t.:.1 riq Ej r"'F Fifi bd fiT r r r ki'i't @ Fff lr{ lr'ff t{; ):.lr t: i'l !d !r.q ii.'r: I f li.::r ril I,T Fi+l h4 E[ [ts ht ffi v..' ffi;.1 lri lir$l l'',{ tr;:.j 'tlr C O M P R E H E N S I V E R A D I O L O G I C A L S U R V E Y O F F - S I T E P B O P E R T Y V N I A G A R A F A L L S S T O R A G E S I T E L E W l s r o

  1. The Bholghati (howardite) consortium: An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C. )

    1990-08-01

    The Bholghati (howardite) has had a complex history. The consortium studies indicate that eucrite clasts show evidence of rapid crystallization followed by prolonged subsolidus annealing. Dark clasts are carbonaceous CM2 type. Bholghati bulk composition can be modeled by 55% eucritic, 45% diogenitic, and 3% dark clast components. The eucritic clasts show a LREE depleted pattern relative to HREEs, which is not typical of a normal eucrite. The LREE depletion requires two-stage melting from a chondritic source. The volatile/mobile trace element patterns in dark and eucritic clasts are highly variable, probably due to volatile redistribution. The eucritic clast shows excess fission Xe, which is attributed to in situ decay of Pu-244. The cosmic-ray exposure age is 10-17 Ma. The Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and K-Ar ages of Bholghati bulk and eucritic clasts indicate 4.53 Ga as crystallization age, 2-3 Ga as metamorphic event, and probably a minor thermal event < 1 Ga. The Bholghati evolution scenario is (1) early multiple magmatic events (4.53 Ga ago), producing eucrites and diogenites; (2) a metamorphic event (2-3 Ga ago) and prolonged subsolidus annealing; (3) Fragmentation and low-temperature mixing of eucrites and diogenites; (4) low-velocity impact (<1 Ga. ago) and admixing of carbonaceous material; (5) disruption of regolith and ejection of Bholghati 10-17 Ma ago; and (6) Bholghati fell on the Earth in 1905.

  2. Photoionized plasmas induced in neon with extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray pulses produced using low and high energy laser systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fok, T.; Węgrzyński, Ł.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Pisarczyk, T.; Chodukowski, T.; Kalinowska, Z.; Dudzak, R.; Dostal, J.; Krousky, E.; Skala, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Hrebicek, J.; Medrik, T.

    2015-04-15

    A comparative study of photoionized plasmas created by two soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (SXR/EUV) laser plasma sources with different parameters is presented. The two sources are based on double-stream Xe/He gas-puff targets irradiated with high (500 J/0.3 ns) and low energy (10 J/1 ns) laser pulses. In both cases, the SXR/EUV beam irradiated the gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the radiation pulse. Irradiation of gases resulted in formation of photoionized plasmas emitting radiation in the SXR/EUV range. The measured Ne plasma radiation spectra are dominated by emission lines corresponding to radiative transitions in singly charged ions. A significant difference concerns origin of the lines: K-shell or L-shell emissions occur in case of the high and low energy irradiating system, respectively. In high energy system, the electron density measurements were also performed by laser interferometry, employing a femtosecond laser system. A maximum electron density for Ne plasma reached the value of 2·10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}. For the low energy system, a detection limit was too high for the interferometric measurements, thus only an upper estimation for electron density could be made.

  3. TUNE: Compiler-Directed Automatic Performance Tuning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Mary

    2014-09-18

    This project has developed compiler-directed performance tuning technology targeting the Cray XT4 Jaguar system at Oak Ridge, which has multi-core Opteron nodes with SSE-3 SIMD extensions, and the Cray XE6 Hopper system at NERSC. To achieve this goal, we combined compiler technology for model-guided empirical optimization for memory hierarchies with SIMD code generation, which have been developed by the PIs over the past several years. We examined DOE Office of Science applications to identify performance bottlenecks and apply our system to computational kernels that operate on dense arrays. Our goal for this performance-tuning technology has been to yield hand-tuned levels of performance on DOE Office of Science computational kernels, while allowing application programmers to specify their computations at a high level without requiring manual optimization. Overall, we aim to make our technology for SIMD code generation and memory hierarchy optimization a crucial component of high-productivity Petaflops computing through a close collaboration with the scientists in national laboratories.

  4. Fragmentation and systematics of the pygmy dipole resonance in the stable N=82 isotones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savran, D.; Loeher, B.; Elvers, M.; Endres, J.; Zilges, A.; Fritzsche, M.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Romig, C.; Schnorrenberger, L.; Sonnabend, K.

    2011-08-15

    The low-lying electric dipole (E1) strength in the semimagic nucleus {sup 136}Xe has been measured, which finalizes the systematic survey to investigate the so-called pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in all stable even N=82 isotones with the method of nuclear resonance fluorescence using real photons in the entrance channel. In all cases, a fragmented resonance-like structure of E1 strength is observed in the energy region 5-8 MeV. An analysis of the fragmentation of the strength reveals that the degree of fragmentation decreases toward the proton-deficient isotones, while the total integrated strength increases, indicating a dependence of the total strength on the neutron-to-proton ratio. The experimental results are compared to microscopic calculations within the quasiparticle phonon model. The calculation includes complex configurations of up to three phonons and is able to reproduce also the fragmentation of the E1 strength, which allows us to draw conclusions on the damping of the PDR. Calculations and experimental data are in good agreement on the degree of fragmentation and also on the integrated strength if the sensitivity limit of the experiments is taken into account.

  5. Energetics of Multiple-Ion Species Hohlraum Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neumayer, P; Berger, R; Callahan, D; Divol, L; Froula, D; London, R; MacGowan, B J; Meezan, N; Michel, P; Ross, J S; Sorce, C; Widmann, K; Suter, L; Glenzer, S H

    2007-11-05

    A study of the laser-plasma interaction processes in multiple-ion species plasmas has been performed in plasmas that are created to emulate the plasma conditions in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion targets. Gas-filled hohlraums with densities of xe22/cc are heated to Te=3keV and backscattered laser light is measured by a suite of absolutely calibrated backscatter diagnostics. Ion Landau damping is increased by adding hydrogen to the CO2/CF4 gas fill. We find that the backscatter from stimulated Brillouin scattering is reduced is monotonically reduced with increasing damping, demonstrating that Landau damping is the controlling damping mechanism in ICF relevant high-electron temperature plasmas. The reduction in backscatter is accompanied by a comparable increase in both transmission of a probe beam and an increased hohlraum radiation temperature, showing that multiple-ion species plasmas improve the overall hohlraum energetics/performance. Comparison of the experimental data to linear gain calculations as well as detailed full-scale 3D laser-plasma interaction simulations show quantitative agreement. Our findings confirm the importance of Landau damping in controlling backscatter from high-electron temperature hohlraum plasmas and have lead to the inclusion of multi-ion species plasmas in the hohlraum point design for upcoming ignition campaigns at the National Ignition Facility.

  6. Intergranular fracture in UO2: derivation of traction-separation law from atomistic simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yongfeng Zhang; Paul C Millett; Michael R Tonks; Xian-Ming Bai; S Bulent Biner

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the intergranular fracture behavior of UO2 was studied by molecular dynamics simulations using the Basak potential. In addition, the constitutive traction-separation law was derived from atomistic data using the cohesive-zone model. In the simulations a bicrystal model with the (100) symmetric tilt E5 grain boundaries was utilized. Uniaxial tension along the grain boundary normal was applied to simulate Mode-I fracture. The fracture was observed to propagate along the grain boundary by micro-pore nucleation and coalescence, giving an overall intergranular fracture behavior. Phase transformations from the Fluorite to the Rutile and Scrutinyite phases were identified at the propagating crack tips. These new phases are metastable and they transformed back to the Fluorite phase at the wake of crack tips as the local stress concentration was relieved by complete cracking. Such transient behavior observed at atomistic scale was found to substantially increase the energy release rate for fracture. Insertion of Xe gas into the initial notch showed minor effect on the overall fracture behavior.

  7. New generation of double beta decay experiments: are there any limitations?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barabash, A. S. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117259 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-16

    New generation of experiments to search for neutrinoless double beta decay with sensitivity to effective Majorana neutrino mass on the level of {approx}3-5 meV is discussed. Possible restrictions in achievement of this sensitivity such as: possibility to produce large amount of enriched isotopes, possibility to reach of a very low level of background, energy resolution and possible cost of experiments are considered. It is shown that for realization of so ambitious project 10 tons (or more) of enriched isotope is required. Background index should be on the level {<=}10{sup -5}-10{sup -6} c/kg{center_dot}keV{center_dot}y. In addition, the energy resolution of the detector should be no worse than 1-2%. It is shown that {sup 130}TeO{sub 2} low temperature bolometer could be the most realistic candidate for such an experiment. Under certain conditions experiments with {sup 76}Ge, {sup 100}Mo and {sup 136}Xe can be realized too.

  8. NMR analysis on microfluidic devices by remote detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonnell, Erin E.; Han, SongI; Hilty, Christian; Pierce,Kimberly; Pines, Alexander

    2005-08-15

    We present a novel approach to perform high-sensitivity NMR imaging and spectroscopic analysis on microfluidic devices. The application of NMR, the most information rich spectroscopic technique, to microfluidic devices remains a challenge because the inherently low sensitivity of NMR is aggravated by small fluid volumes leading to low NMR signal, and geometric constraints resulting in poor efficiency for inductive detection. We address the latter by physically separating signal detection from encoding of information with remote detection. Thereby, we use a commercial imaging probe with sufficiently large diameter to encompass the entire device, enabling encoding of NMR information at any location on the chip. Because large-diameter coils are too insensitive for detection, we store the encoded information as longitudinal magnetization and flow it into the outlet capillary. There, we detect the signal with optimal sensitivity using a solenoidal microcoil, and reconstruct the information encoded in the fluid. We present a generally applicable design for a detection-only microcoil probe that can be inserted into the bore of a commercial imaging probe. Using hyperpolarized 129Xe gas, we show that this probe enables sensitive reconstruction of NMR spectroscopic information encoded by the large imaging probe while keeping the flexibility of a large coil.

  9. Amplification of Xenon NMR and MRI by remote detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moule, Adam J.; Spence, Megan M.; Han, Song-I.; Seeley, JulietteA.; Pierce, Kimberly L.; Saxena, Sunil; Pines, Alexander

    2003-03-31

    A novel technique is proposed in which a nuclear magneticresonance (NMR) spectrum or magnetic resonance image (MRI) is encoded andstored as spin polarization and is then moved to a different physicallocation to be detected. Remote detection allows the separateoptimization of the encoding and detection steps, permitting theindependent choice of experimental conditions, and excitation anddetection methodologies. In the first experimental demonstration of thistechnique, we show that NMR signal can be amplified by taking diluted129Xe from a porous sample placed inside a large encoding coil, andconcentrating it into a smaller detection coil. In general, the study ofNMR active molecules at low concentration that have low physical fillingfactor is facilitated by remote detection. In the second experiment, MRIinformation encoded in a very low field magnet (4-7mT) is transferred toa high field magnet (4.2 T) in order to be detected under optimizedconditions. Furthermore, remote detection allows the utilization ofultra-sensitive optical or superconducting detection techniques, whichbroadens the horizon of NMR experimentation.

  10. Dynamical interpretation of average fission-fragment kinetic energy systematics and nuclear scission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nadtochy, P.N. [GSI, Plankstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mira Prospect 55-A, RU-644077 Omsk (Russian Federation); Adeev, G.D. [Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mira Prospect 55-A, RU-644077 Omsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-11-01

    A dynamical interpretation of the well-known systematics for average total kinetic energy of fission fragments over a wide range of the Coulomb parameter (600 on the Coulomb parameter. The results of dynamical calculations of within three-dimensional Langevin dynamics show that the mean distance between the centers of mass of nascent fragments at the scission configuration increases linearly with the parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3}. This distance changes approximately from 2.35R{sub 0} for {sup 119}Xe to 2.6R{sub 0} for {sup 256}Fm. In spite of this increase in mean distance between future fragments at scission, the linear dependence of on the parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3} remains approximately valid over a wide range of the Coulomb parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3}.

  11. Photochemical reaction of sulfur hexafluoride with water in low-temperature xenon matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamada, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Daisuke

    2011-03-14

    Sulfur hexafluoride SF{sub 6} is a very stable molecule with which very few reactions with other molecules have been reported. Here, we report a photochemical reaction of SF{sub 6} with water molecules using a matrix-isolation technique, where SF{sub 6} and H{sub 2}O were co-condensed in Xe matrices, and the products were observed using infrared spectroscopy. Irradiation at 193 nm from an ArF excimer laser caused the simultaneous decomposition of SF{sub 6} and H{sub 2}O, which resulted in the production of novel species. Infrared spectra and molecular orbital calculations of the species showed that the product was a SF{sub 4}{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}HF{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}HOF complex, which consists of hydrogen bonds and charge transfer interaction between S and F atoms. The assignment of the species was confirmed by isotope shifts using D and {sup 18}O isotope substitutions.

  12. Adiabatic theorem for non-Hermitian time-dependent open systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleischer, Avner; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2005-09-15

    In the conventional quantum mechanics (i.e., Hermitian quantum mechanics) the adiabatic theorem for systems subjected to time-periodic fields holds only for bound systems and not for open ones (where ionization and dissociation take place) [D. W. Hone, R. Ketzmerik, and W. Kohn, Phys. Rev. A 56, 4045 (1997)]. Here with the help of the (t,t{sup '}) formalism combined with the complex scaling method we derive an adiabatic theorem for open systems and provide an analytical criterion for the validity of the adiabatic limit. The use of the complex scaling transformation plays a key role in our derivation. As a numerical example we apply the adiabatic theorem we derived to a one-dimensional model Hamiltonian of Xe atom which interacts with strong, monochromatic sine-square laser pulses. We show that the generation of odd-order harmonics and the absence of hyper-Raman lines, even when the pulses are extremely short, can be explained with the help of the adiabatic theorem we derived.

  13. Operations of the Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer - ARSA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, James C.; Abel, Keith H.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Panisko, Mark E.; Reeder, Paul L.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Thompson, Robert C.; Todd, Lindsay C.; Warner, Ray A.

    1999-09-01

    The Automated Radioxenon Sampler/ Analyzer (ARSA), designed and built by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), for the Department of Energy, has exceeded measurement requirements for noble gas measurement systems established by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Two units, one at PNNL and a second, sent to DME Corp. of Florida, were built and extensively tested. Both systems have successfully demonstrated stable xenon yields greater than 1.5 cm3 for an eight-hour collection period, corresponding to minimum detectable concentrations for 133Xe on the order of 0.1 mBq/m3 three times per day. High stable xenon yields are critical in obtaining these low minimum detectable concentrations. A history of testing and results that led to the high xenon yields of the ARSA system is presented. A compilation of field tests, laboratory tests and baseline tests that led to cost reduction, power savings and size reduction of the ARSA are also discussed. Lastly, the type of data generated from the ARSA of interest to data center personnel are discussed.

  14. Emission of secondary particles from metals and insulators at impact of slow highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schenkel, T.

    1996-10-31

    Emission of secondary electrons and ions from clean Au, CxHy-Au, and SiO{sub 2} surfaces at impact of slow (v{approx}0.3 v{sub Bohr}) ions were measured as function of incident ion charge for 1+{le}q{le}75+. Electron yields from thermal SiO{sub 2} films (150 mm on Si) were found to be lower than those from the other two for q>3+. Yields of negative secondary ions from SiO{sub 2} and CxHy-Au were recorded in parallel with electron emission data and exhibit a q{sub 4} dependency on incident ion charge. Direct comparison of collisional and electronic contributions to secondary ion production from SiO{sub 2} films using a beam of charge state equilibrated Xe (at 2.75 keV/u) shows positive and negative secondary ion yield increases with incident ion charge of >400. Results are discussed in relation to key signatures of electronic sputtering by Coulomb explosions.

  15. Degradation in PV Encapsulation Transmittance: An Interlaboratory Study Toward a Climate-Specific Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, David C.; Hacke, Peter L.; Kempe, Michael D.; Wohlgemuth, John H.; Annigoni, Eleonora; Sculati-Meillaud, Fanny; Ballion, Amal; Kohl, Michael; Bokria, Jayesh G.; Bruckman, Laura S.; French, Roger H.; Burns, David; Phillips, Nancy H.; Feng; Jiangtao; Elliott, Lamont; Scott, Kurt P.; Fowler, Sean; Gu, Xiaohong; Honeker, Christian C.; Khonkar, Hussam; Perret-Aebi, Laure-Emmanuelle; Shioda, Tsy

    2015-06-14

    Reduced optical transmittance of encapsulation resulting from ultraviolet (UV) degradation has frequently been identified as a cause of decreased PV module performance through the life of installations in the field. The present module safety and qualification standards, however, apply short UV doses only capable of examining design robustness or 'infant mortality' failures. Essential information that might be used to screen encapsulation through product lifetime remains unknown. For example, the relative efficacy of xenon-arc and UVA-340 fluorescent sources or the typical range of activation energy for degradation is not quantified. We have conducted an interlaboratory experiment to provide the understanding that will be used towards developing a climate- and configuration-specific (UV) weathering test. Five representative, known formulations of EVA were studied in addition to one TPU material. Replicate laminated silica/polymer/silica specimens are being examined at 14 institutions using a variety of indoor chambers (including Xe, UVA-340, and metal-halide light sources) or field aging. The solar-weighted transmittance, yellowness index, and the UV cut-off wavelength, determined from the measured hemispherical transmittance, are examined to provide understanding and guidance for the UV light source (lamp type) and temperature used in accelerated UV aging tests. Index Terms -- reliability, durability, thermal activation.

  16. GIHPH5Q RSUT0VWSUX`Y!SUacbedDfgbihehep

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ¡¤£¦¥§¡©¨©  £  ¥¢! "$# % & ¨¢¥ ' (0)1¥32 4 5¥67¥8¨¤£9¡ ¥67@# £¦¨$BAC¥¤ & ¨¢¥¢¥¢D¥FE ¥ GIHPH5Q RSUT0VWSUX`Y!SUacbedDfgbihehep qsrgq7rgqutev0wyx€ aƒ‚ q aWS…„ €†xy‡eˆ f@R r!‰0r@ a wy‘ S“’Uf cr@”ur@ a ‡–•˜— ’–fg™ r@dv0t S xeˆ f ‰0r!fgr!”d‡e— a €ihiˆ f j r@”d‡“kDl f

  17. Microwave ECR plasma electron flood for low pressure wafer charge neutralization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vanderberg, Bo; Nakatsugawa, Tomoya; Divergilio, William

    2012-11-06

    Modern ion implanters typically use dc arc discharge Plasma Electron Floods (PEFs) to neutralize wafer charge. The arc discharge requires using at least some refractory metal hardware, e.g. a thermionically emitting filament, which can be undesirable in applications where no metallic contamination is critical. rf discharge PEFs have been proposed to mitigate contamination risks but the gas flows required can result in high process chamber pressures. Axcelis has developed a microwave electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) PEF to provide refractory metals contamination-free wafer neutralization with low gas flow requirement. Our PEF uses a custom, reentrant cusp magnet field providing ECR and superior electron confinement. Stable PEF operation with extraction slits sized for 300 mm wafers can be attained at Xe gas flows lower than 0.2 sccm. Electron extraction currents can be as high as 20 mA at absorbed microwave powers < 70 W. On Axcelis' new medium current implanter, plasma generation has proven robust against pressure transients caused by, for example, photoresist outgassing by high power ion beams. Charge monitor and floating potential measurements along the wafer surface corroborate adequate wafer charge neutralization for low energy, high current ion beams.

  18. Mobility of singly-charged lanthanide cations in rare gases: Theoretical assessment of the state specificity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchachenko, Alexei A.; Viehland, Larry A.

    2014-03-21

    High quality, ab initio calculations are reported for the potential energy curves governing the interactions of four singly-charged lanthanide ions (Yb{sup +}, Eu{sup +}, Lu{sup +}, and Gd{sup +}) with the rare gases (RG = HeXe). Scalar-relativistic coupled cluster calculations are used for the first three S-state ions, but for Gd{sup +}({sup 10}D) it is necessary to take the interaction anisotropy into account with the help of the multi-reference technique. The potential energy curves are used to determine the ion mobility and other transport properties describing the motion of the ions through the dilute RG, both as functions of the temperature, T, in the low-field limit, and at fixed T as functions of the ratio of the electrostatic field strength to the gas number density, E/N. The calculated mobilities are in good agreement with the very limited experimental data that have become available recently. The calculations show a pronounced dependence of the transport properties on the electronic configuration of the ion, as well as a significant effect of the spin-orbit coupling on the transport properties of the Gd{sup +} ion, and predict that state-specific mobilities could be detectable in Gd{sup +}RG experiments.

  19. Photo-ionization of aluminum in a hot cavity for the selective production of exotic species project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scarpa, D. Corradetti, S.; Manzolaro, M.; Vasquez, J.; Calderolla, M.; Rossignoli, M.; Monetti, A.; Andrighetto, A.; Prete, G.; Makhathini, L.; Tomaselli, A.; Grassi, D.

    2014-02-15

    SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) is an Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) based accelerator facility that will be built in the Legnaro-Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Laboratory (Italy), intended to provide intense neutron-rich radioactive ion beams obtained by proton-induced fission of a uranium carbide (UCx) target. Besides this main target material, silicon carbide (SiC) will be the first to be used to deliver p-rich beams. This target will also validate the functionality of the SPES facility with aluminum beam as result of impinging SiC target with proton beam. In the past, off line studies on laser photoionization of aluminum have been performed in Pavia Spectroscopy Laboratory and in Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro; a XeCl excimer laser was installed in order to test the laser ionization in the SPES hot cavity. With the new Wien filter installed a better characterization of the ionization process in terms of efficiency was performed and results are discussed.

  20. MOX recycling in GEN 3 + EPR Reactor homogeneous and stable full MOX core

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arslan, M.; Villele, E. de; Gauthier, J.C.; Marincic, A.

    2013-07-01

    In the case of the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) reactor, 100% MOX core management is possible with simple design adaptations which are not significantly costly. 100% MOX core management offers several highly attractive advantages. First, it is possible to have the same plutonium content in all the rods of a fuel assembly instead of having rods with 3 different plutonium contents, as in MOX assemblies in current PWRs. Secondly, the full MOX core is more homogeneous. Thirdly, the stability of the core is significantly increased due to a large reduction in the Xe effect. Fourthly, there is a potential for the performance of the MOX fuel to match that of new high performance UO{sub 2} fuel (enrichment up to 4.95 %) in terms of increased burn up and cycle length. Fifthly, since there is only one plutonium content, the manufacturing costs are reduced. Sixthly, there is an increase in the operating margins of the reactor, and in the safety margins in accident conditions. The use of 100% MOX core will improve both utilisation of natural uranium resources and reductions in high level radioactive waste inventory.