Sample records for utilization project biomass

  1. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass gasification designs but are waiting for economic incentives. Utility, biorefinery, pulp and paper, or o

  2. EERC Center for Biomass Utilization 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; John P. Hurley; Ted R. Aulich; Bruce C. Folkedahl; Joshua R. Strege; Nikhil Patel; Richard E. Shockey

    2009-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Center for Biomass Utilization (CBU�®) 2006 project at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) consisted of three tasks related to applied fundamental research focused on converting biomass feedstocks to energy, liquid transportation fuels, and chemicals. Task 1, entitled Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Syngas and Chemical Feedstocks, involved three activities. Task 2, entitled Crop Oil Biorefinery Process Development, involved four activities. Task 3, entitled Management, Education, and Outreach, focused on overall project management and providing educational outreach related to biomass technologies through workshops and conferences.

  3. EERC Center for Biomass Utilization 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zygarlicke, C.J.; Schmidt, D.D.; Olson, E.S.; Leroux, K.M.; Wocken, C.A.; Aulich, T.A.; WIlliams, K.D.

    2008-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass utilization is one solution to our nation’s addiction to oil and fossil fuels. What is needed now is applied fundamental research that will cause economic technology development for the utilization of the diverse biomass resources in the United States. This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) applied fundamental research project contributes to the development of economical biomass utilization for energy, transportation fuels, and marketable chemicals using biorefinery methods that include thermochemical and fermentation processes. The fundamental and basic applied research supports the broad scientific objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program, especially in the area of developing alternative renewable biofuels, sustainable bioenergy, technologies that reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and environmental remediation. Its deliverables include 1) identifying and understanding environmental consequences of energy production from biomass, including the impacts on greenhouse gas production, carbon emission abatement, and utilization of waste biomass residues and 2) developing biology-based solutions that address DOE and national needs related to waste cleanup, hydrogen production from renewable biomass, biological and chemical processes for energy and fuel production, and environmental stewardship. This project serves the public purpose of encouraging good environmental stewardship by developing biomass-refining technologies that can dramatically increase domestic energy production to counter current trends of rising dependence upon petroleum imports. Decreasing the nation’s reliance on foreign oil and energy will enhance national security, the economy of rural communities, and future competitiveness. Although renewable energy has many forms, such as wind and solar, biomass is the only renewable energy source that can be governed through agricultural methods and that has an energy density that can realistically compete with, or even replace, petroleum and other fossil fuels in the near future. It is a primary domestic, sustainable, renewable energy resource that can supply liquid transportation fuels, chemicals, and energy that are currently produced from fossil sources, and it is a sustainable resource for a hydrogen-based economy in the future.

  4. CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications.

  5. CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. During this Performance Period work efforts proceeded, and Carbona completed the gasifier island design package. Nexant has completed the balance of plant support systems design and the design for the biomass feed system. Work on the Technoeconomic Study is proceeding. Approximately 75% of the specified hardware quotations have been received at the end of the reporting period. A meeting is scheduled for July 23 rd and 24 th to review the preliminary cost estimates. GTI presented a status review update of the project at the DOE/NETL contractor's review meeting in Pittsburgh on June 21st.

  6. CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis S. Lau

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Natural gas and waste coal fines were evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. A design was developed for a cofiring combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures in a power generation boiler, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. Following the preliminary design, GTI evaluated the gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks for the project. To conduct this work, GTI assembled an existing ''mini-bench'' unit to perform the gasification tests. The results of the test were used to confirm the process design completed in Phase Task 1. As a result of the testing and modeling effort, the selected biomass feedstocks gasified very well, with a carbon conversion of over 98% and individual gas component yields that matched the RENUGAS{reg_sign} model. As a result of this work, the facility appears very attractive from a commercial standpoint. Similar facilities can be profitable if they have access to low cost fuels and have attractive wholesale or retail electrical rates for electricity sales. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. Phase II has not been approved for construction at this time.

  7. BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay R. Gunderson; Bruce C. Folkedahl; Darren D. Schmidt; Greg F. Weber; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is conducting a project to examine the fundamental issues limiting the use of biomass in small industrial steam/power systems in order to increase the future use of this valuable domestic resource. Specifically, the EERC is attempting to elucidate the ash-related problems--grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling--associated with cofiring coal and biomass in grate-fired systems. Utilization of biomass in stoker boilers designed for coal can be a cause of concern for boiler operators. Boilers that were designed for low-volatile fuels with lower reactivities can experience damaging fouling when switched to higher-volatile and more reactive lower-rank fuels, such as when cofiring biomass. Higher heat release rates at the grate can cause more clinkering or slagging at the grate because of higher temperatures. Combustion and loss of volatile matter can start too early with biomass fuels compared to design fuel, vaporizing alkali and chlorides which then condense on rear walls and heat exchange tube banks in the convective pass of the boiler, causing noticeable increases in fouling. In addition, stoker-fired boilers that switch to biomass blends may encounter new chemical species such as potassium sulfates and various chlorides in combination with different flue gas temperatures because of changes in fuel heating value, which can adversely affect ash deposition behavior.

  8. CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. During this Performance Period work efforts focused on completion of the Topical Report, summarizing the design and techno-economic study of the project's feasibility. GTI received supplemental authorization A002 from DOE contracts for additional work to be performed under Phase I that will further extend the performance period until the end of February 2003. The additional scope of work is for GTI to develop the gasification characteristics of selected feedstock for the project. To conduct this work, GTI will assemble an existing ''mini-bench'' unit to perform the gasification tests. The results of the test will be used to confirm or if necessary update the process design completed in Phase Task 1.

  9. CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2001-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. During this Performance Period work efforts focused on completion of the Topical Report, summarizing the design and techno-economic study of the project's feasibility. GTI received supplemental authorization A002 from DOE contracts for additional work to be performed under Phase I that will further extend the performance period until the end of 2002. GTI worked with DOE to develop the Statement of Work for the supplemental activities. DOE granted an interim extension of the project until the end of January 2002 to complete the contract paperwork. GTI worked with Calla Energy to develop request for continued funding to proceed with Phase II, submitted to DOE on November 1, 2001.

  10. CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. During this Performance Period work efforts focused on completion of the Topical Report, summarizing the design and techno-economic study of the project's feasibility. GTI received supplemental authorization A002 from DOE contracts for additional work to be performed under Phase I that will further extend the performance period until the end of February 2003. The additional scope of work is for GTI to develop the gasification characteristics of selected feedstock for the project. To conduct this work, GTI will assemble an existing ''mini-bench'' unit to perform the gasification tests. The results of the test will be used to confirm or if necessary update the process design completed in Phase Task 1.

  11. CALLA ENERGY BIOMASS COFIRING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Calla Energy Biomass Project, to be located in Estill County, Kentucky is to be conducted in two phases. The objective of Phase I is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of cofiring biomass-based gasification fuel-gas in a power generation boiler. Waste coal fines are to be evaluated as the cofired fuel. The project is based on the use of commercially available technology for feeding and gas cleanup that would be suitable for deployment in municipal, large industrial and utility applications. Define a combustion system for the biomass gasification-based fuel-gas capable of stable, low-NOx combustion over the full range of gaseous fuel mixtures, with low carbon monoxide emissions and turndown capabilities suitable for large-scale power generation applications. The objective for Phase II is to design, install and demonstrate the combined gasification and combustion system in a large-scale, long-term cofiring operation to promote acceptance and utilization of indirect biomass cofiring technology for large-scale power generation applications. During this Performance Period work efforts focused on completion of the Topical Report, summarizing the design and techno-economic study of the project's feasibility. GTI received supplemental authorization A002 from DOE contracts for additional work to be performed under Phase I that will further extend the performance period until the end of February 2003. The additional scope of work is for GTI to develop the gasification characteristics of selected feedstock for the project. To conduct this work, GTI will assemble an existing ''mini-bench'' unit to perform the gasification tests. The results of the test will be used to confirm or if necessary update the process design completed in Phase Task 1.

  12. Fiscalini Farms Biomass Energy Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William Stringfellow; Mary Kay Camarillo; Jeremy Hanlon; Michael Jue; Chelsea Spier

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this final report describes and documents research that was conducted by the Ecological Engineering Research Program (EERP) at the University of the Pacific (Stockton, CA) under subcontract to Fiscalini Farms LP for work under the Assistance Agreement DE-EE0001895 'Measurement and Evaluation of a Dairy Anaerobic Digestion/Power Generation System' from the United States Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. Fiscalini Farms is operating a 710 kW biomass-energy power plant that uses bio-methane, generated from plant biomass, cheese whey, and cattle manure via mesophilic anaerobic digestion, to produce electricity using an internal combustion engine. The primary objectives of the project were to document baseline conditions for the anaerobic digester and the combined heat and power (CHP) system used for the dairy-based biomass-energy production. The baseline condition of the plant was evaluated in the context of regulatory and economic constraints. In this final report, the operation of the plant between start-up in 2009 and operation in 2010 are documented and an interpretation of the technical data is provided. An economic analysis of the biomass energy system was previously completed (Appendix A) and the results from that study are discussed briefly in this report. Results from the start-up and first year of operation indicate that mesophilic anaerobic digestion of agricultural biomass, combined with an internal combustion engine, is a reliable source of alternative electrical production. A major advantage of biomass energy facilities located on dairy farms appears to be their inherent stability and ability to produce a consistent, 24 hour supply of electricity. However, technical analysis indicated that the Fiscalini Farms system was operating below capacity and that economic sustainability would be improved by increasing loading of feedstocks to the digester. Additional operational modifications, such as increased utilization of waste heat and better documentation of potential of carbon credits, would also improve the economic outlook. Analysis of baseline operational conditions indicated that a reduction in methane emissions and other greenhouse gas savings resulted from implementation of the project. The project results indicate that using anaerobic digestion to produce bio-methane from agricultural biomass is a promising source of electricity, but that significant challenges need to be addressed before dairy-based biomass energy production can be fully integrated into an alternative energy economy. The biomass energy facility was found to be operating undercapacity. Economic analysis indicated a positive economic sustainability, even at the reduced power production levels demonstrated during the baseline period. However, increasing methane generation capacity (via the importation of biomass codigestate) will be critical for increasing electricity output and improving the long-term economic sustainability of the operation. Dairy-based biomass energy plants are operating under strict environmental regulations applicable to both power-production and confined animal facilities and novel approached are being applied to maintain minimal environmental impacts. The use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for nitrous oxide control and a biological hydrogen sulfide control system were tested at this facility. Results from this study suggest that biomass energy systems can be compliant with reasonable scientifically based air and water pollution control regulations. The most significant challenge for the development of biomass energy as a viable component of power production on a regional scale is likely to be the availability of energy-rich organic feedstocks. Additionally, there needs to be further development of regional expertise in digester and power plant operations. At the Fiscalini facility, power production was limited by the availability of biomass for methane generation, not the designed system capacity. During the baseline study period, feedstocks included manure, sudan grass silage, and

  13. BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Darren D. Schmidt; Greg F. Weber; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is conducting a project to examine the fundamental issues limiting the use of biomass in small industrial steam/power systems in order to increase the future use of this valuable domestic resource. Specifically, the EERC is attempting to elucidate the ash-related problems--grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling--associated with cofiring coal and biomass in grate-fired systems. Utilization of biomass in stoker boilers designed for coal can be a cause of concern for boiler operators. Boilers that were designed for low volatile fuels with lower reactivities can experience damaging fouling when switched to higher volatile and more reactive lower-rank fuels, such as when cofiring biomass. Higher heat release rates at the grate can cause more clinkering or slagging at the grate because of higher temperatures. Combustion and loss of volatile matter can start too early for biomass fuels compared to the design fuel, vaporizing alkali and chlorides which then condense on rear walls and heat exchange tube banks in the convective pass of the stoker, causing noticeable increases in fouling. In addition, stoker-fired boilers that switch to biomass blends may encounter new chemical species such as potassium sulfates and various chlorides, in combination with different flue gas temperatures because of changes in fuel heating value which can adversely affect ash deposition behavior. The goal of this project is to identify the primary ash mechanisms related to grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling associated with cofiring coal and biomass--specifically wood and agricultural residuals--in grate-fired systems, leading to future mitigation of these problems. The specific technical objectives of the project are: Modification of an existing EERC pilot-scale combustion system to simulate a grate-fired system; Verification testing of the simulator; Laboratory-scale testing and fuel characterization to determine ash formation and potential fouling mechanisms and to optimize activities in the modified pilot-scale system; and Pilot-scale testing in the grate-fired system. The resulting data will be collected, analyzed, and reported to elucidate ash-related problems during biomass-coal cofiring and offer a range of potential solutions.

  14. BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Jay R. Gunderson; Darren D. Schmidt; Greg F. Weber; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has completed a project to examine fundamental issues that could limit the use of biomass in small industrial steam/power systems in order to increase the future use of this valuable domestic resource. Specifically, the EERC attempted to elucidate the ash-related problems--grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling--associated with cofiring coal and biomass in grate-fired systems. Utilization of biomass in stoker boilers designed for coal can be a cause of concern for boiler operators. Boilers that were designed for low-volatile fuels with lower reactivities can experience problematic fouling when switched to higher-volatile and more reactive coal-biomass blends. Higher heat release rates at the grate can cause increased clinkering or slagging at the grate due to higher temperatures. Combustion and loss of volatile matter can start much earlier for biomass fuels compared to design fuel, vaporizing alkali and chlorides which then condense on rear walls and heat exchange tube banks in the convective pass of the stoker, causing noticeable increases in fouling. In addition, stoker-fired boilers that switch to biomass blends may encounter new chemical species such as potassium sulfates, various chlorides, and phosphates. These species in combination with different flue gas temperatures, because of changes in fuel heating value, can adversely affect ash deposition behavior. The goal of this project was to identify the primary ash mechanisms related to grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling associated with cofiring coal and biomass--specifically wood and agricultural residuals--in grate-fired systems, leading to future mitigation of these problems. The specific technical objectives of the project were: (1) Modification of an existing pilot-scale combustion system to simulate a grate-fired system. (2) Verification testing of the simulator. (3) Laboratory-scale testing and fuel characterization to determine ash formation and potential fouling mechanisms and to optimize activities in the modified pilot-scale system. (4) Pilot-scale testing in the grate-fired system. The resulting data were used to elucidate ash-related problems during coal-biomass cofiring and offer a range of potential solutions.

  15. NREL: Biomass Research - Projects in Biomass Process and Sustainabilit...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Projects in Biomass Process and Sustainability Analyses Researchers at NREL use biomass process and sustainability analyses to understand the economic, technical, and global...

  16. NREL: Biomass Research - Biomass Characterization Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    before and after pretreatment and during processing. The characterization of biomass feedstocks, intermediates, and products is a critical step in optimizing biomass conversion...

  17. NREL: Biomass Research - Biochemical Conversion Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL's projects in biochemical conversion involve three basic steps to convert biomass feedstocks to fuels: Converting biomass to sugar or other fermentation feedstock Fermenting...

  18. NREL: Biomass Research - Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Saleshttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gifNREL NRELChemical and CatalystNew ChallengesProjects

  19. IMPROVED BIOMASS UTILIZATION THROUGH REMOTE FLOW SENSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington University- St. Louis:; ,; Muthanna Al-Dahhan (Principal Investigator); E-mail: muthanna@wustl.edu; ,; Rajneesh Varma; Khursheed Karim; Mehul Vesvikar; Rebecca Hoffman; ,; Oak Ridge National Laboratory:; ,; David Depaoli, (Co-principal investigator); Email: depaolidw@ornl.gov; ,; Thomas Klasson; Alan L. Wintenberg; Charles W Alexander; Lloyd Clonts; ,; Iowa Energy Center; ,; ,; Norm Olson; Email: nolson@energy.iastate.edu

    2007-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth of the livestock industry provides a valuable source of affordable, sustainable, and renewable bioenergy, while also requiring the safe disposal of the large quantities of animal wastes (manure) generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. If these biomass resources are mishandled and underutilized, major environmental problems will be created, such as surface and ground water contamination, odors, dust, ammonia leaching, and methane emission. Anaerobic digestion of animal wastes, in which microorganisms break down organic materials in the absence of oxygen, is one of the most promising waste treatment technologies. This process produces biogas typically containing {approx}65% methane and {approx}35% carbon dioxide. The production of biogas through anaerobic digestion from animal wastes, landfills, and municipal waste water treatment plants represents a large source of renewable and sustainable bio-fuel. Such bio-fuel can be combusted directly, used in internal combustion engines, converted into methanol, or partially oxidized to produce synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) that can be converted to clean liquid fuels and chemicals via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Different design and mixing configurations of anaerobic digesters for treating cow manure have been utilized commercially and/or tested on a laboratory scale. These digesters include mechanically mixed, gas recirculation mixed, and slurry recirculation mixed designs, as well as covered lagoon digesters. Mixing is an important parameter for successful performance of anaerobic digesters. It enhances substrate contact with the microbial community; improves pH, temperature and substrate/microorganism uniformity; prevents stratification and scum accumulation; facilitates the removal of biogas from the digester; reduces or eliminates the formation of inactive zones (dead zones); prevents settling of biomass and inert solids; and aids in particle size reduction. Unfortunately, information and findings in the literature on the effect of mixing on anaerobic digestion are contradictory. One reason is the lack of measurement techniques for opaque systems such as digesters. Better understanding of the mixing and hydrodynamics of digesters will result in appropriate design, configuration selection, scale-up, and performance, which will ultimately enable avoiding digester failures. Accordingly, this project sought to advance the fundamental knowledge and understanding of the design, scale up, operation, and performance of cow manure anaerobic digesters with high solids loading. The project systematically studied parameters affecting cow manure anaerobic digestion performance, in different configurations and sizes by implementing computer automated radioactive particle tracking (CARPT), computed tomography (CT), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and by developing novel multiple-particle CARPT (MP-CARPT) and dual source CT (DSCT) techniques. The accomplishments of the project were achieved in a collaborative effort among Washington University, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Iowa Energy Center teams. The following investigations and achievements were accomplished: Systematic studies of anaerobic digesters performance and kinetics using various configurations, modes of mixing, and scales (laboratory, pilot plant, and commercial sizes) were conducted and are discussed in Chapter 2. It was found that mixing significantly affected the performance of the pilot plant scale digester ({approx}97 liter). The detailed mixing and hydrodynamics were investigated using computer automated radioactive particle tracking (CARPT) techniques, and are discussed in Chapter 3. A novel multiple particle tracking technique (MP-CARPT) technique that can track simultaneously up to 8 particles was developed, tested, validated, and implemented. Phase distribution was investigated using gamma ray computer tomography (CT) techniques, which are discussed in Chapter 4. A novel dual source CT (DSCT) technique was developed to measure the phase distribution of dyn

  20. 2014 DOE Biomass Program Integrated Biorefinery Project Comprehensive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 DOE Biomass Program Integrated Biorefinery Project Comprehensive Project Review 2014 DOE Biomass Program Integrated Biorefinery Project Comprehensive Project Review Plenary I:...

  1. BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg F. Weber; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In summary, stoker-fired boilers that cofire or switch to biomass fuel may potentially have to deal with ash behavior issues such as production of different concentrations and quantities of fine particulate or aerosols and ash-fouling deposition. Stoker boiler operators that are considering switching to biomass and adding potential infrastructure to accommodate the switch may also at the same time be looking into upgrades that will allow for generating additional power for sale on the grid. This is the case for the feasibility study being done currently for a small (<1-MW) stoker facility at the North Dakota State Penitentiary, which is considering not only the incorporation of a lower-cost biomass fuel but also a refurbishing of the stoker boiler to burn slightly hotter with the ability to generate more power and sell excess energy on the grid. These types of fuel and boiler changes can greatly affect ash behavior issues.

  2. Successful strategies for biomass energy projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanderson, G.A. [Gomel & Davis, Atlanta, GA (United States); Harris, R.A. [Power Management, Inc., Florence, SC (United States); Segrest, S.A. [Sterling Energy Services, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a guide for developing and promoting wood and biomass energy projects. It addresses practical issues, such as equipment selection and operating considerations, as well as tax incentives and policy implications. The authors are currently collaborating on a study, entitled Wood Energy in the United States: An Assessment of the Economic, Environmental, and Energy Policies Enhanced by Incorporating Wood into Our Nation`s Energy Mix, being funded by private industry and published with the support of Clemson University and the Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program. This paper briefly outlines some of the topics addressed in the study.

  3. AgraPure Mississippi Biomass Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackwell,D.A; Broadhead, L.W.; Harrell, W.J.

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The AgraPure Mississippi Biomass project was a congressionally directed project, initiated to study the utilization of Mississippi agricultural byproducts and waste products in the production of bio-energy and to determine the feasibility of commercialization of these agricultural byproducts and waste products as feedstocks in the production of energy. The final products from this project were two business plans; one for a Thermal plant, and one for a Biodiesel/Ethanol plant. Agricultural waste fired steam and electrical generating plants and biodiesel plants were deemed the best prospects for developing commercially viable industries. Additionally, oil extraction methods were studied, both traditional and two novel techniques, and incorporated into the development plans. Mississippi produced crop and animal waste biomasses were analyzed for use as raw materials for both industries. The relevant factors, availability, costs, transportation, storage, location, and energetic value criteria were considered. Since feedstock accounts for more than 70 percent of the total cost of producing biodiesel, any local advantages are considered extremely important in developing this particular industry. The same factors must be evaluated in assessing the prospects of commercial operation of a steam and electrical generation plant. Additionally, the access to the markets for electricity is more limited, regulated and tightly controlled than the liquid fuel markets. Domestically produced biofuels, both biodiesel and ethanol, are gaining more attention and popularity with the consuming public as prices rise and supplies of foreign crude become less secure. Biodiesel requires no major modifications to existing diesel engines or supply chain and offers significant environmental benefits. Currently the biodiesel industry requires Federal and State incentives to allow the industry to develop and become self-sustaining. Mississippi has available the necessary feedstocks and is geographically located to be able to service a regional market. Other states have active incentive programs to promote the industry. Mississippi has adopted an incentive program for ethanol and biodiesel; however, the State legislature has not funded this program, leaving Mississippi at a disadvantage when compared to other states in developing the bio-based liquid fuel industry. With all relevant factors being considered, Mississippi offers several advantages to developing the biodiesel industry. As a result of AgraPure's work and plan development, a private investor group has built a 7,000 gallon per day facility in central Mississippi with plans to build a 10 million gallon per year biodiesel facility. The development of a thermochemical conversion/generation facility requires a much larger financial commitment, making a longer operational time necessary to recover the capital invested. Without a renewable portfolio standard to put a floor under the price, or the existence of a suitable steam host, the venture is not economically viable. And so, it has not met with the success of the biodiesel plan. While the necessary components regarding feedstocks, location, permitting and technology are all favorable; the market is not currently favorable for the development of this type of project. In this region there is an abundance of energy generation capacity. Without subsidies or a Mississippi renewable portfolio standard requiring the renewable energy to be produced from Mississippi raw materials, which are not available for the alternative energy source selected by AgraPure, this facility is not economically viable.

  4. Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hualapai Tribal Nation

    2008-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The first phase of the Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project (Project) studied the feasibility of establishing a tribally operated utility to provide electric service to tribal customers at Grand Canyon West (see objective 1 below). The project was successful in completing the analysis of the energy production from the solar power systems at Grand Canyon West and developing a financial model, based on rates to be charged to Grand Canyon West customers connected to the solar systems, that would provide sufficient revenue for a Tribal Utility Authority to operate and maintain those systems. The objective to establish a central power grid over which the TUA would have authority and responsibility had to be modified because the construction schedule of GCW facilities, specifically the new air terminal, did not match up with the construction schedule for the solar power system. Therefore, two distributed systems were constructed instead of one central system with a high voltage distribution network. The Hualapai Tribal Council has not taken the action necessary to establish the Tribal Utility Authority that could be responsible for the electric service at GCW. The creation of a Tribal Utility Authority (TUA) was the subject of the second objective of the project. The second phase of the project examined the feasibility and strategy for establishing a tribal utility to serve the remainder of the Hualapai Reservation and the feasibility of including wind energy from a tribal wind generator in the energy resource portfolio of the tribal utility (see objective 2 below). It is currently unknown when the Tribal Council will consider the implementation of the results of the study. Objective 1 - Develop the basic organizational structure and operational strategy for a tribally controlled utility to operate at the Tribe’s tourism enterprise district, Grand Canyon West. Coordinate the development of the Tribal Utility structure with the development of the Grand Canyon West Power Project construction of the power infrastructure at Grand Canyon West. Develop the maintenance and operations capacity necessary to support utility operations. Develop rates for customers on the Grand Canyon West “mini-grid” sufficient for the tribal utility to be self-sustaining. Establish an implementation strategy for tribal utility service at Grand Canyon West Objective 2 - Develop a strategy for tribal utility takeover of electric service on the Reservation. Perform a cost analysis of Reservation electrical service. Develop an implementation strategy for tribal takeover of Reservation electrical service. Examine options and costs associated with integration of the Tribe’s wind resources.

  5. Commercial demonstration of biomass gasification the Vermont project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farris, S.G.; Weeks, S.T. [Ruture Energy Resources Corp., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal gasification of biomass for use in gas turbine combined cycle plants will improve efficiencies and reduce capital intensity in the forest and paper industry. One such technology has over 20,000 successful hours of operation at Battelle Columbus Labs (BCL) process research unit (PRU), including the first U.S. demonstration of a gas turbine operating on fuel gas produced by the thermal gasification biomass. A commercial scale demo of the technology (rated at 200 dry tons per day) will be constructed and put into operation during the first quarter of 1997. The initial project phase will provide fuel gas to McNeil`s power boiler. A subsequent phase will utilize the fuel gas in a combustion gas turbine. The technology utilizes an extremely high throughput circulating fluid bed (CFB) gasifier in which biomass (which typically contains 85 percent to 90 percent volatiles) is fully devolatilized with hot sand from a CFB char combustor. The fuel gas is then cooled and conditioned by a conventional scrubbing system to remove particulate, condensable organics, ammonia and metal aerosols which could otherwise cause turbine emission and blade fouling problems. Alternate hot gas conditioning systems are also being developed for final gas clean-up. The fuel gas heating value is 450 to 500 Btus per standard cubic foot. A mid size gas turbine combined cycle plant utilizing the technology will have an approximate net cycle efficiency of 35-40 percent. This compares to a conventional biomass plant with an overall net cycle efficiency of 20-25 percent. Capital costs are expected to be low as the process operates at low pressures without the requirement of an oxygen plant.

  6. The Mississippi University Research Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass: Production of Alternative Fuels from Waste Biomass Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drs. Mark E. Zapp; Todd French; Lewis Brown; Clifford George; Rafael Hernandez; Marvin Salin (from Mississippie State University); Drs. Huey-Min Hwang, Ken Lee, Yi Zhang; Maria Begonia (from Jackson State University); Drs. Clint Williford; Al Mikell (from the University of Mississippi); Drs. Robert Moore; Roger Hester (from the University of Southern Mississippi).

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Mississippi Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass was formed via funding from the US Department of Energy's EPSCoR Program, which is administered by the Office of Basic Science. Funding was approved in July of 1999 and received by participating Mississippi institutions by 2000. The project was funded via two 3-year phases of operation (the second phase was awarded based on the high merits observed from the first 3-year phase), with funding ending in 2007. The mission of the Consortium was to promote the utilization of biomass, both cultured and waste derived, for the production of commodity and specialty chemicals. These scientific efforts, although generally basic in nature, are key to the development of future industries within the Southeastern United States. In this proposal, the majority of the efforts performed under the DOE EPSCoR funding were focused primarily toward the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks and biogas from waste products. However, some of the individual projects within this program investigated the production of other products from biomass feeds (i.e. acetic acid and biogas) along with materials to facilitate the more efficient production of chemicals from biomass. Mississippi is a leading state in terms of raw biomass production. Its top industries are timber, poultry production, and row crop agriculture. However, for all of its vast amounts of biomass produced on an annual basis, only a small percentage of the biomass is actually industrially produced into products, with the bulk of the biomass being wasted. This situation is actually quite representative of many Southeastern US states. The research and development efforts performed attempted to further develop promising chemical production techniques that use Mississippi biomass feedstocks. The three processes that were the primary areas of interest for ethanol production were syngas fermentation, acid hydrolysis followed by hydrolyzate fermentation, and enzymatic conversion. All three of these processes are of particular interest to states in the Southeastern US since the agricultural products produced in this region are highly variable in terms of actual crop, production quantity, and the ability of land areas to support a particular type of crop. This greatly differs from the Midwestern US where most of this region's agricultural land supports one to two primary crops, such as corn and soybean. Therefore, developing processes which are relatively flexible in terms of biomass feedstock is key to the southeastern region of the US if this area is going to be a 'player' in the developing biomass to chemicals arena. With regard to the fermentation of syngas, research was directed toward developing improved biocatalysts through organism discovery and optimization, improving ethanol/acetic acid separations, evaluating potential bacterial contaminants, and assessing the use of innovative fermentors that are better suited for supporting syngas fermentation. Acid hydrolysis research was directed toward improved conversion yields and rates, acid recovery using membranes, optimization of fermenting organisms, and hydrolyzate characterization with changing feedstocks. Additionally, a series of development efforts addressed novel separation techniques for the separation of key chemicals from fermentation activities. Biogas related research focused on key factors hindering the widespread use of digester technologies in non-traditional industries. The digestion of acetic acids and other fermentation wastewaters was studied and methods used to optimize the process were undertaken. Additionally, novel laboratory methods were designed along with improved methods of digester operation. A search for better performing digester consortia was initiated coupled with improved methods to initiate their activity within digester environments. The third activity of the consortium generally studied the production of 'other' chemicals from waste biomass materials found in Mississippi. The two primary examples of this activity are production of chem

  7. EIS-0407: Abengoa Biomass Bioenergy Project near Hugoton, Stevens...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    6, 2011 EIS-0407: Record of Decision Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Abengoa Bioenergy Biomass of Kansas, LLC for the Abengoa Biorefinery Project Near Hugoton, Stevens County,...

  8. Crow Nation Students Participate in Algae Biomass Research Project...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Crow Nation Students Participate in Algae Biomass Research Project Thanks in part to DOE funding and technical support, student interns from the Crow Tribe in Montana had the...

  9. Combustion & Fuels Waste Heat Recovery & Utilization Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion & Fuels Waste Heat Recovery & Utilization Project Project Technical Lead - Thermoelectric Analysis & Materials 27 February 2008 2008 DOE OVT Annual Merit Review 2008...

  10. NREL: Biomass Research - Thermochemical Conversion Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fuel synthesis reactor. NREL investigates thermochemical processes for converting biomass and its residues to fuels and intermediates using gasification and pyrolysis...

  11. SYNTHESIS GAS UTILIZATION AND PRODUCTION IN A BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION FACILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figueroa, C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressure on the Steam Gasification of Biomass," Departmentof Energy, Catalytic Steam Gasification of Biomass, 11 AprilII. DISCUSSION III. GASIFICATION/LIQUEFACTION DESIGN BASIS

  12. High Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 1B—Integration of Supply Chains I: Breaking Down Barriers High Level Overview of DOE Biomass Logistics II Project Activities Kevin Comer, Associate Principal, Antares Group Inc.

  13. Utilization of Biomass in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems: A Summary and Synthesis1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Utilization of Biomass in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems: A Summary and Synthesis1 C. Eugene Conrad of Mediterranean- type ecosystems to supply biomass as a supplemen- tal source of energy is a natural result to less than 25° C. Also, wet-season precip- itation approaches 1000 mm. Biomass from such ecosystems

  14. Integration of alternative feedstreams for biomass treatment and utilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hennessey, Susan Marie (Avondale, PA); Friend, Julie (Claymont, DE); Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Tucker, III, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Hames, Bonnie (Westminster, CO)

    2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a method for treating biomass composed of integrated feedstocks to produce fermentable sugars. One aspect of the methods described herein includes a pretreatment step wherein biomass is integrated with an alternative feedstream and the resulting integrated feedstock, at relatively high concentrations, is treated with a low concentration of ammonia relative to the dry weight of biomass. In another aspect, a high solids concentration of pretreated biomass is integrated with an alternative feedstream for saccharifiaction.

  15. Diversifying Project Portfolios for Utility Energy Service Contracts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diversifying Project Portfolios for Utility Energy Service Contracts Diversifying Project Portfolios for Utility Energy Service Contracts Building a diversified project portfolio...

  16. NREL: Biomass Research - Microalgal Biofuels Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microalgal Biofuels Projects A photo of a man in a white lab coat holding a glass flask that contains a small amount of clear green liquid. An NREL researcher analyzes algae...

  17. Profiles in renewable energy: Case studies of successful utility-sector projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anson, S.; Sinclair, K.; Swezey, B.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As considerations of fuel diversity, environmental concerns, and market uncertainties are increasingly factored into electric utility resource planning, renewable energy technologies are beginning to find their place in the utility resource portfolio. This document profiles 10 renewable energy projects, utilizing six different renewable resources, that were built in the US throughout the 1980s. The resources include: biomass, geothermal, hydropower, photovoltaics, solar thermal, and wind. For each project, the factors that were key to its success and the development issues that it faced are discussed, as are the project`s cost, performance, and environmental impacts and benefits.

  18. Alaska Wood Biomass Energy Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonathan Bolling

    2009-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the Craig Wood Fired Boiler Project is to use waste wood from local sawmilling operations to provide heat to local public buildings, in an effort to reduce the cost of operating those buildings, and put to productive use a byproduct from the wood milling process that otherwise presents an expense to local mills. The scope of the project included the acquisition of a wood boiler and the delivery systems to feed wood fuel to it, the construction of a building to house the boiler and delivery systems, and connection of the boiler facility to three buildings that will benefit from heat generated by the boiler: the Craig Aquatic Center, the Craig Elementary School, and the Craig Middle School buildings.

  19. ARM - Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearchSOLICITATIONIMODI FICATION OFMaterialsAnnualProject (BBOP) Related Links BBOP

  20. Combustion Properties of Biomass Flash Pyrolysis Oils: Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. R. Shaddix; D. R. Hardesty

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermochemical pyrolysis of solid biomass feedstocks, with subsequent condensation of the pyrolysis vapors, has been investigated in the U.S. and internationally as a means of producing a liquid fuel for power production from biomass. This process produces a fuel with significantly different physical and chemical properties from traditional petroleum-based fuel oils. In addition to storage and handling difficulties with pyrolysis oils, concern exists over the ability to use this fuel effectively in different combustors. The report endeavors to place the results and conclusions from Sandia's research into the context of international efforts to utilize pyrolysis oils. As a special supplement to this report, Dr. Steven Gust, of Finland's Neste Oy, has provided a brief assessment of pyrolysis oil combustion research efforts and commercialization prospects in Europe.

  1. Utility Energy Service Contracts for Renewable Energy Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Utility energy service contracts (UESCs) offer Federal agencies an effective means to implement energy efficiency, renewable energy, and water efficiency projects. In a UESC, a utility arranges...

  2. BioGas Project Applications for Federal Agencies and Utilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Alternate Energy Systems, Inc. Natural Gas Air Blenders for BioGas Installations BioGas Project Applications for Federal Agencies and Utilities Federal Utility Partnership...

  3. Utility-scale AFBC projects - 1986 update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrlich, S.; Friedman, M.A.; Howe, W.C.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) offers several potential advantages over a conventional pulverized-coal steam generator, particularly when a conventional boiler would have to be equipped with a flue gas desulfurization system. AFBC can meet sulfur and nitrogen oxide emission regulations without add-on emission control equipment. Low coal-combustion temperatures in an AFBC eliminate slagging problems as well as low-NO/sub x/ levels. The major benefit of a low combustion temperature in an AFBC is that it permits a wide range of fuels to be fired in the same combustor. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is participating in three utility-scale AFBC demonstration projects expected to start operation in 1986, 1987, and 1988. Each project has unique characteristics (scope of supply, design configuration, fuel, location, starts per year, etc.) that make the three projects complementary. This report describes the development of AFBC technology, the three utility-scale AFBC demonstration plants, and the technical and economic information EPRI expects to derive from these projects.

  4. Logistics, Costs, and GHG Impacts of Utility Scale Cofiring with 20% Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boardman, Richard D.; Cafferty, Kara G.; Nichol, Corrie; Searcy, Erin M.; Westover, Tyler; Wood, Richard; Bearden, Mark D.; Cabe, James E.; Drennan, Corinne; Jones, Susanne B.; Male, Jonathan L.; Muntean, George G.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Widder, Sarah H.

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of utility-scale biomass cofiring in large pulverized coal power plants. The purpose of this evaluation is to assess the cost and greenhouse gas reduction benefits of substituting relatively high volumes of biomass in coal. Two scenarios for cofiring up to 20% biomass with coal (on a lower heating value basis) are presented; (1) woody biomass in central Alabama where Southern Pine is currently produced for the wood products and paper industries, and (2) purpose-grown switchgrass in the Ohio River Valley. These examples are representative of regions where renewable biomass growth rates are high in correspondence with major U.S. heartland power production. While these scenarios may provide a realistic reference for comparing the relative benefits of using a high volume of biomass for power production, this evaluation is not intended to be an analysis of policies concerning renewable portfolio standards or the optimal use of biomass for energy production in the U.S.

  5. EERC Center for Biomass Utilization | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale,South, NewDyer County,ECO2 AssetEDP RenewablesUtilization

  6. Atlantic County Util Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: Energy ResourcesInformationGuide | OpenAthens Utility

  7. Balefill Landfill Gas Utilization Proj Biomass Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: EnergyAvignon, France: EnergyBagley Public UtilitiesBaldHomes

  8. Gas Utilization Facility Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdf Jump1946865°,Park, Texas: EnergyGarvin County,| OpenAtGasMauiUtilization

  9. Xylose utilizing zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Stieglitz, Barry; Viitanen, Paul V

    2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

  10. Xylose utilizing Zymomonas mobilis with improved ethanol production in biomass hydrolysate medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G; Hitz, William D; Viitanen, Paul V; Stieglitz, Barry

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Xylose-utilizing, ethanol producing strains of Zymomonas mobilis with improved performance in medium comprising biomass hydrolysate were isolated using an adaptation process. Independently isolated strains were found to have independent mutations in the same coding region. Mutation in this coding may be engineered to confer the improved phenotype.

  11. HARNESSING PLANT BIOMASS FOR BIOFUELS AND BIOMATERIALS Plant surface lipid biosynthetic pathways and their utility for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunst, Ljerka

    HARNESSING PLANT BIOMASS FOR BIOFUELS AND BIOMATERIALS Plant surface lipid biosynthetic pathways and their utility for metabolic engineering of waxes and hydrocarbon biofuels Reinhard Jetter1,2,* and Ljerka Kunst1 biosynthetic pathways can be used in metabolic engineering of plants for the production of hydrocarbon biofuels

  12. Biomass cogeneration. A business assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skelton, J.C.

    1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide serves as an overview of the biomass cogeneration area and provides direction for more detailed analysis. The business assessment is based in part on discussions with key officials from firms that have adopted biomass cogeneration systems and from organizations such as utilities, state and federal agencies, and banks that would be directly involved in a biomass cogeneration project. The guide is organized into five chapters: biomass cogeneration systems, biomass cogeneration business considerations, biomass cogeneration economics, biomass cogeneration project planning, and case studies.

  13. Prospects for biomass-to-electricity projects in Yunnan Province, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perlack, R.D.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efforts have been underway since 1989 to assess the prospects for biomass-to-electricity projects in Yunnan Province. Results of prefeasibility studies for specific projects suggest that they are both financially and technically viable. Because of low labor costs and favorable climate biomass can be grown on marginal and underutilized land and converted to electricity at costs lower than other alternatives. Bases on current plantation establishment rates, the potential size of the biomass resource can easily support over 1 GW of electric generating capacity in small-sized (up to 20-40 MW) cogeneration and stand-alone projects. These projects, if implemented, can ease power shortages, reduce unemployment, and help sustain the region`s economic growth. Moreover, the external environmental benefits of biomass energy are also potentially significant. This report briefly summarizes the history of biomass assessment efforts in Yunnan Province and discusses in more detail twelve projects that have been identified for U.S. private sector investment. This discussion includes a feasibility analysis of the projects (plantation-grown biomass and its conversion to electricity) and an estimate of the biomass resource base in the general vicinity of each project. This data as well as information on power needs and local capabilities to manage and operate a biomass-to-electricity project are then used to rank-order the twelve projects. One cogeneration and one stand-alone facility are recommended for additional study and possible investment.

  14. Commercial demonstration of atmospheric medium BTU fuel gas production from biomass without oxygen the Burlington, Vermont Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohrer, J.W. [Zurn/NEPCO, South Portland, MA (United States); Paisley, M. [Battelle Laboratories, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The first U.S. demonstration of a gas turbine operating on fuel gas produced by the thermal gasification of biomass occurred at Battelle Columbus Labs (BCL) during 1994 using their high throughput indirect medium Btu gasification Process Research Unit (PRU). Zurn/NEPCO was retained to build a commercial scale gas plant utilizing this technology. This plant will have a throughput rating of 8 to 12 dry tons per hour. During a subsequent phase of the Burlington project, this fuel gas will be utilized in a commercial scale gas turbine. It is felt that this process holds unique promise for economically converting a wide variety of biomass feedstocks efficiently into both a medium Btu (500 Btu/scf) gas turbine and IC engine quality fuel gas that can be burned in engines without modification, derating or efficiency loss. Others are currently demonstrating sub-commercial scale thermal biomass gasification processes for turbine gas, utilizing both atmospheric and pressurized air and oxygen-blown fluid bed processes. While some of these approaches hold merit for coal, there is significant question as to whether they will prove economically viable in biomass facilities which are typically scale limited by fuel availability and transportation logistics below 60 MW. Atmospheric air-blown technologies suffer from large sensible heat loss, high gas volume and cleaning cost, huge gas compressor power consumption and engine deratings. Pressurized units and/or oxygen-blown gas plants are extremely expensive for plant scales below 250 MW. The FERCO/BCL process shows great promise for overcoming the above limitations by utilizing an extremely high throughout circulation fluid bed (CFB) gasifier, in which biomass is fully devolitalized with hot sand from a CFB char combustor. The fuel gas can be cooled and cleaned by a conventional scrubbing system. Fuel gas compressor power consumption is reduced 3 to 4 fold verses low Btu biomass gas.

  15. BioGas Project Applications for Federal Agencies and Utilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers BioGas Project Applications for Federal Agencies and Utilities and is given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Rapid City, South Dakota.

  16. Lopez Landfill Gas Utilization Project Biomass Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:Landowners andLodgepole, Nebraska:Longboard CapitalEnergy Information

  17. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Toolsearch keywordsclear searchCOMMERCIALFuels

  18. Albany Landfill Gas Utilization Project Biomass Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit

  19. Solutia: Utilizing Sub-Metering to Drive Energy Project Approvals...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    plant. Solutia: Utilizing Sub-Metering to Drive Energy Project Approvals Through Data (July 2011) More Documents & Publications Nissan North America: How Sub-Metering...

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush; Stephen Niksa

    2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In full-scale boilers, the effect of biomass cofiring on NO{sub x} and unburned carbon (UBC) emissions has been found to be site-specific. Few sets of field data are comparable and no consistent database of information exists upon which cofiring fuel choice or injection system design can be based to assure that NOX emissions will be minimized and UBC be reduced. This report presents the results of a comprehensive project that generated an extensive set of pilot-scale test data that were used to validate a new predictive model for the cofiring of biomass and coal. All testing was performed at the 3.6 MMBtu/hr (1.75 MW{sub t}) Southern Company Services/Southern Research Institute Combustion Research Facility where a variety of burner configurations, coals, biomasses, and biomass injection schemes were utilized to generate a database of consistent, scalable, experimental results (422 separate test conditions). This database was then used to validate a new model for predicting NO{sub x} and UBC emissions from the cofiring of biomass and coal. This model is based on an Advanced Post-Processing (APP) technique that generates an equivalent network of idealized reactor elements from a conventional CFD simulation. The APP reactor network is a computational environment that allows for the incorporation of all relevant chemical reaction mechanisms and provides a new tool to quantify NOx and UBC emissions for any cofired combination of coal and biomass.

  1. NREL: Biomass Research - Projects in Integrated Biorefinery Processes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    monitoring and operation control systems. NREL is focused on integrating all the biomass conversion unit operations. With extensive knowledge of the individual unit...

  2. NREL: Biomass Research - Chemical and Catalyst Science Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    develop and validate gasification process models. NREL uses chemical analysis to study biomass-derived products online during the conversion process. Catalysts are used in the...

  3. Biomass-derived Syngas Utilization for Fuels and Chemicals - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David C. Dayton

    2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary The growing gap between petroleum production and demand, mounting environmental concerns, and increasing fuel prices have stimulated intense interest in research and development (R&D) of alternative fuels, both synthetic and bio-derived. Currently, the most technically defined thermochemical route for producing alternative fuels from lignocellulosic biomass involves gasification/reforming of biomass to produce syngas (carbon monoxide [CO] + hydrogen [H2]), followed by syngas cleaning, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) or mixed alcohol synthesis, and some product upgrading via hydroprocessing or separation. A detailed techno-economic analysis of this type of process has recently been published [1] and it highlights the need for technical breakthroughs and technology demonstration for gas cleanup and fuel synthesis. The latter two technical barrier areas contribute 40% of the total thermochemical ethanol cost and 70% of the production cost, if feedstock costs are factored out. Developing and validating technologies that reduce the capital and operating costs of these unit operations will greatly reduce the risk for commercializing integrated biomass gasification/fuel synthesis processes for biofuel production. The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate new catalysts and catalytic processes that can efficiently convert biomass-derived syngas into diesel fuel and C2-C4 alcohols. The goal is to improve the economics of the processes by improving the catalytic activity and product selectivity, which could lead to commercialization. The project was divided into 4 tasks: Task 1: Reactor Systems: Construction of three reactor systems was a project milestone. Construction of a fixed-bed microreactor (FBR), a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), and a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) were completed to meet this milestone. Task 2: Iron Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Catalyst: An attrition resistant iron FT catalyst will be developed and tested. Task 3: Chemical Synthesis: Promising process routes will be identified for synthesis of selected chemicals from biomass-derived syngas. A project milestone was to select promising mixed alcohol catalysts and screen productivity and performance in a fixed bed micro-reactor using bottled syngas. This milestone was successfully completed in collaboration withour catalyst development partner. Task 4: Modeling, Engineering Evaluation, and Commercial Assessment: Mass and energy balances of conceptual commercial embodiment for FT and chemical synthesis were completed.

  4. EA-1475: Chariton Valley Biomass Project, Chillicothe, Iowa

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to provide partial funding for (1) the design and construction of a biomass storage, handling, and conveying system into the boiler at...

  5. Diversifying Project Portfolios for Utility Energy Service Contracts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Building a diversified project portfolio enhances utility energy service contracts (UESCs) to ensure Federal agencies get the best value possible. Energy efficiency measures are inherent in UESC projects. However, do not overlook the possibility for renewable energy and water efficiency and other conservation measures.

  6. Feasibility Study for a Hopi Utility-Scale Wind Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kendrick Lomayestewa

    2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility for the generation of energy from wind and to parallel this work with the development of a tribal utility organization capable of undertaking potential joint ventures in utility businesses and projects on the Hopi reservation. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility for the generation of energy from wind and to parallel this work with the development of a tribal utility organization capable of undertaking potential joint ventures in utility businesses and projects on the Hopi reservation. Wind resource assessments were conducted at two study sites on Hopi fee simple lands located south of the city of Winslow. Reports from the study were recently completed and have not been compared to any existing historical wind data nor have they been processed under any wind assessment models to determine the output performance and the project economics of turbines at the wind study sites. Ongoing analysis of the wind data and project modeling will determine the feasibility of a tribal utility-scale wind energy generation.

  7. Cost Avoidance vs. Utility Bill Accounting - Explaining the Discrepancy Between Guaranteed Savings in ESPC Projects and Utility Bills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, S.; Sartor, D.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Guaranteed Savings in ESPC Projects and Utility Bills Satishcommon when implementing an ESPC project. But is this a fairimplementation? In fact, ESPC contracts employ measurement

  8. Advanced systems demonstration for utilization of biomass as an energy source. Volume II. Technical specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains all of the technical specifications relating to materials and construction of the biomass cogeneration facility in the state of Maine. (DMC)

  9. Continuous countercurrent chromatographic separator for the purification of sugars from biomass hydrolyzate. Final project report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wooley, R.J.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Production of pure sugars is required to enable production of fuels and chemicals from biomass feedstocks. Hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose (principal constituents of biomass) produces sugars that can be utilized in various fermentation process to produce valuable chemicals. Unfortunately, the hydrolysis process also liberates chemicals from the biomass that can be toxic to the fermenting organisms. The two primary toxic components of biomass hydrolyzate are sulfuric acid (catalyst used in the hydrolysis) and acetic acid (a component of the feed biomass). In the standard batch chromatographic separation of these three components, sugar elutes in the middle. Batch chromatographic separations are not practical on a commercial scale, because of excess dilution and high capital costs. Because sugar is the {open_quotes}center product,{close_quotes} a continuous separation would require two costly binary separators. However, a single, slightly larger separator, configured to produce three products, would be more economical. This FIRST project develops a cost-effective method for purifying biomass hydrolyzate into fermentable sugars using a single continuous countercurrent separator to separate this ternary mixture.

  10. Economic Impacts of Expanded Woody Biomass Utilization on the Bioenergy and Forest Products Industries in Florida

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    , etc.), and use of biomass fuels as a substitute to fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, oil) for electric by the Florida legislature in 2008 (HB 7135). The study focused on use of woody biomass fuels for electric power for Planning (IMPLAN) Professional software and associated databases (MIG, Inc.) provided regional information

  11. 2014 DOE Biomass Program Integrated Biorefinery Project Comprehensive

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of BadTHEEnergy VehicleSessionOffice |Office |Energy 4Project

  12. Biomass Energy for Transport and Electricity: Large scale utilization under low CO2 concentration scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luckow, Patrick; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

    2010-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the potential role of large scale, dedicated commercial biomass energy systems under global climate policies designed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO2 at 400ppm and 450ppm. We use an integrated assessment model of energy and agriculture systems to show that, given a climate policy in which terrestrial carbon is appropriately valued equally with carbon emitted from the energy system, biomass energy has the potential to be a major component of achieving these low concentration targets. The costs of processing and transporting biomass energy at much larger scales than current experience are also incorporated into the modeling. From the scenario results, 120-160 EJ/year of biomass energy is produced by midcentury and 200-250 EJ/year by the end of this century. In the first half of the century, much of this biomass is from agricultural and forest residues, but after 2050 dedicated cellulosic biomass crops become the dominant source. A key finding of this paper is the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies coupled with commercial biomass energy can play in meeting stringent emissions targets. Despite the higher technology costs of CCS, the resulting negative emissions used in combination with biomass are a very important tool in controlling the cost of meeting a target, offsetting the venting of CO2 from sectors of the energy system that may be more expensive to mitigate, such as oil use in transportation. The paper also discusses the role of cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch biomass derived transportation fuels and shows that both technologies are important contributors to liquid fuels production, with unique costs and emissions characteristics. Through application of the GCAM integrated assessment model, it becomes clear that, given CCS availability, bioenergy will be used both in electricity and transportation.

  13. The Falling Price of Utility-Scale Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Projects...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Projects The Falling Price of Utility-Scale Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Projects Data courtesy of National Renewable Energy Lab. Chart by Daniel Wood. View...

  14. Advanced system demonstration for utilization of biomass as an energy source. Volume IV. Design drawings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains design drawings for the biomass cogeneration plant to be built in Maine. The drawings show a considerable degree of detail, however, they are not to be considered released for construction. There has been no actual procurement of equipment, therefore equipment drawings certified by suppliers have not been included. (DMC)

  15. Methane Gas Utilization Project from Landfill at Ellery (NY)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pantelis K. Panteli

    2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfill Gas to Electric Energy Generation and Transmission at Chautauqua County Landfill, Town of Ellery, New York. The goal of this project was to create a practical method with which the energy, of the landfill gas produced by the decomposing waste at the Chautauqua County Landfill, could be utilized. This goal was accomplished with the construction of a landfill gas to electric energy plant (originally 6.4MW and now 9.6MW) and the construction of an inter-connection power-line, from the power-plant to the nearest (5.5 miles) power-grid point.

  16. BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION IN HAWAII

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritschard, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Report, (unpublished, 1979). Biomass Project Progress 31.Operations, vol. 2 of Biomass Energy (Stanford: StanfordPhotosynthethic Pathway Biomass Energy Production," ~c:_! _

  17. Bubbling bed catalytic hydropyrolysis process utilizing larger catalyst particles and smaller biomass particles featuring an anti-slugging reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marker, Terry L; Felix, Larry G; Linck, Martin B; Roberts, Michael J

    2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a process for thermochemically transforming biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks into high quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. In particular, a catalytic hydropyrolysis reactor, containing a deep bed of fluidized catalyst particles is utilized to accept particles of biomass or other oxygenated feedstocks that are significantly smaller than the particles of catalyst in the fluidized bed. The reactor features an insert or other structure disposed within the reactor vessel that inhibits slugging of the bed and thereby minimizes attrition of the catalyst. Within the bed, the biomass feedstock is converted into a vapor-phase product, containing hydrocarbon molecules and other process vapors, and an entrained solid char product, which is separated from the vapor stream after the vapor stream has been exhausted from the top of the reactor. When the product vapor stream is cooled to ambient temperatures, a significant proportion of the hydrocarbons in the product vapor stream can be recovered as a liquid stream of hydrophobic hydrocarbons, with properties consistent with those of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel. Separate streams of gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel may also be obtained, either via selective condensation of each type of fuel, or via later distillation of the combined hydrocarbon liquid.

  18. Converting Biomass to Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graybeal, Judith W.

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For nearly 30 years, PNNL has been developing and applying novel thermal, chemical and biological processes to convert biomass to industrial and consumer products, fuels and energy. Honors for technologies resulting from this research include the Presidential Green Chemistry Award and several Federal Laboratory Consortium and R&D 100 Awards. PNNL’s research and development activities address the complete processing scheme, from feedstock pretreatment to purified product recovery. The laboratory applies fundamental science and advanced engineering capabilities to biomass conversion and processing to ensure effective recovery of optimal value from biomass; carbohydrate polymer systems to maximize energy efficiencies; and micro-technology systems for separation and conversion processes. For example, bioproducts researchers in the laboratory’s Institute for Interfacial Catalysis develop and demonstrate the utility of new catalyst formulations for production of bio-based chemicals. This article describes a sampling of current and recent catalysis projects for biomass conversion.

  19. Pyrolysis and ignition behavior of coal, cattle biomass, and coal/cattle biomass blends 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Brandon Ray

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    derived from biomass. Current research at Texas A&M University is focused on the effectiveness of using cattle manure biomass as a fuel source in conjunction with coal burning utilities. The scope of this project includes fuel property analysis, pyrolysis...

  20. Pyrolysis and ignition behavior of coal, cattle biomass, and coal/cattle biomass blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Brandon Ray

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    derived from biomass. Current research at Texas A&M University is focused on the effectiveness of using cattle manure biomass as a fuel source in conjunction with coal burning utilities. The scope of this project includes fuel property analysis, pyrolysis...

  1. Cost Avoidance vs. Utility Bill Accounting - Explaining theDiscrepancy Between Guaranteed Savings in ESPC Projects and UtilityBills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, S.; Sartor, D.

    2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Federal agencies often ask if Energy Savings PerformanceContracts (ESPCs) result in the energy and cost savings projected duringthe project development phase. After investing in ESPCs, federal agenciesexpect a reduction in the total energy use and energy cost at the agencylevel. Such questions about the program are common when implementing anESPC project. But is this a fair or accurate perception? Moreimportantly, should the federal agencies evaluate the success or failureof ESPCs by comparing the utility costs before and after projectimplementation?In fact, ESPC contracts employ measurement andverification (M&V) protocols to measure and ensure kilowatt-hour orBTU savings at the project level. In most cases, the translation toenergy cost savings is not based on actual utility rate structure, but acontracted utility rate that takes the existing utility rate at the timethe contract is signed with a clause to escalate the utility rate by afixed percentage for the duration of the contract. Reporting mechanisms,which advertise these savings in dollars, may imply an impact to budgetsat a much higher level depending on actual utility rate structure. FEMPhas prepared the following analysis to explain why the utility billreduction may not materialize, demonstrate its larger implication onagency s energy reduction goals, and advocate setting the rightexpectations at the outset to preempt the often asked question why I amnot seeing the savings in my utility bill?

  2. Testing institutional biomass cookstoves in rural Kenyan schools for the Millennium Villages Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modi, Vijay

    Testing institutional biomass cookstoves in rural Kenyan schools for the Millennium Villages Revised 7 July 2010 Accepted 7 July 2010 Available online xxxx Keywords: Biomass Cookstove Institutional fuels such as coal and biomass for their energy needs, burning 2 million ton of biomass each day

  3. 1980 survey and evaluation of utility conservation, load management, and solar end-use projects. Volume 3: utility load management projects. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of the 1980 survey of electric utility-sponsored energy conservation, load management, and end-use solar energy conversion projects are described. The work is an expansion of a previous survey and evaluation and has been jointly sponsored by EPRI and DOE through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. There are three volumes and a summary document. Each volume presents the results of an extensive survey to determine electric utility involvement in customer-side projects related to the particular technology (i.e., conservation, solar, or load management), selected descriptions of utility projects and results, and first-level technical and economic evaluations.

  4. Sustainable biomass products development and evaluation, Hamakua project. Final draft report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The PICHTR Sustainable Biomass Energy Program was developed to evaluate the potential to cultivate crops for energy production as an alternative use of lands made available by the closing of large sugar plantations. In particular, the closing of the Hamakua Sugar Company on the island of Hawaii brought a great deal of attention to the future of agriculture in this region and in the state. Many options were proposed. Several promising alternatives had been proposed for cane lands. These included dedicated feedstock supply systems (DFSS) for electrical energy production, cultivation of sugarcane to produce ethanol and related by-products, and the production of feed and crops to support animal agriculture. Implementation of some of the options might require preservation of large tracts of land and maintenance of the sugar mills and sugar infrastructure. An analysis of the technical, financial, and other issues necessary to reach conclusions regarding the optimal use of these lands was required. At the request of the Office of State Planning and Senator Akaka`s office, the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR) established and coordinated a working group composed of state, county, federal, and private sector representatives to identify sustainable energy options for the use of idle sugar lands on the island of Hawaii. The Sustainable Biomass Energy Program`s Hamakua Project was established to complete a comprehensive evaluation of the most viable alternatives and assess the options to grow crops as a source of raw materials for the production of transportation fuel and/or electricity on the island of Hawaii. The motivation for evaluating biomass to energy conversion embraced the considerations that Hawaii`s energy security would be improved by diversifying the fuels used for transportation and reducing dependency on imported fossil fuels. The use of waste products as feedstocks could divert wastes from landfills.

  5. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature MarketProjected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Toolsearch keywordsclear

  6. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature MarketProjected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not FoundInformation DOEInformation Summary Big*The LA:UR- $-3233 Title:To

  7. Guide to Community Solar: Utility, Private, and Non-Profit Project Development (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruckman, K.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the DOE Solar America Communities report Guide to Community Solar: Utility, Private, and Non-profit Project Development.

  8. Community Renewable Energy Success Stories Webinar: Exploring How Municipal Utilities Fund Solar Energy Projects (text version)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Below is the text version of the webinar titled "Exploring How Municipal Utilities Fund Solar Energy Projects," originally presented on February 19, 2013.

  9. Compiling Utility Requirements For New Nuclear Power Plant Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrakka, Eero [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, 27160 Olkiluoto (Finland)

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) submitted in November 2000 to the Finnish Government an application for a Decision-in-Principle concerning the construction of a new nuclear power plant in Finland. The actual investment decision can be made first after a positive decision has been made by the Government and the Parliament. Parallel to the licensing process, technical preparedness has been upheld so that the procurement process can be commenced without delay, when needed. This includes the definition of requirements for the plant and preliminary preparation of bid inquiry specifications. The core of the technical requirements corresponds to the specifications presented in the European Utility Requirement (EUR) document, compiled by major European electricity producers. Quite naturally, an amount of modifications to the EUR document are needed that take into account the country- and site-specific conditions as well as the experiences gained in the operation of the existing NPP units. Along with the EUR-related requirements concerning the nuclear island and power generation plant, requirements are specified for scope of supply as well as for a variety of issues related to project implementation. (author)

  10. A Guide to Community Shared Solar: Utility, Private, and Non-Profit Project Development (Book)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughlin, J.; Grove, J.; Irvine, L.; Jacobs, J. F.; Johnson Phillips, S.; Sawyer, A.; Wiedman, J.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide is organized around three sponsorship models: utility-sponsored projects, projects sponsored by special purpose entities - businesses formed for the purpose of producing community solar power, and non-profit sponsored projects. The guide addresses issues common to all project models, as well as issues unique to each model.

  11. Original article Root biomass and biomass increment in a beech

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Root biomass and biomass increment in a beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand in North ­ This study is part of a larger project aimed at quantifying the biomass and biomass increment been developed to estimate the biomass and biomass increment of coarse, small and fine roots of trees

  12. Wood Pellet-Fired Biomass Boiler Project at the Ketchikan Federal Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomberlin, G.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass boiler systems have existed for many years, but the technology has advanced in recent decades and can now provide automated and efficient operation for a relatively modest investment. Key advances in system monitoring and control allow for lower operating costs, since the control systems run all aspects of the boiler, including feed, load reduction and even tube cleaning. These advances have made such systems economical on a small scale in situations where inexpensive fuels like natural gas are not available. This creates an opportunity for building operators in remote, cold-climate locations to reduce the use of expensive fuels for heating buildings. GSA Region 10 installed the system at the federal building in Ketchikan, Alaska and submitted the project to the Green Proving Ground (GPG) program. GSA's GPG program contracted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess the installation and the technology. The system serves as a demonstration to assess actual system efficiencies, as well as operating characteristics and financial benefits. In addition to installation and operational issues, the project team/researchers examined other issues, including fuel transportation costs, building energy savings, and overall economics.

  13. Biomass Guidelines (Prince Edward Island, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PEI Biomass Guidelines identify two major pathways that biomass projects may follow: No Public Investment, and Public Investment. Projects with Public Investment include any project that has:

  14. Managing projects utilizing self-managed teams and managerial toolkits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathur, Praveen, S. M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Project Management is an essential function in most software companies today. With increasing complexity and inter connectivity between software projects, it is not surprising that managing such large scale development ...

  15. Federal and State Structures to Support Financing Utility-Scale Solar Projects and the Business Models Designed to Utilize Them

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Kreycik, C.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utility-scale solar projects have grown rapidly in number and size over the last few years, driven in part by strong renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and federal incentives designed to stimulate investment in renewable energy technologies. This report provides an overview of such policies, as well as the project financial structures they enable, based on industry literature, publicly available data, and questionnaires conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  16. Avista Utilities Smart Grid Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass Conversions Inc Jump to:Auriga EnergyAuxin Solar JumpAveryEnergy

  17. Incorporating uncertainty into electric utility projections and decisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, D.A.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper focuses on how electric utility companies can respond in their decision making to uncertain variables. Here we take a mean- variance type of approach. The ``mean`` value is an expected cost, on a discounted value basis. We assume that management has risk preferences incorporating a tradeoff between the mean and variance in the utility`s net income. Decisions that utilities are faced with can be classified into two types: ex ante and ex post. The ex ante decisions need to be made prior to the uncertainty being revealed and the ex post decision can be postponed until after the uncertainty is revealed. Intuitively, we can say that the ex ante decisions provide a hedge against the uncertainties and the ex post decisions allow the negative outcomes of uncertain variables to be partially mitigated, dampening the losses. An example of an ex post decision is how the system is operated i.e., unit dispatch, and in some cases switching among types of fuels, say with different sulfur contents. For example, if gas prices go up, natural gas combined cycle units are likely to be dispatched at lower capacity factors. If SO{sub 2} emission allowance prices go up, a utility may seek to switch into a lower sulfur coal. Here we assume that regulated electric utilities do have some incentive to lower revenue requirements and hence an incentive to lower the electric rates needed for the utility to break even, thereby earning a fair return on invested capital. This paper presents the general approach first, including applications to capacity expansion and system dispatch. Then a case study is presented focusing on the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments including SO{sub 2} emissions abatement and banking of allowances under uncertainty. It is concluded that the emission banking decisions should not be made in isolation but rather all the uncertainties in demand, fuel prices, technology performance etc., should be included in the uncertainty analysis affecting emission banking.

  18. Incorporating uncertainty into electric utility projections and decisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, D.A.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper focuses on how electric utility companies can respond in their decision making to uncertain variables. Here we take a mean- variance type of approach. The mean'' value is an expected cost, on a discounted value basis. We assume that management has risk preferences incorporating a tradeoff between the mean and variance in the utility's net income. Decisions that utilities are faced with can be classified into two types: ex ante and ex post. The ex ante decisions need to be made prior to the uncertainty being revealed and the ex post decision can be postponed until after the uncertainty is revealed. Intuitively, we can say that the ex ante decisions provide a hedge against the uncertainties and the ex post decisions allow the negative outcomes of uncertain variables to be partially mitigated, dampening the losses. An example of an ex post decision is how the system is operated i.e., unit dispatch, and in some cases switching among types of fuels, say with different sulfur contents. For example, if gas prices go up, natural gas combined cycle units are likely to be dispatched at lower capacity factors. If SO{sub 2} emission allowance prices go up, a utility may seek to switch into a lower sulfur coal. Here we assume that regulated electric utilities do have some incentive to lower revenue requirements and hence an incentive to lower the electric rates needed for the utility to break even, thereby earning a fair return on invested capital. This paper presents the general approach first, including applications to capacity expansion and system dispatch. Then a case study is presented focusing on the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments including SO{sub 2} emissions abatement and banking of allowances under uncertainty. It is concluded that the emission banking decisions should not be made in isolation but rather all the uncertainties in demand, fuel prices, technology performance etc., should be included in the uncertainty analysis affecting emission banking.

  19. First biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings, Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this third volume deal with Environmental Issues, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. Concerning Environmental Issues, the following topics are emphasized: Global Climate Change, Biomass Utilization, Biofuel Test Procedures, and Commercialization of Biomass Products. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY study. The Biomass to Energy (B2E) Project is exploring the ecological and economic consequences

  1. Status report of the EPA`s Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division`s biomass-to-energy development and demonstration projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purvis, C.R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Cleland, J. [Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Craig, J.D. [Cratech, Inc., Tahoka, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division (APPCD) is participating in research, development, and demonstration projects that will convert biomass energy to electrical power, resulting in waste utilization, pollution alleviation, and energy conservation. The goal is to demonstrate the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of an innovative energy conversion technology. This paper describes the status of each project. The first project is a demonstration of a design that consists of a fixed-bed gasifier, a gas cleaning system, a spark ignited syngas engine, and a diesel dual fuel engine. The technology will use wood waste as fuel and produce approximately 1 MWe. The design of the technology is complete, equipment fabrication is underway, and installation, start-up, testing, and demonstration will follow by September 1996. The second project is a biomass-fueled intergrated-gasifier gas turbine (BIGGT) power plant. Phase 1 is complete and consisted of the design, fabrication, and operation of a 0.5 metric ton per hour (tph) (0.55 tph) pressurized fluidized-bed gasifier with a slipstream hot gas cleanup system. Phase 2 is to increase the feed rate to 1 metric tph (1.1 tph) and uprate the gasifier to operate at 10 atmospheres (981 kPa) with a full scale, dry, hot gas cleanup system capable of being integrated with a 1 MWe rated gas turbine engine. Construction of Phase 2 will begin in the summer of 1996. The third project is a demonstration of a biomass-fueled power plant. The system operates with an open Brayton cycle using a fluidized-bed combustor and heat exchangers to heat compressed air and drive a turbine/generator set. The system discharges clean hot air which can be used for cogeneration applications. The system will use lumber wastes as fuel and will produce approximately 200 kWe. Fabrication is underway, and the demonstration is scheduled to accumulate 8000 hours of operation over 1 to 2 years.

  2. Guide to Community Solar: Utility, Private, and Non-profit Project Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide is designed as a resource for those who want to develop community solar projects, from community organizers or solar energy advocates to government officials or utility managers.

  3. Seeing Savings from an ESPC Project in Fort Polk's Utility Bills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, J.A.

    2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Federal agencies have implemented many energy efficiency projects over the years with direct funding or alternative financing vehicles such as energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs). While it is generally accepted that these projects save energy and costs, the savings are usually not obvious in the utility bills. This is true for many valid technical reasons, even when savings are verified in other ways to the highest degree of certainty. However, any perceived deficiency in the evidence for savings is problematic when auditors or other observers evaluate the outcome of energy projects and the achievements of energy management programs. This report discusses under what circumstances energy savings should or should not be evident in utility bills. In the special case of a large ESPC project at the Army's Fort Polk, the analysis of utility bills carried out by the authors does unequivocally confirm and quantify savings. The data requirements and methods for arriving at definitive answers through utility bill analysis are demonstrated in our discussion of the Fort Polk project. The following paragraphs address why the government generally should not expect to see savings from ESPC projects in their utility bills. We also review lessons learned and best practices for measurement and verification (M&V) that can assure best value for the government and are more practical, straightforward, and cost-effective than utility bill analysis.

  4. Investigation of an integrated switchgrass gasification/fuel cell power plant. Final report for Phase 1 of the Chariton Valley Biomass Power Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.C.; Smeenk, J. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Steinfeld, G. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1998-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Chariton Valley Biomass Power Project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy Biomass Power Program, has the goal of converting switchgrass grown on marginal farmland in southern Iowa into electric power. Two energy conversion options are under evaluation: co-firing switchgrass with coal in an existing utility boiler and gasification of switchgrass for use in a carbonate fuel cell. This paper describes the second option under investigation. The gasification study includes both experimental testing in a pilot-scale gasifier and computer simulation of carbonate fuel cell performance when operated on gas derived from switchgrass. Options for comprehensive system integration between a carbonate fuel cell and the gasification system are being evaluated. Use of waste heat from the carbonate fuel cell to maximize overall integrated plant efficiency is being examined. Existing fuel cell power plant design elements will be used, as appropriate, in the integration of the gasifier and fuel cell power plant to minimize cost complexity and risk. The gasification experiments are being performed by Iowa State University and the fuel cell evaluations are being performed by Energy Research Corporation.

  5. BIOMASS REBURNING - MODELING/ENGINEERING STUDIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vladimir Zamansky; Chris Lindsey; Vitali Lissianski

    2000-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is designed to develop engineering and modeling tools for a family of NO{sub x} control technologies utilizing biomass as a reburning fuel. During the ninth reporting period (September 27--December 31, 1999), EER prepared a paper Kinetic Model of Biomass Reburning and submitted it for publication and presentation at the 28th Symposium (International) on Combustion, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, July 30--August 4, 2000. Antares Group Inc, under contract to Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, evaluated the economic feasibility of biomass reburning options for Dunkirk Station. A preliminary report is included in this quarterly report.

  6. Utility FGD survey, January--December 1989. Project summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. [IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The FGD survey report is prepared annually by International Technology (IT) Corporation (formerly PEI Associates, Inc.) for the US Department of Energy. The current issue (and preceding issues from 1974 to 1981 and October 1984 to the present) of the utility FGD survey are available only through the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). Preceding issues covering January 1982 through September 1984 may be purchased from the Research Reports Center of the Electric Power Research institute (EPRI). The information in this report is generated by a computerized data base system known as the Flue Gas Desulfurization Information System (FGDIS). The design information contained in the FGDIS encompasses the entire emission control system and the power generating unit to which it is applied. Performance data for operational FGD systems include monthly dependability parameters, service time, and descriptions of operational problems and solutions.

  7. Large-Scale Utilization of Biomass Energy and Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in the Transport and Electricity Sectors under Stringent CO2 Concentration Limit Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luckow, Patrick; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

    2010-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the potential role of large scale, dedicated commercial biomass energy systems under global climate policies designed to meet atmospheric concentrations of CO2 at 400ppm and 450ppm by the end of the century. We use an integrated assessment model of energy and agriculture systems to show that, given a climate policy in which terrestrial carbon is appropriately valued equally with carbon emitted from the energy system, biomass energy has the potential to be a major component of achieving these low concentration targets. A key aspect of the research presented here is that the costs of processing and transporting biomass energy at much larger scales than current experience are explicitly incorporated into the modeling. From the scenario results, 120-160 EJ/year of biomass energy is produced globally by midcentury and 200-250 EJ/year by the end of this century. In the first half of the century, much of this biomass is from agricultural and forest residues, but after 2050 dedicated cellulosic biomass crops become the majority source, along with growing utilization of waste-to-energy. The ability to draw on a diverse set of biomass based feedstocks helps to reduce the pressure for drastic large-scale changes in land use and the attendant environmental, ecological, and economic consequences those changes would unleash. In terms of the conversion of bioenergy feedstocks into value added energy, this paper demonstrates that biomass is and will continue to be used to generate electricity as well as liquid transportation fuels. A particular focus of this paper is to show how climate policies and technology assumptions - especially the availability of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies - affect the decisions made about where the biomass is used in the energy system. The potential for net-negative electric sector emissions through the use of CCS with biomass feedstocks provides an attractive part of the solution for meeting stringent emissions constraints; we find that at carbon prices above 150$/tCO2, over 90% of biomass in the energy system is used in combination with CCS. Despite the higher technology costs of CCS, it is a very important tool in controlling the cost of meeting a target, offsetting the venting of CO2 from sectors of the energy system that may be more expensive to mitigate, such as oil use in transportation. CCS is also used heavily with other fuels such as coal and natural gas, and by 2095 a total of 1530 GtCO2 has been stored in deep geologic reservoirs. The paper also discusses the role of cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch biomass derived transportation fuels as two representative conversion processes and shows that both technologies may be important contributors to liquid fuels production, with unique costs and emissions characteristics.

  8. Summary of Initial Examination of Lighting-Only Utility Projects in the Federal Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solana, Amy E.; Sandusky, William F.; Mcmordie, Katherine

    2007-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This work complements earlier work on an analysis of Federal utility energy projects that implemented excusively lighting upgrades. The objective of this analysis is to better understand the lighting-only projects through determination of the relationship of capital invested and the resulting energy and cost savings, in terms of geographic locale, project size, and potential according to specific lighting technologies and/or control technology implemented.

  9. Applying SE Methods Achieves Project Success to Evaluate Hammer and Fixed Cutter Grinders Using Multiple Varieties and Moistures of Biomass Feedstock for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry R. Zirker; Christopher T. Wright, PhD; R. Douglas Hamelin

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Applying basic systems engineering (SE) tools to the mission analysis phases of a 2.5-million dollar biomass pre-processing project for the U.S. Department of Energy directly assisted the project principal investigator understand the complexity and identify the gaps of a moving-target project and capture the undefined technical/functional requirements and deliverables from the project team and industrial partners. A creative application of various SE tools by non-aerospace systems engineers developed an innovative “big picture” product that combined aspects of mission analysis with a project functional flow block diagram, providing immediate understanding of the depth and breath of the biomass preprocessing effort for all team members, customers, and industrial partners. The “big picture” diagram became the blue print to write the project test plan, and provided direction to bring the project back on track and achieve project success.

  10. EIS-0300: Minnesota Agri-Power Project: Biomass for Rural Development, Granite Falls, Minnesota

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes DOE and the Minnesota Environmental Quality Boards' [MEQB, a Minnesota State agency] decision to support a proposal by the Minnesota Valley Alfalfa Producers (MnVAP) to construct and operate a 75–103 megawatt biomass fueled gasifier and electric generating facility, known as the Minnesota Agri-Power Plant (MAPP), and associated transmission lines and alfalfa processing facilities.

  11. Biomass Reburning: Modeling/Engineering Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vladimir M. Zamansky

    1998-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Reburning is a mature fuel staging NO{sub x} control technology which has been successfully demonstrated at full scale by Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) and others on numerous occasions. Based on chemical kinetic modeling and experimental combustion studies, EER is currently developing novel concepts to improve the efficiency of the basic gas reburning process and to utilize various renewable and waste fuels for NO{sub x} control. This project is designed to develop engineering and modeling tools for a family of NO{sub x} control technologies utilizing biomass as a reburning fuel. Basic and advanced biomass reburning have the potential to achieve 60-90+% NO{sub x} control in coal fired boilers at a significantly lower cost than SCR. The scope of work includes modeling studies (kinetic, CFD, and physical modeling), experimental evaluation of slagging and fouling associated with biomass reburning, and economic study of biomass handling requirements. Project participants include: EER, FETC R and D group, Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation and Antares, Inc. Most of the combustion experiments on development of biomass reburning technologies are being conducted in the scope of coordinated SBIR program funded by USDA. The first reporting period (October 1--December 31, 1997) included preparation of project management plan and organization of project kick-off meeting at DOE FETC. The quarterly report briefly describes the management plan and presents basic information about the kick-off meeting.

  12. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D, and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center. It describes 95 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with goethermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, economics, and resources. Research activities are summarized on geothermal district heating system cost evaluation and silica waste utilization project. Outreach activities include publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, goethermal library, technical papers and seminars, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  13. Using CORE Model-Based Systems Engineering Software to Support Program Management in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Project: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, C.; Sandor, D.; Simpkins, P.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes how a model-based systems engineering software, CORE, is helping the U. S. Department of Energy's Office of Biomass Program assist with bringing biomass-derived biofuels to the market. This software tool provides information to guide informed decision-making as biomass-to-biofuels systems are advanced from concept to commercial adoption. It facilitates management and communication of program status by automatically generating custom reports, Gantt charts, and tables using the widely available programs of Microsoft Word, Project and Excel.

  14. EA-1841: Department of Energy Loan Guarantee for the Taylor Biomass Montgomery Project in the Town of Montgomery, Orange County, New York

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Taylor Biomass, LLC (Taylor) submitted an application to DOE for a Federal loan guarantee to support the construction and startup of a biomass gasification-to energy facility at a 95-acre recycling facility in the Town of Montgomery, Orange County, NY. The Project would involve the construction of a Post-Collection Separation Facility, a Gasification System and a Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Power Island.

  15. Cellulosic Biomass Sugars to Advantaged Jet Fuel Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof EnergyAdministration-Desert SouthwestofDepartmentCellulosic Biomass

  16. Community Shared Solar: Utility,Private,andNonpro tProjectDevelopment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laboratory by Northwest Sustainable Energy for Economic Development, Keyes and Fox, Stoel Rives, Clean Energy Collective; Marc Romito, Tucson Electric Power; Ellen Lamiman, Energy Solutions GRAPHICA Guide to Community Shared Solar: Utility,Private,andNonpro tProjectDevelopment #12

  17. The role of biomass in California's hydrogen economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Nathan C; Ogden, Joan; Fan, Yueyue

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    promising than renewable sources, including biomass, for aof biomass. US Department of Energy, National RenewableRenewable Energy Laboratory projects the current technology production cost of biomass

  18. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Geo-Heat Center provides technical assistance on geothermal direct heat applications to developers, consultants and the public which could include: data and information on low-temperature (< 1500 C) resources, space and district heating, geothermal heat pumps, greenhouses, aquaculture, industrial processes and other technologies. This assistance could include preliminary engineering feasibility studies, review of direct-use project plans, assistance in project material and equipment selection, analysis and solutions of project operating problems, and information on resources and utilization. The following are brief descriptions of technical assistance provided during the second quarter of the program.

  19. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Tucker, Melvin (Lakewood, CO); Elander, Richard (Evergreen, CO); Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA)

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  20. Project Profile: The Sacramento Municipal Utility District Consumnes Power Plant Solar Augmentation Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), under the Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Heat Integration for Baseload Renewable Energy Development (HIBRED) program, is demonstrating a hybrid CSP solar energy system that takes advantage of an existing electrical generator for its power block and transmission interconnection.

  1. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 4. Western Solar Utilization Network Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Western Solar Utilization Network Region. (WHK)

  2. WP 3 Report: Biomass Potentials Biomass production potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WP 3 Report: Biomass Potentials 1 Biomass production potentials in Central and Eastern Europe under different scenarios Final report of WP3 of the VIEWLS project, funded by DG-Tren #12;WP 3 Report: Biomass Potentials 2 Report Biomass production potentials in central and Eastern Europe under different scenarios

  3. Biomass gasification project gets funding to solve black liquor safety and landfill problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, N.P.

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on biomass gasifications. The main by-product in pulp making is black liquor from virgin fiber; the main by-product in paper recycling is fiber residue. Although the black liquor is recycled for chemical and energy recovery, safety problems plague the boilers currently used to do this. The fiber residue is usually transported to a landfill. The system being developed by MTCI will convert black liquor and fiber residue into a combustible gas, which can then be used for a wide variety of thermal or power generation applications.

  4. Biomass Deconstruction: Catalyst Development and Testing Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureCommentsEnergyandapproximately 10 wt%inandWBS THIS MEETING5- Biomass

  5. Biomass Boiler Market is Projected to Reach USD 8,907.0 Million by 2022 |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass ConversionsSouth Carolina:EnergyPark,BioJetMadison,BioflameBioil

  6. Biomass Processing Photolibrary

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Research related to bioenergy is a major focus in the U.S. as science agencies, universities, and commercial labs seek to create new energy-efficient fuels. The Biomass Processing Project is one of the funded projects of the joint USDA-DOE Biomass Research and Development Initiative. The Biomass Processing Photolibrary has numerous images, but there are no accompanying abstracts to explain what you are seeing. The project website, however, makes available the full text of presentations and publications and also includes an exhaustive biomass glossary that is being developed into an ASAE Standard.

  7. An examination of the costs and critical characteristics of electric utility distribution system capacity enhancement projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.; Nguyen, Tony B.; Brown, Daryl R.; Fathelrahman, Eihab M.

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report classifies and analyzes the capital and total costs (e.g., income tax, property tax, depreciation, centralized power generation, insurance premiums, and capital financing) associated with 130 electricity distribution system capacity enhancement projects undertaken during 1995-2002 or planned in the 2003-2011 time period by three electric power utilities operating in the Pacific Northwest. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in cooperation with participating utilities, has developed a large database of over 3,000 distribution system projects. The database includes brief project descriptions, capital cost estimates, the stated need for each project, and engineering data. The database was augmented by additional technical (e.g., line loss, existing substation capacities, and forecast peak demand for power in the area served by each project), cost (e.g., operations, maintenance, and centralized power generation costs), and financial (e.g., cost of capital, insurance premiums, depreciations, and tax rates) data. Though there are roughly 3,000 projects in the database, the vast majority were not included in this analysis because they either did not clearly enhance capacity or more information was needed, and not available, to adequately conduct the cost analyses. For the 130 projects identified for this analysis, capital cost frequency distributions were constructed, and expressed in terms of dollars per kVA of additional capacity. The capital cost frequency distributions identify how the projects contained within the database are distributed across a broad cost spectrum. Furthermore, the PNNL Energy Cost Analysis Model (ECAM) was used to determine the full costs (e.g., capital, operations and maintenance, property tax, income tax, depreciation, centralized power generation costs, insurance premiums and capital financing) associated with delivering electricity to customers, once again expressed in terms of costs per kVA of additional capacity. The projects were sorted into eight categories (capacitors, load transfer, new feeder, new line, new substation, new transformer, reconductoring, and substation capacity increase) and descriptive statistics (e.g., mean, total cost, number of observations, and standard deviation) were constructed for each project type. Furthermore, statistical analysis has been performed using ordinary least squares regression analysis to identify how various project variables (e.g., project location, the primary customer served by the project, the type of project, the reason for the upgrade, size of the upgrade) impact the unit cost of the project.

  8. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance: Quarterly project progress report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report summarizes geothermal activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the second quarter of FY-95. It describes 92 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, resources and equipment. Research activities are summarized on geothermal energy cost evaluation, low temperature resource assessment and ground-source heat pump case studies and utility programs. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct heat Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  9. Utility-Scale Concentrating Solar Power and Photovoltaic Projects: A Technology and Market Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Lowder, T.; Canavan, B.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the last several years, solar energy technologies have been, or are in the process of being, deployed at unprecedented levels. A critical recent development, resulting from the massive scale of projects in progress or recently completed, is having the power sold directly to electric utilities. Such 'utility-scale' systems offer the opportunity to deploy solar technologies far faster than the traditional 'behind-the-meter' projects designed to offset retail load. Moreover, these systems have employed significant economies of scale during construction and operation, attracting financial capital, which in turn can reduce the delivered cost of power. This report is a summary of the current U.S. utility-scale solar state-of-the-market and development pipeline. Utility-scale solar energy systems are generally categorized as one of two basic designs: concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV). CSP systems can be further delineated into four commercially available technologies: parabolic trough, central receiver (CR), parabolic dish, and linear Fresnel reflector. CSP systems can also be categorized as hybrid, which combine a solar-based system (generally parabolic trough, CR, or linear Fresnel) and a fossil fuel energy system to produce electric power or steam.

  10. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY;12-2 #12;Appendix 12: Biomass to Energy Project Team, Committee Members and Project Advisors Research Team. Nechodom's background is in biomass energy policy development and public policy research. Peter Stine

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN COFIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush; Stephen Niksa

    2001-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the first Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. The project goals and detailed plans were presented in two project kickoff meetings; one at NETL in Pittsburgh and one in Birmingham, AL at Southern Research Institute. Progress has been made in developing a modeling approach to synthesize the reaction time and temperature distributions that will be produced by computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace and the char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics that will predict NOx emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. Preparations are under way for the initial pilot-scale combustion experiments.

  12. AE Space Utilization Work Team Short Roster v 1.5 2012-02-21 dgk Project Member Team Role UW-Madison Role

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    AE Space Utilization Work Team Short Roster v 1.5 2012-02-21 dgk Project Member Team Role UW: Space Utilization - Classroom #12;

  13. Northeast regional biomass program. First quarter report, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This progress report presents summaries of various projects which were in operation or being planned during this quarter period. Projects included testing the efficiency of using wood chips as fuel in heating systems, barriers to commercial development of wood pellet fuels, studies of more efficient and less polluting wood stoves, work on landfill gas utilization, directories of facilities using biomass fuels, surveys of biomass conversion processes to liquid fuels, for commercial development, etc.

  14. Materials Degradation In Biomass-Derived Oils Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), October 20122 DOE Technologies Office (BETO) Project

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A VALIDATED MODEL FOR USE IN MINIMIZING NOx EMISSIONS AND MAXIMIZING CARBON UTILIZATION WHEN CO-FIRING BIOMASS WITH COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry G. Felix; P. Vann Bush

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the seventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40895. A statement of the project objectives is included in the Introduction of this report. Two additional biomass co-firing test burns were conducted during this quarter. In the first test (Test 12), up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and switchgrass was comilled with Galatia coal and injected through the single-register burner. Liquid ammonia was intermittently added to the primary air stream to increase fuel-bound nitrogen and simulate cofiring with chicken litter. Galatia coal is a medium-sulfur ({approx} 1.2% S), high chlorine ({approx}0.5%) Illinois Basin coal. In the second test (Test 13), up to 20% by weight dry hardwood sawdust and switchgrass was comilled with Jim Walters No.7 mine coal and injected through the single-register burner. Jim Walters No.7 coal is a low-volatility, low-sulfur ({approx} 0.7% S) Eastern bituminous coal. The results of these tests are presented in this quarterly report. Progress has continued to be made in implementing a modeling approach to combine reaction times and temperature distributions from computational fluid dynamic models of the pilot-scale combustion furnace with char burnout and chemical reaction kinetics to predict NO{sub x} emissions and unburned carbon levels in the furnace exhaust. The Configurable Fireside Simulator has been delivered from REI, Inc. and is being tested with exiting CFD solutions. Preparations are under way for a final pilot-scale combustion experiment using the single-register burner fired with comilled mixtures of Jim Walters No.7 low-volatility bituminous coal and switchgrass. Because of the delayed delivery of the Configurable Fireside Simulator, it is planned to ask for a no-cost time extension for the project until the end of this calendar year. Finally, a paper describing this project that included preliminary results from the first four cofiring tests was presented at the 12th European Conference and Technology Exhibition on Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, in June, 2002.

  16. Utility-Scale Solar 2013: An Empirical Analysis of Project Cost, Performance, and Pricing Trends in the United States

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Other than the SEGS I-IX parabolic trough projects built in the 1980s, virtually no large-scale or "utility-scale" solar projects existed in the United States prior to 2007. By 2012 – just five years later – utility-scale had become the largest sector of the overall PV market in the United States, a distinction that was repeated in 2013 and is expected to continue for at least the next few years.

  17. The ENCOAL project: Initial commercialization shipment and utilization of both solid and liquid products. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCord, T.G.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ENCOAL is co-funding a mild gasification project and shipping the products to customers. The ENCOAL Corporation has shipped, to two utility customers, over 500 rail cars (six partial trains and two full trains) of solid product (PDF) from its plant located at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette Wyoming. Shipments span a range of blends from 15% to essentially unblended PDF. Utility handling of these shipments is comparable to that of run-of-mine Buckskin coal. Results related to spontaneous combustion and generation of fugitive dust are particularly favorable. Combustion tests were performed both in a pulverized-fired boiler and in a cyclone-fired boiler. Commercialization utilization of the liquid product (CDL) depends on customer facility capabilities and the source of any blending fuel, as expected. A total of 56 tank cars have been sent to three customers. The 1994 test program met or exceeded ENCOAL`s major objectives of transporting and burning both PDF and CDL in existing customer facilities.

  18. Countercurrent Saccharification of Biomass 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derner, John David

    2015-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Our goal was to research and implement a countercurrent system to run enzymatic saccharification of biomass. The project provided clear results to show that this method is more efficient than the batch process that companies currently employ. Excess...

  19. Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Progress report, March 1-August 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, D. I.C.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported in this coordinated research program to effect the microbiological degradation of cellulosic biomass by anaerobic microorganisms possessing cellulolytic enzymes. Three main areas of research are discussed: increasing enzyme levels through genetics, mutations, and genetic manipulation; the direct conversion of cellulosic biomass to liquid fuel (ethanol); and the production of chemical feedstocks from biomass (acrylic acid, acetone/butanol, and acetic acid). (DMC)

  20. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY;10-2 #12;Appendix 10: Power Plant Analysis for Conversion of Forest Remediation Biomass to Renewable Fuels and Electricity 1. Report to the Biomass to Energy Project (B2E) Principal Authors: Dennis Schuetzle, TSS

  1. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY not substantively affect the findings or recommendations of the study. 2. Introduction The Biomass to Energy (B2E) Project is developing a comprehensive forest biomass-to- electricity model to identify and analyze

  2. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY;6-2 #12;APPENDIX 6: Cumulative Watershed Effects Analysis for the Biomass to Energy Project 1. Principal the findings or recommendations of the study. Cumulative watershed effects (CWE) of the Biomass to Energy (B2E

  3. Simultaneous consumption of pentose and hexose sugars: an optimal microbial phenotype for efficient fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jae-Han; Block, David E.; Mills, David A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    bacteria for lignocellulosic biomass utilization CCR forfermentation of lignocellulosic biomass Jae-Han Kim & DavidAbstract Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive carbon

  4. PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

    2001-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in existing boilers, evaluation of these composite fuels to determine their applicability to the major combustor types, development of preliminary designs and economic projections for commercial facilities producing up to 200,000 tons per year of biomass/waste-containing fuels, and the development of dewatering technologies to reduce the moisture content of high-moisture biomass and waste materials during the pelletization process.

  5. Gridley Ethanol Demonstration Project Utilizing Biomass Gasification Technology: Pilot Plant Gasifier and Syngas Conversion Testing; August 2002 -- June 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is part of an overall evaluation of using a modified Pearson Pilot Plant for processing rice straw into syngas and ethanol and the application of the Pearson technology for building a Demonstration Plant at Gridley. This report also includes information on the feedstock preparation, feedstock handling, feedstock performance, catalyst performance, ethanol yields and potential problems identified from the pilot scale experiments.

  6. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert Toerne; John Bick

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this widespread fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be used as a supplemental fuel in an existing utility boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with a variety of conventional boilers including natural gas and oil fired boilers, pulverized coal fired conventional and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a wider selection of biomass as fuel and providing opportunity in reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere through the commercialization of this technology. This study evaluated two plants: Wester Kentucky Energy Corporation's (WKE's) Reid Plant and TXU Energy's Monticello Plant for technical and economical feasibility. These plants were selected for their proximity to large supply of poultry litter in the area. The Reid plant is located in Henderson County in southwest Kentucky, with a large poultry processing facility nearby. Within a fifty-mile radius of the Reid plant, there are large-scale poultry farms that generate over 75,000 tons/year of poultry litter. The local poultry farmers are actively seeking environmentally more benign alternatives to the current use of the litter as landfill or as a farm spread as fertilizer. The Monticello plant is located in Titus County, TX near the town of Pittsburgh, TX, where again a large poultry processor and poultry farmers in the area generate over 110,000 tons/year of poultry litter. Disposal of this litter in the area is also a concern. This project offers a model opportunity to demonstrate the feasibility of biomass co-firing and at the same time eliminate poultry litter disposal problems for the area's poultry farmers.

  7. Biomass in the Deregulated Marketplace: Current Issues for Biomass Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This issue brief provides readers with a monthly review and analysis of electric utility deregulation as it impacts biomass power production and distribution. The topical areas to be routinely covered will include Federal activities, State activities, Current challenges, and Current opportunities. Additionally, a monthly highlighted topic will provide more in-depth analysis of current issue impacting biomass power.

  8. Biomass pretreatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  9. PROJECT-SPECIFIC TYPE A VERIFICATION FOR THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR UNDERGROUND UTILITIES REMOVAL PHASE 3 TRENCH 1, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY UPTON, NEW YORK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.M. Harpenau

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    5098-SR-05-0 PROJECT-SPECIFIC TYPE A VERIFICATION FOR THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR UNDERGROUND UTILITIES REMOVAL PHASE 3 TRENCH 1 BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

  10. PROJECT-SPECIFIC TYPE A VERIFICATION FOR THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR UNDERGROUND UTILITIES REMOVAL PHASE 3 TRENCH 5, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY UPTON, NEW YORK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P.C. Weaver

    2010-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    5098-SR-04-0 PROJECT-SPECIFIC TYPE A VERIFICATION FOR THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR UNDERGROUND UTILITIES REMOVAL PHASE 3 TRENCH 5, BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

  11. Northwest Energy Coalition Renewable Northwest Project Sierra Club Natural Resources Defense Council Citizens' Utility Board of Oregon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northwest Energy Coalition Renewable Northwest Project Sierra Club Natural Resources Defense and renewable resources will be acquired and by whom. Strong accountability for results through measurement; second to renewable resources..." [16 U.S. Code section 839b(e)(1)] BPA's utility customers have released

  12. Water use and supply concerns for utility-scale solar projects in the Southwestern United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Reno, Marissa Devan; Moreland, Barbara D.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO] [National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are currently being built and planned for locations in the U.S. with the greatest solar resource potential, an understanding of water use for construction and operations is needed as siting tends to target locations with low natural rainfall and where most existing freshwater is already appropriated. Using methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine water used in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance, an estimate of water used over the lifetime at the solar power plant is determined and applied to each watershed in six Southwestern states. Results indicate that that PV systems overall use little water, though construction usage is high compared to O&M water use over the lifetime of the facility. Also noted is a transition being made from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities that will significantly reduce operational water use at these facilities. Using these water use factors, estimates of future water demand for current and planned solar development was made. In efforts to determine where water could be a limiting factor in solar energy development, water availability, cost, and projected future competing demands were mapped for the six Southwestern states. Ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability.

  13. Radiation Protection Considerations at USACE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.H. [CHP, SHB INC., Centennial, Colorado (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) was initially authorized by Congress in 1974. FUSRAP was enacted to address residual radioactive contamination associated with numerous sites across the U.S. at which radioactive material (primarily Uranium ores and related milling products) had been processed in support of the nation's nuclear weapons program dating back to the Manhattan Project and the period immediately following World War II. In October 1997, Congress transferred the management of this program from the Department of Energy to the United States Corp of Engineers. Through this program, the Corps addresses the environmental remediation of certain sites once used by DOE's predecessor agencies, the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission. The waste at FUSRAP sites consists mainly of low levels of uranium, thorium and radium, along with some mixed wastes. Upon completion of remedial activities, these sites are transferred to DOE for long-term stewardship activities. This paper presents and contrasts the radiological conditions and recent monitoring results associated with five large ongoing FUSRAP projects including Maywood, N.J.; the Linde site near Buffalo, N.Y.; Colonie in Albany N.Y. and the St Louis, Mo. airport and downtown sites. The radiological characteristics of soil and debris at each site and respective regulatory clean up criteria is presented and contrasted. Some differences are discussed in the radiological characteristics of material at some sites that result in variations in radiation protection monitoring programs. Additionally, summary data for typical personnel radiation exposure monitoring results are presented. In summary: 1. The FUSRAP projects for which data and observations are reported in this paper are considered typical of the radiological nature of FUSRAP sites in general. 2. These sites are characterized by naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclides in soil and debris, at concentrations typically < E4 pCi/ gram total activity. 3. Although external exposure rates are generally low resulting in few exposures above background, occasional 'hot spots' are observed in the 1- 10 mR / hr range or higher. However personnel and general area external exposure monitoring programs consistently demonstrate very low potential for external exposure at theses sites. 4. Potential for airborne exposure is controlled by wetting and misting techniques during excavation and movement of materials. Air sampling and bioassay programs confirm low potential for airborne exposure of workers at these sites. 5. Radiation protection and health physics monitoring programs as implemented at these sites ensure that exposures to personal are maintained ALARA. (authors)

  14. NREL: Biomass Research - Eric P. Knoshaug

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in August 2000 and has since worked on engineering yeast for efficient utilization of biomass-generated pentose sugars, protein design and evolution for increased activity on...

  15. NREL: Biomass Research - Gregg T. Beckham

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    bonds. An illustration of lignin is shown below. In current selective routes for biomass utilization, lignin is typically burned for heat and power. However, the energy and...

  16. UCSD Biomass to Power Economic Feasibility Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cattolica, Robert

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Figure 1: West Biofuels Biomass Gasification to Power process will utilize  gasification technology provided by is  pioneering the gasification technology that has been 

  17. Sustained utility implementation of photovoltaics. TEAM-UP pre-cursor project, 1994-1995, final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osborn, D.E.; Collier, D.; Miller, K.; Jonas, T.; Gerlach, P.

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) is a leader in utility grid-connected applications of PVs with the world`s largest distributed PV power system. SMUD is continuing its ambitious sustained, orderly development (SOD) commercialization effort of the grid-connected, utility PV market. This program us aimed at developing the experience needed to successfully integrate PV as distributed generation into the utility system, develop market and long-term business strategies and to stimulate the collaborative processes needed to accelerate the cost-reductions necessary for PV to be cost-competitive in these applications by about the year 2002. This report documents the progress made in the 1994/1995 SMUD PV Program under this contract and the PV projects partially supported by this contract.

  18. A Guide to Community Shared Solar: Utility, Private, and Nonprofit Project Development (Book), Powered by SunShot, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This guide is organized around three sponsorship models: utility-sponsored projects, projects sponsored by special purpose entities - businesses formed for the purpose of producing community solar power, and non-profit sponsored projects. The guide addresses issues common to all project models, as well as issues unique to each model.

  19. Mobility chains analysis of technologies for passenger cars and light duty vehicles fueled with biofuels : application of the Greet model to project the role of biomass in America's energy future (RBAEF) project.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, M.; Wu, Y.; Wang, M; Energy Systems

    2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Role of Biomass in America's Energy Future (RBAEF) is a multi-institution, multiple-sponsor research project. The primary focus of the project is to analyze and assess the potential of transportation fuels derived from cellulosic biomass in the years 2015 to 2030. For this project, researchers at Dartmouth College and Princeton University designed and simulated an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity using the ASPEN Plus{trademark} model. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted, for the RBAEF project, a mobility chains or well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at ANL. The mobility chains analysis was intended to estimate the energy consumption and emissions associated with the use of different production biofuels in light-duty vehicle technologies.

  20. February 19, 2013 Webinar: Exploring How Municipal Utilities Fund Solar Energy Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This webinar was held February 19, 2013, and provided information on Concord Light, the municipal electric utility serving Concord, Massachusetts, and their solar photovoltaic (PV) rebate program....

  1. CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ergun, Sabri

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solvent Systems Catalystic Biomass Liquefaction Investigatereactor Product collection Biomass liquefaction process12-13, 1980 CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION Sabri Ergun,

  2. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  3. A national research & development strategy for biomass crop feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, L.L.; Cushman, J.H.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Planning was initiated in 1996 with the objective of reevaluating current biomass feedstock research and development strategies to: (1) assure that by 2005, one or more commercial lignocellulosic to ethanol projects will be able to acquire a dependable supply of biomass crop feedstocks; (2) assure that recently initiated demonstrations of crops to electricity will be successful and; (3) assure that the research base needed to support future biomass industry expansion is being developed. Multiple trends and analyses indicate that biomass energy research and development strategies must take into account the fact that competition for land will define the upper limits of available biomass energy crop supplies and will largely dictate the price of those supplies. Only crop production and utilization strategies which contribute profit to the farmer or landowner and to energy producers will be used commercially for biomass energy production. Strategies for developing biomass {open_quotes}energy{close_quotes} crop supplies must take into consideration all of the methods by which biomass crops will enter biomass energy markets. The lignocellulosic materials derived from crops can be available as primary residues or crop by-products; secondary residues or processing by-products; co-products (at both the crop production and processing stages); or, as dedicated energy crops. Basic research and development (R&D) leading to yield improvement continues to be recommended as a major long-term focus for dedicated energy crops. Many additional near term topics need attention, some of which are also applicable to by-products and co-products. Switchgrass R&D should be expanded and developed with greater collaboration of USDA and state extension groups. Woody crop research should continue with significant cost-share from industries developing the crops for other commercial products. Co-product options need more investigation.

  4. The Mobile Test and Demonstration Unit, A Cooperative Project Between EPRI, Utilities and Industry to Demonstrate New Water Treatment Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strasser, J.; Mannapperuma, J.

    THE MOBILE TEST AND DEMONSTRATION UNIT, A COOPERATIVE PROJECT BETWEEN EPRl, UTll.JTIES AND INDUSTRY TO DEMONSTRATE NEW WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES Jurgen Strasser Consultant to the EPRI Food Office Process & Equipment Technology... agencies are encouraging the reduction of the discharge of high BOD and TSS waste water to the local mlUlicipalities and/or waterways. EPRI collaborated with utilities, the US Dept. of Energy, food processor trade groups, and scientists from the Calif...

  5. AGCO Biomass Solutions: Biomass 2014 Presentation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Plenary IV: Advances in Bioenergy Feedstocks—From Field to Fuel AGCO Biomass Solutions: Biomass 2014 Presentation Glenn Farris, Marketing Manager Biomass, AGCO Corporation

  6. Solar resource-utility load matching assessment: NREL photovoltaic project summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many utility planners may be unfamiliar with the potential for the development of photovoltaics (PV) in their service areas. The goal of the research summarized in this document is to provide information on the match existing between the output of PV powder plants and the load requirements of US utilities. This material indicates whether or not the effective capacity (hence the value) of this renewable resource should be higher than that traditionally assigned to an intermittent resource.

  7. Utility Goals for the Efficiency Resource: Impact of PUC Rulemaking Project No. 39674 on Future Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, A.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) and (3) No major changes to actual costs used Updates language to calculate avoided costs for nodal market Energy Efficiency Goals (e)(1) (e)(1) See rule for details Overall, no major changes. Potential debate: When will a utility be able to switch... deemed savings Costs to be Recovered: General (f)(1) - (5) (f)(1)(A) and (B) EECRF shall be calculated to recover forecasted program expenditures, over/under recovery including municipal and util ity EECRF proceeding expenses, performance bonus and EM...

  8. Also inside this issue: Bioengineering Better Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Also inside this issue: Bioengineering Better Biomass DOE JGI/EMSL Collaborative Science Projects and degrade carbon. This is an image of the Mn(II)-oxidizing fungus Stilbella aciculosa ­ the fungal biomass Better Biomass Feedstock Science Highlights 15 Clouds up Close Improving Catalysts Pore Challenge

  9. SUBGROUPS FOR BIOMASS PROJECT Hon222c Energy & Environment: Humans & Nature P.B.Rhines, Alex Cypro. Bob Koon 10 April 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the national scene, which seems very pro-biomass burning and consider earlier efforts like biofuels based

  10. Influence of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems on Air Conditioning Demand in an Utility Pilot Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, D. S.; Sherwin, J. R.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    during the summer of 2000. Data analysis on the pre and post cooling and heating consumption was used to determine impacts on energy use and peak demand for the utility. The average cooling energy savings from the RBS retrofit was 3.6 kWh/day, or about 9...

  11. FACILITIES ENGINEER WEST CHICAGO Execute capital projects for manufacturing facilities and utilities systems: scope development, cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    FACILITIES ENGINEER ­ WEST CHICAGO OVERVIEW: Execute capital projects for manufacturing, and externally. Additional duties as assigned. QUALIFICATIONS: BS in Engineering from ABETaccredited program, or PE certification, required. 5+ years of experience in manufacturing engineering environment

  12. Sensitivity of Utility-Scale Solar Deployment Projections in the SunShot Vision Study to Market and Performance Assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eurek, K.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Mowers, M.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The SunShot Vision Study explored the potential growth of solar markets if solar prices decreased by about 75% from 2010 to 2020. The ReEDS model was used to simulate utility PV and CSP deployment for this present study, based on several market and performance assumptions - electricity demand, natural gas prices, coal retirements, cost and performance of non-solar renewable technologies, PV resource variability, distributed PV deployment, and solar market supply growth - in addition to the SunShot solar price projections. This study finds that utility-scale solar deployment is highly sensitive to solar prices. Other factors can have significant impacts, particularly electricity demand and natural gas prices.

  13. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, July 1996--September 1996. Federal Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lienau, P.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the fourth quarter of FY-96. It describes 152 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, economics and resources. Research activities are summarized on greenhouse peaking. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, technical papers and seminars, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  14. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Federal Assistance Program, Quarterly project progress report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The report summarizes activities of the Geo-Heat Center (GHC) at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 1995. It describes contacts with parties during this period related to assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, resources and equipment. Research is also being conducted on geothermal energy cost evaluation, low-temperature geothermal resource assessment, use of silica waste from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field as construction materials and geothermal heat pumps. Outreach activities include the publication of a quarterly Bulletin on direct heat applications and dissemination of information on low-temperature geothermal resources and utilization.

  15. A Path Forward for Low Carbon Power from Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cuellar, Amanda

    The two major pathways for energy utilization from biomass are conversion to a liquid fuel (i.e., biofuels) or conversion to electricity (i.e., biopower). In the United States (US), biomass policy has focused on biofuels. ...

  16. Major Modification Determination Process Utilized for Proposed Idaho National Laboratory Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael A. Lehto, Ph.D.; Boyd D. Christensen

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past three years, several new projects with the potential for major modifications to existing facilities have been considered for implementation at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These projects were designated to take place in existing nuclear facilities with existing documented safety analyses. 10 CFR 830.206 requires the contractor for a major modification to a Hazard Category 1, 2, or 3 nuclear facility to obtain Department of Energy (DOE) approval for the nuclear facility design criteria to be used for preparation of a preliminary documented safety analysis (PDSA), as well as creation and approval of the PDSA, before the contractor can procure materials or components or begin construction on the project. Given the significant effort and expense of preparation and approval of a PDSA, a major modification determination for new projects is warranted to determine if the rigorous requirements of a major modification are actually required. Furthermore, performing a major modification determination helps to ensure that important safety aspects of a project are appropriately considered prior to modification construction or equipment procurement. The projects considered for major modification status at the INL included: treatment and packaging of unirradiated, sodium-bonded highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel and miscellaneous casting scrap in the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Fuel Manufacturing Facility (FMF); post irradiation examination of Advance Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) fuel in the MFC Analytical Laboratory (AL); the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) gas test loop (GTL); and the hydraulic shuttle irradiation system (HSIS) at ATR. The major modification determinations for three of the proposed projects resulted in a negative major modification. On the other hand, the major modification determination for the GTL project concluded that the project would require a major modification. This paper discusses the process, methods, and considerations used by the INL for the four major modification determinations. Three of the four major modification determinations discussed herein were completed using the guidance specified in the draft of DOE STD-1189, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process.” DOE-STD-1189 was released as a draft document in March 2007 and provides guidance for integrating safety considerations into the early design activities for constructing new facilities or making modifications to existing nuclear facilities. The fourth major modification determination was prepared prior to the existence of DOE STD-1189 and was evaluated solely by the definition of a major modification given in 10 CFR 830.206. For all four projects, consideration was given to: • Facility hazard categorization change and material inventory • Facility footprint change with the potential to adversely affect credited safety function • New or changed processes resulting in a change to the safety basis • The use of new technology or equipment not approved for use in the facility • The need for new or revised safety basis controls • Hazards not previously evaluated in the safety basis.

  17. COE projection for the modular WARP{trademark} wind power system for wind farms and electric utility power transmission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weisbrich, A.L. [ENECO, West Simsbury, CT (United States); Ostrow, S.L.; Padalino, J. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, New York, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wind power has emerged as an attractive alternative source of electricity for utilities. Turbine operating experience from wind farms has provided corroborating data of wind power potential for electric utility application. Now, a patented modular wind power technology, the Toroidal Accelerator Rotor Platform (TARP{trademark}) Windframe{trademark}, forms the basis for next generation megawatt scale wind farm and/or distributed wind power plants. When arranged in tall vertically clustered TARP{trademark} module stacks, such power plant units are designated Wind Amplified Rotor Platform (WARP{trademark}) Systems. While heavily building on proven technology, these systems are projected to surpass current technology windmills in terms of performance, user-friendly operation and ease of maintenance. In its unique generation and transmission configuration, the WARP{trademark}-GT System combines both electricity generation through wind energy conversion and electric power transmission. Furthermore, environmental benefits include dramatically less land requirement, architectural appearance, lower noise and EMI/TV interference, and virtual elimination of bird mortality potential. Cost-of-energy (COE) is projected to be from under $0.02/kWh to less than $0.05/kWh in good to moderate wind resource sites.

  18. A VAX/VMS mapped section/virtual memory utility package: Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarrington, L.

    1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A VAX/VMS Mapped Section/Virtual Memory Utility Package is a collection of FORTRAN subprograms that allocate virtual memory and, optionally, map that memory to a file. The subprograms use VMS system services and run-time libraries for allocating and mapping memory; therefore, the utility package is system dependent and functional on that platform only. FORTRAN-77 is one of the most widely used languages for computer programming. Languages have been developed in the past few decades that provide more powerful tools than FORTRAN and overcome some of its limitations. Two limitations addressed by this paper which have been a source of frustration to many programmers are that (1) FORTRAN does not provide dynamic array allocation and (2) FORTRAN file input-output is very slow. The solutions presented here are for the VAX/VMS operating system and use system services that are not part of the standard FORTRAN language description. Also discussed in this paper are dynamic array allocation, mapped sections of the program memory, and support modules. 3 refs.

  19. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lienau, P.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technical assistance was provided to 60 requests from 19 states. R&D progress is reported on: evaluation of lineshaft turbine pump problems, geothermal district heating marketing strategy, and greenhouse peaking analysis. Two presentations and one tour were conducted, and three technical papers were prepared. The Geothermal Progress Monitor reported: USGS Forum on Mineral Resources, Renewable Energy Tax Credits Not Working as Congress Intended, Geothermal Industry Tells House Panel, Newberry Pilot Project, and Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources in Nevada.

  20. Biomass Feedstocks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A feedstock is defined as any renewable, biological material that can be used directly as a fuel, or converted to another form of fuel or energy product. Biomass feedstocks are the plant and algal materials used to derive fuels like ethanol, butanol, biodiesel, and other hydrocarbon fuels. Examples of biomass feedstocks include corn starch, sugarcane juice, crop residues such as corn stover and sugarcane bagasse, purpose-grown grass crops, and woody plants. The Bioenergy Technologies Office works in partnership with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), national laboratories, universities, industry, and other key stakeholders to identify and develop economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable feedstocks for the production of energy, including transportation fuels, electrical power and heat, and other bioproducts. Efforts in this area will ultimately support the development of technologies that can provide a large and sustainable cellulosic biomass feedstock supply of acceptable quality and at a reasonable cost for use by the developing U.S. advanced biofuel industry.

  1. Biomass Surface Characterization Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the recalcitrant nature of biomass feedstocks and the performance of techniques to deconstruct biomass NREL of biomass feedstocks. BSCL imaging capabilities include: · Confocal microscopy and Raman microscopy

  2. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: 2011 State of Technology and Projections to 2017

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Male, Jonathan L.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Review of the the status of DOE funded research for converting biomass to liquid transportation fuels via fast pyrolysis and hydrotreating for fiscal year 2011.

  3. Property:Project(s) where this technology is utilized | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag Jump to: navigation,ProjectStartDatePropertyWavemaking Jump to:This is a

  4. Solid Waste Energy Conversion Project, Reedy Creek Utilities Demonstration Plant: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solid Waste Energy Conversion (SWEC) facility proposed would produce high-temperature hot water from urban refuse and would also provide a demonstration pilot-plant for the proposed Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility (TWTF) in Idaho. The SWEC project would involve the construction of an incinerator facility capable of incinerating an average of 91 metric tons per day of municipal solid waste and generating high-temperature hot water using the off-gas heat. The facility is based on the Andco-Torrax slagging pyrolysis incineration process. The proposed action is described, as well as the existing environment at the site and identified potential environmental impacts. Coordination with federal, state, regional, or local plans and programs was examined, and no conflicts were identified. Programmatic alternatives to the proposed project were identified and their advantages, disadvantages, and environmental impacts were examined. It is found that the proposed action poses no significant environmental impacts, other than the short term effects of construction activities. (LEW)

  5. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, July--September 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R and D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the fourth quarter of FY-97 (July--September 1997). It describes 213 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include requests for general information including maps, geothermal heat pumps, resource and well data, space heating and cooling, greenhouses, acquaculture, equipment, district heating, resorts and spas, and industrial applications. Research activities include the completion of a Comprehensive Greenhouse Developer Package. Work accomplished on the revision of the Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook are discussed. Outreach activities include the publication of the Quarterly Bulletin (Vol. 18, No. 3), dissemination of information mainly through mailings of publications, geothermal library acquisition and use, participation in workshops, short courses, and technical meetings by the staff, and progress monitor reports on geothermal activities.

  6. Biomass shock pretreatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  7. A field demonstration project utilizing FBC/PCC residues for paving materials. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghafoori, N. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Mechanics

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Research has been undertaken into engineering properties of roller compacted concretes containing fluidized bed combustion/pulverized coal combustion (FBC/PCC) by-products as well as FBC/PCC-Portland Cement concrete mixtures prepared using conventional placement technique. This laboratory effort has resulted in identification of a number of potentially viable commercial applications for the FBC by-products residues derived from Illinois high-sulfur coal. One potential and promising application of the FBC/PCC solid waste residues, which also accounts for the large utilization of coal-based by-product materials, is in pavement construction. The proposal presented herein is intended to embark into a new endeavor in order to bring the commercialization aspect of the initial laboratory project a step closer to reality by conducting a field demonstration of the optimized mixtures identified during the two-year laboratory investigation. A total of twenty-three different pavement slabs will be constructed at an identified site located in the Illinois Coal Development Park, Carterville, Illinois, by two construction contractors who are part of the industrial participants of the initial project and have expressed interest in the construction of experimental slabs. Both conventional and roller compacted concrete placement techniques will be utilized. All sections will be subjected to an extensive engineering evaluation and will be monitored for nearly a year for both short and long-term performance. The field results will be compared to that of the equivalent laboratory-prepared mixes in order to ascertain the suitability, of the proposed mixes for field application. During this reporting period, the physico-chemical and preconditioning characteristics of the raw materials were evaluated. Construction of the experimental road consisting of twenty-three surface and base course slab sections was also completed.

  8. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    * * * * June 2002 * NRELTP-510-32438 Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for...

  9. Vicinity Property Assessments at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program Project Sites in the New York District - 13420

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewy, Ann; Hays, David [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (United States)] [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) has addressed sites across the nation for almost 4 decades. Multiple stake holder pressures, multiple regulations, and process changes occur over such long time periods. These result in many challenges to the FUSRAP project teams. Initial FUSRAP work was not performed under Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Records of Decision (ROD). The ROD identifies the remedy decision and ultimately the criteria to be used to release a site. Early FUSRAP projects used DOE Orders or the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) standards. Under current RODs, regulations may differ, resulting in different cleanup criteria than that used in prior Vicinity Property (VP) remediation. The USACE, in preparation for closeout of Sites, conducts reviews to evaluate whether prior actions were sufficient to meet the cleanup criteria specified in the current ROD. On the basis of these reviews, USACE has conducted additional sampling, determined that prior actions were sufficient, or conducted additional remediation consistent with the selected remedy in the ROD. As the public pressures, regulations, and processes that the FUSRAP encounters continue to change, the program itself continues to evolve. Assessment of VPs at FUSRAP sites is a necessary step in the life cycle of our site management. (authors)

  10. Economic Analysis of a 3MW Biomass Gasification Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cattolica, Robert; Lin, Kathy

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    facilities that use biomass, waste, or renewable resources (Renewable Power Purchase and Sale Agreement, Accessed May 2008 from www.sce.com 9. The California Biomassrenewable projects. Southern California Edison (SCE) has one such program for biomass

  11. Imperium/Lanzatech Syngas Fermentation Project - Biomass Gasification and Syngas Conditioning for Fermentation Evaluation: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-474

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, E.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LanzaTech and NREL will investigate the integration between biomass gasification and LanzaTech's proprietary gas fermentation process to produce ethanol and 2,3-butanediol. Using three feed materials (woody biomass, agricultural residue and herbaceous grass) NREL will produce syngas via steam indirect gasification and syngas conditioning over a range of process relevant operating conditions. The gasification temperature, steam-to-biomass ratio of the biomass feed into the gasifier, and several levels of syngas conditioning (based on temperature) will be varied to produce multiple syngas streams that will be fed directly to 10 liter seed fermenters operating with the Lanzatech organism. The NREL gasification system will then be integrated with LanzaTech's laboratory pilot unit to produce large-scale samples of ethanol and 2,3-butanediol for conversion to fuels and chemicals.

  12. Estimating the Energy, Demand and Cost Savings from a Geothermal Heat Pump ESPC Project at Fort Polk, LA Through Utility Bill Analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A [ORNL; Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy savings performance contracts (ESPCs) are a method of financing energy conservation projects using the energy cost savings generated by the conservation measures themselves. Ideally, reduced energy costs are visible as reduced utility bills, but in fact this is not always the case. On large military bases, for example, a single electric meter typically covers hundreds of individual buildings. Savings from an ESPC involving only a small number of these buildings will have little effect on the overall utility bill. In fact, changes in mission, occupancy, and energy prices could cause substantial increases in utility bills. For this reason, other, more practical, methods have been developed to measure and verify savings in ESPC projects. Nevertheless, increasing utility bills--when ESPCs are expected to be reducing them--are problematic and can lead some observers to question whether savings are actually being achieved. In this paper, the authors use utility bill analysis to determine energy, demand, and cost savings from an ESPC project that installed geothermal heat pumps in the family housing areas of the military base at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The savings estimates for the first year after the retrofits were found to be in substantial agreement with previous estimates that were based on submetered data. However, the utility bills also show that electrical use tended to increase as time went on. Since other data show that the energy use in family housing has remained about the same over the period, the authors conclude that the savings from the ESPC have persisted, and increases in electrical use must be due to loads unassociated with family housing. This shows that under certain circumstances, and with the proper analysis, utility bills can be used to estimate savings from ESPC projects. However, these circumstances are rare and over time the comparison may be invalidated by increases in energy use in areas unaffected by the ESPC.

  13. Biomass Burning Observation Project Specifically,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced Materials Find Find More LikeAndreasHelp(SC)CRADA

  14. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.

  15. Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in Estonia Biomass Utilisation of Local of primary energy in Estonia ! Wood fuels production ! Pellet firing projects in Estonia ­ SIDA Demo East Production of wood fuels in Estonia in 2002 Regional Energy Centres in Estonia Wood pellets production

  16. Lessons learned from existing biomass power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiltsee, G.

    2000-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This report includes summary information on 20 biomass power plants, which represent some of the leaders in the industry. In each category an effort is made to identify plants that illustrate particular points. The project experiences described capture some important lessons learned that lead in the direction of an improved biomass power industry.

  17. CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION OF BIOMASS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seth, Manu

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    liquid Fuels from Biomass: "Catalyst Screening and KineticUC-61 (l, RCO osn CDL or BIOMASS CATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION ManuCATALYTIC LIQUEFACTION OF BIOMASS Manu Seth, Roger Djafar,

  18. CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ergun, Sabri

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBL-11 019 UC-61 CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION Sabri Ergun,Catalytic Liquefaction of Biomass,n M, Seth, R. Djafar, G.of California. CATALYTIC BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION QUARTERLY

  19. Power Sales to Electric Utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1979 requires that electrical utilities interconnect with qualifying facilities and purchase electricity at a rate based upon their full avoided costs (i.e., costs of providing both capacity and energy). Qualifying facilities (QF) include solar or geothermal electric units, hydropower, municipal solid waste or biomass-fired power plants, and cogeneration projects that satisfy maximum size, fuel use, ownership, location, and/or efficiency criteria. In Washington State, neither standard power purchase prices based upon a proxy ''avoided plant'', standard contracts, or a standard offer process have been used. Instead, a variety of power purchase contracts have been negotiated by developers of qualifying facilities with investor-owned utilities, public utility districts, and municipally-owned and operated utilities. With a hydro-based system, benefits associated with resource acquisition are determined in large part by how compatible the resource is with a utility's existing generation mix. Power purchase rates are negotiated and vary according to firm energy production, guarantees, ability to schedule maintenance or downtime, rights of refusal, power plant purchase options, project start date and length of contract; front-loading or levelization provisions; and the ability of the project to provide ''demonstrated'' capacity. Legislation was also enacted which allows PURPA to work effectively. Initial laws established ownership rights and provided irrigation districts, PUDs, and municipalities with expanded enabling powers. Financial processes were streamlined and, in some cases, simplified. Finally, laws were passed which are designed to ensure that development proceeds in an environmentally acceptable manner. In retrospect, PURPA has worked well within Washington. In the state of Washington, 20 small-scale hydroelectric projects with a combined generating capacity of 77 MW, 3 solid waste-to-energy facilities with 55 MW of electrical output, 4 cogeneration projects with 34.5 MW of generating capability, and 4 wastewater treatment facility digester gas-to-energy projects with 5 MW of electrical production have come on-line (or are in the final stages of construction) since the passage of PURPA. These numbers represent only a small portion of Washington's untapped and underutilized cogeneration and renewable resource generating potentials. [DJE-2005

  20. COUNTERCURRENT CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO SUGARS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Russell

    2015-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Our goal was to research and implement a countercurrent system to run enzymatic saccharification of biomass. The project provided clear results to show that this method is more efficient than the batch process that companies currently employ. Excess...

  1. Countercurrent Conversion of Biomass to Sugars 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brooks, Heather Lauren

    2014-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Our goal was to research and implement a countercurrent system to run enzymatic saccharification of biomass. The project provided clear results to show that this method is more efficient than the batch process that companies currently employ. Excess...

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass "Bionic" Liquids from Lignin: Joint BioEnergy Institute Results Pave the Way for Closed-Loop Biofuel Refineries On December 11, 2014, in Biofuels, Biomass, Capabilities,...

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass Assessing the Economic Potential of Advanced Biofuels On September 10, 2013, in Biofuels, Biomass, Energy, Facilities, JBEI, News, News & Events, Partnership, Renewable...

  4. Biomass Analytical Library

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diversity and performance, The chemical and physical properties of biomass and biomass feedstocks are characterized as they move through the supply chain to various conversion...

  5. Biomass Densification Workshop Overview

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    supply systems that ensure high- volume, reliable, and on-spec availability of biomass feedstocks. The United States has a diverse and abundant potential of biomass resources...

  6. High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This abstract outlinse a project that is designing and demonstrating a high productivity system to harvest, process, and transport woody biomass from southern pine...

  7. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

  8. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shawn Maghzi; Ramanathan Subramanian; George Rizeq; Surinder Singh; John McDermott; Boris Eiteneer; David Ladd; Arturo Vazquez; Denise Anderson; Noel Bates

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energyâ??s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GEâ??s bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and gas-phase reactions were properly reproduced and lead to representative syngas composition at the syngas cooler outlet. The experimental work leveraged other ongoing GE R&D efforts such as biomass gasification and dry feeding systems projects. Experimental data obtained under this project were used to provide guidance on the appropriate clean-up system(s) and operating parameters to coal and biomass combinations beyond those evaluated under this project.

  9. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy‘s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE‘s bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and gas-phase reactions were properly reproduced and lead to representative syngas composition at the syngas cooler outlet. The experimental work leveraged other ongoing GE R&D efforts such as biomass gasification and dry feeding systems projects. Experimental data obtained under this project were used to provide guidance on the appropriate clean-up system(s) and operating parameters to coal and biomass combinations beyond those evaluated under this project.

  10. Collection, Commercial Processing, and Utilization of Corn Stover

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet summarizes a U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program research and development project.

  11. Production of New Biomass/Waste-Containing Solid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    CQ Inc. and its industry partners--PBS Coals, Inc. (Friedens, Pennsylvania), American Fiber Resources (Fairmont, West Virginia), Allegheny Energy Supply (Williamsport, Maryland), and the Heritage Research Group (Indianapolis, Indiana)--addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that is applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provides environmental benefits compared with coal. During Phase I of this project (January 1999 to July 2000), several biomass/waste materials were evaluated for potential use in a composite fuel. As a result of that work and the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production, paper mill sludge and coal were selected for further evaluation and demonstration in Phase II. In Phase II (June 2001 to December 2004), the project team demonstrated the GranuFlow technology as part of a process to combine paper sludge and coal to produce a composite fuel with combustion and handling characteristics acceptable to existing boilers and fuel handling systems. Bench-scale studies were performed at DOE-NETL, followed by full-scale commercial demonstrations to produce the composite fuel in a 400-tph coal cleaning plant and combustion tests at a 90-MW power plant boiler to evaluate impacts on fuel handling, boiler operations and performance, and emissions. A circuit was successfully installed to re-pulp and inject paper sludge into the fine coal dewatering circuit of a commercial coal-cleaning plant to produce 5,000 tons of a ''composite'' fuel containing about 5% paper sludge. Subsequent combustion tests showed that boiler efficiency and stability were not compromised when the composite fuel was blended with the boiler's normal coal supply. Firing of the composite fuel blend did not have any significant impact on emissions as compared to the normal coal supply, and it did not cause any excursions beyond Title V regulatory limits; all emissions were well within regulatory limits. SO{sub 2} emissions decreased during the composite fuel blend tests as a result of its higher heat content and slightly lower sulfur content as compared to the normal coal supply. The composite fuel contained an extremely high proportion of fines because the parent coal (feedstock to the coal-cleaning plant) is a ''soft'' coal (HGI > 90) and contained a high proportion of fines. The composite fuel was produced and combustion-tested under record wet conditions for the local area. In spite of these conditions, full load was obtained by the boiler when firing the composite fuel blend, and testing was completed without any handling or combustion problems beyond those typically associated with wet coal. Fuel handling and pulverizer performance (mill capacity and outlet temperatures) could become greater concerns when firing composite fuels which contain higher percent

  12. Coal conversion and biomass conversion: Volume 1: Final report on USAID (Agency for International Development)/GOI (Government of India) Alternate Energy Resources and Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, A.; Saluja, J.

    1987-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Agency for International Development (AID), in joint collaboration with the Government of India (GOI), supported a research and development program in Alternate Energy Resources during the period March 1983 to June 1987. The primary emphasis of this program was to develop new and advanced coal and biomass conversion technologies for the efficient utilization of coal and biomass feedstocks in India. This final ''summary'' report is divided into two volumes. This Report, Volume I, covers the program overview and coal projects and Volume II summarizes the accomplishments of the biomass projects. The six projects selected in the area of coal were: Evaluation of the Freeboard Performance in a Fluidized-Bed Combustor; Scale-up of AFBC boilers; Rheology, Stability and Combustion of Coal-Water Slurries; Beneficiation of Fine Coal in Dense Medium Cyclones; Hot Gas Cleanup and Separation; and Cold Gas Cleanup and Separation.

  13. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international collaboration with Canada to investigate kelp (seaweed) as a biomass feedstock. The collaborative project includes process testing of the kelp in HydroThermal Liquefaction in the bench-scale unit at PNNL. HydroThermal Liquefaction at PNNL is performed in the hydrothermal processing bench-scale reactor system. Slurries of biomass are prepared in the laboratory from whole ground biomass materials. Both wet processing and dry processing mills can be used, but the wet milling to final slurry is accomplished in a stirred ball mill filled with angle-cut stainless steel shot. The PNNL HTL system, as shown in the figure, is a continuous-flow system including a 1-litre stirred tank preheater/reactor, which can be connected to a 1-litre tubular reactor. The product is filtered at high-pressure to remove mineral precipitate before it is collected in the two high-pressure collectors, which allow the liquid products to be collected batchwise and recovered alternately from the process flow. The filter can be intermittently back-flushed as needed during the run to maintain operation. By-product gas is vented out the wet test meter for volume measurement and samples are collected for gas chromatography compositional analysis. The bio-oil product is analyzed for elemental content in order to calculate mass and elemental balances around the experiments. Detailed chemical analysis is performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 13-C nuclear magnetic resonance is used to evaluate functional group types in the bio-oil. Sufficient product is produced to allow subsequent catalytic hydroprocessing to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. The product bio-oil from hydrothermal liquefaction is typically a more viscous product compared to fast pyrolysis bio-oil. There are several reasons for this difference. The HTL bio-oil contains a lower level of oxygen because of more extensive secondary reaction of the pyrolysis products. There are less amounts of the many light oxygenates derived from the carbohydrate structures as they have been further reacted to phenolic Aldol condensation products. The bio-oil

  14. Biomass treatment method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friend, Julie (Claymont, DE); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, III; Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Lyons, Robert C. (Arvada, CO)

    2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

  15. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H{sub 2}Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H{sub 2}) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H{sub 2} is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H{sub 2}Bioil process for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on model compounds as well as real biomass feedstocks were utilized to identify optimized process conditions and selective HDO catalyst for high yield production of hydrocarbons from biomass. In addition to these experimental efforts, in Tasks D and E, we have developed a mathematical optimization framework to identify carbon and energy efficient biomass-to-liquid fuel process designs that integrate the use of different primary energy sources along with biomass (e.g. solar, coal or natural gas) for liquid fuel production. Using this tool, we have identified augmented biomass-to-liquid fuel configurations based on the fast-hydropyrolysis/HDO pathway, which was experimentally studied in this project. The computational approach used for screening alternative process configurations represents a unique contribution to the field of biomass processing for liquid fuel production.

  16. Mapping Biomass Distribution Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaetzel, Michael

    2010-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Mapping Biomass Distribution Potential Michael Schaetzel Undergraduate ? Environmental Studies ? University of Kansas L O C A T S I O N BIOMASS ENERGY POTENTIAL o According to DOE, Biomass has the potential to provide 14% of... the nation’s power o Currently 1% of national power supply o Carbon neutral? combustion of biomass is part of the natural carbon cycle o Improved crop residue management has potential to benefit environment, producers, and economy Biomass Btu...

  17. Mississippi Public Utility Act

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Mississippi Public Utility Act is relevant to any project that plans to generate energy. It requires that a utility must first obtain a Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity (CPCN)...

  18. Nevada Test Site Perspective on Characterization and Loading of Legacy Transuranic Drums Utilizing the Central Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.G. Lahoud; J. F. Norton; I. L. Siddoway; L. W. Griswold

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) has successfully completed a multi-year effort to characterize and ship 1860 legacy transuranic (TRU) waste drums for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a permanent TRU disposal site. This has been a cooperative effort among the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), the U.S. Department of Energy, Carlsbad Field Office (DOE/CBFO), the NTS Management and Operations (M&O) contractor Bechtel Nevada (BN), and various contractors under the Central Characterization Project (CCP) umbrella. The success is due primarily to the diligence, perseverance, and hard work of each of the contractors, the DOE/CBFO, and NNSA/NSO, along with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Headquarters (DOE/HQ). This paper presents, from an NTS perspective, the challenges and successes of utilizing the CCP for obtaining a certified characterization program, sharing responsibilities for characterization, data validation, and loading of TRU waste with BN to achieve disposal at WIPP from a Small Quantity Site (SQS) such as the NTS. The challenges in this effort arose from two general sources. First, the arrangement of DOE/CBFO contractors under the CCP performing work and certifying waste at the NTS within a Hazard Category 2 (HazCat 2) non-reactor nuclear facility operated by BN, presented difficult challenges. The nuclear safety authorization basis, safety liability and responsibility, conduct of operations, allocation and scheduling of resources, and other issues were particularly demanding. The program-level and field coordination needed for the closely interrelated characterization tasks was extensive and required considerable effort by all parties. The second source of challenge was the legacy waste itself. None of the waste was generated at the NTS. The waste was generated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Lynchburg, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), and a variety of other sites over 20 years ago, making the development of Acceptable Knowledge a significant and problematic effort. In addition, the characterization requirements, and data quality objectives for shipment and WIPP disposal today, were non-existent when this waste was generated, resulting in real-time adjustments to unexpected conditions.

  19. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP while demonstrating the ICCT CT-121 FGD Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy is performing comprehensive assessments of toxic emissions from eight selected coal-fired electric utility units. This program responds to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which require the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utility power plants for Potential health risks. The resulting data will be furnished to EPA utility power plants and health risk determinations. The assessment of emissions involves the collection and analysis of samples from the major input, process, and output streams of each of the eight power plants for selected hazardous Pollutants identified in Title III of the Clean Air Act. Additional goals are to determine the removal efficiencies of pollution control subsystems for these selected pollutants and the Concentrations associated with the particulate fraction of the flue gas stream as a function of particle size. Material balances are being performed for selected pollutants around the entire power plant and several subsystems to identify the fate of hazardous substances in each utility system. Radian Corporation was selected to perform a toxics assessment at a plant demonstrating an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project. The site selected is Plant Yates Unit No. 1 of Georgia Power Company, which includes a Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 demonstration project.

  20. Utility residential new construction programs: Going beyond the code. A report from the Database on Energy Efficiency Programs (DEEP) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vine, E.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on an evaluation of 10 residential new construction programs, primarily sponsored by investor-owned utilities in the United States, we find that many of these programs are in dire straits and are in danger of being discontinued because current inclusion of only direct program effects leads to the conclusion that they are not cost-effective. We believe that the cost-effectiveness of residential new construction programs can be improved by: (1) promoting technologies and advanced building design practices that significantly exceed state and federal standards; (2) reducing program marketing costs and developing more effective marketing strategies; (3) recognizing the role of these programs in increasing compliance with existing state building codes; and (4) allowing utilities to obtain an ``energy-savings credit`` from utility regulators for program spillover (market transformation) impacts. Utilities can also leverage their resources in seizing these opportunities by forming strong and trusting partnerships with the building community and with local and state government.

  1. Biomass, Condition of Western Lake Erie Dreissenids Primary Investigator: Thomas Nalepa -NOAA GLERL (Emeritus)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biomass, Condition of Western Lake Erie Dreissenids Primary Investigator: Thomas Nalepa - NOAA of dreissenid biomass but there are no current, accurate estimates of biomass in this portion of the lake. Biomass is calculated from abundances, size- frequencies, and length-weights. The goal of this project

  2. Utility lighting summit proves illuminating

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Utility-lighting-summit-proves-illuminating Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects...

  3. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    -Products Utilization E-mail: ymchun@uwm.edu and F. D. Botha Project Manager, Illinois Clean Coal Institute 5776 Coal, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA. 4 Project Manager, Illinois Clean Coal Institute

  4. Mobile Biomass Pelletizing System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Mason

    2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This grant project examines multiple aspects of the pelletizing process to determine the feasibility of pelletizing biomass using a mobile form factor system. These aspects are: the automatic adjustment of the die height in a rotary-style pellet mill, the construction of the die head to allow the use of ceramic materials for extreme wear, integrating a heat exchanger network into the entire process from drying to cooling, the use of superheated steam for adjusting the moisture content to optimum, the economics of using diesel power to operate the system; a break-even analysis of estimated fixed operating costs vs. tons per hour capacity. Initial development work has created a viable mechanical model. The overall analysis of this model suggests that pelletizing can be economically done using a mobile platform.

  5. Root biomass and nutrient content of a 25-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus Taeda L.) plantation in East Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tuttle, Charles LaGrone

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF FIGURES Figure Page I Biomass study site Newton Co". , Texas 17 2 Arrangement 'of sample blocks around the taproot. 21 3 Relationship of dry taproot weight to tree diameter for 25-year-old loblolly pine 32 INTRODUCTION The demand for wood fiber..., and more complete biomass utilization (Boyce, 1975). Taproot biomass utilization has been reported to increase wood fiber production by 25 to 30 percent (Koch, 1974r Koch and Coughran, 1975). However, increased biomass utilization has caused concern...

  6. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program summary, Project No. 669

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared Volume 1 of a safety evaluation report (SER), NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document -- Program Summary,'' to document the results of its review of the Electric Power Research Institute's Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document.'' This SER provides a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff's review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  7. Case Studies of Potential Facility-Scale and Utility-Scale Non-Hydro Renewable Energy Projects across Reclamation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haase, S.; Burman, K.; Dahle, D.; Heimiller, D.; Jimenez, A.; Melius, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; VanGeet, O.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of an assessment and analysis of renewable energy opportunities conducted for the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Tasks included assessing the suitability for wind and solar on both a utility and facility scale.

  8. The cost and performance of utility commercial lighting programs. A report from the Database on Energy Efficiency Programs (DEEP) project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, J.; Vine, E.; Shown, L.; Sonnenblick, R.; Payne, C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Database on Energy Efficiency Programs (DEEP) is to document the measured cost and performance of utility-sponsored, energy-efficiency, demand-side management (DSM) programs. Consistent documentation of DSM programs is a challenging goal because of problems with data consistency, evaluation methodologies, and data reporting formats that continue to limit the usefulness and comparability of individual program results. This first DEEP report investigates the results of 20 recent commercial lighting DSM programs. The report, unlike previous reports of its kind, compares the DSM definitions and methodologies that each utility uses to compute costs and energy savings and then makes adjustments to standardize reported program results. All 20 programs were judged cost-effective when compared to avoided costs in their local areas. At an average cost of 3.9{cents}/kWh, however, utility-sponsored energy efficiency programs are not ``too cheap to meter.`` While it is generally agreed upon that utilities must take active measures to minimize the costs and rate impacts of DSM programs, the authors believe that these activities will be facilitated by industry adoption of standard definitions and reporting formats, so that the best program designs can be readily identified and adopted.

  9. Pretreated densified biomass products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Bruce E; Ritchie, Bryan; Marshall, Derek

    2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A product comprising at least one densified biomass particulate of a given mass having no added binder and comprised of a plurality of lignin-coated plant biomass fibers is provided, wherein the at least one densified biomass particulate has an intrinsic density substantially equivalent to a binder-containing densified biomass particulate of the same given mass and h a substantially smooth, non-flakey outer surface. Methods for using and making the product are also described.

  10. AVAILABLE NOW! Biomass Funding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AVAILABLE NOW! Biomass Funding Guide 2010 The Forestry Commission and the Humber Rural Partnership (co-ordinated by East Riding of Yorkshire Council) have jointly produced a biomass funding guide fuel prices continue to rise, and the emerging biomass sector is well-placed to make a significant

  11. SUMMARY AND RESULTS LETTER REPORT – INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION OF THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR UNDERGROUND UTILITIES REMOVAL PROJECT, PHASE 3: TRENCHES 2, 3, AND 4 BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY UPTON, NEW YORK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.M. Harpenau

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    5098-LR-02-0 SUMMARY AND RESULTS LETTER REPORT – INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION OF THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR UNDERGROUND UTILITIES REMOVAL PROJECT, PHASE 3 TRENCHES 2, 3, AND 4 BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

  12. Analysis of Low-Temperature Utilization of Geothermal Resources...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    researchers that will evaluate low-temperature geothermal utilization for three different case studies: - A hybrid biomass-geothermal cogeneration system at Cornell University, - A...

  13. Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L. Kenney; William A. Smith; Garold L. Gresham; Tyler L. Westover

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions, and differing harvest, collection, and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture, and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

  14. Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L. Kenney; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; Tyler L. Westover

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per-ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that, due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions and differing harvest, collection and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

  15. Big Island Demonstration Project – Black Liquor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet summarizes a U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program research and development project.

  16. Forest Biomass Supply for BioForest Biomass Supply for Bio--productionproduction in the Southeastern United Statesin the Southeastern United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    Bio--production and biomass utilizationsproduction and biomass utilizations Industrial sector: for heat and steam Utility Fermentation Gasification Pyrolysis Heat, steam, electricity Ethanol Methanol, ethanol, diesel, syngas for biofuel producers and retailers · Energy Security Act of 1980: insured loans to small ethanol plants

  17. United States Department of Energy Biomass Power Demonstration programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bain, R.L.; Craig, K.R.; Overend, R.P.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy`s (DOE) Biomass Power Program includes core activities such as: working with the biomass power industry to overcome problems in using some forms of biomass in existing boilers; evaluating and developing advanced technologies such as gasification and pyrolysis; assessing the characteristics of biogas produced from various gasification technologies; developing clean-up technology for high-temperature biogas; supporting small-system demonstrations; analyzing biomass power systems; and sponsoring cost-shared feasibility studies with industry. The Biomass Power Program is supporting integrated efforts such as the {open_quotes}Energy Partnerships for a Strong Economy{close_quotes} initiative, which includes jointly funded commercial application projects such as the Hawaii Biomass Gasifier Project at the Hawaii Commercial and Sugar Company`s sugar processing plant in Paia, Maui, Hawaii, and the Vermont Biomass Gasifier project at Burlington Electric Department`s 50-megawatt wood-fired McNeil Station in Burlington, Vermont. DOE is also supporting commercialization of integrated production systems through a collaborative effort with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and private industry. The objective of the {open_quotes}Biomass Power for Rural Development{close_quotes} initiative is to successfully demonstrate the integration of biomass feedstock production with high-efficiency power production systems which will produce power at cost-competitive rates. This paper will discuss details of a number of integrated production feasibility studies, technology demonstration projects (the Hawaii and Vermont gasifier projects), and integrated commercialization through the {open_quotes}Biomass Power for Rural Development{close_quotes} initiative; and will show the importance of such projects for future commercialization of biomass-based power generation using advanced technologies.

  18. Biomass IBR Fact Sheet: BlueFire

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project involves the development, construction, and operation of a biorefinery producing ethanol and other coproducts from cellulosic materials that utilize a patented concentrated acidhydrolysis process.

  19. Clinical utility of a multigated modified anterior projection in the detection of left ventricular inferior and apical wall motion abnormalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polak, J.F.; Bianco, J.A.; Kemper, A.J.; Tow, D.E.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent evidence indicates that the left anterior oblique projection (LAO) multigated radionuclide ventriculogram (RVG) underestimates presence and extent of apical and inferior left ventricular (LV) wall motion abnormalities. We investigated, prospectively, the sensitivity and specificity of a modified anterior projection (MAP), which incorporates cephalad tilting. Thirty-three consecutive patients undergoing cardiac catheterization suspected to have coronary artery disease were studied with RVG, using both the MAP and LAO views. LAO views were analyzed using the ejection fraction image (REFI), and the regional ejection fraction (REF) of the inferoapical region. The MAP studies were analyzed using stroke volume image (SVI) to evaluate apical and inferior LV regions. Results were as follows: (Formula: see text), Both intraobserver and interobserver variabilities were comparable to those of conventional angiographic studies used in detection of apical and inferior asynergy. It is concluded that the multigated MAP offers additional information about abnormalities of the LV inferior and apical regions.

  20. Lignin-blocking treatment of biomass and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Bin (Hanover, NH); Wyman, Charles E. (Norwich, VT)

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method for converting cellulose in a lignocellulosic biomass. The method provides for a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein treatment of high lignin solids. The treatment enhances cellulase availability in cellulose conversion. Cellulase efficiencies are improved by the protein or polypeptide treatment. The treatment may be used in combination with steam explosion and acid prehydrolysis techniques. Hydrolysis yields from lignin containing biomass are enhanced 5-20%, and enzyme utilization is increased from 10% to 50%. Thus, a more efficient and economical method of processing lignin containing biomass materials utilizes a polypeptide/protein treatment step that effectively blocks lignin binding of cellulase.

  1. Complex pendulum biomass sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Kenney, Kevin L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Perrenoud, Ben C. (Rigby, ID)

    2007-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.

  2. Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast Pyrolysis, Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking: 2012 State of Technology and Projections to 2017

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.

    2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the economic impact of the work performed at PNNL during FY12 to improve fast pyrolysis oil upgrading via hydrotreating. A comparison is made between the projected economic outcome and the actual results based on experimental data. Sustainability metrics are also included.

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass Renewable Systems On November 4, 2010, in Renewable Systems Renewable Energy Transportation Nuclear Fossil Energy Efficiency Publications Events News Renewable Systems The...

  4. Co-firing biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, T.; Tennant, D. [Hunt, Guillot & Associates LLC (United States)

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Concern about global warming has altered the landscape for fossil-fuel combustion. The advantages and challenges of co-firing biomass and coal are discussed. 2 photos.

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biofuels Biofuels Publications Biochemical Conversion Program Lignocellulosic Biomass Microalgae Thermochemical Conversion Sign up for our E-Newsletter Required.gif?3.21 Email...

  6. Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass via High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant L. Hawkes; Michael G. McKellar

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-fed biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

  7. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Federal Assistance Program quarterly project progress report, April 1--June 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R and D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the third quarter of FY98 (April--June, 1998). It describes 231 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with included requests for general information including material for high school and university students, and material on geothermal heat pumps, resource and well data, spacing heating and cooling, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, district heating, resorts and spas, industrial applications, snow melting and electric power. Research activities include work on model construction specifications for line shaft submersible pumps and plate heat exchangers, and a comprehensive aquaculture developers package. A brochure on Geothermal Energy in Klamath County was developed for state and local tourism use. Outreach activities include the publication of the Quarterly Bulletin (Vol. 19, No. 2) with articles on research at the Geo-Heat Center, sustainability of geothermal resources, injection well drilling in Boise, ID and a greenhouse project in the Azores. Other outreach activities include dissemination of information mainly through mailings of publications, tours of local geothermal uses, geothermal library acquisitions and use, participation in workshops, short courses and technical meetings by the staff, and progress monitor reports on geothermal activities.

  8. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1983 Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights of progress achieved in the program of thermochemical conversion of biomass into clean fuels during 1983 are summarized. Gasification research projects include: production of a medium-Btu gas without using purified oxygen at Battelle-Columbus Laboratories; high pressure (up to 500 psia) steam-oxygen gasification of biomass in a fluidized bed reactor at IGT; producing synthesis gas via catalytic gasification at PNL; indirect reactor heating methods at the Univ. of Missouri-Rolla and Texas Tech Univ.; improving the reliability, performance, and acceptability of small air-blown gasifiers at Univ. of Florida-Gainesville, Rocky Creek Farm Gasogens, and Cal Recovery Systems. Liquefaction projects include: determination of individual sequential pyrolysis mechanisms at SERI; research at SERI on a unique entrained, ablative fast pyrolysis reactor for supplying the heat fluxes required for fast pyrolysis; work at BNL on rapid pyrolysis of biomass in an atmosphere of methane to increase the yields of olefin and BTX products; research at the Georgia Inst. of Tech. on an entrained rapid pyrolysis reactor to produce higher yields of pyrolysis oil; research on an advanced concept to liquefy very concentrated biomass slurries in an integrated extruder/static mixer reactor at the Univ. of Arizona; and research at PNL on the characterization and upgrading of direct liquefaction oils including research to lower oxygen content and viscosity of the product. Combustion projects include: research on a directly fired wood combustor/gas turbine system at Aerospace Research Corp.; adaptation of Stirling engine external combustion systems to biomass fuels at United Stirling, Inc.; and theoretical modeling and experimental verification of biomass combustion behavior at JPL to increase biomass combustion efficiency and examine the effects of additives on combustion rates. 26 figures, 1 table.

  9. Biomass 2013 Attendee List | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Attendee List Biomass 2013 Attendee List This is a list of attendees for the Biomass 2013 conference. biomass2013attendeelist.pdf More Documents & Publications Biomass 2013...

  10. Biomass One Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: EnergyAvignon,Belcher HomesLyons BiomassBiofuels)Biomass Facility Jump

  11. Utility Community Solar Handbook- Understanding and Supporting Utility Program Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The "Utility Community Solar Handbook: Understanding and Supporting Utility Program Development" provides the utility's perspective on community solar program development and is a resource for government officials, regulators, community organizers, solar energy advocates, non-profits, and interested citizens who want to support their local utilities in implementing projects.

  12. Biomass Research Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenney, Kevin; Wright, Christopher; Shelton-Davis, Colleen

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INL's mission is to achieve DOE's vision of supplying high-quality raw biomass; preprocessing biomass into advanced bioenergy feedstocks; and delivering bioenergy commodities to biorefineries. You can learn more about research like this at the lab's facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  13. Biomass Research Program

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Kenney, Kevin; Wright, Christopher; Shelton-Davis, Colleen

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    INL's mission is to achieve DOE's vision of supplying high-quality raw biomass; preprocessing biomass into advanced bioenergy feedstocks; and delivering bioenergy commodities to biorefineries. You can learn more about research like this at the lab's facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  14. Module Handbook Specialisation Biomass Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damm, Werner

    Module Handbook Specialisation Biomass Energy 2nd Semester for the Master Programme REMA/EUREC Course 2008/2009 University of Zaragoza Specialisation Provider: Biomass Energy #12;Specialisation Biomass Energy, University of Zaragoza Modul: Introduction and Basic Concepts

  15. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY to treatment prescriptions and anticipated outputs of sawlogs and biomass fuel? How many individual operations biomass fuel removed. Typically in plantations. 50% No harvest treatment

  16. Utility Partnerships

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Utility Partnerships 7/10/12. Provides an overview of LEAP's (Charlottesville, VA) partnership with local utilities.

  17. Federal Utility Partnership Working Group- Utility Interconnection Panel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at at the Fall 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—discusses solar/photovoltaic (PV) projects to connect with utility in California and their issues.

  18. Federal Utility Partnership Working Group Participants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The following Federal agencies have participated in the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group or engaged in a utility energy service contract project.

  19. Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a project that developed fuel-flexible, low-emissions burner technology capable of using biomass-derived liquid fuels, such as glycerin or fatty acids, as...

  20. NREL: Biomass Research - Video Text

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    common corn grain ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol is made from organic plant matter called biomass. The video shows different forms of biomass such as switchgrass, corn stalks, and...

  1. BIOMASS ENERGY CONVERSION IN HAWAII

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritschard, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    biomass resources will have to be reassessed periodically in the light of priceEthanol Price. Effect of Sugar on Ethanol Cost • vii BIOMASS

  2. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY .................................................................................... 33 3.3 BIOMASS POWER PLANT OPERATION MODELS AND DATA

  3. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY and continuously between the earth's biomass and atmosphere. From a greenhouse gas perspective, forest treatments

  4. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY Citation: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. 2009. Biomass to Energy: Forest

  5. Developing better biomass feedstock | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Developing better biomass feedstock Developing better biomass feedstock Released: September 04, 2014 Multi-omics unlocking the workings of plants Kim Hixson, an EMSL research...

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: biomass conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    biomass conversion Sandia Video Featured by DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office On December 10, 2014, in Biofuels, Biomass, Capabilities, Energy, Facilities, JBEI, News, News &...

  7. NREL: Biomass Research - Amie Sluiter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Biomass Analysis Technologies team to provide compositional analysis data on biomass feedstocks and process intermediates for use in pretreatment models and techno-economic...

  8. February 19, 2013 Webinar: Exploring How Municipal Utilities...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    February 19, 2013 Webinar: Exploring How Municipal Utilities Fund Solar Energy Projects February 19, 2013 Webinar: Exploring How Municipal Utilities Fund Solar Energy Projects This...

  9. A survey of state clean energy fund support for biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzgerald, Garrett; Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2004-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This survey reviews efforts by CESA member clean energy funds to promote the use of biomass as a renewable energy source. For each fund, details are provided regarding biomass eligibility for support, specific programs offering support to biomass projects, and examples of supported biomass projects (if available). For the purposes of this survey, biomass is defined to include bio-product gasification, combustion, co-firing, biofuel production, and the combustion of landfill gas, though not all of the programs reviewed here take so wide a definition. Programs offered by non-CESA member funds fall outside the scope of this survey. To date, three funds--the California Energy Commission, Wisconsin Focus on Energy, and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority--have offered programs targeted specifically at the use of biomass as a renewable energy source. We begin by reviewing efforts in these three funds, and then proceed to cover programs in other funds that have provided support to biomass projects when the opportunity has arisen, but otherwise do not differentially target biomass relative to other renewable technologies.

  10. Renewable Energy: Utility-Scale Policies and Programs | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Policies & Programs Renewable Energy: Utility-Scale Policies and Programs Renewable Energy: Utility-Scale Policies and Programs Utility-scale renewable energy projects are...

  11. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    -Milwaukee, P.O. Box 784, Milwaukee, WI 53201 d Project Manager, Illinois Clean Coal Institute * Director UWM products containing clean coal ash compared to conventional coal ash. Utilization of clean coal ash is much products that utilize clean coal ash. With increasing federal regulations on power plant emissions, finding

  12. DOE 2014 Biomass Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 1C—Fostering Technology Adoption I: Building the Market for Renewables with High Octane Fuels DOE 2014 Biomass Conference Jim Williams, Senior Manager, American Petroleum Institute

  13. Biomass Energy Production Incentive

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2007 South Carolina enacted the ''Energy Freedom and Rural Development Act'', which provides production incentives for certain biomass-energy facilities. Eligible systems earn $0.01 per kilowatt...

  14. Strategic Biomass Solutions (Mississippi)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Strategic Biomass Solutions (SBS) was formed by the Mississippi Technology Alliance in June 2009. The purpose of the SBS is to provide assistance to existing and potential companies, investors...

  15. Biomass and Other Unconventional Energy Resources 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gershman, H. G.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The primary technologies used to convert biomass to energy are direct combustion systems and Ithe gasification/pyrolysis method. IThe latter method creates a gaseous, li~uid or solid fuel to be used by an industry. Gasification involves the destr... with environmentally sound energy conservation; and the high rate of return, IRR typically 30-40 percent after taxes for investments utilizing industrial solid waste. This final point is particularly important because any waste-to-energy facility must compete...

  16. Biomass 2014 Poster Session

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) invites students, researchers, public and private organizations, and members of the general public to submit poster abstracts for consideration for the annual Biomass Conference Poster Session. The Biomass 2014 conference theme focuses on topics that are advancing the growth of the bioeconomy, such as improvements in feedstock logistics; promising, innovative pathways for advanced biofuels; and market-enabling co-products.

  17. BIOMASS ACTION PLAN FOR SCOTLAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BIOMASS ACTION PLAN FOR SCOTLAND #12; #12;© Crown copyright 2007 ISBN: 978 0 7559 6506 9 Scottish% recyclable. #12;A BIOMASS ACTION PLAN FOR SCOTLAND #12;#12;1 CONTENTS FOREWORD 3 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 5 2. INTRODUCTION 9 3. WIDER CONTEXT 13 4. SCOTLAND'S ROLE IN THE UK BIOMASS STRATEGY 17 5. BIOMASS HEATING 23 6

  18. Woody biomass resource of Alabama. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosson, J.F.; Thomas, C.E.

    1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The extent of total live biomass in a forest ecosystem is summarized by an equation. If forest biomass becomes a substantial component of fuel supply, certain resource supply/demand issues become evident. This, in effect, will impact on the future of forest biomass as a renewable-resource element. To supply a growing demand for biomass fuel, certain limited management options are available to managers. It is clear that benefits and risks are associated with all phases of any form of energy production. The direct and indirect costs and benefits of utilizing biomass for energy need to be identified and evaluated. The first step in the process involves identification of the resource and its quantity, composition, distribution, and potential availability.

  19. Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Air Use Management (NESCAUM) Sector: Energy Focus Area: Biomass, - Biomass Combustion, - Biomass Gasification, - Biomass Pyrolysis, - Biofuels, Economic Development...

  20. Utility Service Renovations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any upgrade to utility service provides an opportunity to revisit a Federal building's electrical loads and costs, but it also may provide an economic way to bundle the upgrade with an onsite renewable electricity project during renovation. Upgrading utility service to the site may involve improving or adding a transformer, upgrading utility meters, or otherwise modifying the interconnection equipment or services with the utility. In some cases, the upgrade may change the tariff structure for the facility and may qualify the property for a different structure with lower overall costs. In all cases, the implementation of renewable energy technologies should be identified during the design phase.

  1. Electricity from biomass: An environmental review and strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an environmental assessment and strategy for the US Department of Energy Biomass Power Program. The regulatory context and the environmental impact of biomass power technologies are described, and an environmental plan for the program is suggested. The plan suggest a proactive, synergistic approach, involving multiple parties with a stake in the successful commercialization of a biomass power industry. These parties include feedstock growers, state regulators. Forest Service and agricultural agents, utilities and independent power producers, rural electric cooperatives, and environmental activists.

  2. EA-1850: Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. Proposed Wood Biomass-to-Liquid Fuel Biorefinery, Park Falls, Wisconsin

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: This EA has been cancelled. This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to provide federal funding to Flambeau River Biofuels (FRB) to construct and operate a biomass-to-liquid biorefinery in Park Falls, Wisconsin, on property currently used by Flambeau Rivers Paper, LLC (FRP) for a pulp and paper mill and Johnson Timber Corporation's (JTC) Summit Lake Yard for timber storage. This project would design a biorefinery which would produce up to 1,150 barrels per day (bpd) of clean syncrude. The biorefinery would also supply steam to the FRP mill, meeting the majority of the mill's steam demand and reducing or eliminating the need for the existing biomass/coal-fired boiler. The biorefinery would also include a steam turbine generator that will produce "green" electrical power for use by the biorefinery or for sale to the electric utility.

  3. RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT TO PREPARE AND CHARACTERIZE ROBUST COAL/BIOMASS MIXTURES FOR DIRECT CO-FEEDING INTO GASIFICATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felix, Larry; Farthing, William; Hoekman, S. Kent

    2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated on October 1, 2010 and utilizes equipment and research supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Number DE- FE0005349. It is also based upon previous work supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Numbers DOE-DE-FG36-01GOl1082, DE-FG36-02G012011 or DE-EE0000272. The overall goal of the work performed was to demonstrate and assess the economic viability of fast hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) for transforming lignocellulosic biomass into a densified, friable fuel to gasify like coal that can be easily blended with ground coal and coal fines and then be formed into robust, weather-resistant pellets and briquettes. The specific objectives of the project include: • Demonstration of the continuous production of a uniform densified and formed feedstock from loblolly pine (a lignocellulosic, short rotation woody crop) in a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process development unit (PDU). • Demonstration that finely divided bituminous coal and HTC loblolly pine can be blended to form 90/10 and 70/30 weight-percent mixtures of coal and HTC biomass for further processing by pelletization and briquetting equipment to form robust weather resistant pellets and/or briquettes suitable for transportation and long term storage. • Characterization of the coal-biomass pellets and briquettes to quantify their physical properties (e.g. flow properties, homogeneity, moisture content, particle size and shape), bulk physical properties (e.g. compressibility, heat transfer and friability) and assess their suitability for use as fuels for commercially-available coal gasifiers. • Perform economic analyses using Aspen-based process simulations to determine the costs for deploying and operating HTC processing facilities for the production of robust coal/biomass fuels suitable for fueling commercially-available coal-fired gasifiers. This Final Project Scientific/Technical Report discusses and documents the project work required to meet each of these objectives.

  4. The Use of Biomass for Power Generation in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none

    2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, biomass has been man's principal source of energy, mainly used in the form of wood for cooking and heating. With the industrial revolution and the introduction of motorized transportation and electricity, fossil fuels became the dominant source of energy. Today, biomass is the largest domestic source of renewable energy providing over 3% of total U.S. energy consumption, and surpassing hydropower. Yet, recent increases in the price and volatility of fossil fuel supplies and the financial impacts from a number of financially distressed investments in natural gas combined cycle power plants have led to a renewed interest in electricity generation from biomass. The biomass-fueled generation market is a dynamic one that is forecast to show significant growth over the next two decades as environmental drivers are increasingly supported by commercial ones. The most significant change is likely to come from increases in energy prices, as decreasing supply and growing demand increase the costs of fossil fuel-generated electricity and improve the competitive position of biomass as a power source. The report provides an overview of the renewed U.S. market interest in biomass-fueled power generation and gives a concise look at what's driving interest in biomass-fueled generation, the challenges faced in implementing biomass-fueled generation projects, and the current and future state of biomass-fueled generation. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of biomass-fueled generation including its history, the current market environment, and its future prospects; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving renewed interest in biomass-fueled generation; an analysis of the challenges that are hindering the implementation of biomass-fueled generation projects; a description of the various feedstocks that can be used for biomass-fueled generation; an evaluation of the biomass supply chain; a description of biomass-fueled generation technologies; and, a review of the economic drivers of biomass-fueled generation project success.

  5. Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report, Phase 2, July 1--September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, E.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project undertaken by the Salix Consortium is a multi-phased, multi-partner endeavor. Phase 1 focused on initial development and testing of the technology and forging the necessary agreements to demonstrate commercial willow production. The Phase 1 objectives have been successfully completed: preparing final design plans for two utility pulverized coal boiler for 20 MW of biopower capacity; developing fuel supply plans for the project with a goal of establishing 365 ha (900 ac) of willow; obtaining power production commitments from the power companies for Phase 2; obtaining construction and environmental permits; and developing an experimental strategy for crop production and power generation improvements needed to assure commercial success. The R and D effort also addresses environmental issues pertaining to introduction of the willow energy system. Beyond those Phase 1 requirements, the Consortium has already successfully demonstrated cofiring at Greenidge Station and has initiated development of the required nursery capacity for acreage scale-up. In Phase 2 every aspect of willow production and power generation from willow biomass will be demonstrated. The ultimate objective of Phase 2 is to transition the work performed under the Biomass Power for Rural Development project into a thriving, self-supported energy crop enterprise.

  6. Fort Yukon, Chalkyitsik, & Venetie Biomass Boiler Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Koontz, ME William A. Wall, PhD

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments (CATG) is a consortium of ten Gwich'in and Koyukon Athabascan tribes settled in 10 remote villages and are linked by the Yukon River System. The CATG mission is to maintain the Yukon Flats region as Indian Country by asserting traditional rights and taking responsibility for developing tribal technical capacity to manage the land and resources. It is the intent of CATG to explore and develop all opportunities for a renewable and self-sufficient energy program for each of the villages. CATG envisions utilization of forest resources both for construction and energy as one of the best long-term strategies for integrating the economic goals for the region as well as supporting the cultural and social issues. The intent for this feasibility project is to focus specifically on biomass utilization for heat, first, and for future electrical generation within the region, second. An initial determination has already been made regarding the importance of wood energy as a primary source of renewable energy to displace diesel fuel in the Yukon Flats region. A desktop study of other potential renewable resources was conducted in 2006.

  7. NREL: Biomass Research - Biomass Characterization Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Saleshttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gifNREL NREL RefinesAnalysisBiochemical ConversionBiomass

  8. Quick Guide: Utility Energy Services Contracting (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summarized guide to conducting Federal energy management projects through utility energy services contracts.

  9. Biomass Gasification Research Facility Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Todd R.; Bush, Vann; Felix, Larry G.; Farthing, William E.; Irvin, James H.

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    While thermochemical syngas production facilities for biomass utilization are already employed worldwide, exploitation of their potential has been inhibited by technical limitations encountered when attempting to obtain real-time syngas compositional data required for process optimization, reliability, and syngas quality assurance. To address these limitations, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) carried out two companion projects (under US DOE Cooperative Agreements DE-FC36-02GO12024 and DE-FC36-03GO13175) to develop and demonstrate the equipment and methods required to reliably and continuously obtain accurate and representative on-line syngas compositional data. These objectives were proven through a stepwise series of field tests of biomass and coal gasification process streams. GTI developed the methods and hardware for extractive syngas sample stream delivery and distribution, necessary to make use of state-of-the-art on-line analyzers to evaluate and optimize syngas cleanup and conditioning. The primary objectives of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-02GO12024 were the selection, acquisition, and application of a suite of gas analyzers capable of providing near real-time gas analyses to suitably conditioned syngas streams. A review was conducted of sampling options, available analysis technologies, and commercially available analyzers, that could be successfully applied to the challenging task of on-line syngas characterization. The majority of thermochemical process streams comprise multicomponent gas mixtures that, prior to crucial, sequential cleanup procedures, include high concentrations of condensable species, multiple contaminants, and are often produced at high temperatures and pressures. Consequently, GTI engaged in a concurrent effort under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-03GO13175 to develop the means to deliver suitably prepared, continuous streams of extracted syngas to a variety of on-line gas analyzers. The review of candidate analysis technology also addressed safety concerns associated with thermochemical process operation that constrain the location and configuration of potential gas analysis equipment. Initial analyzer costs, reliability, accuracy, and operating and maintenance costs were also considered prior to the assembly of suitable analyzers for this work. Initial tests at GTI’s Flex-Fuel Test Facility (FFTF) in late 2004 and early 2005 successfully demonstrated the transport and subsequent analysis of a single depressurized, heat-traced syngas stream to a single analyzer (an Industrial Machine and Control Corporation (IMACC) Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR)) provided by GTI. In March 2005, our sampling approach was significantly expanded when this project participated in the U.S. DOE’s Novel Gas Cleaning (NGC) project. Syngas sample streams from three process locations were transported to a distribution manifold for selectable analysis by the IMACC FT-IR, a Stanford Research Systems QMS300 Mass Spectrometer (SRS MS) obtained under this Cooperative Agreement, and a Varian micro gas chromatograph with thermal conductivity detector (?GC) provided by GTI. A syngas stream from a fourth process location was transported to an Agilent Model 5890 Series II gas chromatograph for highly sensitive gas analyses. The on-line analyses made possible by this sampling system verified the syngas cleaning achieved by the NGC process. In June 2005, GTI collaborated with Weyerhaeuser to characterize the ChemrecTM black liquor gasifier at Weyerhaeuser’s New Bern, North Carolina pulp mill. Over a ten-day period, a broad range of process operating conditions were characterized with the IMACC FT-IR, the SRS MS, the Varian ?GC, and an integrated Gas Chromatograph, Mass Selective Detector, Flame Ionization Detector and Sulfur Chemiluminescence Detector (GC/MSD/FID/SCD) system acquired under this Cooperative Agreement from Wasson-ECE. In this field application, a single sample stream was extracted from this low-pressure, low-temperature process and successfully analyzed by these devices. In late 2005,

  10. Sustainable Biomass Supply Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erin Searcy; Dave Muth; Erin Wilkerson; Shahab Sokansanj; Bryan Jenkins; Peter Titman; Nathan Parker; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) aims to displace 30% of the 2004 gasoline use (60 billion gal/yr) with biofuels by 2030 as outlined in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which will require 700 million tons of biomass to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually. Lignocellulosic biomass will make an important contribution towards meeting DOE’s ethanol production goals. For the biofuels industry to be an economically viable enterprise, the feedstock supply system (i.e., moving the biomass from the field to the refinery) cannot contribute more that 30% of the total cost of the biofuel production. The Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis and Kansas State University are developing a set of tools for identifying economical, sustainable feedstocks on a regional basis based on biorefinery siting.

  11. Biomass District Heat System for Interior Rural Alaska Villages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wall, William A.; Parker, Charles R.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alaska Village Initiatives (AVI) from the outset of the project had a goal of developing an integrated village approach to biomass in Rural Alaskan villages. A successful biomass project had to be ecologically, socially/culturally and economically viable and sustainable. Although many agencies were supportive of biomass programs in villages none had the capacity to deal effectively with developing all of the tools necessary to build a complete integrated program. AVI had a sharp learning curve as well. By the end of the project with all the completed tasks, AVI developed the tools and understanding to connect all of the dots of an integrated village based program. These included initially developing a feasibility model that created the capacity to optimize a biomass system in a village. AVI intent was to develop all aspects or components of a fully integrated biomass program for a village. This meant understand the forest resource and developing a sustainable harvest system that included the “right sized” harvest equipment for the scale of the project. Developing a training program for harvesting and managing the forest for regeneration. Making sure the type, quality, and delivery system matched the needs of the type of boiler or boilers to be installed. AVI intended for each biomass program to be of the scale that would create jobs and a sustainable business.

  12. Federal Utility Partnership Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) establishes partnerships and facilitates communications among Federal agencies, utilities, and energy service companies. The group develops strategies to implement cost-effective energy efficiency and water conservation projects through utility incentive programs at Federal sites.

  13. Biomass Gasification Research Facility Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Todd R.; Bush, Vann; Felix, Larry G.; Farthing, William E.; Irvin, James H.

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    While thermochemical syngas production facilities for biomass utilization are already employed worldwide, exploitation of their potential has been inhibited by technical limitations encountered when attempting to obtain real-time syngas compositional data required for process optimization, reliability, and syngas quality assurance. To address these limitations, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) carried out two companion projects (under US DOE Cooperative Agreements DE-FC36-03GO13175 and DE-FC36-02GO12024) to develop and demonstrate the equipment and methods required to reliably and continuously obtain accurate and representative on-line syngas compositional data. These objectives were proven through a stepwise series of field tests of biomass and coal gasification process streams. GTI developed the methods and hardware for extractive syngas sample stream delivery and distribution, necessary to make use of state-of-the-art on-line analyzers to evaluate and optimize syngas cleanup and conditioning. This multi-year effort to develop methods to effectively monitor gaseous species produced in thermochemical process streams resulted in a sampling and analysis approach that is continuous, sensitive, comprehensive, accurate, reliable, economical, and safe. The improved approach for sampling thermochemical processes that GTI developed and demonstrated in its series of field demonstrations successfully provides continuous transport of vapor-phase syngas streams extracted from the main gasification process stream to multiple, commercially available analyzers. The syngas stream is carefully managed through multiple steps to successfully convey it to the analyzers, while at the same time bringing the stream to temperature and pressure conditions that are compatible with the analyzers. The primary principle that guides the sample transport is that throughout the entire sampling train, the temperature of the syngas stream is maintained above the maximum condensation temperature of the vapor phase components of the conveyed sample gas. In addition, to minimize adsorption or chemical changes in the syngas components prior to analysis, the temperature of the transported stream is maintained as hot as is practical, while still being cooled only as much necessary prior to entering the analyzer(s). The successful transport of the sample gas stream to the analyzer(s) is accomplished through the managed combination of four basic gas conditioning methods that are applied as specifically called for by the process conditions, the gas constituent concentrations, the analyzer requirements, and the objectives of the syngas analyses: 1) removing entrained particulate matter from the sample stream; 2) maintaining the temperature of the sample gas stream; 3) lowering the pressure of the sample gas stream to decrease the vapor pressures of all the component vapor species in the sample stream; and 4) diluting the gas stream with a metered, inert gas, such as nitrogen. Proof-of-concept field demonstrations of the sampling approach were conducted for gasification process streams from a black liquor gasifier, and from the gasification of biomass and coal feedstocks at GTI’s Flex-Fuel Test Facility. In addition to the descriptions and data included in this Final Report, GTI produced a Special Topical Report, Design and Protocol for Monitoring Gaseous Species in Thermochemical Processes, that explains and describes in detail the objectives, principles, design, hardware, installation, operation and representative data produced during this successful developmental effort. Although the specific analyzers used under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-02GO12024 were referenced in the Topical Report and this Final Report, the sampling interface design they present is generic enough to adapt to other analyzers that may be more appropriate to alternate process streams or facilities.

  14. NREL: Biomass Research - David W. Templeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    W. Templeton Photo of David Templeton David Templeton is the senior biomass analyst on the Biomass Analysis team (Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory) within the National...

  15. NREL: International Activities - Biomass Resource Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass Resource Assessment Map showing annual productivity of marginal lands in APEC economies. Biomass resource assessments quantify the existing or potential biomass material in...

  16. UCSD Biomass to Power Economic Feasibility Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cattolica, Robert

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Teotl Energy Partners LLC, West Biofuels Biomass?to?Fuels Teotl Energy Partners LLC, West Biofuels Biomass-to-Fuelssolid?fuel biomass, solar thermal electric, or wind energy 

  17. November 2011 Model documentation for biomass,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, James S.

    1 November 2011 Model documentation for biomass, cellulosic biofuels, renewable of Education, Office of Civil Rights. #12;3 Contents Biomass.....................................................................................................................................................4 Variables in the biomass module

  18. UCSD Biomass to Power Economic Feasibility Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cattolica, Robert

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biofuels, LLC  UCSD Biomass to Power  Economic Feasibility Figure 1: West Biofuels Biomass Gasification to Power rates..……………………. ……31  UCSD Biomass to Power ? Feasibility 

  19. UCSD Biomass to Power Economic Feasibility Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cattolica, Robert

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    facilities that use biomass, waste, or renewable resources (Eligible renewable energy resources include biomass, solar renewable  power  than  there  is  in  the  market  for  biomass 

  20. FETC/EPRI Biomass Cofiring Cooperative Agreement. Quarterly technical report, September 26-December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, E. Tillman, D.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass utilization to reduce fossil C0{sub 2} emissions is being supported by sixteen (16) EPRI research projects, each contributing to the commercialization of systems to address greenhouse gas emissions. These projects include: (1) cofiring combustion testing at the Seward Generating Station of GPU Genco; (2) fuel preparation testing at the Greenidge Generating Station of NYSEG; (3) precommercial testing of cofiring at the Allen and Colbert Fossil Plants of TVA; (4) testing of switchgrass cofiring at the Blount St. Station of Madison Gas & Electric; (5) high percentage biomass cofiring with Southern Company; (6) urban wood waste cofiring at the supercritical cyclone boiler at Michigan City Generating Station of Northern Indiana Public Service Co. (NIPSCO); (7) evaluation of switchgrass cofiring with Nebraska Public Power District at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA; (8) waste plastics cofiring with Duke Power in a tangentially-fired pulverized coal (PC) boiler; (9) cofiring a mixture of plastics, fiber, and pulp industry wastes with South Carolina Electric and Gas; (10) urban wood waste cofiring evaluation and testing by the University of Pittsburgh in stoker boilers; (11) assessment of toxic emissions from cofiring of wood and coal; (12) development of fuel and power plant models for analysis and interpretation of cofiring results; (13) analysis of C0{sub 2} utilization in algal systems for wastewater treatment; (14) combustion testing and combustor development focusing on high percentage cofiring; (15) analysis of problems and potential solutions to the sale of flyash from coal- fired boilers practicing cofiring; and (16) analysis of C0{sub 2} capture and disposal systems. EPRI is supported in these efforts by numerous contractors including: Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation, Battelle Columbus Laboratories, New York State Electric and Gas Co., Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), NIPSCO, the University of Pittsburgh, John Benneman, and others. These projects address various aspects of cofiring for C0{sub 2} mitigation including testing of cofiring with various fuels, and in all types of boilers; development of analytical tools to support the cofiring assessment; addressing specific barriers to cofiring such as the sale of flyash; longer term technology development; and evaluating alternative methods for C0{sub 2} mitigation. Taken together, they address the critical concerns associated with this approach to biofuel utilization. As such, they support implementation of the most promising near-term approach to biomass usage for greenhouse gas mitigation. This report contains a brief description of each project. It then reports the progress made during the first quarter of the contract, focusing upon test results from the Allen Fossil Plant, where precommercial testing at a cyclone boiler was used to evaluate particle size and NO{sub x} emissions from cofiring.

  1. Minimally refined biomass fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pearson, Richard K. (Pleasanton, CA); Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  2. Biomass | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: EnergyAvignon,Belcher HomesLyons BiomassBiofuels)BiomassThermal

  3. High-biomass sorghums for biomass biofuel production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Packer, Daniel

    2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    for breeding evaluations. Seventeen hundred ninety two exotic sorghum accessions from 7 different geographic origins were evaluated for high-biomass desirability in 3 environments. Significant relationships between passport data and high-biomass desirability...

  4. Biomass production from inland brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reach, C.D. Jr.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility of utilizing inland saline waters to produce biomass through the application of marine aquaculture was investigated. From available data, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and the crustacea Artemia salina were selected as the experimental marine organisms. The proposed diatom served to establish primary productivity and concurrently provide a food source for the herbivorus crustacea. The objective of the first phase research was to investigate the ability of P. tricornutum and A. salina to survive in the inland saline environment. Clarified activated sludge and anaerobic digester effluents were evaluated as nutrient sources for the diatom cultures. Experimental results indicated that diatom and crustacea growth in the inland brine was equivalent to control cultures utilizing seawater. Wastewater effluents were successful as nutrient sources for the diatom cultures. Bioassay experiments conducted with petroleum related brines yielded mixed results respect to the survival and growth of the P. tricornutum and A. salina organisms. A second series of experiments involved cholornaphthalene, chlorophenanthene, and chlorophenanthrene, and chloroanthracene as the experimental hydrocarbons. Results of the diatom studies show chloroanthracene to induce toxic effects at a concentration of 500 ug/L. Artemia studies showed no acutely toxic effects relative to the test hydrocarbons at 50 and 100 ug/L.

  5. Biomass Anaerobic Digestion Facilities and Biomass Gasification Facilities (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Indiana Department of Environmental Management requires permits before the construction or expansion of biomass anaerobic digestion or gasification facilities.

  6. Burgeoning Biomass: Creating Efficient and Sustainable Forest Biomass Supply Chains in the Rockies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Burgeoning Biomass: Creating Efficient and Sustainable Forest Biomass Supply Chains and removing beetle- killed trees, produce a byproduct called woody biomass. Also known as "slash, woody biomass can be collected, processed and transported SUMMARY Woody biomass could be used

  7. biomass | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or products. More detailed information on the subject of biomassMSW gasification and co-gasification of coal and biomass is available. Challenges A few obstacles exist before...

  8. Biomass Feedstock National User Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 1B—Integration of Supply Chains I: Breaking Down Barriers Biomass Feedstock National User Facility Kevin L. Kenney, Director, Biomass Feedstock National User Facility, Idaho National Laboratory

  9. New Developments in Storage and Handling of Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bundalli, N.

    NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN STORAGE AND HA~DLING OF BIOMASS Nazmir Bunda1li, P.Eng., B.C. Research Vancouver, B.C., Canada ABSTRACT An extensive research project to derive guidelines for the design of a reliable bin-feeder system for biomass... hog fuel storage bins in pulp mills have been successfully modified, based on the new design. INTRODUCTION An important reqUirement for the use of biomass for ellergy is the need to handl e effi ci ently, large volumes of the material. A cOlill1...

  10. ENERGY FROM BIOMASS AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in aeroderivative gas turbines has beencommerciallyestablished for natural gas-fired cogeneration since 1980. Steam!l!ledin a companionpaperprepared for this conference. 781 #12;BIOMASS-GASIFIER ~.INJECTED GAS TURBINE COGENERA110N FOR THE CANE of the gas turbine for cogeneration.applications(27) and the low unit capital cost of gas turbines comparedto

  11. The potential impact of externalities considerations on the market for biomass power technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swezey, B.G.; Porter, K.L.; Feher, J.S.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study assesses the current status of externalities considerations--nonmarket costs and benefits--in state and utility electricity resource planning processes and determines how externalities considerations might help or hinder the development of biomass power plants. It provides an overview of biomass resources and technologies, including their market status and environmental impacts; reviews the current treatment of externalities in the states; and documents the perspectives of key utility, regulatory, and industry representatives concerning externalities considerations. The authors make the following recommendations to the biomass industry: (1) the wood and agricultural waste industries should work toward having states and utilities recognize that wood and agricultural waste are greenhouse gas neutral resources because of carbon sequestration during growth; (2) the biomass industry should emphasize nonenvironmental benefits such as economic development and job creation; and (3) the biomass industry should pursue and support efforts to establish renewable energy set-asides or ``green`` requests for proposals.

  12. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY as a result of emerging biomass opportunities on private industrial and public multiple-use lands (tracked in the vegetation domain) and the quantity of biomass consumed by the wildfire (tracked

  13. Arnold Schwarzenegger BIOMASS TO ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor BIOMASS TO ENERGY: FOREST MANAGEMENT FOR WILDFIRE REDUCTION, ENERGY or recommendations of the study. 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Domain Description The study area for the Biomass to Energy (B2 and environmental costs and benefits of using forest biomass to generate electrical power while changing fire

  14. 7, 1733917366, 2007 Biomass burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 7, 17339­17366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA wet season experiment C. H. Mari a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Tracing biomass burning plumes from. Mari (marc@aero.obs-mip.fr) 17339 #12;ACPD 7, 17339­17366, 2007 Biomass burning plumes during the AMMA

  15. Reburn system with feedlot biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Annamalai, Kalyan; Sweeten, John M.

    2005-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention pertains to the use of feedlot biomass as reburn fuel matter to reduce NO.sub.x emissions. According to one embodiment of the invention, feedlot biomass is used as the reburn fuel to reduce NO.sub.x. The invention also includes burners and boiler in which feedlot biomass serves a reburn fuel.

  16. 13, 3226932289, 2013 Biomass burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    ACPD 13, 32269­32289, 2013 Biomass burning aerosol properties over the Northern Great Plains T (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP if available. Biomass burning aerosol Geosciences Union. 32269 #12;ACPD 13, 32269­32289, 2013 Biomass burning aerosol properties over the Northern

  17. Biomass Energy Crops: Massachusetts' Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schweik, Charles M.

    Biomass Energy Crops: Massachusetts' Potential Prepared for: Massachusetts Division of Energy;#12;Executive Summary In Massachusetts, biomass energy has typically meant wood chips derived from the region's extensive forest cover. Yet nationally, biomass energy from dedicated energy crops and from crop residues

  18. FETC/EPRI BIOMASS COFIRING COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. TILLMAN; E. HUGHES

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During April 1 st , 1998 to June 31 st , 1998, significant work was done in preparation for a series of test involving cofiring at power plants. A biomass material handling system was designed for the Seward testing, a gasification system was designed for the Allen Fossil Plant, and a test program plan was developed for testing at NIPSCO?s Bailly Station. Also completed this quarter was a cyclone combustion model that provides a color visual representation of estimated temperatures within a plant. This report summarizes the activities during the second quarter in 1998 of the FETC/EPRI Biomass Cofiring Cooperative Agreement. It focuses upon reporting the results of testing in order to highlight the progress at utilities.

  19. Improving Biomass Yields: High Biomass, Low Input Dedicated Energy Crops to Enable a Full Scale Bioenergy Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Ceres is developing bigger and better grasses for use in biofuels. The bigger the grass yield, the more biomass, and more biomass means more biofuel per acre. Using biotechnology, Ceres is developing grasses that will grow bigger with less fertilizer than current grass varieties. Hardier, higher-yielding grass also requires less land to grow and can be planted in areas where other crops can’t grow instead of in prime agricultural land. Ceres is conducting multi-year trials in Arizona, Texas, Tennessee, and Georgia which have already resulted in grass yields with as much as 50% more biomass than yields from current grass varieties.

  20. Supply Assessment of Forest Logging Residues and Non-Sawlog Biomass in the Vicinity of Missoula, Montana, 2011-2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vonessen, Nikolaus

    1 Supply Assessment of Forest Logging Residues and Non-Sawlog Biomass in the Vicinity of Missoula logging slash and non-sawlog biomass are commonly disposed of in the forest through piling and open biomass sources such as forest inventories, planned projects on other landownerships, and mill residues

  1. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M.; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy Q3 carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel—bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating values, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly Q4 limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality.

  2. EA-1922: Combined Power and Biomass Heating System, Fort Yukon, Alaska

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE (lead agency), Denali Commission (cooperating agency) and USDA Rural Utilities Services (cooperating agency) are proposing to provide funding to support the final design and construction of a biomass combined heat and power plant and associated district heating system to the Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments and the Gwitchyaa Zhee Corporation. The proposed biomass district heating system would be located in Fort Yukon Alaska.

  3. Methanol from biomass via steam gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coffman, J.A. [Wright-Malta Corp., Ballston Spa, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    R & D at Wright-Malta on gasification of biomass, and use of this gas in methanol synthesis, has now reached the stage where a demonstration plant is feasible. The gasifier has evolved into a long, slender, slightly declined, graded temperature series of stationary kiln sections, with box beam rotors and twin piston feed. The methanol reactor is envisioned as a smaller, more declined, graded temperature, water-filled stationary kiln, with a multi-pipe rotor. Input to the demo plant will be 100 tons/day of green (45% water) wood chips; output is projected at 11,000 gal/day of methanol and 7500 lbs/hr of steam. The over-all biomass to methanol system is tightly integrated in its mechanical design to take full advantage of the reactivity of biomass under a slow, steady, steamy pressurized cook, and the biomass pyrolysis and methanol synthesis exotherms. This is expected to yield good energy efficiency, environmental attractiveness, and economical operation.

  4. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Corrie E. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Harto, Christopher B. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Schroeder, Jenna N. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Martino, Louis E. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Horner, Robert M. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division

    2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges. This report is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to assess the water consumption of geothermal technologies and identify areas where water availability may present a challenge to utility-scale geothermal development. Water consumption refers to the water that is withdrawn from a resource such as a river, lake, or nongeothermal aquifer that is not returned to that resource. The geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as EGSs that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists, but where water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 2 describes the approach and methods for this work and identifies the four power plant scenarios evaluated: a 20-MW EGS binary plant, a 50-MW EGS binary plant, a 10-MW hydrothermal binary plant, and a 50-MW hydrothermal flash plant. The methods focus on (1) the collection of data to improve estimation of EGS stimulation volumes, aboveground operational consumption for all geothermal technologies, and belowground operational consumption for EGS; and (2) the mapping of the geothermal and water resources of the western United States to assist in the identification of potential water challenges to geothermal growth. Chapters 3 and 4 present the water requirements for the power plant life cycle. Chapter 3 presents the results of the current data collection effort, and Chapter 4 presents the normalized volume of fresh water consumed at each life cycle stage per lifetime energy output for the power plant scenarios evaluated. Over the life cycle of a geothermal power plant, from construction through 30 years of operation, the majority of water is consumed by plant operations. For the EGS binary scenarios, where dry cooling was assumed, belowground operational water loss is the greatest contributor depending upon the physical and operational conditions of the reservoir. Total life cycle water consumption requirements for air-cooled EGS binary scenarios vary between 0.22 and 1.85 gal/kWh, depending upon the extent of belowground operational water consumption. The air-cooled hydrothermal binary and flash plants experience far less fresh water consumption over the life cycle, at 0.04 gal/kWh. Fresh water requirements associated with air- cooled binary operations are primarily from aboveground water needs, including dust control, maintenance, and domestic use. Although wet-cooled hydrothermal flash systems require water for cooling, these plants generally rely upon the geofluid, fluid from the geothermal reservoir, which typically has high salinity and total dissolved solids concentration and is much warmer than normal groundwater sources, for their cooling water needs; thus,

  5. Biomass Supply and Carbon Accounting for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biomass Supply and Carbon Accounting for Southeastern Forests February 2012 #12;This Biomass Supply and Carbon Accounting for Southeastern Forests study was conducted by the Biomass Energy Resource Center Biomass Energy Resource Center Kamalesh Doshi Biomass Energy Resource Center Hillary Emick Biomass Energy

  6. Utility solar water heating workshops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, L.B. [Barrett Consulting Associates, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to explore the problems and opportunities for utility participation with solar water heating as a DSM measure. Expected benefits from the workshops included an increased awareness and interest by utilities in solar water heating as well as greater understanding by federal research and policy officials of utility perspectives for purposes of planning and programming. Ultimately, the project could result in better information transfer, increased implementation of solar water heating programs, greater penetration of solar systems, and more effective research projects. The objective of the workshops was satisfied. Each workshop succeeded in exploring the problems and opportunities for utility participation with solar water heating as a DSM option. The participants provided a range of ideas and suggestions regarding useful next steps for utilities and NREL. According to evaluations, the participants believed the workshops were very valuable, and they returned to their utilities with new information, ideas, and commitment.

  7. GASIFICATION BASED BIOMASS CO-FIRING - PHASE I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babul Patel; Kevin McQuigg; Robert F. Toerne

    2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass gasification offers a practical way to use this locally available fuel source for co-firing traditional large utility boilers. The gasification process converts biomass into a low Btu producer gas that can be fed directly into the boiler. This strategy of co-firing is compatible with variety of conventional boilers including natural gas fired boilers as well as pulverized coal fired and cyclone boilers. Gasification has the potential to address all problems associated with the other types of co-firing with minimum modifications to the existing boiler systems. Gasification can also utilize biomass sources that have been previously unsuitable due to size or processing requirements, facilitating a reduction in the primary fossil fuel consumption in the boiler and thereby reducing the greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere.

  8. Cofiring of coal and dairy biomass in a 100,000 btu/hr furnace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Benjamin Daniel

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Dairy biomass (DB) is evaluated as a possible co-firing fuel with coal. Cofiring of DB offers a technique of utilizing dairy manure for power/steam generation, reducing greenhouse gas concerns, and increasing financial returns to dairy operators...

  9. Science Activities in Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitcheResearch BriefsTenney, Office of ScienceActivities in Biomass

  10. Super-Resolution Optical Imaging of Biomass Chemical-Spatial Structure: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-410

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, S. Y.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective for this project is to characterize and develop new methods to visualize the chemical spatial structure of biomass at varying stages of the biomass degradation processes in situ during the process.

  11. Hydrolysis of biomass material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Andrew J.; Orth, Rick J.; Franz, James A.; Alnajjar, Mikhail

    2004-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for selective hydrolysis of the hemicellulose component of a biomass material. The selective hydrolysis produces water-soluble small molecules, particularly monosaccharides. One embodiment includes solubilizing at least a portion of the hemicellulose and subsequently hydrolyzing the solubilized hemicellulose to produce at least one monosaccharide. A second embodiment includes solubilizing at least a portion of the hemicellulose and subsequently enzymatically hydrolyzing the solubilized hemicellulose to produce at least one monosaccharide. A third embodiment includes solubilizing at least a portion of the hemicellulose by heating the biomass material to greater than 110.degree. C. resulting in an aqueous portion that includes the solubilized hemicellulose and a water insoluble solids portion and subsequently separating the aqueous portion from the water insoluble solids portion. A fourth embodiment is a method for making a composition that includes cellulose, at least one protein and less than about 30 weight % hemicellulose, the method including solubilizing at least a portion of hemicellulose present in a biomass material that also includes cellulose and at least one protein and subsequently separating the solubilized hemicellulose from the cellulose and at least one protein.

  12. Types of Utility Energy Service Contracts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Several types of contracts are used as utility energy service contracts (UESCs). Many agency sites procure electricity services under a contract with the local utility, and most of these contracts have provisions that can also cover energy efficiency projects. Agencies not covered by such agreements may enter contracts with the utility for the sole purpose of implementing energy projects.

  13. Biomass power for rural development. Quarterly report, January 1--April 2, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, J.T.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the period of January 2 to April 2, 1998, efforts revolved around the design of the switchgrass materials handling/feeding system for the co-fire test and permanent system, the development of a revised statement of work and budget for fiscal years 1998--1999 and, the continuation of farmer/land conversion, and public relations efforts. The weather continues to be a major problem with an unprecedented warm winter. Much of Iowa has had little or no frost in the ground. This lack of frost has prevented farmers from getting into their fields and harvesting switchgrass. Farmers are hesitant to drive processing equipment into unfrozen fields due to the large ruts left by the wheels. The producers group has continued to gather information and develop resources necessary to supply the switchgrass to the facility in a competitive manner. Information and contacts are starting to be gathered which will help establish a market for the dedicated biomass generated electricity. The report describes the progress in the following tasks: Switchgrass conversion development including fuel analysis and engineering; Production activities which include: soil studies, carbon studies, switchgrass production economics, and switchgrass yield improvements; Information and education; and Miscellaneous which includes legislation and regulatory activities. Appendices contain the following: Switchgrass sample analysis; Chariton Valley biomass project cooperator agreement; Soil and landscape characterization status report for switchgrass project; Agreement with Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research; A literature review of reed canarygrass utility for biomass; Prairie Lands Bio-Products, Inc. agenda; Feasibility analysis and cooperative structure for value-added switchgrass products; and Information and education efforts.

  14. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Issued to the Illinois Clean Coal Institute For Project 02-1/3.1D-2 Department of Civil Engineering of technology and market development for controlled low-strength material (CLSM) slurry using Illinois coal ashCenter for By-Products Utilization IMPLEMENTATION OF FLOWABLE SLURRY TECHNOLOGY IN ILLINOIS

  15. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization CO2 SEQUESTRATION IN NON-AIR ENTRAINED CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik and Applied Science THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN­MILWAUKEE #12;1 CO2 SEQUESTRATION IN NON-AIR ENTRAINED-moon Chun The objectives of this project were to sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) in concrete and study

  16. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization CO2 SEQUESTRATION IN NO-FINES CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik, Timir C Science THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN­MILWAUKEE #12;1 CO2 SEQUESTRATION IN NO-FINES CONCRETE ABSTRACT of this project were to sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) in concrete and study the effects of carbonation

  17. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF CLASSF FLY ASHCOAL AND CLEAN-COAL #12;-1- CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF CLASSF FLYASHCOAL AND CLEAN-COAL ASHFOR CEMENT -Milwaukee (UWM) Daniel D.Banerjee, Project Manager,Illinois Clean Coal Institute RudolphN.Kraus, Research

  18. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    CONTAINING CLEAN-COAL ASH AND CLASS F FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Rafat Siddique of HVFA Concrete Containing Clean-Coal Ash and Class F Fly Ash By Tarun R. Naik Director, UWM Center for By-Products Utilization and Francois Botha Project Manager, Illinois Clean Coal Institute Synopsis

  19. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    . Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Shiw S. Singh, Lori- Lynn C. Pennock, and Bruce Ramme Report No. CBU-2001 with numerous projects on the use of by-product materials including utilization of used foundry sand and fly ash;2 INTRODUCTION Wood FA is generated due to combustion of wood for energy production at pulp and paper mills, saw

  20. THE PRODUCTION OF SYNGAS VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS AND BIO-MASS GASIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. G. McKellar; G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O'Brien

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to improve the hydrogen production efficiency of the steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon dioxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K.

  1. EPA RE-Powering America's Lands: Kansas City Municipal Farm Site -- Biomass Power Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunsberger, R.; Mosey, G.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the economic and technical feasibility of utilizing biomass at the Kansas City, Missouri, Municipal Farm site, a group of City-owned properties, is explored. The study that none of the technologies we reviewed--biomass heat, power and CHP--are economically viable options for the Municipal Farms site. However, if the site were to be developed around a future central biomass heating or CHP facility, biomass could be a good option for the site.

  2. Tracy Biomass Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga, Indiana (Utility Company) Jump to:TownTownerOpenEnergyG,TracersTracy

  3. Analysis of Low-Temperature Utilization of Geothermal Resources...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Temperature Utilization of Geothermal Resources Analysis of Low-Temperature Utilization of Geothermal Resources Project objectives: Techno-economic analysis of the potential of...

  4. Federal and State Structures to Support Financing Utility-Scale...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and State Structures to Support Financing Utility-Scale Solar Projects and the Business Models Designed to Utilize Them Federal and State Structures to Support Financing...

  5. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. During this reporting period, the technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. The results of these evaluations are summarized in this report.

  6. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. The technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. Using these results, the carbon sequestration potential of the three technologies was then evaluated. The results of these evaluations are given in this final report.

  7. Biomass -Feedstock User Facility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureCommentsEnergyandapproximately 10 wt%inandWBS 1.2.3.3 Biomass -

  8. Biomass 2013: Welcome

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureCommentsEnergyandapproximately 10 wt%inandWBS 1.2.3.31Biomass 2013

  9. Biomass Scenario Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureCommentsEnergyandapproximately 10 wt%inandWBSBiomassAct ofBiomass

  10. Biomass: Biogas Generator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced Materials Find Find MoreTechnical Report: BiomassInnovationBIOGAS

  11. SYNTHESIS GAS UTILIZATION AND PRODUCTION IN A BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION FACILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figueroa, C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    been established. Fluidized and Fixed Bed Gasifiers The adv~of fluidized-bed and fixed-bed gasifiers must be examineda simple low-entrainment fixed-bed unit, the fixed-bed

  12. Utilization of char from biomass gasification in catalytic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    temperature or time. In addition, micropores were observed in char that was made in CO2, but not in char, but sintering was not observed during gasification with CO2. This showed that the properties of char depend catalytically or thermally. However, thermal decomposition requires high temperatures, and catalyst deactivation

  13. SYNTHESIS GAS UTILIZATION AND PRODUCTION IN A BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION FACILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figueroa, C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cost Estimates for a Medium BTU Gasification Plant Using A4.6 D /Dt / D Sus 0.7 (=) Btu/H 2 hr °F h ~ _3_,.5. ,..-thennal conductivity (=) Btu-ft/ ft2 hroF l)_ "' p particle

  14. Utility Promoters for Biomass Feedstock Biotechnology - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps to Predict SolarJohnpotential-calc Sign In

  15. Hartford Landfill Gas Utilization Proj Biomass Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetec AG| OpenInformation HandbookOhio:

  16. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaeferApril 1, 1999InspectionsAnnual Financial

  17. Remotely sensed heat anomalies linked with Amazonian forest biomass declines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toomey, M.; Roberts, D. A.; Still, C.; Goulden, M. L.; McFadden, J. P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with Amazonian forest biomass declines Michael Toomey, 1 Darof aboveground living biomass (p biomass declines, Geophys. Res.

  18. Interactions of Lignin and Hemicellulose and Effects on Biomass Deconstruction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Hongjia

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    such lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks into ethanol via atools. Different biomass feedstocks have different cell wallmajor lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks, except softwoods,

  19. JV 58-Effects of Biomass Combustion on SCR Catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Joshua R. Strege; Donald P. McCollor; Jason D. Laumb; Lingbu Kong

    2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable slipstream selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactor was installed at a biomass cofired utility boiler to examine the rates and mechanisms of catalyst deactivation when exposed to biomass combustion products. The catalyst was found to deactivate at a much faster rate than typically found in a coal-fired boiler, although this may have been the result of high ash loading rather than a general property of biomass combustion. Deactivation was mainly the result of alkali and alkaline-earth sulfate formation and growth in catalyst pores, apparently caused by alkaline-earth ash deposition on or near the pore sites. The high proportion of biomass in the fuel contributed to elevated levels of alkali and alkaline-earth material in the ash when compared to coal ash, and these higher levels provided more opportunity for sulfate formation. Based on laboratory tests, neither catalyst material nor ammonia contributed measurably to ash mass gains via sulfation. A model constructed using both field and laboratory data was able to predict catalyst deactivation of catalysts under subbituminous coal firing but performed poorly at predicting catalyst deactivation under cofiring conditions. Because of the typically higher-than coal levels of alkali and alkaline-earth elements present in biomass fuels that are available for sulfation at typical SCR temperatures, the use of SCR technology and biomass cofiring needs to be carefully evaluated prior to implementation.

  20. PPL Electric Utilities- Custom Energy Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Prospective applicants should contact their PPL Electric Utilities Key Account Manager before beginning any project. If applicants do not have one, they should contact the utility at the phone or...

  1. NREL: Biomass Research - Joseph Shekiro

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Deacetylation and Mechanical (Disc) Refining Process for the Conversion of Renewable Biomass to Lower Cost Sugars." Biotechnology for Biofuels (7:7). Shekiro, J. ; Kuhn, E.M.;...

  2. NREL: Biomass Research - Josh Schaidle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of pyrolysis products to produce fungible transportation fuels. Research Interests Biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals Environmentally-sustainable engineering practices...

  3. NREL: Biomass Research - Michael Resch

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    improve the hydrolysis efficiency of cellulase and hemicellulase enzyme digestion of biomass. This work will help NREL lower the industrial cost of lignocellulosic enzyme...

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    industrial process environments, (3) development of high-throughput assays using microfluidics, and (4) understanding how microbial communities degrade biomass and the...

  5. Biomass Gasification | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    gasification involve reducing costs associated with capital equipment and biomass feedstocks. Research to lower capital costs: If oxygen is used in the gasifier, capital...

  6. Biomass Rapid Analysis Network (BRAN)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Helping the emerging biotechnology industry develop new tools and methods for real-time analysis of biomass feedstocks, process intermediates and The Biomass Rapid Analysis Network is designed to fast track the development of modern tools and methods for biomass analysis to accelerate the development of the emerging industry. The network will be led by industry and organized and coordinated through the National Renewable Energy Lab. The network will provide training and other activities of interest to BRAN members. BRAN members will share the cost and work of rapid analysis method development, validate the new methods, and work together to develop the training for the future biomass conversion workforce.

  7. Initial Market Assessment for Small-Scale Biomass-Based CHP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, E.; Mann, M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to reexamine the energy generation market opportunities for biomass CHP applications smaller than 20 MW. This paper provides an overview of the benefits of and challenges for biomass CHP in terms of policy, including a discussion of the drivers behind, and constraints on, the biomass CHP market. The report provides a summary discussion of the available biomass supply types and technologies that could be used to feed the market. Two primary markets are outlined--rural/agricultural and urban--for small-scale biomass CHP, and illustrate the primary intersections of supply and demand for those markets. The paper concludes by summarizing the potential markets and suggests next steps for identifying and utilizing small-scale biomass.

  8. System and process for biomass treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunson, Jr., James B; Tucker, III, Melvin P; Elander, Richard T; Lyons, Robert C

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A system including an apparatus is presented for treatment of biomass that allows successful biomass treatment at a high solids dry weight of biomass in the biomass mixture. The design of the system provides extensive distribution of a reactant by spreading the reactant over the biomass as the reactant is introduced through an injection lance, while the biomass is rotated using baffles. The apparatus system to provide extensive assimilation of the reactant into biomass using baffles to lift and drop the biomass, as well as attrition media which fall onto the biomass, to enhance the treatment process.

  9. Inorganic Chemistry in Hydrogen Storage and Biomass Catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorn, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Making or breaking C-H, B-H, C-C bonds has been at the core of catalysis for many years. Making or breaking these bonds to store or recover energy presents us with fresh challenges, including how to catalyze these transformations in molecular systems that are 'tuned' to minimize energy loss and in molecular and material systems present in biomass. This talk will discuss some challenging transformations in chemical hydrogen storage, and some aspects of the inorganic chemistry we are studying in the development of catalysts for biomass utilization.

  10. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapter 1, project number 669

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume 1, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  11. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapters 2-13, project number 669

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume I, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  12. Biomass 2012 Agenda

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    projects that have broken ground in 2012. Moderator: Jim Lane, Editor & Publisher, Biofuels Digest Speakers: Christopher G. Standlee, Executive Vice President, Abengoa ...

  13. Moisture Metrics Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuchmann, Mark

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    the goal of this project was to determine the optimum moisture levels for biomass processing for pellets commercially, by correlating data taken from numerous points in the process, and across several different feedstock materials produced and harvested using a variety of different management practices. This was to be done by correlating energy consumption and material through put rates with the moisture content of incoming biomass ( corn & wheat stubble, native grasses, weeds, & grass straws), and the quality of the final pellet product.This project disseminated the data through a public website, and answering questions form universities across Missouri that are engaged in biomass conversion technologies. Student interns from a local university were employed to help collect data, which enabled them to learn firsthand about biomass processing.

  14. Process for concentrated biomass saccharification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA); Seapan, Mayis (Landenberg, PA); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

    2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes for saccharification of pretreated biomass to obtain high concentrations of fermentable sugars are provided. Specifically, a process was developed that uses a fed batch approach with particle size reduction to provide a high dry weight of biomass content enzymatic saccharification reaction, which produces a high sugars concentration hydrolysate, using a low cost reactor system.

  15. Biomass 2014 Attendee List | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    is the attendee list for Biomass 2014, held July 29-July 30 in Washington, D.C. biomass2014attendeelist.pdf More Documents & Publications Biomass 2013 Attendee List Bioproducts:...

  16. BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION EFFORTS IN THE UNITED STATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ergun, Sabri

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    icat ion Preheat zone Biomass liquefaction Tubular reactor (design is shown in Figure 7, C I Biomass ua efaction Fic LBL Process BiOMASS t NON-REVERS lNG CYCLONE CONDENSER (

  17. Biomass Producer or Collector Tax Credit (Oregon)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

     The Oregon Department of Energy provides a tax credit for agricultural producers or collectors of biomass.  The credit can be used for eligible biomass used to produce biofuel; biomass used in...

  18. Feasibility Analysis For Heating Tribal Buildings with Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Clairmont; Micky Bourdon; Tom Roche; Colene Frye

    2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a feasibility study for the heating of Tribal buildings using woody biomass. The study was conducted for the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation in western Montana. S&K Holding Company and TP Roche Company completed the study and worked together to provide the final report. This project was funded by the DOE's Tribal Energy Program.

  19. The Lakeland McIntosh Unit 4 demonstration project utilizing Foster Wheeler`s pressurized circulating fluidized-bed combustion technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClung, J.D.; Provol, S.J. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Morehead, H.T. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States); Dodd, A.M. [Lakeland Electric and Water, Lakeland, FL (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The City of Lakeland, Florida, Foster Wheeler and the Westinghouse Electric Corporation have embarked on the demonstration of a Clean Coal Technology at the City of Lakeland`s McIntosh Power Station in lakeland, Polk County, Florida. The project will demonstrate the Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (PCFB) technology developed by Foster Wheeler and Westinghouse. The Lakeland McIntosh Unit 4 Project is a nominal 170 MW power plant designed to burn a range of low- to high-sulfur coals. The combined cycle plant employs a Westinghouse 251B12 gas turbine engine in conjunction with a steam turbine operating in a 2400/1000/1000 steam cycle. The plant will demonstrate both the PCFB and topped PCFB combustion technologies. This paper provides a process description of the Foster Wheeler PCFB and Topped PCFB technologies and their application to the Lakeland McIntosh Unit 4 Project.

  20. USDA, DOE to Invest up to $18.4 million for Biomass Research...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    "USDA and DOE will invest up to 18.4 million, over three years, for 21 biomass research and development (R&D), and demonstration projects" 2007jointsolicitation.pdf More...

  1. Hydro-Québec Distribution- Biomass- EAP 2011-1 (Quebec, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydro-Québec Distribution established a program for the purchase of 300 MW of electricity in Quebec from cogeneration based residual forest biomass. Each project is limited to a maximum of 50 MW....

  2. NREL: Biomass Research - Robert M. Baldwin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MI. Dr. Baldwin has extensive experience and expertise in thermochemical conversion of biomass to gaseous and liquid fuels, including catalysis and reaction engineering of biomass...

  3. NREL: Biomass Research - Daniel J. Schell

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    more than 30 years of research experience in bio-based conversion of lignocellulosic biomass and has extensive expertise in integrated biomass conversion operations at the bench...

  4. NREL: Biomass Research - News Release Archives

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Facility (IBRF). June 2, 2011 Science & Industry Peers Turn to NREL for Biomass Solutions The biomass industry looks to the U.S. Department of Energy's National...

  5. Supplying High-Quality, Raw Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supplying High-Quality, Raw Biomass The building blocks to supply high-quality raw biomass start with harvesting and collection practices, product storage and recommendations of...

  6. Molecular Characterization of Biomass Burning Aerosols Using...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Molecular Characterization of Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Abstract: Chemical...

  7. Converting Biomass to High-Value Feedstocks

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Converting Biomass to High-Value Feedstocks Advanced feedstocks play an important role in economically and efficiently converting biomass into bioenergy products. Advanced...

  8. BSCL Use Plan: Solving Biomass Recalcitrance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himmel, M.; Vinzant, T.; Bower, S.; Jechura, J.

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technical report describing NREL's new Biomass Surface Characterization Laboratory (BSCL). The BSCL was constructed to provide the most modern commercial surface characterization equipment for studying biomass surfaces.

  9. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review This independent review is the...

  10. Symbiosis: Addressing Biomass Production Challenges and Climate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Symbiosis: Addressing Biomass Production Challenges and Climate Change Symbiosis: Addressing Biomass Production Challenges and Climate Change This presentation was the opening...

  11. Coal-Biomass Feed and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal-Biomass Feed and Gasification The Coal-Biomass Feed and Gasification Key Technology is advancing scientific knowledge of the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from coal...

  12. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification National Renewable Energy Laboratory Panel, Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification To: Mr. Mark Ruth, NREL, DOE

  13. NREL: Biomass Research - Ryan M. Ness

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    involve bench-scale wet chemical and instrumental analysis of lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks for the purpose of providing baseline, solids-intermediate, and biomass...

  14. Jade Sky Technologies Partners with CLTC on LED Replacement Lamp Upgrade Project UC Davis' California Lighting Technology Center will utilize Jade Sky Technologies' driver ICs to help spur

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Jade Sky Technologies Partners with CLTC on LED Replacement Lamp Upgrade Project UC Davis and power factor. "JST shares our goal of making the transition to LED lamps a satisfying experience of cost-effective, easy-to-use LED lighting solutions Milpitas, Calif. ­ October 15, 2013 ­ Jade Sky

  15. U.S. DEP.ARTlVIENT OF ENERGY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    OF ENERGY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA DETERlVIINATION RECIPIENT:Auburn University STATE:AL PROJECT Biomass to Liquid Fuels and Electric Power Research TITLE:...

  16. Demonstration of Pressurizing Coal/Biomass Mixtures Using Posimetric Solids Pump Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westendorf, Tiffany; Acharya, Harish; Cui, Zhe; Furman, Anthony; Giammattei, Mark; Rader, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the Final Technical Report for a project supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract No. DE-FE0000507), GE Global Research, GE Energy, and Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This report discusses key project accomplishments for the period beginning August 7, 2009 and ending December 31, 2012. In this project, pressurized delivery of coal/biomass mixtures using GE Posimetric* solids pump technology was achieved in pilot scale experiments. Coal/biomass mixtures containing 10-50 wt% biomass were fed against pressures of 65-450 psi. Pressure capability increased with decreasing biomass content for a given pump design, and was linked to the interaction of highly compressible coal/biomass mixtures with the pump outlet design. Biomass pretreatment specifications for particle size and moisture content were defined based on bench-scale flowability, compressibility, friction, and permeability experiments that mimic the behavior of the Posimetric pump. A preliminary economic assessment of biomass pretreatment and pump operation for coal/biomass mixtures (CBMs) was conducted.

  17. Energy Department Works with Sacramento Municipal Utility District...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    About Us Initiatives & Projects Energy Transition Initiative Energy Department Works with Sacramento Municipal Utility District on Renewable Electricity Generation and...

  18. First Biomass Conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this second volume cover Transportation Fuels, and Chemicals and Products. Transportation Fuels topics include: Biodiesel, Pyrolytic Liquids, Ethanol, Methanol and Ethers, and Commercialization. The Chemicals and Products section includes specific topics in: Research, Technology Transfer, and Commercial Systems. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, M.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  20. Citrus Waste Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karel Grohman; Scott Stevenson

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Renewable Spirits is developing an innovative pilot plant bio-refinery to establish the commercial viability of ehtanol production utilizing a processing waste from citrus juice production. A novel process based on enzymatic hydrolysis of citrus processing waste and fermentation of resulting sugars to ethanol by yeasts was successfully developed in collaboration with a CRADA partner, USDA/ARS Citrus and Subtropical Products Laboratory. The process was also successfully scaled up from laboratory scale to 10,000 gal fermentor level.

  1. Hydrogen from biomass: state of the art and research challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milne, Thomas A.; Elam, Carolyn C.; Evans, Robert J.

    2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report was prepared for the International Energy Agency (IEA) Agreement on the Production and Utilization of Hydrogen, Task 16, Hydrogen from Carbon-Containing Materials. Hydrogen's share in the energy market is increasing with the implementation of fuel cell systems and the growing demand for zero-emission fuels. Hydrogen production will need to keep pace with this growing market. In the near term, increased production will likely be met by conventional technologies, such as natural gas reforming. In these processes, the carbon is converted to CO2 and released to the atmosphere. However, with the growing concern about global climate change, alternatives to the atmospheric release of CO2 are being investigated. Sequestration of the CO2 is an option that could provide a viable near-term solution. Reducing the demand on fossil resources remains a significant concern for many nations. Renewable-based processes like solar- or wind-driven electrolysis and photobiological water splitting hold great promise for clean hydrogen production; however, advances must still be made before these technologies can be economically competitive. For the near-and mid-term, generating hydrogen from biomass may be the more practical and viable, renewable and potentially carbon-neutral (or even carbon-negative in conjunction with sequestration) option. Recently, the IEA Hydrogen Agreement launched a new task to bring together international experts to investigate some of these near- and mid-term options for producing hydrogen with reduced environmental impacts. This review of the state of the art of hydrogen production from biomass was prepared to facilitate in the planning of work that should be done to achieve the goal of near-term hydrogen energy systems. The relevant technologies that convert biomass to hydrogen, with emphasis on thermochemical routes are described. In evaluating the viability of the conversion routes, each must be put in the context of the availability of appropriate feedstocks and deployment scenarios that match hydrogen to the local markets. Co-production opportunities are of particular interest for near-term deployment since multiple products improve the economics; however, co-product development is not covered in this report. Biomass has the potential to accelerate the realization of hydrogen as a major fuel of the future. Since biomass is renewable and consumes atmospheric CO2 during growth, it can have a small net CO2 impact compared to fossil fuels. However, hydrogen from biomass has major challenges. There are no completed technology demonstrations. The yield of hydrogen is low from biomass since the hydrogen content in biomass is low to being with (approximately 6% versus 25% for methane) and the energy content is low due to the 40% oxygen content of biomass. Since over half of the hydrogen from biomass comes from splitting water in the steam reforming reaction, the energy content of the feedstock is an inherent limitation of the process . The low yield of hydrogen on a weight basis is misleading since the energy conversion efficiency is high. However, the cost for growing, harvesting, and transporting biomass is high. Thus even with reasonable energy efficiencies, it is not presently economically competitive with natural gas steam reforming for stand-alone hydrogen without the advantage of high-value co-products. Additionally, as with all sources of hydrogen, production from biomass will require appropriate hydrogen storage and utilization systems to be developed and deployed. The report also looked at promising areas for further research and development. The major areas for R,D and D are: feedstock preparation and feeding; gasification gas conditioning; system integration; modular systems development; valuable co-product integration; and larger-scale demonstrations. These are in addition to the challenges for any hydrogen process in storage and utilization technologies.

  2. Biothermal gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chynoweth, D.P.; Srivastava, V.J.; Henry, M.P.; Tarman, P.B.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The BIOTHERMGAS Process is described for conversion of biomass, organic residues, and peat to substitute natural gas (SNG). This new process, under development at IGT, combines biological and thermal processes for total conversion of a broad variety of organic feeds (regardless of water or nutrient content). The process employs thermal gasification for conversion of refractory digester residues. Ammonia and other inorganic nutrients are recycled from the thermal process effluent to the bioconversion unit. Biomethanation and catalytic methanation are presented as alternative processes for methanation of thermal conversion product gases. Waste heat from the thermal component is used to supply the digester heat requirements of the bioconversion component. The results of a preliminary systems analysis of three possible applications of this process are presented: (1) 10,000 ton/day Bermuda grass plant with catalytic methanation; (2) 10,000 ton/day Bermuda grass plant with biomethanation; and (3) 1000 ton/day municipal solid waste (MSW) sewage sludge plant with biomethanation. The results indicate that for these examples, performance is superior to that expected for biological or thermal processes used separately. The results of laboratory studies presented suggest that effective conversion of thermal product gases can be accomplished by biomethanation.

  3. Combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis of cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agu, R.C.; Amadife, A.E.; Ude, C.M.; Onyia, A.; Ogu, E.O. [Enugu State Univ. of Science and Technology (Nigeria). Faculty of Applied Natural Sciences] [Enugu State Univ. of Science and Technology (Nigeria). Faculty of Applied Natural Sciences; Okafor, M.; Ezejiofor, E. [Nnamdi Azikiwe Univ., Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Applied Microbiology] [Nnamdi Azikiwe Univ., Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Applied Microbiology

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of combined heat treatment and acid hydrolysis (various concentrations) on cassava grate waste (CGW) biomass for ethanol production was investigated. At high concentrations of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (1--5 M), hydrolysis of the CGW biomass was achieved but with excessive charring or dehydration reaction. At lower acid concentrations, hydrolysis of CGW biomass was also achieved with 0.3--0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, while partial hydrolysis was obtained below 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (the lowest acid concentration that hydrolyzed CGW biomass) at 120 C and 1 atm pressure for 30 min. A 60% process efficiency was achieved with 0.3 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in hydrolyzing the cellulose and lignin materials present in the CGW biomass. High acid concentration is therefore not required for CGW biomass hydrolysis. The low acid concentration required for CGW biomass hydrolysis, as well as the minimal cost required for detoxification of CGW biomass because of low hydrogen cyanide content of CGW biomass would seem to make this process very economical. From three liters of the CGW biomass hydrolysate obtained from hydrolysis with 0.3M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, ethanol yield was 3.5 (v/v%) after yeast fermentation. However, although the process resulted in gainful utilization of CGW biomass, additional costs would be required to effectively dispose new by-products generated from CGW biomass processing.

  4. Ohio Biomass Energy Program (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ohio is one of seven states participating in the Great Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program which was established in 1983. The Regional Program is administered by the Council of Great Lakes...

  5. Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrocarbon-based Biofuels; Zia Haq

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Resource assessment – do we have enough biomass? Techno-economic analysis – can biofuels be produced at competitive prices? • Integrated biorefineries – what is being funded at DOE and what are future plans?

  6. Monitoring peak power and cooling energy savings of shade trees and white surfaces in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) service area: Project design and preliminary results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, H.; Bretz, S.; Hanford, J.; Rosenfeld, A.; Sailor, D.; Taha, H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Bos, W. [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, CA (United States)

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Urban areas in warm climates create summer heat islands of daily average intensity of 3--5{degrees}C, adding to discomfort and increasing air-conditioning loads. Two important factors contributing to urban heat islands are reductions in albedo (lower overall city reflectance) and loss of vegetation (less evapotranspiration). Reducing summer heat islands by planting vegetation (shade trees) and increasing surface albedos, saves cooling energy, allows down-sizing of air conditioners, lowers air-conditioning peak demand, and reduces the emission of CO{sub 2} and other pollutants from electric power plants. The focus of this multi-year project, jointly sponsored by SMUD and the California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE), was to measure the direct cooling effects of trees and white surfaces (mainly roofs) in a few buildings in Sacramento. The first-year project was to design the experiment and obtain base case data. We also obtained limited post retrofit data for some sites. This report provides an overview of the project activities during the first year at six sites. The measurement period for some of the sites was limited to September and October, which are transitional cooling months in Sacramento and hence the interpretation of results only apply to this period. In one house, recoating the dark roof with a high-albedo coating rendered air conditioning unnecessary for the month of September (possible savings of up to 10 kWh per day and 2 kW of non-coincidental peak power). Savings of 50% relative to an identical base case bungalow were achieved when a school bungalow`s roof and southeast wall were coated with a high-albedo coating during the same period. Our measured data for the vegetation sites do not indicate conclusive results because shade trees were small and the cooling period was almost over. We need to collect more data over a longer cooling season in order to demonstrate savings conclusively.

  7. Custom Renewable Energy Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project development assistance funding is available for a variety of purposes, including grant writing, feasibility studies, or technical assistance with design, permitting, or utility interconne...

  8. Project Finance Case Studies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers the Project Finance Case Studies and is given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Rapid City, South Dakota.

  9. Barstow Wind Turbine Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers the Barstow Wind Turbine project for the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting, held on November 18-19, 2009.

  10. Prison Solar Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers the Prison Solar Project for the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting, held on November 18-19, 2009.

  11. Enzyme and methodology for the treatment of a biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Vicki S.; Thompson, David N.; Schaller, Kastli D.; Apel, William A.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An enzyme isolated from an extremophilic microbe, and a method for utilizing same is described, and wherein the enzyme displays optimum enzymatic activity at a temperature of greater than about 80.degree. C., and a pH of less than about 2, and further may be useful in methodology including pretreatment of a biomass so as to facilitate the production of an end product.

  12. Cadmium Biosorption Rate in Protonated Sargassum Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volesky, Bohumil

    Cadmium Biosorption Rate in Protonated Sargassum Biomass J I N B A I Y A N G A N D B O H U M I L V Sargassum fluitans biomass was accompanied by the release of hydrogen protons from the biomass. The uptake the overall biosorption rate of cadmium ions in flat seaweed biomass particles. The overall biosorption

  13. Global (International) Energy Policy and Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Overend, R. P.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presentation to the California Biomass Collaboration--First Annual Forum, January 8th 2004, Sacramento, California

  14. Biomass Surface Characterization Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet provides information about Biomass Surface Characterization Laboratory capabilities and applications at NREL.

  15. November 2011 Competition for biomass among

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, James S.

    remain high, limiting the development of national or even regional markets for biomass feedstocks. We

  16. GMP- Biomass Electricity Production Incentive

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Green Mountain Power Corporation (GMP), Vermont's largest electric utility, offers a production incentive to farmers who own systems utilizing anaerobic digestion of agricultural products,...

  17. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Bin; Dai, Ziyu; Ding, Shi-You; Wyman, Charles E.

    2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals offers the high yields to products vital to economic success and the potential for very low costs. Enzymatic hydrolysis that converts lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars may be the most complex step in this process due to substrate-related and enzyme-related effects and their interactions. Although enzymatic hydrolysis offers the potential for higher yields, higher selectivity, lower energy costs, and milder operating conditions than chemical processes, the mechanism of enzymatic hydrolysis and the relationship between the substrate structure and function of various glycosyl hydrolase components are not well understood. Consequently, limited success has been realized in maximizing sugar yields at very low cost. This review highlights literature on the impact of key substrate and enzyme features that influence performance to better understand fundamental strategies to advance enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass for biological conversion to fuels and chemicals. Topics are summarized from a practical point of view including characteristics of cellulose (e.g., crystallinity, degree of polymerization, and accessible surface area) and soluble and insoluble biomass components (e.g., oligomeric xylan, lignin, etc.) released in pretreatment, and their effects on the effectiveness of enzymatic hydrolysis. We further discuss the diversity, stability, and activity of individual enzymes and their synergistic effects in deconstructing complex lignocellulosic biomass. Advanced technologies to discover and characterize novel enzymes and to improve enzyme characteristics by mutagenesis, post-translational modification, and over-expression of selected enzymes and modifications in lignocellulosic biomass are also discussed.

  18. Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in Utility Resource Planning: Current Practices in the Western United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    alternative CO 2 price projections in terms of the levelizedof utilities’ price projections, as well as differences inand high-range CO 2 price projections developed by Synapse

  19. Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in Utility Resource Planning: Current Practices in the Western United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbose, Galen

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    alternative CO 2 price projections in terms of the levelizedof utilities’ price projections, as well as differences inand high-range CO 2 price projections developed by Synapse

  20. EA-1957: Cabin Creek Biomass Facility, Placer County, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE is proposing to provide funding to Placer County, California to construct and operate a two-megawatt wood-to-energy biomass facility at the Eastern Regional Materials Recovery Facility (MRF) and Landfill in unincorporated Placer County. The wood?to?energy biomass facility would use a gasification technology. The fuel supply for the proposed project would be solely woody biomass, derived from a variety of sources including hazardous fuels residuals, forest thinning and harvest residuals, and Wildland Urban Interface sourced waste materials from residential and commercial property defensible space clearing and property management activities. NOTE: After review of a final California Environmental Quality Act Environmental Impact Report, DOE has determined that preparation of an EA is not necessary. The propsed action fits within DOE's categorical exclusion B5.20. Therefore, this EA is cancelled.

  1. Development of a commercial enzymes system for lignocellulosic biomass saccharification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Manoj

    2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    DSM Innovation Inc., in its four year effort was able to evaluate and develop its in-house DSM fungal cellulolytic enzymes system to reach enzyme efficiency mandates set by DoE Biomass program MYPP goals. DSM enzyme cocktail is uniquely active at high temperature and acidic pH, offering many benefits and product differentiation in 2G bioethanol production. Under this project, strain and process development, ratio optimization of enzymes, protein and genetic engineering has led to multitudes of improvement in productivity and efficiency making development of a commercial enzyme system for lignocellulosic biomass saccharification viable. DSM is continuing further improvement by additional biodiversity screening, protein engineering and overexpression of enzymes to continue to further lower the cost of enzymes for saccharification of biomass.

  2. Biomass power for rural development. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, J.T.

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this quarter a large amount of time was spent doing project planning and budget preparation for the fiscal years 1998 and 1999. Many issues of long-term strategic planning and budgeting depend on the availability of Federal support, including financial, technical and political. It has become increasingly obvious that several significant barriers must be overcome in order to reach the final project goal of commercial replication of the technology. This report describes switchgrass conversion development, production activities, environmental analysis planning, and information and education. Appendices discuss the biomass project, sediment delivery, successful establishment of switchgrass, and legislative support for the biomass project.

  3. Instructions for CEC-1250E-4 Biomass and Fossil Fuel Usage Report for Biomass Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instructions for CEC-1250E-4 Biomass and Fossil Fuel Usage Report for Biomass Facilities Biomass energy input basis in the upcoming calendar year? - Please check "yes" or "no." 12. Types of Biomass Fuel Used - Please report the quantity and supplier of the following types of biomass fuel used

  4. Biomass and Bioenergy 31 (2007) 646655 Estimating biomass of individual pine trees using airborne lidar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass and Bioenergy 31 (2007) 646­655 Estimating biomass of individual pine trees using airborne biomass and bio-energy feedstocks. The overall goal of this study was to develop a method for assessing aboveground biomass and component biomass for individual trees using airborne lidar data in forest settings

  5. FAO Global Inventory of Agricultural Mitigation Projects in Developing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    be reduced and sinks created in biomass and soils while increasing resilience and productivity. The project will contribute to ongoing research and implementation work of such...

  6. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges.

  7. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges.

  8. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  9. Projection screen having reduced ambient light scattering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for improving the contrast between incident projected light and ambient light reflected from a projection screen are described. The efficiency of the projection screen for reflection of the projected light remains high, while permitting the projection screen to be utilized in a brightly lighted room. Light power requirements from the projection system utilized may be reduced.

  10. Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report, May 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, E.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Developing commercial energy crops for power generation by the year 2000 is the focus of the DOE/USDA sponsored Biomass Power for Rural Development project. The New York based Salix Consortium project is a multi-partner endeavor, implemented in three stages. Phase-I, Final Design and Project Development, will conclude with the preparation of construction and/or operating permits, feedstock production plans, and contracts ready for signature. Field trials of willow (Salix) have been initiated at several locations in New York (Tully, Lockport, King Ferry, La Facette, Massena, and Himrod) and co-firing tests are underway at Greenidge Station (NYSEG). Phase-II of the project will focus on scale-up of willow crop acreage, construction of co-firing facilities at Dunkirk Station (NMPC), and final modifications for Greenidge Station. There will be testing of the energy crop as part of the gasification trials expected to occur at BED`s McNeill power station and potentially at one of GPU`s facilities. Phase-III will represent full-scale commercialization of the energy crop and power generation on a sustainable basis. Willow has been selected as the energy crop of choice for many reasons. Willow is well suited to the climate of the Northeastern United States, and initial field trials have demonstrated that the yields required for the success of the project are obtainable. Like other energy crops, willow has rural development benefits and could serve to diversify local crop production, provide new sources of income for participating growers, and create new jobs. Willow could be used to put a large base of idle acreage back into crop production. Additionally, the willow coppicing system integrates well with current farm operations and utilizes agricultural practices that are already familiar to farmers.

  11. Utility Solar Generation Valuation Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Thomas N.; Dion, Phillip J.

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Tucson Electric Power (TEP) developed, tested and verified the results of a new and appropriate method for accurately evaluating the capacity credit of time variant solar generating sources and reviewed new methods to appropriately and fairly evaluate the value of solar generation to electric utilities. The project also reviewed general integrated approaches for adequately compensating owners of solar generation for their benefits to utilities. However, given the limited funding support and time duration of this project combined with the significant differences between utilities regarding rate structures, solar resource availability and coincidence of solar generation with peak load periods, it is well beyond the scope of this project to develop specific rate, rebate, and interconnection approaches to capture utility benefits for all possible utilities. The project developed computer software based evaluation method models to compare solar generation production data measured in very short term time increments called Sample Intervals over a typical utility Dispatch Cycle during an Evaluation Period against utility system load data. Ten second resolution generation production data from the SGSSS and actual one minute resolution TEP system load data for 2006 and 2007, along with data from the Pennington Street Garage 60 kW DC capacity solar unit installed in downtown Tucson will be applied to the model for testing and verification of the evaluation method. Data was provided by other utilities, but critical time periods of data were missing making results derived from that data inaccurate. The algorithms are based on previous analysis and review of specific 2005 and 2006 SGSSS production data. The model was built, tested and verified by in house TEP personnel. For this phase of the project, TEP communicated with, shared solar production data with and collaborated on the development of solar generation valuation tools with other utilities, including Arizona Public Service, Salt River Project, Xcel and Nevada Power Company as well as the Arizona electric cooperatives. In the second phase of the project, three years of 10 second power output data of the SGSSS was used to evaluate the effectiveness of frequency domain analysis, normal statistical distribution analysis and finally maximum/minimum differential output analysis to test the applicability of these mathematic methods in accurately modeling the output variations produced by clouds passing over the SGSSS array.

  12. Final Report - "CO2 Sequestration in Cell Biomass of Chlorobium Thiosulfatophilum"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James L. Gaddy, PhD; Ching-Whan Ko, PhD

    2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    World carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have increased at a rate of about 3 percent per year during the last 40 years to over 24 billion tons today. While a number of methods have been proposed and are under study for dealing with the carbon dioxide problem, all have advantages as well as disadvantages which limit their application. The anaerobic bacterium Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum uses hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide to produce elemental sulfur and cell biomass. The overall objective of this project is to develop a commercial process for the biological sequestration of carbon dioxide and simultaneous conversion of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur. The Phase I study successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of utilizing this bacterium for carbon dioxide sequestration and hydrogen sulfide conversion to elemental sulfur by utilizing the bacterium in continuous reactor studies. Phase II studies involved an advanced research and development to develop the engineering and scale-up parameters for commercialization of the technology. Tasks include culture isolation and optimization studies, further continuous reactor studies, light delivery systems, high pressure studies, process scale-up, a market analysis and economic projections. A number of anaerobic and aerobic microorgansims, both non-photosynthetic and photosynthetic, were examined to find those with the fastest rates for detailed study to continuous culture experiments. C. thiosulfatophilum was selected for study to anaerobically produce sulfur and Thiomicrospira crunogena waws selected for study to produce sulfate non-photosynthetically. Optimal conditions for growth, H2S and CO2 comparison, supplying light and separating sulfur were defined. The design and economic projections show that light supply for photosynthetic reactions is far too expensive, even when solar systems are considered. However, the aerobic non-photosynthetic reaction to produce sulfate with T. crunogena produces a reasonable return when treating a sour gas stream of 120 million SCFD containing 2.5 percent H2S. In this case, the primary source of revenue is from desulfurization of the gas stream. While the technology has significant application in sequestering carbon dioxide in cell biomass or single cell proten (SCP), perhaps the most immediate application is in desulfurizing LGNG or other gas streams. This biological approach is a viable economical alternative to existing hydrogen sulfide removal technology, and is not sensitive to the presence of hydrocarbons which act as catalyst poisons.

  13. Biomass One LP Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: EnergyAvignon,Belcher HomesLyons BiomassBiofuels)Biomass Facility

  14. Market analysis methodology: a utility case study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diamond, M.

    1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The case study described in this report was conducted as part of EPRI Project RP1634 - Analytic Methods Used Outside the Electric Utility Industry. The primary objectives of the project were to: (1) explore planning and analysis techniques in use outside the utility industry, (2) identify those techniques which show promise for addressing utility issues, and (3) test them in actual utility situations to understand their real value, and the issues associated with adapting them to utility use.

  15. Characterizing toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant demonstrating the AFGD ICCT Project and a plant utilizing a dry scrubber/baghouse system: Bailly Station Units 7 and 8 and AFGD ICCT Project. Final report. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dismukes, E.B.

    1994-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes results of assessment of the risk of emissions of hazardous air pollutants at one of the electric power stations, Bailly Station, which is also the site of a Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating the Pure Air Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization process (wet limestone). This station represents the configuration of no NO{sub x} reduction, particulate control with electrostatic precipitators, and SO{sub 2} control with a wet scrubber. The test was conducted September 3--6, 1993. Sixteen trace metals were determined along with 5 major metals. Other inorganic substances and organic compounds were also determined.

  16. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. 6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high (~50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

  17. The role of biomass in California's hydrogen economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Nathan C; Ogden, Joan; Fan, Yueyue

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the biomass resources, hydrogen demands and prices to ?ndhydrogen. The price premium for biomass hydrogen comparedfrom biomass varies with hydrogen selling price. The curves

  18. The role of biomass in California's hydrogen economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Nathan C; Ogden, Joan; Fan, Yueyue

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Making a Business from Biomass in Energy, Environment,2004. An assessment of biomass resources in California.methanol and hydrogen from biomass. Journal of Power Sources

  19. Abengoa Bioenergy Biomass of Kansas LLC | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Abengoa Bioenergy Biomass of Kansas LLC Abengoa Bioenergy Biomass of Kansas LLC Abengoa Bioenergy Biomass of Kansas LLC Location: Hugoton, KS Eligibility: 1705 Snapshot In...

  20. New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conversion of Biomass to Fuels New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels Scientists made a major step forward recently towards transforming biomass-derived molecules into...

  1. Biomass Resources Overview and Perspectives on Best Fits for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Resources Overview and Perspectives on Best Fits for Fuel Cells Biomass Resources Overview and Perspectives on Best Fits for Fuel Cells Biomass resources overview and...

  2. LBL CONTINUOUS BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION PROCESS ENGINEERING UNIT (PEU)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figueroa, Carlos

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    0092 UC-61 ORNIA LBL CONTINUOUS BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION PROCESSLBL~l0092 LBL CONTINUOUS BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION PROCESSof Energy LBL CONTINUOUS BIOMASS LIQUEFACTION PROCESS

  3. MARINE BIOMASS SYSTEM: ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AND PRODUCTION OF METHANE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haven, Kendall F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design Parameters Marine Biomass Production Sea Farmof Various Types of Biomass . Biomethanation Parameters.Proceedings, Fuels from Biomass Symposium. University of

  4. Interactions of Lignin and Hemicellulose and Effects on Biomass Deconstruction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Hongjia

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lignocellulosic biomass a promising renewable feedstock forNational Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) standard biomassLignocellulosic biomass is the only promising renewable

  5. ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass-Fired Boilers ITP Energy Intensive Processes: Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass-Fired Boilers biomass-firedboilers.pdf More Documents &...

  6. The role of biomass in California's hydrogen economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Nathan C; Ogden, Joan; Fan, Yueyue

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the same quantity of biomass. Finally, the distanceto ?nd the quantity of hydrogen from biomass that is likelyhow the quantity of hydrogen available from biomass varies

  7. Tracking Hemicellulose and Lignin Deconstruction During Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKenzie, Heather Lorelei

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    less recalcitrant biomass feedstocks and improved enzymes.of less recalcitrant biomass feedstocks and improvedpotential of improved biomass feedstocks and enzymes for the

  8. High-biomass sorghums for biomass biofuel production 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Packer, Daniel

    2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    photoperiod-sensitive (PS) hybrids within the Ma1/Ma5/Ma6 hybrid production system. High-biomass sorghums are PS and the Ma1/Ma5/Ma6 hybrid production system produces PS hybrids with PI parents by manipulating alleles at the Ma1, Ma5 and Ma6 sorghum maturity...

  9. Assessment of the possibilities of electricity and heat co-generation from biomass in Romania's case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matei, M.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the use of biomass for electricity (and heat) production. The objectives of the works developed by RENEL--GSCI were to determine the Romanian potential biomass resources available in economic conditions for electricity production from biomass, to review the routes and the available equipment for power generation from biomass, to carry out a techno-economic assessment of different systems for electricity production from biomass, to identify the most suitable system for electricity and heat cogeneration from biomass, to carry out a detailed techno-economic assessment of the selected system, to perform an environmental impact assessment of the selected system and to propose a demonstration project. RENEL--GSCI (former ICEMENERG) has carried out an assessment concerning Romania's biomass potential taking into account the forestry and wood processing wastes (in the near term) and agricultural wastes (in mid term) as well as managing plantations (in the long term). Comparative techno-economical evaluation of biomass based systems for decentralized power generation was made. The cost analysis of electricity produced from biomass has indicated that the system based on boiler and steam turbine of 2,000 kW running on wood-wastes is the most economical. A location for a demonstration project with low cost financing possibilities and maximum benefits was searched. To mitigate the electricity cost it was necessary to find a location in which the fuel price is quite low, so that the low yield of small installation can be balanced. In order to demonstrate the performances of a system which uses biomass for electricity and heat generation, a pulp and paper mill which needed electricity and heat, and, had large amount of wood wastes from industrial process was found as the most suitable location. A technical and economical analysis for 8 systems for electricity production from bark and wood waste was performed.

  10. Federal Utility Partnership Working Group Utility Partners

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) utility partners are eager to work closely with Federal agencies to help achieve energy management goals.

  11. A REVIEW ON BIOMASS DENSIFICATION TECHNOLOGIE FOR ENERGY APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JAYA SHANKAR TUMULURU; CHRISTOPHER T. WRIGHT

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The world is currently facing challenges to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and to achieve a sustainable renewable supply. Renewable energies represent a diversity of energy sources that can help to maintain the equilibrium of different ecosystems. Among the various sources of renewable energy, biomass is finding more uses as it is considered carbon neutral since the carbondioxide released during its use is already part of the carbon cycle (Arias et al., 2008). Increasing the utilization of biomass for energy can help to reduce the negative CO2 impact on the environment and help to meet the targets established in the Kyoto Protocol (UN, 1998). Energy from biomass can be produced from different processes like thermochemical (combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis), biological (anaerobic digestion, fermentation) or chemical (esterification) where direct combustion can provide a direct near-term energy solution (Arias et al., 2008). Some of the inherent problems with raw biomass materials, like low bulk density, high moisture content, hydrophilic nature and low calorific value, limit the ease of use of biomass for energy purposes (Arias et al., 2008). In fact, due to its low energy density compared to fossil fuels, high volumes of biomass will be needed; adding to problems associated with storage, transportation and feed handling at a cogeneration plant. Furthermore, grinding biomass pulverizes, can be very costly and in some cases impractical. All of these drawbacks have given rise to the development of new technologies in order to increase the quality of biomass fuels. The purpose of the work is mainly in four areas 1) Overview of the torrefaction process and to do a literature review on i) Physical properties of torrefied raw material and torrefaction gas composition. 2) Basic principles in design of packed bed i) Equations governing the flow of material in packed bed ii) Equations governing the flow of the gases in packed bed iii) Effect of physical properties of the raw materials on the packed bed design 3) Design of packed bed torrefier of different capacities. 4) Development of an excel sheet for calculation of length and diameter of the packed bed column based on the design considerations.

  12. DEMONSTRATION OF THE VIABILITY AND EVALUATION OF PRODUCTION COSTS FOR BIOMASS-INFUSED COAL BRIQUETTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamshad, Kourosh

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the final reporting installment of the DOE project titled DEMONSTRATION OF THE VIABILITY AND EVALUATION OF PRODUCTION COSTS FOR BIOMASS-INFUSED COAL BRIQUETTES. This rerport includes a summary of the work completed to date including the experimental methods used to acheive the results, discussions, conclusions and implications of the final product delivered by the project.

  13. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, III, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO); Hennessey, Susan Marie (Avondale, PA)

    2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  14. Biomass Resources for the Federal Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass Resources for the Federal Sector is a fact sheet that explains how biomass resources can be incorporated into the federal sector, and also how they can provide opportunities to meet federal renewable energy goals.

  15. Biomass Sales and Use Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Georgia enacted legislation in April 2006 (HB 1018) creating an exemption for biomass materials from the state's sales and use taxes. The term "biomass material" is defined as "organic matter,...

  16. Biomass Webinar Text Version | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Dowload the text version of the audio from the DOE Office of Indian Energy webinar on biomass. DOE Office of Indian Energy Foundational Course Webinar on Biomass: Text Version More...

  17. Biomass Equipment & Materials Compensating Tax Deduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2005, New Mexico adopted a policy to allow businesses to deduct the value of biomass equipment and biomass materials used for the processing of biopower, biofuels, or biobased products in...

  18. Conversion of Waste Biomass into Useful Products 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holtzapple, M.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste biomass includes municipal solid waste (MSW), municipal sewage sludge (SS), industrial biosludge, manure, and agricultural residues. When treated with lime, biomass is highly digestible by a mixed culture of acid-forming microorganisms. Lime...

  19. Biomass Equipment and Materials Compensating Tax Deduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2005 New Mexico adopted a policy to allow businesses to deduct the value of biomass equipment and biomass materials used for the processing of biopower, biofuels or biobased products in...

  20. Biomass Feedstock Composition and Property Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Biomass Program works with industry, academia and national laboratory partners on a balanced portfolio of research in biomass feedstocks and conversion technologies. Through research, development, and demonstration efforts geared at the development of integrated biorefineries, the Biomass Program is helping transform the nation's renewable and abundant biomass resources into cost competitive, high performance biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower.(From the Biomass Program's home page at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/) The Biomass Feedstock Composition and Property Database allows the user to choose from more than 150 types of biomass samples. The specialized interface then guides the user through choices within the sample (such as "Ash" as a choice in the "Hardwood" sample and displays tables based on choice of composition properties, structure properties, elemental properties, extractive properties, etc.

  1. Biomass to Gasoline and DIesel Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marker, Terry; Roberts, Michael; Linck, Martin; Felix, Larry; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro; Wangerow, Jim; Tan, Eric; Gephart, John; Shonnard, David

    2013-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The DOE funding enabled rapid development of the IH2 technology from initial proof-of-principle experiments through continuous testing in a 50 kg/day pilot plant. As part of this project, engineering work on IH2 has also been completed to design a 1 ton/day demonstration unit and a commercial-scale 2000 ton/day IH2 unit. These studies show when using IH2 technology, biomass can be converted directly to transportation quality fuel blending components for the same capital cost required for pyrolysis alone, and a fraction of the cost of pyrolysis plus upgrading of pyrolysis oil. Technoeconomic work for IH2 and lifecycle analysis (LCA) work has also been completed as part of this DOE study and shows IH2 technology can convert biomass to gasoline and diesel blending components for less than $2.00/gallon with greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. As a result of the work completed in this DOE project, a joint development agreement was reached with CRI Catalyst Company to license the IH2 technology. Further larger-scale, continuous testing of IH2 will be required to fully demonstrate the technology, and funding for this is recommended. The IH2 biomass conversion technology would reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil, reduce the price of transportation fuels, and significantly lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is a breakthrough for the widespread conversion of biomass to transportation fuels.

  2. Northeast Regional Biomass Program first and second quarter reports, October 1, 1994--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Northeast states face several near-term barriers to the expanded use of biomass energy. Informational and technical barriers have impeded industrial conversions, delaying the development of a wood energy supply infrastructure. Concern over the environmental impacts on resources are not well understood. Public awareness and concern about safety issues surrounding wood energy use has also grown to the point of applying a brake to the trend of increases in residential applications of biomass energy. In addition, many residential commercial, industrial, and commercial energy users are discouraged from using biomass energy because of the convenience factor. Regardless of the potential for cost savings, biomass energy sources, aside from being perceived as more esoteric, are also viewed as more work for the user. The Northeast Regional biomass Program (NRBP) is designed to help the eleven Northeastern states overcome these obstacles and achieve their biomass energy potentials. The objective of this program in the current and future years is to increase the role of biomass fuels in the region`s energy mix by providing the impetus for states and the private sector to develop a viable Northeast biomass fuels market. This paper contains a management report, state program summaries, technical project status report, and technology transfer activities.

  3. Biomass from Combined Backseatter Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weishampel, John F.

    and SAR back- scatter. In this article we discuss' the use of models to help develop a relationship to an airbomw SAR (AIB- SAB) image over a fi?rested area in Maine. A relationship derived totall!l from model results was fi?und to undervs- timate biomass. Calibrating the modeled backscatter with limited AIRSAB

  4. OETR OETR Symposium Utilization of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokyo, University of

    OETR OETR Symposium Utilization of Offshore Wind Energy for a New Landscape of Beautiful Japan OETR + OEAJ Two keys, Bankability and Public Acceptance A leading veri cation project for offshore wind eld 2 FIT program for offshore wind-power In order to further accelerate this momentum, two vital

  5. Biomass Catalyst Characterization Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet provides information about Biomass Catalyst Characterization Laboratory (BCCL) capabilities and applications at NREL's National Bioenergy Center.

  6. Dairy Biomass as a Renewable Fuel Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib; Goodrich, Barry; Engler, Cady; Capareda, Sergio

    2008-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    biomass. This publication explains the properties of dairy manure that could make it an excellent source of fuel....

  7. Dairy Biomass as a Renewable Fuel Source 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib; Goodrich, Barry; Engler, Cady; Capareda, Sergio

    2008-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    biomass. This publication explains the properties of dairy manure that could make it an excellent source of fuel....

  8. Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory (Fact Sheet), National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Providing detailed and accurate characterization of the chemical composition of biomass feedstocks, intermediates, and products Compositional Analysis Service Capabilities...

  9. Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet provides information about Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory (BCAL) capabilities and applications at NREL's National Bioenergy Center.

  10. Tribal Utility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be developed and sold to the wholesale electricity market. • Facility scale, net metered renewable energy systems – These are renewable energy systems that provide power to individual households or facilities that are connected to conventional electric utility grid.

  11. Utility Partnerships Webinar Series: Gas Utility Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Utility Partnerships Webinar Series: Gas Utility Energy Efficiency Programs Utility Partnerships Webinar Series: Gas Utility Energy Efficiency Programs gasutilityeewebinarnov2...

  12. Determination of Protein Content in Biomass: Laboratory Analytical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Biomass") and biomass before extraction. 2.2 This procedure is suitable for biomass feedstocks, process solids, and process liquids. 2.3 Some types of biomass feedstocks, such...

  13. Using Entrez Utilities Web Service with C# and MS Visual Studio Entrez Utilities Web Service has been tested with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Judith G.

    Using Entrez Utilities Web Service with C# and MS Visual Studio 2008 Entrez Utilities Web Service Version 9.0.30729.1 SP Creating a Web Service Client Project The following walkthrough describes how to create a new C# project to access the NCBI Entrez Utilities Web Service using MS Visual Studio 2008

  14. Original article Micronutrients in biomass fractions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Micronutrients in biomass fractions of holm oak, beech and fir forests biomass fractions in individual monospecific stands of holm oak (Quercus ilex L), beech (Fagus sylvatica L in different biomass fractions of the holm oak forest studied. This can be related to the low soil pH values

  15. UCSD Biomass to Power Economic Feasibility Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cattolica, Robert

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and  the  high  price  of  the  biomass  from  the  Miramar biomass to be secured under long?term contracts at better prices.   biomass and any dual fuel)  • Moisture, ash, and carbon concentrations (for weight calculations of input fuel and facility waste)  • Sale price 

  16. 4, 707745, 2007 Proxies of biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 4, 707­745, 2007 Proxies of biomass for primary production Y. Huot et al. Title Page Abstract the best index of phytoplankton biomass for primary productivity studies? Y. Huot 1,2 , M. Babin 1,2 , F of biomass for primary production Y. Huot et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions References

  17. Thermodynamics of Energy Production from Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Thermodynamics of Energy Production from Biomass Tad W. Patzek 1 and David Pimentel 2 1 Department #12;3 Biomass from Tropical Tree Plantations 14 3.1 Scope of the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.2 Environmental Impacts of Industrial Biomass Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 3

  18. 4, 51355200, 2004 A review of biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 4, 5135­5200, 2004 A review of biomass burning emissions, part II J. S. Reid et al. Title Page and Physics Discussions A review of biomass burning emissions, part II: Intensive physical properties of biomass burning particles J. S. Reid 1 , R. Koppmann 2 , T. F. Eck 3 , and D. P. Eleuterio 4 1 Marine

  19. 4, 52015260, 2004 A review of biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 4, 5201­5260, 2004 A review of biomass burning emissions part III J. S. Reid et al. Title Page and Physics Discussions A review of biomass burning emissions part III: intensive optical properties of biomass burning particles J. S. Reid1 , T. F. Eck2 , S. A. Christopher3 , R. Koppmann4 , O. Dubovik3 , D

  20. 5, 1045510516, 2005 A review of biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 10455­10516, 2005 A review of biomass burning emissions, part I R. Koppmann et al. Title and Physics Discussions A review of biomass burning emissions, part I: gaseous emissions of carbon monoxide A review of biomass burning emissions, part I R. Koppmann et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  1. Energie-Cits 2001 BIOMASS -WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energie-Cités 2001 BIOMASS - WOOD Gasification / Cogeneration ARMAGH United Kingdom Gasification is transferring the combustible matters in organic waste or biomass into gas and pure char by burning the fuel via it allows biomass in small-scaled engines and co-generation units ­ which with conventional technologies

  2. Woody Biomass Logistics Robert Keefe1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    14 Woody Biomass Logistics Robert Keefe1 , Nathaniel Anderson2 , John Hogland2 , and Ken Muhlenfeld The economics of using woody biomass as a fuel or feedstock for bioenergy applications is often driven by logistical considerations. Depending on the source of the woody biomass, the acquisition cost of the material

  3. Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raines, Ronald T.

    Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass Joseph B. Binder and Ronald T. Raines1 19, 2009) Abundant plant biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of fuels of biomass into monosaccharides. Add- ing water gradually to a chloride ionic liquid-containing catalytic

  4. Vanadium catalysts break down biomass for fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - Vanadium catalysts break down biomass for fuels March 26, 2012 Vanadium catalysts break down biomass into useful components Due to diminishing petroleum reserves, non-food biomass (lignocellulose) is an attractive alternative as a feedstock for the production of renewable chemicals and fuels. The Department

  5. Researchers at the Biomass Energy Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dongwon

    is renewable, and can be grown domestically. In all its variet- ies, biomass is also plentiful, and hasHARVEST OF ENERGY Researchers at the Biomass Energy Center are homing in on future fuels --By David--seriously for much longer than that. These are just a few examples of biomass, plant matter that can be transformed

  6. Long Term Processing Using Integrated Hydropyrolysis plus Hydroconversion (IH2) for the Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marker, Terry [Gas Technology Institute; Roberts, Michael [Gas Technology Institute; Linck, Martin [Gas Technology Institute; Felix, Larry [Gas Technology Institute; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro [Gas Technology Institute; Wangerow, Jim [Gas Technology Institute; McLeod, Celeste [CRI Catalyst; Del Paggio, Alan [CRI Catalyst; Gephart, John [Johnson Timber; Starr, Jack [Cargill; Hahn, John [Cargill

    2013-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulosic and woody biomass can be directly converted to hydrocarbon gasoline and diesel blending components through the use of a new, economical, technology named integrated hydropyrolysis plus hydroconversion (IH2). The IH2 gasoline and diesel blending components are fully compatible with petroleum based gasoline and diesel, contain less than 1% oxygen and have less than 1 total acid number (TAN). The IH2 gasoline is high quality and very close to a drop in fuel. The life cycle analysis (LCA) shows that the use of the IH2 process to convert wood to gasoline and diesel results in a greater than 90% reduction in greenhouse gas emission compared to that found with fossil derived fuels. The technoeconomic analysis showed the conversion of wood using the IH2 process can produce gasoline and diesel at less than $2.00/gallon. In this project, the previously reported semi-continuous small scale IH2 test results were confirmed in a continuous 50 kg/day pilot plant. The continuous IH2 pilot plant used in this project was operated round the clock for over 750 hours and showed good pilot plant operability while consistently producing 26-28 wt % yields of high quality gasoline and diesel product. The IH2 catalyst showed good stability, although more work on catalyst stability is recommended. Additional work is needed to commercialize the IH2 technology including running large particle size biomass, modeling the hydropyrolysis step, studying the effects of process variables and building and operating a 1-50 ton/day demonstration scale plant. The IH2 is a true game changing technology by utilizing U.S. domestic renewable biomass resources to create transportation fuels, sufficient in quantity and quality to substantially reduce our reliance on foreign crude oil. Thus, the IH2 technology offers a path to genuine energy independence for the U. S., along with the creation of a significant number of new U.S. jobs to plant, grow, harvest, and process biomass crops into fungible fuels.

  7. agri power project: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy projects, including wind, closed- and open-loop biomass, geothermal, Bolinger, Mark 2009-01-01 117 The Jubilee ISW Project I: simulated ISW and weak lensing maps and...

  8. NET PRED UTILITY

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    002602IBMPC00 Normalized Elution Time Prediction Utility  http://omics.pnl.gov/software/NETPredictionUtility.php 

  9. The role of biomass in California's hydrogen economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Nathan C; Ogden, Joan; Fan, Yueyue

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hydrogen from dry biomass feedstocks (i.e. straws, stovers,be produced from the wet biomass feedstocks (manures, urban

  10. Renewable Energy Project Overview | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy Project Overview Renewable Energy Project Overview Presentation-given at the Spring 2009 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting-covers federal...

  11. COFIRING OF BIOMASS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillip N. Hutton

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory was completed by the Energy & Environmental Research Center to explore the potential for cofiring biomass at the University of North Dakota (UND). The results demonstrate how 25% sunflower hulls can be cofired with subbituminous coal and provide a 20% return on investment or 5-year payback for the modifications required to enable firing biomass. Significant outcomes of the study are as follows. A complete resource assessment presented all biomass options to UND within a 100-mile radius. Among the most promising options in order of preference were sunflower hulls, wood residues, and turkey manure. The firing of up to 28% sunflower hulls by weight was completed at the university's steam plant to identify plant modifications that would be necessary to enable cofiring sunflower hulls. The results indicated investments in a new equipment could be less than $408,711. Data collected from test burns, which were not optimized for biomass firing, resulted in a 15% reduction in sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions, no increase in opacity, and slightly better boiler efficiency. Fouling and clinkering potential were not evaluated; however, no noticeable detrimental effects occurred during testing. As a result of this study, UND has the potential to achieve a cost savings of approximately $100,000 per year from a $1,500,000 annual fossil fuel budget by implementing the cofiring of 25% sunflower hulls.

  12. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass represents a large potential feedstock resource for environmentally clean processes that produce power or chemicals. It lends itself to both biological and thermal conversion processes and both options are currently being explored. Hydrogen can be produced in a variety of ways. The majority of the hydrogen produced in this country is produced through natural gas reforming and is used as chemical feedstock in refinery operations. In this report we will examine the production of hydrogen by gasification of biomass. Biomass is defined as organic matter that is available on a renewable basis through natural processes or as a by-product of processes that use renewable resources. The majority of biomass is used in combustion processes, in mills that use the renewable resources, to produce electricity for end-use product generation. This report will explore the use of hydrogen as a fuel derived from gasification of three candidate biomass feedstocks: bagasse, switchgrass, and a nutshell mix that consists of 40% almond nutshell, 40% almond prunings, and 20% walnut shell. In this report, an assessment of the technical and economic potential of producing hydrogen from biomass gasification is analyzed. The resource base was assessed to determine a process scale from feedstock costs and availability. Solids handling systems were researched. A GTI proprietary gasifier model was used in combination with a Hysys(reg. sign) design and simulation program to determine the amount of hydrogen that can be produced from each candidate biomass feed. Cost estimations were developed and government programs and incentives were analyzed. Finally, the barriers to the production and commercialization of hydrogen from biomass were determined. The end-use of the hydrogen produced from this system is small PEM fuel cells for automobiles. Pyrolysis of biomass was also considered. Pyrolysis is a reaction in which biomass or coal is partially vaporized by heating. Gasification is a more general term, and includes heating as well as the injection of other ''ingredients'' such as oxygen and water. Pyrolysis alone is a useful first step in creating vapors from coal or biomass that can then be processed in subsequent steps to make liquid fuels. Such products are not the objective of this project. Therefore pyrolysis was not included in the process design or in the economic analysis. High-pressure, fluidized bed gasification is best known to GTI through 30 years of experience. Entrained flow, in contrast to fluidized bed, is a gasification technology applied at much larger unit sizes than employed here. Coal gasification and residual oil gasifiers in refineries are the places where such designs have found application, at sizes on the order of 5 to 10 times larger than what has been determined for this study. Atmospheric pressure gasification is also not discussed. Atmospheric gasification has been the choice of all power system pilot plants built for biomass to date, except for the Varnamo plant in Sweden, which used the Ahlstrom (now Foster Wheeler) pressurized gasifier. However, for fuel production, the disadvantage of the large volumetric flows at low pressure leads to the pressurized gasifier being more economical.

  13. BIOMASS FOR HYDROGEN AND OTHER TRANSPORT FUELS -POTENTIALS, LIMITATIONS & COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BIOMASS FOR HYDROGEN AND OTHER TRANSPORT FUELS - POTENTIALS, LIMITATIONS & COSTS Senior scientist - "Towards Hydrogen Society" ·biomass resources - potentials, limits ·biomass carbon cycle ·biomass for hydrogen - as compared to other H2- sources and to other biomass paths #12;BIOMASS - THE CARBON CYCLE

  14. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John M. Sweeten, Kalyan Annamalai

    2012-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the â??Cattle Feeding Capital of the Worldâ?ť, producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure /year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOâ??s), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Wacoâ??the primary source of potable water for Wacoâ??s 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category 1 â?? Renewable Energy Conversion. This category addressed mostly in volume I involves developing. Thermo-chemical conversion technologies including cofiring with coal, reburn to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO, N2O, NOx, etc.) and Hg emissions and gasification to produce low-BTU gas for on-site power production in order to extract energy from waste streams or renewable resources. Category 2 â?? Biomass Resource Technology. This category, addressed mostly in Volume II, deals with the efficient and cost-effective use of CB as a renewable energy source (e.g. through and via aqueous-phase, anaerobic digestion or biological gasification). The investigators formed an industrial advisory panel consisting fuel producers (feedlots and dairy farms) and fuel users (utilities), periodically met with them, and presented the research results; apart from serving as dissemination forum, the PIs used their critique to red-direct the research within the scope of the tasks. The final report for the 5 to 7 year project performed by an interdisciplinary team of 9 professors is arranged in three volumes: Vol. I (edited by Kalyan Annamalai) addressing thermo-chemical conversion and direct combustion under Category 1 and Vol. II and Vol. III ( edited by J M Sweeten) addressing biomass resource Technology under Category 2. Various tasks and sub-tasks addressed in Volume I were performed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering (a part of TEES; see Volume I), while other tasks and sub-tasks addressed in Volume II and IIII were conducted by Texas AgriLife Research at Amarillo; the TAMU Biological & Agricultural Engineering Department (BAEN) College Station; and West Texas A&M University (WTAMU) (Volumes II and III). The three volume report covers the following results: fuel properties of low ash and high ash CB (particularly DB) and MB (mortality biomass and coals, non-intrusive visible infrared (NVIR) spectroscopy techniques for ash determination, dairy energy use surveys at 14 dairies in Texas and Califor

  15. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalyan Annamalai, John M. Sweeten,

    2012-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the 'Cattle Feeding Capital of the World', producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco - the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category 1 - Renewable Energy Conversion. This category addressed mostly in volume I involves developing. Thermo-chemical conversion technologies including cofiring with coal, reburn to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO, N2O, NOx, etc.) and Hg emissions and gasification to produce low-BTU gas for on-site power production in order to extract energy from waste streams or renewable resources. Category 2 - Biomass Resource Technology. This category, addressed mostly in Volume II, deals with the efficient and cost-effective use of CB as a renewable energy source (e.g. through and via aqueous-phase, anaerobic digestion or biological gasification). The investigators formed an industrial advisory panel consisting fuel producers (feedlots and dairy farms) and fuel users (utilities), periodically met with them, and presented the research results; apart from serving as dissemination forum, the PIs used their critique to red-direct the research within the scope of the tasks. The final report for the 5 to 7 year project performed by an interdisciplinary team of 9 professors is arranged in three volumes: Vol. I (edited by Kalyan Annamalai) addressing thermo-chemical conversion and direct combustion under Category 1 and Vol. II and Vol. III ( edited by J M Sweeten) addressing biomass resource Technology under Category 2. Various tasks and sub-tasks addressed in Volume I were performed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering (a part of TEES; see Volume I), while other tasks and sub-tasks addressed in Volume II and IIII were conducted by Texas AgriLife Research at Amarillo; the TAMU Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department (BAEN) College Station; and West Texas A and M University (WTAMU) (Volumes II and III). The three volume report covers the following results: fuel properties of low ash and high ash CB (particularly DB) and MB (mortality biomass) and coals, non-intrusive visible infrared (NVIR) spectroscopy techniques for ash determination, dairy energy use surveys at 14 dairies in Texas and California, cofiring of low quality CB with high quality coal, emission results and ash fouling beh

  16. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John M. Sweeten, Kalyan Annamalai

    2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the �Cattle Feeding Capital of the World�, producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure /year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO�s), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco�the primary source of potable water for Waco�s 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category 1 � Renewable Energy Conversion. This category addressed mostly in volume I involves developing. Thermo-chemical conversion technologies including cofiring with coal, reburn to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO, N2O, NOx, etc.) and Hg emissions and gasification to produce low-BTU gas for on-site power production in order to extract energy from waste streams or renewable resources. Category 2 � Biomass Resource Technology. This category, addressed mostly in Volume II, deals with the efficient and cost-effective use of CB as a renewable energy source (e.g. through and via aqueous-phase, anaerobic digestion or biological gasification). The investigators formed an industrial advisory panel consisting fuel producers (feedlots and dairy farms) and fuel users (utilities), periodically met with them, and presented the research results; apart from serving as dissemination forum, the PIs used their critique to red-direct the research within the scope of the tasks. The final report for the 5 to 7 year project performed by an interdisciplinary team of 9 professors is arranged in three volumes: Vol. I (edited by Kalyan Annamalai) addressing thermo-chemical conversion and direct combustion under Category 1 and Vol. II and Vol. III ( edited by J M Sweeten) addressing biomass resource Technology under Category 2. Various tasks and sub-tasks addressed in Volume I were performed by the Department of Mechanical Engineering (a part of TEES; see Volume I), while other tasks and sub-tasks addressed in Volume II and IIII were conducted by Texas AgriLife Research at Amarillo; the TAMU Biological & Agricultural Engineering Department (BAEN) College Station; and West Texas A&M University (WTAMU) (Volumes II and III). The three volume report covers the following results: fuel properties of low ash and high ash CB (particularly DB) and MB (mortality biomass and coals, non-intrusive visible infrared (NVIR) spectroscopy techniques for ash determination, dairy energy use surveys a

  17. A Utility-Affiliated Cogeneration Developer Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrar, T. A.

    This paper will address cogeneration from a utility-affiliated cogeneration developer perspective on cogeneration as it relates to the development and consumption of power available from a cogeneration project. It will also go beyond...

  18. Fort Collins Utilities- Home Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fort Collins Utilities (FCU) provides rebates for customers living in existing single-family homes who pursue energy efficiency projects. Either the Efficiency Audit or Efficiency Audit Plus is a...

  19. To be included in this de"nition, the organic matter must be derived from a renewable source of biomass such as sustained yield forestry or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of biomass such as sustained yield forestry or agricultural crops. Gas (primarily methane) derived from is by government with delegation to independent utility regulators, while in Europe it is more the responsibility

  20. Critical Nuclear Utilities Upgrade Project (CNUUP) (4572)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would likeConstitution4 Department of Energy CarlsbadWinterAnyone whoCritical