Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uses-total nonprocess" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Product Binding Varies Dramatically between Processive and Nonprocessive Cellulase Enzymes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cellulases hydrolyze {beta}-1,4 glycosidic linkages in cellulose, which are among the most prevalent and stable bonds in Nature. Cellulases comprise many glycoside hydrolase families and exist as processive or nonprocessive enzymes. Product inhibition negatively impacts cellulase action, but experimental measurements of product-binding constants vary significantly, and there is little consensus on the importance of this phenomenon. To provide molecular level insights into cellulase product inhibition, we examine the impact of product binding on processive and nonprocessive cellulases by calculating the binding free energy of cellobiose to the product sites of catalytic domains of processive and nonprocessive enzymes from glycoside hydrolase families 6 and 7. The results suggest that cellobiose binds to processive cellulases much more strongly than nonprocessive cellulases. We also predict that the presence of a cellodextrin bound in the reactant site of the catalytic domain, which is present during enzymatic catalysis, has no effect on product binding in nonprocessive cellulases, whereas it significantly increases product binding to processive cellulases. This difference in product binding correlates with hydrogen bonding between the substrate-side ligand and the cellobiose product in processive cellulase tunnels and the additional stabilization from the longer tunnel-forming loops. The hydrogen bonds between the substrate- and product-side ligands are disrupted by water in nonprocessive cellulase clefts, and the lack of long tunnel-forming loops results in lower affinity of the product ligand. These findings provide new insights into the large discrepancies reported for binding constants for cellulases and suggest that product inhibition will vary significantly based on the amount of productive binding for processive cellulases on cellulose.

Bu, L.; Nimlos, M. R.; Shirts, M. R.; Stahlberg, J.; Himmel, M. E.; Crowley, M. F.; Beckham, G. T.

2012-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

2

Stochastic dynamics of small ensembles of non-processive molecular motors: the parallel cluster model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Non-processive molecular motors have to work together in ensembles in order to generate appreciable levels of force or movement. In skeletal muscle, for example, hundreds of myosin II molecules cooperate in thick filaments. In non-muscle cells, by contrast, small groups with few tens of non-muscle myosin II motors contribute to essential cellular processes such as transport, shape changes or mechanosensing. Here we introduce a detailed and analytically tractable model for this important situation. Using a three-state crossbridge model for the myosin II motor cycle and exploiting the assumptions of fast power stroke kinetics and equal load sharing between motors in equivalent states, we reduce the stochastic reaction network to a one-step master equation for the binding and unbinding dynamics (parallel cluster model) and derive the rules for ensemble movement. We find that for constant external load, ensemble dynamics is strongly shaped by the catch bond character of myosin II, which leads to an increase of the fraction of bound motors under load and thus to firm attachment even for small ensembles. This adaptation to load results in a concave force-velocity relation described by a Hill relation. For external load provided by a linear spring, myosin II ensembles dynamically adjust themselves towards an isometric state with constant average position and load. The dynamics of the ensembles is now determined mainly by the distribution of motors over the different kinds of bound states. For increasing stiffness of the external spring, there is a sharp transition beyond which myosin II can no longer perform the power stroke. Slow unbinding from the pre-power-stroke state protects the ensembles against detachment.

Thorsten Erdmann; Philipp J. Albert; Ulrich S. Schwarz

2013-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

3

Determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Using Total Carbon Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Several methods have been proposed to replace the Freon(TM)-extraction method to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content. For reasons of cost, sensitivity, precision, or simplicity, none of the replacement methods are feasible for analysis of radioactive samples at our facility. We have developed a method to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon content in aqueous sample matrixes using total organic carbon (total carbon) determination. The total carbon content (TC1) of the sample is measured using a total organic carbon analyzer. The sample is then contacted with a small volume of non-pokar solvent to extract the total petroleum hydrocarbons. The total carbon content of the resultant aqueous phase of the extracted sample (TC2) is measured. Total petroleum hydrocarbon content is calculated (TPH = TC1-TC2). The resultant data are consistent with results obtained using Freon(TM) extraction followed by infrared absorbance.

Ekechukwu, A.A.

2002-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

4

"Code(a)","End Use","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,,"Net","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal" "Code(a)","End Use","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(c)","Natural Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coke and Breeze)","Other(f...

5

"End Use","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Oil",,,"Coal" " "," ","Net","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal"," " "End Use","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coke...

6

Severe Pulmonary Toxicity After Myeloablative Conditioning Using Total Body Irradiation: An Assessment of Risk Factors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess factors associated with severe pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 101 adult patients who underwent TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies at Duke University between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed. TBI was combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide, melphalan, fludarabine, or etoposide, depending on the underlying disease. Acute pulmonary toxicity, occurring within 90 days of transplantation, was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Actuarial overall survival and the cumulative incidence of acute pulmonary toxicity were calculated via the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using a log-rank test. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors independently associated with acute severe pulmonary toxicity. Results: The 90-day actuarial risk of developing severe (Grade 3-5) pulmonary toxicity was 33%. Actuarial survival at 90 days was 49% in patients with severe pulmonary toxicity vs. 94% in patients without (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the number of prior chemotherapy regimens was the only factor independently associated with development of severe pulmonary toxicity (odds ratio, 2.7 per regimen). Conclusions: Severe acute pulmonary toxicity is prevalent after TBI-based myeloablative conditioning regimens, occurring in approximately 33% of patients. The number of prior chemotherapy regimens appears to be an important risk factor.

Kelsey, Chris R., E-mail: kelse003@mc.duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Horwitz, Mitchell E. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cellular Therapy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Chino, Junzo P.; Craciunescu, Oana; Steffey, Beverly [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Folz, Rodney J. [Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Disorders Medicine, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, KY (United States); Chao, Nelson J.; Rizzieri, David A. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cellular Therapy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Unlocking the 'True' Structure of Complex Materials using Total ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Magnetic Composite Materials · X-Ray Studies of Structural Effects Induced by Pulsed (30 Tesla), High Magnetic Fields at the Advanced Photon Source ...

8

Naphtha for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Total Stocks Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Stock Type: Download Series History: Definitions, Sources & Notes: Show Data By: Product: Stock Type: Area: Jan-13 Feb-13 Mar-13 Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 View History; U ...

9

The European Origins of Euro-Mediterranean Practices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as follows. 29 Economic liberalisation in Mediterranean nonprocess of political liberalisation. Israel’s participation

Bicchi, Federica

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Screening for organic solvents in Hanford waste tanks using total non- methane organic compound vapor concentrations  

SciTech Connect

The potential ignition of organic liquids stored in the Hanford high-level radioactive waste tanks is a safety issue because expanding gases could affect tank dome integrity. This report presents results of a screening test that was applied to 75 passively ventilated waste tanks at Hanford to determine those that might contain a significant amount of organic liquid waste. The screening test is based on a simple model of tank headspace, headspace organic vapor concentrations, and certain tank physical parameters. Analyses indicate that damage to the tank dome is credible only if the organic liquid burn rate is above a threshold value, and this can occur only if the surface area of organic liquid in a tank is above a corresponding threshold value of about one square meter. Twelve tanks were identified as potentially containing at least that amount of semivolatile organic liquid based on conservative estimates. Tank head space organic vapor concentrations and physical parameters required by the screening test have been compiled and are presented for each of the tanks studied. Estimates of the ventilation rates of the waste tanks were revised to reflect recent information obtained from hydrogen monitoring data. A simple analysis of the uncertainty in the test results suggests that the largest current uncertainty in the estimation of organic liquid surface area is that associated with knowledge of the tank ventilation rate. The uncertainty analysis is applied to determine 95% confidence limits for the estimated organic waste surface area in each tank.

Huckaby, J.L.; Glissmeyer, J.A.; Sklarew, D.S.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Control of the Accumulation of Non-Process Elements in Pulp Mills with Bleach Filtrate Reuse: A Chemical Equilibrium Approach to Predicting the Partitioning of Metals in Pulp Mill and Bleach Plant Streams  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall goal of this project was to develop fundamental, experimentally based methods for predicting the solubility or organic and inorganic matter and their interactions in recycled effluent from kraft pulp mills and bleach plants. This included: characterizing the capacity of wood pulp and dissolved organic matter to bind metal ions, developing a thermodynamic database of properties needed to describe the solubility of inorganic matter in pulp mill streams, incorporation of the database into equilibrium calculation software for predicting the solubility of the metals of interest, and evaluating its capability to predict the distribution of the metals between pulp fibers, inorganic precipitates, and solution.

Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Rudie, A.W.; Schmidl, G.W.; Sinquefield, S.A.; Rorrer, G.L.; Laver, M.L.; Yantasee, W.; Ming, D.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Evaluation of the Candidate High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain Using Total System Performance Assessment: Phase 5  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A successful license application for the candidate spent-fuel and high level waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain depends on a robust demonstration of long-term safety. This report presents EPRI's independent review to identify any conservatisms in the U.S. Depawrtment of Energy's (DOE's) Phase 5 Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The review specifically identifies key facility components, makes recommendations regarding technical development work priorities, and evaluates ove...

2000-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

13

Evaluation of the Proposed High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain Using Total System Performance Assessment: Phase 6  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A successful license application for the candidate spent-fuel and high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain depends on a robust demonstration of long-term safety. This report presents EPRI's evaluation of, and makes a case for, the suitability of the Yucca Mountain repository using a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The report discusses factors that make the Yucca Mountain repository system suitable for continued development and initiation of the licensing process. Information in this Phas...

2002-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

14

Improved Detection of Optically Thin Cirrus Clouds in Nighttime Multispectral Meteorological Satellite Imagery Using Total Integrated Water Vapor Information  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accurate identification of optically thin cirrus clouds in global meteorological satellite imagery by automated cloud analysis algorithms is critical to environmental remote sensing studies, such as those related to climate change. While ...

Keith D. Hutchison; Kenneth R. Hardy; Bo-Cai Gao

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Manufacturing Consumption of Energy 1994  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

How Did Manufacturers Use Natural Gas? Manufacturers used natural gas in processes, in boilers, for nonprocess uses, and as feedstock. In 1991 and 1994, ...

16

Analysis of Energy Use in Building Services of the Industrial Sector in California: A Literature Review and a Preliminary Characterization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

use for building energy services. Another way of statingHtg. L3 L3 % Total Service Energy '-J m I % of Non-Process7 shows the percent of service energy which is electricity

Akbari, H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Translational Control in Fungi  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

eIF4G also stimulates the helicase activity of eIF4A and,is an ATP-dependent RNA helicase of the DExD/H-box family.is a weak, non-processive helicase and requires activation

Clarkson, Bryan Kensey

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Plant Engineering: Guideline for the Acceptance of Commercial-Grade Design and Analysis Computer Programs Used in Nuclear Safety-Rel ated Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides methodology that can be used to perform safety classification of non-process computer programs, such as design and analysis tools, that are not resident or embedded (installed as part of) plant systems, structures, and components. The report also provides guidance for using commercial-grade dedication methodology to accept commercially procured computer programs that perform a safety-related function. The guidance is intended for use by subject matter experts in the acceptance of com...

2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

19

Plant Engineering: Guideline for the Acceptance of Commercial-Grade Design and Analysis Computer Programs Used in Nuclear Safety-Related Applications: Revision 1 of 1025243  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report supersedes EPRI 1025243 and provides methodology that can be used to perform safety classification of non-process computer programs, such as design and analysis tools, that are not resident or embedded (installed as part of) plant systems, structures, and components. The report also provides guidance for using commercial-grade dedication methodology to accept commercially procured computer programs that perform a safety-related function. The guidance is intended for use by subject matter ...

2013-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

20

Computational Investigations of Trichoderma Reesei Cel7A Suggest New Routes for Enzyme Activity Improvements  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Trichoderma reesei Family 7 cellulase (Cel7A) is a key industrial enzyme in the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. It is a multi-modular enzyme with a Family 1 carbohydrate-binding module, a flexible O-glycosylated linker, and a large catalytic domain. We have used simulation to elucidate new functions for the 3 sub-domains, which suggests new routes to increase the activity of this central enzyme. These findings include new roles for glycosylation, which we have shown can be used to tune the binding affinity. We have also examined the structures of the catalytically-active complex of Cel7A and its non-processive counterpart, Cel7B, engaged on cellulose, which suggests allosteric mechanisms involved in chain binding when these cellulases are complexed on cellulose. Our computational results also suggest that product inhibition varies significantly between Cel7A and Cel7B, and we offer a molecular-level explanation for this observation. Finally, we discuss simulations of the absolute and relative binding free energy of cellulose ligands and various mutations along the CD tunnel, which will affect processivity and the ability of Cel7A (and related enzymes) to digest cellulose. These results highlight new considerations in protein engineering for processive and non-processive cellulases for production of lignocellulosic biofuels.

Beckham, G. T.; Payne, C. M.; Bu, L.; Taylor, C. B.; McCabe, C.; Chu, J. W.; Himmel, M. E.; Crowley, M. F.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uses-total nonprocess" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

This  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Author's personal copy Author's personal copy Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Applications of computational science for understanding enzymatic deconstruction of cellulose Gregg T Beckham 1,2,3 , Yannick J Bomble 4,5 , Edward A Bayer 6 , Michael E Himmel 4,5 and Michael F Crowley 4,5 Understanding the molecular-level mechanisms that enzymes employ to deconstruct plant cell walls is a fundamental scientific challenge with significant ramifications for renewable fuel production from biomass. In nature, bacteria and fungi use enzyme cocktails that include processive and non-processive cellulases and hemicellulases to convert cellulose and hemicellulose to soluble sugars. Catalyzed by an accelerated biofuels R&D portfolio, there is now a wealth of new structural and experimental insights related to cellulases and the structure of plant cell walls. From this background,

22

MINI-REVIEW Processive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Processive Processive and nonprocessive cellulases for biofuel production-lessons from bacterial genomes and structural analysis David B. Wilson Received: 23 September 2011 / Revised: 18 October 2011 / Accepted: 1 November 2011 / Published online: 24 November 2011 # Springer-Verlag 2011 Abstract Cellulases are key enzymes used in many processes for producing liquid fuels from biomass. Cur- rently there many efforts to reduce the cost of cellulases using both structural approaches to improve the properties of individual cellulases and genomic approaches to identify new cellulases as well as other proteins that increase the activity of cellulases in degrading pretreated biomass materials. Fungal GH-61 proteins are important new enzymes that increase the activity of current commercial cellulases leading to lower total protein loading and thus lower cost. Recent work has greatly increased

23

A New Freeze Concentration Process for Minimum Effluent Process in Bleached Pulp  

SciTech Connect

This project researches freeze concentration as a primary volume reduction technology for bleaching plant effluents from paper-pulp mills before they are treated by expensive technologies, such as incineration, for the destruction of the adsorbable organic halogens. Previous laboratory studies show that freeze concentration has a greater than 99.5% purification efficiency for volatile, semivolatile, and nonprocess elements, or any other solute, thus producing pure ice that can be reused in the mill as water. The first section evaluates the anticipated regulatory and public pressures associated with implementing the technology; the remaining sections deal with the experimental results from a scaled-up freeze concentration process in a 100-liter pilot-plant at Tufts University. The results of laboratory scale experiments confirmed that the freeze concentration technology could be an efficient volume reduction technology for the above elements and for removing adsorbable organic hologens and or nonprocess elements from recycled water. They also provide the necessary data for designing and operating a larger pilot plant, and identify the technical problems encountered in the scale-up and the way they could be addressed in the larger scale plants. This project was originally planned to include the operation of a large pilot plant in the facilities of Swenson Process Equipment Inc., and a field test at a pulp mill, but the paper company withdrew its financial support for the field test. In place of a final economic evaluation after the field test, a preliminary evaluation based on the small pilot plant data predicts an economically reasonable freeze concentration process in the case of reduction of the bleaching-effluent flow to less than 5 m3/kkg pulp, a target anticipated in the near future.

Qian, Ru-Ying; Botsaris, Gregory D.

2001-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

24

Workshop proceeding of the industrial building energy use  

SciTech Connect

California has a large number of small and medium sized industries which have a major impact on the demand growth of California utilities. Energy use in building services (lighting, HVAC, office equipment, computers, etc.). These industries constitute an important but largely neglected fraction of the total site energy use. The ratio of energy use in building service to the total site energy use is a function of the industrial activity, its size, and the climate at the site of the facility. Also, energy use in building services is more responsive to weather and occupant schedules than the traditional base-load'' industrial process energy. Industrial energy use is considered as a base-load'' by utility companies because it helps to increase the utilities' load factor. To increase this further, utilities often market energy at lower rates to industrial facilities. Presently, the energy use in the building services of the industrial sector is often clubbed together with industrial process load. Data on non-process industrial energy use are not readily available in the literature. In cases where the major portion of the energy is used in the building services (with daily and seasonal load profiles that in fact peak at the same time as systemwide load peaks), the utility may be selling below cost at peak power times. These cases frequently happen with electric utilities. 30 figs., 6 tabs.

Akbari, H.; Gadgil, A. (eds.)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Analysis of energy use in building services of the industrial sector in California: Two case studies  

SciTech Connect

Energy-use patterns in many of California's fastest-growing industries are not typical of the existing mix of industries in the US. Many California firms operate small- and medium-sized facilities housed in buildings used simultaneously or interchangeably over time for commercial (office, retail, warehouse) and industrial activities. In these industrial subsectors, the energy required for building services (providing occupant comfort and necessities like lighting, HVAC, office equipment, computers, etc.) may be at least as important as the more familiar process energy requirements -- especially for electricity and on-peak demand. Electricity for building services is sometimes priced as if it were base loaded like process uses; in reality this load varies significantly according to occupancy schedules and cooling and heating loads, much as in any commercial building. Using informal field surveys, simulation studies, and detailed analyses of existing data (including utility commercial/industrial audit files), we studied the energy use of this industrial subsector through a multi-step procedure: (1) characterizing non-process building energy and power use in California industries, (2) identifying conservation and load-shaping opportunities in industrial building services, and (3) investigating industrial buildings and system design methodologies. In an earlier report, we addressed these issues by performing an extensive survey of the existing publicly available data, characterizing and comparing the building energy use in this sector. In this report, we address the above objectives by examining and analyzing energy use in two industrial case-study facilities in California. Based on the information for the case studies, we discuss the design consideration for these industrial buildings, characterize their energy use, and review their conservation and load-shaping potentials. In addition, we identify and discuss some research ideas for further investigation.

Akbari, H.; Sezgen, O.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Analysis of energy use in building services of the industrial sector in California: Two case studies. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Energy-use patterns in many of California`s fastest-growing industries are not typical of the existing mix of industries in the US. Many California firms operate small- and medium-sized facilities housed in buildings used simultaneously or interchangeably over time for commercial (office, retail, warehouse) and industrial activities. In these industrial subsectors, the energy required for building services (providing occupant comfort and necessities like lighting, HVAC, office equipment, computers, etc.) may be at least as important as the more familiar process energy requirements -- especially for electricity and on-peak demand. Electricity for building services is sometimes priced as if it were base loaded like process uses; in reality this load varies significantly according to occupancy schedules and cooling and heating loads, much as in any commercial building. Using informal field surveys, simulation studies, and detailed analyses of existing data (including utility commercial/industrial audit files), we studied the energy use of this industrial subsector through a multi-step procedure: (1) characterizing non-process building energy and power use in California industries, (2) identifying conservation and load-shaping opportunities in industrial building services, and (3) investigating industrial buildings and system design methodologies. In an earlier report, we addressed these issues by performing an extensive survey of the existing publicly available data, characterizing and comparing the building energy use in this sector. In this report, we address the above objectives by examining and analyzing energy use in two industrial case-study facilities in California. Based on the information for the case studies, we discuss the design consideration for these industrial buildings, characterize their energy use, and review their conservation and load-shaping potentials. In addition, we identify and discuss some research ideas for further investigation.

Akbari, H.; Sezgen, O.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

doi:10.1155/2007/34601 Research Article Studies on the Effects of Certain Soil Properties on the Biodegradation of Oils Determined by the Manometric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The biodegradability of certain biofuels was studied in the case of forest soils using the manometric respirometric technique, which was proved to be very suitable for untreated, fertilized as well as pH adjusted soils. Experiments carried out in infertile sandy forest soil gave a BOD/ThOD value of 45.1 % for a typical model substance, that is, sodium benzoate after a period of 30 days and mineral addition improved the BOD/ThOD value to a value of 76.2%. Rapeseed oil-based chain oil almost did not biodegrade at all in 30 days in nonprocessed soil, and when pH was adjusted to 8.0, the BOD/ThOD value increased slightly to a value of 7.4%. Mineral addition improved the BOD/ThOD value on average to 43.2 % after 30 days. The combined mineral addition and pH adjustment together increased the BOD/ThOD value to 75.8 % in 30 days. The observations were similar with a rapeseed oil-based lubricating oil: after 30 days, the BOD/ThOD value increased from 5.9 % to an average value of 51.9%, when the pH and mineral concentrations of the soil were optimized. The mineral addition and pH adjustment also improved the precision of the measurements significantly. Copyright © 2007 Juhani Kaakinen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 1.

Respirometric Method; Juhani Kaakinen; Pekka Vähäoja; Toivo Kuokkanen

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

3Net Interstate Trade = Total Supply - (Total Electric Industry Retail Sales + Direct Use + Total International Exports (if applies) + Estimated Losses).

29

SPR Imaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Fluorophores, including fluorescent fusion proteins, have been used for studying ECM remodeling; cell adhesions are often studied using total ...

2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

30

Recent Advances in Atom Probe Tomography for Microstructural ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In-situ Ultra Fast Micro-tomography for Material Characterization · In situ Characterization of Surfaces and Buried Interfaces Using Total Reflection Inelastic ...

31

Calendar Year 2007 Program Benefits for U.S. EPA Energy Star Labeled Products: Expanded Methodology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use.Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use.Total Shipments Star Energy Market Star Share Shipments

Sanchez, Marla

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Slide 1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Instantaneous Fuel Economy * Average Fuel Economy * Fuel Rate * Total Fuel Used * Total Idle Fuel Used * Current Gear * Selected Gear * Output Shaft Speed * Actual Engine -...

33

Total Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

End Use: Total Commercial Industrial Oil Company Electric Power Vessel Bunkering Military All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions,...

34

Total Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Oil Company Farm Electric Power Railroad Vessel Bunkering On-Highway Military Off-Highway All Other Period: Annual Download Series...

35

Total Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Oil Company Farm Electric Power Railroad Vessel Bunkering On-Highway Military Off-Highway All Other Period: Annual Download Series...

36

Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

using total residential load profile, for the referencevalues, many customers’ load profiles are either more orparticularly flat or peaky load profiles who would be much

Darghouth, Naim Richard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) - Data - U.S....  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

| 1998 | 1994 | 1991 | Archive Data Methodology & Forms + EXPAND ALL Consumption of Energy for All Purposes (First Use) Total First Use (formerly Primary Consumption) of Energy...

38

Powder Diffraction with Proteins  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Sum up similar scans (typically chi2 statistic, CC also useful) ... “ TotalCrystallography” Large software investment http://fable.sourceforge.net ...

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

39

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

New Mexico *-Net Interstate Trade1 1Net Interstate Trade = Total Supply - (Total Electric Industry Retail Sales + Direct Use + Total International ...

40

Compare All CBECS Activities: Fuel Oil Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Fuel Oil Use Compare Activities by ... Fuel Oil Use Total Fuel Oil Consumption by Building Type Commercial buildings in the U.S. used a total of approximately 1.3 billion gallons...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uses-total nonprocess" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Detection and analysis of the volcanic clouds associated with the 18 and 28 August 2000 eruptions of Miyakejima volcano, Japan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two significant eruptions occurred at Miyakejima volcano on 18 and 28 August 2000 and were detected by multiple satellite sensors. For both eruptions, the cloud can be observed with high confidence for 2 days. Using Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), ...

E. B. Mccarthy; G. J. S. Bluth; I. M. Watson; A. Tupper

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Feasibility of Achieving a Zero-Net-Energy, Zero-Net-Cost Homes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the  proper total annual energy usage.   The hot water used Total annual energy use of 492 kWh/yr [1][3]  ? Peak power draw of 56 Watts  ? Constant operation [4]  This energy usage 

Al-Beaini, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Untitled  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Incandescent Fluorescent Other Hours Used Total Low Medium High Unknown Short Long Compact Halogen Other Unknown Total 4,196 431 2,811 409 14 159 173 34 24 141 Unknown 104 11...

44

" Row: End Uses;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

" Conventional Boiler Use",3199,12,4,1271,2,11,5.6 " CHP andor Cogeneration Process",3515,8,2,834,"*",23,3.8 "Direct Uses-Total Process",768929,10,7,2907,16,17...

45

Table 5.8 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

CHP and/or Cogeneration Process --15 6: 874 1: 181. Direct Uses-Total Process. 1,142 12 18 1,369 7 97. Released: March 2013. Next MECS will be fielded ...

46

" Row: End Uses;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Fuel",12979,7,3,2074,3,26 " Conventional Boiler Use",12979,3,1,712,1,3 " CHP andor Cogeneration Process","--",4,3,1362,2,23 "Direct Uses-Total Process",675152,4,9,2549,7,13 "...

47

PowerProjections2003(FPavgusing8-03water)(avgalloc)II.PDF  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2:49 PM Average Hydro Forecast - Depletions capped in 2009 Customer allocations set to average generation forecast WY Net Gen Total Firm Project Use Total Load Purch @ Load AHP...

48

Improved Normalization of the Size Distribution of Atmospheric Particles Retrieved from Aureole Measurements Using the Diffraction Approximation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes an improvement in the diffraction approximation used to retrieve the size distribution of atmospheric particles from solar aureole radiance measurements. Normalization using total optical thickness based on measurement of the ...

J. G. DeVore

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

RSE Table 5.1 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

l",0,11,4,10,2,10,13,0 ," Conventional Boiler Use",0,15,5,14,2,10,8,0 ," CHP andor Cogeneration Process",0,8,2,6,3,2,19,0 ,"Direct Uses-Total Process",0,2,7,8,2,4,2,0 ," Process...

50

" Row: End Uses;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

l",84,133,23,2119,8,547 " Conventional Boiler Use",84,71,17,1281,8,129 " CHP andor Cogeneration Process",0,62,6,838,1,417 "Direct Uses-Total Process",2639,62,52,2788,39,412 "...

51

RSE Table 5.5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.5  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

uel",0,11,4,10,2,10,13,0 " Conventional Boiler Use",0,15,5,14,2,10,8,0 " CHP andor Cogeneration Process",0,8,2,6,3,2,19,0 "Direct Uses-Total Process",0,2,7,8,2,4,2,0 " Process...

52

Gas Exchange and Bubble-Induced Supersaturation in a Wind-Wave Tank  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gas exchange and bubble-induced supersaturation were measured in a wind-wave tank using total gas saturation meters. The water in the tank was subjected to bubbling using a large number of frits at a depth of 0.6 m.

Peter Bowyer; David Woolf

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

LL.M. thesis, Les Hatton, 1999 Page 1 Towards a consistent legal framework for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, as evidenced by Table 1. Operating System Period of measurement Hours used Total defects Total reboots Defect at which defects occur within a software system, (known as the defect density and usually measured software systems behaviour a thesis in support of the degree of LL.M. by dissertation at the University

Hatton, Les

54

TotalView Parallel Debugger at NERSC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Totalview Totalview Totalview Description TotalView from Rogue Wave Software is a parallel debugging tool that can be run with up to 512 processors. It provides both X Windows-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) and command line interface (CLI) environments for debugging. The performance of the GUI can be greatly improved if used in conjunction with free NX software. The TotalView documentation web page is a good resource for learning more about some of the advanced TotalView features. Accessing Totalview at NERSC To use TotalView at NERSC, first load the TotalView modulefile to set the correct environment settings with the following command: % module load totalview Compiling Code to Run with TotalView In order to use TotalView, code must be compiled with the -g option. We

55

Table 5.6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010; 6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal Net Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal End Use Total Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) Natural Gas(c) NGL(d) Coke and Breeze) Other(e) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 14,228 2,437 79 130 5,211 69 868 5,435 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel -- 27 46 19 2,134 10 572 -- Conventional Boiler Use -- 27 20 4 733 3 72 -- CHP and/or Cogeneration Process -- 0 26 15 1,401 7 500 -- Direct Uses-Total Process -- 1,912 26 54 2,623 29 289 -- Process Heating -- 297 25 14 2,362 24 280 -- Process Cooling and Refrigeration -- 182 * Q 25

56

Table 5.2 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010; 2 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal NAICS Net Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal Code(a) End Use Total Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) Natural Gas(d) NGL(e) Coke and Breeze) Other(f) Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 14,228 2,437 79 130 5,211 69 868 5,435 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel -- 27 46 19 2,134 10 572 -- Conventional Boiler Use -- 27 20 4 733 3 72 -- CHP and/or Cogeneration Process -- 0 26 15 1,401 7 500 -- Direct Uses-Total Process -- 1,912 26 54 2,623 29 289 -- Process Heating -- 297 25 14 2,362 24 280

57

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; 6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal Net Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal End Use Total Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) Natural Gas(c) NGL(d) Coke and Breeze) Other(e) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 15,658 2,850 251 129 5,512 79 1,016 5,820 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fue -- 41 133 23 2,119 8 547 -- Conventional Boiler Use 41 71 17 1,281 8 129 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process 0 62 6 838 1 417 Direct Uses-Total Process -- 2,244 62 52 2,788 39 412 -- Process Heating -- 346 59 19 2,487 32 345 -- Process Cooling and Refrigeration -- 206 * 1 32 * * -- Machine Drive

58

Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; 2 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal NAICS Net Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal Code(a) End Use Total Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) Natural Gas(d) NGL(e) Coke and Breeze) Other(f) Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 15,658 2,850 251 129 5,512 79 1,016 5,820 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel -- 41 133 23 2,119 8 547 -- Conventional Boiler Use -- 41 71 17 1,281 8 129 -- CHP and/or Cogeneration Process -- -- 62 6 838 1 417 -- Direct Uses-Total Process -- 2,244 62 52 2,788 39 412 -- Process Heating -- 346 59 19 2,487

59

Compare All CBECS Activities: Total Energy Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Energy Use Total Energy Use Compare Activities by ... Total Energy Use Total Major Fuel Consumption by Building Type Commercial buildings in the U.S. used a total of approximately 5.7 quadrillion Btu of all major fuels (electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and district steam or hot water) in 1999. Office buildings used the most total energy of all the building types, which was not a surprise since they were the most common commercial building type and had an above average energy intensity. Figure showing total major fuel consumption by building type. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call 202-586-8800. Major Fuel Consumption per Building by Building Type Because there were relatively few inpatient health care buildings and they tend to be large, energy intensive buildings, their energy consumption per building was far above that of any other building type.

60

" Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;" 6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" " "," ","Net","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal"," " "End Use","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coke and Breeze)","Other(e)"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uses-total nonprocess" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

" Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2002;" 6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," "," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal",,"RSE" " "," ","Net","Residual","and","Natural ","LPG and","(excluding Coal"," ","Row" "End Use","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coke and Breeze)","Other(e)","Factors"

62

" Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 1998;" 2. End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," "," " " "," ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal",,"RSE" "NAICS"," "," ","Net","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal"," ","Row" "Code(a)","End Use","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(c)","Natural Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coke and Breeze)","Other(f)","Factors"

63

" Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;" 2 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,,,,"Distillate" ,,,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" "NAICS",,,"Net","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal" "Code(a)","End Use","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(c)","Natural Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coke and Breeze)","Other(f)" ,,"Total United States"

64

" Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006;" 2 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,,,,"Distillate" ,,,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" "NAICS",,,"Net","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal" "Code(a)","End Use","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(c)","Natural Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coke and Breeze)","Other(f)" ,,"Total United States"

65

RSE Table 5.2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.2  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.2;" 2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.2;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" "NAICS"," "," ","Net","Residual","and","Natural ","LPG and","(excluding Coal"," " "Code(a)","End Use","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(c)","Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coke and Breeze)","Other(f)" ,,"Total United States" " 311 - 339","ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES"

66

" Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2002;" 2 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," "," " " "," ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal",,"RSE" "NAICS"," "," ","Net","Residual","and","Natural ","LPG and","(excluding Coal"," ","Row" "Code(a)","End Use","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(c)","Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coke and Breeze)","Other(f)","Factors"

67

" Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006;" 6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" " "," ","Net","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal"," " "End Use","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coke and Breeze)","Other(e)"

68

" Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 1998;" 2. End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: End Uses;" " Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," "," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal",,"RSE" " "," ","Net","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal"," ","Row" "End Use","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coke and Breeze)","Other(e)","Factors"

69

Released: March 2013  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

.5 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2010;" .5 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2010;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Energy Sources and Shipments, including Further Classification of 'Other' Energy Sources;" " Column: First Use per Energy Sources and Shipments;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." " "," " " "," " ,"Total" "Energy Source","First Use" ,"Total United States" "Coal ",1328 "Natural Gas",5725 "Net Electricity",2437 " Purchases",2510 " Transfers In",33 " Onsite Generation from Noncombustible Renewable Energy",7

70

Investment and Efficiency under Incentive Regulation: The Case of the Norwegian Electricity Distribution Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Norway (SusGrid - Sustainable Grid Development Project) are gratefully acknowledged. EPRG 1306 1 1 Introduction In recent years, achieving a sustainable energy sector, security of supply, and reliability of service have emerged as overarching energy... We usetotal number of customers” (residential plus recreational homes) and “energy density” (energy distributed per Km length of network) as outputs. Numbers of customers are commonly used in efficiency analysis of electricity networks (e...

Poudineh, Rahmatallah; Jamasb, Tooraj

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Performance Evaluation of Standby Safety Systems Due to Independent and Common Cause Failures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the safety systems in Cana- dian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) [2] to be 10-3 . When Two (SDS2), in CANDU NPPs, both of which adopt 2-out-of-3 systems but use totally different mechanisms-out-of-3 and 2- out-of-4 systems. 1) 2-out-of-3 System: In CANDU NPPs, there are ten reactor

Lewis, Greg

72

"RSE Table N1.3. Relative Standard Errors for Table N1.3;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

.3. Relative Standard Errors for Table N1.3;" .3. Relative Standard Errors for Table N1.3;" " Unit: Percents." " "," " ,"Total" "Energy Source","First Use" ,"Total United States" "Coal ",3 "Natural Gas",1 "Net Electricity",1 " Purchases",1 " Transfers In",9 " Onsite Generation from Noncombustible Renewable Energy",15 " Sales and Transfers Offsite",3 "Coke and Breeze",2 "Residual Fuel Oil",4 "Distillate Fuel Oil",5 "Liquefied Petroleum Gases and Natural Gas Liquids",1 "Other",2 " Asphalt and Road Oil (a)",0 " Lubricants (a)",0 " Naphtha < 401 Degrees (a)",0

73

RSE Table 5.6 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.6  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.6;" 6 Relative Standard Errors for Table 5.6;" " Unit: Percents." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" " "," ","Net","Residual","and","Natural","LPG and","(excluding Coal"," " "End Use","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coke and Breeze)","Other(e)" ,"Total United States" "TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION",2,2,3,6,2,3,9,2 "Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel",0,11,4,14,2,9,13,0

74

RSE Table N6.1 and N6.2. Relative Standard Errors for Tables N6.1 and N6.2  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 and N6.2. Relative Standard Errors for Tables N6.1 and N6.2;" 1 and N6.2. Relative Standard Errors for Tables N6.1 and N6.2;" " Unit: Percents." " "," "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," " " "," ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" "NAICS"," "," ","Net","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal"," " "Code(a)","End Use","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(c)","Natural Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coke and Breeze)","Other(f)" ,,"Total United States"

75

Released: October 2009  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

.5 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2006;" .5 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Energy Sources and Shipments, including Further Classification of 'Other' Energy Sources;" " Column: First Use per Energy Sources and Shipments;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,"Total" "Energy Source","First Use" ,"Total United States" "Coal ",1433 "Natural Gas",5911 "Net Electricity",2851 " Purchases",2894 " Transfers In",20 " Onsite Generation from Noncombustible Renewable Energy",4 " Sales and Transfers Offsite",67

76

Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. Even so, industry has almost continuously improved its energy efficiency over the past decades. In the near future, energy efficiency is potentially the most important and cost-effective means for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from industry. This paper discusses the potential contribution of industrial energy efficiency technologies and policies to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030.

Worrell, Ernst; Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Harnisch, Jochen

2009-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

77

Total Sales of Kerosene  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Farm All Other Period: End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Farm All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History U.S. 492,702 218,736 269,010 305,508 187,656 81,102 1984-2012 East Coast (PADD 1) 353,765 159,323 198,762 237,397 142,189 63,075 1984-2012 New England (PADD 1A) 94,635 42,570 56,661 53,363 38,448 15,983 1984-2012 Connecticut 13,006 6,710 8,800 7,437 7,087 2,143 1984-2012 Maine 46,431 19,923 25,158 24,281 17,396 7,394 1984-2012 Massachusetts 7,913 3,510 5,332 6,300 2,866 1,291 1984-2012 New Hampshire 14,454 6,675 8,353 7,435 5,472 1,977 1984-2012

78

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Retail Sales and Direct Use of Electricity to Ultimate Customers 2. Retail Sales and Direct Use of Electricity to Ultimate Customers by Sector, by Provider, 2002 through 2012 (Megawatthours) Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Other Total Direct Use Total End Use Total Electric Industry 2002 1,265,179,869 1,104,496,607 990,237,631 N/A 105,551,904 3,465,466,011 166,184,296 3,631,650,307 2003 1,275,823,910 1,198,727,601 1,012,373,247 6,809,728 N/A 3,493,734,486 168,294,526 3,662,029,012 2004 1,291,981,578 1,230,424,731 1,017,849,532 7,223,642 N/A 3,547,479,483 168,470,002 3,715,949,485 2005 1,359,227,107 1,275,079,020 1,019,156,065 7,506,321 N/A 3,660,968,513 150,015,531 3,810,984,044 2006 1,351,520,036 1,299,743,695 1,011,297,566 7,357,543 N/A 3,669,918,840 146,926,612 3,816,845,452

79

table5.6_02  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2002; 6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal RSE Net Residual and Natural LPG and (excluding Coal Row End Use Total Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) Gas(c) NGL(d) Coke and Breeze) Other(e) Factors Total United States RSE Column Factors: 1 1 2.4 1.1 1.3 1 0 0 TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 16,273 2,840 208 141 5,794 103 1,182 6,006 3.3 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel -- 12 127 35 2,162 8 776 -- 5.5 Conventional Boiler Use -- 9 76 25 1,306 8 255 -- 5.6 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process -- 4 51 10 857 * 521 -- 3.7 Direct Uses-Total Process -- 2,218 60 43 2,986 64 381 -- 2.9 Process Heating -- 343

80

table5.2_02  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2002; 2 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2002; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal RSE NAICS Net Residual and Natural LPG and (excluding Coal Row Code(a) End Use Total Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) Gas(d) NGL(e) Coke and Breeze) Other(f) Factors Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES RSE Column Factors: 0.3 1 1 2.4 1.1 1.3 1 NF TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 16,273 2,840 208 141 5,794 103 1,182 6,006 3.3 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel -- 12 127 25 2,162 8 776 -- 5.5 Conventional Boiler Use -- 9 76 25 1,306 8 255 -- 5.6 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process -- 4 51 10 857 * 521 -- 3.7 Direct Uses-Total Process

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uses-total nonprocess" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Total Sales of Residual Fuel Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

End Use: Total Commercial Industrial Oil Company Electric Power Vessel Bunkering Military All Other Period: End Use: Total Commercial Industrial Oil Company Electric Power Vessel Bunkering Military All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History U.S. 10,706,479 8,341,552 6,908,028 7,233,765 6,358,120 6,022,115 1984-2012 East Coast (PADD 1) 5,527,235 4,043,975 2,972,575 2,994,245 2,397,932 2,019,294 1984-2012 New England (PADD 1A) 614,965 435,262 281,895 218,926 150,462 101,957 1984-2012 Connecticut 88,053 33,494 31,508 41,686 6,534 5,540 1984-2012 Maine 152,082 110,648 129,181 92,567 83,603 49,235 1984-2012 Massachusetts 300,530 230,057 59,627 52,228 34,862 30,474 1984-2012

82

Total Adjusted Sales of Kerosene  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Farm All Other Period: End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Farm All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History U.S. 492,702 218,736 269,010 305,508 187,656 81,102 1984-2012 East Coast (PADD 1) 353,765 159,323 198,762 237,397 142,189 63,075 1984-2012 New England (PADD 1A) 94,635 42,570 56,661 53,363 38,448 15,983 1984-2012 Connecticut 13,006 6,710 8,800 7,437 7,087 2,143 1984-2012 Maine 46,431 19,923 25,158 24,281 17,396 7,394 1984-2012 Massachusetts 7,913 3,510 5,332 6,300 2,866 1,291 1984-2012 New Hampshire 14,454 6,675 8,353 7,435 5,472 1,977 1984-2012

83

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; 7 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Demand Residual and Natural Gas(c) LPG and Coke and Breeze) for Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) (billion NGL(d) (million End Use (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 977,338 40 22 5,357 21 46 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel 24,584 21 4 2,059 2 25 Conventional Boiler Use 24,584 11 3 1,245 2 6 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process 0 10 1 814 * 19 Direct Uses-Total Process 773,574 10 9 2,709 10 19 Process Heating

84

Table 5.7 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010; 7 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Demand Residual and Natural Gas(c) LPG and Coke and Breeze) for Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) (billion NGL(d) (million End Use (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 845,727 13 22 5,064 18 39 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel 12,979 7 3 2,074 3 26 Conventional Boiler Use 12,979 3 1 712 1 3 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process -- 4 3 1,362 2 23 Direct Uses-Total Process 675,152 4 9 2,549 7 13 Process Heating

85

Table 5.5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010; 5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Residual and Natural Gas(c) LPG and Coke and Breeze) Total Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) (billion NGL(d) (million Other(e) End Use (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) (trillion Btu) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 14,228 714,166 13 22 5,064 18 39 5,435 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel -- 7,788 7 3 2,074 3 26 -- Conventional Boiler Use -- 7,788 3 1 712 1 3 -- CHP and/or Cogeneration Process -- 0 4 3 1,362 2 23 -- Direct Uses-Total Process

86

Predicting Envelope Leakage in Attached Dwellings (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Predicting Envelope Leakage Predicting Envelope Leakage in Attached Dwellings PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Predicting Envelope Leakage in Attached Dwellings Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings www.carb-swa.com Building Component: Building Envelope Application: New and retrofit; Multi-family Year Tested: 2013 Applicable Climate Zone(s): All POTENTIAl BENEFITs Requires substantially fewer resources in the field-equipment, personnel, and time Does not require simultaneous access to multiple housing units-extremely difficult in occupied housing Provides a more appropriate assessment of envelope leakage and the potential energy benefits of air sealing than the commonly used total leakage test The most common method of measuring air leakage is to perform single (or solo) blower door pressurization and/or depressurization test. In detached hous-

87

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; 5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate Coal Fuel Oil (excluding Coal Net Residual and Natural Gas(c) LPG and Coke and Breeze) Total Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) (billion NGL(d) (million Other(e) End Use (trillion Btu) (million kWh) (million bbl) (million bbl) cu ft) (million bbl) short tons) (trillion Btu) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 15,658 835,382 40 22 5,357 21 46 5,820 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel -- 12,109 21 4 2,059 2 25 -- Conventional Boiler Use 12,109 11 3 1,245 2 6 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process 0 10 1 814 * 19 Direct Uses-Total Process

88

Table 5.4 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010; 4 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal NAICS Net Demand Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal Code(a) End Use for Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) Natural Gas(d) NGL(e) Coke and Breeze) Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 2,886 79 130 5,211 69 868 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel 44 46 19 2,134 10 572 Conventional Boiler Use 44 20 4 733 3 72 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process -- 26 15 1,401 7 500 Direct Uses-Total Process 2,304 26 54 2,623 29 289 Process Heating 318 25 14 2,362 24 280 Process Cooling and Refrigeration

89

EIA Energy Efficiency-Commercial Buildings Sector Energy Intensities,  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Commercial Buildings Sector Energy Intensities Commercial Buildings Sector Energy Intensities Commercial Buildings Sector Energy Intensities: 1992- 2003 Released Date: December 2004 Page Last Revised: August 2009 These tables provide estimates of commercial sector energy consumption and energy intensities for 1992, 1995, 1999 and 2003 based on the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). They also provide estimates of energy consumption and intensities adjusted for the effect of weather on heating, cooling, and ventilation energy use. Total Site Energy Consumption (U.S. and Census Region) Html Excel PDF bullet By Principal Building Activity (Table 1a) html Table 1a excel table 1a. pdf table 1a. Weather-Adjusted by Principal Building Activity (Table 1b) html table 1b excel table 1b pdf table 1b.

90

New and Underutilized Technology: Carbon Dioxide Demand Ventilation Control  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Dioxide Demand Ventilation Carbon Dioxide Demand Ventilation Control New and Underutilized Technology: Carbon Dioxide Demand Ventilation Control October 4, 2013 - 4:23pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for carbon dioxide (CO2) demand ventilation control within the Federal sector. Benefits Demand ventilation control systems modulate ventilation levels based on current building occupancy, saving energy while still maintaining proper indoor air quality (IAQ). CO2 sensors are commonly used, but a multiple-parameter approach using total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), particulate matter (PM), formaldehyde, and relative humidity (RH) levels can also be used. CO2 sensors control the outside air damper to reduce the amount of outside air that needs to be conditioned and supplied to the building when

91

Compare All CBECS Activities: Electricity Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Electricity Use Electricity Use Compare Activities by ... Electricity Use Total Electricity Consumption by Building Type Commercial buildings in the U.S. used a total of approximately 908 billion kilowatthours (kWh) of electricity in 1999. Office and mercantile buildings used the most total electricity. Both of these building types used electricity as their predominant energy source. Figure showing total electricity consumption by building type. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call 202-586-8800. Electricity Consumption per Building by Building Type Inpatient health care buildings used by far the most electricity per building. Figure showing electricity consumption per building by building type. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call 202-586-8800.

92

Manufacturing Consumption of Energy 1994 - Derived measures of end-use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

eialogo eialogo Calculation of MECS Energy Measures Reported energy values were used to construct several derived values, which, in turn, were used to prepare the estimates appearing in MECS consumption tables--First Use, Total Inputs, Offsite-Produced. These derived values are displayed in Table 1 and defined as follows: Energy produced offsite and consumed as a fuel. This derived value represents onsite consumption of fuels that were originally produced offsite. That is, they arrived at the establishment as the result of a purchase or were transferred to the establishment from outside sources. As such, this derived value is equivalent to consumption of "purchased" fuels as reported by the Census Bureau for the years 1974-1981. The Census Bureau defines "purchased" fuels to include those actually purchased plus those

93

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5 5 Table 10.7 Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Market Sector, End Use, and Type, 2001-2009 (Thousand Square Feet) Year and Type By Market Sector By End Use Total Residential Commercial 1 Industrial 2 Electric Power 3 Other 4 Pool Heating Water Heating Space Heating Space Cooling Combined Heating 5 Process Heating Electricity Generation Total Shipments 6 2001 Total .... 10,125 1,012 17 1 35 10,797 274 70 0 12 34 2 11,189 Low 7 .......... 9,885 987 12 0 34 10,782 42 61 0 0 34 0 10,919 Medium 8 .... 240 24 5 0 1 16 232 9 0 12 0 0 268 High 9 .......... 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2002 Total .... 11,000 595 62 4 1

94

Compare All CBECS Activities: District Heat Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

District Heat Use District Heat Use Compare Activities by ... District Heat Use Total District Heat Consumption by Building Type Commercial buildings in the U.S. used a total of approximately 433 trillion Btu of district heat (district steam or district hot water) in 1999. There were only five building types with statistically significant district heat consumption; education buildings used the most total district heat. Figure showing total district heat consumption by building type. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call 202-586-8800. District Heat Consumption per Building by Building Type Health care buildings used the most district heat per building. Figure showing district heat consumption per building by building type. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call 202-586-8800.

95

RSE Table E6.1 and E6.2. Relative Standard Errors for Tables E6.1 and E6.2  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

E6.1 and E6.2. Relative Standard Errors for Tables E6.1 and E6.2;" E6.1 and E6.2. Relative Standard Errors for Tables E6.1 and E6.2;" " Unit: Percents." " "," ",," ","Distillate"," "," ",," " " ",,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"Coal" " "," ","Net","Residual","and",,"LPG and","(excluding Coal"," " "End Use","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coke and Breeze)","Other(e)" ,"Total United States" "TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION",1,1,4,4,1,3,4,2 "Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel",0,3,4,5,1,2,5,0

96

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 5.8 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal Net Demand Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal End Use for Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) Natural Gas(c) NGL(d) Coke and Breeze) Total United States TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 3,335 251 129 5,512 79 1,016 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel 84 133 23 2,119 8 547 Conventional Boiler Use 84 71 17 1,281 8 129 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process 0 62 6 838 1 417 Direct Uses-Total Process 2,639 62 52 2,788 39 412 Process Heating 379 59 19 2,487 32 345 Process Cooling and Refrigeration

97

Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; 4 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil Coal NAICS Net Demand Residual and LPG and (excluding Coal Code(a) End Use for Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) Natural Gas(d) NGL(e) Coke and Breeze) Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 3,335 251 129 5,512 79 1,016 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel 84 133 23 2,119 8 547 Conventional Boiler Use 84 71 17 1,281 8 129 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process 0 62 6 838 1 417 Direct Uses-Total Process 2,639 62 52 2,788 39 412 Process Heating 379 59 19 2,487 32 345 Process Cooling and Refrigeration

98

International Energy Outlook 2006  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The IEO2006 projections indicate continued growth in world energy use, despite The IEO2006 projections indicate continued growth in world energy use, despite world oil prices that are 35 percent higher in 2025 than projected in last year's outlook. Energy resources are thought to be adequate to support the growth expected through 2030. The International Energy Outlook 2006 (IEO2006) projects strong growth for worldwide energy demand over the 27-year projection period from 2003 to 2030. Despite world oil prices that are 35 percent higher in 2025 than projected in last year's outlook, world economic growth continues to increase at an average annual rate of 3.8 percent over the projection period, driving the robust increase in world energy use. Total world consumption of marketed energy expands from 421 quadrillion Brit- ish thermal units (Btu) in 2003 to 563 quadrillion Btu in 2015 and then to 722 quadrillion Btu in

99

Section 41  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 Figure 1. WSI cloud fraction for algorithm identified clear sky from April 1994 IOP. Detection of Clear Skies Using Total and Diffuse Shortwave Irradiance: Calculations of Shortwave Cloud Forcing and Clear Sky Diffuse Ratio C.N. Long and T.P. Ackerman Department of Meteorology Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania The effect of clouds on the shortwave (SW) irradiance near the surface is of interest for surface radiative energy budget studies (Long et al. 1994) and investigation of the recently suggested excess SW cloud absorption (Cess et al. 1995; Ramanathan et al. 1995; Pilewski and Valero 1995). One measure of the effect of clouds is cloud forcing: the difference between clear (i.e., cloudless) sky irradiance and measured irradiance. One way of estimating the surface clear sky

100

Table 1.5 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

.5 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2010; .5 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2010; Level: National Data; Row: Energy Sources and Shipments, including Further Classification of 'Other' Energy Sources; Column: First Use per Energy Sources and Shipments; Unit: Trillion Btu. Total Energy Source First Use Total United States Coal 1,328 Natural Gas 5,725 Net Electricity 2,437 Purchases 2,510 Transfers In 33 Onsite Generation from Noncombustible Renewable Energy 7 Sales and Transfers Offsite 113 Coke and Breeze 374 Residual Fuel Oil 170 Distillate Fuel Oil 135 Liquefied Petroleum Gases and Natural Gas Liquids 2,057 Other 7,381 Asphalt and Road Oil (a) 946 Lubricants (a) 386

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uses-total nonprocess" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Compare All CBECS Activities: Natural Gas Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Use Natural Gas Use Compare Activities by ... Natural Gas Use Total Natural Gas Consumption by Building Type Commercial buildings in the U.S. used a total of approximately 2.0 trillion cubic feet of natural gas in 1999. Natural gas use was not dominated by any single activity, with seven activities each accounting for between 9 and 13 percent of all commercial natural gas use. Figure showing total natural gas consumption by building type. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call 202-586-8800. Natural Gas Consumption per Building by Building Type Inpatient health care buildings used by far the most natural gas per building. Figure showing natural gas consumption per building by building type. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call 202-586-8800.

102

" Million Housing Units, Final"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Fuels Used and End Uses in U.S. Homes, by Housing Unit Type, 2009" Fuels Used and End Uses in U.S. Homes, by Housing Unit Type, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,," Detached"," Attached"," 2 to 4 Units","5 or More Units","Mobile Homes" "Fuels Used and End Uses" "Total Homes",113.6,71.8,6.7,9,19.1,6.9 "Fuels Used for Any Use" "Electricity",113.6,71.8,6.7,9,19.1,6.9 "Natural Gas",69.2,45.6,4.7,6.1,11,1.8 "Propane/LPG",48.9,39.6,2.4,1.7,2,3.2 "Wood",13.1,11.4,0.3,0.2,0.5,0.7 "Fuel Oil",7.7,5.1,0.4,0.7,1.3,0.1

103

Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) - Data - U.S. Energy  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 MECS Survey Data 2010 | 2006 | 2002 | 1998 | 1994 | 1991 | Archive 1 MECS Survey Data 2010 | 2006 | 2002 | 1998 | 1994 | 1991 | Archive Data Methodology & Forms + EXPAND ALL Consumption of Energy for All Purposes (First Use) Total Primary Consumption of Energy for All Purposes by Census Region, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1991: Part 1 (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units) XLS Total Primary Consumption of Energy for All Purposes by Census Region, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1991: Part 2 (Estimates in Trillion Btu) XLS Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel Oil for Selected Purposes by Census Region, Industry Group, and Selected Industries, 1991 (Estimates in Barrels per Day) XLS Total Primary Consumption of Energy for All Purposes by Census Region and Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1991 (Estimates in Btu or Physical Units) XLS

104

1127i.pmk  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

I (8/06) I (8/06) Page 1 of 3 CFO-1, Travel MS P234 P.O. Box 1663 Los Alamos, NM 87545 Interviewee Travel Authorization and Expense Worksheet Name SS Number Phone Mailstop Group Cost Center Program Code Cost Acct Work Package Voucher ID 1. Dates of Official Business Official City Purpose from: to: 2. Airfare airline: from: to: LANL Issued? Yes No Airfare airline: from: to: LANL Issued? Yes No Airfare airline: from: to: LANL Issued? Yes No Airfare Refund Private Plane Used Total Airfare $ 3. Gasoline: $ 4. Local Transportation: $ 5. Parking: $ 6. Private Auto from: to: total miles × current rate $ Private Auto from: to: total miles × current rate $ Private Auto from: to: total miles × current rate $ 7. Rental Car state: city: company: # of days: $ 7. Rental Car state: city: company: # of days:

105

The uranium cylinder assay system for enrichment plant safeguards  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Safeguarding sensitive fuel cycle technology such as uranium enrichment is a critical component in preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. A useful tool for the nuclear materials accountancy of such a plant would be an instrument that measured the uranium content of UF{sub 6} cylinders. The Uranium Cylinder Assay System (UCAS) was designed for Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) for use in the Rokkasho Enrichment Plant in Japan for this purpose. It uses total neutron counting to determine uranium mass in UF{sub 6} cylinders given a known enrichment. This paper describes the design of UCAS, which includes features to allow for unattended operation. It can be used on 30B and 48Y cylinders to measure depleted, natural, and enriched uranium. It can also be used to assess the amount of uranium in decommissioned equipment and waste containers. Experimental measurements have been carried out in the laboratory and these are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo modeling results.

Miller, Karen A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marlow, Johnna B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rael, Carlos D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Iwamoto, Tomonori [JNFL; Tamura, Takayuki [JNFL; Aiuchi, Syun [JNFL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy of Pyridine Hydrogenation on Platinum Nanoparticles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pyridine hydrogenation in the presence of a surface monolayer consisting of cubic Pt nanoparticles stabilized by tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB) was investigated by sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy using total internal reflection (TIR) geometry. TIR-SFG spectra analysis revealed that a pyridinium cation (C{sub 5}H{sub 5}NH{sup +}) forms during pyridine hydrogenation on the Pt nanoparticle surface, and the NH group in the C{sub 5}H{sub 5}NH{sup +} cation becomes more hydrogen bound with the increase of the temperature. In addition, the surface coverage of the cation decreases with the increase of the temperature. An important contribution of this study is the in situ identification of reaction intermediates adsorbed on the Pt nanoparticle monolayer during pyridine hydrogenation.

Bratlie, Kaitlin M.; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos; Somorjai, Gabor A.

2008-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

107

ecosystem in South Africa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. The principal mechanisms that connect carbon fluxes with water relations in savanna ecosystems were studied by using eddy covariance method in a savanna ecosystem at Kruger National Park, South Africa. Since the annual drought and rewetting cycle is a major factor influencing the function of savanna ecosystems, this work focused on the close inter-connection between water relations and carbon fluxes. Data from a nine-month measuring campaign lasting from the early wet season to the late dry season were used. Total ecosystem respiration showed highest values at the onset of the growing season, a slightly lower plateau during the main part of the growing season and a continuous decrease during the transition towards the dry season. The regulation of canopy conductance was changed in two ways: changes due to phenology during the course of the

W. L. Kutsch; N. Hanan; B. Scholes; I. Mchugh; W. Kubheka; H. Eckhardt; C. Williams

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Fast Neutron Detector for Fusion Reactor KSTAR Using Stilbene Scintillator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Various neutron diagnostic tools are used in fusion reactors to evaluate different aspects of plasma performance, such as fusion power, power density, ion temperature, fast ion energy, and their spatial distributions. The stilbene scintillator has been proposed for use as a neutron diagnostic system to measure the characteristics of neutrons from the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) fusion reactor. Specially designed electronics are necessary to measure fast neutron spectra with high radiation from a gamma-ray background. The signals from neutrons and gamma-rays are discriminated by the digital charge pulse shape discrimination (PSD) method, which uses total to partial charge ratio analysis. The signals are digitized by a flash analog-to-digital convertor (FADC). To evaluate the performance of the fabricated stilbene neutron diagnostic system, the efficiency of 10 mm soft-iron magnetic shielding and the detection efficiency of fast neutrons were tested experimentally using a 252Cf neutr...

Lee, Seung Kyu; Kim, Gi-Dong; Kim, Yong-Kyun

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

ACTION CONCENTRATION FOR MIXTURES OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOC) & METHANE & HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Waste containers may contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs), methane, hydrogen and possibly propane. These constituents may occur individually or in mixtures. Determining if a waste container contains a flammable concentration of flammable gases and vapors (from VOCs) is important to the safety of the handling, repackaging and shipping activities. This report provides the basis for determining the flammability of mixtures of flammable gases and vapors. The concentration of a mixture that is at the lowest flammability limit for that mixture is called the action concentration. The action concentration can be determined using total VOC concentrations or actual concentration of each individual VOC. The concentrations of hydrogen and methane are included with the total VOC or individual VOC concentration to determine the action concentration. Concentrations below this point are not flammable. Waste containers with gas/vapor concentrations at or above the action concentration are considered flammable.

MARUSICH, R.M.

2006-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

110

Uniqueness of Bohmian Mechanics, and Solutions From Probability Conservation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that one-dimensional Bohmian mechanics is unique, in that, the Bohm trajectories are the only solutions that conserve total left (or right) probability. In Brandt et al., Phys. Lett. A, 249 (1998) 265--270, they define quantile motion--unique trajectories are solved by assuming that the total probability on each side of the particle is conserved. They argue that the quantile trajectories are identical to the Bohm trajectories. Their argument, however, fails to notice the gauge freedom in the definition of the quantum probability current. Our paper sidesteps this under-determinedness of the probability current. The one-dimensional probability conservation can be used for higher dimensional problems if the wave function is separable. Several examples are given using total left probability conservation, most notably, the two-slit experiment.

Timothy M. Coffey; Robert E. Wyatt; Wm. C. Schieve

2007-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

111

14C/C measurements support Andreev's internode method to determine lichen growth rates in Cladina stygia (Fr.) Ahti  

SciTech Connect

Growth rates and the ability to date an organism can greatly contribute to understanding its population biology and community dynamics. 1n 1954, Andreev proposed a method to date Cladina, a fruticose lichen, using total thallus length and number of internodes. No research, however, has demonstrated the reliability of this technique or compared its estimates to those derived by other means. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of {sup 14}C/C ratios to determine lichen age and growth rate in Cladina stygia (Fr.) Ahti collected from northwestern Alaska, USA. The average growth rate using {sup 14}C/C ratios was 6.5 mm {center_dot} yr{sup -1}, which was not significantly different from growth rates derived by Andreev's internode method (average = 6.2 mm {center_dot} yr{sup -1}); thus, suggesting the reliability of Andreev's simple field method for dating lichens. In addition, we found lichen growth rates appeared to differ with geographic location, yet did not seem related to ambient temperature and total precipitation.

Holt, E; Bench, G

2007-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

112

table5.8_02  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2002; 8 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Net Demand Fuel Oil Coal RSE for Residual and Natural LPG and (excluding Coal Row End Use Electricity(a) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(b) Gas(c) NGL(d) Coke and Breeze) Factors Total United States RSE Column Factors: 0.3 2.4 1.1 1.3 1 0 TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 3,297 208 141 5,794 103 1,182 3.3 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel 23 127 35 2,162 8 776 5.5 Conventional Boiler Use 11 76 25 1,306 8 255 5.6 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process 12 51 10 857 * 521 3.7 Direct Uses-Total Process 2,624 60 43 2,986 64 381 2.9 Process Heating 355 58 24 2,742 60 368 3.2

113

" Million Housing Units, Final"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Fuels Used and End Uses in U.S. Homes, by Census Region, 2009" 7 Fuels Used and End Uses in U.S. Homes, by Census Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Census Region" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Northeast","Midwest","South","West" "Fuels Used and End Uses" "Total Homes",113.6,20.8,25.9,42.1,24.8 "Fuels Used for Any Use" "Electricity",113.6,20.8,25.9,42.1,24.8 "Natural Gas",69.2,13.8,19.4,17.7,18.3 "Propane/LPG",48.9,9.4,12.1,16.5,11 "Wood",13.1,2.5,2.9,4,3.7 "Fuel Oil",7.7,6.3,0.5,0.7,0.2 "Kerosene",1.7,0.5,0.4,0.6,0.2 "Solar",1.2,0.2,0.2,0.3,0.5 "Electricity End Uses2" "(more than one may apply)"

114

" Million Housing Units, Final"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Fuels Used and End Uses in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" 3 Fuels Used and End Uses in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to 1949","1950 to 1959","1960 to 1969","1970 to 1979","1980 to 1989","1990 to 1999","2000 to 2009" "Fuels Used and End Uses" "Total Homes",113.6,14.4,5.2,13.5,13.3,18.3,17,16.4,15.6 "Fuels Used for Any Use" "Electricity",113.6,14.4,5.2,13.5,13.3,18.3,17,16.4,15.6 "Natural Gas",69.2,10.9,3.8,10,9.1,10.1,8.2,8.6,8.4 "Propane/LPG",48.9,5.9,1.9,5.7,4.9,7.6,6.9,8.1,7.9 "Wood",13.1,1.4,0.5,1.5,1.5,2.5,2.7,1.9,1.1

115

Energy Cost Calculator for Electric and Gas Water Heaters | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electric and Gas Water Heaters Electric and Gas Water Heaters Energy Cost Calculator for Electric and Gas Water Heaters October 8, 2013 - 2:26pm Addthis Vary equipment size, energy cost, hours of operation, and /or efficiency level. INPUT SECTION Input the following data (if any parameter is missing, calculator will set to default value). Defaults Type of Water Heater Electric Gas Electric Average Daily Usage (gallons per day)* gallons 64* Energy Factor† 0.92 (electric) 0.61 (gas) Energy Cost $ / kWh $0.06 per kWh $.60 per therm Quantity of Water Heaters to be Purchased unit(s) 1 unit * See assumptions for various daily water use totals. † The comparison assumes a storage tank water heater as the input type. To allow demand water heaters as the comparison type, users can specify an input EF of up to 0.85; however, 0.66 is currently the best available EF for storage water heaters.

116

table5.4_02  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2002; 4 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2002; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Net Demand Fuel Oil Coal RSE NAICS for Residual and Natural LPG and (excluding Coal Row Code(a) End Use Electricity(b) Fuel Oil Diesel Fuel(c) Gas(d) NGL(e) Coke and Breeze) Factors Total United States 311 - 339 ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES RSE Column Factors: NF 1 2.4 1.1 1.3 1 TOTAL FUEL CONSUMPTION 3,297 208 141 5,794 103 1,182 3.3 Indirect Uses-Boiler Fuel 23 127 25 2,162 8 776 5.5 Conventional Boiler Use 11 76 25 1,306 8 255 5.6 CHP and/or Cogeneration Process 12 51 10 857 * 521 3.7 Direct Uses-Total Process 2,624

117

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-Action Solvents for Efficient CO2 Capture Reversible Ionic Liquids as Double-Action Solvents for Efficient CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-NT0005287 In this project, the Georgia Tech Research Corporation is using totally novel chemistryto engender the dramatic changes needed for widespread implementation of CO2 capture in a both environmentally benign and economical process. Current methods of CO2 post-combustion recovery from coal-fired power plants focus on such techniques as absorption in aqueous ethanolamine scrubbers - and this is now a mature technology unlikely to achieve a quantum change in either capacity or cost. The objective of this project is to develop a novel class of solvents for post-combustion recovery of CO2 from fossil fuel-fired power plants which will achieve a substantial increase in CO2 carrying capacity with a concomitant plummet in cost. The project team is a combination of chemical engineers and chemists with extensive experience in working with industrial partners to formulate novel solvents and to develop processes that are both environmentally benign and economically viable. Further, the team has already developed solvents called "reversible ionic liquids," essentially "smart" molecules which change properties abruptly in response to some stimulus, and these have quickly found a plethora of applications.

118

Transcription-dependent nucleolar cap localization and possible nuclear function of DExH RNA helicase RHAU  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

RHAU (RNA helicase associated with AU-rich element) is a DExH protein originally identified as a factor accelerating AU-rich element-mediated mRNA degradation. The discovery that RHAU is predominantly localized in the nucleus, despite mRNA degradation occurring in the cytoplasm, prompted us to consider the nuclear functions of RHAU. In HeLa cells, RHAU was found to be localized throughout the nucleoplasm with some concentrated in nuclear speckles. Transcriptional arrest altered the localization to nucleolar caps, where RHAU is closely localized with RNA helicases p68 and p72, suggesting that RHAU is involved in transcription-related RNA metabolism in the nucleus. To see whether RHAU affects global gene expression transcriptionally or posttranscriptionally, we performed microarray analysis using total RNA from RHAU-depleted HeLa cell lines, measuring both steady-state mRNA levels and mRNA half-lives by actinomycin D chase. There was no change in the half-lives of most transcripts whose steady-state levels were affected by RHAU knockdown, suggesting that these transcripts are subjected to transcriptional regulation. We propose that RHAU has a dual function, being involved in both the synthesis and degradation of mRNA in different subcellular compartments.

Iwamoto, Fumiko; Stadler, Michael; Chalupnikova, Katerina; Oakeley, Edward [Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH-4058 Basel (Switzerland); Nagamine, Yoshikuni [Friedrich Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research, Maulbeerstrasse 66, CH-4058 Basel (Switzerland)], E-mail: yoshikuni.nagamine@fmi.ch

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Standard test method for radiochemical determination of uranium isotopes in soil by alpha spectrometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This test method covers the determination of alpha-emitting uranium isotopes in soil. This test method describes one acceptable approach to the determination of uranium isotopes in soil. 1.2 The test method is designed to analyze 10 g of soil; however, the sample size may be varied to 50 g depending on the activity level. This test method may not be able to completely dissolve all forms of uranium in the soil matrix. Studies have indicated that the use of hydrofluoric acid to dissolve soil has resulted in lower values than results using total dissolution by fusion. 1.3 The lower limit of detection is dependent on count time, sample size, detector, background, and tracer yield. The chemical yield averaged 78 % in a single laboratory evaluation, and 66 % in an interlaboratory collaborative study. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, ass...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment  

SciTech Connect

Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "uses-total nonprocess" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Quantifying the Effect of the Principal-Agent Problem on USResidential Energy Use  

SciTech Connect

The International Energy Agency (IEA) initiated andcoordinated this project to investigate the effects of market failures inthe end-use of energy that may isolate some markets or portions thereoffrom energy price signals in five member countries. Quantifying theamount of energy associated with market failures helps to demonstrate thesignificance of energy efficiency policies beyond price signals. In thisreport we investigate the magnitude of the principal-agent (PA) problemaffecting four of the major energy end uses in the U.S. residentialsector: refrigeration, water heating, space heating, and lighting. Usingdata from the American Housing Survey, we develop a novel approach toclassifying households into a PA matrix for each end use. End use energyvalues differentiated by housing unit type from the Residential EnergyConsumption Survey were used to estimate the final and primary energy useassociated with the PA problem. We find that the 2003 associated siteenergy use from these four end uses totaled over 3,400 trillion Btu,equal to 35 percent of the site energy consumed by the residentialsector.

Murtishaw, Scott; Sathaye, Jayant

2006-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

122

Ground Loops for Heat Pumps and Refrigeration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ground loops are used for water source heat pumps. Refrigeration can be put on a ground loop. Water-cooled condensing units are more efficient than air-cooled, and they can be put indoors. Indoor location makes piping for desuperheater hot water easy. Since refrigeration equipment runs more than heat pumps, energy savings can be large for ground-coupled refrigeration. The paper presents a design procedure for ground loops for heat pumps, hot water, ice machines, and water-cooled refrigeration. It gives an overview of the commercial ground-coupled systems in Louisiana that have both refrigeration and heat pumps. Systems vary from small offices to a three-story office building with 187 tons. A chain of hamburger outlets uses total ground-coupling in all of its stores. A grocery store has ground-coupling for heat pumps and refrigeration. Desuperheaters provide 80 percent of the hot water for a coin laundry in the same building. A comparison of energy costs in a bank with a ground-coupled heat pump system to a similar bank with air-conditioning and gas for heat revealed a 31 percent reduction in utility costs for the ground-coupled building. Two buildings of the Mississippi Power and Light Co. have ground-coupled heat pumps in one, and high efficiency air source heat pumps in the other. Energy savings in nine months was 60,000 kWh (25 percent), and electric peak demand was reduced 42 kW (35 percent).

Braud, H. J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Spectrometric Analysis for Pulse Jet Mixer Testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Analytical Development Section (ADS) was tasked with providing support for a Hanford River Protection Program-Waste Treatment Program (RPP-WTP) project test involving absorption analysis for non-Newtonian pulse jet mixer testing for small scale (PJM) and prototype (CRV) tanks with sparging. Tanks filled with clay were mixed with various amounts of powdered dye as a tracer. The objective of the entire project was to determine the best mixing protocol (nozzle velocity, number of spargers used, total air flow, etc.) by determining the percent mixed volume through the use of an ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer. The dye concentration within the sample could be correlated to the volume fraction mixed in the tank. Samples were received in vials, a series of dilutions were generated from the clay, allowed to equilibrate, then centrifuged and siphoned for the supernate liquid to analyze by absorption spectroscopy. Equilibration of the samples and thorough mixing of the samples were a continuous issue with dilution curves being difficult to obtain. Despite these technical issues, useful data was obtained for evaluation of various mix conditions.

ZEIGLER, KRISTINE

2004-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

124

Fast Neutron Detector for Fusion Reactor KSTAR Using Stilbene Scintillator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Various neutron diagnostic tools are used in fusion reactors to evaluate different aspects of plasma performance, such as fusion power, power density, ion temperature, fast ion energy, and their spatial distributions. The stilbene scintillator has been proposed for use as a neutron diagnostic system to measure the characteristics of neutrons from the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) fusion reactor. Specially designed electronics are necessary to measure fast neutron spectra with high radiation from a gamma-ray background. The signals from neutrons and gamma-rays are discriminated by the digital charge pulse shape discrimination (PSD) method, which uses total to partial charge ratio analysis. The signals are digitized by a flash analog-to-digital convertor (FADC). To evaluate the performance of the fabricated stilbene neutron diagnostic system, the efficiency of 10 mm soft-iron magnetic shielding and the detection efficiency of fast neutrons were tested experimentally using a 252Cf neutron source. In the results, the designed and fabricated stilbene neutron diagnostic system performed well in discriminating neutrons from gamma-rays under the high magnetic field conditions during KSTAR operation. Fast neutrons of 2.45 MeV were effectively measured and evaluated during the 2011 KSTAR campaign.

Seung Kyu Lee; Byoung-Hwi Kang; Gi-Dong Kim; Yong-Kyun Kim

2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

125

Report on the workshop "Decay spectroscopy at CARIBU: advanced fuel cycle applications, nuclear structure and astrophysics". 14-16 April 2011, Argonne National Laboratory, USA.  

SciTech Connect

A workshop on 'Decay Spectroscopy at CARIBU: Advanced Fuel Cycle Applications, Nuclear Structure and Astrophysics' will be held at Argonne National Laboratory on April 14-16, 2011. The aim of the workshop is to discuss opportunities for decay studies at the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the ATLAS facility with emphasis on advanced fuel cycle (AFC) applications, nuclear structure and astrophysics research. The workshop will consist of review and contributed talks. Presentations by members of the local groups, outlining the status of relevant in-house projects and availabile equipment, will also be organized. time will also be set aside to discuss and develop working collaborations for future decay studies at CARIBU. Topics of interest include: (1) Decay data of relevance to AFC applications with emphasis on reactor decay heat; (2) Discrete high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy following radioactive decya and related topics; (3) Calorimetric studies of neutron-rich fission framgents using Total ABsorption Gamma-Ray Spectrometry (TAGS) technique; (4) Beta-delayed neutron emissions and related topics; and (5) Decay data needs for nuclear astrophysics.

Kondev, F.; Carpenter, M.P.; Chowdhury, P.; Clark, J.A.; Lister, C.J.; Nichols, A.L.; Swewryniak, D. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (Univ. of Massachusetts); (Univ. of Surrey)

2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

126

LETTER PROGRESS REPORT FOR APRIL 1962 ON HIGH ALTITUDE SAMPLING  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported in the design and testing of equipment for high- altitude air sampling. The operational characteristics of an air ejector were tested over a complete range of back pressures and primary pressures. Data are tabulated. Modifications were made in an altitude sensor for use on balloons at high altitudes. A balloon flight was made to 110,000 ft with two direct-flow units and an electrostatic precipitator. A sketch is included of the flight train and components used. Total payload on the balloon was 506 lbs. A second balloon flight was made to obtain a vertical profile of radioactive debris with directflow units at 70,000 and 80,000 ft. This was accomplished by using a gondola equipped with two direct-flow units and ballast to float the system at the lower of the two altitudes. After sampling was completed at the lower step, the ballast was dropped, and the system ascended. Total payload on the balloon was 865.5 lb. (C.H.)

1962-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

127

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 9 Table 10.9 Photovoltaic Cell and Module Shipments by Sector and End Use, 1989-2010 (Peak Kilowatts 1 ) Year By Sector By End Use Total Residential Commercial 3 Industrial 4 Electric Power 5 Other 6 Grid-Connected 2 Off-Grid 2 Centralized 7 Distributed 8 Domestic 9 Non-Domestic 10 Total Shipments of Photovoltaic Cells and Modules 11 1989 1,439 R 6,057 3,993 785 551 12 ( ) 12 1,251 2,620 8,954 12,825 1990 1,701 R 8,062 2,817 826 432 12 ( ) 12 469 3,097 10,271 13,837 1991 3,624 R 5,715 3,947 1,275 377 12 ( ) 12 856 3,594 10,489 14,939 1992 4,154 R 5,122 4,279 1,553 477 12 ( ) 12 1,227 4,238 10,118 15,583 1993 5,237 R 8,004 5,352 1,503 856 12 ( ) 12 1,096 5,761 14,094 20,951 1994 6,632 R 9,717 6,855 2,364 510 12 ( ) 12 2,296 9,253 14,528 26,077 1995 6,272 R 12,483 7,198 3,759 1,347 12 ( ) 12 4,585 8,233 18,241 31,059 1996 8,475 R 12,297 8,300 4,753

128

PowerProjections2003(FPavgusing8-03water)(avgalloc)II.PDF  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2:49 PM 2:49 PM Average Hydro Forecast - Depletions capped in 2009 Customer allocations set to average generation forecast WY Net Gen Total Firm Project Use Total Load Purch @ Load AHP Sales Purch @ Plant Market Price Purchase Expense 2005 4,867.53 5,351.06 166.14 5,517.20 (649.67) 0.00 (700.41) 41.25 (28,890,000) $ 2006 5,368.06 5,351.06 180.14 5,531.20 (163.14) 0.00 (175.88) 41.25 (7,250,000) $ 2007 5,412.15 5,351.06 236.14 5,587.20 (175.04) 0.00 (188.71) 41.25 (7,780,000) $ 2008 5,527.28 5,351.06 236.14 5,587.20 (59.92) 0.00 (64.60) 41.25 (2,660,000) $ 2009 5,545.64 5,351.06 226.34 5,577.40 (31.75) 0.00 (34.23) 41.25 (1,410,000) $ 2010 5,646.82 5,351.06 232.34 5,583.40 0.00 63.43 0.00 41.25 - $ 2011 5,629.45 5,351.06 251.34 5,602.40 0.00 27.05 0.00 41.25 - $

129

Status Report on the Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM) for UF6 Cylinder Assay  

SciTech Connect

The Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM) is a nondestructive assay (NDA) system being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). It was designed to determine {sup 235}U mass and enrichment of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in product, feed, and tails cylinders (i.e., 30B and 48Y cylinders). These cylinders are found in the nuclear fuel cycle at uranium conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication facilities. The PNEM is a {sup 3}He-based neutron detection system that consists of two briefcase-sized detector pods. A photograph of the system during characterization at LANL is shown in Fig. 1. Several signatures are currently being studied to determine the most effective measurement and data reduction technique for unfolding {sup 235}U mass and enrichment. The system collects total neutron and coincidence data for both bare and cadmium-covered detector pods. The measurement concept grew out of the success of the Uranium Cylinder Assay System (UCAS), which is an operator system at Rokkasho Enrichment Plant (REP) that uses total neutron counting to determine {sup 235}U mass in UF{sub 6} cylinders. The PNEM system was designed with higher efficiency than the UCAS in order to add coincidence counting functionality for the enrichment determination. A photograph of the UCAS with a 48Y cylinder at REP is shown in Fig. 2, and the calibration measurement data for 30B product and 48Y feed and tails cylinders is shown in Fig. 3. The data was collected in a low-background environment, meaning there is very little scatter in the data. The PNEM measurement concept was first presented at the 2010 Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) Annual Meeting. The physics design and uncertainty analysis were presented at the 2010 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Symposium, and the mechanical and electrical designs and characterization measurements were published in the ESARDA Bulletin in 2011.

Miller, Karen A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marlow, Johnna B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

130

Life-cycle analysis of alternative aviation fuels in GREET  

SciTech Connect

The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1{_}2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or (2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55-85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources - such as natural gas and coal - could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet fuel production unless carbon management practices, such as carbon capture and storage, are used.

Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S. (Energy Systems)

2012-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

131

Understanding reservoir mechanisms using phase and component streamline tracing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conventionally streamlines are traced using total flux across the grid cell faces. The visualization of total flux streamlines shows the movement of flood, injector-producer relationship, swept area and movement of tracer. But they fail to capture some important signatures of reservoir dynamics, such as dominant phase in flow, appearance and disappearance of phases (e.g. gas), and flow of components like CO2. In the work being presented, we demonstrate the benefits of visualizing phase and component streamlines which are traced using phase and component fluxes respectively. Although the phase and component streamlines are not appropriate for simulation, as they might be discontinuous, they definitely have a lot of useful information about the reservoir processes and recovery mechanisms. In this research, phase and component streamline tracing has been successfully implemented in three-phase and compositional simulation and the additional information obtained using these streamlines have been explored. The power and utility of the phase and component streamlines have been demonstrated using synthetic examples and two field cases. The new formulation of streamline tracing provides additional information about the reservoir drive mechanisms. The phase streamlines capture the dominant phase in flow in different parts of the reservoir and the area swept corresponding to different phases can be identified. Based on these streamlines the appearance and disappearance of phases can be identified. Also these streamlines can be used for optimizing the field recovery processes like water injection and location of infill wells. Using component streamlines the movement of components like CO2 can be traced, so they can be used for optimizing tertiary recovery mechanisms and tracking of tracers. They can also be used to trace CO2 in CO2 sequestration project where the CO2 injection is for long term storage in aquifers or reservoirs. They have also other potential uses towards study of reservoir processes and behavior such as drainage area mapping for different phases, phase rate allocations to reservoir layers, etc.

Kumar, Sarwesh

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Screening for organic solvents in Hanford waste tanks using organic vapor concentrations  

SciTech Connect

The potential ignition of organic liquids stored in the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks has been identified as a safety issue because expanding gases could potentially affect tank dome integrity. Organic liquid waste has been found in some of the waste tanks, but most are thought to contain only trace amounts. Due to the inhomogeneity of the waste, direct sampling of the tank waste to locate organic liquids may not conclusively demonstrate that a given tank is free of risk. However, organic vapors present above the organic liquid waste can be detected with a high degree of confidence and can be used to identify problem tanks. This report presents the results of a screening test that has been applied to 82 passively ventilated high-level radioactive waste tanks at the Hanford Site to identify those that might contain a significant amount of organic liquid waste. It includes seven tanks not addressed in the previous version of this report, Screening for Organic Solvents in Hanford Waste Tanks Using Total Non-Methane Organic Compound Vapor Concentrations. The screening test is based on a simple model of the tank headspace that estimates the effective surface area of semivolatile organic liquid waste in a tank. Analyses indicate that damage to the tank dome is credible only if the organic liquid burn rate is above a threshold value, and this can occur only if the surface area of organic liquid in a tank is above a corresponding threshold value of about one square meter. Thirteen tanks were identified as potentially containing at least that amount of semivolatile organic liquid based on conservative estimates. Most of the tanks identified as containing potentially significant quantities of organic liquid waste are in the 241-BY and 241-C tank farms, which agrees qualitatively with the fact that these tank farms received the majority of the PUREX process organic wash waste and waste organic liquids.

Huckaby, J.L.; Sklarew, D.S.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Development of an energy-use estimation methodology for the revised Navy Manual MO-303  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Navy commissioned Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to revise and/or update the Navy Utilities Targets Manual, NAVFAC MO-303 (U.S. Navy 1972b). The purpose of the project was to produce a current, applicable, and easy-to-use version of the manual for use by energy and facility engineers and staff at all Navy Public Works Centers (PWCs), Public Works Departments (PWDs), Engineering Field Divisions (EFDs), and other related organizations. The revision of the MO-303 manual involved developing a methodology for estimating energy consumption in buildings and ships. This methodology can account for, and equitably allocate, energy consumption within Navy installations. The analyses used to develop this methodology included developing end-use intensities (EUIs) from a vast collection of Navy base metering and billing data. A statistical analysis of the metering data, weather data, and building energy-use characteristics was used to develop appropriate EUI values for use at all Navy bases. A complete Navy base energy reconciliation process was also created for use in allocating all known energy consumption. Initial attempts to use total Navy base consumption values did not produce usable results. A parallel effort using individual building consumption data provided an estimating method that incorporated weather effects. This method produced a set of building EUI values and weather adjustments for use in estimating building energy use. A method of reconciling total site energy consumption was developed based on a {open_quotes}zero-sum{close_quotes} principle. This method provides a way to account for all energy use and apportion part or all of it to buildings and other energy uses when actual consumption is not known. The entire text of the manual was also revised to present a more easily read understood and usable document.

Richman, E.E.; Keller, J.M.; Wood, A.G.; Dittmer, A.L.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Residential cattle egret colonies in Texas: geography, reproductive success and management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A phenomenon of large, upland breeding colonies of cattle egrets in residential areas of Central Texas has been observed since the early 1960s. These large concentrations of breeding birds can be a nuisance to nearby residents and their management has been difficult. To help understand why cattle egrets choose upland, residential breeding sites, and predict where these might occur, the geographic extent of the phenomenon was bounded within Texas, a habitat suitability model constructed, and reproductive success compared by breeding habitat type to evaluate if residential nesting confers an adaptive advantage.. Records of upland cattle egret colonies were found only in Central Texas, not other parts of the state. The habitat suitability model was constructed using total edge of three land use classes: water, forest, and developed classes. The model classified 78.6 % of upland colonies in very high or high suitability classes and 7.1% of colonies in low or very low suitability classes. This distribution was significantly different than expected considering the overall ratio of suitability scores in the entire raster model (p = 0.036). Nineteen active colonies were found in or bordering the Post Oak Savannah and Blackland Prairie ecoregions. Colonies were in residential, urban, island, and flooded tree and shrub habitat. Nests were found in 12 different tree and shrub species. Residential colonies had more breeding pairs, greater nest survival, and were less productive than non-residential colonies on average, but these differences were not statistically significant. Colonies where nest substrate was removed were not reused and no breeding was initiated nearby the next year. Propane cannons discouraged reuse of colony after prolonged application. Herons and egrets likely use residential sites when wetland habitats are limited. Their overall breeding distribution reflects state wide rainfall and wetland availability patterns with upland nesting in Central Texas, wetland nesting in eastern and coastal regions, and little large scale nesting in western Texas. Egrets and herons may use edges of development as breeding sites to limit predation by ground predators when flooded tree and shrub or island habitats are absent, but this hypothesis needs more testing.

Parkes, Michael Lawrence

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z