National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for uses-total nonprocess

  1. Sankey Diagram of Nonprocess Energy Flow in U.S. Manufacturing...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Nonprocess Energy Flow in U.S. Manufacturing Sector Sankey Diagram of Nonprocess Energy Flow in U.S. Manufacturing Sector The Nonprocess Energy Sankey diagram below shows inputs of...

  2. Ensemble velocity of non-processive molecular motors with multiple chemical states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrej Vilfan

    2014-09-27

    We study the ensemble velocity of non-processive motor proteins, described with multiple chemical states. In particular, we discuss the velocity as a function of ATP concentration. Even a simple model which neglects the strain-dependence of transition rates, reverse transition rates and nonlinearities in the elasticity can show interesting functional dependencies, which deviate significantly from the frequently assumed Michaelis-Menten form. We discuss how the oder of events in the duty cycle can be inferred from the measured dependence. The model also predicts the possibility of velocity reversal at a certain ATP concentration if the duty cycle contains several conformational changes of opposite directionalities.

  3. Stochastic dynamics of small ensembles of non-processive molecular motors: The parallel cluster model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdmann, Thorsten; Albert, Philipp J.; Schwarz, Ulrich S.

    2013-11-07

    Non-processive molecular motors have to work together in ensembles in order to generate appreciable levels of force or movement. In skeletal muscle, for example, hundreds of myosin II molecules cooperate in thick filaments. In non-muscle cells, by contrast, small groups with few tens of non-muscle myosin II motors contribute to essential cellular processes such as transport, shape changes, or mechanosensing. Here we introduce a detailed and analytically tractable model for this important situation. Using a three-state crossbridge model for the myosin II motor cycle and exploiting the assumptions of fast power stroke kinetics and equal load sharing between motors in equivalent states, we reduce the stochastic reaction network to a one-step master equation for the binding and unbinding dynamics (parallel cluster model) and derive the rules for ensemble movement. We find that for constant external load, ensemble dynamics is strongly shaped by the catch bond character of myosin II, which leads to an increase of the fraction of bound motors under load and thus to firm attachment even for small ensembles. This adaptation to load results in a concave force-velocity relation described by a Hill relation. For external load provided by a linear spring, myosin II ensembles dynamically adjust themselves towards an isometric state with constant average position and load. The dynamics of the ensembles is now determined mainly by the distribution of motors over the different kinds of bound states. For increasing stiffness of the external spring, there is a sharp transition beyond which myosin II can no longer perform the power stroke. Slow unbinding from the pre-power-stroke state protects the ensembles against detachment.

  4. Stochastic dynamics of small ensembles of non-processive molecular motors: the parallel cluster model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorsten Erdmann; Philipp J. Albert; Ulrich S. Schwarz

    2013-10-17

    Non-processive molecular motors have to work together in ensembles in order to generate appreciable levels of force or movement. In skeletal muscle, for example, hundreds of myosin II molecules cooperate in thick filaments. In non-muscle cells, by contrast, small groups with few tens of non-muscle myosin II motors contribute to essential cellular processes such as transport, shape changes or mechanosensing. Here we introduce a detailed and analytically tractable model for this important situation. Using a three-state crossbridge model for the myosin II motor cycle and exploiting the assumptions of fast power stroke kinetics and equal load sharing between motors in equivalent states, we reduce the stochastic reaction network to a one-step master equation for the binding and unbinding dynamics (parallel cluster model) and derive the rules for ensemble movement. We find that for constant external load, ensemble dynamics is strongly shaped by the catch bond character of myosin II, which leads to an increase of the fraction of bound motors under load and thus to firm attachment even for small ensembles. This adaptation to load results in a concave force-velocity relation described by a Hill relation. For external load provided by a linear spring, myosin II ensembles dynamically adjust themselves towards an isometric state with constant average position and load. The dynamics of the ensembles is now determined mainly by the distribution of motors over the different kinds of bound states. For increasing stiffness of the external spring, there is a sharp transition beyond which myosin II can no longer perform the power stroke. Slow unbinding from the pre-power-stroke state protects the ensembles against detachment.

  5. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed management of 15 nonprocess buildings (15 series) at the Weldon Spring Site Chemical Plant, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonell, M M; Peterson, J M

    1989-05-01

    The US Department of Energy, under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), is responsible for cleanup activities at the Weldon-Spring site, located near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site consists of two noncontiguous areas: (1) a raffinate pits and chemical plant area and (2) a quarry. This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report has been prepared to support a proposed removal action to manage 15 nonprocess buildings, identified as the 15 Series buildings, at the chemical plant on the Weldon Spring site. These buildings have been nonoperational for more than 20 years, and the deterioration that has occurred during this time has resulted in a potential threat to site workers, the general public, and the environment. The EE/CA documentation of this proposed action is consistent with guidance from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that addresses removal actions at sites subject to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. Actions at the Weldon Spring site are subject to CERCLA requirements because the site is on the EPA`s National Priorities List. The objectives of this report are to (1) identify alternatives for management of the nonprocess buildings; (2) document the selection of response activities that will mitigate the potential threat to workers, the public, and the environment associated with these buildings; and (3) address environmental impacts associated with the proposed action.

  6. Determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Using Total Carbon Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    2002-05-10

    Several methods have been proposed to replace the Freon(TM)-extraction method to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content. For reasons of cost, sensitivity, precision, or simplicity, none of the replacement methods are feasible for analysis of radioactive samples at our facility. We have developed a method to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon content in aqueous sample matrixes using total organic carbon (total carbon) determination. The total carbon content (TC1) of the sample is measured using a total organic carbon analyzer. The sample is then contacted with a small volume of non-pokar solvent to extract the total petroleum hydrocarbons. The total carbon content of the resultant aqueous phase of the extracted sample (TC2) is measured. Total petroleum hydrocarbon content is calculated (TPH = TC1-TC2). The resultant data are consistent with results obtained using Freon(TM) extraction followed by infrared absorbance.

  7. Polyimide-waveguide-based thermal optical switch using total-internal-reflection effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ray

    Polyimide-waveguide-based thermal optical switch using total-internal-reflection effect Jianyi Yang with an X junction was designed and fabricated by using the thermo-optic effect of polyimide materials and fabricated the TIR TO switch us- ing polyimide materials. The TO effect of polymeric materials is negative, i

  8. Crosstalk between non-processive myosin motors mediated by the actin filament elasticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oded Farago; Anne Bernheim-Groswasser

    2011-02-20

    Many biological processes involve the action of molecular motors that interact with the cell cytoskeleton. Some processes, such as the transport of cargoes is achieved mainly by the action of individual motors. Other, such as cell motility and division, require the cooperative work of many motors. Collective motor dynamics can be quite complex and unexpected. One beautiful example is the bidirectional ("back and forth") motion of filaments which is induced when the motors within a group exert forces in opposite directions. This review tackles the puzzle emerging from a recent experimental work in which it has been shown that the characteristic reversal times of the bidirectional motion are practically independent of the number of motors. This result is in a striking contradiction with existing theoretical models that predict an exponential growth of the reversal times with the size of the system. We argue that the solution to this puzzle may be the crosstalk between the motors which is mediated by the elastic tensile stress that develops in the cytoskeleton track. The crosstalk does not directly correlate the attachment and detachment of the motors, which work independently of each other. However, it highly accelerates their detachments by making the detachment rates system size dependent.

  9. Proposed Management of 15 Nonprocess Buildings at the Chemical Plant. IR-1000-1003-1.01.

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and700 GJO-2003-411-TACe - .'pJ3u44 2004 GJ -Landt :

  10. Static Sankey Diagram of Nonprocess Energy in U.S. Manufacturing Sector |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergyPlan | Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen andStatement

  11. Management of the Sump Waters and Sediment Contained in Process and Non-Process Buildings at the Chemical Plant Area.

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and MyersHr. Anthony V. Andolina:I.)p'J52. APR'

  12. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Food and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Food and Beverage (NAICS 311, 312) Process Energy Electricity and Steam Generation Losses Process Losses 128 Nonprocess Losses 1,836 455 Steam Distribution Losses 104 72 Nonprocess...

  13. EPA has reviewed the Engineering Evaluation and Cost Analysis for the Proposed Management of 15 Nonprocess Buildings (15 Series) at the WSS Chemical Plant dated May 1989.

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and Myers CoMadison -T: Designation$ EGcG ENERGY,

  14. Management of Sump Waters Sediment Contained in Process and Non-Process Buildings at the Chemical Plant Area (CPA). IR-1300-1305-1.01

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and MyersHr. Anthony V. Andolina:I.)p'J52. APR'

  15. Removal Action Decision Document for the Management of 15 Nonprocess Buildings (15 Series) at the Weldon Spring Site (WSS) Chemical Plant, DOE/OR/21548-151.

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and700 GJO-2003-411-TACe -' RIDGE NATIONAL :UN4

  16. Combined iterative reconstruction and image-domain decomposition for dual energy CT using total-variation regularization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Xue; Niu, Tianye; Zhu, Lei

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Dual-energy CT (DECT) is being increasingly used for its capability of material decomposition and energy-selective imaging. A generic problem of DECT, however, is that the decomposition process is unstable in the sense that the relative magnitude of decomposed signals is reduced due to signal cancellation while the image noise is accumulating from the two CT images of independent scans. Direct image decomposition, therefore, leads to severe degradation of signal-to-noise ratio on the resultant images. Existing noise suppression techniques are typically implemented in DECT with the procedures of reconstruction and decomposition performed independently, which do not explore the statistical properties of decomposed images during the reconstruction for noise reduction. In this work, the authors propose an iterative approach that combines the reconstruction and the signal decomposition procedures to minimize the DECT image noise without noticeable loss of resolution. Methods: The proposed algorithm is formulated as an optimization problem, which balances the data fidelity and total variation of decomposed images in one framework, and the decomposition step is carried out iteratively together with reconstruction. The noise in the CT images from the proposed algorithm becomes well correlated even though the noise of the raw projections is independent on the two CT scans. Due to this feature, the proposed algorithm avoids noise accumulation during the decomposition process. The authors evaluate the method performance on noise suppression and spatial resolution using phantom studies and compare the algorithm with conventional denoising approaches as well as combined iterative reconstruction methods with different forms of regularization. Results: On the Catphan©600 phantom, the proposed method outperforms the existing denoising methods on preserving spatial resolution at the same level of noise suppression, i.e., a reduction of noise standard deviation by one order of magnitude. This improvement is mainly attributed to the high noise correlation in the CT images reconstructed by the proposed algorithm. Iterative reconstruction using different regularization, including quadratic orq-generalized Gaussian Markov random field regularization, achieves similar noise suppression from high noise correlation. However, the proposed TV regularization obtains a better edge preserving performance. Studies of electron density measurement also show that our method reduces the average estimation error from 9.5% to 7.1%. On the anthropomorphic head phantom, the proposed method suppresses the noise standard deviation of the decomposed images by a factor of ?14 without blurring the fine structures in the sinus area. Conclusions: The authors propose a practical method for DECT imaging reconstruction, which combines the image reconstruction and material decomposition into one optimization framework. Compared to the existing approaches, our method achieves a superior performance on DECT imaging with respect to decomposition accuracy, noise reduction, and spatial resolution.

  17. Exploring the prominence-corona connection and its expansion into the outer corona using total solar eclipse observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habbal, Shadia Rifai; Morgan, Huw; Druckmüller, Miloslav

    2014-10-01

    Prominences constitute the most complex magnetic structures in the solar corona. The ubiquitous presence of their seemingly confined dense and cool plasma in an otherwise million-degree environment remains a puzzle. Using a decade of white light total solar eclipse observations, we show how these images reveal an intricate relationship between prominences and coronal structures both in their immediate vicinity, known as coronal cavities, and in the extended corona out to several solar radii. Observations of suspended prominences and twisted helical structures spanning several solar radii are central to these findings. The different manifestations of the prominence-corona interface that emerge from this study underscore the fundamental role played by prominences in defining and controlling the complex expansion and dynamic behavior of the solar magnetic field in the neighborhood of magnetic polarity reversal regions. This study suggests that the unraveling of prominences and the outward expansion of the helical twisted field lines linked to them could be the solar origin of twisted magnetic flux ropes detected in interplanetary space, and of the mechanism by which the Sun sheds its magnetic helicity. This work also underscores the likely role of the prominence-corona interface as a source of the slow solar wind.

  18. Control of the Accumulation of Non-Process Elements in Pulp Mills with Bleach Filtrate Reuse: A Chemical Equilibrium Approach to Predicting the Partitioning of Metals in Pulp Mill and Bleach Plant Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Rudie, A.W.; Schmidl, G.W.; Sinquefield, S.A.; Rorrer, G.L.; Laver, M.L.; Yantasee, W.; Ming, D.

    2000-08-01

    The overall goal of this project was to develop fundamental, experimentally based methods for predicting the solubility or organic and inorganic matter and their interactions in recycled effluent from kraft pulp mills and bleach plants. This included: characterizing the capacity of wood pulp and dissolved organic matter to bind metal ions, developing a thermodynamic database of properties needed to describe the solubility of inorganic matter in pulp mill streams, incorporation of the database into equilibrium calculation software for predicting the solubility of the metals of interest, and evaluating its capability to predict the distribution of the metals between pulp fibers, inorganic precipitates, and solution.

  19. Version 21.0 CDF/PUB/TOP/PUBLIC/3110 June 12, 1995 Study of tt Production in pp Collisions Using Total Transverse Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quigg, Chris

    ­Wagner, 7 K. L. Byrum, 1 J. Cammerata, 13 C. Campagnari, 7 M. Campbell, 17 A. Caner, 7 W. Carithers, 15 D

  20. Improvement in Thermal-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) using Total Flash Evaporation (TFE) method for lanthanides isotope ratio measurements in transmutation targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mialle, S.; Gourgiotis, A.; Aubert, M.; Stadelmann, G.; Gautier, C.; Isnard, H.

    2011-07-01

    The experiments involved in the PHENIX french nuclear reactor to obtain precise and accurate data on the total capture cross sections of the heavy isotopes and fission products require isotopic ratios measurements with uncertainty of a few per mil. These accurate isotopic ratio measurements are performed with mass spectrometer equipped with multi-collector system. The major difficulty for the analyses of these actinides and fission products is the low quantity of the initial powder enclosed in steel container (3 to 5 mg) and the very low quantities of products formed (several {mu}g) after irradiation. Specific analytical developments are performed by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) to be able to analyse several nanograms of elements with this technique. A specific method of acquisition named Total Flash Evaporation was adapted in this study in the case of lanthanide measurements for quantity deposited on the filament in the order of 2 ng and applied on irradiated fuel. To validate the analytical approach and discuss about the accuracy of the data, the isotopic ratios obtained by TIMS are compared with other mass spectrometric techniques such as Multiple-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (MC-ICPMS). (authors)

  1. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Computer...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    7 1 5 19 0 2 1 19 5 0 6 3 28 0 1 0 0 228 28 138 1 0 0 Conventional Boilers 0 CHP Cogeneration Nonprocess Energy Process Cooling and Refrigeration Machine Drive Electro-Chemical...

  2. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Cement (NAICS...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3 0 0 124 0 1 0 25 4 2 9 5 0 37 0 3 0 382 299 41 0 0 5 Conventional Boilers 22 CHP Cogeneration Nonprocess Energy Process Cooling and Refrigeration Machine Drive Electro-Chemical...

  3. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: All Manufacturing...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1,403 3,988 731 193 18 14,064 4,589 2,430 39 46 438 Conventional Boilers 2,441 CHP Cogeneration Nonprocess Energy Process Cooling and Refrigeration Electro-Chemical Other Process...

  4. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Transportation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 6 44 0 3 4 41 11 1 14 8 47 16 7 5 0 480 78 195 2 0 2 Conventional Boilers 10 CHP Cogeneration Nonprocess Energy Process Cooling and Refrigeration Machine Drive Electro-Chemical...

  5. Adoption of the Engineering Evaluation and Cost Analysis for the Management of Contaminated Structures, 15 Non-Process Buildings (15 Series), and the 15 Series Addendum at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant, as an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA/-0549) for Interim Actions at the WSS

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and Myers Co -VANaval Ordnance,:n5.5.8GE.

  6. Adoption of the Engineering Evaluation and Cost Analysis for the Management of Contaminated Structures, 15 Non-Process Buildings (15 Series), and the 15 Series Addendum at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant, as an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA/-0549) for Interim Actions at the WSS.

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and Myers Co -VANaval Ordnance,:n5.5.8GE.

  7. The Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) has reviewed the Engineering Evaluation and Cost Analysis (EE / CA) for the Proposed Management of 15 Nonprocess Buildings (15 Series) at the Weldon Spring Site Chemical Plant (DOE/OR/21548-071), May 1989.

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and700, 1. .&. ' , c 1afr -.:2yL: a,;. -:-1 / .'

  8. EE / CA and Letter: Adoption of the Engineering Evaluation and Cost Analysis for the Management of Contaminated Structures, 15 Non-Process Buildings (15 Series), and the 15 Series Addendum at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant, Weldon Spring, Missouri as an Environmental Assessment (EA) for Interim Actions at the WSS. DOE determined that the EE / CAs adequately satisfy the NEPA requirements for an EA. The documents adopted as the EA include the EE / CAs for the Management of Contaminated Structures, 15 Non-Process Buildings (15 Series), and the 15 Series Addendum. DOE has also determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, as defined by NEPA. IR-1000-1003-1.04. Attached document: Engineering Evaluation and Cost Analysis for the Management of Contaminated Structures, 15 Non-Process Buildings (15 Series), and the 15 Series Addendum at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant, Weldon Spring, Missouri - Environmental Assessment, DOE/ EA/-0549. November 1991.

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and Myers CoMadison -T: Designation ofSEPE. 1. DU2,

  9. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 10 AUGUST 2015 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS3423 Polar pattern formation in driven filament systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    filament systems requires non-binary particle collisions Ryo Suzuki1 , Christoph A. Weber2,3 , Erwin Frey3 density for polar pattern formation decreases quadratically with filament length, indicating that multi-filament of only two main components: actin filaments and non-processive motor proteins heavy meromyosin (HMM; refs

  10. Duty-ratio of cooperative molecular motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nadiv Dharan; Oded Farago

    2012-01-22

    Molecular motors are found throughout the cells of the human body, and have many different and important roles. These micro-machines move along filament tracks, and have the ability to convert chemical energy into mechanical work that powers cellular motility. Different types of motors are characterized by different duty-ratios, which is the fraction of time that a motor is attached to its filament. In the case of myosin II - a non-processive molecular machine with a low duty ratio - cooperativity between several motors is essential to induce motion along its actin filament track. In this work we use statistical mechanical tools to calculate the duty ratio of cooperative molecular motors. The model suggests that the effective duty ratio of non-processive motors that work in cooperation is lower than the duty ratio of the individual motors. The origin of this effect is the elastic tension that develops in the filament which is relieved when motors detach from the track.

  11. Stochastic force generation by small ensembles of myosin II motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorsten Erdmann; Ulrich S. Schwarz

    2012-02-14

    Forces in the actin cytoskeleton are generated by small groups of non-processive myosin II motors for which stochastic effects are highly relevant. Using a crossbridge model with the assumptions of fast powerstroke kinetics and equal load sharing between equivalent states, we derive a one-step master equation for the activity of a finite-sized ensemble of mechanically coupled myosin II motors. For constant external load, this approach yields analytical results for duty ratio and force-velocity relation as a function of ensemble size. We find that stochastic effects cannot be neglected for ensemble sizes below 15. The one-step master equation can be used also for efficient computer simulations with linear elastic external load and reveals the sequence of build-up of force and ensemble rupture that is characteristic for reconstituted actomyosin contractility.

  12. Biased transport of elastic cytoskeletal filaments with alternating polarities by molecular motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barak Gur; Oded Farago

    2010-05-13

    We present a simple model for the bidirectional dynamics of actin bundles with alternating polarities in gliding assays with non-processive myosin motors. In the model, the bundle is represented as an elastic chain consisting of monomers with positive and negative polarities. The motion of the bundle is induced by the pulling forces of the underlying motors which stochastically attach to the monomers and, depending on the polarity of the monomers, pull them in the right or left direction. We demonstrate that perfectly a-polar chains consisting of equal numbers of monomers with positive and negative polarities may exhibit biased bidirectional motion with non-zero drift. This effect is attributed to the elastic tension developed in the chain due to the action of the myosin motors. We also show that as a result of this tension, the attachment probability of the motors is greatly reduced and becomes strongly dependent on the length of the chain. These surprising effects point to the necessity of considering the elasticity of the cytoskeleton in theoretical studies of cooperative dynamics of molecular motors.

  13. System Description for the K-25/K-27 D&D Project Polyurethane Foam Delivery System, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boris, G.

    2008-02-21

    The Foam Delivery System used in the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) project for the K-25/K-27 Buildings at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) is comprised of a trailer-mounted Gusmer{reg_sign} H20/35 Pro-TEC Proportioning Unit and the associated equipment to convey electrical power, air, and foam component material to the unit. This high-pressure, plural-component polyurethane foam pouring system will be used to fill process gas and non-process equipment/piping (PGE/P) within the K-25/K-27 Buildings with polyurethane foam to immobilize contaminants prior to removal. The system creates foam by mixing isocyanate and polyol resin (Resin) component materials. Currently, the project plans to utilize up to six foaming units simultaneously during peak foaming activities. Also included in this system description are the foam component material storage containers that will be used for storage of the component material drums in a staging area outside of the K-25/K-27 Buildings. The Foam Delivery System and foam component material storage enclosures (i.e., Foaming Component Protective Enclosures) used to store polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (PMDI) component material are identified as Safety Significant (SS) Structures, Systems and Components (SSC) in the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) for the project, Documented Safety Analysis for the K-25 and K-27 Facilities at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, DSA-ET-K-25/K-27-0001.

  14. A comparative analysis of total lightning observations and cloud-to-ground lightning observations in the Southeastern United States region 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hugo, Keith Michael

    1998-01-01

    A comparison was performed employing lightning data aphics. collected by the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) satellite and the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). The feasibility of using total lightning flash data, both intracloud (IC...

  15. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2010-01-01

    Use Total Resource Cost Value of Lost Load Value of ServicePrice Modeling Value of Lost Load Improved ReliabilityCases Market Model Value of Lost Load Option Value Network

  16. PowerProjections2003(FPavgusing8-03water)(avgalloc)II.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2:49 PM Average Hydro Forecast - Depletions capped in 2009 Customer allocations set to average generation forecast WY Net Gen Total Firm Project Use Total Load Purch @ Load AHP...

  17. Ground-Coupled Heat Pump Applications and Case Studies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braud, H. J.

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of ground loops for space-conditioning heat pumps, hot water, ice machines, and water-cooled refrigeration in residential and commercial applications. In Louisiana, a chain of hamburger drive-ins uses total ground...

  18. Sustainability December 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    of the President, and other stakeholders. While implementing efficiency measures will remain important continued success at reducing campus energy use. Total savings from all parts of the initiative reached $2 and influence, and can document savings that are al

  19. Measurement of light capture in solar cells from silver- and tin-plated patterned bus bars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winiarz, Christine Eve

    2007-01-01

    Bus bars on solar cells shade silicon from light. When the bus bars are patterned, they can reflect light back onto the silicon using total internal reflection. These patterned bus bars are tin plated and produce 1-2.5% ...

  20. Understanding reservoir mechanisms using phase and component streamline tracing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Sarwesh

    2009-05-15

    Conventionally streamlines are traced using total flux across the grid cell faces. The visualization of total flux streamlines shows the movement of flood, injector-producer relationship, swept area and movement of tracer. ...

  1. Numerical Differentiation of Noisy, Nonsmooth Data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chartrand, Rick

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of differentiating a function specified by noisy data. Regularizing the differentiation process avoids the noise amplification of finite-difference methods. We use total-variation regularization, which allows for discontinuous solutions. The resulting simple algorithm accurately differentiates noisy functions, including those which have a discontinuous derivative.

  2. Chapter 11 Space & Sustainability (5 Edition) 141

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Awtar, Shorya

    , FY2004-14. 11.7.1 Building Energy Use, Total and Per Square Foot Per Person, FY2004-14. 11 rooms, and 6,200 research labs/rooms. · 643 elevators and escalators. · 35 million gross square feet of buildings and core infrastructure. · 29 miles of roads and 4.6 million square feet of sidewalks, steps

  3. Chapter 11 Space & Sustainability (6 Edition) 141

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Awtar, Shorya

    to Total Replacement Costs, FY2004-14. 11.7.1 Building Energy Use, Total and Per Square Foot Per Person, FY rooms, and 6,200 research labs/rooms. · 643 elevators and escalators. · 35 million gross square feet of buildings and core infrastructure. · 29 miles of roads and 4.6 million square feet of sidewalks, steps

  4. Copyright by SIAM. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. SIAM J. IMAGING SCIENCES c 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertozzi, Andrea L.

    forces we use total variation­based inverse scale-space techniques on the input data. Furthermore, we use process is the external data, which can be images of any kind, such as photographs or magnetic resonance of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095. Current address: Mental Images, Fasanenstr. 81, 10623 Berlin

  5. US Army Corps of Engineers Engineer Research and Development Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (Electricity, Natural Gas, Water...) · Non Tactical Vehicles #12;FY06 DoD Energy Use Total Site.5% Commodity $13.6B Other 0.2% Coal 2% Steam 1% Auto Gas 1% Electricity 12% Fuel Oil 3% Natural Gas 8% Jet Fuel ­ Improve energy security #12;9 US Army Corps of Engineers® Engineer Research and Development Center 2006

  6. Discrimination and Identification of UXO by Geophysical Inversion. Phase II: Inversion of Total-Field Magnetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Douglas W.

    Discrimination and Identification of UXO by Geophysical Inversion. Phase II: Inversion of Total to the discrimination and identification of unexploded ordnance using total-field magnetometry. A black in a predefined library. The discrimination method had the potential to reduce the number of excavations

  7. VOLUME 80, NUMBER 16 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 20 APRIL 1998 Microscopic Mechanism for Mechanical Polishing of Diamond (110) Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nijmegen, University of

    for Mechanical Polishing of Diamond (110) Surfaces M. R. Jarvis,1 Ruben Pérez,2 F. M. van Bouwelen,3 and M. C. Payne1 1 Theory of Condensed Matter, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road of diamond, as occurs during polishing, is studied using total- energy pseudopotential calculations

  8. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 307321, 2004 www.atmos-chem-phys.org/acp/4/307/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    -located spectral and broad- band solar UV-B irradiance measurements, as well as total ozone observations, were the irradiance measure- ments, using total ozone and the lidar aerosol data as input. From the comparison- lar irradiance at the Earth's surface. The TUV radiative trans- fer model has been used to simulate

  9. STUDY CITIES IN THE TEXAS SAFETY BELT OBSERVATIONAL SURVEY CONDUCTED BY TEXAS TRANSPORTATION INSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STUDY CITIES IN THE TEXAS SAFETY BELT OBSERVATIONAL SURVEY CONDUCTED BY TEXAS TRANSPORTATION INSTITUTE #12;2010 SAFETY BELT USE BY CITY #12;2010 Safety Belt Use In the 18 Texas Cities City Total N Observed % Restrained Total Driver N % Belt Use Total Passenger N % Belt Use Abilene Amarillo Austin

  10. Fragile Networks: Identifying Vulnerabilities and Synergies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    , MA 01003 #12;Outline of Tutorial · Part I: Network Fundamentals, Efficiency Measurement for transportation and logistics, for communication, energy provision, social interactions, financing, and economic decision-making behavior, and · assess network robustness using total cost as a measure under alternative

  11. Effect of inoculation and nitrogen addition on the yield and yield components of soybeans 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gambaudo, Sebastian Pedro

    1983-01-01

    this technique resulted in percentages of nitrogen fixed of 37, 27, and 13% for Coker 338, Cobb, and Dowling varieties. Estimates made using total nitrogen by difference were also variable due to variability in the yield data. Percentages of nitrogen fixed... were 20, 19, and 16% for Coker 338, Dowling, and Cobb using this method. A four variable regression model was developed which explained 68% of the variability in grain yield. These factors, in decreasing order of importance, were plant dry weight...

  12. Strategic Behaviour under Regulation Benchmarking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamasb, Tooraj; Nillesen, Paul; Pollitt, Michael G.

    2004-06-16

    and treat capital expenditures (CAPEX) outside of the benchmarking exercise or alternatively use total expenditures (TOTEX). This has implications for the possible strategic behaviour by firms. A firm may appear more efficient by reducing costs, as well... as by appearing larger in terms of higher output variables. For example, if the benchmarking model uses OPEX as input and network length or transformer capacity as output, and is given approval for expansion plans for increasing separately treated CAPEX, it can...

  13. Properties of the Initial Participant Matter Interaction Zone in Near Fermi-Energy Heavy Ion Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Wang; T. Keutgen; R. Wada; K. Hagel; S. Kowalski; T. Materna; L. Qin; Z. Chen; J. B. Natowitz; Y. G. Ma; M. Murray; A. Keksis; E. Martin; A. Ruangma; D. V. Shetty; G. Souliotis; M. Veselsky; E. M. Winchester; S. J. Yennello; D. Fabris; M. Lunardon; S. Moretto; G. Nebbia; S. Pesente; V. Rizzi; G. Viesti; M. Cinausero; G. Prete; J. Cibor; W. Zipper; Z. Majka; P. Staszel; Y. El Masri; R. Alfarro; A. Martinez-Davalos; A. Menchaca-Rocha; A. Ono

    2006-03-07

    The sizes, temperatures and free neutron to proton ratios of the initial interaction zones produced in the collisions of 40 MeV/nucleon $^{40}$Ar + $^{112}$Sn and 55 MeV/nucleon$^{27}$Al + $^{124}$Sn are derived using total detected neutron plus charged particle multiplicity as a measure of the impact parameter range and number of participant nucleons. The size of the initial interaction zone, determined from a coalescence model analysis, increases significantly with decreasing impact parameter. The temperatures and free neutron to proton ratios in the interaction zones are relatively similar for different impact parameter ranges and evolve in a similar fashion.

  14. Total Adjusted Sales of Kerosene

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight Paths30,2,8, 2015End Use: Total

  15. Total Adjusted Sales of Residual Fuel Oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988Prices,Flight Paths30,2,8, 2015End Use: TotalEnd

  16. Stop-and-go kinetics in amyloid fibrillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jesper Fonslet; Christian Beyschau Andersen; Sandeep Krishna; Simone Pigolotti; Hisashi Yagi; Yuji Goto; Daniel Otzen; Mogens H. Jensen; Jesper Ferkinghoff-Borg

    2009-10-21

    Many human diseases are associated with protein aggregation and fibrillation. We present experiments on in vitro glucagon fibrillation using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, providing real-time measurements of single-fibril growth. We find that amyloid fibrils grow in an intermittent fashion, with periods of growth followed by long pauses. The observed exponential distributions of stop and growth times support a Markovian model, in which fibrils shift between the two states with specific rates. Remarkably, the probability of being in the growing (stopping) state is very close to 1/4 (3/4) in all experiments, even if the rates vary considerably. This finding suggests the presence of 4 independent conformations of the fibril tip; we discuss this possibility in terms of the existing structural knowledge.

  17. ACTION CONCENTRATION FOR MIXTURES OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (VOC) & METHANE & HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    2006-07-10

    Waste containers may contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs), methane, hydrogen and possibly propane. These constituents may occur individually or in mixtures. Determining if a waste container contains a flammable concentration of flammable gases and vapors (from VOCs) is important to the safety of the handling, repackaging and shipping activities. This report provides the basis for determining the flammability of mixtures of flammable gases and vapors. The concentration of a mixture that is at the lowest flammability limit for that mixture is called the action concentration. The action concentration can be determined using total VOC concentrations or actual concentration of each individual VOC. The concentrations of hydrogen and methane are included with the total VOC or individual VOC concentration to determine the action concentration. Concentrations below this point are not flammable. Waste containers with gas/vapor concentrations at or above the action concentration are considered flammable.

  18. The uranium cylinder assay system for enrichment plant safeguards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Karen A; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Marlow, Johnna B; Menlove, Howard O; Rael, Carlos D; Iwamoto, Tomonori; Tamura, Takayuki; Aiuchi, Syun

    2010-01-01

    Safeguarding sensitive fuel cycle technology such as uranium enrichment is a critical component in preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. A useful tool for the nuclear materials accountancy of such a plant would be an instrument that measured the uranium content of UF{sub 6} cylinders. The Uranium Cylinder Assay System (UCAS) was designed for Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) for use in the Rokkasho Enrichment Plant in Japan for this purpose. It uses total neutron counting to determine uranium mass in UF{sub 6} cylinders given a known enrichment. This paper describes the design of UCAS, which includes features to allow for unattended operation. It can be used on 30B and 48Y cylinders to measure depleted, natural, and enriched uranium. It can also be used to assess the amount of uranium in decommissioned equipment and waste containers. Experimental measurements have been carried out in the laboratory and these are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo modeling results.

  19. Flow field computation of the NREL S809 airfoil using various turbulence models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Y.L.; Yang, S.L.; Arici, O. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics Dept.

    1996-10-01

    Performance comparison of three popular turbulence models, namely Baldwin-Lomas algebraic model, Chien`s Low-Reynolds-Number {kappa}-{epsilon} model, and Wilcox`s Low-Reynolds-Number {kappa}-{omega} model, is given. These models were applied to calculate the flow field around the National Renewable Energy Laboratory S809 airfoil using Total Variational Diminishing scheme. Numerical results of C{sub P}, C{sub L}, and C{sub D} are presented along with the Delft experimental data. It is shown that all three models perform well for attached flow, i.e., no flow separation at low angles of attack. However, at high angles of attack with flow separation, convergence characteristics show Wilcox`s model outperforms the other models. Results of this study will be used to guide the authors in their dynamic stall research.

  20. Report on the workshop "Decay spectroscopy at CARIBU: advanced fuel cycle applications, nuclear structure and astrophysics". 14-16 April 2011, Argonne National Laboratory, USA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondev, F.; Carpenter, M.P.; Chowdhury, P.; Clark, J.A.; Lister, C.J.; Nichols, A.L.; Swewryniak, D.

    2011-10-06

    A workshop on 'Decay Spectroscopy at CARIBU: Advanced Fuel Cycle Applications, Nuclear Structure and Astrophysics' will be held at Argonne National Laboratory on April 14-16, 2011. The aim of the workshop is to discuss opportunities for decay studies at the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the ATLAS facility with emphasis on advanced fuel cycle (AFC) applications, nuclear structure and astrophysics research. The workshop will consist of review and contributed talks. Presentations by members of the local groups, outlining the status of relevant in-house projects and availabile equipment, will also be organized. time will also be set aside to discuss and develop working collaborations for future decay studies at CARIBU. Topics of interest include: (1) Decay data of relevance to AFC applications with emphasis on reactor decay heat; (2) Discrete high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy following radioactive decya and related topics; (3) Calorimetric studies of neutron-rich fission framgents using Total ABsorption Gamma-Ray Spectrometry (TAGS) technique; (4) Beta-delayed neutron emissions and related topics; and (5) Decay data needs for nuclear astrophysics.

  1. Tunable, diode side-pumped Er:YAG laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamilton, C.E.; Furu, L.H.

    1997-04-22

    A discrete-element Er:YAG laser, side pumped by a 220 Watt peak-power InGaAs diode array, generates >500 mWatts at 2.94 {micro}m, and is tunable over a 6 nm range near about 2.936 {micro}m. The oscillator is a plano-concave resonator consisting of a concave high reflector, a flat output coupler, a Er:YAG crystal and a YAG intracavity etalon, which serves as the tuning element. The cavity length is variable from 3 cm to 4 cm. The oscillator uses total internal reflection in the Er:YAG crystal to allow efficient coupling of the diode emission into the resonating modes of the oscillator. With the tuning element removed, the oscillator produces up to 1.3 Watts of average power at 2.94 {micro}m. The duty factor of the laser is 6.5% and the repetition rate is variable up to 1 kHz. This laser is useful for tuning to an atmospheric transmission window at 2.935 {micro}m (air wavelength). The laser is also useful as a spectroscopic tool because it can access several infrared water vapor transitions, as well as transitions in organic compounds. Other uses include medical applications (e.g., for tissue ablation and uses with fiber optic laser scalpels) and as part of industrial effluent monitoring systems. 4 figs.

  2. Fast Neutron Detector for Fusion Reactor KSTAR Using Stilbene Scintillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seung Kyu Lee; Byoung-Hwi Kang; Gi-Dong Kim; Yong-Kyun Kim

    2011-12-27

    Various neutron diagnostic tools are used in fusion reactors to evaluate different aspects of plasma performance, such as fusion power, power density, ion temperature, fast ion energy, and their spatial distributions. The stilbene scintillator has been proposed for use as a neutron diagnostic system to measure the characteristics of neutrons from the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) fusion reactor. Specially designed electronics are necessary to measure fast neutron spectra with high radiation from a gamma-ray background. The signals from neutrons and gamma-rays are discriminated by the digital charge pulse shape discrimination (PSD) method, which uses total to partial charge ratio analysis. The signals are digitized by a flash analog-to-digital convertor (FADC). To evaluate the performance of the fabricated stilbene neutron diagnostic system, the efficiency of 10 mm soft-iron magnetic shielding and the detection efficiency of fast neutrons were tested experimentally using a 252Cf neutron source. In the results, the designed and fabricated stilbene neutron diagnostic system performed well in discriminating neutrons from gamma-rays under the high magnetic field conditions during KSTAR operation. Fast neutrons of 2.45 MeV were effectively measured and evaluated during the 2011 KSTAR campaign.

  3. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  4. Life-cycle analysis of alternative aviation fuels in GREET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Carter, N.; Stratton, R.; Hileman, J.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2012-07-23

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, has been expanded to include well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis of aviation fuels and aircraft. This report documents the key WTWa stages and assumptions for fuels that represent alternatives to petroleum jet fuel. The aviation module in GREET consists of three spreadsheets that present detailed characterizations of well-to-pump and pump-to-wake parameters and WTWa results. By using the expanded GREET version (GREET1{_}2011), we estimate WTWa results for energy use (total, fossil, and petroleum energy) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide) for (1) each unit of energy (lower heating value) consumed by the aircraft or (2) each unit of distance traveled/ payload carried by the aircraft. The fuel pathways considered in this analysis include petroleum-based jet fuel from conventional and unconventional sources (i.e., oil sands); Fisher-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel from natural gas, coal, and biomass; bio-jet fuel from fast pyrolysis of cellulosic biomass; and bio-jet fuel from vegetable and algal oils, which falls under the American Society for Testing and Materials category of hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids. For aircraft operation, we considered six passenger aircraft classes and four freight aircraft classes in this analysis. Our analysis revealed that, depending on the feedstock source, the fuel conversion technology, and the allocation or displacement credit methodology applied to co-products, alternative bio-jet fuel pathways have the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions by 55-85 percent compared with conventional (petroleum-based) jet fuel. Although producing FT jet fuel from fossil feedstock sources - such as natural gas and coal - could greatly reduce dependence on crude oil, production from such sources (especially coal) produces greater WTWa GHG emissions compared with petroleum jet fuel production unless carbon management practices, such as carbon capture and storage, are used.

  5. HERSCHEL EXPLOITATION OF LOCAL GALAXY ANDROMEDA (HELGA). III. THE STAR FORMATION LAW IN M31

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, George P.; Gear, Walter K.; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Eales, Steve A.; Gomez, Haley L.; Kirk, Jason [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Baes, Maarten; De Looze, Ilse; Fritz, Jacopo; Gentile, Gianfranco; Gordon, Karl D.; Verstappen, Joris [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Bendo, George J. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Alan Turing Building, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Boquien, Mederic; Boselli, Alessandro [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Cooray, Asantha R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Lebouteiller, Vianney [Service d'Astrophysique, l'Orme des Merisiers, CEA, Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); O'Halloran, Brian [Astrophysics Group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Spinoglio, Luigi [INAF, Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, Tor Vergata, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Wilson, Christine D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, ABB-241, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2013-05-20

    We present a detailed study of how the star formation rate (SFR) relates to the interstellar medium (ISM) of M31 at {approx}140 pc scales. The SFR is calculated using the far-ultraviolet and 24 {mu}m emission, corrected for the old stellar population in M31. We find a global value for the SFR of 0.25{sup +0.06}{sub -0.04} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} and compare this with the SFR found using the total far-infrared luminosity. There is general agreement in regions where young stars dominate the dust heating. Atomic hydrogen (H I) and molecular gas (traced by carbon monoxide, CO) or the dust mass is used to trace the total gas in the ISM. We show that the global surface densities of SFR and gas mass place M31 among a set of low-SFR galaxies in the plot of Kennicutt. The relationship between SFR and gas surface density is tested in six radial annuli across M31, assuming a power law relationship with index, N. The star formation (SF) law using total gas traced by H I and CO gives a global index of N = 2.03 {+-} 0.04, with a significant variation with radius; the highest values are observed in the 10 kpc ring. We suggest that this slope is due to H I turning molecular at {Sigma}{sub Gas} {approx} 10 M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2}. When looking at H{sub 2} regions, we measure a higher mean SFR suggesting a better spatial correlation between H{sub 2} and SF. We find N {approx} 0.6 with consistent results throughout the disk-this is at the low end of values found in previous work and argues against a superlinear SF law on small scales.

  6. Development of an energy-use estimation methodology for the revised Navy Manual MO-303

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richman, E.E.; Keller, J.M.; Wood, A.G.; Dittmer, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Navy commissioned Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to revise and/or update the Navy Utilities Targets Manual, NAVFAC MO-303 (U.S. Navy 1972b). The purpose of the project was to produce a current, applicable, and easy-to-use version of the manual for use by energy and facility engineers and staff at all Navy Public Works Centers (PWCs), Public Works Departments (PWDs), Engineering Field Divisions (EFDs), and other related organizations. The revision of the MO-303 manual involved developing a methodology for estimating energy consumption in buildings and ships. This methodology can account for, and equitably allocate, energy consumption within Navy installations. The analyses used to develop this methodology included developing end-use intensities (EUIs) from a vast collection of Navy base metering and billing data. A statistical analysis of the metering data, weather data, and building energy-use characteristics was used to develop appropriate EUI values for use at all Navy bases. A complete Navy base energy reconciliation process was also created for use in allocating all known energy consumption. Initial attempts to use total Navy base consumption values did not produce usable results. A parallel effort using individual building consumption data provided an estimating method that incorporated weather effects. This method produced a set of building EUI values and weather adjustments for use in estimating building energy use. A method of reconciling total site energy consumption was developed based on a {open_quotes}zero-sum{close_quotes} principle. This method provides a way to account for all energy use and apportion part or all of it to buildings and other energy uses when actual consumption is not known. The entire text of the manual was also revised to present a more easily read understood and usable document.

  7. Feasibility Study of Gas Electron Multiplier Detector as an X-Ray Image Sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukyoung Shin; Jaehoon Jung; Soonhyouk Lee

    2015-03-12

    For its ease manufacturing, flexible geometry, and cheap manufacturing cost, the gas electron multiplier (GEM) detector can be used as an x-ray image sensor. For this purpose, we acquired relative detection efficiencies and suggested a method to increase the detection efficiency in order to study the possibility of GEM detector as an x-ray image sensor. The GEM detector system is composed of GEM foils, the instrument system, the gas system, and the negative power supply. The instrument system consists of the A225 charge sensitive preamp, A206 discriminator, and MCA8000D multichannel analyzer. For the gas system, Argon gas was mixed with CO2 to the ratio of 8:2, and for the negative 2,000 volts, the 3106D power supply was used. The CsI-coated GEM foil was used to increase the detection efficiency. Fe-55 was used as an x-ray source and the relative efficiency was acquired by using the ratio of GEM detector to the CdTe detector. The total count method and the energy spectrum method were used to calculate the relative efficiency. The relative detection efficiency of GEM detector for Fe-55 by using total count method was 32 % and by using energy spectrum method, the relative efficiencies were 5, 43, 33, 37, 35, and 36 % respectively according to the energy spectrum of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 KeV. In conclusion, we found that the detection efficiency of the two layered GEM detector is insufficient for the x-ray image sensor, so we suggested a CsI coated GEM foil to increase the efficiency rate and the result value was increased to 41 %.

  8. SU-E-T-501: Normal Tissue Toxicities of Pulsed Low Dose Rate Radiotherapy and Conventional Radiotherapy: An in Vivo Total Body Irradiation Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cvetkovic, D; Zhang, P; Wang, B; Chen, L; Ma, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Pulsed low dose rate radiotherapy (PLDR) is a re-irradiation technique for therapy of recurrent cancers. We have previously shown a significant difference in the weight and survival time between the mice treated with conventional radiotherapy (CRT) and PLDR using total body irradiation (TBI). The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo effects of PLDR on normal mouse tissues.Materials and Methods: Twenty two male BALB/c nude mice, 4 months of age, were randomly assigned into a PLDR group (n=10), a CRT group (n=10), and a non-irradiated control group (n=2). The Siemens Artiste accelerator with 6 MV photon beams was used. The mice received a total of 18Gy in 3 fractions with a 20day interval. The CRT group received the 6Gy dose continuously at a dose rate of 300 MU/min. The PLDR group was irradiated with 0.2Gyx20 pulses with a 3min interval between the pulses. The mice were weighed thrice weekly and sacrificed 2 weeks after the last treatment. Brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen, gastrointestinal, urinary and reproductive organs, and sternal bone marrow were removed, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and stained with H and E. Morphological changes were observed under a microscope. Results: Histopathological examination revealed atrophy in several irradiated organs. The degree of atrophy was mild to moderate in the PLDR group, but severe in the CRT group. The most pronounced morphological abnormalities were in the immune and hematopoietic systems, namely spleen and bone marrow. Brain hemorrhage was seen in the CRT group, but not in the PLDR group. Conclusions: Our results showed that PLDR induced less toxicity in the normal mouse tissues than conventional radiotherapy for the same dose and regimen. Considering that PLDR produces equivalent tumor control as conventional radiotherapy, it would be a good modality for treatment of recurrent cancers.

  9. Status Report on the Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM) for UF6 Cylinder Assay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Karen A.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Menlove, Howard O.; Marlow, Johnna B.

    2012-05-02

    The Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM) is a nondestructive assay (NDA) system being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). It was designed to determine {sup 235}U mass and enrichment of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in product, feed, and tails cylinders (i.e., 30B and 48Y cylinders). These cylinders are found in the nuclear fuel cycle at uranium conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication facilities. The PNEM is a {sup 3}He-based neutron detection system that consists of two briefcase-sized detector pods. A photograph of the system during characterization at LANL is shown in Fig. 1. Several signatures are currently being studied to determine the most effective measurement and data reduction technique for unfolding {sup 235}U mass and enrichment. The system collects total neutron and coincidence data for both bare and cadmium-covered detector pods. The measurement concept grew out of the success of the Uranium Cylinder Assay System (UCAS), which is an operator system at Rokkasho Enrichment Plant (REP) that uses total neutron counting to determine {sup 235}U mass in UF{sub 6} cylinders. The PNEM system was designed with higher efficiency than the UCAS in order to add coincidence counting functionality for the enrichment determination. A photograph of the UCAS with a 48Y cylinder at REP is shown in Fig. 2, and the calibration measurement data for 30B product and 48Y feed and tails cylinders is shown in Fig. 3. The data was collected in a low-background environment, meaning there is very little scatter in the data. The PNEM measurement concept was first presented at the 2010 Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) Annual Meeting. The physics design and uncertainty analysis were presented at the 2010 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Symposium, and the mechanical and electrical designs and characterization measurements were published in the ESARDA Bulletin in 2011.

  10. Developments and Applications of Electrophoresis and Small Molecule Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hui Zhang

    2007-12-01

    Ultra-sensitive native fluorescence detection of proteins with miniaturized one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was achieved with laser side-entry excitation, which provides both high excitation power and low background level. The detection limit for R-phycoerythrin protein spots in 1-D SDS-PAGE was as low as 15 fg, which corresponds to 40 thousand molecules only. The average detection limit of six standard native proteins was 5 pg per band and the dynamic range spanned more than 3 orders of magnitude. Approximately 150 protein spots from 30 ng of total Escherichia coli extraction were detected on a 0.8 cm x 1 cm gel in two-dimensional separation. Estrogen-DNA adducts as 4-OHE{sub 1}(E{sub 2})-1-N3Ade and 4-OHEI(E2)-2-NacCys were hypothesized as early risk assessment of prostate and breast cancers. Capillary electrophoresis, luminescence/absorption spectroscopy and LC-MS were used to characterize and detect these adducts. Monoclonal antibodies against each individual adduct were developed and used to enrich such compounds from urine samples of prostate and breast cancer patients as well as healthy people. Adduct 4-OHE{sub 1}-1-N3Ade was detected at much higher level in urine from subjects with prostate cancer patients compared to healthy males. The same adduct and 4-OHEI-2-NacCys were also detected at a much higher level in urine from a woman with breast carcinoma than samples from healthy controls. These two DNA adducts may serve as novel biomarkers for early diagnostic of cancers. The adsorption properties of R-phycoerythrin (RPE), on the fused-silica surface were studied using capillary electrophoresis (CE) and single molecule spectroscopy. The band shapes and migration times were measured in CE. Adsorption and desorption events were recorded at the single-molecule level by imaging of the evanescent-field layer using total internal reflection. The adsorbed RPE molecules on the fused-silica prism surface were counted with confidence based on Imagej software. The capacity factor and desorption rate were estimated from the counting results. The mobility-based adsorption isotherms were constructed from both computer simulations and experiments to determine the capacity factor.

  11. The development of optical microscopy techniques for the advancement of single-particle studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchuk, Kyle

    2013-05-15

    Single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) has recently become a powerful optical microscopy tool that can expose many molecular motions. Unfortunately, there is not yet a single microscopy technique that can decipher all particle motions in all environmental conditions, thus there are limitations to current technologies. Within, the two powerful microscopy tools of total internal reflection and interferometry are advanced to determine the position, orientation, and optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in a variety of environments. Total internal reflection is an optical phenomenon that has been applied to microscopy to produce either fluorescent or scattered light. The non-invasive far-field imaging technique is coupled with a near-field illumination scheme that allows for better axial resolution than confocal microscopy and epi-fluorescence microscopy. By controlling the incident illumination angle using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, a new type of imaging probe called “non-blinking” quantum dots (NBQDs) were super-localized in the axial direction to sub-10-nm precision. These particles were also used to study the rotational motion of microtubules being propelled by the motor protein kinesin across the substrate surface. The same instrument was modified to function under total internal reflection scattering (TIRS) microscopy to study metallic anisotropic nanoparticles and their dynamic interactions with synthetic lipid bilayers. Utilizing two illumination lasers with opposite polarization directions at wavelengths corresponding to the short and long axis surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the nanoparticles, both the in-plane and out-of-plane movements of many particles could be tracked simultaneously. When combined with Gaussian point spread function (PSF) fitting for particle super-localization, the binding status and rotational movement could be resolved without degeneracy. TIRS microscopy was also used to find the 3D orientation of stationary metallic anisotropic nanoparticles utilizing only long-axis SPR enhancement. The polarization direction of the illuminating light was rotated causing the relative intensity of p-polarized and s-polarized light within the evanescent field to change. The interaction of the evanescent field with the particles is dependent on the orientation of the particle producing an intensity curve. This curve and the in-plane angle can be compared with simulations to accurately determine the 3D orientation. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is another non-invasive far-field technique based upon interferometry that does not rely on staining or other contrast enhancing techniques. In addition, high numerical aperture condensers and objectives can be used to give a very narrow depth of field allowing for the optical tomography of samples, which makes it an ideal candidate to study biological systems. DIC microscopy has also proven itself in determining the orientation of gold nanorods in both engineered environments and within cells. Many types of nanoparticles and nanostructures have been synthesized using lithographic techniques on silicon wafer substrates. Traditionally, reflective mode DIC microscopes have been developed and applied to the topographical study of reflective substrates and the imaging of chips on silicon wafers. Herein, a laser-illuminated reflected-mode DIC was developed for studying nanoparticles on reflective surfaces.